Science.gov

Sample records for overweight loads

  1. Respiratory load perception in overweight and asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    MacBean, Victoria; Wheatley, Lorna; Lunt, Alan C; Rafferty, Gerrard F

    2017-05-01

    Overweight asthmatic children report greater symptoms than normal weight asthmatics, despite comparable airflow obstruction. This has been widely assumed to be due to heightened perception of respiratory effort. Three groups of children (healthy weight controls, healthy weight asthmatics, overweight asthmatics) rated perceived respiratory effort throughout an inspiratory resistive loading protocol. Parasternal intercostal electromyogram was used as an objective marker of respiratory load; this was expressed relative to tidal volume and reported as a ratio of the baseline value (neuroventilatory activity ratio (NVEAR)). Significant increases in perception scores (p<0.0001), and decreases in NVEAR (p<0.0001) were observed from lowest to highest resistive load. Higher BMI increased overall perception scores, with no influence of asthma or BMI-for-age percentile on the resistance-perception relationships. These data, indicating elevated overall respiratory effort in overweight asthmatic children but comparable responses to dynamic changes in load, suggest that the greater disease burden in overweight asthmatic children may be due to altered respiratory mechanics associated with increased body mass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower extremity joint loading during level walking with Masai barefoot technology shoes in overweight males.

    PubMed

    Buchecker, M; Wagner, H; Pfusterschmied, J; Stöggl, T L; Müller, E

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Masai barefoot technology (MBT) shoes on lower extremity joint loading in overweight males during level walking. Therefore, lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle electromyographic signals of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were recorded in 10 overweight males at a self-chosen walking speed with MBT shoes and conventional shoes. Selected peak joint moments, maximal joint force loading rates, mean muscle intensities, and co-activation indices of the VL/BF, as well as of the VL/GM were analyzed and compared for the two shoe conditions using paired Student's t-tests (α=0.05). Results showed that walking with MBT shoes reduced first peak knee adduction moments in overweight subjects. During midstance and terminal stance, increases in VL/GM co-activation, accompanied by increases in VL and GM (only terminal stance) intensities were found for the MBT situation. Kinetic variables analyzed to assess ankle and hip joint loading did not exhibit any statistical differences. These results suggest that using MBT shoes diminishes medial compartment loads at the knee without overloading hip or ankle joints in overweight males. However, the additional muscle loading should not be overlooked, and warrants further investigation.

  3. Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    Overweight - body mass index; Obesity - body mass index; BMI ... Boham E, Stone PM, DeBusk R. Obesity. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Sanders; 2016:chap 36. Cowley MA, Brown ...

  4. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  5. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  6. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  7. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  8. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track owner...

  9. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Silva, Kellen Cristine; Neri Nobre, Luciana; Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira Vicente, Sofia; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; do Carmo Lessa, Angelina; Alves Lamounier, Joel

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil). Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (p<0.05). The prevalence of overweight by body mass index was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04). No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycemic load, glycemic index, bread and incidence of overweight/obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Zazpe, Itziar; Vazquez-Ruiz, Zenaida; Benito-Corchon, Silvia; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2014-10-22

    To evaluate prospectively the relationship between white, or whole grain bread, and glycemic index, or glycemic load from diet and weight change in a Mediterranean cohort. We followed-up 9 267 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 5 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Average yearly weight change was evaluated according to quintiles of baseline glycemic index, glycemic load, and categories of bread consumption. We also assessed the association between bread consumption, glycemic index, or glycemic load, and the incidence of overweight/obesity. White bread and whole-grain bread were not associated with higher weight gain. No association between glycemic index, glycemic load and weight change was found.White bread consumption was directly associated with a higher risk of becoming overweight/obese (adjusted OR (≥2 portions/day) versus (≤1 portion/week): 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81; p for trend: 0.008). However, no statistically significant association was observed between whole-grain bread, glycemic index or glycemic load and overweight/obesity. Consumption of white bread (≥2 portions/day) showed a significant direct association with the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

  11. Effects of a low–glycemic load diet in overweight and obese pregnant women: a pilot randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Erinn T; Pawlak, Dorota B; Takoudes, Tamara C; Ebbeling, Cara B; Feldman, Henry A; Lovesky, Margaret M; Cooke, Emily A; Leidig, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The optimal diet for pregnancy that is complicated by excessive weight is unknown. Objective: We aimed to examine the effects of a low–glycemic load (low-GL) diet in overweight and obese pregnant women. Design: We randomly assigned 46 overweight or obese pregnant women to receive a low-GL or a low-fat diet. Participants received carbohydrate-rich foods, fats, and snack foods through home delivery or study visits. The primary outcome was birth weight z score. Other endpoints included infant anthropometric measurements, gestational duration, maternal weight gain, and maternal metabolic parameters. Results: There were no significant differences in birth weight z score or other measures of infant adiposity between groups. However, in the low-GL compared with the low-fat group, gestational duration was longer (mean ± SD: 39.3 ± 1.1 compared with 37.9 ± 3.1 wk; P = 0.05) and fewer deliveries occurred at ≤38.0 wk (13% compared with 48%, P = 0.02; with exclusion of planned cesarean deliveries: 5% compared with 53%; P = 0.002). Adjusted head circumference was greater in the low-GL group (35.0 ± 0.8 compared with 34.2 ± 1.3 cm, P = 0.01). Women in the low-GL group had smaller increases in triglycerides [median (interquartile range): 49 (19, 70) compared with 93 (34, 129) mg/dL; P = 0.03] and total cholesterol [13 (0, 36) compared with 33 (22, 56) mg/dL, P = 0.04] and a greater decrease in C-reactive protein [−2.5 (−5.5, −0.7) compared with −0.4 (−1.4, 1.5) mg/dL, P = 0.007]. Conclusions: A low-GL diet resulted in longer pregnancy duration, greater infant head circumference, and improved maternal cardiovascular risk factors. Large-scale studies are warranted to evaluate whether dietary intervention during pregnancy aimed at lowering GL may be useful in the prevention of prematurity and other adverse maternal and infant outcomes. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00364403. PMID:20962162

  12. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  13. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J. ); Lavender, J.C. ); Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  14. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  15. Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Homeira Hamayeli; Salehpour, Saghar; Amiri, Zohreh; Farahani, Sara Jalali; Meyer, Barbara J; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2012-04-01

    The recommended composition of a hypocaloric diet for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load diet compared with a conventional hypocaloric diet on reproductive hormones, inflammatory markers, lipids, glucose, and insulin levels in obese women with PCOS. A total of 60 overweight and obese women with PCOS who did not use insulin-sensitizing agents were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 hypocaloric diet groups for a single-blind clinical trial. The groups included a conventional hypocaloric diet (CHCD) (15% of daily energy from protein) and a modified hypocaloric diet (MHCD) with a high-protein, low-glycemic load (30% of daily energy from protein plus low-glycemic-load foods selected from a list) that was prescribed via counseling visits weekly during 12 weeks of study. Anthropometric assessments and biochemical measurements including reproductive hormones, inflammatory factors, lipids, glucose, and insulin were performed on fasting blood samples at baseline and after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Weight loss was significant and similar in the 2 groups. Mean of testosterone in the MHCD and CHCD groups decreased from 1.78 ± 0.32 to 1.31 ± 0.26 ng/ml and from 1.51 ± 0.12 to 1.15 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively (p < 0.001). Follicle sensitizing hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and blood lipids concentrations were not changed except low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was reduced by 24.5% ± 12.3% (p < 0.001 for both) after 12 weeks of intervention. MHCD resulted in a significant reduction in insulin level, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA), and high-sensitivity C- reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration (p < 0.001). In this study both hypocaloric diets significantly led to reduced body weight and androgen levels in these two groups of women with PCOS. The combination of high-protein and low-glycemic-load

  16. Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hobl, Lisa Patricia; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-08-25

    The objective of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the available literature data investigating the effects of low glycaemic index/low glycamic load dietary regimens on anthropometric parameters, blood lipid profiles, and indicators of glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of trials with restrictions to randomized controlled trials, but no limitations concerning language and publication date. Parameters taken into account were: body weight, body mass index, z-score of body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, height, waist cicrumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-index, glycosylated haemoglobin, and C-reactive protein. Meta-analyses were performed for each parameter to assess pooled effect in terms of weighted mean differences between the post-intervention (or differences in means) of the low glycaemic index diets and the respective high glycaemic index counterparts. Data analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. software. Nine studies enrolling 1.065 children or adolescents met the inclusion criteria. Compared to diets providing a high gylcaemic index, low glycaemic index protocols resulted in significantly more pronounced decreases in serum triglycerides [mean differences -15.14 mg/dl, 95%-CI (-26.26, -4.00)] and HOMA-index [mean difference -0.70, 95%-CI (-1.37, -0.04), fixed-effects model only]. Other parameters under investigation were not affected by either low or high glycaemic indices. The present systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence of a beneficial effect of a low glycaemic index/load diet in children and adolescents being either overweight or obese. Regarding the limitations of this analysis, further studies

  17. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Despite a change of 18% in mean values, there was no significant increase in acylated ghrelin concentrations in the LGI group compared with the control group (P = 0.215). The LGI-diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI

  18. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook ...

  19. Effects of Intensive Diet and Exercise on Knee Joint Loads, Inflammation, and Clinical Outcomes Among Overweight and Obese Adults With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Mihalko, Shannon L.; Legault, Claudine; Miller, Gary D.; Nicklas, Barbara J.; DeVita, Paul; Beavers, Daniel P.; Hunter, David J.; Lyles, Mary F.; Eckstein, Felix; Williamson, Jeff D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Guermazi, Ali; Loeser, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common cause of chronic pain and disability, has biomechanical and inflammatory origins and is exacerbated by obesity. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a ≥10% reduction in body weight induced by diet, with or without exercise, would improve mechanistic and clinical outcomes more than exercise alone. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Single-blind, 18-month, randomized clinical trial at Wake Forest University between July 2006 and April 2011. The diet and exercise interventions were center-based with options for the exercise groups to transition to a home-based program. Participants were 454 overweight and obese older community-dwelling adults (age ≥55 years with body mass index of 27–41) with pain and radiographic knee OA. INTERVENTIONS Intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise, intensive diet-induced weight loss, or exercise. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mechanistic primary outcomes: knee joint compressive force and plasma IL-6 levels; secondary clinical outcomes: self-reported pain (range, 0–20), function (range, 0–68), mobility, and health-related quality of life (range, 0–100). RESULTS At 18 months, 399 participants (88%) completed the study. Compared with exercise participants, knee compressive forces were lower in diet participants and IL-6 levels were lower in diet and diet + exercise participants. 18-mo Outcomes, Mean (95% CI) Exercise(E) Diet (D) D + E Difference,E vs D Difference, Evs D+E Weight loss, kg −1.8(−5.7to1.8) −8.9(−12.4 to −5.3) −10.6(−14.1 to −7.1) Knee compressiveforces, N 2687(2590 to 2784) 2487(2393 to 2581) 2543(2448 to 2637) 200(55 to 345)a 144(1 to 287) IL-6, pg/mL 3.1(2.9 to 3.4) 2.7(2.4 to 3.0) 2.7(2.5 to 3.0) 0.43(0.01 to 0.85)a 0.39(−0.03 to 0.81)a Pain 4.7(4.2 to 5.1) 4.8(4.3 to 5.2) 3.6(3.2 to 4.1) −0.11(−0.81 to 0.59) 1.02(0.33 to 1.71)a Function 18.4(16.9 to 19.9) 17.4(15.9 to 18.9) 14.1(12.6 to 15.6) 0.98(−1.24 to 3.20) 4.29(2.07 to 6.50)a SF-36

  20. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  1. [Subfertility in overweight women].

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, W K H; Ruifrok, A E; Bolster, J H T; Heineman, M J; Hoek, A

    2006-11-11

    The prevalence of overweight individuals in The Netherlands is increasing sharply as has also been observed in populations worldwide. In addition to the long-term health risks of being overweight, overweight women of reproductive age are more commonly faced with reproductive disorders. Women who are overweight are less fertile than women of normal weight. The chances of both spontaneous conception and conception after ovulation induction and assisted reproduction are lower in women who are overweight. The chance of a live birth is also decreased due to an increased risk of miscarriage. Furthermore pregnancy outcome is compromised by obesity-related complications of pregnancy. Weight loss of 5-15% in subfertile women who are overweight increases the chance of spontaneous conception and conception after fertility treatment and can be achieved through a low-calorie diet, increased exercise and behaviour modification.

  2. Overweight and cognition.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nilsson, Erik

    2009-12-01

    There is a growing concern among health authorities that an increasing number of people in the Western world become overweight and even obese. It is well known that obesity is related to several diseases (e.g., diabetes, stroke, and high blood pressure) and that such diseases related to obesity lead to early death. It has also been discussed whether overweight and obesity in themselves or in relation to such diseases lead to cognitive decline. On the basis of data from a large, population-based, prospective study we examined three cognitive domains: episodic memory, semantic memory, and spatial ability. Two body measures were used to define normal weight and overweight, body-mass index and waist/hip ratio. Although these two body measures reveal quite different prevalence data of overweight, the associations between overweight and cognition are similar. For episodic memory, overweight interacts with age, but when controlling for hypertension, stroke and diabetes, this interaction disappears. For semantic memory, normal weight participants outperform overweight participants even after controlling for these diseases. For spatial ability, the well-established advantage for men holds for young-old and old-old normal-weight participants. For overweight participants, this advantage holds for middle-age participants only. We conclude that there is a weight-cognition relationship even after controlling for obesity-related diseases. The results are discussed in terms of possible biological mechanisms.

  3. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  4. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  5. Dietary approaches to overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    McMillan-Price, Joanna; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2004-01-01

    For years dietary guidelines for the treatment of overweight and obesity have advised a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet. Recent meta-analyses have shown that weight loss achieved with ad libitum low-fat diets is typically in the range of 3-4 kg. Although clinically significant, this weight loss is modest, usually regained on cessation of the intervention and the low-fat messages have not impacted on the ever increasing rates of overweight and obesity. Alternative approaches include low-glycemic index and high protein diets. Both effectively reduce the glycemic load of the diet and early studies suggest they may be effective in increasing satiety, reducing ad libitum energy intake and may improve fat oxidation by reducing insulin demand. Both approaches can be used within the context of a reduced-fat diet, with evidence emerging to suggest this may improve weight and body composition outcomes.

  6. Medication Dosage in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kelly L.; Horton, Evan R.; Capino, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 31.8% of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 years are considered overweight or obese. This creates significant challenges to dosing medications that are primarily weight based (mg/kg) and in predicting pharmacokinetics parameters in pediatric patients. Obese individuals generally have a larger volume of distribution for lipophilic medications. Conversely, the Vd of hydrophilic medications may be increased or decreased due to increased lean body mass, blood volume, and decrease percentage of total body water. They may also experience decreased hepatic clearance secondary to fatty infiltrates of the liver. Hence, obesity may affect loading dose, dosage interval, plasma half-life, and time to reach steady-state concentration for various medications. Weight-based dosing is also a cause for potential medication errors. This position statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group recommends that weight-based dosing should be used in patients ages < 18 years who are < 40 kg; weight-based dosing should be used in patients ≥ 40 kg, unless, unless the recommended adult dose for the specific indication is exceeded; clinicians should use pharmacokinetic analysis for adjusting medications in overweight/obese children; and research efforts continue to evaluate dosing of medications in obese/overweight children.

  7. Intestinal microbiota and overweight.

    PubMed

    Lyra, A; Lahtinen, S; Tiihonen, K; Ouwehand, A C

    2010-11-01

    The microbes in our gut can influence our weight by providing us with energy through the degradation of nondigestable carbohydrates and by affecting the cellular energy status of liver and muscle cells and the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that in several studies the gastrointestinal microbiota of overweight and obese subjects has been found to differ from that of lean subjects. The initial findings linked obesity with proportionally decreased levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and increased levels of the phylum Firmicutes. Later, several studies have assessed the association between overweight or obesity and the gastrointestinal microbiota, applying an array of molecular methods targeting the microbiota as a whole or specific bacterial groups or species within. However, at present it is difficult to draw conclusions on which of the observed microbiota alterations are relevant; essentially all of the bacterial groups that have been studied in more than one trial have given contradictory results in regard to their association with weight. Some of these discrepancies can result from methodological issues and some from the nature of the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is an extremely complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem with high subject specificity. In addition, selecting subjects purely based on weight may result in a largely heterogeneous group with several potentially confounding factors. While it may be premature to conclude which specific groups of bacteria are prominent in the intestinal tract of overweight and obese subjects, it appears clear that microbes contribute to weight gain and related health issues, such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Therefore, it is important to continue to search for common microbial markers and predictors of obesity, and to study how these may be modulated with probiotics and prebiotics to promote health.

  8. Overweight and constipation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between overweight and gastrointestinal symptoms has been recently studied in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated the association between overweight and constipation in adolescents in a community-based sample. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of constipation and its association with being overweight in a community-based survey with adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,077 adolescents who were enrolled in five schools in the city of Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. Constipation was defined according to modified and combined Rome III criteria for adolescents and adults. Being overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) that was equal to or greater than that of the 85th percentile for age and gender. Results Constipation was diagnosed in 18.2% (196/1077) of the included adolescents. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in males and females who were both younger and older than 14 years. Fecal incontinence was observed in 25 adolescents, 22 (88.0%) of whom were diagnosed as being constipated. The prevalence of being overweight was found in 13.5% (145/1077) of the study population. The prevalence of constipation was observed to be similar in adolescents who were (19.4%; 28/144) and were not (18.0%; 168/933) overweight (p = 0.764; OR = 1.10). Fecal incontinence that was associated with constipation was more frequent in adolescents who were overweight (37.0%; 8/28) than in adolescents who were not overweight (8.5%; 14/168; p = 0.005; OR = 4.40). Conclusions The prevalence of constipation was high among the investigated adolescents. There was no association between being overweight and constipation; however, an association between being overweight and fecal incontinence in constipated adolescents was confirmed. PMID:21496346

  9. Overweight, perceived overweight and involvement in bullying in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari

    2016-04-01

    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overweight and Obesity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... overweight means making choices in the way your family eats and exercises, and how you spend time together. Helping kids ... what you preach" approach. Make healthy eating and exercise a family affair. Get your kids involved by letting them ...

  11. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walking... A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder Weight-loss & Nutrition Myths Helping Your Overweight Child ... Tips for Families (PDF, 1.47 MB) Binge Eating Disorder Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits ...

  12. Nature, nurture, and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M; Cole, T J

    1978-03-11

    The relative importance of dietary and familial factors in determining weight in early infancy were studied in 203 5-year-old children. Their age at weaning, energy intake in infancy and at 5 years, and maternal percentage expected weight were studied in relation to their percentage expected weight. Neither the estimated energy intake in infancy nor the intake at 5 years correlated significantly with their percentage expected weight at 5 years. Overweight 5-year-olds had not been weaned earlier than normal-weight 5-year-olds. There was a significant correlation between the percentage expected weights of the mothers and those of their children at 5 years of age, although the children of overweight mothers did not have higher energy intakes than the children of underweight mothers. A familial, perhaps genetically determined, tendency to overweight seems to be more important in determining whether a child will be overweight at 5 years old than early weaning and overfeeding in infancy.

  13. Family dinner and adolescent overweight.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Berkey, Catherine S; Rockett, Helaine R H; Field, Alison E; Frazier, A Lindsay; Colditz, Graham A; Gillman, Matthew W

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of family dinner and overweight status in a large sample of 9- to 14-year-old children. We studied a cohort of 7784 girls and 6647 boys, 9 to 14 years of age at baseline in 1996, participating in the Growing Up Today Study. From annual mailed surveys, we calculated BMI from self-reported height and weight and assessed frequency of family dinner over the previous year. We defined "overweight" as age- and sex-specific BMI >85th percentile. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses; the longitudinal analyses assessed the association of previous year family dinner consumption with 1-year incidence of becoming overweight, using prospective data from 1996 through 1999. At baseline in 1996, 16% of participants had family dinner "never or some days," 40% on "most days," and 44% "every day." Across these categories, overweight prevalence for girls was 19.4%, 16.6%, and 16.7% and for boys was 24.6%, 23.3%, and 22.7%, respectively. In cross-sectional analyses, adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of being overweight was 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 0.96] among children who ate family dinner on "most days" or "every day" compared with those who ate family dinner "never or some days." In longitudinal multivariate models, the odds ratios between previous year frequency of eating family dinner and 1-year incidence of becoming overweight were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.16) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) for children who ate family dinner on "most days" and "every day," respectively, compared with those who ate family dinner "never or some days." The frequency of eating family dinner was inversely associated with overweight prevalence at baseline but not with likelihood of becoming overweight in longitudinal analyses.

  14. Breastfeeding, overweight status, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Research documents a host of health benefits of breastfeeding for infants and children, including long-term health conditions arising from inflammation. Here, we provide new evidence about this association, focusing on the link between breastfeeding in infancy and inflammation in early adulthood. Our study is based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) which allows us investigate a potentially important mediating pathway - overweight status from early adolescence into young adulthood. Results from pathway analyses in a structural equation modeling framework indicate that, in addition to a direct pathway linking breastfeeding and inflammation, an indirect pathway through overweight status across adolescence into young adulthood partially explains the association between breastfeeding and inflammation. Overweight status, moreover, links breastfeeding to inflammation not only through proximal timing of overweight status, but also through an indirect cascading process of overweight status over the life course that is evident in adolescence. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering breastfeeding, overweight status and inflammation as dynamic life course processes that contribute to development of health inequalities.

  15. Intragastric Balloon for Overweight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martins Fernandes, Flavio Augusto; Lima, Diego L.; Rao, Prashanth; Shadduck, Phillip P.; Montandon, Isabelle D.; de Souza Barros, Juscielle; Rodrigues, Ingrid Lais Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Current treatments for overweight adults include reduced-calorie diet, exercise, behavior modification, and selective use of medications. Many achieve suboptimal results with these measures and progress to obesity. Whether the intragastric balloon (IGB), a reversible device approved for treatment of obesity, is a safe and effective option in overweight adults is less well studied. We conducted a study to prospectively analyze the safety and effectiveness of IGB in overweight adults, to compare the results to a simultaneously studied cohort of obese patients, and to share procedural tips for safe IGB placement and removal. Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients were evaluated in this prospective, nonrandomized study. Twenty-six overweight [body mass index (BMI), 26–30)] and 113 obese (BMI > 30) patients underwent outpatient, endoscopic IGB placement under intravenous sedation. The IGB was filled with a 550–900 mL (average, 640 mL) solution of saline, radiological contrast, and methylene blue, with an approximate final proportion of 65:2:1. The patients were followed up at 1–2 weeks and then monthly for 6 months. At 6 months, they underwent IGB removal via an esophageal overtube to optimize safety, and then they were observed for 6 more months. Results: IGB time was 190 ± 36 d in the overweight patients and 192 ± 43 d in the obese patients. Symptoms of IGB intolerance included nausea and pain, which were transiently present in 50–95% of patients for several days, and necessitated early IGB removal in 6% of patients. There were no procedure-related complications and no IGB-related esophagitis, erosion, perforation, or obstruction. The percentage of excess weight loss (EWL%) was 96 ± 54% in the overweight group and 41 ± 26% in the obese group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In overweight adults failing standard treatments, IGB placement for 6 months had an acceptable safety profile and excellent weight loss. PMID:26955259

  16. Hispanic children and overweight: causes and interventions.

    PubMed

    Centrella-Nigro, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of overweight is increasing to alarming rates in children and adolescents in the United States. Hispanic children are one of the highest risk groups for overweight. Many different factors are positively correlated with childhood overweight in Hispanics: lower socioeconomic status, lacking health insurance or being under-insured, poor diet, decreased physical activity, overweight status of parents, mother's perception of overweight, and degree of acculturation. Pediatric nurses are in a pivotal position to assist in curtailing the epidemic. Various evidence-based practices to prevent and treat pediatric overweight are discussed with recommendations to intervene, particularly with Hispanic youth.

  17. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

  18. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  19. Childhood Overweight: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The rapid increase in overweight among children and adolescents is generating widespread concern. On average, rates of overweight for boys and girls remain similar. Some groups of children are more affected by overweight than others. This paper discusses the health consequences of childhood obesity. A list of school interventions for obesity…

  20. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  1. Stigmatization of Overweight Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Leon-Reyes, Maria Juana; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the weight-based stigmatization of Mexican overweight (OW) and non-OW children by their mothers and peers, who rated both boys and girls with varying physical characteristics. Four hundred and thirty-two fifth and sixth graders and 342 mothers participated in the study. Children were administered a…

  2. Overweight Children and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dianne S.

    1983-01-01

    School physical education programs can be an invaluable source of information, support, and help for overweight children and adolescents. Such programs can stress the value of exercise and individually designed fitness plans and emphasize nutrition in weight control. Basic elements for designing such programs are discussed. (PP)

  3. [Overweight. II. Determinants of overweight and strategies for prevention].

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M

    1998-09-05

    High risk groups for overweight can be defined according to features such as ethnicity, pregnancy, smoking cessation, sudden changes in lifestyle and activities, low socioeconomic status and low educational level, and a positive (family) history of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Coronary heart death is to be attributed for 15-30% to overweight (body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2) and for 4-25% to obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). For diabetes mellitus these percentages are 64-82% and 33-75%, respectively. Population-based preventive and therapeutic measurements have to be aimed at less (fatty) food, more bodily activity, less consumption of alcohol, and better education and income. This requires policy changes at the ministries involved.

  4. Overweight among Kauai first-graders.

    PubMed

    Manea, Sally Jo

    2005-09-01

    This 2003 study examined pre-school physical exam data on student health records of Kauai public school first-graders and found that 14.5% were at risk for overweight (between > or =85th and 94th percentile BMI-for-age), and 21.5% were overweight (>95 percentile BMI-for-age). The prevalence of overweight among Kauai students was twice that reported nationally for the same age group.

  5. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important for a long, vigorous life. Yet overweight and obesity (extreme overweight) have reached epidemic levels in the ...

  6. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  7. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  8. Feeding Styles and Overweight Status in Preschool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of parental feeding styles on the weight status of preschool children. Examining the overweight stats of 3- to 5-year olds is important because national data suggest that this is the age when children shift from normal weight to overweight. Fee...

  9. [Orthopedic Problems in Overweight and Obese Children].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Stücker, R; Rupprecht, M

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a growing problem with an increasing number of patients presenting with comorbidities to pediatricians and orthopedic surgeons. This overview summarizes the most common orthopedic problems in overweight children and obesity and highlights the treatment options in addition to weight reduction and physiotherapy leaded activation. In early infancy a persitent genu varum may be seen as a sign of Blount disease. In the school ages flat feet or persistent knock-knees has a higher incidence in overweight children. The incidence for back pain and osteoporosis are related with overweight and obese. At puberty, the slipped capital epiphysis, which always needs a surgical management, is mostly related to overweight/obese. A symptomatic retroversion of the femur can cause discomfort and lead to a surgical therapy himself.

  10. Perceived and actual competence among overweight and non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Caputi, Peter; Cliff, Dylan P

    2010-11-01

    Child overweight and obesity continues to be a global public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children's actual and perceived physical competence and parental perception's of their child's competence differ by weight status. Understanding these differences is important because physical activity levels are significantly lower among overweight children than their lean counterparts and children's motivation to participate in physical activity is influenced by their perceived and actual competence and their parents perceptions of their competence. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1414 9- and 11-year-old children and their parents from 20 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes measured included child and parental perceptions of physical competence and children's actual physical competence. Parents of overweight boys perceived them to be significantly less competent than parents of non-overweight boys. For 11-year-old girls, parent's perception of their daughter's ability to run (mean diff=1.06 [95% CI 0.73, 1.40]), jump (mean diff=0.54 [95% CI 0.15, 0.93]) and leap (mean diff=0.78 [95% CI 0.41, 1.17]) was lower among parents of overweight children. Overweight children also reported lower perceived physical competence than non-overweight children. 9- and 11-year-old overweight boys had lower actual physical competence than non-overweight boys (mean diff=1.32 [95% CI 0.29, 2.35]; mean diff=1.26 [95% CI 0.37, 2.15], respectively). Overweight 11-year-old girls had lower actual competence than non-overweight 11-year-old girls (mean diff=1.14 [95% CI 0.70, 2.12]). This study highlighted several differences between overweight and non-overweight children. Better understanding these differences at different stages of development may lead to identifying more specific and appropriate intervention points to promote physical activity in overweight children.

  11. How do life style factors relate to general health and overweight?

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Koenders, Paul G

    2012-02-01

    In this study we examined the associations between on the one hand the life style factors: Sports, Alcohol, Nutrition, Overweight and Smoking (SANOS), the eating styles of dietary restraint, external- and emotional eating and on the other hand overweight, energy at work and perceived general health. Using a web-based life style questionnaire, responses were obtained from 3272 employees (1254 women and 2018 men) in a large banking corporation. These data were subjected to principal component factor analysis. In both sexes, the SANOS life style factors loaded on a factor that stood for good general health and energy at work, and that, in women, additionally comprised high dietary restraint. Overweight, in contrast, loaded in both sexes on a factor that comprised: restrained eating, emotional eating (highest loading) and external eating, and, in the women, additionally general health (negative loading) and energy at work (negative loading). It is concluded that the attempt made in life style programs to elevate general health perception and lower body weight may be more successful for the latter if the program is also targeted at improvement of eating behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do metabolic factors add to the effect of overweight on hand osteoarthritis? The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Dahaghin, S; Bierma‐Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W; Hazes, J M W; Pols, H A P

    2007-01-01

    Background As hand joints are non‐weight bearing, the association between overweight and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is critical to understanding how overweight may associate with osteoarthritis (OA) apart from axial load. Overweight might be associated with the occurrence of OA through other metabolic factors. Aim To evaluate the role of overweight in HOA, cross‐sectional data of a population‐based study were used (⩾55 years, n = 3585). The role of diabetes, hypertension and total cholesterol:high‐density lipoprotein (HDL)‐cholesterol ratio on HOA, and whether they play an intermediate role in the association of overweight/HOA was investigated. Furthermore, the prevalence of HOA in the concurrent presence of overweight and other metabolic factors was evaluated. Results Independently of other metabolic factors, overweight (body mass index (BMI) >27.4 kg/m2) showed a significant association with HOA (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7). The association between diabetes and HOA was only present in people aged 55–62 years (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.8), but was absent in the total population or in other age groups. The association of hypertension with HOA was weak, and disappeared after adjustment for BMI. The total/HDL cholesterol ratio showed no significant association with HOA. The concurrent presence of overweight, diabetes and hypertension resulted in an even higher prevalence of HOA (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.9) compared with subjects with none of these characteristics; this prevalence increased further in the younger age group (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.8). Conclusion No intermediate effect of metabolic factors on the association of overweight with HOA was found. An increase in the prevalence of HOA, however, seems to be present when overweight occurs together with hypertension and diabetes especially at a relatively young age. PMID:17314121

  13. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys.

  14. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  15. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  16. Parental overweight/obesity, social factors, and child overweight/obesity at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Dubois, Lise; Burnier, Daniel; Girard, Manon; Prud'homme, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This study used gender-based analyses to examine whether child overweight/obesity is related to parental overweight/obesity and sociodemographic factors, in a representative population-based cohort of 7-year-old children. Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 was used. Children (n= 1336) were randomly selected from each public health region of Québec. The study was based on face-to-face interviews and a set of questionnaires addressed to mothers and fathers. Compared to children with no overweight/obese parent, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of being overweight/obese with two overweight/obese parents was 5 for boys (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.31-10.85) and 5.87 for girls (95%CI: 2.63-13.12). Gender differences appeared when one parent was overweight/obese. For girls, having either an overweight/obese mother (OR, 3.10; 95%CI: 1.14-8.38) or father (OR, 3.64; 95%CI: 1.68-7.91) significantly increased the odds of being overweight/obese at 7 years. For boys, however, having only an overweight/obese father (OR, 2.05; 95%CI: 1.01-4.16) was related to overweight/obesity, but having only an overweight/obese mother was not related to overweight/obesity at 7 years for boys. In girls, but not in boys, having an immigrant mother also significantly related to overweight/obesity (OR, 2.71; 95%CI: 1.28-5.75) at 7 years, after controlling for other social factors. Gender differences in socialization may explain why at 7 years of age, girls' bodyweight is influenced by having even one overweight/obese parent (mother or father), while boys' bodyweight appears to be influenced only by father's overweight/obesity when only one parent is overweight/obese. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Overweight Kids Pay a Heavy Social Price

    MedlinePlus

    ... these negative peer interactions, de la Haye said. Overweight children who feel socially isolated may end up eating more and participating less in sports and physical activities, leading to further weight gain. "The medical community ...

  18. Nutritional Considerations for the Overweight Young Athlete.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa; Timmons, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    Nutritional considerations for the overweight young athlete have not been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature. With the high prevalence of childhood obesity, more children participating in sports are overweight or obese. This is particularly true for select sports, such as American football, where large size provides an added advantage. While sport participation should be encouraged because of the many benefits of physical activity, appropriate nutritional practices are vital for growth, and optimizing performance and health. The overweight young athlete may face certain challenges because of variable energy costs and nutrient requirements for growth and routine training, compared with nonoverweight athletes. Special attention should be given to adopting healthy lifestyle choices to prevent adverse health effects due to increased adiposity. In this review, we aim to discuss special nutritional considerations and highlight gaps in the literature concerning nutrition for overweight young athletes compared with their nonoverweight peers.

  19. The salience of overweight in personality characterization.

    PubMed

    Hiller, D V

    1981-07-01

    It is argued that the stigma attached to overweight or obesity often causes overweight to operate as a "master status." College students (N = 223) were asked to write stories about male and female stimulus characters who varied only in body image. It was hypothesized that subjects writing about overweight stimulus characters would be more likely than those writing about normal weight characters to (a) write sad or negative stories, (b) create unpleasant characters, and (c) describe their characters with more negative personality characteristics on a semantic differential personality scale. Support was found for part (a) and (b) of the hypothesis but not part (c). The relationships were stronger when the stimulus was a picture than when it was a descriptive paragraph and when the stimulus character was female rather than male. There was indication that female subjects were more likely to associate an overweight body image with an unpleasant personality than were male subjects.

  20. The Salience of Overweight in Personality Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Dana V.

    1981-01-01

    Tests the degree of generalization from attributions of "overweight" to other personality attributions made by college students (N=223). Students were asked to write stories about male and female stimulus characters who varied only in body image. (CM)

  1. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these in adults. In ... than 95% (95 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered overweight or obese.

  2. Colonic fermentation from lactulose inhibits lipolysis in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Ferchaud-Roucher, V; Pouteau, E; Piloquet, H; Zaïr, Y; Krempf, M

    2005-10-01

    One of the strategies to prevent insulin resistance is to reduce circulating free fatty acids (FFA). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an oral lactulose load on fatty acid metabolism in overweight subjects. Eight overweight subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]acetate and of [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H(5)]glycerol for 9 h. After 3 h of tracer infusion, patients ingested 30 g lactulose, or saline solution. Arterialized blood samples were collected every 20 min. Basal plasma concentrations of acetate were similar before and between oral treatments as well as glycerol and FFA concentrations. Plasma acetate turnover was 11.4 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.7 +/- 1.4 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) [not significant (NS)], and plasma glycerol turnover was 3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (NS). After lactulose ingestion, acetate concentration increased twofold and then decreased to baseline. Acetate turnover rate increased to 15.5 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) after lactulose treatment, whereas it was unchanged after saline treatment (10.3 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), P < or = 0.0001). In contrast, FFA concentrations decreased significantly after lactulose ingestion and then increased slowly. Glycerol turnover decreased after lactulose ingestion compared with saline, 2.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.3 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P < or = 0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between glycerol and acetate turnover after lactulose treatments (r = -0.78, P < or = 0.02). These results showed in overweight subjects a short-term decrease in FFA level and glycerol turnover after lactulose ingestion related to a decrease of lipolysis in close relationship with an increase of acetate production.

  3. Clinical outcomes in overweight heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jalowiec, Anne; Grady, Kathleen L; White-Williams, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of patient weight on heart transplant (HT) outcomes. Nine outcomes were compared in 2 groups of HT recipients (N = 347) based on their mean body mass index (BMI) during the first 3 years post-HT. Group 1 consisted of 108 non-overweight patients (BMI <25; mean age 52; 29.6% females; 16.7% minorities). Group 2 consisted of 239 overweight patients (BMI ≥25; mean age 52; 15.9% females; 13.8% minorities). Outcomes were: survival, re-hospitalization, rejections, infections, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), stroke, renal dysfunction, diabetes, and lymphoma. Non-overweight patients had shorter survival, were re-hospitalized more days after the HT discharge, and had more lymphoma and severe renal dysfunction. Overweight patients had more CAV, steroid-induced diabetes, and acute rejections. Overweight HT patients had better survival, but more rejections, CAV, and diabetes. Non-overweight HT patients had worse survival, plus more re-hospitalization time, lymphoma, and renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is overweight an issue in phenylketonuria?

    PubMed

    Rocha, Júlio C; MacDonald, Anita; Trefz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Dietary treatment may be associated with an increased risk of obesity in phenylketonuria (PKU). The earliest studies describe a tendency for overweight in PKU, but not all recent publications confirm this, although there are an increasing number of studies describing increased obesity in female patients with PKU. There is little data describing the metabolic consequences of obesity in PKU. It is difficult to interpret and compare published results due to variable patient age, differing dietary treatment approaches, poor treatment adherence, inconsistencies in metabolic control achieved, variable criteria used to classify overweight. There is also a lack of comparison with normal population data which is widely variable between countries. Generally in PKU it is unknown if obesity etiology is a result of the underlying condition, a treatment consequence, or an outcome of inadequate metabolic control. Differences in treatment strategies, target ranges for blood phenylalanine concentrations and severity of PKU can alter nutritional intakes and dietary experiences which ultimately modulate the course of overweight development. It is clear further investigation is required. Treating overweight and obesity in the general population is difficult and no studies have described the impact of obesity treatment strategies in PKU. However, the PKU management team has an important role in monitoring nutritional status and preventing overweight and obesity. It is important that PKU treatment attends to the general aspects of nutrition, feeding behavior and exercise in order to prevent the development of overweight in these individuals. © 2013.

  5. Healthcare utilization by obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Bianchi-Hayes, Josette; Calixte, Rose; Huang, Jiayu; Cataldo, Rosa; Wong, Angie; Pati, Susmita

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship between childhood obesity and health care use in a large, nationally representative group of children with measured anthropometrics. Analysis of 5 combined National Health and Nutrition Survey datasets from 2001 to 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models assessed the relationship between health care use variables and weight status (overweight: body mass index 85th to <95th percentile for age and sex; obese: body mass index ≥95th percentile for age and sex) for children 2-18 years of age. Overweight and obese children are more likely to receive their routine medical care in an emergency department than a primary care setting (overweight OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.22-3.14 and obese OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.24-2.86) than their normal-weight peers. After we adjusted for relevant covariates, this finding persisted among overweight, but not obese, children. Other health care use variables were not significantly associated with weight status. Overweight children may be more likely to use the emergency department than primary care settings for routine medical care. Interventions to establish primary care medical homes for overweight children merit consideration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  7. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  8. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  9. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  10. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  11. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  12. Overweight in adolescents: implications for health expenditures.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Alan C; Vistnes, Jessica P; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2009-03-01

    We consider a compelling research question raised by the growing prevalence of overweight among adolescents: do overweight adolescents incur greater health care expenditures than adolescents of normal weight? To address this question, we use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and estimate a two-part, generalized linear model (GLM) of health spending. Considering separate models by gender, we find that overweight females incur $790 more in annual expenditures than those of normal weight but we find no expenditure differences by bodyweight for males. We find that mental health spending is associated with part of the disparity in expenditures for adolescent females but establishing causality between mental health problems and weight-related health expenditure differences is challenging.

  13. What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163807.html What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier? Researchers still don't know ... 2017 MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Getting overweight adults to adopt new heart-healthy eating habits ...

  14. Size misperception among overweight and obese families.

    PubMed

    Paul, Tracy K; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael; Rodriguez, Juviza; Song, Sharon; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V

    2015-01-01

    Perception of body size is a key factor driving health behavior. Mothers directly influence children's nutritional and exercise behaviors. Mothers of ethnic minority groups and lower socioeconomic status are less likely to correctly identify young children as overweight or obese. Little evaluation has been done of the inverse--the child's perception of the mother's weight. To determine awareness of weight status among mother-child dyads (n = 506). Cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient pediatric dental clinic of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Primarily Hispanic (82.2 %) mothers (n = 253), 38.8 ± 7.5 years of age, and children (n = 253), 10.5 ± 1.4 years of age, responding to a questionnaire adapted from the validated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Anthropometric measures-including height, weight, and waist circumference-and awareness of self-size and size of other generation were obtained. 71.4 % of obese adults and 35.1 % of overweight adults underestimated size, vs. 8.6 % of normal-weight (NW) adults (both p < 0.001). Among overweight and obese children, 86.3 % and 62.3 % underestimated their size, vs. 14.9 % NW children (both p < 0.001). Among mothers with overweight children, 80.0 % underestimated their child's weight, vs. 7.1 % of mothers with NW children (p < 0.001); 23.1 % of mothers with obese children also underestimated their child's weight (p < 0.01). Among children with obese mothers, only 13.0 % correctly classified the adult's size, vs. 76.5 % with NW mothers (p < 0.001). Among obese mothers, 20.8 % classified overweight body size as ideal, vs. 1.2 % among NW mothers (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese adults and children frequently underestimate their size. Adults misjudge overweight/obese children as being of normal weight, and children of obese mothers often underestimate the adult's size. Failure to recognize overweight/obesity status among adults and children can lead to prolonged exposure to obesity

  15. Prevention of child and adolescent overweight and obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2003-04, approximately 34.3% of 12-19 year olds and 37.2% of 6-11 year olds in the US were overweight or obese. Among samples with predominantly ethnic minorities in the US, 49% of middle school children were overweight or obese. Increasing prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity has been ...

  16. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  17. Examining Demographic, Economic, and Educational Factors: Overweight Children in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The number of overweight children and adolescents in the U.S. has reached epidemic proportions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2000, the CDC estimated that 15 percent of the nation's youth were overweight. Overweight children and adolescents are exposed to many health risks, most notably the increased risk…

  18. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  19. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  20. Overeating phenotypes in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes.

  1. Overweight in Children: Definitions and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flegal, Katherine M.; Tabak, Carolyn J.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies in a variety of countries have shown increases in the prevalence of overweight among children in recent years. These increases have given rise to concern about children's health and well-being. The terminology used in these studies varies considerably. However, whatever the terminology used, such studies are generally based on weight…

  2. Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tracey; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Grigerick, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Children who are overweight tend to participate in fewer activities, to withdraw from social situations, and to be less physically active than their normal-weight peers. Additionally, they have lower self-image and often suffer from depression. Research on children's perceptions of overweight…

  3. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  4. The Portrayal of Overweight in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessner, Marci M.; Hoover, John H.; Hazlett, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve adolescent novels with the theme of obesity were selected for critical analysis. The novels were assessed for readability and to determine the approach to overweight portrayed by writers. The books were also examined in light of the concept of lookism prejudice. Recommendations were offered to teachers and counselors for use of these books…

  5. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  6. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain.

  7. Prevalence of Overweight among Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dair, Jessica; Ellis, M. Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of overweight cases in a sample of 151 deaf children aged 6-11 years. Participants were deaf students attending six elementary schools, both regular and special, in four states. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight, plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S.…

  8. The Portrayal of Overweight in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessner, Marci M.; Hoover, John H.; Hazlett, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve adolescent novels with the theme of obesity were selected for critical analysis. The novels were assessed for readability and to determine the approach to overweight portrayed by writers. The books were also examined in light of the concept of lookism prejudice. Recommendations were offered to teachers and counselors for use of these books…

  9. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  10. Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tracey; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Grigerick, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Children who are overweight tend to participate in fewer activities, to withdraw from social situations, and to be less physically active than their normal-weight peers. Additionally, they have lower self-image and often suffer from depression. Research on children's perceptions of overweight…

  11. Overweight in Children: Definitions and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flegal, Katherine M.; Tabak, Carolyn J.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies in a variety of countries have shown increases in the prevalence of overweight among children in recent years. These increases have given rise to concern about children's health and well-being. The terminology used in these studies varies considerably. However, whatever the terminology used, such studies are generally based on weight…

  12. Prevalence of Overweight among Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dair, Jessica; Ellis, M. Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of overweight cases in a sample of 151 deaf children aged 6-11 years. Participants were deaf students attending six elementary schools, both regular and special, in four states. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight, plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S.…

  13. FastStats: Obesity and Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1974 Through 2013–2014 Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents Aged 2–19 Years: United States, ... States, 1960–1962 Through 2013–2014 Prevalence of Obesity Among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. ...

  14. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children.

    PubMed

    Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Caroli, Margherita

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the gross motor skill performance of overweight and non-overweight preschool children from South of Italy, and to investigate possible differences by gender. Participants were 38 boys and 42 girls (4.5 ± 0.5 yr) categorized as overweight (n = 38) and non-overweight (n = 42), according to the IOTF body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Test of Gross Motor Development was used to assess seven locomotor skills (run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, skip and slide) and five object-control skills (two-hand strike, stationary bounce, catch, kick and overhand throw). The raw, standard and percentile scores and the Gross Motor Development Quotient (GMDQ) were calculated for each participant. ANOVA 2 (gender) x 2 (group) was conducted on the subtest standard scores and the GMDQ. No differences in performance were found between boys and girls on the subscale standard scores and the GMDQ. Significant main effects (p < 0.001) were reported for group on the GMDQ, and the standard scores for locomotor and object-control skills, with overweight children reporting lower movement competence than their counterparts. Pearson's correlations revealed relationships (p < 0.001) between BMI and locomotor (r = -0.54) and object-control (r = 20.48) skills, and between BMI and GMDQ (r = 20.54). Findings indicate that childhood obesity might have adverse effects on gross motor development. Overweight participants showed poorer performance on locomotor and object-control tasks than their non-overweight peers. Interventions to promote physical activity in overweight children should be directed towards achieving a healthy weight and motor skill improvement.

  15. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 < OR < 0.78). We found no significant difference between overweight and non-overweight schoolchildren in frequency of high degree educated mother and father, birth weight, breakfast intake, eating habits and exercise. However overweight children intake high-caloric food, low in fiber, with troubles of nutritional comportment, and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional

  16. Prevalence estimates of overweight in Head Start preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Bonnie L; Bounds, Wendy; Kolbo, Jerome; Molaison, Elaine; Zhang, Lei

    2009-10-01

    This study estimates prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight among low-income predominately non-Hispanic Black Head Start Mississippi preschoolers. A two-stage stratified probability design produced a representative sample of 1,250 preschoolers aged 3 to 5 years. Height, weight, age, gender, and race data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight (20.6%) and at risk of overweight (17.9%) combined was 38.5%. Moreover, highest rates were found in boys, non-Hispanic Blacks, and 5-year-olds. The prevalence of overweight in Mississippi Head Start children exceeds national averages, reinforcing the need for early-childhood health promotion and prevention.

  17. Socioeconomic Patterning of Childhood Overweight Status in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Knai, Cécile; Lobstein, Tim; Darmon, Nicole; Rutter, Harry; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence of social disparities in overweight among European children. This paper examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic inequality and prevalence of child overweight in European countries, and if socioeconomic disparities in child overweight are increasing. We analyse cross-country comparisons of household inequality and child overweight prevalence in Europe and review within-country variations over time of childhood overweight by social grouping, drawn from a review of the literature. Data from 22 European countries suggest that greater inequality in household income is positively associated with both self-reported and measured child overweight prevalence. Moreover, seven studies from four countries reported on the influence of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of child overweight over time. Four out of seven reported widening social disparities in childhood overweight, a fifth found statistically significant disparities only in a small sub-group, one found non-statistically significant disparities, and a lack of social gradient was reported in the last study. Where there is evidence of a widening social gradient in child overweight, it is likely that the changes in lifestyles and dietary habits involved in the increase in the prevalence of overweight have had a less favourable impact in low socio-economic status groups than in the rest of the population. More profound structural changes, based on population-wide social and environmental interventions are needed to halt the increasing social gradient in child overweight in current and future generations. PMID:22690206

  18. Socioeconomic patterning of childhood overweight status in Europe.

    PubMed

    Knai, Cécile; Lobstein, Tim; Darmon, Nicole; Rutter, Harry; McKee, Martin

    2012-04-01

    There is growing evidence of social disparities in overweight among European children. This paper examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic inequality and prevalence of child overweight in European countries, and if socioeconomic disparities in child overweight are increasing. We analyse cross-country comparisons of household inequality and child overweight prevalence in Europe and review within-country variations over time of childhood overweight by social grouping, drawn from a review of the literature. Data from 22 European countries suggest that greater inequality in household income is positively associated with both self-reported and measured child overweight prevalence. Moreover, seven studies from four countries reported on the influence of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of child overweight over time. Four out of seven reported widening social disparities in childhood overweight, a fifth found statistically significant disparities only in a small sub-group, one found non-statistically significant disparities, and a lack of social gradient was reported in the last study. Where there is evidence of a widening social gradient in child overweight, it is likely that the changes in lifestyles and dietary habits involved in the increase in the prevalence of overweight have had a less favourable impact in low socio-economic status groups than in the rest of the population. More profound structural changes, based on population-wide social and environmental interventions are needed to halt the increasing social gradient in child overweight in current and future generations.

  19. School-based screening of plantar pressures during level walking with a backpack among overweight and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Gioi, Sara; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2016-05-01

    Among children, postural modifications due to backpack carriage have direct consequences on how forces are exchanged between body and ground and thus on plantar pressure distribution. However, it is unknown whether such alterations are influenced by the foot structure and functionality typical of obesity. In this study, we tested 65 overweight/obese primary schoolchildren using a pressure platform while walking with and without the backpack. Contact areas, arch index, peak and mean plantar pressures in the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were compared with those from an additional 65 age- and gender-matched group of normal-weight children. Backpack carriage modified pressure distribution similarly in both groups, with the exception of mean midfoot pressure, which increased significantly among normal-weight children but not in the overweight/obese group. Notably, the pressure values associated with mass excess and backpack carriage still raise some concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality of overweight/obese children. Practitioner summary: Backpack carriage by overweight/obese schoolchildren altered plantar pressures similar to what was observed in their normal-weight peers. Yet, high pressures were found among the overweight/obese children. This raises concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality, and supports establishing more specific limits for the carried load.

  20. Health Literacy Scale and Causal Model of Childhood Overweight.

    PubMed

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut

    2017-01-28

    WHO focuses on developing health literacy (HL) referring to cognitive and social skills. Our objectives were to develop a scale for evaluating the HL level of Thai childhood overweight, and develop a path model of health behavior (HB) for preventing obesity. A cross-sectional study. This research used a mixed method. Overall, 2,000 school students were aged 9 to 14 yr collected by stratified random sampling from all parts of Thailand in 2014. Data were analyzed by CFA, LISREL. Reliability of HL and HB scale ranged 0.62 to 0.82 and factor loading ranged 0.33 to 0.80, the subjects had low level of HL (60.0%) and fair level of HB (58.4%), and the path model of HB, could be influenced by HL from three paths. Path 1 started from the health knowledge and understanding that directly influenced the eating behavior (effect sized - β was 0.13, P<0.05. Path 2 the health knowledge and understanding that influenced managing their health conditions, media literacy, and making appropriate health-related decision β=0.07, 0.98, and 0.05, respectively. Path 3 the accessing the information and services that influenced communicating for added skills, media literacy, and making appropriate health-related decision β=0.63, 0.93, 0.98, and 0.05. Finally, basic level of HL measured from health knowledge and understanding and accessing the information and services that influenced HB through interactive, and critical level β= 0.76, 0.97, and 0.55, respectively. HL Scale for Thai childhood overweight should be implemented as a screening tool developing HL by the public policy for health promotion.

  1. [Early assessment of overweight for preventing obesity].

    PubMed

    Négre, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    The overweight child should be detected as soon as possible to avoid the occurrence of a more severe obesity, source of early complications. Thus, it is essential to carefully follow the BMI curve in all children with particular attention to the age of the early adiposity rebound (between 1 and 5 years). Early rebound indicates predisposition, and represents a risk factor for later obesity. The announcement is not harmless and should avoid unnecessary judging or blaming the family outside rare situations of abuse. Overweight results from an energy imbalance favored by many risk factors often entangled. These predisposing factors are specific to the child (especially genetic and epigenetic origin) and environmental. Among these environmental factors, those occurring during pregnancy and the nutritional education (too permissive or too restrictive) represent targets for primary prevention.

  2. When do mothers think their child is overweight?

    PubMed

    Parkinson, K N; Drewett, R F; Jones, A R; Dale, A; Pearce, M S; Wright, C M; Adamson, A J

    2011-04-01

    To quantify how overweight children have to be for their mothers to classify them as overweight and to express concern about future overweight, and to investigate the adiposity cues in children that mothers respond to. Cross-sectional. A total of 531 children from the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at 6-8 years and their mothers. In the mother: responses to two questions concerning the child's adiposity; height; weight; educational qualifications; and economic status. In the child: height; weight; waist circumference; skinfold thicknesses; bioelectrical impedance; and bone frame measurements. The body mass index (BMI) at which half the mothers classify their child as overweight was 21.3 (in the obese range for children of this age). The BMI at which half the mothers were concerned about their child becoming overweight in the future was 17.1 (below the overweight range). Waist circumference and skinfolds contributed most to mothers' responses. Although BMI and fat scores were important predictors individually, they did not contribute independently once waist circumference and skinfolds (their most visible manifestations) were included in the regression equations. Mothers were less likely to classify girls as overweight. Mothers with higher BMIs were less likely to classify their child as overweight, but were more likely to be concerned about future overweight. Health promotion efforts directed at parents of young primary school children might better capitalise on their concern about future overweight in their child than on current weight status, and focus on mothers' response to more visible characteristics than the BMI.

  3. When do mothers think their child is overweight?

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Jones, Angela R; Dale, Anne; Pearce, Mark S; Wright, Charlotte M; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To quantify how overweight children have to be for their mothers to classify them as overweight and to express concern about future overweight, and to investigate the adiposity cues in children that mothers respond to. Design Cross-sectional. Subjects 531 children from the Gateshead Millennium Study cohort at 6-8 years and their mothers. Measurements In the mother: responses to two questions concerning the child's adiposity; height; weight; educational qualifications; economic status. In the child: height; weight; waist circumference; skinfold thicknesses; bioelectrical impedance; bone frame measurements. Results The body mass index (BMI) at which half the mothers classify their child as overweight was 21.3 (in the obese range for children of this age). The BMI at which half the mothers were concerned about their child becoming overweight in the future was 17.1 (below the overweight range). Waist circumference and skinfolds contributed most to mothers' responses. While BMI and fat scores were important predictors individually, they did not contribute independently once waist circumference and skinfolds (their most visible manifestations) were included in the regression equations. Mothers were less likely to classify girls as overweight. Mothers with higher BMIs were less likely to classify their child as overweight but were more likely to be concerned about future overweight. Conclusion Health promotion efforts directed at parents of young primary school children might better capitalise on their concern about future overweight in their child than on current weight status, and focus on mothers' response to more visible characteristics than the BMI. PMID:21224827

  4. Social Ecological Predictors of the Transition to Overweight in Youth

    PubMed Central

    KLEIN, ELIZABETH G.; LYTLE, LESLIE A.; CHEN, VINCENT

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Design Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Participants Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Main outcome measure Transition to overweight status (body mass index ≥85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Statistical analysis Generalized linear mixed model regression. Results Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Conclusions Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed. PMID:18589024

  5. Aesthetic evaluation of lipoabdominoplasty in overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Osvaldo R; Salles, Alessandra G; Ferreira, Marcus C; Llaverias, Francis; Morelli, Luis H U; Saldanha Filho, Osvaldo R; Saldanha, Cristianna B

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aesthetic results of lipoabdominoplasty in overweight patients (body mass index, 25 to 29.9) compared with normal weight patients (body mass index, 18.5 to 24.9). The authors performed a retrospective and comparative analysis of late follow-up results after lipoabdominoplasty performed from 2000 to 2009 in two groups of 30 patients, one with a body mass index of 25 to 29.9 and one with a body mass index of 18 to 24.9. Aesthetic results were evaluated using a scale with five objective parameters, developed in the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo. There were seven evaluators: three plastic surgeons, three nondoctors, and the surgeon performing the procedure. For all evaluators, the postoperative average grade was significantly higher than before surgery for the entire group of patients (n=60) and in each subgroup. The average grades for the normal weight group were consistently significantly higher than for the overweight group, both preoperatively and postoperatively, for all evaluators. However, the mean difference between the preoperative and postoperative grades, which measures the aesthetic improvement provided by the operation, was higher in the overweight group. Postoperatively, the average grade of the surgeon was significantly higher than for all other evaluator groups. The normal weight group showed superior grades, both before and after lipoabdominoplasty, for all evaluators. However, the gain between preoperative and postoperative grades was higher in the overweight patient group, indicating that lipoabdominoplasty was beneficial even in these cases. Therapeutic, III.

  6. Clinical evaluation of the overweight patient.

    PubMed

    Bray, G A; Ryan, D H

    2000-10-01

    Evaluation of an overweight patient is the first step in any therapeutic program. The syndromes of obesity can be classified in several ways. The first is an anatomic classification based on the size, number, and distribution of fat cells and fat tissue. The second is an etiologic classification based on identification of specific diseases and settings that produce obesity. Hypothalamic injury and endocrine disease such as Cushing's disease and the polycystic ovary syndrome are three identifiable causes of obesity. In this medicated society drugs are always candidates to produce weight gain. The most common causes, however, are stopping smoking, overconsumption of high-fat foods, a decrease in the level of activity, and aging. The natural history of obesity provides a useful framework in which to view both preventive and therapeutic strategies. Some individuals will never become overweight, but of those who do, about one-third will do so during the first two decades, and the remaining two-thirds will become overweight after age 20. A number of epidemiological and metabolic factors can serve as a guide to those individuals who are at high risk. Having overweight parents tops the list, but multiple births, cessation of smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle are additional factors. Therapeutic decisions should be based on risk-benefit decisions. The risk can be assessed from the body mass index, the distribution of fat in upper or lower body obesity, the rate of weight gain, and the degree of physical inactivity. After assessing risk, the therapeutic choices can be selected from the age category of the patient. With any therapeutic activity, involvement of the patient in a realistic approach to the treatment process is essential.

  7. Football to tackle overweight in children.

    PubMed

    Faude, O; Kerper, O; Multhaupt, M; Winter, C; Beziel, K; Junge, A; Meyer, T

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed at analyzing the efficacy of a 6-month football training program compared with a standard exercise program on health and fitness parameters in overweight children. The study design was a 6-month, two-arm, parallel-group randomized trial. Twenty-two overweight children were randomly assigned to two groups (age=10.8+/-1.2 years, height=1.56+/-0.08 m, weight= 65.1+/-11.4 kg). One group conducted a football training program, and the other group an established standard sports program. Both interventions took place three times per week from mid-May to mid-November. Before, after 3 months and after the training period, comprehensive testing was conducted: anthropometric characteristics, cycling ergometry, psychometric monitoring as well as several motor ability tests. Maximal performance capacity increased and submaximal heart rate during cycling ergometry decreased significantly. Several motor skills as well as self-esteem also improved considerably. Body composition and other psychometric variables remained nearly unchanged. No relevant differences were observed between both exercise programs. It can be concluded that a 6-month football training is as efficacious in improving the physical capacity, health-related fitness parameters and self-esteem of overweight children as a standard exercise program. These results provide further evidence that playing football has significant health effects.

  8. Overweight and obesity among maltreated young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Mennen, Ferol E; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K

    2012-04-01

    (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI)≥ 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI ≥ 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of maltreatment is related to high BMI in maltreated young adolescents. We compared a sample of maltreated young adolescents to a comparison sample of adolescents from the same neighborhood. The maltreated sample (n=303) of young adolescents (ages 9-12) came from referrals from the county child welfare department in Los Angeles, CA from new cases of maltreatment opened in specified zip codes. A comparison sample (n=151) was recruited from the same zip codes. The total sample (both maltreated and comparison) was 77% Black or Hispanic and 23% White or biracial with 53% males and 47% females. A stepwise logistic regression was used to examine predictors of high BMI with demographic/psychological covariates and maltreatment group. The maltreated young adolescents were selected and the logistic model included all covariates as well as an interaction between gender and each maltreatment type (neglect, sexual, and physical abuse). Maltreated young adolescents were similar to comparison adolescents in obesity prevalence (27.1% and 34.4%, respectively), although comparison young adolescents were 1.7 times more likely to have overweight/obesity than the maltreated young adolescents (95% CI=1.13-2.76). No demographic variables predicted high BMI. For the comparison young adolescents, depression slightly increased the odds of overweight/obesity (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.15). Being neglected reduced the odds of being in the overweight/obesity and obesity group when combining genders. For females, but not males, sexual and physical abuse slightly reduced the odds of obesity. Both the maltreated and comparison young adolescents had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which puts them at risk

  9. Is the prevalence of hypertension in overweight children overestimated?

    PubMed

    Wirix, Aleid J G; Nauta, Jeroen; Groothoff, Jaap W; Rabelink, Ton J; HiraSing, Remy A; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to explore different methods for screening and diagnosing hypertension-which definitions and criteria to use-in children and in addition to determine the prevalence of hypertension in Dutch overweight children. A cross-sectional study performed in the Dutch Child Health Care setting. Four Child Health Care centres in different cities in the Netherlands. 969 overweight (including obese) and 438 non-overweight children, median age 11.7 years (range 4.1-17.10), 49% boys. The main outcome was blood pressure, and the difference in prevalence of hypertension using different criteria for blood pressure interpretation: using the first blood pressure measurement, the mean of two measurements and the lowest of three measurements on two different occasions. Looking at the first measurement alone, 33% of overweight and 21% of non-overweight children had hypertension. By comparing the mean of the first two measurements with reference values, 28% of overweight children and 16% of non-overweight children had hypertension. Based on the lowest of three consecutive measurements, the prevalence decreased to 12% among overweight children and 5% among non-overweight children at visit one and at visit two 4% of overweight children still had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is highly dependent on the definitions and criteria used. We found a prevalence of 4% in overweight children, which is considerably lower than suggested by recent literature (4%-33%). This discrepancy can be explained by our more strict definition of hypertension. However, to draw any conclusions on the prevalence, normal values using the same definition of hypertension should be established. Despite the low prevalence, we recommend measuring blood pressure in all overweight children in view of later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  11. Cardiac Strain between Normal Weight and Overweight Workers in Hot/Humid Weather in the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: In hot weather, overweight and obesity are considered as significant risk factors for the incidence of cardiac strain in workers. This study was aimed to compare cardiac strain among overweight and normal-weight workers in hot, humid conditions in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 workers in the south of Iran in summer 2010. The heart rate was measured at rest and at actual work. Cardiac strain based on working heart rate (WHR), the relative cardiac cost (RCC), the net cardiac cost (NCC), load relative cardiovascular (CVL), and heart rate reduction was analyzed in 35 normal-weight people (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2) and 36 overweight people (BMI >25 kg/m2) using descriptive statistics. Results: In 42% of the total workers, BMI was >25 kg/m2. The average of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT Index) in the two groups was not significantly different. The mean WHR in the two groups was 101 ± 20.3 and 112 ± 18.9, respectively (P = 0.026). Percentages exceeded the acceptable limits in the parameters NCC, RCC, WHR, CVL, and Brouha index, which were significantly higher in overweight people than in those with normal weight. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it is concluded that the severity of cardiac strain was higher in overweight workers compared with that in normal weight workers. Hence, in order to decrease the cardiac strain, selecting overweight individuals for these jobs should be avoided and also some vital intervention for losing weight should be implemented such as nutrition education and encouraging them regarding physical activity. PMID:24319554

  12. Physical performance and school physical education in overweight Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Casajús, José A; Leiva, María T; Villarroya, Adoración; Legaz, Alejandro; Moreno, Luis A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of physical performance and extracurricular organized physical activities (EOPA) in normal- and overweight children. A random sample of 1,068 schoolchildren (7-12 years old) representative of the region of Aragon (Spain) was selected and divided into normal-, overweight and obese groups based on previously published body mass index reference standards. Physical performance was assessed by the European physical test battery. EOPA were estimated when children performed at least 3 h per week during the previous year in addition to school physical education. Overweight and obese subjects had lower performances on all tests requiring propulsion or lifting of the body mass (standing-broad jump, sit-ups, bent-arm hangs, speed shuttle run and endurance shuttle run) when compared with normal-weight counterparts (p < 0.001). The overweight and obese children showed greater hand grip strength measures than the normal-weight ones (p < 0.001). Plate tapping and sit reach test scores were similar in both groups. The participation in EOPA was similar in normal- and overweight or obese groups; however, a significant increase with age was observed (p < 0.01). In this age group, overweight was not related to EOPA participation. Overweight children had poorer results on weight-bearing tasks. The good results in static strength, coordination and speed of limb movements in overweight children should be considered in the promotion of physical activity programs for overweight children. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. Identifying overweight high school students: prevalence of overweight in an ethnically diverse adolescent population in two Connecticut high schools.

    PubMed

    Ross, Marilyn

    2004-02-01

    The Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III) found that 11.5% of adolescents aged 12-17 years were overweight, and NHANES 1999-2000 found that 15.5% of adolescents aged 12-19 years were overweight. Body Mass Indices and percentiles were obtained using medical records from 790 white, black, Hispanic, and Asian 11th-grade students. Contrasted with NHANES 1999-2000, this study found a higher prevalence of overweight among white males, a lower prevalence among blacks (both sexes), a lower prevalence among Hispanics than NHANES 1999-2000 found among Mexican Americans (both sexes), and a lower prevalence among all adolescents sampled. It found overweight in females highest in blacks and at risk of overweight highest among blacks and Hispanics (both sexes). Public attention should be focused on the high prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, particularly among minority high school students. Overweight and at risk of overweight students can be relatively easily identified by utilizing available medical records. Treatment and prevention efforts can then be initiated.

  16. Body weight gain and serum leptin levels of non-overweight and overweight/obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Castellano Filho, Didier Silveira; do Amaral Correa, José Otávio; Dos Santos Ramos, Plínio; de Oliveira Montessi, Marina; Aarestrup, Beatriz Julião Vieira; Aarestrup, Fernando Monteiro

    2013-11-22

    Our objective was to evaluate changes in serum leptin levels during pregnancy in overweight/obese and non-obese women and to assess total and percent weight gain during pregnancy as possible factors that influence leptin levels. In a prospective study of 42 low-risk pregnant women receiving prenatal care, we assessed serum leptin levels at gestational weeks 9-12, 25-28, and 34-37. Based on their pre-pregnancy body mass indices (BMIs), the cohort was divided into: non-overweight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) and overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) subjects. We found a progressive increase in maternal weight gain during pregnancy in both groups. There was also a progressive increase in leptin levels in the 2 strata; however, the increase was significantly higher in the non-overweight patient group. We found that non-overweight pregnant women had a noticeably larger total weight gain. When analyzing the percent weight gain during pregnancy compared to the pre-pregnancy weight, the non-overweight group had a significantly greater percent weight gain than the overweight/obese group. Our results suggest that the greater increase in leptin levels in non-overweight pregnant women can be explained by the higher percent weight gain in this group compared to overweight/obese women. These findings suggest that controlling the percent weight gain may be an important preventive measure when controlling leptin levels during pregnancy and subsequent medical complications.

  17. Overweight and Isolated: The Interpersonal Problems of Youth Who Are Overweight from Adolescence into Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Megan; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether there are particularly salient ages when being overweight is related to problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e., physical, relational, and verbal victimization, lack of friend social support, dating status, and romantic relationship worries). Participants were from a large, six-wave longitudinal…

  18. Sensitization and Habituation of Motivated Behavior in Overweight and Non-Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…

  19. Sensitization and Habituation of Motivated Behavior in Overweight and Non-Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…

  20. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  1. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  2. Overweight and obesity alters the cumulative transverse strain in the Achilles tendon immediately following exercise.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Hooper, Sue L; Grigg, Nicole L; Nolan, Gregory; Smeathers, James E

    2013-07-01

    This research evaluated the effect of obesity on the acute cumulative transverse strain of the Achilles tendon in response to exercise. Twenty healthy adult males were categorized into 'low normal-weight' (BMI <23 kg m(-2)) and 'overweight' (BMI >27.5 kg m(-2)) groups based on intermediate cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization. Longitudinal sonograms of the right Achilles tendon were acquired immediately prior and following weight-bearing ankle exercises. Achilles tendon thickness was measured 20-mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion and transverse tendon strain was calculated as the natural log of the ratio of post- to pre-exercise tendon thickness. The Achilles tendon was thicker in the overweight group both prior to (t18 = -2.91, P = 0.009) and following (t18 = -4.87, P < 0.001) exercise. The acute transverse strain response of the Achilles tendon in the overweight group (-10.7 ± 2.5%), however, was almost half that of the 'low normal-weight' (-19.5 ± 7.4%) group (t18 = -3.56, P = 0.004). These findings suggest that obesity is associated with structural changes in tendon that impairs intra-tendinous fluid movement in response to load and provides new insights into the link between tendon pathology and overweight and obesity.

  3. Children's acceptance of a peer who is overweight: relations among gender, age and blame for weight status.

    PubMed

    Iobst, E A; Ritchey, P N; Nabors, L A; Stutz, R; Ghee, K; Smith, D T

    2009-07-01

    To examine the role of blame as a mediator of the relationships between perceiver age and gender and children's acceptance of an overweight peer. Cross-sectional study of children's perceptions of their overweight peers using structural equation modeling. Two hundred and ninety-one children between the ages of 3 and 11 years. Children viewed a videotape of a same-sex peer, dressed to appear overweight, interacting with an adult. After viewing the videotape, children responded to items assessing their perceptions of the child's social and emotional traits and how much the child was to blame for being overweight.Results:Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the traits loaded on a single factor, acceptance. of analyses for our structural equation model indicated that as blame increased, acceptance of the peer decreased. The relationships between gender and blame and gender and acceptance were not significant. Children were categorized into three age groups (3-4, 5-8 and 9-11 years) to examine the influence of age. Children between 5 and 8 years of age were less likely to blame the model compared with younger and older children. Preschoolers reported the lowest acceptance, indicating a need for intervention for children in this age range. Furthermore, it will be important to conduct longitudinal studies to determine the influence of interventions as the child passes through different developmental stages.

  4. Lower Mortality Associated With Overweight in the U.S. National Health Interview Survey: Is Overweight Protective?

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Meina; Pan, Tania; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    It is still debatable whether overweight has protective or detrimental effects on survival. The focus of the ongoing debate is on possible confounding bias due to factors such as preexisting illness and smoking. We aimed to assess the association between overweight and mortality and to examine confounding effects of various factors including smoking and preexisting cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease on the overweight-mortality association in adults.The data were extracted from the public-use National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1997 to 2009. Mortality data up to December 31, 2011 were linked to 131,813 with normal weight and 120,217 overweight adults. We assessed the association between overweight and mortality using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustments for various sets of confounding factors-age, sex, smoking, race, survey year, diabetes, CVD, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease.During the period from the original surveys to December 31, 2011, 22,513 (11,815 normal weight and 10,698 overweight) adults died. Normal weight and overweight groups differed in the characteristics of age, sex, smoking, and preexisting diseases. After adjusting for age and sex, the risk of dying was lower for overweight than normal weight adults (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-0.85). Lower mortality risk associated with overweight remained after further adjusting for smoking and preexisting diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease (HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.78-0.82). We observed a similar pattern for men and women, and for those free from preexisting diabetes, hypertension, and CVD.In conclusion, overweight adults have a lower mortality risk than normal weight adults. Our findings do not support that the lower mortality in overweight adults is due to confounding effects of smoking and preexisting diseases.

  5. How to make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Deforche, Benedicte; Haerens, Leen; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    As regular physical activity of high enough intensity is essential in the management of overweight, efforts should be made to increase physical activity adherence in overweight children. To make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations, it is essential to have insight into determinants of exercise initiation and adherence. According to the Self-determination Theory, creating opportunities to satisfy the need for autonomy (i.e., having choices), competence (i.e., feeling effective) and relatedness (i.e., being socially connected) might increase autonomous motivation for physical activity in overweight children and promote a long-lasting active lifestyle. To increase feelings of autonomy in overweight children, exercise programs could be delivered in an autonomy-supportive manner by providing choices, supporting the child's initiatives, avoiding use of external rewards, offering relevant information and rationale for changing behaviour, making a decisional balance and using autonomy supportive language, while minimizing pressure and control. Perceived competence in physical activities could be increased by offering activities tailored to the capabilities of the overweight child, helping the children set realistic goals, learning the children self-management skills, providing the children with appropriate feedback and organizing separate exercise sessions for overweight children. Feelings of relatedness in overweight children might increase by adopting an empathic approach, showing interest in the child's well-being and problems, showing enjoyment and enthusiasm, knowing the names of the children, talking to the children as equals, offering group sessions and talks, encouraging club participation and having a sports partner and encouraging parental support.

  6. Promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity in overweight minority girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...

  7. Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... course it's not. If losing weight were simple, no one would be in the situation of staying overweight. ... find yourself thinking about dying or suicide. There's no doubt that being overweight can be hard, both physically and emotionally. But there ... For Teens For Kids For ...

  8. The Role of School Health Professionals in Preventing Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Virginia; Lear, Julia; Eichner, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    For more than a decade, researchers, and increasingly the public, have focused on childhood overweight as a personal and public health problem. As the number of children who are overweight has continued to grow, consensus has emerged that schools, as the places where children spend much of their time, have a critical role to play in reversing this…

  9. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  10. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  11. Reducing Overweight and Obesity among Elementary Students in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…

  12. Bulimia nervosa in overweight and normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin; White, Marney A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (n = 1964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25) or normal weight (body mass index <25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal-weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs 7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n = 84) were classified as overweight BN and 36% (n = 47) as normal-weight BN. The overweight BN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities and reported significantly less restraint than the normal-weight BN group. Otherwise, the 2 groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal-weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders.

  13. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  14. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  15. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  16. Development of Self-Body-Esteem in Overweight Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano

    1985-01-01

    Examined development of self-body-esteem and relation between self-esteem and body-esteem in overweight and normal weight boys and girls in three age groups. Results were interpreted in terms of age differences in subjects and possible social influences in development of self-esteem in overweight youngsters. (Author/DST)

  17. Development of Self-Body-Esteem in Overweight Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano

    1985-01-01

    Examined development of self-body-esteem and relation between self-esteem and body-esteem in overweight and normal weight boys and girls in three age groups. Results were interpreted in terms of age differences in subjects and possible social influences in development of self-esteem in overweight youngsters. (Author/DST)

  18. Overweight, obesity, youth, and health-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. Although the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well documented, comparatively less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health-risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. This study aims to examine the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence, and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11-17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005-2006 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: Frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas these behaviors were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons compared to boys of normal weight. Overweight and obese young people are at risk of developing health-compromising behaviors that may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  20. Disparities in Overweight and Obesity among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…

  1. Disparities in Overweight and Obesity among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…

  2. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.

  3. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  4. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  5. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children. PMID:26973939

  6. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  7. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  8. Reducing Overweight and Obesity among Elementary Students in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…

  9. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  10. Thyroid dysfunction in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Witkowska-Sędek, Ewelina; Kucharska, Anna; Rumińska, Małgorzata; Pyrżak, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and thyroid function are closely related. Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, thermogenesis, food intake, and fat oxidation. In obese children the most frequent hormonal abnormalities are slight hyperthyrotropinaemia and moderate increases in total T3 and/or fT3 concentrations. Those abnormalities are usually considered a cause of obesity, but according to recent studies, they should actually be considered an adaptation process aimed at increasing resting energy expenditure and total energy expenditure. Those abnormalities do not require any treatment and normalise after substantial weight loss. The mechanisms of those changes are dependent on leptin, thyroid hormone resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The present paper describes the abovementioned mechanisms based on the latest research. We also present a review of some recent original studies evaluating thyroid function in overweight and obese children, including thyroid ultrasound. A thyroid ultrasound scan in obese children frequently shows increased thyroid volume, which correlates with moderately increased TSH levels and a hypoechoic pattern typical of autoimmune thyroiditis, but without antithyroid autoantibodies. Alterations of thyroid function in overweight and obese patients cause an increase in energy expenditure, which facilitates weight loss and prevents further weight gain. Therefore, normalisation of TSH and fT3 after weight loss could explain difficulties in maintaining reduced weight. (Endokrynol Pol 2017; 68 (1): 54-60).

  11. Long–Term Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Differing in Glycemic Load on Metabolic Adaptation and Body Composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A randomized controlled trial of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets with food provided for 6 months and self-administered for 6 additional months at 30% caloric restriction (CR) was performed in 29 overweight adults (mean+/-SD, age 35+/-5y; BMI 27.5+/-1.5 kg/m2). Total energy e...

  12. Understanding overweight adolescents' beliefs using the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Debra R; Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi; Penprase, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined adolescents' experiences surrounding their beliefs towards being overweight. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand behavioural, normative and control beliefs of overweight adolescents regarding losing weight, exercising and eating healthy. Purposive sampling was used to obtain 10 overweight adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19. The theory of planned behaviour was used as a theoretical framework for this study. An interview guide based on the Theory of Planned was used to conduct individual semistructured interviews. Content analysis showed that overweight adolescents exhibited positive attitudes in dealing with their weight status and valued their family's support and guidance in helping control their weight. Although friends were important to facilitate regular exercise, families, particularly mothers, were crucial in addressing healthy eating habits. Understanding the subtleties and complexities of living with childhood overweight might assist health professionals in creating more effective and developmentally sensitive interventions.

  13. Emotional, external, restrained eating and overweight in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; van Strien, Tatjana; Janssens, Jan M A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how emotional, external and restrained eating behavior and other health-related lifestyle factors were associated with being overweight in adolescents. Moreover, demographic and ethnic differences in eating behavior have been examined. The respondents were 10,087 Dutch adolescents aged 11-16 years (M= 13.0, SD= 0.8). Self-reported eating behavior was measured with the DEBQ. Health-related lifestyle was determined by physical activity, breakfasting, fruit consumption and snacking. High restrained, and low external eating were positively associated with being overweight, whereas no significant association between emotional eating and being overweight was found for girls, and a negative association for boys. Adolescents who ate breakfast on a daily basis were less likely to be overweight than those who ate breakfast irregularly or never. Being overweight was positively associated with fruit consumption for girls and negatively with physical activity for boys.

  14. Overweight and obesity in Slovenian schoolgirls, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Leskosek, Bojan; Strel, Janko; Kovac, Marjeta

    2010-12-01

    The proportion of overweight children and adults has been growing rapidly in the last few years in many European and other countries. Certain consequences of overweight are already manifested in youth; in adulthood they are one of the main causes of death and several diseases. The study examined the proportion of overweight and obese Slovenian girls aged 7 to 18 with the use of an annually repeated cross-sectional study. The study lasted from 1991 to 2006 and was based on the body mass index according to IOTF norms. The results show that in this period the proportion of overweight girls increased by almost 30% (from 13.5% to 18.8%), whereas the proportion of obese girls doubled (from 2.3% to 4.6%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is highest in childhood and early adolescence where it is around two to three times higher than at the age of 18.

  15. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  16. The Trochanteric Localization is a Mediator of Slower Short-Term Functional Recovery in Overweight and Obese Elderly Women with Recent Hip Fracture: The BREAK Study.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Stefania; Siviero, Paola; Maggi, Stefania; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2015-12-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study, carried out on elderly Italian women with recent hip fracture, was to assess the extent to which the effect of a condition of being overweight/obese on short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the "time to permitted load" could be explained by a mediator variable (type of hip fracture). We studied 727 women aged 60 years or over with a recent low trauma surgically treated hip fracture and for whom an information on post-surgery complications and on the time to permitted load was available. To assess for mediation, the statistical analyses were carried out following the procedure described by Baron and Kenny. In this study, 46 % of women with hip fracture presented a time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days. The women with a post-surgery time to permitted load of ≥ 10 days showed a significantly higher proportion of trochanteric fracture localization (72.1 vs 42 %), of total overweight/obesity (46.5 vs 36.8 %) and of post-surgery complications (38.8 vs 18.8 %). The mediating effect of hip fracture localization on the association between overweight/obesity and the time of permitted load was demonstrated and confirmed in a multivariate logistic regression model. This study, carried out using a "mediator" statistical analysis, suggests that in elderly women with hip fracture being overweight/obese is associated with a slower short-term functional recovery as evaluated by the time to permitted load and that this association is mediated by the trochanteric localization of hip fracture.

  17. Sexual dysfunction in obese and overweight women.

    PubMed

    Yaylali, G F; Tekekoglu, S; Akin, F

    2010-01-01

    Both overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men, but the relationship between sexual function and amount of body fat in females is still obscure. There are few reported studies in women assessing the relationship between female sexual function index (FSFI) and body weight. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among obese and overweight women. A total of 45 obese and overweight and 30 age-matched voluntary healthy women serving as a control group were evaluated by a detailed medical and sexual history, including the FSFI questionnaire. Serum prolactin, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-SO(4) (DHEA-S), testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. No significant difference was observed between controls and patients in terms of the FSH, LH, estradiol, free thyroxine and thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone and DHEA-S levels. The comparison of total FSFI scores between patients and controls showed no significant difference (P=0.74). As the FSFI score of

  18. Load management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ian

    The development of the Electrical Load Management System (ELMS) for the Boeing 777 aircraft is reviewed. The discussion covers the overall design of the system, its principal components, and the functions it provides. Some of the additional system drivers, such as autoland electrical system partitioning and dispatch reliability, are outlined, and their effect on the system architecture is examined. The key technologies used in the development of the ELMS include smart high power contactors, ARING 629 data buses, the Motorola 68020 processor combined with Ada software, dedicated ASICs, and modular architecture for improved maintainability.

  19. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics.

  20. Metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Masao; Tanaka, Satoru; Shimago, Atsushi; Sameshima, Koji; Nishi, Junichiro; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Hashiguchi, Jun; Ichiki, Takeo; Shimizu, Shinichiro

    2005-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of and sex differences related to the metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight elementary school children. Subjects were 471 overweight or obese Japanese children. Children meeting at least three of the following five criteria qualified as having the metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and high fasting glucose levels. Fasting insulin levels were also examined. Japanese obese children were found to have a significantly lower prevalence (17.7%) of the metabolic syndrome than U.S. obese adolescents (28.7%, p = 0.0014). However, Japanese overweight children had a similar incidence (8.7%) of the metabolic syndrome compared with U.S. overweight adolescents (6.8%). Hyperinsulinemia in girls and abdominal obesity in boys are characteristic features of individual metabolic syndrome factors in Japanese children. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is not lower in preteen Japanese overweight children than in U.S. overweight adolescents, although it is significantly lower in Japanese obese preteen children than in U.S. obese adolescents. Primary and secondary interventions are needed for overweight preteen children in Japan.

  1. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.

  2. Bulimia nervosa in overweight and normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Masheb, R. M.; White, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (N=1,964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (BMI>=25) or normal weight (BMI<25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs.7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n=84) were classified as overweight BN (OBN) and 36% (n=47) as normal weight BN. The OBN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities, and reported significantly less restraint than the normal weight BN group. Otherwise, the two groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two-thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21550028

  3. Impacts of classifying New York City students as overweight.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Lee, Ajin; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-03-29

    US schools increasingly report body mass index (BMI) to students and their parents in annual fitness "report cards." We obtained 3,592,026 BMI reports for New York City public school students for 2007-2012. We focus on female students whose BMI puts them close to their age-specific cutoff for categorization as overweight. Overweight students are notified that their BMI "falls outside a healthy weight" and they should review their BMI with a health care provider. Using a regression discontinuity design, we compare those classified as overweight but near to the overweight cutoff to those whose BMI narrowly earned them a "healthy" BMI grouping. We find that overweight categorization generates small impacts on girls' subsequent BMI and weight. Whereas presumably an intent of BMI report cards was to slow BMI growth among heavier students, BMIs and weights did not decline relative to healthy peers when assessed the following academic year. Our results speak to the discrete categorization as overweight for girls with BMIs near the overweight cutoff, not to the overall effect of BMI reporting in New York City.

  4. Growth and development of overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of development of obesity during childhood and adolescence is unclear, hindering preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in growth and tempo of maturation between overweight or obese and normal weight girls. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. The height and body mass were measured and the BMI was calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. Underweight, overweight and obesity were assessed using the international BMI cut points, defined by Cole et al. Girls in higher BMI categories at 7 years had significantly higher values of BMI at 9, 14 and 16-18 years of age, however only 10% of them were also overweight or obese at youth. Overweight and obese girls tend to lose body weight after the puberty period, whereas normal weight children tend to gain body weight. Overweight and obese children were significantly taller than their peers at 7, 9 and 14 years. Those differences vanished after the puberty period. The rate of height gain between ages 7 and 16-18 years was lower in girls with higher BMI values at childhood. Girls, those who were overweight or obese at young age experience menarche at a younger age than normal weight girls. The obtained data show that overweight and obesity in childhood is associated with rapid tempo of growth and maturity.

  5. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bradley J; Wilson, Louise F; Olsen, Catherine M; Webb, Penelope M; Neale, Rachel E; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the proportion and number of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to overweight/obesity. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of cancers causally associated with overweight/obesity. We used standard formulae incorporating Australian prevalence data for body mass index (BMI), relative risks associated with BMI and cancer. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that may have occurred assuming that the prevalence of overweight/obesity had remained at 1990 levels. An estimated 3,917 cancer cases (3.4% of all cancers) diagnosed in 2010 were attributable to overweight/obesity, including 1,101 colon cancers, 971 female post-menopausal breast cancers and 595 endometrial cancers (PAFs of 10%, 8% and 26%, respectively). Highest PAFs were observed for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (31%), endometrial cancer (26%) and kidney cancer (19%). If the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Australia had remained at levels prevailing in 1990, we estimate there would have been 820 fewer cancers diagnosed in 2010 (PIF 2%). Overweight/obesity causes a substantial number of cancers in Australia. Public health strategies to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity will reduce the incidence of cancer, particularly of the colon, breast and endometrium. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Bradley J; Wilson, Louise F; Olsen, Catherine M; Webb, Penelope M; Neale, Rachel E; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to overweight/obesity. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of cancers causally associated with overweight/obesity. We used standard formulae incorporating Australian prevalence data for body mass index (BMI), relative risks associated with BMI and cancer. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that may have occurred assuming that the prevalence of overweight/obesity had remained at 1990 levels. Results An estimated 3,917 cancer cases (3.4% of all cancers) diagnosed in 2010 were attributable to overweight/obesity, including 1,101 colon cancers, 971 female post-menopausal breast cancers and 595 endometrial cancers (PAFs of 10%, 8% and 26%, respectively). Highest PAFs were observed for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (31%), endometrial cancer (26%) and kidney cancer (19%). If the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Australia had remained at levels prevailing in 1990, we estimate there would have been 820 fewer cancers diagnosed in 2010 (PIF 2%). Conclusions Overweight/obesity causes a substantial number of cancers in Australia. Implications Public health strategies to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity will reduce the incidence of cancer, particularly of the colon, breast and endometrium. PMID:26437731

  7. Parental recognition of overweight in school-age children.

    PubMed

    West, Delia S; Raczynski, James M; Phillips, Martha M; Bursac, Zoran; Heath Gauss, C; Montgomery, Brooke E E

    2008-03-01

    Examine the accuracy of parental weight perceptions of overweight children before and after the implementation of childhood obesity legislation that included BMI screening and feedback. Statewide telephone surveys of parents of overweight (BMI > or = 85th percentile) Arkansas public school children before (n = 1,551; 15% African American) and after (n = 2,508; 15% African American) policy implementation were examined for correspondence between parental perception of child's weight and objective classification. Most (60%) parents of overweight children underestimated weight at baseline. Parents of younger children were significantly more likely to underestimate (65%) than parents of adolescents (51%). Overweight parents were not more likely to underestimate, nor was inaccuracy associated with parental education or socioeconomic status. African-American parents were twice as likely to underestimate as whites. One year after BMI screening and feedback was implemented, the accuracy of classification of overweight children improved (53% underestimation). African-American parents had significantly greater improvements than white parents (P < 0.0001). Parental recognition of childhood overweight may be improved with BMI screening and feedback, and African-American parents may specifically benefit. Nonetheless, underestimation of overweight is common and may have implications for public health interventions.

  8. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  9. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Rebecca K; Magnussen, Costan G; Sabin, Matthew A; Cheung, Michael; Juonala, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more aggressive pharmacological treatments. Limitations in the literature relate to the paucity of studies reporting specific effects for the adolescent age group of overweight and obese individuals. Nonetheless, intervention for adiposity-related hypertension in adolescence may partially mitigate some of the cardiovascular risk in adulthood. PMID:26543386

  10. Water turnover assessment in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Bláthnaid N; Weinheimer, Eileen M; Martin, Berdine R; Weaver, Connie M; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-02-01

    Adequate intake (AI) standards for water in adolescents range between 2.4-3.3 l/day for males and 2.1-2.3 l/day for females, independent of obesity status. Water intakes and excretions of this population are not well documented. The purposes of this study were to assess water turnover, inputs, and outputs in overweight adolescents, compare these parameters between males and females, and evaluate the reproducibility of water turnover. Eighteen girls (BMI 31.7 ± 4 kg/m(2); mean ± s.d.) and nine boys (BMI 26.3 ± 3 kg/m(2)) aged 12-15 years completed two 3-week metabolic balance trials. Rate of water turnover (rH(2)O) was measured by tracking the decline of deuterated water from the body over 14 days. Water inputs (diet*, ad libitum(#), metabolic(#)) and outputs (urine*, feces*, insensible(#)) were assessed (*measured, #estimated). rH(2)O was lower (P = 0.002) in girls vs. boys (3,742 ± 536 vs. 4,537 ± 623 g/day). Per kg body weight, rH(2)O was 28% lower in girls vs. boys (46 ± 7 vs. 64 ± 9 g·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Water input from food and beverages provided and metabolic production were 44 and 28% lower, respectively, in girls vs. boys. Urine and insensible water losses were 21 and 17% lower in girls vs. boys. BMI was positively associated with water turnover in both sexes (girls P = 0.037; boys P = 0.014). The intraclass correlation of rH(2)O between trials was 0.981 (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these overweight adolescents consumed water well in excess of sex-specific AI standards. The lower rH(2)O in girls compared to boys is consistent with adult females and males.

  11. [Overweight and obesity: review and update].

    PubMed

    Sarmiento Quintero, Fernando; Ariza, Adolfo J; Barboza García, Fabiola; Canal de Molano, Nelly; Castro Benavides, Mayra; Cruchet Muñoz, Sylvia; Delgado Carbajal, Laura; Dewaele Olivera, María Rita; Fernández, Adriana; Heller, Solange; Ladino Meléndez, Liliana; Martínez, Sonia Miriam; Mayor Oxilia, Rosa; Mejía Castro, Milton; Montero Brens, Carlos; Sanabria, Marta Cristina; Tarazona Cote, María Consuelo; Vera Chamorro, José Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an epidemic with important health repercussions in addition to high treatment-related costs. Between 2006 and 2007 the WHO developed new assessment tools, which aren't being globally used. In fact, there is no unified problem management across the hemisphere. To update obesity epidemiology, to promote application of WHO’s standards, to review new findings on physiopathology (i.e., fatty tissue as endocrine organ, intestinal microbiota), to update epidemiological information, and to provide management guidelines that can be integrated in clinical care. LAPSGHAN called up its members to collaborate in preparing this review article under the direction of an editor/coordinator, who selected the contents and literature with the best evidencetogether with the members. Each member prepared a separate document for each content. The chosen contents were later collated, unified, and edited. Results. This documents highlights the following: 1) Although extreme obesity is increasing in the US, overweight and obesity prevalence has stabilized, while in other countries it is alarmingly increasing; 2) New information regarding role of fatty tissue as endocrine organ and self-regulator of obesity; 3) The promising role of microbiota; and 4) Guidelines for children handling during consultation and follow-up. There is no widespread implementation of standards and guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO). There is no agreement as to whether z-scores or percentiles should be used, especially regarding children under 2 due to their changing body complexion. The most accepted tool to assess overweight, obesity and severe obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI). This document provides recommendations on how to approach clinical care with affected children.

  12. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the longer-term risk that obese children and adolescents will become obese adults and suffer other health problems as a result. Daniels notes that many obesity-related health conditions once thought applicable only to adults are now being seen in children and with increasing frequency. Examples include high blood pressure, early symptoms of hardening of the arteries, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disorder, and disordered breathing during sleep. He systematically surveys the body's systems, showing how obesity in adulthood can damage each and how childhood obesity exacerbates the damage. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes. Daniels shows how much the same generalization applies to other obesity-related disorders-metabolic, digestive, respiratory, skeletal, and psychosocial-that are appearing in children either for the first time or with greater severity or prevalence. Daniels notes that the possibility has even been raised that the increasing prevalence and severity of childhood obesity may reverse the modern era's steady increase in life expectancy, with today's youth on average living less healthy and ultimately shorter lives than their parents-the first such reversal in lifespan in modern history. Such a possibility, he concludes, makes obesity in children an

  13. Parenting styles and overweight status in first grade.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung E; Lumeng, Julie C; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Bradley, Robert H

    2006-06-01

    The goal was to determine the relationship between the 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and overweight status in first grade. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Children with complete data for parenting parameters at 54 months and measured weight and height in first grade were included in the analysis. Overweight was defined as BMI of > or =95th percentile. The 4 parenting styles were constructed with 2 scales, namely, maternal sensitivity and maternal expectations for child self-control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between parenting style and overweight in first grade, controlling for gender, race, maternal education, income/needs ratio, marital status, and child behavior problems. A total of 872 children, 11.1% overweight and 82.8% white, were included in the analysis. Children of authoritarian mothers (n = 298) had an increased risk of being overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers (n = 179). Children of permissive (n = 132) and neglectful (n = 263) mothers were twice as likely to be overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers. Of the covariates, only income/needs ratio was significant and did not alter the relationship between parenting style and overweight risk. Among the 4 parenting styles, authoritarian parenting was associated with the highest risk of overweight among young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which parenting styles are associated with overweight risk may lead to the development of more-comprehensive and better-targeted interventions.

  14. Binge Eating and Overweight and Obesity Among Young Adult Lesbians.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2016-12-01

    Lesbians are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, but little research has examined correlates of obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of binge eating and overweight and obesity among lesbians. Self-identified lesbians (N = 377) between the ages of 18-30 completed an online survey. Binge eating was a salient predictor of both overweight and obesity after controlling for demographic variables, outness, diet, and physical activity. Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should assess binge eating behaviors as a possible contributor to overweight and obesity.

  15. Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Anger Expression Among Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Colleen A.; Davis, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight, sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children. PMID:19168916

  16. Aerobic exercise program reduces anger expression among overweight children.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Boyle, Collen A; Davis, Catherine L

    2008-11-01

    This study tested the effect of a structured aerobic exercise program on anger expression in healthy overweight children. Overweight sedentary children were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise program or a no-exercise control condition. All children completed the Pediatric Anger Expression Scale at baseline and posttest. Anger Out and Anger Expression scores were lower for the exercise condition at posttest. Fitness improvements contributed significantly to final models, and points earned for adherence correlated negatively with posttest Anger Out. An aerobic exercise program might be an effective strategy to reduce anger expression, including reduction of aggressive behavior, in overweight children.

  17. A framework for physician assistant intervention for overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Lawrence; McGinnity, John G; Doll, Michael; Peterson, Eric D; Russell, Amanda; Largay, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Overweight and obesity compose a chronic disease process of epidemic proportions that presents on a continuum, likely affecting nearly two out of every three patients treated by physician assistants (PAs). However, meaningful and actionable definitions, including but not limited to anthropometric and clinical descriptors, are needed. The effective treatment of overweight and obesity requires an efficient and timely process of screening, diagnosis, evaluation of complications, staging, and clear algorithmic management. PAs are trained as primary care providers and can diagnose and treat overweight and obese patients regardless of practice setting and across the spectrum of the disease and patient's age.

  18. Parenting an Overweight or Obese Teen: Issues and Advice from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…

  19. Parenting an Overweight or Obese Teen: Issues and Advice from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…

  20. Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some teens who are overweight get teased, and bullying can be a real problem. It's just another ... a few true friends can help buffer any bullying or demeaning comments. But what about when friends ...

  1. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems that might become permanent if not treated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . Girls who are overweight may miss periods — or ... hair growth, worsening acne, and male-type baldness. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, a precursor to ...

  2. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  3. Applying motivational interviewing to counselling overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Lena Lindhe; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group interviews concerning their experiences with applying MI to counselling overweight and obese children. Important barriers were nurses' lack of recognition that overweight and obesity among children constitute a health problem, problem ambivalence among nurses who felt that children's weight might be a problem although there was no immediate motivation to do anything and parents who the nurses believed were unmotivated to deal with their children's weight problem. Facilitators included nurses' recognition of the advantages of MI, parents who were cooperative and aware of the health problem and working with obese children rather than those who were overweight.

  4. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Calleja-Castillo, Juan; Corona, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p<0.001). In the PD Group, two patients were underweight, 32.7% were within normal range, 46.9% had overweight, and 19.2% were obese. Overweight and normal weight were more prevalent in the PD Group (p=<0.01 and <0.001, respectively) when compared to controls. In conclusion, overweight/obesity are common among patients with PD, while underweight is almost negligible.

  5. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Being Overweight Obesity is bad news for both body and mind. Not only can it make someone feel tired ...

  6. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  7. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  8. Celiac disease and overweight in children: an update.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Antonella; Capriati, Teresa; Basso, Maria Sole; Panetta, Fabio; Di Ciommo Laurora, Vincenzo Maria; Bellucci, Francesca; Cristofori, Fernanda; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2014-01-02

    The clinical presentation of celiac disease in children is very variable and differs with age. The prevalence of atypical presentations of celiac disease has increased over the past 2 decades. Several studies in adults and children with celiac disease indicate that obesity/overweight at disease onset is not unusual. In addition, there is a trend towards the development of overweight/obesity in celiac patients who strictly comply with a gluten-free diet. However, the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the coexistence of classic malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease) and overweight/obesity remain unclear. This review investigated the causes and main clinical factors associated with overweight/obesity at the diagnosis of celiac disease and clarified whether gluten withdrawal affects the current trends of the nutritional status of celiac disease patients.

  9. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Eastin, Matthew; Hofschire, Linda; Lachlan, Ken; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television. Five episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999-2000 season were quantitatively analyzed. Of 1018 major television characters, 14% of females and 24% of males were overweight or obese, less than half their percentages in the general population. Overweight and obese females were less likely to be considered attractive, to interact with romantic partners, or to display physical affection. Overweight and obese males were less likely to interact with romantic partners and friends or to talk about dating and were more likely to be shown eating. Overweight and obese television characters are associated with specific negative characteristics.

  10. Portrayals of Overweight and Obese Individuals on Commercial Television

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; Eastin, Matthew; Hofschire, Linda; Lachlan, Ken; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television. Methods. Five episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999–2000 season were quantitatively analyzed. Results. Of 1018 major television characters, 14% of females and 24% of males were overweight or obese, less than half their percentages in the general population. Overweight and obese females were less likely to be considered attractive, to interact with romantic partners, or to display physical affection. Overweight and obese males were less likely to interact with romantic partners and friends or to talk about dating and were more likely to be shown eating. Conclusions. Overweight and obese television characters are associated with specific negative characteristics. PMID:12893625

  11. Alarming high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.

  12. New directions for the study of overweight.

    PubMed

    Allan, J D

    1998-02-01

    and associations of anthropometric and psychosocial variables with feelings about weight. Her work adds to our understanding about critical periods and risks for weight gain. Allan (1998, in this issue), in a study of African American, Euro-American, and Mexican American women, reports women's explanatory models of overweight and the congruence of these models with professional models and recommendations for treatment for overweight. Her research contributes needed understandings of how high-risk populations view overweight, how participants' lifestyles and situations influence their ideas about weight, and how these perspectives influence efforts to control weight. Nursing needs to continue to refine and rethink what constitutes research on weight. This special issue offers some examples of scholars attempting to trailblaze new directions in nursing weight research. One thrust has been the significant attention on weight as a focus of investigation and not just as one of several health behaviors. A second and equally compelling area of inquiry has been the explicit attention directed to studying people of color, especially women, within the social context of their lives. Because ethnicity, social status, and gender are inextricably intertwined with health, one challenge is to try to understand weight issues through an ethnic, gender, and social status lens. Researchers who embrace this paradigm refuse to look at weight as a homogeneous condition but focus their attention instead on specific subgroups in the population without making middle-class Euro-Americans the norm. The number of researchers who are examining connections between ethnicity and social status and weight is growing. The complexity of weight-health promotion requires that we not only boldly examine weight in relationship to the individual in context but also explicate the macroenvironmental influences on weight. More needs to be done to translate findings from this body of research into better models

  13. Breast-feeding and overweight in Singapore school children.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop; Chong, Yap-Seng; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang Mei

    2009-10-01

    Studies from developed Western countries have shown inconsistent associations between breast-feeding and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. Few data are available from Asian populations. The purpose of the present study was therefore to evaluate the association between breast-feeding and overweight/obesity in a study of 10-12-year-old children in Singapore. A total of 797 school children (49% girls, 76% Chinese) who participated in the Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM) were examined. Overweight/obesity (n = 179) was defined as age-sex-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-offs corresponding to BMI of 25 kg/m(2) for overweight and 30 kg/m(2) for obesity at age 18 based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) reference. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.5%. Overall, breast-feeding was not found to be associated with overweight/obesity. After adjusting for potential confounders, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of overweight/obesity was 1.14 (0.80-1.63) for ever breast-fed compared with never breast-fed, 1.00 (0.57-1.72) for breast-fed for >3 months compared to < or =3 months and 0.79 (0.47-1.34) for exclusive/mostly breast-fed compared to partly breast-fed. No significant associations were detected among breast-feeding, its type, and duration with overweight/obesity in this Asian cohort of 10-12-year-old children.

  14. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vicente, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight) and perirenal fat thickness (5%). Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%), but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males.

  15. Asthma and overweight/obese: double trouble for urban children.

    PubMed

    Wiesenthal, Elise N; Fagnano, Maria; Cook, Stephen; Halterman, Jill S

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of overweight/obese versus normal weight on symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization among a group of urban children with persistent asthma. Data were obtained from the School Based Asthma Therapy trial. We enrolled 530 children ages 3-10 with persistent asthma from 2006 to 2009 (response rate: 74%). We conducted in-home interviews to assess symptoms and health care utilization. We measured height and weight in school nurse offices to determine BMI percentile, and compared normal weight children to overweight/obese (BMI >85th percentile) children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. We collected BMI data from 472 children (89%); 49% were overweight/obese. When controlling for child race, child ethnicity, intervention group, caregiver age and screen time, overweight/obese children had more days with asthma symptoms (4.25 versus 3.42/2 weeks, p = 0.035) and more activity limitation (3.43 versus 2.55/2 weeks, p = 0.013) compared to normal weight children. Overweight/obese children were more likely to have had an ED visit or hospitalization for any reason (47% versus 36%, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01, 2.19), and there was a trend for overweight/obese children to have more acute asthma visits in the past year (1.68 versus 1.31, p = 0.090). Overweight/obese children were not more likely to be taking a daily preventive inhaled corticosteroid (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.68, 1.56). Overweight/obese children with persistent asthma experience more asthma symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization compared to normal weight children, with no increased use of inhaled corticosteroids. Further efforts are needed to improve the health of these children.

  16. Parental work schedules and child overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Champion, S L; Rumbold, A R; Steele, E J; Giles, L C; Davies, M J; Moore, V M

    2012-04-01

    Studies in school-age children have consistently shown a positive association between maternal paid work hours and child obesity. However, there is conflicting evidence about the impact of maternal work hours scheduled at nonstandard times (for example, evenings, nights or weekends), and no previous examination of paternal work schedules and child weight. We examined the associations between maternal, paternal and combined parental paid work schedules and overweight/obesity in children at age 9 years. Data were analysed from the most recent follow-up of 9-year-old children (n=434) in an Australian birth cohort study. Children were measured and classified as overweight/obese using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cutoff points. Current working conditions of parents were obtained from a structured interview with the primary caregiver. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of parental work schedules on child overweight/obesity with adjustment for a range of sociodemographic and household factors associated with parental employment and child weight. At 9 years of age, 99 children (22.8%) were overweight or obese. When parental work schedules were examined separately, child overweight/obesity was significantly associated with paternal nonstandard work schedules (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-3.61). There was no association with any type of maternal work schedule. We also found an association between child overweight/obesity and circumstances in which both parents worked nonstandard schedules; however, this was of borderline statistical significance in the adjusted models (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 0.99-5.16). Work hours scheduled at nonstandard times, when worked by the father or both parents, were associated with child overweight and obesity. These findings indicate the potential importance of fathers' paid work arrangements for child overweight/obesity, which until recently has largely

  17. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight) and perirenal fat thickness (5%). Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%), but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males. PMID:28700645

  18. Breast-feeding history and overweight in Latino preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Margaret; Lipton, Rebecca; Sanchez-Rosado, Monica; Kumar, Jessica; Thisted, Ronald; Lantos, John D

    2005-01-01

    Describe the relationship between breast-feeding history and risk of overweight in the preschool years in a sample of primarily Mexican-origin Latinos. Children's breast-feeding history, health history, and demographics were obtained in interviewer-administered questionnaires of a convenience sample of 364 parents of children ages 2-5 in an outpatient clinic waiting room serving a predominantly Mexican immigrant population in a large Midwestern city. Child weight status was determined by weighing and measuring each child and calculating age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentile using 2000 Centers for Disease Control reference values, with children > or =95th percentile defined as overweight. Seventy-six of 364 children (21%) were overweight. Eighty-seven percent of children had been breast-fed. Increased duration of breast-feeding was associated with a linearly decreased risk of overweight in bivariate analysis, ranging from an overweight prevalence of 35% for those never breast-fed to 12% for those breast-fed for at least a year. This inverse relationship remained significant in the smaller sample for which maternal BMI data were available (n = 127), as each additional month of breast-feeding was associated with a 10% decreased odds ratio (OR) of overweight (adjusted OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.99) after controlling for child's sex, current age, prematurity, birth-weight category, maternal education level, and maternal weight status. This sample of children of Mexican-origin immigrant families had high rates of overweight at very young ages but also very high rates of breast-feeding. Duration of breast-feeding was strongly and inversely related with prevalence of overweight as a preschooler.

  19. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  20. Perceptions of overweight in US and global cultures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William G; Bluestein, Bess B; Dasilva, Fernanda; Moubray, Nataliya I; Orton, Maggie L; Balagaye, Herieth; Paredes, Karina Franco; Kim, Mirihae

    2015-04-01

    We explored the hypothesis that perceptions of overweight vary in accord with the prevalence of overweight in specific populations. The present study investigated this relationship in samples from diverse groups in the US and four other countries. The perceptual threshold for overweight is the scalar point at which individuals determine the transition from normal to overweight. Perceptual thresholds for overweight were obtained from 812 adults in Korea, Mexico, Ukraine, Tanzania, and the US (Black, Hispanic, White and college student samples). A linear relationship was observed between the perceptual threshold for overweight and the population prevalence (r=0.52, adjusted R(2)=0.22, F (1/15)=5.24, p<.05), and this relationship was considerably stronger in the non-US samples. This finding links with the results of other studies documenting the influence of the social environment on both weight perception and weight transmission. Together, they suggest that the socio-cultural milieu and weight norms are components of the obesogenic environment and argue for the inclusion of weight norm interventions in weight management programs and public health initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overweight in elderly people induces impaired autophagy in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Potes, Yaiza; de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Rodriguez-González, Susana; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Solano, Juan J; Fernández-Fernández, María; Bermúdez, Manuel; Boga, Jose A; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; Coto-Montes, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting. Protein turnover is regulated by a network of signaling pathways. Muscle damage derived from overweight displayed by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces inflammation and insulin resistance and forces the muscle to increase requirements from autophagy mechanisms. Our findings showed that failure of autophagy in the elderly deprives it to deal with the cell damage caused by overweight. This insufficiently efficient autophagy leads to an accumulation of p62 and NBR1, which are robust markers of protein aggregations. This impaired autophagy affects myogenesis activity. Depletion of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) without links to variations in myostatin levels in overweight patients suggest a possible reduction of satellite cells in muscle tissue, which contributes to declined muscle quality. This discovery has important implications that improve the understanding of aged-related atrophy caused by overweight and demonstrates how impaired autophagy is one of the main responsible mechanisms that aggravate muscle wasting. Therefore, autophagy could be an interesting target for therapeutic interventions in humans against muscle impairment diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The overweight: a rare presentation of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Capriati, T; Francavilla, R; Ferretti, F; Castellaneta, S; Ancinelli, M; Diamanti, A

    2016-02-01

    We describe the nutritional status of a cohort of celiac disease (CD) children at presentation and during follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD). Two Italian centers (Rome and Bari) prospectively enrolled 445 biopsy-confirmed CD children, diagnosed between 2009 and 2013. Body Mass Index was used as a measure of nutritional status according to Italian growth charts of Cacciari. The overweight/obese subject was 7.8% at onset and did not significantly increase during follow-up (9.8% at final assessment). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher among males than females. Furthermore, overweight/obesity children as compared with those with normal weight were significantly older and had significantly lower levels of tTG antibodies. This study shows that some CD children are obese/overweight at diagnosis; therefore, overweight/obesity can be considered a rare but a possible mode of CD presentation. Thus, CD diagnosis must be considered even in overweight/obese children where this diagnosis can be easily missed.

  3. Decreased scholastic achievement in overweight middle school students.

    PubMed

    Shore, Stuart M; Sachs, Michael L; Lidicker, Jeffrey R; Brett, Stephanie N; Wright, Adam R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether overweight students achieved a lower relative degree of scholastic achievement compared to nonoverweight students. Subjects consisted of 6th and 7th grade students enrolled in a large public middle school in a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We compared grade point averages (GPAs), nationally standardized reading scores, school detentions, school suspensions, school attendance, tardiness to school, physical fitness test scores, and participation on school athletic teams among nonoverweight, at risk for overweight, and overweight students. Overweight students achieved lower grades (P<0.001) and lower physical fitness scores (P<0.0001) than their nonoverweight peers. Overweight students demonstrated a 0.4 letter grade lower GPA (on a 4.00 scale) and 11% lower national percentile reading scores than their nonoverweight peers. The overweight students also demonstrated significantly more detentions, worsened school attendance, more tardiness to school, and less participation on school athletic teams than their nonoverweight peers. Our study suggests that body mass is an important indicator of scholastic achievement, attendance, behavior, and physical fitness among middle school students, reiterating the need for healthy lifestyle intervention and prevention measures.

  4. [The role of risk propensity in smokers and overweight people].

    PubMed

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of the link associating the risk propensity of smoking and overweight. For example, a person who is a smoker and obese does not have to be more prone to risk than another person who is obese and a non-smoker. The data was taken from the German Questionnaire on Personality and Daily (Cross section for the period 2005). This questionnaire was selected because it collects individual data on the sociodemographic characteristic, behaviours, risk attitudes, lottery games, and health status. Our main contribution is to analyse the role of risk propensity taking into account smoking and overweight. Risk propensity encourages smoking, and to smoke and be overweight are positively associated. When the role of the unobserved characteristics are greater, the lower is the correlation between smoking and overweight. Although the risk propensity is an important determining factor of individual behaviour (smoking and overweight), its inclusion does not decrease the influence of personal circumstances and conditions. The need to define other measurements to be able to analyse the risk propensity of risk specific to risk behaviour is also highlighted. To reduce the number of smokers would require interventions in life styles. Given that overweight is an important determining factor in the decision to smoke, to encourage healthy behaviours, such as physical exercise or balanced diets, could improve the health status of the population on reducing obesity rates, and consequently the number of smokers. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity in overweight and nonoverweight preschool children.

    PubMed

    Trost, S G; Sirard, J R; Dowda, M; Pfeiffer, K A; Pate, R R

    2003-07-01

    To compare the physical activity levels of overweight and non overweight 3- to 5-y-old children while attending preschool. A secondary aim was to evaluate weight-related differences in hypothesized parental determinants of child physical activity behavior. Cross-sectional study. A total of 245, 3- to 5-y-olds (127 girls, 118 boys) and their parent(s) (242 mothers, 173 fathers) recruited from nine preschools. Overweight status determined using the age- and sex-specific 85th percentile for body mass index (BMI) from CDC Growth Charts. Physical activity during the preschool day was assessed on multiple days via two independent objective measures-direct observation using the observation system for recording activity in preschools (OSRAP) and real-time accelerometry using the MTI/CSA 7164 accelerometer. Parents completed a take-home survey assessing sociodemographic information, parental height and weight, modeling of physical activity, support for physical activity, active toys and sporting equipment at home, child's television watching, frequency of park visitation, and perceptions of child competence. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their nonoverweight peers during the preschool day. No significant differences were observed in girls. Despite a strong association between childhood overweight status and parental obesity, no significant differences were observed for the hypothesized parental influences on physical activity behavior. Our results suggest that a significant proportion of overweight children may be at increased risk for further gains in adiposity because of low levels of physical activity during the preschool day.

  6. Overweight and urban pollution: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Giubilati, Roberto; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Sancini, Angela

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study is to determine whether in workers exposed to urban pollution the risk of developing overweight and obesity is higher in workers exposed to urban pollution compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 150 volunteers, 75 workers exposed to urban pollution (50 women and 25 men) and 75 indoor workers (50 women and 25 men). Once measured the weight and height and calculated body mass index (BMI) for each worker, the research was based on the comparison, between the two groups, of the mean values of the measurements and of the frequency of workers with BMI index higher than the cut-off of normality. The only statistically significant difference found was for the mean value of weight in women, which was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers. The mean values of BMI and the frequency of workers with BMI higher than normal was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers in both sexes, but not statistically significant. The data suggest that outdoor workers may be subject to an additional risk of developing obesity as a result of exposure to urban air pollution (which, like obesity, is a source of oxidative stress). So, our preliminary study encourages to continue this line of research by implementing the sample and considering all the confounding factors. Furthermore, the results highlight the necessity to take account of gender differences in the context of health surveillance of workers.

  7. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  8. Differential outcome of the IDEFICS intervention in overweight versus non-overweight children: did we achieve 'primary' or 'secondary' prevention?

    PubMed

    Lissner, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Konstabel, K; Mårild, S; Mehlig, K; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Siani, A; Tornaritis, M; Williams, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether the IDEFICS intervention had a differential effect on 11,041 children's weight trajectories depending on their baseline body mass index status. Two subgroups of children are considered in the present analysis: those who were overweight or obese prior to the intervention and those who were neither overweight nor obese. Among children in all eight countries who did not have prevalent overweight or obesity (OWOB) at baseline, 2 years later, there was no significant difference between intervention and control groups in risk of having developed OWOB. However, we observed a strong regional heterogeneity, which could be attributed to the presence of one distinctly outlying country, Belgium, where the intervention group had increased risk for becoming overweight. In contrast, among the sample of children with prevalent OWOB at baseline, we observed a significantly greater probability of normalized weight status after 2 years. In other words, a protective effect against persistent OWOB was observed in children in intervention regions compared with controls, which corresponded to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.58, 0.98). This analysis thus provided evidence of a differential effect of the IDEFICS intervention, in which children with overweight may have benefited without having been specifically targeted. However, no overall primary preventive effect could be observed in children without initial overweight or obesity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  10. Neural correlates of familial obesity risk and overweight in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Chang, Ku-Yu Virginia; Wang, Zhishun; Huo, Yuankai; Geliebter, Allan; Peterson, Bradley S

    2017-07-25

    Rates of adolescent obesity and overweight are high. The offspring of overweight parents are at increased risk of becoming obese later in life. Investigating neural correlates of familial obesity risk and current overweight status in adolescence could help identify biomarkers that predict future obesity and that may serve as novel targets for obesity interventions. Our primary aim was to use functional MRI to compare neural responses to words denoting high or low energy density (ED) foods and non-foods, in currently lean adolescents at higher compared with lower familial risk for obesity, and in overweight compared with lean adolescents. Secondary aims were to assess group differences in subjective appetite when viewing food and non-food words, and in objective ad libitum intake of high-ED foods in a laboratory setting. We recruited 36 adolescents (14-19y), of whom 10 were (obese/overweight "overweight"), 16 lean with obese/overweight mothers (lean high-risk, "lean-HR"), and 10 lean with lean mothers (lean low-risk, "lean-LR"). All underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed words representing high-ED foods, low-ED foods, or non-foods, and provided appetitive ratings in response to each word stimulus. They then consumed a multi-item ad libitum buffet meal. Food compared with non-food words activated a distributed emotion/reward system including insula and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Participants who were at increasing risk for obesity exhibited progressively weaker activation of an attentional/regulatory system including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal ACC, and basal ganglia nuclei (activation was greatest in lean-LR, intermediate in lean-HR, and weakest in the overweight group). These group differences were most apparent for neural responses to high-compared with low-ED foods. Lean-HR (compared with lean-LR and overweight) adolescents reported greater desire for high-ED foods. Meal intake was greatest for the overweight, then lean

  11. Intervention for Spanish Overweight Teenagers in Physical Education Lessons

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Moral-García, José E.; Pantoja-Vallejo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Physical education is a favourable educational framework for the development of programmes aimed at increasing physical activity in children and thus reducing sedentarism. The progressive increase of overweight students demands global control and follow-up measurement of these behaviours in both in and out of school. The pedometer can be a useful tool in this field. It is easy to use and allow Physical Education (PE) departments to quantify their students' number of steps/day. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a pedometer intervention on body fat and BMI levels in overweight teenagers. Besides, the effects of the programme are analysed according to two other variables: pedometer ownership and gender, distinguishing between out-of-school and school hours, weekdays and weekends. The sample comprises 112 overweight students (49 boys and 63 girls) from 5 secondary schools. Participants were asked to follow a physical activity programme consisting on a minimum of 12000 and 10000 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. It also allowed them to get up to 2 extra points in their PE marks. Results were measured after 6 weeks of programme application as well as after 6 weeks of retention. Results revealed significantly reduced BMI in the teenagers with their own pedometer (p < 0.05). The difference observed in the number of steps/day between boys (12050) and girls (9566) was significant in all measured time periods (p < 0.05). Besides, both overweight boys and girls were observed to take 1000 steps/day less at weekends than in weekdays. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposal of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight boys and girls, respectively, accompanied by a reinforcement programme in their final PE marks, seems sufficient to obtain significant BMI reductions. Besides, PE is shown a favourable framework for the proposal of pedometer-impelled weight loss programmes in overweight youth. Key pointsA programme of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight

  12. Effect of exercise therapy on monocyte and neutrophil counts in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Ryoma; Shono, Naoko; Inoue, Teruo; Tsuruta, Toshiyuki; Node, Koichi

    2010-02-01

    It has been well known that physical inactivity is associated with a significantly higher incidence of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to test our hypothesis that endurance aerobic exercise training has cardiovascular protective effects as a result of inhibiting inflammatory processes. Forty-two overweight women [age, 53.4 +/- 9.8 years; body mass index (BMI), 28.0 +/- 2.8] received electric bicycle ergometer exercise therapy at the lactate threshold intensity for 30 to 60 minutes per day, 1 to 6 times per week for 6 weeks. The exercise training was performed within the possible load (exercise duration and frequency) for each subject. Leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts significantly decreased after the exercise therapy (P < 0.05). In simple regression analysis, percent changes in monocyte and neutrophil counts were correlated with percent changes in fasting triglyceride levels, insulin sensitivity index, BMI, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, the percent change in monocyte counts was associated with percent changes in fasting triglyceride and VO2max (r = 0.368, P < 0.001), and the percent change in neutrophil counts was associated with percent changes in insulin sensitivity index and BMI (r = 0.292, P < 0.001). Endurance aerobic exercise training can influence some inflammatory processes. Furthermore, increased aerobic capacity may be antiinflammatory and have cardiovascular protective effects in overweight women.

  13. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children’s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4–5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. Results Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. Conclusions Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children’s overweight or obesity. PMID:28179618

  14. Global analysis of overweight prevalence by level of human development.

    PubMed

    Ng, Carmen D

    2015-12-01

    Less developed countries are increasingly afflicted with over-nutrition, and the escalating overweight prevalence has become a global problem. However, a problem as global as this may not be amenable to a general set of remedial interventions applicable to all countries. I use data from various sources, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank, to test the association of overweight prevalence with economic, social, and demographic indicators. I then split the countries up by human development index to investigate to what extent these associations vary between development levels. On a global scale, overweight prevalence is most associated with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the proportion of a country that is rural, the proportion of elderly in a country's population, and the average years of schooling. At what magnitude, and even in which direction, these relationships go vary with a country's level of development. Generally, GDP per capita has a positive association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of very high human development more than twice of that for countries of low human development. However, proportion rural has a negative association with overweight prevalence, with the magnitude of such association for countries of low human development nearly twice of that for countries of very high human development. All four of these variables have statistically significant association with overweight prevalence in countries with low human development. I make policy suggestions to combat increasing overweight prevalence, based on the models that are developed, paying special attention to the differences in magnitude and direction of the regressors between human development levels.

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (P<0.05) with obesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  16. Early life growth trajectories and future risk for overweight

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, J C; Neufeld, L M; Laraia, B; Ramakrishnan, U; Garcia-Guerra, A; Fernald, L C H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard approaches have found that rapid growth during the first 2 years of life is a risk factor for overweight in later childhood. Our objective was to test whether growth velocity, independent of concurrent size, was associated with overweight using a nonlinear random-effects model that allows for enhanced specifications and estimations. Methods: Longitudinal data from a birth cohort in Mexico (n=586) were used to estimate growth trajectories over 0–24 months for body mass index (BMI), length and weight using the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) models. The SITAR models use a nonlinear random-effects model to estimate an average growth curve for BMI, length and weight and each participant's deviation from this curve on three dimensions—size, velocity and timing of peak velocity. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between overweight status at 7–9 years and size, velocity and timing of BMI, length and weight trajectories during 0–24 months. We tested whether any association between velocity and overweight varied by relative size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Results: SITAR models explained the majority of the variance in BMI (73%), height (86%) and weight (85%) between 0–24 months. When analyzed individually, relative BMI/length/weight (size) and BMI/length/weight velocity during 0–24 months were each associated with increased odds of overweight in late childhood. Associations for timing of peak velocity varied by anthropometric measure. However, in the mutually adjusted models, only relative BMI/length/weight (size) remained statistically significant. We found no evidence that any association between velocity and overweight varied by size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Conclusions: After mutual adjustment, size during 0–24 months of life (as opposed to birth size), but not velocity or timing of peak velocity, was most consistently associated with overweight in later childhood. PMID

  17. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  18. Dietary sodium intake and prevalence of overweight in adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong Ji; Cho, Young Gyu; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2013-05-01

    There has been no convincing evidence for a direct relation between sodium intake and being overweight. Therefore, we investigated the independent relationship between overweight and sodium intake in human subjects. Of those aged 19 to 64 years who participated in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 5955 participants (54% female) were included. Subjects were excluded if they reported unrealistic daily total energy intakes or intentional dietary changes, were pregnant, or were diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, liver cirrhosis, or thyroid disease. Overweight was defined as having a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher. Sodium intake was calculated from 24-h recall and categorized into quintiles. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the relationship between sodium intake and being overweight. Compared to men in the lowest quintile, men in the 4th and 5th quintiles had an increased risk of being overweight with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.82) and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.23-2.27) respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors including soft drink and energy intake. The P value for trend of ORs in each quintile for men was 0.0033. In women, compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintile had an OR of 1.31(95% CI, 0.96-1.79) and showed a marginally significant trend towards increasing risk of being overweight (P value=.058). Our findings suggest an independent relationship between high sodium intake and an increased risk of being overweight in adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leptin and resistin in overweight patients with and without asthma.

    PubMed

    Muc, M; Todo-Bom, A; Mota-Pinto, A; Vale-Pereira, S; Loureiro, C

    2014-01-01

    Excess body mass increases the risk of development of asthmatic symptoms and their severity and decreases the treatment effectiveness. One of the hypotheses explaining the link between the two diseases concerns the adipokines, hormones produced by adipose tissue with a proinflammatory character. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of the adipokines (leptin and resistin) between overweight asthmatic patients, asthmatic patients with normal weight and overweight patients without asthma. 80 peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and blood serum extracted. Three groups were selected: overweight asthmatic patients (BMI≥25), overweight patients without asthma and asthmatic patients with normal weight (BMI<25). Waist circumference of the patients was measured (cut-off points were 80cm for women and over 94cm for men) and a skin prick test performed. Comparison of adipokine concentration between the 3 groups was made and association between these concentrations and the measurements was performed. Although the concentrations of both adipokines were slightly higher for overweight asthmatic patients compared to overweight healthy patients, these differences were not significant. A significant association was found between leptin concentration and both BMI (p<0.01) and waist circumference (p<0.01). A difference for this cytokine was also found between asthmatic and non-asthmatic female patients (p<0.05). As expected overweight patients with BMI≥25 and patients with increased waist circumference showed higher leptin levels. We suggest that the studied cytokines, with a stronger indication for leptin, can elicit asthmatic inflammation in obese phenotype of asthma that affects more frequently women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. [Caries prevalence in preschool children with overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Villa-Ramos, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The diet with high and frequent carbohydrates consumption specially between meals increases the risk of nutritional diseases and dental decay. Also, in Mexico in the last years the changes in feeding patterns have increased the cases augmented of overweight and obesity in children, so the aim of the present study was to determine if dental decay is associated to overweight and obesity in preschool children from Mexico City. A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in 189 children aged of 3 to 6 years old, selected by convenience from Iztapalapa's area of Mexico City. According the body mass index (BMI) the children were qualified in three groups: 63 with normal weight, 63 with overweight and 63 with obesity. The clinical examination was performance by one observer. There were registered dmf-t, dmf-s indexes and the index of dental plaque of O'Leary. The chi2 and ANOVA tests were applied to compare among the groups, and odds ratio to estimate association. RESULTS. Caries prevalence was of 77% for the children with normal weight, 84% for those with overweight and 79% for the obese group. There was not association between caries with overweight, neither obesity, with exception for the obese girls who presented a higher affectation of dental decay in comparison with the obese boys(OR = 4.24; IC95%: 1.04-17.31, p < 0.05). In the overweight group, those children with poor hygienic habits showed more dental caries (OR = 7.83; IC95%: 1.74-35.21 p = 0.003). A high prevalence on dental caries was observed in preschool children, nevertheless, overweight and obesity did not correlate with to dental decay.

  1. Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.

  2. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding environmental factors related to obesity can inform interventions for the world wide obesity epidemic, yet no study has been conducted in this context in Africa. This study examined associations between neighbourhood environment variables and overweight in Nigerian adults. Methods A total of 1818 randomly selected residents (age: 20-65 years, 40% female, 31% overweight and 61.2% response) living in high and low socioeconomic (SES) neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and an interview-assisted self-reported measure of 16 items of perceived neighborhood environments were conducted. The primary outcome was overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m2) vs. normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Results After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, overweight was associated with distant access to commercial facilities (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02- 2.18), poor neighbourhood aesthetics (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.09), perceiving garbage and offensive odours in the neighbourhood (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.89) and feeling unsafe from crime at night (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13- 1.91) and unsafe from traffic (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07) in the total sample. Significant interactions regarding overweight were found between gender and four environmental variables, with low residential density (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.93) and poorly maintained pedestrian pathways (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.17) associated with overweight in men only, and absence of beautiful things (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.50) and high traffic making it unsafe to walk (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.49-3.83) associated with overweight in women only. There were few significant interactions between environmental factors and neighborhood SES regarding overweight. Conclusion Neighbourhood environment factors were associated with being overweight among Nigerian adults

  3. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Adegoke, Babatunde O; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sallis, James F

    2012-03-27

    Understanding environmental factors related to obesity can inform interventions for the world wide obesity epidemic, yet no study has been conducted in this context in Africa. This study examined associations between neighbourhood environment variables and overweight in Nigerian adults. A total of 1818 randomly selected residents (age: 20-65 years, 40% female, 31% overweight and 61.2% response) living in high and low socioeconomic (SES) neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and an interview-assisted self-reported measure of 16 items of perceived neighborhood environments were conducted. The primary outcome was overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25 kg/m(2)) vs. normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). After adjustment for sociodemographic variables, overweight was associated with distant access to commercial facilities (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02- 2.18), poor neighbourhood aesthetics (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16-2.09), perceiving garbage and offensive odours in the neighbourhood (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.89) and feeling unsafe from crime at night (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13- 1.91) and unsafe from traffic (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.07) in the total sample. Significant interactions regarding overweight were found between gender and four environmental variables, with low residential density (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02-1.93) and poorly maintained pedestrian pathways (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.17) associated with overweight in men only, and absence of beautiful things (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.42-3.50) and high traffic making it unsafe to walk (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.49-3.83) associated with overweight in women only. There were few significant interactions between environmental factors and neighborhood SES regarding overweight. Neighbourhood environment factors were associated with being overweight among Nigerian adults. These findings support previous

  4. Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants.

    PubMed

    Gillman, M W; Rifas-Shiman, S L; Camargo, C A; Berkey, C S; Frazier, A L; Rockett, H R; Field, A E; Colditz, G A

    2001-05-16

    Overweight during adolescence predicts short- and long-term morbidity as well as obesity in adulthood. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents is high and continues to increase. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms and preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that breastfeeding could lower the risk of subsequent obesity in adolescence. To examine the extent to which overweight status among adolescents is associated with the type of infant feeding (breast milk vs infant formula) and duration of breastfeeding. Survey of 8186 girls and 7155 boys, aged 9 to 14 years, who are participants in the Growing Up Today Study, a nationwide cohort study of diet, activity, and growth. In the fall of 1996 we mailed a questionnaire to each of the subjects, and in the spring of 1997, we mailed a supplemental questionnaire to their mothers, who are participants in the Nurses' Health Study II. Overweight status defined as body mass index exceeding the 95th percentile for age and sex from US national data. In the first 6 months of life, 9553 subjects (62%) were only or mostly fed breast milk, and 4744 (31%) were only or mostly fed infant formula. A total of 7186 subjects (48%) were breastfed for at least 7 months while 4613 (31%) were breastfed for 3 months or less. At ages 9 to 14 years, 404 girls (5%) and 635 boys (9%) were overweight. Among subjects who had been only or mostly fed breast milk, compared with those only or mostly fed formula, the odds ratio (OR) for being overweight was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.91), after adjustment for age, sex, sexual maturity, energy intake, time watching television, physical activity, mother's body mass index, and other variables reflecting social, economic, and lifestyle factors. Compared with subjects who had been breastfed for 3 months or less, those who had been breastfed for at least 7 months had an adjusted OR for being overweight of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.96). Timing of introduction of solid foods, infant formula, or

  5. Assessing obesity and overweight in a high mountain Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed M; Nanan, Debra; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Rahim, Musa; Nowshad, Gul

    2004-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among adults in a high mountain rural population of Pakistan, and to determine the correlates of excess body weight. Design Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 4203 adults (aged 18 years and over) was selected by stratified random sampling from 16 villages in north Pakistan. Trained medical students measured height, weight and blood pressure. Trained interviewers obtained information from participants on sociodemographic variables, use of snuff, daily cigarette consumption, hypertension and family history of hypertension. Body mass index (BMI) calculated as kg/m(2) was used to define overweight (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)). Using weight and height data available for 1391 men and 2754 women, mean BMI was 22.4 (95% CI 21.9, 22.9) for men and 22.6 (95% CI 21.9, 23.2) for women. The age-adjusted prevalence of BMI > or = 25 (overweight/obesity) was 13.5% for men and 14.1% for women. Overweight/obesity increased with age and the increase per year was identical for both men and women [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.01, 95% CI 1.01, 1.03]. Overweight/obese men and women were more likely to be hypertensive (men, AOR = 3.32, 95% CI 2.16, 5.09; women, AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.21, 2.39). Overweight/obese women were more likely to work in business or as skilled workers (AOR = 6.24, 95% CI 1.18, 32.83) while overweight/obese men were more likely to work as government employees (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.66, 4.03). Family history of hypertension was a significant correlate of overweight/obesity in men (P value 0.004) and women (P value 0.000). Overweight/obese men and women were less likely to use smokeless tobacco (men, AOR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43, 0.97; women, AOR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.35, 0.85). The prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Pakistan is expected to increase as further epidemiologic, nutritional and demographic changes occur. The assessment of excess body weight, and

  6. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Karen B; Herrin, Jeph; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2011-06-01

    We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute(-1) for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p<0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers.

  7. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children

    PubMed Central

    DORSEY, KAREN B.; HERRIN, JEPH; KRUMHOLZ, HARLAN M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. Methods We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute−1 for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. Results The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus 17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p < 0.001). The NOW children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers. PMID:20883127

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in overweight German children and adolescents: relation to gender, age and degree of overweight.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Andler, Werner; Denzer, Christian; Siegried, Wolfgang; Mayer, H; Wabitsch, Martin

    2005-06-01

    So far in Europe, no large studies have been published on the frequencies of the cardiovascular risk factors hypertension and dyslipidaemia in overweight children. Diagnosis of hypertension, decreased HDL-cholesterol, increased triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol were documented for 1004 overweight children and adolescents (aged 4-8 years, 52% girls, BMI-SDS in median 2.43) referred to four obesity centres. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were defined by cut off points above the 95th percentile of healthy children. Multivariate linear regression was conducted for the dependent variables systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol, including gender, degree of overweight (SDS-BMI) and age as independent variables. Thirty-seven percent of the children studied suffered from hypertension, 27% displayed increased total cholesterol, 26% increased LDL-cholesterol, 20% increased triglycerides and 18% decreased HDL-cholesterol. Seventy percent of all children had at least one unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor. Hypertension and dyslipidaemia were observed in any age group and in any degree of overweight at least twofold above the suspected rate of 5%. SDS-BMI was significantly related to blood pressure (systolic: coefficient 7.26, p < 0.001, diastolic: coefficient 3.21, p < 0.001), weakly to triglycerides (coefficient 0.12, p = 0.007), slightly negatively to HDL-cholesterol (coefficient -0.06, p = 0.001) and not related to total and LDL-cholesterol. Age was positively related to blood pressure (systolic: coefficient 2.436, p < 0.001, diastolic: coefficient 0.54, p < 0.001) and negatively to HDL cholesterol (coefficient -0.02, p < 0.001). Cardiovascular risk factors were frequently present in a large collective of overweight European children and adolescents. They occurred mostly independently of age, gender and degree of overweight. Therefore, screening for cardiovascular risk factors seems meaningful at any age and degree

  9. Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G; Nosek, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

  10. Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context – particularly the national prevalence of obesity – predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels. PMID:24358291

  11. Perception of Overweight and Self-esteem During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Method Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11–21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for socio-demographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60–3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Discussion Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. PMID:19536882

  12. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural population].

    PubMed

    Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Dana; Graur, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural population, from the north-east part of Romania. The study population included 3248 adult subjects (1341 men, 1907 women), aged 18 or over, registered with their general practitioner. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by medical staff and obesity and overweight were defined according to World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria. Abdominal obesity was described according to International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) criteria. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is 33.9% and 12.2% in men and respectively 35% and 21.3% in women. The majority of overweight and obese subjects had an increased waist circumference. There can be observed the predominance of the women in the overweight and obese group, as well as the increase of the obesity prevalence with age. Our results show that the weight excess could become a public health problem in Romania, therefore national screening programs are needed along with public information campaigns regarding effectual prevention and treatment possibilities.

  13. Association between food assistance program participation and overweight

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition. PMID:26039391

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schokker, D F; Visscher, T L S; Nooyens, A C J; van Baak, M A; Seidell, J C

    2007-03-01

    This paper shows the trends in the prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI] >or= 25 kg m-2) and obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg m-2) in the Netherlands. Overweight (obesity) prevalence in adult males increased from 37% (4%) in 1981 to 51% (10%) in 2004, and in adult females from 30% (6%) in 1981 to 42% (12%) in 2004, according to self-reported data. In boys and girls, obesity prevalence doubled or even tripled from 1980 to 1997, and again from 1997 to 2002-2004 a two- or threefold increase was seen for almost all ages. According to the most recent data, overweight (obesity) prevalence figures range, depending on age, from 9.2% to 17.3% (2.5-4.3%) in boys, and from 14.6% to 24.6% (2.3-6.5%) in girls. There is a lack of data on the national prevalence of overweight and obesity based on measured height and weight and on prevalences in different subgroups of the population. Regular national representative health examination surveys that measure height and weight are needed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its distribution over subgroups in the population, and to properly direct and evaluate prevention activities.

  15. [Perioperative adverse respiratory events in overweight and obese children].

    PubMed

    Ulrici, J; Hempel, G; Sasse, M; Vollrath, J; Höhne, C

    2016-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in pediatric anesthesia. This observational study was designed to examine how airway-related complications occur in overweight children and adolescents during general anesthesia and if this is a relevant problem in Germany. From October 2008 until August 2009, at the university clinic in Leipzig, 504 in- and outpatients, aged 2-18 years, ASA I-III, undergoing elective procedures (ENT and pediatric surgery), were observed. With the aid of special data sheets, the following parameters were determined: Mallampati Score, difficult mask ventilation and intubation, use of a Guedel/Wendl tube, Cormack-Lehane Score, number of intubation attempts, airway obstructions (broncho- and laryngospasms), coughing as a sign of airway irritation, and decreases in oxygen saturation >10 %. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher Mallampati Score and a significantly higher prevalence of coughing (p < 0.05). None of the other parameters showed any significant differences between the groups. However, the incidence of desaturation was 9.5 % in overweight children and 6.3 % in children of normal weight, and that of airway obstructions was 4.1 vs 2.7 %. This study demonstrated a very low incidence of respiratory problems, which may be caused by the low proportion of morbidly obese children and the older age of overweight children in comparison with other studies.

  16. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T S; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern.

  17. Eating behaviors are risk factors for the development of overweight.

    PubMed

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés, Ana

    2013-10-01

    This research aimed to characterize eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their gender and body mass index and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the eating behavior of normal-weight and overweight people, and also between men and women. Further, we hypothesized that overweight participants would show more abnormal eating behaviors than their normal-weight counterparts. Two hundred ninety-two participants (205 women and 87 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean body mass index was 26.58 kg/m² (women 26.22 kg/m², men 27.41 kg/m²), that is, within the overweight range. Participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) tended to eat faster and in greater quantities, selected more hyper-calorie foods, and engaged in a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds. The results suggest that, in addition to what people eat, the question of how people eat may also contribute to the rapid increase in the levels of overweight and obesity in the Chilean population.

  18. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  19. Assessing overweight, obesity, diet, and physical activity in college students.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T K; Harris, Kari Jo; Lee, Rebecca E; Nazir, Niaman; Born, Wendi; Kaur, Harsohena

    2003-01-01

    The authors surveyed 738 college students aged 18 to 27 years to assess overweight, obesity, dietary habits, and physical activity. They used BMI (body mass index) > or = 25 kg/m2 or BMI > or = 85th percentile and BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 or BMI > or = 95th percentile to estimate overweight and obesity in those aged < or = 19 years. To define overweight and obesity in those > or = 20 years, they used BMI > or = 25 kg/m2 and > or = 30 kg/m2. They found overweight rates of 21.6% using BMI directly and 16.2% using BMI percentile and obesity rates of 4.9% using BMI directly and 4.2% using BMI percentile. More than 69% of the participants reported < 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day and more than 67% reported < 20 g of fiber per day; participants reported physical activity on fewer than 3 d/wk. Most college students are not meeting dietary and physical activity guidelines, suggesting the need for prevention interventions and increased understanding of overweight in college students.

  20. Increased endothelial microparticles in obese and overweight children.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Zübeyde; Dursun, İsmail; Tülpar, Sebahat; Baştuğ, Funda; Baykan, Ali; Yıkılmaz, Ali; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Akın, Leyla; Yel, Sibel; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in children increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are considered as markers of endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to evaluate circulating EMPs in obese and overweight children and to disclose the measure of obesity with the strongest relation with circulating microparticles and carotid atherosclerosis. This prospective study included 55 obese and overweight children and 23 healthy controls. Insulin resistance was studied. Both in vivo and in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cell evaluations were used for the study. Circulating EMPs (CD144 and CD146) were measured by flow cytometry. The carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured using ultrasound and echocardiography, respectively. Study groups were compared for anthropometric measurement, insulin resistance, circulating EMP, cIMT, and LVMI. The relationship among overweight, obesity, and circulating EMPs were investigated. Blood pressure, CD144+EMP levels, and LVMI were statistically higher in the patients group than in the control group. The multiple logistic regression analysis and the backward elimination method showed that CD144+EMP and systolic blood pressure had a linear relationship with overweight and obesity. Our results suggest that endothelial damage starts in the early stage of childhood obesity and that obese and overweight children have increased circulating CD144+EMPs, showing that endothelial dysfunction and increased CD144+EMPs may be related to obesity.

  1. Overweight and obesity in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is now prevalent and accounts for significant health consequences, including cardiovascular complications and dual diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and lifestyle are modifiable and play an important role in the prevention and management of excessive weight, but it is unclear how these factors relate to overweight and obese youth with T1D. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to examine how physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and diet are related to overweight/obesity in youth with T1D. Seven observational and intervention studies published between 1990 and 2013 were included in the review. Prevalence of overweight ranged from 12.5% to 33.3%. Overweight in youth with T1D was associated with infrequent napping, increased screen time, and skipping breakfast and dinner but was not related to time engaged in physical activity. Weight-related interventions indicated modest weight loss along with improved glycemic control. In light of this review, there is a need for high quality research that examines all levels of activity in youth with T1D to identify lifestyle modification targets for weight prevention and management.

  2. Association between food assistance program participation and overweight.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition.

  3. Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight.

    PubMed

    Yu-Jen, Chang; Yiing-Mei, Liou; Shuh-Jen, Sheu; Mei-Yen, Chen

    2004-06-01

    Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Young women establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of young women who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight.

  4. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  5. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  6. Parenting an overweight or obese child: a process of ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Bechensteen, Brit; Hallberg, Ulrika

    2011-03-01

    Childhood overweight represents a health problem, and research points towards parents as key players. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge of how parents of children who are overweight or obese experience their parenthood. Focus group discussions with 17 parents were analysed according to the qualitative method of modified grounded theory. The results expressed the parents' ambivalence between preventing the child's overweight and not negatively affecting the child's self-esteem. The most important issue seemed to be their concern about the child's construction of self-understanding and experiences in interaction with the environment. The parents had become uncertain of their responsibility, priorities and how to act. In conclusion, parenting a child with weight issues could be a process of loving the child the way he/she is while still wanting changes for improved health, resulting in ambivalence. In addition to traditional advice about lifestyle, many parents seem to need counselling assistance with respect to their parental role.

  7. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

  8. [Overweight and obesity; recommendations from the National Health Council].

    PubMed

    Meinders, A E; Fogteloo, J

    2003-09-20

    The Health Council of the Netherlands has issued a report on overweight and obesity. These are considered major threats to personal health, the public health care services and economic welfare. Overweight and obesity are no longer considered variations of the norm, but as a disease. As genetically predisposing factors cannot be influenced, major initiatives to contain further deterioration of the problem must be on environmental factors i.e. on macronutrient intake and physical exercise. Special target groups (young people, people of low socioeconomic status and immigrants) need to be defined. Government, health care organisations, industry and the general public should work together to combat overweight and obesity. The chances of success are not predictable but are certainly big enough to justify action.

  9. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours.

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. PMID:24555142

  11. Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Neves, Camila Danielle Cunha; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira, Murilo Xavier; Júnior, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed.

  12. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association of Overweight and Ankle Injuries in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Seiden, Jeffrey A.; House, Ellen M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Dubrow, Robert; Baker, M. Douglas; Spiro, David M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Overweight children are at increased risk for many medical problems. Trauma is the leading etiology of childhood morbidity and mortality. No previous study has evaluated the association between overweight and acute ankle injuries in children. We hypothesized that being overweight is associated with an increased risk of ankle injury in children. METHODS We conducted a case-control study in an urban pediatric emergency department. Subjects aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from June 2005 through July 2006. Children with acute ankle trauma were enrolled as cases. A convenience sample of children with a chief complaint of fever, headache, or sore throat was enrolled as controls. Demographic information and anthropometric measurements were obtained. Age- and gender-specific body mass index percentiles (BMI-Ps) were calculated using pediatric norms. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between overweight and ankle injury, adjusting for demographic variables. Through medical records, we obtained demographic information and weight, but not height, of all cases who were not enrolled. This allowed us to conduct a sensitivity analysis in which we combined the enrolled and non-enrolled cases into a single case group and made increasingly more unlikely assumptions about the height percentiles of the non-enrolled cases. RESULTS There were 180 cases and 180 controls enrolled in the study. We observed a significant association between overweight and ankle injury (multivariate-adjusted OR: 3.26; 95% CI: 1.86–5.72; P value for trend <.0001). Although this result may be an overestimate of the magnitude of the association due to a possible bias in the selection of cases, sensitivity analysis demonstrated the robustness of the statistical significance of the finding. CONCLUSIONS Overweight children may be at increased risk of ankle injury. PMID:18191784

  14. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  15. Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Camila Alves; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Neves, Camila Danielle Cunha; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira, Murilo Xavier; Júnior, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed. PMID:27907172

  16. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  17. Meta-analysis: overweight, obesity, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhu; Guan, Zhenlong; Wang, Liqin; Song, Guangyao; Ma, Boqing; Wang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurological disease and its risk factors remain largely unknown. A meta-analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship of overweight and obesity with PD. Methods. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify studies of associations between overweight/obesity and PD. Overweight, obesity, and PD were used as keywords, and published works were retrieved until September 30, 2013. The extracted data were classified (BMI ≥ 30, 25 ≤ BMI < 30, and BMI < 25) according to BMI values and analyzed using RevMan5.2 and Stata11.0. Results. Four cohort studies and three case-control studies were used to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and PD, including 2857 PD patients and 5, 683, 939 cases of non-PD controls. There was a statistically significant difference between 25 ≤ BMI < 30  and BMI < 25 in the cohort study (RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.32,  P = 0.03), but there was no difference between BMI ≥ 30  and BMI < 25 or BMI ≥ 30  and 25 ≤ BMI < 30, where the respective RR was 1.16 and 0.84; the respective 95% CI was 0.67-2.01 and 0.61-1.15, respectively, and the P values were 0.60 and 0.28, respectively. Case-control studies showed that there was no statistical difference between any two groups. Conclusion. Meta-analysis showed that overweight might be a potential risk factor of PD. Demonstration of a causal role of overweight/obesity in PD development could have important therapeutic implications.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of overweight status among Saudi school children.

    PubMed

    Al-Muhaimeed, Abdulrahman A; Dandash, Khadiga; Ismail, Mohammed Saleh; Saquib, Nazmus

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data on changes in the prevalence of overweight among the Saudi school children and on associated risk factors. We compared recent prevalence data (2012) with early data (1994-98) and assessed risk factors. Data from a cross-sectional study of children in primary schools in two cities in Al-Qassim province. Parental questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic data and informa.tion on the child's diet/exercise behavior. Children's weight and height were measured. Current and previous data on overweight prevalence were compared and risk factors were assessed in a multiple logistic regression model. The sample consisted of 874 randomly chosen school children, aged 6-10 years; analysis was based on 601 with complete data. Current overweight prevalence was 16.9% and was higher in girls than in boys (29.7% vs. 11.7%, P value < .0001). Prevalence has risen in the last 15 years (overall: 16.9% vs. 10.1%; boys: 11.7% vs. 8.5%; girls: 29.7% vs. 11.5%; all P values < .05). Those who ate restaurant food >=2 times/week were 2.4 times more likely (95% CI=1.26, 4.64) to be overweight and those who engaged in sports >=2 hours/day were 0.5 times less likely to be overweight (95% CI=0.25, 1.20). The overweight prevalence in primary school children in Saudi Arabia has risen significantly. The focus should be on developing obesity prevention programs for this population.

  19. Socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Heon; Jeong, Baek Geun; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented.

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight among Adolescents in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    BORIČIĆ, Katarina; SIMIĆ, Snežana; VASILJEVIĆ, Nađa; MARINKOVIĆ, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The pandemic of obesity in adolescents is one of the challenges of public health. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the association of overweight with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors among Serbian adolescents. Method A cross-sectional study of 2139 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was carried out. Data used in this study were from the 2006 Health Survey. In accordance with the international sex- and age-specific Body Mass Index cut-off points, all participants were classified as being normal weight or overweight, including obese. The association between the risk factors and overweight were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The study showed that 28.9% of boys and 17.0% of girls were overweight, while 14.5% of boys and 8.1% of girls were obese. Boys were more likely to be overweight/obese, compared with girls. Being younger (p< 0.01 for 14 to 15 years) and (p< 0.01, for 16 to 19 years), engaging in physical activities that last less than 7 hours a week, in such a manner that they breathe quickly and become sweaty, (p< 0.01) and skipping breakfast (p< 0.05) were risk factors significantly associated with overweight among adolescents. No significant association was found with wealth index. Conclusion These findings should be an integral part of further preventive interventions, especially oriented towards younger adolescents, who are physically inactive, have a habit of skipping breakfast and are boys. PMID:27669514

  1. Acute effects of an oral supplement of (−)-epicatechin on postprandial fat and carbohydrate metabolism in normal and overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Ortiz-Vilchis, Pilar; Vacaseydel, Claudia M.; Rubio-Gayosso, Ivan; Meaney, Eduardo; Villarreal, Francisco; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia, in particular when accompanied by excessive hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, mainly in overweight or obese subjects, as it favors oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, treatments that favorably modulate metabolism by reducing steep increases in postprandial serum glucose and triglycerides, are of considerable interest. Evidence suggests that (−)-epicatechin (EPI) is responsible for reductions in cardiometabolic risk associated with chocolate consumption these effects may be associated with favorable effects of EPI on postprandial metabolism. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of EPI on postprandial metabolism in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Twenty adult volunteers (normal and overweight) underwent oral metabolic tolerance tests in the absence and presence of oral EPI (1 mg/kg). Metabolic responses were examined using indirect calorimetry and determining blood glucose and triglycerides at 0, 2 and 4 hours after metabolic load ingestion. Results show that EPI increased postprandial lipid catabolism, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the respiratory quotient, which implies an increase in fat oxidation. The effect was associated with significantly lower postprandial plasma glucose and triglycerides concentrations. The effects were more prominent in overweight subjects. In conclusion, EPI modulates postprandial metabolism by enhancing lipid oxidation accompanied by reductions in glycemia and triglyceridemia. PMID:24458104

  2. No Laughing Matter. Young People Who Are Overweight Can Face a Lifetime of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, David

    1997-01-01

    The reality in many school environments is that overweight children face ridicule and rejection. Focusing on size as one facet of human diversity can help diffuse prejudice against the overweight. Other strategies to discourage teasing and unkindness are suggested. (SLD)

  3. No Laughing Matter. Young People Who Are Overweight Can Face a Lifetime of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, David

    1997-01-01

    The reality in many school environments is that overweight children face ridicule and rejection. Focusing on size as one facet of human diversity can help diffuse prejudice against the overweight. Other strategies to discourage teasing and unkindness are suggested. (SLD)

  4. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  5. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  6. Ethics and prevention of overweight and obesity: an inventory.

    PubMed

    ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further

  7. Three months of resistance training in overweight and obese individuals improves reactive balance control under unstable conditions.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika; Kyselovičová, Ol'ga; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Řtefániková, Gabriela; Vilman, Tomáš; Baláž, Miroslav; Kurdiová, Timea; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcová, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to static and dynamic balance, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the training induced changes in reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations in overweight and obese individuals. This study evaluates the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training programs on postural responses to unexpected perturbations under stable and unstable conditions in the overweight and obese. A group of 17 overweight and obese subjects, divided into two groups, underwent either resistance or aerobic training for a period of 3 months (3 sessions per week). Prior to and after completing the training, they performed the load release balance test while standing on either a stable or unstable surface, with eyes open and closed. Peak posterior center of pressure (CoP) displacement, and the time to peak posterior CoP displacement during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open (17.3%, p = 0.019 and 15.4%, p = 0.029) and eyes closed (15.0%, p = 0.027 and 13.2%, p = 0.034), decreased significantly. In addition, the total anterior to posterior CoP displacement, and the time from peak anterior to peak posterior CoP displacement, both with eyes open (18.1%, p = 0.017 and 12.2%, p = 0.040) and eyes closed (16.3%, p = 0.023 and 11.7%, p = 0.044), also significantly decreased. However, after completing the resistance training, the parameters registered while standing on a stable platform, both with eyes open and closed, did not change significantly. The group that underwent an aerobic training also failed to show any significant changes in parameters of the load release balance test. Three months of resistance training in overweight and obese subjects improves reactive balance control in response to unexpected perturbations under unstable conditions, both with and without visual cues. Due to the fact that this unstable load release balance test was found to be sensitive in revealing post-training changes, it would be suitable for implementing in

  8. Child overweight in general practice – parents’ beliefs and expectations – a questionnaire survey study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents’ frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). Methods A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents’ beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child’s participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE). Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. Conclusions According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes

  9. Child overweight in general practice - parents' beliefs and expectations - a questionnaire survey study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Merethe K; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-10-11

    Care for overweight children in general practice involves collaboration with parents. Acknowledging the parents' frames of references is a prerequisite for successful management. We therefore aimed to analyse parental beliefs about the presumed causes and consequences of overweight in children and expectations towards the GP. Moreover, we aimed at comparing the beliefs and expectations of parents of non-overweight children (NOWC) and parents of overweight children (OWC). A cross-sectional survey. Data were obtained from a questionnaire exploring parents' beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children. The questionnaires were completed by parents following their child's participation in the five-year preventive child health examination (PCHE).Parental agreement upon statements concerning beliefs and expectations regarding overweight in children was measured on a Likert scale. Differences in levels of agreement between parents of non-overweight children and parents of overweight children were analysed using Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Parents of 879 children completed and returned questionnaires. Around three fourths of the parents agreed that overweight was a health problem. A majority of parents (93%) agreed that the GP should call attention to overweight in children and offer counselling on diet and exercise. Almost half of the parents expected a follow-up programme. Parents of overweight children seemed to agree less upon some of the proposed causes of overweight, e.g. inappropriate diet and lack of exercise. These parents also had stronger beliefs about overweight disappearing by itself as the child grows up. According to parental beliefs and expectations, general practice should have an important role to play in the management of child overweight. Moreover, our findings suggest that GPs should be aware of the particular beliefs that parents of overweight children may have regarding causes of overweight in their child.

  10. Selected nutritional habits of teenagers associated with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Magdalena; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school students chosen at random. The research tool consisted an original survey questionnaire. The measurements of respondents' height and body mass provided data for calculating the body mass index. The percentage of youth with deficient body mass was estimated at 8.4%. The percentage of normal weight students in the surveyed group was estimated at 77.6%. Overweight and obesity characterized 14.0% of the total number. As many as 21.8% of overweight and obese respondents would eat one or two meals as opposed to 16.8% of normal weight students. Three-fourths of the surveyed students would eat breakfast regardless of their nutritional habits. Lunch is eaten by 52.9% of normal weight 18-year-olds and 46.1% of overweight and obese students. The analysis of mealtimes suggests that overweight and obese students would have their breakfast and dinner at later hours than the rest of the surveyed. More than half of the participating students failed to eat lunch (53.9%), and one in four students within this group resigned from supper. Girls would eat fruit and vegetables more frequently than boys several times a day. The percentage of persons in the surveyed groups who would eat fast foods on a daily basis was similar regardless of their nutritional status. Sweetened carbonated beverages would be drunk more often by overweight and obese boys (81.2%) as compared with boys with proper body mass (75.8%). The same type of beverages would be popular with two-thirds of girls, and this result was similar regardless of their nutritional

  11. GDM Women’s Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Redman, Leanne M.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG) with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55), 2.98 (1.89-4.69), and 2.93 (2.07-4.13), respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84), 2.89 (1.78-4.70), and 2.84 (1.98-4.06), respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73), 1.96 (1.24-3.09), and 1.59 (1.15-2.21), respectively]. Conclusions Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG. PMID:26098307

  12. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  13. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  14. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  15. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  16. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  17. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  18. The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Melba C. Stetz, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults 5b. GRANT...overweight and obese adults . A prototype stationary exercise bicycle that integrated video game play capabilities was developed and tested. Due to many

  19. Added sugar, glycemic index and load in colon cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Galeone, Carlotta; Pelucchi, Claudio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-07-01

    There is a growing body of in-vivo evidences that sucrose-rich diets cause mutations in the rat colon epithelium, with several biological mechanism hypothesized, but epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results. In order to provide a quantification of the magnitude of the risk of colon cancer for high intake of added sugar, high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, we performed a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of the literature to date. Recent epidemiological data indicate a lack of association between high intake of added sugar, high-glycemic index and glycemic load diets and risk of colon cancer. There is no consistent evidence from epidemiological studies, although a modest excess risk emerged in case-control studies, that added sugars, dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with increased risk of colon cancer, independently from their effect on energy intake, overweight, obesity and diabetes, which are related to excess colon cancer risk.

  20. Assessing Overweight and Cardiovascular Risks among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlaing, Way Way; Nath, Subrata D.; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2007-01-01

    Although studies regarding health issues and the obesity epidemic have increased in recent years, few of these studies target college-aged students. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in race/ethnicity with respect to prevalence of overweight/obesity (defined by body mass index or BMI) among college students…

  1. Perceptions of Overweight Students Concerning Their Experiences in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; Graber, Kim C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students' perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher…

  2. Addressing the "Epidemic" of Overweight Children by Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte; Bales, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Internet can be of great assistance to early childhood teachers in planning educational activities for the classroom and with families. This article explores how early childhood teachers can use resources online to address what has been called an "epidemic" of overweight children. Guidelines for using online resources are presented. (Contains…

  3. Assessing the benefits of multisensory audiotactile stimulation for overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Spence, Charles; Mu, Bingbing; Zhou, Xi; Ho, Cristy

    2014-04-01

    We report an experiment designed to examine whether individuals who are overweight would perform differently when trying to detect and/or discriminate auditory, vibrotactile, and audiotactile targets. The vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the participant's abdomen or to his hand. Thirty-six young male participants were classified into normal, underweight, or overweight groups based on their body mass index. All three groups exhibited a significant benefit of multisensory (over the best of the unisensory) stimulation, but the magnitude of this benefit was modulated by the weight of the participant, the task, and the location from which the vibrotactile stimuli happened to be presented. For the detection task, the overweight group exhibited a significantly smaller benefit than the underweight group. In the discrimination task, the overweight group showed significantly more benefits than the other two groups when the vibrotactile stimuli were delivered to their hands, but not when the stimuli were delivered to their abdomens. These results might raise some interesting questions regarding the mechanisms underlying audiotactile information processing and have applied relevance for the design of the most effective warning signal (e.g., for drivers).

  4. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  5. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  7. [Pregestational overweight and obesity: prevalence and outcome associated with pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Seabra, Gisele; Padilha, Patricia de Carvalho; de Queiroz, Juliana Agrícola; Saunders, Cláudia

    2011-11-01

    To describe the obstetric outcome of women with overweight/obesity treated at the prenatal care clinic of a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro. A descriptive cross-sectional study which investigated 433 women (≥20 years-old, without any chronic diseases) and their newborns treated at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro. Information was collected from medical records and through interviews. The characteristics of mothers and newborns evaluated were divided into maternal (social habits, anthropometric measurements and clinical, obstetric, and prenatal care) and newborn groups (birth conditions). Data regarding the categories of nutritional status were analyzed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this sample was 24.5% (n=106). There was an association between inadequate weight gain and the prevalence of overweight/obesity (OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.9, p<0.05). Overweight/obese women had an increased risk for preeclampsia (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.1--9.9, p=0.03). Regarding birth conditions, mean birth weight was 3291.3 g (±455.2), with rates of low birth weight of 4.7% (n=5) and rates of macrosomia of 2.8% (n=3). There was an alarming prevalence of inadequate nutritional status before and during pregnancy, which may be associated with increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This suggests the need for nutritional monitoring of these pregnant women.

  8. [Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The worldwide situation].

    PubMed

    Pigeot, I; Buck, C; Herrmann, D; Ahrens, W

    2010-07-01

    There is a worldwide increase of overweight and obesity not only in adults, but also in children. Data used to estimate prevalence are, however, collected in differing age groups using nonstandardized measurements and instruments and refer to differing time periods. Moreover, various reference systems to classify overweight and obesity exist, thus, adding to the difficulty in comparing countries. In this paper, these problems are discussed in detail. The most common reference systems are introduced, and their impact on the estimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity is demonstrated. Based on available data of the global situation, maps that depict the worldwide distribution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are presented. Finally, these maps will be discussed critically. Although it may be assumed that these data are collected according to the best quality standards available, the lack of a unified protocol to conduct studies on childhood obesity hampers the comparability of data between countries. Obvious limitations in that respect are the use of different reference systems, differing sampling schemes, and differing age groups. More subtle limitations result from, e.g., different measurement methods, including self-reported weight and height.

  9. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  10. Overweight and obesity in military personnel: sociodemographic predictors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Marriott, Bernadette P; Dotson, Laura; Bathalon, Gaston P; Funderburk, Leslee; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Young, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    In the United States, nationally representative civilian studies have shown that BMI is associated with select sociodemographic characteristics. Active-duty military personnel are not included in these surveys and the persistence of these associations in military personnel is unknown. Data from the worldwide, representative 2002 and 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Surveys of Health-Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel were used to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and, the association of BMI with sociodemographic characteristics. The final response bases included 12,756 (2002) and 16,146 (2005) personnel. Results indicated that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in military personnel increased to an all-time high in 2005 (60.5%) with higher prevalence of obesity in 2005 compared to 2002 (12.9% vs. 8.7, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). Holding other variables constant, regression analysis indicated that women were significantly less likely than men to be overweight or obese in both survey years (P ≤ 0.0001), which is contrary to civilian data. Similar to civilian data, the prevalence of obesity was significantly associated with increased age, black or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity, and being married (P ≤ 0.01). US military personnel are not immune to the US obesity epidemic. Demographic characteristics associated with being overweight should be considered when developing military-sponsored weight management programs.

  11. Frequency of family meals and childhood overweight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Valdés, J; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Aguilar, L; Jaén-Casquero, M B; Royo-Bordonada, M Á

    2013-02-01

    Energy balance is influenced by understudied genetic, social and other environmental factors. The frequency of family meals (FFM) may be one of these factors since it is associated with a healthier dietary pattern in children and adolescents. The objective of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence on the association between FFM and the risk of childhood and adolescent overweight. The electronic literature search identified 394 articles published during 2005-2012. Of these, 15 studies gave precise information of the studied association, of which four were longitudinal. We found great variability regarding the measurement of FFM. Six out of 11 cross-sectional studies and 1 out of 4 longitudinal studies found statistically significant inverse associations between FFM and being overweight, mainly in children, with odds ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.93. Of those, only one adjusted for all the potential confounding factors considering socio-demographic, physical activity- and diet-related variables. Therefore, this review found inconsistent and weak evidence of an inverse association between FFM and risk of childhood overweight. In conclusion, further research is needed to establish whether family meals have an effect on childhood overweight. These studies ideally should have longitudinal or experimental designs, a clear and standardized definition of the exposure under study, a measure of the exposure based on direct observation or validated questionnaires and an adequate adjustment for potential confounders. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  13. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  14. Evaluation of a Training to Improve Management of Pediatric Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchman, Josephine; Beno, Luke; Dennison, David; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Despite widespread concern about pediatric obesity, health care professionals report low proficiency for identifying and treating this condition. This paper reports on the evaluation of pediatric overweight assessment and management training for clinicians and staff in a managed care system. The training was evaluated for its impact…

  15. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  16. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  17. Initial Validation of the Activity Choice Index among Overweight Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Sean P.; Silva, Marlene N.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was designed to evaluate psychometric properties of the Activity Choice Index (ACI), a measure for assessing one's choice to engage in more effortful, physically active behaviors in the course of daily routines over less-demanding, sedentary behaviors, in a sample of overweight women. Method: The sample included 192…

  18. [The estimated economic burden of overweight and obesity in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Iski, Gabriella; Rurik, Imre

    2014-08-31

    The pandemic of obesity has a great impact on the health care system, and it accounts for an increasing ratio of health care expenses. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of overweight and obesity including both the health care budget and financial contribution of patients. Data of the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund were analyzed in the financial year of 2012. Expenses related to inpatient (hospital) and outpatient services and sick-leave finances related to obesity, diabetes and hypertension were analyzed. The incidence of obesity was calculated as high as 80% in diabetics and 60% in patients with hypertension. According to this method of estimation, 207,000 million HUF (680 million EUR) was spent for treatment, which accounts for 11.6% of the total Hungarian health budget and corresponds to 0.73% of the gross domestic product. Additionally, at least 22,000 million HUF was paid by the patients as contribution to treatment. However, expenses related to overweight and obesity may be even higher considering a higher prevalence rate of overweight and obesity, and the occurrence of co-morbidities with higher costs (between 15% and 18% of the total health expenditure and at least 1% of the gross domestic product). The results confirm that obesity- and overweight-related expenses represent a significant proportion of health care expenditure.

  19. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  20. Social inequalities in obesity and overweight in 11 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Marion; Sassi, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of inequalities in obesity and overweight is available mostly from national studies. This article provides a broad international comparison of inequalities by education level and socio-economic status, in men and women and over time. Data from national health surveys of 11 OECD countries were used. The size of inequalities was assessed on the basis of absolute and relative inequality indexes. A regression-analysis approach was used to assess differences between social groups in trends over time. Of the countries examined, USA and England had the highest rates of obesity and overweight. Large social inequalities were consistently detected in all countries, especially in women. Absolute inequalities were largest in Hungary and Spain with a difference of 11.6 and 10% in obesity rates in men, and 18.3 and 18.9% in women, respectively, across the education spectrum. Relative inequalities were largest in France and Sweden with poorly educated men 3.2 and 2.8 times as likely to be obese as men with the highest education (18 and 17 times for women in Spain and Korea, respectively). Pro-poor inequalities in overweight were observed for men in USA, Canada, Korea, Hungary, Australia and England. Inequalities remained virtually stable during the last 15 years, with only small variations in England, Korea, Italy and France. Large and persistent social inequalities in obesity and overweight by education level and socio-economic status exist in OECD countries. These are consistently larger in women than in men.

  1. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  2. Middle School Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Overweight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.; Li, Weidong; Manson, Mara; Beale, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Using the Social Ecological Constraints model, a qualitative multiple case study design was used to explore experienced and committed middle school physical education teachers' perspectives on overweight and obese students (OWS), and how and why they acted to include OWS in physical education and physical activity opportunities in their school…

  3. Acute Tryptophan Depletion and Sweet Food Consumption by Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; Spring, Bonnie; McChargue, Dennis; Hitsman, Brian; Smith, Malaina; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Serotonergic involvement has been implicated in preferential consumption of treat foods. We tested the effect of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) on food consumption by overweight and lean adults with and without a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). ATD and taste-matched placebo challenges were administered double-blind in counter-balanced order. Participants were classified as lean (n = 36) or overweight (n=19) on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and sweet food consumption were assessed via a test meal 8-hours following ATD. Four food items of comparable palatability were offered as a part of the test: two sweet (one carbohydrate-rich, and one protein-rich) and two non-sweet (one carbohydrate-rich, and one protein-rich). As compared to the placebo challenge, ATD significantly increased sweet calorie intake among overweight participants and increased their propensity to consume sweet food first before any other type of food. Lean participants’ sweet calorie intake and food preference were unaffected by ATD. Findings suggest serotonergic involvement in the sweet food consumption by overweight individuals. PMID:19171315

  4. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  5. Nurses and families rising to the challenge of overweight children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The obesity epidemic in children demands that healthcare providers must develop proficiency in treating overweight in children. This article provides nurse practitioners and other health professionals with information on incidence and pathophysiology of childhood obesity, as well as guidelines on ev...

  6. Chronic malnutrition among overweight Hispanic children: understanding health disparities.

    PubMed

    Iriart, Celia; Handal, Alexis J; Boursaw, Blake; Rodrigues, Gabriela

    2011-12-01

    Obesity may be masking other health problems such as height deficit, or stunting. Stunting may reflect the cumulative effect of chronic malnutrition especially in underserved immigrant communities. Exploratory analysis of a sample of children 2-19 years old from the 2007-2008 NHANES was used to assess the relationship between chronic malnutrition and overweight/obesity in Hispanic children. Overall, overweight/obesity prevalence was nearly 1 in 3 children and stunting prevalence was 3.1%. The prevalence of stunting varied significantly across race/ethnicity, with prevalence among Hispanics of 6.6%. Prevalence of stunting varied significantly by socio-economic characteristics within the Hispanic population. Our exploratory study showed differences in the prevalence of stunting across racial/ethnic groups and highlighted that overweight/obese Hispanic children have a higher prevalence of stunting compared with Non-Hispanic White overweight/obese children. More studies are needed to better understand the phenomenon and the implications for health inequities.

  7. Physical Activity Preferences of Overweight Fourth and Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Anne; Galvan, Christine; Hsu, Yun; Giron, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to contribute to the childhood obesity mitigation literature by determining the PA preferences of obese/overweight (o/o) elementary students who participated in Club Fit!, a school-based PA program designed to engage the students in developmentally appropriate, moderate-vigorous PA and enhance their regard for PA…

  8. Exercise and energy intake in overweight, sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kristin L; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 min of exercise (Active) and 3 min of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 min after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted.

  9. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  10. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  11. Pre-School Overweight and Obesity in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Page, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a summary of current policy and research related to pre-school overweight and obesity, and to provide a rationale for why early years settings are being placed at the forefront of strategies to address the problem. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a narrative review of current research, policy…

  12. Addressing the "Epidemic" of Overweight Children by Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte; Bales, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Internet can be of great assistance to early childhood teachers in planning educational activities for the classroom and with families. This article explores how early childhood teachers can use resources online to address what has been called an "epidemic" of overweight children. Guidelines for using online resources are presented. (Contains…

  13. Reduced facial emotion recognition in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anne; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Emotional problems often co-occur in overweight or obese children. However, questions of whether emotion recognition deficits are present and how they are reflected have only been sparsely investigated to date. Therefore, the present study included 33 overweight and obese as well as 33 normal weight elementary school children between six and ten years that were matched for sex, age and socioeconomic status. Participants were shown different emotional faces of a well-validated set of stimuli on a computer screen, which they categorized and then rated on an emotional intensity level. Key measures were categorization performance along with reaction times and emotional intelligence as well as emotional eating questionnaire ratings. Overweight children exhibited lower categorization accuracy as well as longer reaction times as compared to normal weight children, while no differences in intensity ratings occurred. Reaction time to neutral facial expressions was negatively related to intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional intelligence and emotional eating correlated negatively with accuracy for recognizing sad expressions. Facial emotion decoding difficulties seem to be of importance in overweight and obese children and deserve further consideration in terms of their exact impact on social functioning as well as on the maintenance of elevated body weight during child development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood lipids profile in obese or overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Szczygielska, Anna; Widomska, Sylwia; Jaraszkiewicz, Magdalena; Knera, Patrycja; Muc, Kamil

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Another established predictor of cardiovascular disease is obesity. Obesity and overweight are widespread phenomena and they have reached epidemic proportions in the developed countries, including Poland. Only 30% of people in the Lublin region have normal weight (BMI<25). The aim of this study was to asses the relationship between BMI (body mass index) and blood lipids in the population of 83 people from Aleksandrow commune (64 women and 19 men aged 28-81) who spontaneously applied for medical examination performed as student research. Mean total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were higher in obese persons in comparison to normal weight subjects and HDL cholesterol concentration was lower in obese subjects as compared to normal and overweight individuals. Differences in mean concentrations of LDL cholesterol were not significant. A linear correlation between the degree of obesity and plasma level of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides was shown. In conclusion, obesity and overweight are accompanied by unfavourable blood lipids patterns and in a considerable proportion of overweight or obese patients other risk factors for coronary heart disease, such as hypertension, smoking, diabetes or family history of cardiovascular diseases coexist.

  15. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  16. Overweight and Obese Humans Overeat Away from Home

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, John M.; King, George A.; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gonzalez-Ayala, Salvador; Kooshian, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    The built environment has been implicated in the development of the epidemic of obesity. We investigated the differences in the meal patterns of normal weight vs. overweight/obese individuals occurring at home vs. other locations. The location of meals and their size in free-living participants were continuously recorded for 7 consecutive days. Study 1: 81 males and 84 females recorded their intake in 7-d diet diaries and wore a belt that contained a GPS Logger to record their location continuously for 7 consecutive days. Study 2: 388 males and 621 females recorded their intake in diet diaries for 7 consecutive days. In both studies, compared to eating at home, overweight/obese participants ate larger meals away from home in both restaurants and other locations than normal weight participants. Overweight/obese individuals appear to be more responsive to environmental cues for eating away from home. This suggests that the influence of the built environment on the intake of overweight/obese individuals may contribute to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22565154

  17. Comparison Balance and Footprint Parameters in Normal and Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Amir Hossein; Bagheri, Ahmad; Azimi, Reza; Darchini, Mohsen Ali; Nik, Hossein Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was done in order to compare balance and footprint parameters in two groups of normal and overweight children. Methods: This semi-experimental study included randomly selected 22 male children (11 normal and 11 overweight boys). To measure the footprint parameters, an ink paper system was used, i.e., after putting their feet in the ink, the subjects were asked to stand comfortably on paper and their footprints were recorded. Then, with the use of ImageJ software, the areas of anterior, middle, and posterior parts, the total area, and the arch index parameter were calculated. For measuring balance in three posterolateral, posteromedial, and anterior directions as well as the total balance, Y-balance test was done. Finally, to analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA test was used to compare the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed a significant difference between normal and overweight subjects in the anterior and posterior areas, whereas, in balance test, only the anterior areas showed significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that area parameters in these two groups do not have significant difference; hence, it cannot be used as the criteria for analyzing the effects of being overweight on these parameters. In addition, it is probable that, in a dynamic situation, recorded footprints are more valid parameters for analyzing foot structure. PMID:23717778

  18. Initial Validation of the Activity Choice Index among Overweight Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Sean P.; Silva, Marlene N.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was designed to evaluate psychometric properties of the Activity Choice Index (ACI), a measure for assessing one's choice to engage in more effortful, physically active behaviors in the course of daily routines over less-demanding, sedentary behaviors, in a sample of overweight women. Method: The sample included 192…

  19. Pre-diabetes in overweight youth and early atherogenic risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare atherogenic lipoprotein particles and vascular smooth muscle biomarkers in overweight youth with pre-diabetes (PD) vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT). 144 adolescents (60 black, 84 white; 102 female; PD=45, NGT=99) aged 10-19 years underwent a fasting blood draw and 2-h OGTT. Lipoprotein ...

  20. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  1. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Overweight and obesity in Massachusetts: epidemic, hype or policy opportunity?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Katharine Kranz; Man, Lynne H

    2007-01-23

    In 2005, more than 56 percent of Massachusetts adults were overweight, a 40 percent increase from rates reported in 1990. Overall, nearly 21 percent of Massachusetts adults are obese. Both Blacks and Hispanics in the state are more likely than whites to be both overweight and obese, whereas Asians are the least likely to be overweight or obese. Nationally, rates of overweight and obesity are even higher. Obesity is a risk factor for multiple serious health problems in adults, including heart disease, hardening of the arteries, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, certain types of cancer, stroke, diabetes, muscle and bone disorders and gallbladder disease. In Massachusetts, it is estimated that direct costs for obesity-related medical expenditures came to a total of $1.8 billion (4.7% of total medical expenditures) in 2003. Medical expenditures for obese people are estimated to be 25-27% higher than normal weight people, and 44% higher among people who are very obese. Costs are largely attributed to higher rates of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, and longer hospital stays. Indirect costs associated with obesity approached $3.9 billion in 1995 reflecting 39.2 million lost workdays, 239 million restricted activity days, 89.5 million hospital bed-days, and 62.6 million physician visits. Causes of obesity include the wide availability of unhealthy foods, increased consumption, changing eating habits, high-calorie beverages, advertising and lack of physical activity. Although a number federal, state and local programs, policies and initiatives aimed at curbing the obesity epidemic have been implemented, more needs to be done. What is the responsibility of government in curbing the obesity epidemic, and how much of the burden should be left up to the individual? These important questions will be discussed at the Massachusetts Health Policy Forum on January 23, 2007. Overweight and obesity continue to climb steadily in the United States among both

  3. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    PubMed

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  4. Influence of bouts of physical activity on overweight in youth.

    PubMed

    Mark, Amy E; Janssen, Ian

    2009-05-01

    It is unknown whether bouts of physical activity confer benefits beyond the total volume of physical activity. It was hypothesize that bouts of physical activity would independently predict overweight in youth. The sample included 2498 youth (aged 8-17 years) from the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analyses were conducted in 2008. Sporadic sessions (1-4 minutes) of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); short bouts (5-9 minutes) of MVPA; and medium-to-long bouts (>or=10 minutes) of MVPA were measured over 7 days using Actigraph accelerometers. BMI was used to classify participants as normal weight or overweight. Logistic regression was used to predict the relative odds of overweight according to total MVPA and bouts of MVPA. After controlling for the volume of MVPA, individuals in the highest quartile for total bouts of MVPA (short + medium-to-long bouts) were only 0.38 (95% CI=0.18, 0.80) times as likely to be overweight compared to the lowest quartile. After controlling for the volume of MVPA and the amount accumulated in short bouts, individuals in the highest quartile for medium-to-long bouts of MVPA were only 0.55 (95% CI=0.32, 0.95) times as likely to be overweight compared to the lowest quartile. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity that took place in bouts conferred benefits on adiposity status that were independent of the total volume of MVPA in this large sample of youth.

  5. Interplay of overweight and insulin resistance on hypertension development.

    PubMed

    Lytsy, Per; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Arnlöv, Johan; Sundström, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Obesity and hypertension are associated, possibly through causal pathways involving insulin resistance and metabolic derangements. We aimed to investigate in a whites sample if overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance are at risk of developing hypertension or blood pressure progression. In a meta-analysis, using multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated the risks of hypertension development and blood pressure progression by combinations of relative weight classes and presence or absence of insulin resistance (defined as highest vs. lower three quartiles using the homeostatic model assessment method) in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 2322) and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors studies (n = 1066). These two samples, consisting mainly of middle-aged and elderly men, provided 1846 observations for the development of hypertension in normotensive individuals and 4223 observations for progressing to a higher blood pressure stage. During a median of 10 years of follow-up, 884 (47.9%) developed hypertension and 1639 (38.8%) progressed to a higher blood pressure stage. Overweight or obese persons without insulin resistance had an increased risk of hypertension development [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.88] and blood pressure progression (OR 1.32, 1.10-1.59) compared with normal-weight persons without insulin resistance. According to this study, being overweight or obese without insulin resistance increases the risk of hypertension and blood pressure progression. This adds to the evidence that overweight and obesity may be harmful per se, and that overweight and obesity without glucometabolic derangements are not benign conditions.

  6. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A

    2015-07-01

    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  7. Assessing overweight and obesity in American Samoan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicky; Fanolua, Sharon; Rosaine, Maggie; Vargo, Donald L

    2007-09-01

    A small number of informed Samoans question the relevance of applying standards developed primarily from Caucasian populations when screening Polynesian children for obesity. They attribute higher body mass index values in Polynesian populations, in part, to anatomical factors other than higher body fat percentage. We attempted to allay these suspicions by assessing a sample of 380 American Samoan schoolchildren aged 11 to 18 for overweight and obesity using both the International Obesity Task Force and the Centers for Disease Control age- and sex-specific body mass index cutoffs and recently proposed age- and sex-specific waist circumference cutoffs for children and adolescents. We tested cholesterol and glucose levels for risk factors associated with obesity, and hemoglobin levels for iron deficiency. We also compared body mass index values from our sample with those from a similar sample taken in American Samoa in 1978 and 1982. Both body mass index cutoffs equally distinguished overweight or obese individuals, constituted by 62% of the males and 70% of the females, from individuals with normal weight. Waist circumference cutoffs assigned percentages of 56% and 61%, respectively. Applying BMI cutoffs to data collected a quarter century ago indicated that 23.0% of males and 43.5% of females were either overweight or obese. We failed to obtain evidence for elevated levels of cholesterol and glucose in overweight and obese individuals among 49 preprandial students. Six males and ten females had subnormal levels of hemoglobin but displayed no physical symptoms suggesting iron deficiency. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among contemporary American Samoan adolescents make them an especially vulnerable faction of the global obesity epidemic.

  8. An Overweight Preventive Score associates with obesity and glycemic traits.

    PubMed

    Ntalla, Ioanna; Yannakoulia, Mary; Dedoussis, George V

    2016-01-01

    To develop a multidimensional, simple index which incorporates targeted dietary and lifestyle behaviors for the prevention and evaluation of treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. A total of 1072 (53.8% females) healthy children and 857 (54.8% females) adolescents from GENDAI and TEENAGE studies respectively were included in the analysis. Both studies are cross-sectional, population-based studies. Dietary and lifestyle behaviors - either with negative or positive impact on obesity, based on the recommendations of Barlow and the Expert Committee - were assessed with use of two non-consecutive 24-h recalls and a dietary questionnaire. For each individual, cumulative exposures to 6 of these obesity-related behaviors, namely consumption of fruits and vegetables, breakfast and family meals, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and fast-food meals, and screen time, were assessed through calculation of the Overweight Preventive Score. Obesity and glycemic control traits were also available for all individuals from both cohorts. Overweight Preventive Score was significantly associated (P<0.05) with all obesity traits and with decreased likelihood of becoming overweight [OR (95% CI): 0.90 (0.84, 0.97), P=0.003] in all individuals after adjustment for potential confounders and exclusion of low-energy reporters. Associations were also significant in stratified analyses by sex (P<0.05). The score was also associated with glycemic control traits in all individuals independently of body mass index, but these associations remained significant (P<0.05) only in males and after adjustment for potential confounders and exclusion of low-energy reporters. The proposed Overweight Preventive Score is a simple index and could be proven as a useful tool for the assessment of preventive and therapeutic interventions in child and adolescent overweight and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatigue failure load indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imig, L. A.; Davis, W. T.; Davis, D. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An indicator for recording the load at which a fatigue specimen breaks during the last cycle of a fatigue test is described. A load cell is attached to the specimen which is alternately subjected to tension and compression loads. The output of the load cell which is proportional to the load on the specimen is applied to the input of a peak detector. Each time the specimen is subjected to a compression load, means are provided for applying a positive voltage to the rest of the peak detector to reset it. During the last cycle of the tension load the peak detector measures the maximum load on the specimen. Means are provided for disconnecting the load cell from the peak detector when there is a failure in the specimen.

  10. Physical Activity Interventions for Neurocognitive and Academic Performance in Overweight and Obese Youth: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Eduardo E; Williams, Celestine F; Davis, Catherine L

    2016-06-01

    This article examines cognitive, academic, and brain outcomes of physical activity in overweight or obese youth, with attention to minority youth who experience health disparities. Physically active academic lessons may have greater immediate cognitive and academic benefits among overweight and obese children than normal-weight children. Quasi-experimental studies testing physical activity programs in overweight and obese youth show promise; a few randomized controlled trials including African Americans show efficacy. Thus, making academic lessons physically active may improve inhibition and attentiveness, particularly in overweight youngsters. Regular physical activity may be efficacious for improving neurologic, cognitive, and achievement outcomes in overweight or obese youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3–1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  12. Lightening the Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Overweight: advancing our understanding of its impact on the knee and hip,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , no. 66 (2007): 141- 142. Tzu, Sun...Std Z39-18 One of the most powerful weapons available to the commander is speed. The unit that can consistently move and act faster than its enemy...has a powerful advantage. The ability to plan, decide, execute, and assess faster than the enemy creates advantage that commanders can exploit

  13. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  14. Daytime sleep duration and the development of childhood overweight: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bolijn, R; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Kremers, S P J; Thijs, C

    2016-10-01

    Reduced nighttime sleep is a risk factor for childhood overweight, but the association between daytime sleep and overweight is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate daytime sleep duration as an independent risk factor for childhood overweight. Data from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study on daytime and nighttime sleep at 2 years (N = 2322), and body mass index (BMI) around 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years were used. Multivariable general estimating equation regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep duration with BMI (linear) and overweight (logistic). No associations between daytime sleep and BMI or overweight were found, whereas longer nighttime sleep was associated with lower BMI and lower risk of overweight persisting up to age 9. Daytime sleep duration is probably less relevant for prevention of childhood overweight. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Body size matters in provision of help: factors related to children's willingness to help overweight peers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanobar L; Holub, Shayla C

    2012-02-01

    Although children who are overweight may be vulnerable to negative social experiences, little is known about whether children will offer help to peers who are overweight. The present study examined whether children would offer aid to peers who are overweight with everyday tasks (such as picking up toys). This study also examined whether weight stereotypes and intentions to befriend these peers are related to intentions to help. Fifty-one children, aged 4-8, were interviewed about their stereotypes and behavioral intentions. Findings revealed that children were less likely to help overweight than average weight peers. Children who did not hold positive stereotypes about thinness and those who chose to play with overweight peers were more likely to help peers who are overweight. Results suggest that weight prejudice is pervasive and that children who are overweight might not be offered aid in classroom settings, highlighting the need for early intervention.

  16. Overweight, race, and psychological distress in children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program.

    PubMed

    Bender, Bruce G; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Walders, Natalie; Zhang, Lening

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether overweight in youth with mild-to-moderate asthma occurs with increased frequency and is accompanied by impaired psychological functioning. The interrelationships among BMI and demographic and psychological characteristics were examined in 1005 children (aged 5-12 years) enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and seen for repeated visits over 4 1/2 years. Baseline rates of overweight (BMI for age: > or = 95th percentile) were comparable, but rates of overweight risk (BMI for age: 85th to < 95th percentile) among children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program were elevated in comparison with the general population of children in the United States. Rates of overweight and overweight risk did not increase over the course of the longitudinal study. Overweight and overweight risk were more frequent among black and Hispanic than white children, although they were not higher relative to same-race groups in the general population. Overweight at baseline was associated with lower IQ, more social withdrawal, and greater internalized psychological distress. As the children became older, the overweight group demonstrated increased evidence of behavior problems and decreased physical activity. This study identifies an increase in overweight risk but not overweight in children with mild-to-moderate asthma. Comorbidity between asthma and overweight may be underestimated, because children with severe asthma and those from impoverished backgrounds were not represented in this sample. For the 14% of children who were overweight, some associated psychological difficulties were present in childhood, and additional problems were seen during adolescence. These results suggest a need for programs that encourage greater vigilance and intervention for overweight children with asthma.

  17. Impact of android overweight or obesity and insulin resistance on basal and postprandial SR-BI and ABCA1-mediated serum cholesterol efflux capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nesrine; Fournier, Natalie; Vedie, Benoît; Cambillau, Michèle; Beaune, Philippe; Ziegler, Olivier; Grynberg, Alain; Paul, Jean-Louis; Guerci, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Since android overweight/obesity and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we investigated their impact on basal and postprandial scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated serum cholesterol efflux. Twelve android overweight to obese and 9 normal weight controls women underwent body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and an oral fat load with blood sampling at initial time (T0), 4h (T4) and 10h (T10) after the fat load. Serum lipids and HDL-parameters, capacities of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from SR-BI expressing Fu5AH hepatoma cells or from ABCA1-expressing J774 macrophages and to abilities of serum to induce a net removal of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells were measured at T0, T4 and T10. Sera from overweight/obese exhibited moderately decreased SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities, in accordance with reduced HDL concentrations, but importantly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol extraction capacities over the postprandial period, partly related to higher prebeta-HDL concentrations. In multiple regression analyses, android obesity-related parameters and HDL-PL or prebeta-HDL levels remained the only independent correlates for SR-BI or ABCA1-dependent fractional cholesterol efflux while only prebeta-HDL levels remained correlated to cholesterol extraction capacities. Our results suggest that android overweight/obesity may not result in an impaired cholesterol efflux capacity.

  18. Health Outcomes in Relation to Physical Activity Status, Overweight/Obesity, and History of Overweight/Obesity: A Review of the WATCH Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-11-02

    Previous research has shown that physical activity may mitigate the association between overweight/obesity and a number of negative health outcomes; however, less is known on how the duration of overweight/obesity alters this association. Therefore, the purpose of this leading article was to synthesize recent studies from our research group examining how physical activity, overweight/obesity classification, and importantly, overweight/obesity duration impact the association with a variety of different health outcomes. Five studies were analyzed, each of which used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to analyze six mutually exclusive groups and their respective association with cardiovascular disease risk, all-cause mortality, multi-morbidity, health-related quality of life, and mild depressive symptoms. These studies detailed that physical inactivity, overweight/obesity classification, and overweight/obesity duration were each independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk and multi-morbidity. Additionally, physical activity reduced the risk of all-cause mortality across all weight classifications/durations, and also reduced the association with depressive symptoms and poor health-related quality of life among those overweight/obese for longer durations. These results illustrate that, while physical activity may reduce the association with negative health outcomes, overweight/obesity appears to increase this association independent of physical activity level, with this further exacerbated by the duration of overweight/obesity. Therefore, the emerging studies examining the importance of physical activity among overweight/obese individuals should also consider the duration of overweight/obesity as this will likely alter the associations present.

  19. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-03-08

    The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be identified for social marketing

  20. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    PubMed Central

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-01-01

    Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be

  1. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  2. Taking a Load Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, John

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the snow -load capacity of school roofs and how understanding this data aids in planning preventive measures and easing fear of roof collapse. Describes how to determine snow-load capacity, and explains the load-bearing behavior of flat versus sloped roofs. Collapse prevention measures are highlighted. (GR)

  3. Study on POT model of vehicle load under toll-by-weight mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. P.; Xu, W. X.; Huang, D. Z.

    2017-04-01

    The overload and overweight operations of vehicles in expressway are particularly serious in China recently. Research on the extreme maximum value of the vehicle loads is an urgent problem in the bridge design. On the basis of statistical analysis of the WIM data from Yu-Zhan Expressway under toll-by-weight mode in Guangdong Province, the POT probability model of gross weight of the vehicle was established by the extreme value theory. It can predict the probability distribution of operating vehicle loads in any recurrence period. Results showed that the overweight vehicles were not accidental, and there may be heavier vehicles in the future. It is necessary to improve and modify the current toll-by-weight charging policy.

  4. Bias against overweight job applicants in a simulated employment interview.

    PubMed

    Pingitore, R; Dugoni, B L; Tindale, R S; Spring, B

    1994-12-01

    This study assessed whether moderately obese individuals, especially women, would be discriminated against in a mock employment interview. Potential confounding factors were controlled by having 320 Ss rate videotapes of a job interview that used the same professional actors appearing as normal weight or made up to appear overweight by the use of theatrical prostheses. Results suggested that bias against hiring overweight job applicants does exist, especially for female applicants. Bias was most pronounced when applicants were rated by Ss who were satisfied with their bodies and for whom perceptions of their bodies were central to self-concept. The decision not to hire an obese applicant was, however, only partially mediated by personality attributions. Implications and limitations of these results are discussed.

  5. Urban Sprawl and Risk for Being Overweight or Obese

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the association between urban sprawl and the risk for being overweight or obese among US adults. Methods. A measure of urban sprawl in metropolitan areas was derived from the 2000 US Census; individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. I used multilevel analysis to assess the association between urban sprawl and obesity. Results. After I controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education, for each 1-point rise in the urban sprawl index (0–100 scale), the risk for being overweight increased by 0.2% and the risk for being obese increased by 0.5%. Conclusions. The current obesity epidemic has many causes, but there is an association between urban sprawl and obesity. PMID:15333317

  6. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-09-01

    I examined the association between urban sprawl and the risk for being overweight or obese among US adults. A measure of urban sprawl in metropolitan areas was derived from the 2000 US Census; individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. I used multilevel analysis to assess the association between urban sprawl and obesity. After I controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education, for each 1-point rise in the urban sprawl index (0-100 scale), the risk for being overweight increased by 0.2% and the risk for being obese increased by 0.5%. The current obesity epidemic has many causes, but there is an association between urban sprawl and obesity.

  7. Overweight, obesity, oxidative stress and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    There is growing scientific evidence linking excess body weight to breast cancer risk. However, there is no common consensus on this relation due partly to methodologies used, populations studied and the cancer subtype. We report here a summary of the present state of knowledge on the role of overweight and obesity in pathogenesis of breast cancer and possible mechanisms through which excess body weight might influence the risk, focusing on the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer etiology. The findings demonstrate duality of excess body weight action in dependence on menopausal status: a statistically significant increased risk in postmenopausal overweight/ obese women and non-significant preventive effect among premenopausal women. Due to several gaps in the literature on this topic, additional studies are needed. Future research should address factors influencing the excess body weight - breast cancer relationship, such as race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, receptor status, the most appropriate measure of adiposity, reproductive characteristics, and lifestyle components.

  8. The relationship between temperament and character and psychopathology in community children with overweight.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Won; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Boong Nyun; Shin, Min Sup; Kim, Seog Ju; Cho, Soo Churl

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between temperament and character and psychopathology in at risk of overweight and overweight children. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) questionnaires were administered to 453 children (10-12 years of age, 203 boys and 250 girls) in Kimpo, South Korea. Subjects were divided into three groups; (1) nonoverweight children (n = 345), (2) children at risk of overweight (n = 72), and (3) overweight children (n = 36). CBCL and the JTCI scores were compared among three groups. In addition, the relationships between subscales of the CBCL and the JTCI were evaluated. On the CBCL, overweight children had higher scores in social problems, delinquent problems, and total problems compared to nonoverweight children. Children at risk of overweight showed higher scores only in social problems compared to nonoverweight children. On the JTCI, lower persistence and tendency of higher novelty seeking was observed in overweight children compared to nonoverweight children. Persistence scores were negatively correlated with scores of delinquent problems, externalizing problems, and total problems in overweight children. Compared to nonoverweight and children at risk of overweight, overweight children had distinct patterns of temperament and character that were related to the specific psychopathology.

  9. Psychosocial and familial impairment among overweight youth with social problems.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Sinton, Meghan M; Aspen, Vandana Passi; Tibbs, Tiffany L; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Frankel, Fred; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2010-10-01

    Emerging research indicates that overweight children with social impairments are less responsive to weight control interventions over the long term. A better understanding of the breadth and psychosocial correlates of social problems among overweight youth is needed to optimize long-term weight outcomes. A total of 201 overweight children, aged 7-12 years, participated in a randomized controlled trial of two weight maintenance interventions following family-based behavioral weight loss treatment. Children with HIGH (T ≥ 65) versus LOW (T<65) scores on the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems subscale were compared on their own and their parents' pre-treatment levels of psychosocial impairment using multivariate analysis of variance. Hierarchical regression was used to identify parent and child predictors of social problems in the overall sample. HIGH (n = 71) children evidenced greater eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-worth, as well as a range of interpersonal difficulties, compared with LOW children (n = 130; ps<0.05). Compared with parents of LOW children, parents of HIGH children reported greater levels of their own general psychopathology (p<0.05). Parent psychopathology significantly added to the prediction of social problems in the full sample beyond child sex and z-BMI (ps<0.01). A substantial minority of overweight youth experience deficits across the social domain, and such deficits appear to be associated with impairment in a broad range of other psychosocial domains. Augmenting weight loss interventions with specialized treatment components to address child and parent psychosocial problems could enhance socially-impaired children's long-term weight outcomes and decrease risk for later development of psychiatric disturbances.

  10. Overweight and dental caries: the association among German children.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Ghalib; Alkilzy, Mohammed; Feng, You-Shan; Splieth, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iso-body mass index (iso-BMI) and both dental caries status and caries increment among German school children. Six hundred and ninety-four students (age range 9-12 years, mean 10.34 ± 0.56, 48% females) were recruited from the fifth grade of 18 primary schools. Weight, height, and oral health data number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) as well as parent/legal guardian questionnaire (measuring SES) were collected during school dental examination at baseline and after one and a half-year follow-up. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the international classification system for childhood overweight and obesity (iso-BMI). Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression models. Iso-BMI was significantly associated with dental caries prevalence and severity in the permanent dentition (P = 0.039). Low-normal weight children had a lower mean DMFT (0.56) than did overweight/obese children (0.70). In addition, a border-line significant association was found between overweight/obese children and caries increment (P = 0.055). Although iso-BMI was associated with dental caries prevalence and severity, the association between caries increment and iso-BMI did not reach a statistical significance. Overweight/obese children however acquired more additional carious lesions during the follow-up period than children with low-normal weight. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Overweight and obesity status among adolescents from Mexico and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Allen, Betania; Fernandez-Ortega, Cielo; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Galal, Osman; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is on the rise among adults, adolescents and children worldwide, including populations living in developing countries. This study aimed to describe body mass index of adolescents from Mexico and Egypt and to evaluate non-nutritional correlates from two cohort studies. Questionnaire data and weight and height measurements were collected in two large baseline studies in adolescents between 11 and 19 years old attending public school during the 1998-1999 school year in Mexico (n = 10,537) and the 1997 school year in Egypt (n = 1,502). The authors compared body mass index and correlates stratified by sex and country through multivariate linear regression. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.8 and 7.9%, respectively, among the Mexican adolescents and 12.1 and 6.2%, respectively, among the Egyptian adolescents. Based on U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition growth charts, for Mexico 18% of boys and 21% of girls were overweight and 11% of boys and 9% of girls were obese. In the Egyptian sample, 7% of boys and 18% of girls were overweight and 6% of boys and 8% of girls were obese. The most consistent correlates of body mass index in the Mexican population were age, years of education, smoking, vitamin intake and participating in sports, whereas the factors correlated among Egyptian adolescents were age and rural residence. Obesity and overweight are becoming a problem among Mexican and Egyptian youth. Information about the risk factors associated with excessive weight gain during the adolescent period is a first step towards proposing prevention strategies.

  12. [Effect of healthy life style in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Móczár, Csaba; Borda, Ferenc; Faragó, Katalin; Borgulya, Gábor; Braunitzer, Ferencné; Vörös, Vera

    2007-01-14

    Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Change of life style plays very important role for the management of overweight and obesity and related cardiovascular risk factors. Patients need to acquire and adopt these changes. The aim of this study was to screen practices for overweight and obese patients, to decrease their cardiovascular risk and prevent development of cardiovascular diseases. 2489 overweight patients were screened from 29 general practices since April of 2001. The authors surveyed their characteristics of life style: eating and exercise habits, body mass index, waist line, resting blood pressure, heart rate and plasma glucose, total cholesterin, triglyceride, HDL after a 12-hour fasting. A team, which consisted of an internist, a dietician and a physical instructor dealt with the patients. After ruling out secondary obesity the team tailored an individual life-style which focused on dietary interventions (low calorie diet) and increased physical activity. 12 months later the body mass index decreased significantly by 0.56 kg/m 2 on average and further 0.088 kg/m 2 by the end of the second year, the waist line first did not change significantly then decreased 0.04 cm. The rest systolic blood pressure cut down significantly on average 5.9 Hg mm in the first year, and more 0.11 Hg mm by the end of second year. The metabolic parameters also decreased significantly: total cholesterin 0.23 mmol/l in the first year, 0.07 mmol/l in the second year, triglyceride: 0.18 mmol/l; 0.08 mmol/l, blood glucose: 0.15 mmol/l; 0.19 mmol/l. The level of HDL did not change. It is very important for management of overweight and obesity that patients adopt changes of life style. The authors' results show that these patients must be followed very strictly.

  13. Identifying Overweight and Obesity in Brazilian Schoolchildren, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Fernanda Seyr; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Enes, Carla Cristina

    2017-08-21

    For any intervention in a population, we need to understand population characteristics and needs. The School Health Program (PSE) is a Brazilian national proposal for the improvement of schoolchildren's quality of life by integrating health and education areas to address vulnerabilities that affect the development of students from public schools. To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-aged children and adolescents and to expound methods to evaluate the nutritional status deviation. Cross-sectional study. Schools in Itatiba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, participating in PSE. A total of 6829 schoolchildren aged 6 month to 15 years. Nutritional status and standard percentile curves for body mass index (BMI) for gender. In children younger than 5 years, the prevalence of being overweight was 13.9%; for those between 5 years or older and younger than 10 years, it was 33.9%; and for those 10 years or older, it was 34.0%. In males, obesity and severe obesity were more present (10.7% and 3.7%, respectively) than in girls (9.5% and 1.9%, respectively). Regarding location, it was found that the region with the highest income showed a higher prevalence of overweight children. Compared with the World Health Organization reference BMI curves, our reference percentile curve showed a higher standard for the cutoff points between normal range and overweight. From our results, we found that age and measures of weight and height in schoolchildren could contribute, in a cheap and simple way, to the assessment of nutritional status in a region. This is helpful in providing health monitoring and assisting in making public health decisions, as well as serving in comparison with other scientific studies. Partnership between education and health systems can facilitate and improve the quality of health management among schoolchildren.

  14. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Maartje P; de Vet, Emely; Velema, Elizabeth; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home observations were determined. A cross-sectional observation of home food environments was conducted as part of a baseline measurement of a larger study. Home food environments of overweight and obese gatekeepers in the Netherlands. Household gatekeepers (n 278). Mean household size of the gatekeepers was 3.0 (SD 1.3) persons. Mean age of the gatekeepers was 45.7 (SD 9.2) years, 34.9% were overweight and 65.1% were obese. Of the gatekeepers, 20.9% had a low level of education and 42.7% had a high level of education. In 70% of the households, eight or more packages of processed snack foods were present. In 54% of the households, processed snack foods were stored close to non-processed food items and in 78% of households close to non-food items. In 33% of the households, processed snack foods were visible in the kitchen and in 15% of the households processed snack foods were visible in the living room. Of the dinnerware items, 14% (plates), 57% (glasses), 78% (dessert bowls), 67% (soup bowls) and 58% (mugs) were larger than the reference norms of the Netherlands Nutrition Centre Foundation. Older gatekeepers used significantly smaller dinnerware than younger gatekeepers. Environmental factors endorsing overconsumption are commonly present in the home environments of overweight people and could lead to unplanned eating or passive overconsumption.

  15. Inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Shin Kon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 636 adult patients who underwent mesh plug inguinal hernia repair performed by one surgeon from November 2001 to January 2009.The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed. According to the body mass index, patients higher than 23 were defined as overweight and obese patient group (O group) and patients between 18.5 and 23 were defined as normal weight patient group (N group). Seventeen underweight patients were excluded in this study. Results Of 619 cases, the number for O group was 344 (55.6%) and for N group was 275 (44.4%). The mean age was significantly higher in N group (62.2 ± 12.6 vs. 64.4 ± 14.8, P = 0.048). Underlying diseases were present in 226 (65.7%) of the O group and 191 (69.5%) of the N group (P = 0.322). Anesthesia method, operative time and postoperative hospital stay had no significant difference between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 41 (11.9%) of the O group and in 28 (10.2%) of the N group, respectively, and no major complications developed in either group. Conclusion Adult inguinal hernias developed at a relatively younger age in overweight and obese patients than in normal weight patients. There were no specific differences in other clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Therefore inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients is a safe procedure as in normal weight patients. PMID:22066122

  16. Metformin Inhibits Skin Tumor Promotion in Overweight and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, L. Allyson; Rho, Okkyung; Angel, Joe M.; Cho, Jiyoon; Blando, Jorge; Beltran, Linda; Hursting, Stephen D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of metformin to inhibit skin tumor promotion by 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was analyzed in mice maintained on either an overweight control diet or an obesity inducing diet. Rapamycin was included for comparison, and a combination of metformin and rapamycin was also evaluated. Metformin (given in the drinking water) and rapamycin (given topically) inhibited development of both papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas in overweight and obese mice in a dose-dependent manner. A low dose combination of these two compounds displayed an additive inhibitory effect on tumor development. Metformin treatment also reduced the size of papillomas. Interestingly, all treatments appeared to be at least as effective for inhibiting tumor formation in obese mice and both metformin and rapamycin were more effective at reducing tumor size in obese mice compared to overweight control mice. The effect of metformin on skin tumor development was associated with a significant reduction in TPA-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. Furthermore, treatment with metformin led to activation of epidermal AMPK and attenuated signaling through mTORC1 and p70S6K. Combinations of metformin and rapamycin were more effective at blocking epidermal mTORC1 signaling induced by TPA consistent with the greater inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion. Collectively, the current data demonstrate that metformin given in the drinking water effectively inhibited skin tumor promotion in both overweight and obese mice and that the mechanism involves activation of epidermal AMPK and attenuated signaling downstream of mTORC1. PMID:24196830

  17. After School Activities, Overweight, and Obesity among Inner City Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Whitney L.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Koralewicz, Lisa M.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association of adolescent obesity with participation in sports among 5489 low-income, inner city public high school students. Among inner city youth 28.5% of males and 33.7% of females were overweight and 15.9% of boys and 16.4% of girls were obese. For both males and females, participation in an increasing number of athletic…

  18. The relation between internet use and overweight among adolescents: a longitudinal study in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Barrense-Dias, Y; Berchtold, A; Akre, C; Surís, J-C

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the characteristics and predictive risk factors of overweight among adolescents. The hypothesis was that baseline overweight predicted most overweight over time compared to other factors, especially excessive internet use. A sample of 621 youths were followed from age 14 (T0 Spring 2012) to age 16 (T1 Spring 2014) in Switzerland. Participants were divided into two groups according to their weight at the final assessment: overweight and non-overweight. At T0, participants reported demographic, health, substance use and internet use data. A logistic regression was performed to assess the explanatory variables of overweight at T1. Data are presented as adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence interval. The 2-year evolution showed a net BMI increase of 4.8%. Overweight adolescents were significantly more likely to be male, to live in an urban area, to be on a diet and to report using the internet more than 2 h per day on weekends at T0. However, with the addition of baseline overweight, only the excessive use of internet on weekends remained as an explanatory variable. An adolescent who was already overweight at T0 had a more than 20-fold risk (aOR 21.04) of being overweight 2 years later. Moreover, among adolescents becoming overweight between T0 and T1, internet use did not show any significant effect. The risk of being overweight is mostly influenced by weight status at baseline compared to excessive internet use. Thus, our results do not confirm the negative effect of internet on healthier activities. Internet use could at most reinforce an already existing risk of being overweight.

  19. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P <0.01). Using a paired design and a power of 0.8, a minimum of 12 participants would be needed to detect a 10 mm change in 5 h postprandial mean ratings and 17 to detect a 500 kJ difference in ad libitum EI. Intra-individual variability of appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  1. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  2. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  3. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9-11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Muthuri, Stella K; Onywera, Vincent O; Tremblay, Mark S; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Data were collected from 4752 children (9-11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents' education level, weight, and height. Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23-2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21-10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33-0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33-0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33-0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19-0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31-0.96). Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to

  4. Fibrinolysis in diabetes mellitus. Role of overweight and hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Cucuianu, M; Fekete, T; Marcusiu, C; Mösler, R; Duţu, A

    1984-01-01

    The variations of dilute blood clot lysis time (DBCLT) in 103 diabetic patients were investigated in terms of insulin dependency, body weight, serum lipids and presence of diabetic vascular diseases. The results showed that DBCLT was significantly longer in the 34 overweight diabetic patients (437 +/- 68 min) than in the 69 diabetics at or below the ideal body weight (240 +/- 28 min) or in the 76 normalipidemic normal weight control subjects (253 +/- 12 min). DBCLT was also longer in the hypertrigliceridemic diabetic patients than in the normolipidemic ones. The mean lysis time was similar in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. However, a higher level of fibrinolytic inhibitors was found in patients with diabetic small vessel disease. In vitro inhibition of plasma factor XIII by p-chlormercuribenzoate (PCMB) caused an acceleration of DBCLT and the differences between lysis time in the overweight diabetics and in the controls were attenuated. These results suggested that deficient thrombolysis is rather due to overweight and to disturbances of lipid metabolism than to diabets and/or its vascular complications and that enhanced fibrin crosslinking is at least partially responsible for delayed clot lysis.

  5. Child feeding practices and overweight status among Mexican immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to compare maternal perceptions, feeding practices, and overweight status of children in immigrant households in California (US) with a cohort in Guanajuato, Mexico (MX). In 2006, staff interviewed mothers and weighed and measured their children, 1-6 years (US: n = 95 and MX: n = 200). Prevalence of overweight [body mass index z-score (BMIZ) >1.0 and <1.65] and obesity (BMIZ > 1.65) was 21.1 and 28.4% in the US respectively, compared to 11.5 and 12.9% in MX (p < 0.001). No differences were observed in maternal ability to identify correctly the child's weight status or ever being told the child was overweight. US children ate away from home more often (p < 0.0001), had fewer family meals (p < 0.0001), and played outdoors less often than MX children (p < 0.0002). Further analyses should examine how differences in eating and activity patterns explain the disparity in childhood obesity across the countries.

  6. [Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in endometrial cancer].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Chávez, Tania L N; Vilar-Compte, Diana; de Nicola-Delfín, Luigina; Meneses-García, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    in postmenopausal women, the excess of fat has been associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension in patients with endometrial cancer. we collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and histopathological information from the electronic records of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer in the period from January 2009 to July 2011. Subsequently descriptive analysis of the information was done. a total of 274 records. The average age of patients was 54 years. The 50.4 % were postmenopausal. At the time of diagnosis, 112 cases (48.6 %) were in clinical stage I. Of all patients, 104 (37.9 %) had diabetes mellitus, 122 (44.5 %) hypertension, 194 (72.6 %) were overweight or obese, and 24 cases were registered with the metabolic syndrome. in regards to this diagnosis the results show a higher incidence of overweight and obesity compared with other countries. It is necessary to conduct further studies to assess the relationship of excess fat as a risk factor for endometrial cancer.

  7. Does being overweight affect seminal variables in fertile men?

    PubMed

    Taha, Emad A; Sayed, Sohair K; Gaber, Hisham D; Abdel Hafez, Hatem K; Ghandour, Nagwa; Zahran, Asmaa; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-12-01

    The effect of being overweight on seminal variables was assesed in 165 fertile men. Participants were divided into three groups: fertile men with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), fertile overweight men (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and fertile obese men (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). Medical history was taken, a clinical examination conducted. Semen analysis was undertaken and BMI measured. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by chemiluminescent assay, sperm vitality by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and sperm DNA fragmentation by propidium iodide staining with flowcytometry. Fertile obese men had significantly lower sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility and sperm normal morphology, with significantly higher seminal ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation compared with fertile normal-weight men and overweight men (all P < 0.05). BMI was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.091; P = 0.014), progressive sperm motility (r = -0.697; P = 0.001), normal sperm morphology (r = -0.510; P = 0.001), sperm vitality (r = -0.586; P = 0.001), but positively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (r = 0.799; P = 0.001) and seminal ROS (r = 0.673; P = 0.001). Increased BMI was found to affect semen parameters negatively even in fertile men.

  8. Effects of Integrated Health Management Intervention on Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiting; Ma, Chung Wah; Yang, Yide; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Xiaoliang; Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Zhongping; Wang, Zhenghe; Meng, Xiangkun; Ma, Dongmei; Ma, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p < 0.05) except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), body fat ratio (BFR), and hipline (p < 0.05). The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity. PMID:28115972

  9. Overweight and the feline gut microbiome - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kieler, I N; Mølbak, L; Hansen, L L; Hermann-Bank, M L; Bjornvad, C R

    2016-06-01

    Compared with lean humans, the gut microbiota is altered in the obese. Whether these changes are due to an obesogenic diet, and whether the microbiota contributes to adiposity is currently discussed. In the cat population, where obesity is also prevalent, gut microbiome changes associated with obesity have not been studied. Consequently, the aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota of lean cats, with that of overweight and obese cats. Seventy-seven rescue-shelter cats housed for ≥3 consecutive days were included in the study. Faecal samples were obtained by rectal swab and, when available, by a paired litter box sample. Body condition was assessed using a 9-point scoring system. DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with a high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR chip. Overweight and obese cats had a significantly different gut microbiota compared to lean cats (p < 0.05), but this finding could not be linked to differences in specific bacterial groups. The rectal samples obtained higher DNA concentration than litter box samples (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, overweight and obese cats seem to have an altered gut microbiome as compared to lean cats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  11. Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norway is experiencing an increase in overweight/obese adults, with immigrants from developing countries carrying a heavy burden. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Somali immigrants in Oslo. Findings A cross-sectional study involving 208 respondents aged 25 and over was conducted among Somali immigrants in Oslo, using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of overweight/obesity varied by gender, with women having a significantly higher prevalence (66%) than men (28%). The mean BMI for females and males were 27.4 and 23.6, respectively. Similarly, 53% of women and 28% of men were abdominally obese. In a logistic regression analysis, both generalized and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increasing duration of residence in Norway, and with being less physically active. Conclusion Public health policymakers should facilitate an environment that enables Somali immigrants, particularly women, to lead healthy lifestyles. In this time of epidemiological transition, health education in the areas of physical exercise and healthy eating should be a major focus for working with new immigrants. PMID:23531273

  12. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R.; McCrae, Robert R.; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. Methods More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (N=5,693; aged 14-94; M=43; SD=17), were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Results High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with BMI categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 Kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Conclusions Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. While individuals’ traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches. PMID:19414622

  13. Facets of personality linked to underweight and overweight.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Antonio; Sutin, Angelina R; McCrae, Robert R; Deiana, Barbara; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Uda, Manuela; Costa, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    Personality traits underlie maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive and emotional disturbances that contribute to major preventable causes of global disease burden. This study examines detailed personality profiles of underweight, normal, and overweight individuals to provide insights into the causes and treatments of abnormal weight. More than half of the population from four towns in Sardinia, Italy (n = 5693; age = 14-94 years; mean +/- standard deviation = 43 +/- 17 years) were assessed on multiple anthropometric measures and 30 facets that comprehensively cover the five major dimensions of personality, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. High Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness were associated with being underweight and obese, respectively. High Impulsiveness (specifically eating-behavior items) and low Order were associated with body mass index categories of overweight and obese, and with measures of abdominal adiposity (waist and hip circumference). Those scoring in the top 10% of Impulsiveness were about 4 kg heavier than those in the bottom 10%, an effect independent and larger than the FTO genetic variant. Prospective analyses confirmed that Impulsiveness and Order were significant predictors of general and central measures of adiposity assessed 3 years later. Overweight and obese individuals have difficulty resisting cravings and lack methodical and organized behaviors that might influence diet and weight control. Although individuals' traits have limited impact on the current obesogenic epidemic, personality traits can improve clinical assessment, suggest points of intervention, and help tailor prevention and treatment approaches.

  14. Maternal Overweight Disrupts the Sexual Maturation of the Offspring.

    PubMed

    Galarza, Rocío A; Rhon Calderón, Eric A; Cortez, Analía E; Faletti, Alicia G

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the present work were to study the effect of maternal overweight and obesity on the ovarian reserve, follicular development, and ovulation of the offspring and to assess whether this maternal condition alters oocyte integrity. To this end, female offspring from rats fed standard (OSD) or cafeteria (OCD) diet were used. Body weight, vaginal opening, and estrous cycle were recorded and ovaries were obtained on the day of the second estrus. In addition, ovarian weight, ovulation rate (measured by the number of oocytes within oviducts), follicular development (determined by histology), and oocyte integrity were examined. The OCD were divided into 2 groups: offspring from rats with 17% and 28% of overweight (OCD17 and OCD28, respectively). Both OCD groups showed higher body weight, but OCD28 also exhibited early vaginal opening and higher ovarian weight and glycemia at euthanasia compared with OSD. Both OCD17 and OCD28 had lower number of primordial and primary follicles, and only OCD28 exhibited lower number of antral follicles, all compared with OSD rats. In addition, both OCD17 and OCD28 had higher ovulation rate than controls, and OCD28 had lower number of healthy oocytes, which, in turn, exhibited morphological alterations such as larger perivitelline space and zona pellucida than those of control animals. These results suggest that maternal overweight may severely affect the reproductive ability of the offspring, likely as a result of altering the organogenesis.

  15. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  16. Overweight and Obesity in Pediatric Secondary Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Grace l.; Sheldon, Claire A.; Burrows, Evanette K.; Chilutti, Marianne R.; Liu, Grant T.; Mccormack, Shana E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the clinical, demographic, and anthropometric patient characteristics of secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in children and adolescents based on the recently revised diagnostic criteria. Design Retrospective observational case series. Methods Patients seen at a tertiary children's hospital for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome were classified as having either primary idiopathic (n = 59) or secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (n = 16), as rigorously defined by recently revised diagnostic criteria. Outcomes included body mass index Z-scores (BMI-Z), height and weight Z-scores, demographics, and clinical features at presentation, such as headache, sixth nerve palsy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure. Results In this cohort, the associated conditions and exposures seen in definite secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome included tetracycline-class antibiotics (n = 11), chronic kidney disease (n = 3), withdrawal from chronic glucocorticoids (n = 1), and lithium (n = 1). Other associations observed in the possible secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome group included Down syndrome, vitamin A derivatives, and growth hormone. In comparison with primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, definite secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome patients were on average older (15.0 vs 11.6 years; P = .003, Mann-Whitney test). According to US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifications, 79% of children with secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome were either overweight or obese (36% overweight [n = 5] and 43% obese [n = 6]), as compared to 32% nationally. Conclusions Even when a potential inciting exposure is identified for pediatric pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, the possible contribution of overweight and obesity should be considered. PMID:25447107

  17. Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Energy Intake in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Rutledge, Margaret S.; Kozlosky, Merel; Salaita, Christine G.; Gustafson, Jennifer K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Fleisch, Abby F.; Roberts, Mary D.; Ning, Cong; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between energy intake during a buffet meal and indices of insulin dynamics in overweight children. Study design 95 non-diabetic, overweight (BMI ≥95th percentile) children (age 10.3±1.4y) selected lunch from a 9,835kcal buffet eaten ad libitum after an overnight fast. The associations between energy intake and measures of insulin dynamics, in the post-absorptive state and during a 2h-hyperglycemic clamp, were determined. Covariates in the statistical model included race, sex, skeletal age, fat-free mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, and number of foods in the buffet rated as acceptable. Results Energy intake was positively associated with the fasting homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β=0.24, p=0.042), fasting insulin/glucose ratio (β=0.24, p=0.044), 1st-phase insulin (β=0.23, p=0.032), and 1st-phase C-peptide (β=0.21, p=0.046); energy intake was negatively associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (SIclamp; β= -0.29, p=0.042). Each 10% decrease in SIclamp predicted 27 kcal greater energy intake. Conclusions Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with greater energy intake after an overnight fast in overweight children. These associations suggest mechanisms whereby insulin resistance may contribute to excessive weight gain in children. PMID:18410761

  18. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  19. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  20. Measurement of Mealtime Behaviors in Rural Overweight Children: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann M.; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Patton, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study presents results of an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the Behavioral Pediatric Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) in a sample of rural children with overweight and obesity. Relationships between mealtime behavior and health outcomes are also explored. Methods EFA was used to assess the fit of the BPFAS in a group of 160 treatment-seeking children (Mage = 9.11, SD = 1.77) living in rural Midwest communities. Correlations were also computed between factor scores and select health variables (child body mass index z-score and diet variables). Results The EFA identified a 5-factor solution as the best fitting model (Tucker–Lewis Index = .96, root mean square error of approximation = .05), although several items (i.e., 7 of 25) did not load on any factor. 2 factors were correlated with health variables of interest. Conclusion Study results suggest that certain items on the BPFAS may not be appropriate for use with rural children with pediatric overweight or obesity. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:24326908

  1. The impact of changes in dietary knowledge on adult overweight and obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Zeng, Qiyan; Cheng, Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly growing threats in China. Improvement in dietary knowledge can potentially prevent overweight and obesity, conditions which are receiving substantial attention from international organizations and governments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of changes in dietary knowledge on adult overweight and obesity, using a balanced panel data consisting of 10,401 samples from the 2006, 2009, and 2011 iterations of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results indicate that overweight and obesity are becoming increasingly problematic in China, and the level of dietary knowledge among Chinese adults needs improvement. Moreover, the empirical results indicate that changes in dietary knowledge among adults has no significant influence on adult overweight and obesity, a likely result of lacking systematic dietary knowledge and having inadequate guidance on overweight/obesity-related behaviors. PMID:28644891

  2. The impact of changes in dietary knowledge on adult overweight and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zeng, Qiyan; Jin, Shaosheng; Cheng, Guangyan

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are rapidly growing threats in China. Improvement in dietary knowledge can potentially prevent overweight and obesity, conditions which are receiving substantial attention from international organizations and governments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of changes in dietary knowledge on adult overweight and obesity, using a balanced panel data consisting of 10,401 samples from the 2006, 2009, and 2011 iterations of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results indicate that overweight and obesity are becoming increasingly problematic in China, and the level of dietary knowledge among Chinese adults needs improvement. Moreover, the empirical results indicate that changes in dietary knowledge among adults has no significant influence on adult overweight and obesity, a likely result of lacking systematic dietary knowledge and having inadequate guidance on overweight/obesity-related behaviors.

  3. Obesity, overweight and body-weight perception in a High Atlas Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Lahmam, A; Baali, A; Hilali, M K; Cherkaoui, M; Chapuis-Lucciani, N; Boetsch, G

    2008-03-01

    In order to study the prevalence of obesity and overweight and to understand how the human body is perceived among Moroccan mountain populations, we carried out a survey that covered a sample of 436 Amazigh individuals aged 20 years and more from the High Moroccan Atlas. Through this survey, we noticed that obesity is still low among men (2.4%), whereas the prevalence of obesity among women is alarming and reaches 13.3%. The prevalence of overweight is also high, especially among women, with 32.8% vs. 21.8% among men. Obesity prevalence, especially overweight, is higher than that recorded in the national rural level. The high prevalence of overweight that can develop to obesity should be taken into account mainly when dealing with women that still value overweight. In fact, women in our sample underestimate their overweight more than men and wish to have a heavier body.

  4. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  5. The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: LTC Melba C. Stetz, PhD...Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-2-0010 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC... exercise motivation, and self-efficacy in overweight and obese Army personnel. Although increased activity level has proven to be a critical element

  6. The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sarah D. Miyahira, Ph.D...Simulations on Exercise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-2-0010 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project was designed to evaluate the effect of video game play on exercise motivation, self-efficacy, and adherence in overweight and obese adults

  7. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  8. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  9. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  10. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  11. No effect of acute, single dose oral administration of Momordica charantia Linn., on glycemia, energy expenditure and appetite: a pilot study in non-diabetic overweight men.

    PubMed

    Kasbia, Gursevak S; Arnason, Jon Thor; Imbeault, Pascal

    2009-10-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. Cucurbitaceae (MC), has been used to treat glycemic impairment in humans for centuries. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of MC on postprandial glucose levels, energy expenditure/fuel mixture and appetite in overweight men. Five healthy overweight men were supplemented on three randomized conditions where (1) no MC (placebo), (2) 50 mg/kg body weight (MC50) or (3) 100 mg/kg body weight of freeze dried MC were administered orally prior to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured before and during the OGTT. Energy expenditure as well as carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Visual analogue scales were used to rate appetite profile. Plasma glucose and insulin levels significantly increased during the OGTT (p < or =0.05) but no significant difference was observed between experimental conditions. Energy expenditure, carbohydrate and lipid oxidation rates as well as appetite profile did not differ between experimental conditions. These results suggest that from an acute standpoint, a freeze dried MC extraction in its present dose form does not affect plasma glucose/insulin levels, energy expenditure, substrate mixture and appetite scores following an oral glucose load in non-diabetic overweight men.

  12. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiling; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01). According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  13. Parents often do not recognize overweight in their child, regardless of their socio-demographic background.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Wilma; Brug, Johannes

    2006-12-01

    To involve parents successfully in the treatment of overweight in their child, they first need to be aware of the problem and its accompanying health risks. Data on 1840 9-11 year olds from the Rotterdam Youth Health Monitor were analysed to investigate whether awareness of parents differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. In the case of overweight children, 50% of the parents do not recognize that their child is overweight. Except for age none of the investigated socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnicity and parental education, was associated with awareness. Parents of obese children show greater awareness than parents of overweight children.

  14. Rapid neonatal weight gain increases risk of childhood overweight in offspring of diabetic mothers.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, Andreas; Harder, Thomas; Rodekamp, Elke; Kohlhoff, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Increased neonatal weight gain has been suggested as risk factor for later overweight. Offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) have a long-term increased overweight risk. However, the role of early postnatal weight gain for later overweight has not been addressed so far in ODM. We investigated whether increased weight gain during the first 4 months is related to later overweight in ODM. Determinants of childhood overweight and neonatal weight gain were analyzed in 152 ODM from the Kaulsdorf Cohort Study by MANOVA and regression analyses. Independent of birth weight, weight gain during the first 4 months was positively related to childhood relative body weight (P=0.001). Each 100 g-increase in weight during this period increased overweight risk by 65% (95%CI: 10-247%). ODM with rapid early weight gain had a more than six-fold increased risk of later overweight (OR: 6.77; 95%CI: 1.36-33.6). Early neonatal intake of breast milk from metabolically healthy mothers protected from rapid early weight gain (P=0.03). Increased weight gain during the first 4 months of life is a strong, independent risk factor for childhood overweight in ODM. Preventing nutritionally-induced rapid early weight gain in ODM might be a promising strategy to lower their long-term overweight risk.

  15. [Individual, social and environmental determinants of overweight and obesity among Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Azar, Ariel; Franetovic, Gonzalo; Martínez, Matías; Santos, Humberto

    2015-05-01

    In Chile, overweight and obesity are pressing issues in public health. To identify individual, social and environmental factors that affect the likelihood of adolescents to become overweight or obese. We used physical condition data of a sample of 900 urban eighth grade students from Santiago, obtained in the 2011 National Study of Physical Education. This information was complemented with georeferenced data from the place of residence of students and the environment in which they live. We used three logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between individual, social and environmental factors and the likelihood of being overweight or obese. Men and students of high socioeconomic status (SES) have a lower probability of being overweight (-6 percentage points (pp.) and -12 pp. respectively). Furthermore, the determinants that affect overweight depend on SES. Namely, only men of middle and low SES have a lower probability of being overweight (-7 pp.). Participation in school sporting activities reduces the likelihood of being overweight only for students of middle and low SES (-5,5 pp.). For adolescents of high SES, the distance between their school and the nearest fast food restaurant decreases the likelihood of being overweight (-4.7 pp. per km.). The determinants of overweight differ by SES. Public policy design should consider socioeconomic inequalities that characterize the Chilean reality.

  16. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    PubMed

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients.

  17. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status - the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and

  18. The oxygen uptake kinetic response to moderate intensity exercise in overweight and non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Potter, C R; Zakrzewski, J K; Draper, S B; Unnithan, V B

    2013-01-01

    To compare the phase II oxygen uptake time constant (τV'O(2)) and V'O(2) mean response time (V'O(2)MRT) in overweight (OW) and non-OW (NO) children during moderate intensity exercise. Between subjects where participants completed a maximal ramp exercise test on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer to determine peak V'O(2) (V'O(2peak)) and gas exchange threshold (GET). Gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath using a mass spectrometer. On subsequent visits, 6 square-wave transitions (2 per day) from 0 W to 90% GET were completed. Individual phase II τV'O(2) and V'O(2)MRTs were estimated from time aligned average V'O(2) traces. Eleven OW (11.8±0.4 years) and 12 NO (11.9±0.4 years) children were recruited to the study. The OW group was significantly heavier (62.9±9.7 vs 39.4±5.8 kg, P<0.001), taller (1.58±0.05 vs 1.47±0.07 m, P<0.001) and had a higher body mass index (25.8±3.4 vs 18.3±1.8 kg m(-2), P<0.001). Both τV'O(2) (30.2±9.6 vs 22.8±7.1 s, P<0.05) and V'O(2)MRT (43.5±10.7 vs 36.3±5.3 s, P<0.05) were significantly slower in OW compared with NO children; absolute V'O(2peak) was higher in the OW compared with NO group (2.23±0.04 vs 1.74±0.04 l min(-1), P<0.05); mass relative V'O(2peak) was lower in OW compared with NO children (35.9±8.3 vs 43.8±6.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P<0.05); allometrically scaled V'O(2peak) was similar between OW and NO groups whether relative to body mass(0.67) (139.8±29.1 vs 147.2±23.9 ml kg(-67) min(-1)) or stature(3) (576.0±87.2 vs 544.9±84.9 ml m(-3) min(-1)) (P>0.05); absolute V'O(2) at GET was similar between OW and NO groups (0.94±0.24 vs 0.78±0.27 l min(-1), P>0.05); GET expressed as percentage of V'O(2peak) was similar between the groups (42.0±0.1 vs 44.8±0.1%, P>0.05). These findings demonstrate impairment in the factors determining V'O(2) kinetics in OW children at a relatively young age. Furthermore, assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using peak

  19. High-intensity interval training acutely alters plasma adipokine levels in young overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Selma Arzu; Karaca, Aziz; Güldiken, Sibel; Palabıyık, Orkide; Süt, Necdet; Demir, Ahmet Muzaffer

    2017-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma adipokine responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT) in overweight/obese women. Twelve women (age 21.7 ± 3.8 years) completed a 19 days of HIT comprising six session of 4-6 repeats of a Wingate test (0.065 kg load/kg). Plasma adipokine levels were measured before exercise, and at 5 and 90 min after exercise on the first and the last training days. Adiponectin was higher at 5 min than 90 min post-exercise (11.7 ± 7.3 and 10.5 ± 5.8 ng/ml; p = .01) in the first exercise day. Leptin decreased 5 min after exercise (23.6 ± 13.2 vs. baseline 27.8 ± 14.4 ng/ml; p < .01) and remained depressed following 90 min (p < .01). The changes in adiponectin and leptin concentrations were similar on the first and last exercise days. No consistent effect was found on resistin concentration. Future studies are required to disclose the functional consequences of these alterations in plasma adipokine levels.

  20. Social inequality and age-specific gender differences in overweight and perception of overweight among Swedish children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, J S; Gustafsson, P A; Duchen, K; Nelson, N

    2015-07-09

    Overweight among children and adolescents related to social inequality, as well as age and gender differences, may contribute to poor self-image, thereby raising important public health concerns. This study explores social inequality in relation to overweight and perception of overweight among 263 boys and girls, age 7 to 17, in Växjö, Sweden. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and from physical measurements of height, weight and waist circumference [WC]. To assess social, age and gender differences in relation to overweight, the independent sample t- and chi-square tests were used, while logistic regression modeling was used to study determinants for perception of overweight. Social inequality and gender differences as they relate to high ISO-BMI [Body Mass Index for children] and WC were associated with low maternal socioeconomic status [SES] among boys < 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 65] and with low paternal education level among boys ≥ 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 39] [p < 0.05]. One suggested explanation for this finding is maternal impact on boys during childhood and the influence of the father as a role model for adolescent boys. The only association found among girls was between high ISO-BMI in girls ≥ 13 years [mean age = 15.0; n = 74] and low paternal occupational status. Concerning perception of overweight, age and gender differences were found, but social inequality was not the case. Among boys and girls < 13 years, perception of overweight increased only when overweight was actually present according to BMI or WC [p < 0.01]. Girls ≥ 13 years [mean age = 15.0] were more likely to unrealistically perceive themselves as overweight or "too fat," despite factual measurements to the contrary, than boys [p < 0.05] and girls < 13 years [mean age = 10.4; n = 83] [p < 0.001]. The association between social inequality and overweight in adolescence in this study is age- and gender-specific. Gender differences, especially in perception of

  1. Electronic Load Bank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic load-bank circuit provides pulsed or continuous low-resistance load to imitate effect of short circuit on Ni/H2 or other electrochemical power cells. Includes safety/warning feature and taps for measurement of cell-output voltage and current.

  2. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  3. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  4. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  5. Combining ascent loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria and guidelines are presented for combining loads that develop during the ascent phase of a space flight. The primary load-caring structure is discussed including the basic tank and interconnecting members, engine support mounts and connections to tank structure, transition structures between stages, payload shrouds, and the basic support points at separation planes.

  6. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  7. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  8. Does exercise duration affect Fatmax in overweight boys?

    PubMed

    Crisp, Nicole A; Guelfi, Kym J; Licari, Melissa K; Braham, Rebecca; Fournier, Paul A

    2012-07-01

    To compare the assessment of Fat(max) using a single graded exercise test with 3 min stages against 30 min prolonged exercise bouts in overweight boys. Ten overweight boys (8-12 years) attended the laboratory on seven separate occasions. On the first visit, body anthropometrics and peak aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text]O(2peak)) were assessed. Following this, each participant attended the laboratory after an overnight fast for six morning cycling sessions. During the first session, participants completed a continuous, submaximal graded exercise protocol with seven 3 min stages (GRAD) at 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). The final five visits consisted of a 30 min bout of prolonged exercise (PROL) performed in a counterbalanced order at 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). There was no effect of exercise duration on Fat(max) or the absolute rate of fat oxidation during PROL (p > 0.05). At the group level, GRAD and PROL provided similar estimates of Fat(max) (GRAD: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); PROL: 53 ± 10% [Formula: see text]O(2peak); p = 0.995); however, individual variation between the two protocols is shown by a systematic bias and residual error of 0 ± 11% [Formula: see text]O(2peak). Fat oxidation rates remained stable across 30 min of steady-state exercise in overweight boys. Furthermore, Fat(max) was similar at 3, 10, 20 and 30 min of exercise, suggesting that for exercise lasting ≤ 30 min, exercise duration does not affect Fat(max). However, Fat(max) determined with GRAD may need to be interpreted with caution at the individual level given the variation in Fat(max) between protocols.

  9. Attitudes towards health and exercise of overweight women.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Salma; Costarelli, Vassiliki

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes and beliefs held by UK Bangladeshi women on health and exercise and explore possible ways of increasing levels of physical activity in this group. A survey based on an interview-guided questionnaire, with 25 British Bangladeshi females, 30-60 years old, from the Borough of Tower Hamlets, East London, who have been referred to a gym by their general practitioner (GP) in order to improve health. Main reasons for referral were: obesity, metabolic syndrome, risk of type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. Forty per cent of the subjects were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and the remaining 60% were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2). The great majority of the subjects (96%) reported that they were only willing to take up exercise if they were referred to the gym by their GP as an alternative or additional treatment for their complaints. They would not exercise voluntarily. Even though all women in our sample were either overweight or obese, 16% of the subjects reported that they did not know if they were overweight and 20% thought that they were actually of normal weight. Most women identified swimming as the type of physical activity of preference, if they had to exercise, followed by slow walking, with running being the least enjoyed activity. Bangladeshi women take little regular exercise to improve their health, predominant because of certain cultural beliefs and attitudes. More needs to be done to encourage levels and types of exercise that would be more appropriate for this ethnic group.

  10. [Food habits, physical activity and overweight among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Caïus, N; Benefice, E

    2002-12-01

    Overweight and obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide. Not only adults but also children and adolescents are involved. There are no recent data from French West Indies, where situation is believed to be worrying. Hence, the objective of the study was to provide information on the situation of adolescents, describing their nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity habits. A sample of adolescents of both sexes, 14 to 15 years of age, was drawn among the 45 secondary schools of the Island. Of 993 adolescents drawn, 715 participated in the study which consisted in a questionnaire on their food and physical activity habits and anthropometric measurements. As a whole these adolescents displayed a greater growth rate than the WHO reference population. About 20% presented a body mass index (BMI) over the chosen thresholds for overweight and obesity. They were slightly more mature than the French Continental children (i. e. girls experienced menarche at 11.9 +/- 1.0 years of age versus 13 years in Metropolitan France). Their food habits were similar in structure and composition, to those of westernised countries, while retaining some features of the "Creole culture". Foods rich in animal fats and carbohydrates were prevailing. Girls ate less dairy products than boys (53% of the adolescent girls drank milk during breakfast against 64% of the boys). Almost every boy had a sport activity out of school, but girls were less often enrolled in sports. Sport activity decreased with age. There were no clear differences in physical activity levels between adolescents with high BMI or low BMI. There is an excess of overweight and obesity in this adolescent population. These conditions may have appeared soon during childhood and be hardly modified latter. Physical activity level would have a stronger impact on fatness during childhood than at adolescence. Hence, a special attention should be brought early to the nutritional status, food and physical activity habits

  11. Severely overweight children and dietary changes--a family perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Dyeremose, Vicki; Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2012-04-01

    This article is a report on a descriptive qualitative case study of the dietary change experiences of overweight children and their families. Obese children are at risk of experiencing a complicated childhood and becoming obese adults with associated ill health and premature death. The prevalence of obesity among children appears to be rising rapidly. In Europe, prevalence rates for overweight children are 10-40%, and generally this prevalence has tripled during the past 30 years. The study was conducted as a qualitative longitudinal case study on the basis of 2-3 annual interviews with four overweight Danish children, six parents and four siblings from April 2006 to September 2008. Altogether 61 interviews were conducted. In the data analysis process, a thematic, phenomenological approach was used. The following themes were identified: the reactions and attitudes of children with the sub-themes taking ownership of dietary changes and vulnerability reactions; and the reactions and attitudes of parents with the sub-themes personal acceptance and support, indulgence and protection, setting limits and barriers to successful dietary change. The children were under pressure, showed signs of stigmatization and marginalization, and developed self-protecting strategies. The parents tried to cope to the best of their ability, needed help, but felt rejected by professional key persons and authorities. On the basis of the study, it was hypothesised that a prejudice-free, individually accepting and supporting intervention must be provided for each family over time to ensure successful weight loss. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. PATTERNS AND CORRELATES OF MULTIPLE RISK BEHAVIORS IN OVERWEIGHT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.; Calfas, Karen J.; Rock, Cheryl; Patrick, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge about the prevalence, co-occurrence, and correlates of lifestyle related behaviors of overweight women is needed to inform the design of health promotion interventions for weight loss. Methods Cross-sectional study involving 394 overweight and obese women, aged 18 to 55 (mean age = 41.26), 39% from minority backgrounds, recruited through primary care clinics for a weight loss trial. Dependent variables were the proportion meeting recommended levels of physical activity (measured with an Actigraph), percent calories from fat, and servings of fruits and vegetables (assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, FFQ) and accumulating less than 8 hr/day of sedentary time for sedentary behavior (Actigraph). Covariates included socio-demographics, psychosocial variables, diet behaviors, and depression. Results Seventy-five percent of the sample did not engage in at least 30 min/day of physical activity, and 56% spent less than 8 hr/day in sedentary activities. About 76% and 79% of the sample did not meet the dietary fat, and fruits and vegetable consumption guidelines, respectively. Two thirds of the sample had three or more risk factors. Being employed full-time, lower education level, less use of physical activity change strategies, and low levels of social support were associated with higher likelihood of having a greater total number of health risk behaviors. Conclusion Nearly 80% of the sample had multiple lifestyle risk behaviors. Poor dietary behaviors were present in all of the most prevalent risk behavior combinations. Lower socioeconomic and educational status, and family and employment obligations characterize overweight and obese women with unhealthy activity and dietary behaviors in need of health promotion interventions. PMID:18022220

  13. Coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nathália Luíza; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of and the factors associated with the coexistence of risk behaviors for being overweight among Brazilian adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of adolescents (mostly aged 13-15years) enrolled from public and private schools of Brazil in 2012. The co-occurring sedentary behavior and inadequate food consumption (regular intake of sugary and fried foods, and irregular consumption of fruits and vegetables-FV) was estimated using a Venn diagram. Sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors associated with the number of risk behaviors for being overweight were identified using an ordinal logistic regression analysis. Sedentary behavior was observed in 62.0% of adolescents. Regular intake of sugary or fried food was observed in 55.3% and 23.5% of adolescents, respectively, with 51.9% having an inadequate intake of FV. At least one risk behavior was reported in >90.0% of adolescents; 6.1% reported all 4. Being female, having a higher maternal education level, attending private school, not having breakfast or meals with parents regularly, eat watching television, and not practicing weekly leisure time physical activity were associated with an increased chance of having multiple risk behaviors. This study observed a high prevalence of coexisting of risk behaviors, which was associated with sociodemographic, familial, and behavioral factors. These findings may contribute to a clearer understanding of the associations between different behaviors among adolescents, and may be used to improve public health surveillance and to develop strategies that address multiple behaviors, in order to prevent overweight among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of medium and long chain triglycerides consumption on appetite and food intake in overweight men

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Mayrsohn, Brian; O’Keeffe, Majella; Kissileff, Harry R.; Choudhury, Arindam Roy; Laferrère, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    Background Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) enhance thermogenesis and may reduce food intake relative to long chain triglycerides (LCT). The goal of this study was to establish the effects of MCT on appetite and food intake and determine whether differences were due to differences in hormone concentrations. Methods Two randomized, crossover studies were conducted in which overweight men consumed 20 g of MCT or corn oil (LCT) at breakfast. Blood samples were obtained over 3 h. In Study 1 (n=10), an ad lib lunch was served after 3 h. In Study 2 (n=7), a pre-load containing 10 g of test oil was given at 3 h and lunch was served 1 h later. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to determine the effects of MCT and LCT oil on change in hormones and metabolites from fasting, adjusting for body weight. Correlations were computed between differences in hormones just before the test meals and differences in intakes after the two oils for Study 1 only. Results Food intake at the lunch test meal after the MCT pre-load (Study 2) was (mean ± SEM) 532 ± 389 kcal vs. 804 ± 486 kcal after LCT (P < 0.05). MCT consumption resulted in a lower rise in triglycerides (P = 0.014) and glucose (P = 0.066) and a higher rise in peptide YY (P = 0.017) and leptin (P = 0.036) compared to LCT (combined data). Correlations between differences in hormone levels (GLP-1, PYY) and differences in food intake were in the opposite direction to expectations. Conclusions MCT consumption reduced food intake acutely but this does not seem to be mediated by changes in GLP-1, PYY, and insulin. PMID:25074387

  15. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  16. Booster Interface Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steve; Wood, Bill; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between shock waves and the wake shed from the forward booster/core attach hardware results in unsteady pressure fluctuations, which can lead to large buffeting loads on the vehicle. This task investigates whether computational tools can adequately predict these flows, and whether alternative booster nose shapes can reduce these loads. Results from wind tunnel tests will be used to validate the computations and provide design information for future Space Launch System (SLS) configurations. The current work combines numerical simulations with wind tunnel testing to predict buffeting loads caused by the boosters. Variations in nosecone shape, similar to the Ariane 5 design (fig. 1), are being evaluated with regard to lowering the buffet loads. The task will provide design information for the mitigation of buffet loads for SLS, along with validated simulation tools to be used to assess future SLS designs.

  17. Lightening the Load

    PubMed Central

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity. PMID:22428792

  18. Is overweight associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Tehranian school children?

    PubMed

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Alamdari, Shahram; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amiri, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between overweight and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Tehranian school children. A total of 631 school children aged 8-14 year old were selected from elementary and secondary schools, and body weight status was determined according to WHO growth references for 5-19 year old children. Children were categorized into the overweight and non-overweight groups. The HRQoL was assessed using Iranian versions of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version™ 4.0 (PedsQL). Overweight elementary school boys had significantly higher scores for physical functioning, school functioning and total HRQoL, compared to non-overweight ones (p < 0.05). On the other hand, except for emotional functioning subscale, overweight secondary school boys had significantly lower HRQoL scores, compared to their non-overweight counterparts (p < 0.05). In girls, only social functioning subscale scores were significantly lower in elementary school girls compared to non-overweight ones (p < 0.05). Based on parents' perspective, overweight elementary school boys had poorer HRQoL compared to their non-overweight counterparts, significant only for emotional functioning (p < 0.05). For secondary school boys, overweight boys had lower HRQoL scores compared to non-overweight ones, significant for all subscales except for emotional functioning. Based on parents' reports, in both elementary and secondary school girls, there were no significant differences in HRQoL scores between overweight and non-overweight groups. To conclude, in boys while overweight significantly increased HRQoL in children, it significantly decreased HRQoL among adolescents. However, except for social functioning in elementary school girls, there was no significant association between HRQoL scores and overweight. Parents' reports showed an association between overweight and HRQoL, only in boys.

  19. [Overweight and obesity in children: known facts and new trends].

    PubMed

    Molinari-Büchi, B; Barth, J; Janner, M; Frey, P

    2010-05-19

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing. A growing number of children are thus suffering from complications of obesity. Contributing factors can be found on an individual level as well as in the familial and social environment of affected children. Currently there is no single evidence-based treatment strategy available. Studies from family practice are scarce. Multimodal, long-term, easily accessible treatments as offered in family practice are promising and likely to be cost-effective. The sustainability of these changes in behavior still needs to be demonstrated.

  20. High plasma adenosine levels in overweight/obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Priscila; Salgado, Paola; Bravo, Patricia; Guevara, Katherine; Acurio, Jesenia; Gonzalez, Maria Angelica; Oyarzun, Carlos; San Martin, Rody; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-18

    We aim to investigate whether overweight/obese pregnant women have elevated plasma levels of adenosine associated with increased consumption of high-calorie food. Sixty women were included. They were divided into lean (n = 23 and n = 12) or overweight/obese (n = 7 and n = 18) non-pregnant and pregnant women, respectively. Clinical records and maternal blood samples were collected after informed consent. A self-reported dietary questionnaire was also completed. Plasma adenosine levels were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Biochemical parameters, including glucose, total protein, and lipid profile, were determined using standard colorimetric assays. Adenosine levels were higher in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (18.7 ± 1.6 vs 10.8 ± 1.3 nM/μg protein, respectively, p < 0.0001). Overweight/obese pregnant women (21.9 ± 2.5 nM/μg protein) exhibited higher adenosine levels than lean pregnant (14.5 ± 1.0 nM/μg protein, p = 0.04) or non-pregnant women (11.7 ± 1.5 nM/μg protein, p = 0.0005). Also, pregnant women with elevated weight gain exhibited higher (26.2 ± 3.7 nM/μg protein) adenosine levels than those with adequate weight gain (14.9 ± 1.4 nM/μg protein, p = 0.03). These differences were not statistically significant compared with those of pregnant women with reduced weight gain (17.4 ± 2.1 nM/μg protein, p = 0.053). Body mass index and adenosine only in pregnant women were positively correlated (r = 0.39, p = 0.02). While, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption was negatively correlated with plasma adenosine levels only in non-pregnant women (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Pregnancy is associated with high plasma adenosine levels, which are further elevated in pregnant women who are overweight/obese. High PUFA intake might reduce plasma adenosine levels in non-pregnant women.

  1. Overweight and obesity among older adults on admission to hospital.

    PubMed

    Lithander, F E; Keogh, A M; Killeen, L

    2011-03-01

    Poor nutritional status, which includesboth under- a nd over-nutrition, i s associated w it h poor health outcomes. T his cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status of older patients admitted to an acute geriatric ward of a Dublin hospital. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were made. Thirty patients, mean (sd) age 79 (7) y and body mass index 26.6 (4.7) kg/m2, participated. More patients were overweight (n = 12) or obese (n = 9) than underweight (n= 1) or healthy weight (n = 8) which indicates that this age-group may be part of the Irish obesity epidemic.

  2. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. Objectives This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. Patients and Methods A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. Results In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with

  3. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-09-01

    Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with obesity (P < 0.05). Intake of a Western dietary

  4. Trajectories of Overweight among US School Children: A focus on social and economic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, KS; Van Hook, J

    2011-01-01

    Much of the research examining the patterns, timing, and socioeconomic characteristics of child overweight has been limited by the lack of longitudinal nationally representative data with sufficiently large or diverse samples. We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of US kindergartners, to identify three distinct patterns of weight gain from kindergarten through eighth grade. The largest group (boys: 59%, girls: 55%) was characterized as having consistently normal weight whereby BMI percentile remained below the 85th percentile. The remaining children (boys: 41%, girls: 45%) fell either into a class characterized as always overweight/at risk of overweight (boys: 27%, girls: 25%) or gradually becoming overweight/at risk for overweight (boys: 15%, girls 20%). We found some evidence that the relationship between socioeconomic status and children’s health may operate differently across gender. Among girls, low parental income and education were both significant risk factors for the gradual onset of overweight after beginning Kindergarten. Parental income or changes in parental income were not related to boys’ risk of developing overweight after entering Kindergarten; only parents’ education. We found that while children of immigrants display higher levels of overweight / at risk for overweight at each grade level, the children of immigrant parents who have had less exposure to the US were more likely to experience early and sustained overweight throughout elementary and middle school, particularly among boys. High rates of overweight as early as kindergarten, combined with race/ethnic differences suggest that interventions should focus on pre-school children’s environments. PMID:20535537

  5. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Zhaoqing; Sun, Yingxian

    2013-10-01

    We determined the prevalence and risk profiles of being overweight or obese among children and adolescents in rural northeast China. We conducted a cross-sectional study consisting of 4,094 children and adolescents aged 5-18 y. Anthropometric measurements and information on health-related variables were collected by well-trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of subjects who were overweight or obese was 21.8% (15.4% overweight and 6.4% obese). Among boys, getting more sleep was found to be a protective factor against being overweight or obese, and a higher monthly family income (2,000-5,000 Chinese yuan (CNY); 1 CNY = 0.163 US dollar) was associated with an increased risk as compared with lower incomes. For girls, not having breakfast every day conferred higher odds of being overweight or obese (OR, 1.45 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.91)). When both parents were overweight, this increased the risk of a child being overweight or obese in both boy (overweight father: OR, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.26-1.89); overweight mother: OR, 1.73 (95% CI, 1.35-2.22)) and girl participants (overweight father: OR, 2.01 (95% CI, 1.57-2.57); overweight mother: OR, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07-1.96)). The prevalence of pediatric obesity in rural China was relatively high. Risk profiles should be fully considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.

  7. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers' overweight and the population education transition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Haram; Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. An inverted U-shaped curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve changes. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on the education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association was used to assess the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Mothers of reproductive age (15-49 years) in each administration (n 143 258). In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers' overweight was found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets high in animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve's critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Both hypotheses were supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve shifts steadily to a negative linear association with a higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a 'social vaccine' against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general 'population education transition' curve hypothesis

  8. Influences of Alignment and Obesity on Knee Joint Loading in Osteoarthritic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Pater, Mackenzie; Beavers, Daniel P.; Legault, Claudine; Loeser, Richard F.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg·m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg·m−2; 69% female) with radiographic knee osteoarthritis that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. Results A higher BMI was associated with greater (p = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (p = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (p < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. Conclusion BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibio-femoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee osteoarthritis patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment). PMID:24857973

  9. Influences of alignment and obesity on knee joint loading in osteoarthritic gait.

    PubMed

    Messier, S P; Pater, M; Beavers, D P; Legault, C; Loeser, R F; Hunter, D J; DeVita, P

    2014-07-01

    To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 years; 27 kg m(-2) ≥ body mass or body mass index (BMI) ≤ 41 kg m(-2); 69% female) with radiographic knee OA that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. A higher BMI was associated with greater (P = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (P = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (P < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibiofemoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee OA patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment). Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional

  11. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    PubMed

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general.

  12. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  13. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  14. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  15. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  16. Breast-feeding history and overweight in 11 to 13-year-old children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Hossien; Golestan, Motahareh; Rezvanian, Taybeh; Ghasemian, Zahra

    2009-02-01

    The relationship between breast-feeding history and risk of overweight in pre-adolescent children was investigated. Children's breast-feeding history and demographics were obtained in interviewer-administered questionnaires of a multistage cluster sample survey of 800 parents of children aged 11-13 years living in Yazd, Iran. Height and weight were measured in the children. Overweight was defined as body mass index >/=90th age- and sex-specific percentile of the 2000 Centers for Disease Control reference values. One hundred and four (13.0%) of 800 children were overweight. A total of 783 (97.9%) of the children had been breast fed. There was a markedly lower overweight prevalence among breast-fed than non breast-fed children. Controlling for age and sex, children breast fed for at least 24 months were substantially less likely to be overweight than children breast fed for less than 12 months (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-0.9). A longer overall duration and duration of exclusive breast-feeding were associated significantly with the decreasing prevalence of overweight. This sample of Iranian children shows high rates of overweight at young ages but also high rates of breast-feeding. The duration of breast-feeding is inversely related with the prevalence of overweight in pre-adolescent children.

  17. Eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Masayasu; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38-2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.

  18. Overweight and Its Relationship to Middle Eastern American College Students' Sociodemographics and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity plague American society and their burden is shared disproportionately by minorities at all age levels. The ramifications of overweight are well documented and include chronic morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Immigrants, who comprise 11% of…

  19. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  20. Weight-based victimization toward overweight adolescents: observations and reactions of peers.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Cheslea

    2011-11-01

    Weight-based victimization has become increasingly reported among overweight youth, but little is known about adolescents' perceptions and observations of weight-based teasing and bullying. This study examined adolescents' observations of and reactions to weight-based victimization toward overweight students at school. Adolescents (N = 1555) at 2 high schools in central Connecticut completed a questionnaire that examined their perceptions of how common weight-based victimization is compared to other forms of teasing at school, what types of weight-based teasing are frequently observed, who typical perpetrators of weight-based victimization are, and their own reactions to observed teasing incidents. Participants also completed the Fat Phobia Scale. Participants perceived being overweight as a primary reason that peers are victimized at school. At least 84% of participants observed overweight students being teased in a mean way and teased during physical activities, and 65% to 77% of students observed overweight and obese peers being ignored, avoided, excluded from social activities, having negative rumors spread about them, and being teased in the cafeteria. Most students also observed verbal threats and physical harassment toward overweight and obese students. Although the majority of participants felt comfortable stepping in to help an overweight peer who has been teased, many remain passive bystanders following these incidents. Youth perceive frequent and multiple forms of weight-based victimization. Schools' efforts to address weight bias and assist overweight and obese students are important. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  1. Including Overweight and Obese Students in Physical Education: An Urgent Need and Effective Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huanyu; Li, Weidong; Zhao, Qi; Li, Mingda

    2017-01-01

    Students who are overweight or obese generally have low physical ability and fitness levels, experience serious weight-related health implications, are teased and excluded by their peers, and suffer psycho-social and emotional damages as a result of weight stigma. Overweight and obese students have presented an unprecedented challenge for teachers…

  2. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  3. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  4. The Role of Childcare Providers in the Prevention of Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Kathleen; Russo, Theresa J.; Baker, Ida; Dennison, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood overweight has received increased national attention as a social and health problem. Childcare providers play an increasingly prominent role in the lives of young children and are therefore important in initiating change. This qualitative study determined the role of childcare professionals in the prevention of childhood overweight.…

  5. In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

  6. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  7. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  8. Overweight and Its Relationship to Middle Eastern American College Students' Sociodemographics and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity plague American society and their burden is shared disproportionately by minorities at all age levels. The ramifications of overweight are well documented and include chronic morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Immigrants, who comprise 11% of…

  9. Prevalence and Degree of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight in Rural, Urban, and Suburban Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard D.; Meyer, Mary C.; Lehman, Salli C.; Trowbridge, Fredrick L.; Bason, James J.; Yurman, Katy H.; Yin, Zenong

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of child and adolescent overweight (OW) in the United States have been documented, but little is known regarding the prevalence of OW and "Extent of Overweight" (EOW) in individual states or specific regions within states. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OW and EOW in school-aged…

  10. Fostering Inclusion and Positive Physical Education Experiences for Overweight and Obese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obese students are often socially and instructionally excluded from physical education and school physical activity opportunities. This article describes teaching strategies from a study of middle school physical education teachers who are committed to providing effective teaching and positive experiences for overweight and obese…

  11. In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

  12. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or die...

  13. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  14. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  15. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  16. Weight-Based Victimization toward Overweight Adolescents: Observations and Reactions of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Cheslea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight-based victimization has become increasingly reported among overweight youth, but little is known about adolescents' perceptions and observations of weight-based teasing and bullying. This study examined adolescents' observations of and reactions to weight-based victimization toward overweight students at school. Methods:…

  17. Overweight in Adolescents: Differences per Type of Education. Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissers, Dirk; Devoogdt, Nele; Gebruers, Nick; Mertens, Ilse; Truijen, Steven; Van Gaal, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the lifestyle and prevalence of overweight among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents attending 4 different types of secondary education (SE). Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Participants: A community sample of 994 adolescents (body mass index [BMI]: 15-43 kg/m[superscript 2]). Variables Measured: Overweight and obesity…

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  19. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  20. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  1. Design and Implementation of Training to Improve Management of Pediatric Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beno, Luke; Hinchman, Josephine; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Clinicians report a low proficiency in treating overweight children and using behavioral management strategies. This paper documents the design and implementation of a training program to improve clinicians' skills in the assessment and behavioral management of pediatric overweight. Methods: Two one-hour CME trainings were designed…

  2. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    PubMed

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = -0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  3. Fostering Inclusion and Positive Physical Education Experiences for Overweight and Obese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obese students are often socially and instructionally excluded from physical education and school physical activity opportunities. This article describes teaching strategies from a study of middle school physical education teachers who are committed to providing effective teaching and positive experiences for overweight and obese…

  4. Do You Hear What I Hear? Overweight Children's Perceptions of Different Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986, 1999) served as the framework to explore overweight children's perceptions of different physical activity settings. Participants were children (n = 67) enrolled in an after-school and summer program for overweight African-American and Hispanic-American children from low-income families. To gain insight into…

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  6. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  7. Weight-Based Victimization toward Overweight Adolescents: Observations and Reactions of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Cheslea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight-based victimization has become increasingly reported among overweight youth, but little is known about adolescents' perceptions and observations of weight-based teasing and bullying. This study examined adolescents' observations of and reactions to weight-based victimization toward overweight students at school. Methods:…

  8. Body Type, Body Esteem, School, and Leisure: A Study of Overweight, Average, and Underweight Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Leo B.; Gillies, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    The characteristics, sports and leisure involvement, and social relations of 15- to 16-year-old boys and girls categorized as "overweight,""underweight," or "average" were examined in terms of academic achievement, social class, and physical education teachers' perceptions. Overweight and underweight adolescents…

  9. Prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity and associated factors in Peru.

    PubMed

    Preston, Emma C; Ariana, Proochista; Penny, Mary E; Frost, Melanie; Plugge, Emma

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.

  10. Total Serum Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Normal Weight and Asymptomatic Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Ana; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Jurdana, Mihaela; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Pražnikar, Zala Jenko

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and overweight are major contributors to the burden of chronic disease. Both are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation and by increased production of free radicals leading to oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether overweight and fat accumulation is associated with serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in men and women, irrespective of nutritional habits, nutrient intakes, physical activity, smoking, and other confounders, which may be responsible for modifying the association between serum TAC and overweight/obesity measures. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 normal weight and 60 overweight adults aged 25-49. All participants underwent standard anthromorphological measurements of body composition, blood pressure and biochemical measurements, aerobic capabilities assessment and dietary intake evaluation. TAC was measured by using the photochemioluminescence method. All data were analysed with SPSS software. Men had higher values of TAC than women and concentrations of TAC were significantly higher in overweight subjects compared to normal weight subjects. In the present study TAC tended to be increased by various metabolic risk factors, especially overweight/obesity parameters (body mass index, body fat), inflammation and increased serum levels of Cysteine, irrespective of nutritional habits, nutrient intakes, physical activity and smoking. Overweight and obesity at an early stage may stimulate TAC. Therefore, the elevation of TAC in overweight adults may be a compensatory response to oxidative stress, generated by reactive oxygen species. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. [Occupational aspects of epidemiology of overweight: contemporary tendencies and prospects of prophylaxis (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The review article covers occupational aspects of overweight as one of the major behavioral risk factors in many diseases. As this topic is undercovered by the national studies, the review considers the foreign works more. The authors present main concepts of work process influence on overweight and of prophylactic leverages on this influence.

  12. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical activity levels in children from Azores Islands.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sofia A; Seabra, André T; Silva, Rui G; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Beunen, Gaston P; Maia, José A

    2010-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are increasing all over the world and have been associated with low levels of physical activity (PA). To determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity and PA levels in Azorean children according to age and sex; and to determine the association between levels of PA and prevalence of overweight and obesity. Weight, height and PA levels were measured in 3699 children aged 6-10 years, from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Overweight and obesity were classified according to the cut-offs of Cole et al. (BMJ 320:1240-1243, 2000) . In girls, prevalences of overweight and obesity were 22.8% and 13.2%, and in boys 17.6% and 12.3%, respectively. No age trends were found in the prevalence of overweight or obesity; however, girls had a higher risk of being overweight (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7) than boys. Levels of PA were higher in boys compared to girls (F(1) = 52.8, p < 0.001). A protective effect of PA practice (very active versus less active) was observed for obesity (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-0.9). The results demonstrate the existence of high prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Azores Islands, which is associated with low levels of PA.

  13. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  14. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  15. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  16. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  17. The Role of Childcare Providers in the Prevention of Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Kathleen; Russo, Theresa J.; Baker, Ida; Dennison, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood overweight has received increased national attention as a social and health problem. Childcare providers play an increasingly prominent role in the lives of young children and are therefore important in initiating change. This qualitative study determined the role of childcare professionals in the prevention of childhood overweight.…

  18. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.

  19. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  20. Physical activity levels of normal-weight and overweight girls and boys during primary school recess.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.

  1. Do You Hear What I Hear? Overweight Children's Perceptions of Different Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986, 1999) served as the framework to explore overweight children's perceptions of different physical activity settings. Participants were children (n = 67) enrolled in an after-school and summer program for overweight African-American and Hispanic-American children from low-income families. To gain insight into…

  2. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  3. Overweight and obesity and associated factors among school-aged adolescents in Ghana and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda). The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 10.4% among girls and 3.2% among boys, and 0.9% and 0.5% obesity only among girls and boys, respectively. Among girls smoking cigarettes and loneliness and among boys smoking cigarettes were found to be associated with overweight or obesity in multivariable analysis. Overweight status was not associated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and sedentary behavior. Low prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were found in Ghana and Uganda. Smoking cessation and social programs could be integrated into strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in youth.

  4. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  5. Visual exposure to obesity: Experimental effects on attraction toward overweight men and mate choice in females.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E; Christiansen, P

    2015-09-01

    Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.

  6. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  7. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  8. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes

    PubMed Central

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥1 fruit serving and ≥3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = −0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea. PMID:27005654

  9. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…

  10. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  12. Treatment outcomes of overweight children and parents in the medical home

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Experience treating young obese children in the Patient Center Medical Home (PCMH) is lacking. We have shown in the PCMH that after 6 months concurrent treatment of overweight children and their overweight parents (Intervention) results in lower % Over Body Mass Index (%OBMI) compared to ...

  13. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  14. Self-Control Protects Against Overweight Status in the Transition from Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Tsukayama, Eli; Toomey, Sara L.; Faith, Myles; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether more self-controlled children are protected from weight gain as they enter adolescence. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Setting Ten sites across the United States from 1991-2007. Participants The 844 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development birth cohort who had height and weight information at age 15 (in 2006). Main Exposure A composite measure of self-control was created from mother, father, and teacher-report ratings using items from the Social Skills Rating System. Main Outcome Measure Overweight status at age 15 years. Results Approximately one-third of the sample (n = 262) was overweight at age 15. Compared to their non-overweight peers, overweight adolescents at age 15 were about a half-standard deviation lower in self-control at age 9 (unstandardized difference = 0.15, pooled SD = 0.29, P < .001). Children rated higher by their parents and teachers in self-control at age 9 were less likely to be overweight at age 15 (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.98), controlling for overweight status at age 10, pubertal development, age, IQ, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and maternal overweight status. Conclusion More self-controlled boys and girls are less likely to become overweight as they enter adolescence. The ability to control impulses and delay gratification enables children to maintain a healthy weight even in today's obesogenic environment. PMID:20603463

  15. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  16. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  17. Early weaning and other potential risk factors for overweight among preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Geni; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida; Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether early weaning constitutes a risk factor for overweight at preschool age and to identify other factors that affect this association. METHODS This was a case-control study of 366 children aged 2 to 6 years (176 boys and 190 girls) from three cities. The case group comprised overweight children, as defined by body mass index (BMI) for age greater than or equal to the 85th percentile. The main exposure analyzed was early weaning (exclusive or predominant breastfeeding for less than four months). RESULTS Early weaning was a significant risk factor for overweight in univariate analysis (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10–2.60; p = 0.02), but not in multivariate analysis (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.86–2.34; p = 0.17). Maternal overweight, birth weight ≥ 3,500 g and sedentarism were the main risk factors for overweight in multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION In our study, the protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight was only shown in univariate analysis; it did not persist after controlling for other variables. It is possible that breastfeeding has only a small protective role against overweight in comparison with other variables of greater importance. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the potential protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight among preschool children is weaker than genetic and other environmental factors. PMID:20186302

  18. Overweight in Adolescents: Differences per Type of Education. Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissers, Dirk; Devoogdt, Nele; Gebruers, Nick; Mertens, Ilse; Truijen, Steven; Van Gaal, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the lifestyle and prevalence of overweight among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents attending 4 different types of secondary education (SE). Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Participants: A community sample of 994 adolescents (body mass index [BMI]: 15-43 kg/m[superscript 2]). Variables Measured: Overweight and obesity…

  19. Correlates of Psychosocial Well-Being among Overweight Adolescents: The Role of the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Strauss, Jaine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri

    2007-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of at-risk-for-overweight and overweight youths (body mass index greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender; n = 667 male participants, and n = 684 female participants) completed a school-based survey measuring family variables (connectedness, mealtime environment, and weight commentary), psychosocial…

  20. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…