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Sample records for overweight loads

  1. Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    Overweight - body mass index; Obesity - body mass index; BMI ... Boham E, Stone PM, DeBusk R. Obesity. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Sanders; 2016:chap 36. Cowley MA, Brown ...

  2. Lower extremity joint loading during level walking with Masai barefoot technology shoes in overweight males.

    PubMed

    Buchecker, M; Wagner, H; Pfusterschmied, J; Stöggl, T L; Müller, E

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Masai barefoot technology (MBT) shoes on lower extremity joint loading in overweight males during level walking. Therefore, lower extremity kinematics, kinetics, and muscle electromyographic signals of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were recorded in 10 overweight males at a self-chosen walking speed with MBT shoes and conventional shoes. Selected peak joint moments, maximal joint force loading rates, mean muscle intensities, and co-activation indices of the VL/BF, as well as of the VL/GM were analyzed and compared for the two shoe conditions using paired Student's t-tests (α=0.05). Results showed that walking with MBT shoes reduced first peak knee adduction moments in overweight subjects. During midstance and terminal stance, increases in VL/GM co-activation, accompanied by increases in VL and GM (only terminal stance) intensities were found for the MBT situation. Kinetic variables analyzed to assess ankle and hip joint loading did not exhibit any statistical differences. These results suggest that using MBT shoes diminishes medial compartment loads at the knee without overloading hip or ankle joints in overweight males. However, the additional muscle loading should not be overlooked, and warrants further investigation.

  3. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track...

  4. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track...

  5. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track...

  6. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track...

  7. 49 CFR 237.73 - Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of bridges from over-weight and over... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Capacity of Bridges § 237.73 Protection of bridges from over-weight and over-dimension loads. (a) Each track...

  8. Influence of glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet on the risk of overweight and adiposity in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kellen Cristine; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Vicente, Sofia Emanuelle de Castro Ferreira; Moreira, Lidiane Lopes; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between the glycemic index and the glycemic load of the diet with the risk of overweight and high adiposity in children with 5 years of age. Methods: Cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of 232 children born and living in Diamantina (MG, Brazil). Parents and/or guardians provided the food intake data, using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, past history and socioeconomic conditions. Anthropometric and fatness data were collected from the children. The dietary glycemic index and the glycemic load were calculated from the food intake. The glycemic index and glycemic load effect on overweight and adiposity in children was assessed by the Poisson regression (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of overweight by body mass index was 17.3%, and high adiposity was observed in 3.4% and 6.9% by triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold, respectively. No difference was reported between the mean body mass index, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold according to the glycemic index and glycemic load tertiles; however, the overweight group presented a higher carbohydrate intake (p=0.04). No association was found between glycemic index and glycemic load with overweight and adiposity among the children assessed. Conclusions: The glycemic index and glycemic load of the diet were not identified as risk factors for overweight and adiposity in this cross-sectional study. PMID:27215968

  9. Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets.

    PubMed

    Breymeyer, Kara L; Lampe, Johanna W; McGregor, Bonnie A; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a positive association of diet and obesity with depression. Researchers have examined several diet-mood hypotheses, including investigating the extent to which carbohydrates may impact mood. There is limited research on how glycemic load, a characteristic of carbohydrates, impacts mood in healthy adults. Eighty-two healthy weight and overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults enrolled in a randomized, crossover controlled feeding study testing low-compared to high-glycemic load diets. All participants completed self-report mood and energy level questionnaires during each arm of the intervention. Diets were isocaloric and were matched by macronutrient content as a percent of total energy. Mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) subscales; tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor-activity, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment, total mood disturbance (TMD), and negative affect (NA) in addition to the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and end of both 28-day feeding periods. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on mood, controlling for baseline POMS and CES-D scores, diet type, diet sequence, feeding period, sex, and percent body fat classification. The consumption of the high-glycemic load diet resulted in a 38% higher score for depressive symptoms on the CES-D (P = 0.002) compared to the low-glycemic load diet as well as 55% higher score for TMD (P = 0.05), and 26% higher score for fatigue/inertia (P = 0.04). In subgroup analyses, the overweight/obese participants had 40% higher scores on the CES-D scale compared to healthy weight participants (P = 0.05). In conclusion, a high-glycemic load diet was associated with higher depression symptoms, total mood disturbance, and fatigue compared to a low-glycemic load diet especially in overweight/obese, but otherwise healthy, adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT

  10. Time/motion observations and dose analysis of reactor loading, transportation, and dry unloading of an overweight truck spent fuel shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, C.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1992-04-01

    This document presents observed activity durations and radiation dose analyses for an overweight truck shipment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel from the Surry Power Station in Virginia to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The shipment consisted of a TN-8L shipping cask carrying three 9-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Handling times and dose analyses for at-reactor activities were completed by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) personnel. Observations of in-transit and unloading activities were made by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) personnel, who followed the shipment for approximately 2800 miles and observed cask unloading activities. In-transit dose estimates were calculated using dose rate maps provided by Virginia Power for a fully loaded TN-8L shipping cask. The dose analysis for the cask unloading operations is based on the observations of PNL personnel.

  11. A low-glycemic load diet reduces serum C-reactive protein and modestly increases adiponectin in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Chiachi; Breymeyer, Kara; Coronado, Gloria; Wang, Chin-Yun; Noar, Karen; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna W

    2012-02-01

    Low-glycemic load (GL) diets improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. Less is known about whether low-GL diets, independent of weight loss, improve the health profile for persons without diabetes or other preexisting conditions. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study testing low- compared to High-GL diets on biomarkers of inflammation and adiposity in healthy adults. Eighty participants (n = 40 with BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²; n = 40 with BMI 28.0-40.0 kg/m²) completed two 28-d feeding periods in random order where one period was a high-GL diet (mean GL/d = 250) and the other a low-GL diet (mean GL/d = 125). Diets were isocaloric with identical macronutrient content (as percent energy). All food was provided and participants maintained weight and usual physical activity. Height, weight, and DXA were measured at study entry and weight assessed again thrice per week. Blood was drawn from fasting participants at the beginning and end of each feeding period and serum concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP, serum amyloid A, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Linear mixed models tested the intervention effect on the biomarkers; models were adjusted for baseline biomarker concentrations, diet sequence, feeding period, age, sex, and body fat mass. Among participants with high-body fat mass (>32.0% for males and >25.0% for females), the low-GL diet reduced CRP (P = 0.02) and marginally increased adiponectin (P = 0.06). In conclusion, carbohydrate quality, independent of energy, is important. Dietary patterns emphasizing low-GL foods may improve the inflammatory and adipokine profiles of overweight and obese individuals.

  12. Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hobl, Lisa Patricia; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-08-25

    The objective of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the available literature data investigating the effects of low glycaemic index/low glycamic load dietary regimens on anthropometric parameters, blood lipid profiles, and indicators of glucose metabolism in children and adolescents. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of trials with restrictions to randomized controlled trials, but no limitations concerning language and publication date. Parameters taken into account were: body weight, body mass index, z-score of body mass index, fat mass, fat-free mass, height, waist cicrumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-index, glycosylated haemoglobin, and C-reactive protein. Meta-analyses were performed for each parameter to assess pooled effect in terms of weighted mean differences between the post-intervention (or differences in means) of the low glycaemic index diets and the respective high glycaemic index counterparts. Data analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. software. Nine studies enrolling 1.065 children or adolescents met the inclusion criteria. Compared to diets providing a high gylcaemic index, low glycaemic index protocols resulted in significantly more pronounced decreases in serum triglycerides [mean differences -15.14 mg/dl, 95%-CI (-26.26, -4.00)] and HOMA-index [mean difference -0.70, 95%-CI (-1.37, -0.04), fixed-effects model only]. Other parameters under investigation were not affected by either low or high glycaemic indices. The present systematic review and meta-analysis provides evidence of a beneficial effect of a low glycaemic index/load diet in children and adolescents being either overweight or obese. Regarding the limitations of this analysis, further studies

  13. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  14. [Subfertility in overweight women].

    PubMed

    Kuchenbecker, W K H; Ruifrok, A E; Bolster, J H T; Heineman, M J; Hoek, A

    2006-11-11

    The prevalence of overweight individuals in The Netherlands is increasing sharply as has also been observed in populations worldwide. In addition to the long-term health risks of being overweight, overweight women of reproductive age are more commonly faced with reproductive disorders. Women who are overweight are less fertile than women of normal weight. The chances of both spontaneous conception and conception after ovulation induction and assisted reproduction are lower in women who are overweight. The chance of a live birth is also decreased due to an increased risk of miscarriage. Furthermore pregnancy outcome is compromised by obesity-related complications of pregnancy. Weight loss of 5-15% in subfertile women who are overweight increases the chance of spontaneous conception and conception after fertility treatment and can be achieved through a low-calorie diet, increased exercise and behaviour modification.

  15. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do ...

  16. What Are Overweight and Obesity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Overweight and Obesity Español Also known as adiposity. Overweight and obesity ... more information. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  17. Children's Stereotypes of Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…

  18. Overweight, perceived overweight and involvement in bullying in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari

    2016-04-01

    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction.

  19. Dietary approaches to overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    McMillan-Price, Joanna; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2004-01-01

    For years dietary guidelines for the treatment of overweight and obesity have advised a low-fat, high carbohydrate diet. Recent meta-analyses have shown that weight loss achieved with ad libitum low-fat diets is typically in the range of 3-4 kg. Although clinically significant, this weight loss is modest, usually regained on cessation of the intervention and the low-fat messages have not impacted on the ever increasing rates of overweight and obesity. Alternative approaches include low-glycemic index and high protein diets. Both effectively reduce the glycemic load of the diet and early studies suggest they may be effective in increasing satiety, reducing ad libitum energy intake and may improve fat oxidation by reducing insulin demand. Both approaches can be used within the context of a reduced-fat diet, with evidence emerging to suggest this may improve weight and body composition outcomes.

  20. Medication Dosage in Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Kelly L.; Horton, Evan R.; Capino, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 31.8% of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 years are considered overweight or obese. This creates significant challenges to dosing medications that are primarily weight based (mg/kg) and in predicting pharmacokinetics parameters in pediatric patients. Obese individuals generally have a larger volume of distribution for lipophilic medications. Conversely, the Vd of hydrophilic medications may be increased or decreased due to increased lean body mass, blood volume, and decrease percentage of total body water. They may also experience decreased hepatic clearance secondary to fatty infiltrates of the liver. Hence, obesity may affect loading dose, dosage interval, plasma half-life, and time to reach steady-state concentration for various medications. Weight-based dosing is also a cause for potential medication errors. This position statement of the Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group recommends that weight-based dosing should be used in patients ages < 18 years who are < 40 kg; weight-based dosing should be used in patients ≥ 40 kg, unless, unless the recommended adult dose for the specific indication is exceeded; clinicians should use pharmacokinetic analysis for adjusting medications in overweight/obese children; and research efforts continue to evaluate dosing of medications in obese/overweight children.

  1. Intestinal microbiota and overweight.

    PubMed

    Lyra, A; Lahtinen, S; Tiihonen, K; Ouwehand, A C

    2010-11-01

    The microbes in our gut can influence our weight by providing us with energy through the degradation of nondigestable carbohydrates and by affecting the cellular energy status of liver and muscle cells and the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue. Thus, it is not surprising that in several studies the gastrointestinal microbiota of overweight and obese subjects has been found to differ from that of lean subjects. The initial findings linked obesity with proportionally decreased levels of the phylum Bacteroidetes and increased levels of the phylum Firmicutes. Later, several studies have assessed the association between overweight or obesity and the gastrointestinal microbiota, applying an array of molecular methods targeting the microbiota as a whole or specific bacterial groups or species within. However, at present it is difficult to draw conclusions on which of the observed microbiota alterations are relevant; essentially all of the bacterial groups that have been studied in more than one trial have given contradictory results in regard to their association with weight. Some of these discrepancies can result from methodological issues and some from the nature of the gastrointestinal microbiota, which is an extremely complex and dynamic microbial ecosystem with high subject specificity. In addition, selecting subjects purely based on weight may result in a largely heterogeneous group with several potentially confounding factors. While it may be premature to conclude which specific groups of bacteria are prominent in the intestinal tract of overweight and obese subjects, it appears clear that microbes contribute to weight gain and related health issues, such as the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes. Therefore, it is important to continue to search for common microbial markers and predictors of obesity, and to study how these may be modulated with probiotics and prebiotics to promote health.

  2. Overweight and constipation in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between overweight and gastrointestinal symptoms has been recently studied in the literature; however, few studies have evaluated the association between overweight and constipation in adolescents in a community-based sample. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of constipation and its association with being overweight in a community-based survey with adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,077 adolescents who were enrolled in five schools in the city of Sao José dos Campos, Brazil. Constipation was defined according to modified and combined Rome III criteria for adolescents and adults. Being overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) that was equal to or greater than that of the 85th percentile for age and gender. Results Constipation was diagnosed in 18.2% (196/1077) of the included adolescents. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of constipation in males and females who were both younger and older than 14 years. Fecal incontinence was observed in 25 adolescents, 22 (88.0%) of whom were diagnosed as being constipated. The prevalence of being overweight was found in 13.5% (145/1077) of the study population. The prevalence of constipation was observed to be similar in adolescents who were (19.4%; 28/144) and were not (18.0%; 168/933) overweight (p = 0.764; OR = 1.10). Fecal incontinence that was associated with constipation was more frequent in adolescents who were overweight (37.0%; 8/28) than in adolescents who were not overweight (8.5%; 14/168; p = 0.005; OR = 4.40). Conclusions The prevalence of constipation was high among the investigated adolescents. There was no association between being overweight and constipation; however, an association between being overweight and fecal incontinence in constipated adolescents was confirmed. PMID:21496346

  3. What Causes Overweight and Obesity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the endocrine system can cause overweight and obesity. Hypothyroidism . People with this condition have low levels of ... even when food intake is reduced. People with hypothyroidism also produce less body heat, have a lower ...

  4. Nature, nurture, and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M; Cole, T J

    1978-03-11

    The relative importance of dietary and familial factors in determining weight in early infancy were studied in 203 5-year-old children. Their age at weaning, energy intake in infancy and at 5 years, and maternal percentage expected weight were studied in relation to their percentage expected weight. Neither the estimated energy intake in infancy nor the intake at 5 years correlated significantly with their percentage expected weight at 5 years. Overweight 5-year-olds had not been weaned earlier than normal-weight 5-year-olds. There was a significant correlation between the percentage expected weights of the mothers and those of their children at 5 years of age, although the children of overweight mothers did not have higher energy intakes than the children of underweight mothers. A familial, perhaps genetically determined, tendency to overweight seems to be more important in determining whether a child will be overweight at 5 years old than early weaning and overfeeding in infancy.

  5. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Walking... A Step in the Right Direction Binge Eating Disorder Weight-loss & Nutrition Myths Helping Your Overweight Child ... Tips for Families (PDF, 1.47 MB) Binge Eating Disorder Celebrate the Beauty of Youth Changing Your Habits ...

  6. Overweight and Obesity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Portions Under Control Metabolic Syndrome Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Encouraging a Healthy Body Image Healthy Drinks for ... BMI) About Overweight and Obesity Who Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  7. Breastfeeding, overweight status, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Hayward, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Research documents a host of health benefits of breastfeeding for infants and children, including long-term health conditions arising from inflammation. Here, we provide new evidence about this association, focusing on the link between breastfeeding in infancy and inflammation in early adulthood. Our study is based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) which allows us investigate a potentially important mediating pathway - overweight status from early adolescence into young adulthood. Results from pathway analyses in a structural equation modeling framework indicate that, in addition to a direct pathway linking breastfeeding and inflammation, an indirect pathway through overweight status across adolescence into young adulthood partially explains the association between breastfeeding and inflammation. Overweight status, moreover, links breastfeeding to inflammation not only through proximal timing of overweight status, but also through an indirect cascading process of overweight status over the life course that is evident in adolescence. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering breastfeeding, overweight status and inflammation as dynamic life course processes that contribute to development of health inequalities.

  8. Intragastric Balloon for Overweight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martins Fernandes, Flavio Augusto; Lima, Diego L.; Rao, Prashanth; Shadduck, Phillip P.; Montandon, Isabelle D.; de Souza Barros, Juscielle; Rodrigues, Ingrid Lais Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Current treatments for overweight adults include reduced-calorie diet, exercise, behavior modification, and selective use of medications. Many achieve suboptimal results with these measures and progress to obesity. Whether the intragastric balloon (IGB), a reversible device approved for treatment of obesity, is a safe and effective option in overweight adults is less well studied. We conducted a study to prospectively analyze the safety and effectiveness of IGB in overweight adults, to compare the results to a simultaneously studied cohort of obese patients, and to share procedural tips for safe IGB placement and removal. Methods: One hundred thirty-nine patients were evaluated in this prospective, nonrandomized study. Twenty-six overweight [body mass index (BMI), 26–30)] and 113 obese (BMI > 30) patients underwent outpatient, endoscopic IGB placement under intravenous sedation. The IGB was filled with a 550–900 mL (average, 640 mL) solution of saline, radiological contrast, and methylene blue, with an approximate final proportion of 65:2:1. The patients were followed up at 1–2 weeks and then monthly for 6 months. At 6 months, they underwent IGB removal via an esophageal overtube to optimize safety, and then they were observed for 6 more months. Results: IGB time was 190 ± 36 d in the overweight patients and 192 ± 43 d in the obese patients. Symptoms of IGB intolerance included nausea and pain, which were transiently present in 50–95% of patients for several days, and necessitated early IGB removal in 6% of patients. There were no procedure-related complications and no IGB-related esophagitis, erosion, perforation, or obstruction. The percentage of excess weight loss (EWL%) was 96 ± 54% in the overweight group and 41 ± 26% in the obese group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In overweight adults failing standard treatments, IGB placement for 6 months had an acceptable safety profile and excellent weight loss. PMID:26955259

  9. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means weighing too much. Obesity is becoming ... different age. To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children ...

  10. What "Being Overweight" Means (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... X-ray What Being Overweight Means KidsHealth > For Kids > What Being Overweight Means Print A A A ...

  11. How Can Overweight and Obesity Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age and sex as your child. Healthy lifestyle changes to prevent overweight and obesity If your ... risk factors , your doctor may recommend you adopt healthy lifestyle changes to prevent you from becoming overweight and ...

  12. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

  13. Childhood Overweight: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The rapid increase in overweight among children and adolescents is generating widespread concern. On average, rates of overweight for boys and girls remain similar. Some groups of children are more affected by overweight than others. This paper discusses the health consequences of childhood obesity. A list of school interventions for obesity…

  14. Smart Bodies: Louisiana Responds to Youth Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen P.; Holston, Denise; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2005-01-01

    In Louisiana, it is estimated that almost 33% of school-age children are at risk for becoming overweight or are already overweight (Louisiana Office of Public Health, 2004). Studies have shown that poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and weight problems often associated with being overweight adversely affect academic performance in school…

  15. Stigmatization of Overweight Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Leon-Reyes, Maria Juana; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the weight-based stigmatization of Mexican overweight (OW) and non-OW children by their mothers and peers, who rated both boys and girls with varying physical characteristics. Four hundred and thirty-two fifth and sixth graders and 342 mothers participated in the study. Children were administered a…

  16. [Overweight. II. Determinants of overweight and strategies for prevention].

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, E M

    1998-09-05

    High risk groups for overweight can be defined according to features such as ethnicity, pregnancy, smoking cessation, sudden changes in lifestyle and activities, low socioeconomic status and low educational level, and a positive (family) history of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Coronary heart death is to be attributed for 15-30% to overweight (body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2) and for 4-25% to obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2). For diabetes mellitus these percentages are 64-82% and 33-75%, respectively. Population-based preventive and therapeutic measurements have to be aimed at less (fatty) food, more bodily activity, less consumption of alcohol, and better education and income. This requires policy changes at the ministries involved.

  17. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…

  18. Feeding Styles and Overweight Status in Preschool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of parental feeding styles on the weight status of preschool children. Examining the overweight stats of 3- to 5-year olds is important because national data suggest that this is the age when children shift from normal weight to overweight. Fee...

  19. Perceived and actual competence among overweight and non-overweight children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D; Caputi, Peter; Cliff, Dylan P

    2010-11-01

    Child overweight and obesity continues to be a global public health concern. The aim of this study was to investigate whether children's actual and perceived physical competence and parental perception's of their child's competence differ by weight status. Understanding these differences is important because physical activity levels are significantly lower among overweight children than their lean counterparts and children's motivation to participate in physical activity is influenced by their perceived and actual competence and their parents perceptions of their competence. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1414 9- and 11-year-old children and their parents from 20 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes measured included child and parental perceptions of physical competence and children's actual physical competence. Parents of overweight boys perceived them to be significantly less competent than parents of non-overweight boys. For 11-year-old girls, parent's perception of their daughter's ability to run (mean diff=1.06 [95% CI 0.73, 1.40]), jump (mean diff=0.54 [95% CI 0.15, 0.93]) and leap (mean diff=0.78 [95% CI 0.41, 1.17]) was lower among parents of overweight children. Overweight children also reported lower perceived physical competence than non-overweight children. 9- and 11-year-old overweight boys had lower actual physical competence than non-overweight boys (mean diff=1.32 [95% CI 0.29, 2.35]; mean diff=1.26 [95% CI 0.37, 2.15], respectively). Overweight 11-year-old girls had lower actual competence than non-overweight 11-year-old girls (mean diff=1.14 [95% CI 0.70, 2.12]). This study highlighted several differences between overweight and non-overweight children. Better understanding these differences at different stages of development may lead to identifying more specific and appropriate intervention points to promote physical activity in overweight children.

  20. [Orthopedic Problems in Overweight and Obese Children].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Stücker, R; Rupprecht, M

    2016-03-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a growing problem with an increasing number of patients presenting with comorbidities to pediatricians and orthopedic surgeons. This overview summarizes the most common orthopedic problems in overweight children and obesity and highlights the treatment options in addition to weight reduction and physiotherapy leaded activation. In early infancy a persitent genu varum may be seen as a sign of Blount disease. In the school ages flat feet or persistent knock-knees has a higher incidence in overweight children. The incidence for back pain and osteoporosis are related with overweight and obese. At puberty, the slipped capital epiphysis, which always needs a surgical management, is mostly related to overweight/obese. A symptomatic retroversion of the femur can cause discomfort and lead to a surgical therapy himself.

  1. Do metabolic factors add to the effect of overweight on hand osteoarthritis? The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Dahaghin, S; Bierma‐Zeinstra, S M A; Koes, B W; Hazes, J M W; Pols, H A P

    2007-01-01

    Background As hand joints are non‐weight bearing, the association between overweight and hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is critical to understanding how overweight may associate with osteoarthritis (OA) apart from axial load. Overweight might be associated with the occurrence of OA through other metabolic factors. Aim To evaluate the role of overweight in HOA, cross‐sectional data of a population‐based study were used (⩾55 years, n = 3585). The role of diabetes, hypertension and total cholesterol:high‐density lipoprotein (HDL)‐cholesterol ratio on HOA, and whether they play an intermediate role in the association of overweight/HOA was investigated. Furthermore, the prevalence of HOA in the concurrent presence of overweight and other metabolic factors was evaluated. Results Independently of other metabolic factors, overweight (body mass index (BMI) >27.4 kg/m2) showed a significant association with HOA (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7). The association between diabetes and HOA was only present in people aged 55–62 years (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.8), but was absent in the total population or in other age groups. The association of hypertension with HOA was weak, and disappeared after adjustment for BMI. The total/HDL cholesterol ratio showed no significant association with HOA. The concurrent presence of overweight, diabetes and hypertension resulted in an even higher prevalence of HOA (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.9) compared with subjects with none of these characteristics; this prevalence increased further in the younger age group (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 8.8). Conclusion No intermediate effect of metabolic factors on the association of overweight with HOA was found. An increase in the prevalence of HOA, however, seems to be present when overweight occurs together with hypertension and diabetes especially at a relatively young age. PMID:17314121

  2. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys.

  3. Is overweight an issue in phenylketonuria?

    PubMed

    Rocha, Júlio C; MacDonald, Anita; Trefz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Dietary treatment may be associated with an increased risk of obesity in phenylketonuria (PKU). The earliest studies describe a tendency for overweight in PKU, but not all recent publications confirm this, although there are an increasing number of studies describing increased obesity in female patients with PKU. There is little data describing the metabolic consequences of obesity in PKU. It is difficult to interpret and compare published results due to variable patient age, differing dietary treatment approaches, poor treatment adherence, inconsistencies in metabolic control achieved, variable criteria used to classify overweight. There is also a lack of comparison with normal population data which is widely variable between countries. Generally in PKU it is unknown if obesity etiology is a result of the underlying condition, a treatment consequence, or an outcome of inadequate metabolic control. Differences in treatment strategies, target ranges for blood phenylalanine concentrations and severity of PKU can alter nutritional intakes and dietary experiences which ultimately modulate the course of overweight development. It is clear further investigation is required. Treating overweight and obesity in the general population is difficult and no studies have described the impact of obesity treatment strategies in PKU. However, the PKU management team has an important role in monitoring nutritional status and preventing overweight and obesity. It is important that PKU treatment attends to the general aspects of nutrition, feeding behavior and exercise in order to prevent the development of overweight in these individuals.

  4. Colonic fermentation from lactulose inhibits lipolysis in overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Ferchaud-Roucher, V; Pouteau, E; Piloquet, H; Zaïr, Y; Krempf, M

    2005-10-01

    One of the strategies to prevent insulin resistance is to reduce circulating free fatty acids (FFA). The aim of this study is to assess the effect of an oral lactulose load on fatty acid metabolism in overweight subjects. Eight overweight subjects received a primed constant intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]acetate and of [1,1,2,3,3-(2)H(5)]glycerol for 9 h. After 3 h of tracer infusion, patients ingested 30 g lactulose, or saline solution. Arterialized blood samples were collected every 20 min. Basal plasma concentrations of acetate were similar before and between oral treatments as well as glycerol and FFA concentrations. Plasma acetate turnover was 11.4 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.7 +/- 1.4 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) [not significant (NS)], and plasma glycerol turnover was 3.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (NS). After lactulose ingestion, acetate concentration increased twofold and then decreased to baseline. Acetate turnover rate increased to 15.5 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) after lactulose treatment, whereas it was unchanged after saline treatment (10.3 +/- 2.2 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), P < or = 0.0001). In contrast, FFA concentrations decreased significantly after lactulose ingestion and then increased slowly. Glycerol turnover decreased after lactulose ingestion compared with saline, 2.8 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.3 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P < or = 0.05). A significant negative correlation was found between glycerol and acetate turnover after lactulose treatments (r = -0.78, P < or = 0.02). These results showed in overweight subjects a short-term decrease in FFA level and glycerol turnover after lactulose ingestion related to a decrease of lipolysis in close relationship with an increase of acetate production.

  5. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  6. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  7. Preliminary Assessment of Overweight Mainline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J; Lascurain, Mary Beth

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration requested information regarding overweight and oversized vehicle traffic entering inspection stations (ISs) in order to develop strategies for future research efforts and possibly help guide regulatory issues involving overweight commercial motor vehicles (CMVs). For a period of one month, inspection stations in Knox County and Greene County, Tennessee, recorded overweight and oversized vehicles that entered these ISs. During this period, 435 CMVs were recorded using an electronic form filled out by enforcement personnel at the IS. Of the 435 CMVs recorded, 381 had weight information documented with them. The majority (52.2%) of the vehicles recorded were five-axle combination vehicles, and 50.6% of all the vehicles were permitted to operate above the legal weight limit in Tennessee, which is 80,000 lb for vehicles with five or more axles. Only 16.8% of the CMVs recorded were overweight gross (11.5% of permitted vehicles) and 54.1% were overweight on an axle group. The low percentage of overweight gross CMVs was because only 45 of the vehicles over 80,000 lb. were not permitted. On average, axles that were overweight were 2,000 lb. over the legal limit for an axle or group of axles. Of the vehicles recorded, 172 vehicles were given a North American Standard (NAS) inspection during the assessment. Of those, 69% of the inspections were driver-only inspections (Level III) and only 25% of the inspections had a vehicle component (such as a Level I or Level II). The remaining 6% of inspections did not have valid Aspen numbers; the type of was inspection unknown. Data collected on the types of trailers of each vehicle showed that about half of the recorded CMVs could realistically be given a Level I (full vehicle and driver) inspection; this estimate was solely based on trailer type. Enforcement personnel at ISs without an inspection pit have difficulty fully inspecting certain vehicles due to low clearance below the trailer

  8. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings.

  9. What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163807.html What Works Best to Help Overweight Folks Eat Healthier? Researchers still don't know ... 2017 MONDAY, Feb. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Getting overweight adults to adopt new heart-healthy eating habits ...

  10. Examining Demographic, Economic, and Educational Factors: Overweight Children in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The number of overweight children and adolescents in the U.S. has reached epidemic proportions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2000, the CDC estimated that 15 percent of the nation's youth were overweight. Overweight children and adolescents are exposed to many health risks, most notably the increased risk…

  11. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  12. Prevention of child and adolescent overweight and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003-04, approximately 34.3% of 12-19 year olds and 37.2% of 6-11 year olds in the US were overweight or obese. Among samples with predominantly ethnic minorities in the US, 49% of middle school children were overweight or obese. Increasing prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity has been ...

  13. The Portrayal of Overweight in Adolescent Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glessner, Marci M.; Hoover, John H.; Hazlett, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve adolescent novels with the theme of obesity were selected for critical analysis. The novels were assessed for readability and to determine the approach to overweight portrayed by writers. The books were also examined in light of the concept of lookism prejudice. Recommendations were offered to teachers and counselors for use of these books…

  14. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  15. Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Overweight Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Tracey; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Grigerick, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Children who are overweight tend to participate in fewer activities, to withdraw from social situations, and to be less physically active than their normal-weight peers. Additionally, they have lower self-image and often suffer from depression. Research on children's perceptions of overweight…

  16. Overweight in Children: Definitions and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flegal, Katherine M.; Tabak, Carolyn J.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2006-01-01

    Studies in a variety of countries have shown increases in the prevalence of overweight among children in recent years. These increases have given rise to concern about children's health and well-being. The terminology used in these studies varies considerably. However, whatever the terminology used, such studies are generally based on weight…

  17. Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

    2014-01-01

    This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

  18. FastStats: Obesity and Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... table 53 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Children and adolescents Percent of adolescents age 12-19 years with obesity: 20.6% ( ... Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Children and Adolescents Aged 2–19 Years: United States, 1963–1965 ...

  19. Prevalence of Overweight among Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dair, Jessica; Ellis, M. Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the prevalence of overweight cases in a sample of 151 deaf children aged 6-11 years. Participants were deaf students attending six elementary schools, both regular and special, in four states. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight, plotted on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S.…

  20. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  1. Overeating phenotypes in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes.

  2. Prevalence estimates of overweight in Head Start preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Bonnie L; Bounds, Wendy; Kolbo, Jerome; Molaison, Elaine; Zhang, Lei

    2009-10-01

    This study estimates prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight among low-income predominately non-Hispanic Black Head Start Mississippi preschoolers. A two-stage stratified probability design produced a representative sample of 1,250 preschoolers aged 3 to 5 years. Height, weight, age, gender, and race data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight (20.6%) and at risk of overweight (17.9%) combined was 38.5%. Moreover, highest rates were found in boys, non-Hispanic Blacks, and 5-year-olds. The prevalence of overweight in Mississippi Head Start children exceeds national averages, reinforcing the need for early-childhood health promotion and prevention.

  3. Socioeconomic patterning of childhood overweight status in Europe.

    PubMed

    Knai, Cécile; Lobstein, Tim; Darmon, Nicole; Rutter, Harry; McKee, Martin

    2012-04-01

    There is growing evidence of social disparities in overweight among European children. This paper examines whether there is an association between socioeconomic inequality and prevalence of child overweight in European countries, and if socioeconomic disparities in child overweight are increasing. We analyse cross-country comparisons of household inequality and child overweight prevalence in Europe and review within-country variations over time of childhood overweight by social grouping, drawn from a review of the literature. Data from 22 European countries suggest that greater inequality in household income is positively associated with both self-reported and measured child overweight prevalence. Moreover, seven studies from four countries reported on the influence of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of child overweight over time. Four out of seven reported widening social disparities in childhood overweight, a fifth found statistically significant disparities only in a small sub-group, one found non-statistically significant disparities, and a lack of social gradient was reported in the last study. Where there is evidence of a widening social gradient in child overweight, it is likely that the changes in lifestyles and dietary habits involved in the increase in the prevalence of overweight have had a less favourable impact in low socio-economic status groups than in the rest of the population. More profound structural changes, based on population-wide social and environmental interventions are needed to halt the increasing social gradient in child overweight in current and future generations.

  4. School-based screening of plantar pressures during level walking with a backpack among overweight and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Gioi, Sara; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2016-05-01

    Among children, postural modifications due to backpack carriage have direct consequences on how forces are exchanged between body and ground and thus on plantar pressure distribution. However, it is unknown whether such alterations are influenced by the foot structure and functionality typical of obesity. In this study, we tested 65 overweight/obese primary schoolchildren using a pressure platform while walking with and without the backpack. Contact areas, arch index, peak and mean plantar pressures in the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were compared with those from an additional 65 age- and gender-matched group of normal-weight children. Backpack carriage modified pressure distribution similarly in both groups, with the exception of mean midfoot pressure, which increased significantly among normal-weight children but not in the overweight/obese group. Notably, the pressure values associated with mass excess and backpack carriage still raise some concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality of overweight/obese children. Practitioner summary: Backpack carriage by overweight/obese schoolchildren altered plantar pressures similar to what was observed in their normal-weight peers. Yet, high pressures were found among the overweight/obese children. This raises concerns regarding potential long-term adverse consequences on foot structure and functionality, and supports establishing more specific limits for the carried load.

  5. Clinical evaluation of the overweight patient.

    PubMed

    Bray, G A; Ryan, D H

    2000-10-01

    Evaluation of an overweight patient is the first step in any therapeutic program. The syndromes of obesity can be classified in several ways. The first is an anatomic classification based on the size, number, and distribution of fat cells and fat tissue. The second is an etiologic classification based on identification of specific diseases and settings that produce obesity. Hypothalamic injury and endocrine disease such as Cushing's disease and the polycystic ovary syndrome are three identifiable causes of obesity. In this medicated society drugs are always candidates to produce weight gain. The most common causes, however, are stopping smoking, overconsumption of high-fat foods, a decrease in the level of activity, and aging. The natural history of obesity provides a useful framework in which to view both preventive and therapeutic strategies. Some individuals will never become overweight, but of those who do, about one-third will do so during the first two decades, and the remaining two-thirds will become overweight after age 20. A number of epidemiological and metabolic factors can serve as a guide to those individuals who are at high risk. Having overweight parents tops the list, but multiple births, cessation of smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle are additional factors. Therapeutic decisions should be based on risk-benefit decisions. The risk can be assessed from the body mass index, the distribution of fat in upper or lower body obesity, the rate of weight gain, and the degree of physical inactivity. After assessing risk, the therapeutic choices can be selected from the age category of the patient. With any therapeutic activity, involvement of the patient in a realistic approach to the treatment process is essential.

  6. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  7. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  8. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  9. Cardiac Strain between Normal Weight and Overweight Workers in Hot/Humid Weather in the Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Habibollah; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: In hot weather, overweight and obesity are considered as significant risk factors for the incidence of cardiac strain in workers. This study was aimed to compare cardiac strain among overweight and normal-weight workers in hot, humid conditions in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 workers in the south of Iran in summer 2010. The heart rate was measured at rest and at actual work. Cardiac strain based on working heart rate (WHR), the relative cardiac cost (RCC), the net cardiac cost (NCC), load relative cardiovascular (CVL), and heart rate reduction was analyzed in 35 normal-weight people (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2) and 36 overweight people (BMI >25 kg/m2) using descriptive statistics. Results: In 42% of the total workers, BMI was >25 kg/m2. The average of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature Index (WBGT Index) in the two groups was not significantly different. The mean WHR in the two groups was 101 ± 20.3 and 112 ± 18.9, respectively (P = 0.026). Percentages exceeded the acceptable limits in the parameters NCC, RCC, WHR, CVL, and Brouha index, which were significantly higher in overweight people than in those with normal weight. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it is concluded that the severity of cardiac strain was higher in overweight workers compared with that in normal weight workers. Hence, in order to decrease the cardiac strain, selecting overweight individuals for these jobs should be avoided and also some vital intervention for losing weight should be implemented such as nutrition education and encouraging them regarding physical activity. PMID:24319554

  10. Sensitization and Habituation of Motivated Behavior in Overweight and Non-Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…

  11. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, Adam; Capps, Gary J

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  12. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  13. Lower Mortality Associated With Overweight in the U.S. National Health Interview Survey: Is Overweight Protective?

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Meina; Pan, Tania; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    It is still debatable whether overweight has protective or detrimental effects on survival. The focus of the ongoing debate is on possible confounding bias due to factors such as preexisting illness and smoking. We aimed to assess the association between overweight and mortality and to examine confounding effects of various factors including smoking and preexisting cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease on the overweight-mortality association in adults.The data were extracted from the public-use National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1997 to 2009. Mortality data up to December 31, 2011 were linked to 131,813 with normal weight and 120,217 overweight adults. We assessed the association between overweight and mortality using Cox proportional hazard model with adjustments for various sets of confounding factors-age, sex, smoking, race, survey year, diabetes, CVD, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease.During the period from the original surveys to December 31, 2011, 22,513 (11,815 normal weight and 10,698 overweight) adults died. Normal weight and overweight groups differed in the characteristics of age, sex, smoking, and preexisting diseases. After adjusting for age and sex, the risk of dying was lower for overweight than normal weight adults (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-0.85). Lower mortality risk associated with overweight remained after further adjusting for smoking and preexisting diseases such as diabetes, CVD, cancer, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney disease (HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.78-0.82). We observed a similar pattern for men and women, and for those free from preexisting diabetes, hypertension, and CVD.In conclusion, overweight adults have a lower mortality risk than normal weight adults. Our findings do not support that the lower mortality in overweight adults is due to confounding effects of smoking and preexisting diseases.

  14. How to make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations.

    PubMed

    Deforche, Benedicte; Haerens, Leen; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-09-01

    As regular physical activity of high enough intensity is essential in the management of overweight, efforts should be made to increase physical activity adherence in overweight children. To make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations, it is essential to have insight into determinants of exercise initiation and adherence. According to the Self-determination Theory, creating opportunities to satisfy the need for autonomy (i.e., having choices), competence (i.e., feeling effective) and relatedness (i.e., being socially connected) might increase autonomous motivation for physical activity in overweight children and promote a long-lasting active lifestyle. To increase feelings of autonomy in overweight children, exercise programs could be delivered in an autonomy-supportive manner by providing choices, supporting the child's initiatives, avoiding use of external rewards, offering relevant information and rationale for changing behaviour, making a decisional balance and using autonomy supportive language, while minimizing pressure and control. Perceived competence in physical activities could be increased by offering activities tailored to the capabilities of the overweight child, helping the children set realistic goals, learning the children self-management skills, providing the children with appropriate feedback and organizing separate exercise sessions for overweight children. Feelings of relatedness in overweight children might increase by adopting an empathic approach, showing interest in the child's well-being and problems, showing enjoyment and enthusiasm, knowing the names of the children, talking to the children as equals, offering group sessions and talks, encouraging club participation and having a sports partner and encouraging parental support.

  15. The Motor and Cognitive Development of Overweight Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krombholz, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…

  16. Development of Self-Body-Esteem in Overweight Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Beverley Katz; White, Donna Romano

    1985-01-01

    Examined development of self-body-esteem and relation between self-esteem and body-esteem in overweight and normal weight boys and girls in three age groups. Results were interpreted in terms of age differences in subjects and possible social influences in development of self-esteem in overweight youngsters. (Author/DST)

  17. Disparities in Overweight and Obesity among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…

  18. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  19. Prevalence and correlates of being overweight or obese in college.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E

    2015-05-30

    Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women.

  20. Reducing Overweight and Obesity among Elementary Students in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…

  1. Bulimia nervosa in overweight and normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Masheb, Robin; White, Marney A

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (n = 1964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25) or normal weight (body mass index <25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal-weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs 7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n = 84) were classified as overweight BN and 36% (n = 47) as normal-weight BN. The overweight BN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities and reported significantly less restraint than the normal-weight BN group. Otherwise, the 2 groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal-weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders.

  2. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  3. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  4. Childhood Overweight Dependence on Mother-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children. PMID:26973939

  5. Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, P L; Willett, W C; Rimm, E B; Colditz, G A; Gortmaker, S L; Stampfer, M J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study undertook to examine relationships between nonsedentary activity level, time spent watching television (TV)/videocassette recorder (VCR), and risk of overweight among men. METHODS. Men participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study were mailed surveys. Cross-sectional analyses examined the prevalence and odds of being overweight, prospective analyses determined cumulative incidence rates and relative risks of becoming overweight over 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS. Cross-sectionally, odds of being overweight were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 45%; 55%) lower for men in the highest quintile of nonsedentary activity level when compared with men in the lowest quintile. Among men watching 41 or more hours of TV/VCR per week, the odds of being overweight were 406 (95% CI = 2.67, 6.17) times greater than those for men watching no more than 1 hour per week. Prospectively, higher levels is of nonsedentary activity and lower levels of TV/VCR viewing were independently associated with lower relative risks for becoming overweight between survey years. CONCLUSIONS. Both a lack of nonsedentary activity and time spent watching TV/VCR contribute to the development of overweight in men. Sedentary and nonsedentary activities represent separate domains, each with independent risks for overweight. PMID:8561237

  6. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  7. Overweight and obesity in Slovenian schoolgirls, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Leskosek, Bojan; Strel, Janko; Kovac, Marjeta

    2010-12-01

    The proportion of overweight children and adults has been growing rapidly in the last few years in many European and other countries. Certain consequences of overweight are already manifested in youth; in adulthood they are one of the main causes of death and several diseases. The study examined the proportion of overweight and obese Slovenian girls aged 7 to 18 with the use of an annually repeated cross-sectional study. The study lasted from 1991 to 2006 and was based on the body mass index according to IOTF norms. The results show that in this period the proportion of overweight girls increased by almost 30% (from 13.5% to 18.8%), whereas the proportion of obese girls doubled (from 2.3% to 4.6%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is highest in childhood and early adolescence where it is around two to three times higher than at the age of 18.

  8. Emotional, external, restrained eating and overweight in Dutch adolescents.

    PubMed

    Snoek, Harriëtte M; van Strien, Tatjana; Janssens, Jan M A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how emotional, external and restrained eating behavior and other health-related lifestyle factors were associated with being overweight in adolescents. Moreover, demographic and ethnic differences in eating behavior have been examined. The respondents were 10,087 Dutch adolescents aged 11-16 years (M= 13.0, SD= 0.8). Self-reported eating behavior was measured with the DEBQ. Health-related lifestyle was determined by physical activity, breakfasting, fruit consumption and snacking. High restrained, and low external eating were positively associated with being overweight, whereas no significant association between emotional eating and being overweight was found for girls, and a negative association for boys. Adolescents who ate breakfast on a daily basis were less likely to be overweight than those who ate breakfast irregularly or never. Being overweight was positively associated with fruit consumption for girls and negatively with physical activity for boys.

  9. Overweight and obesity alters the cumulative transverse strain in the Achilles tendon immediately following exercise.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Hooper, Sue L; Grigg, Nicole L; Nolan, Gregory; Smeathers, James E

    2013-07-01

    This research evaluated the effect of obesity on the acute cumulative transverse strain of the Achilles tendon in response to exercise. Twenty healthy adult males were categorized into 'low normal-weight' (BMI <23 kg m(-2)) and 'overweight' (BMI >27.5 kg m(-2)) groups based on intermediate cut-off points recommended by the World Health Organization. Longitudinal sonograms of the right Achilles tendon were acquired immediately prior and following weight-bearing ankle exercises. Achilles tendon thickness was measured 20-mm proximal to the calcaneal insertion and transverse tendon strain was calculated as the natural log of the ratio of post- to pre-exercise tendon thickness. The Achilles tendon was thicker in the overweight group both prior to (t18 = -2.91, P = 0.009) and following (t18 = -4.87, P < 0.001) exercise. The acute transverse strain response of the Achilles tendon in the overweight group (-10.7 ± 2.5%), however, was almost half that of the 'low normal-weight' (-19.5 ± 7.4%) group (t18 = -3.56, P = 0.004). These findings suggest that obesity is associated with structural changes in tendon that impairs intra-tendinous fluid movement in response to load and provides new insights into the link between tendon pathology and overweight and obesity.

  10. Early Risk Factors of Overweight Developmental Trajectories during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID

  11. Sexual dysfunction in obese and overweight women.

    PubMed

    Yaylali, G F; Tekekoglu, S; Akin, F

    2010-01-01

    Both overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men, but the relationship between sexual function and amount of body fat in females is still obscure. There are few reported studies in women assessing the relationship between female sexual function index (FSFI) and body weight. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among obese and overweight women. A total of 45 obese and overweight and 30 age-matched voluntary healthy women serving as a control group were evaluated by a detailed medical and sexual history, including the FSFI questionnaire. Serum prolactin, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-SO(4) (DHEA-S), testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. No significant difference was observed between controls and patients in terms of the FSH, LH, estradiol, free thyroxine and thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone and DHEA-S levels. The comparison of total FSFI scores between patients and controls showed no significant difference (P=0.74). As the FSFI score of

  12. Impacts of classifying New York City students as overweight.

    PubMed

    Almond, Douglas; Lee, Ajin; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-03-29

    US schools increasingly report body mass index (BMI) to students and their parents in annual fitness "report cards." We obtained 3,592,026 BMI reports for New York City public school students for 2007-2012. We focus on female students whose BMI puts them close to their age-specific cutoff for categorization as overweight. Overweight students are notified that their BMI "falls outside a healthy weight" and they should review their BMI with a health care provider. Using a regression discontinuity design, we compare those classified as overweight but near to the overweight cutoff to those whose BMI narrowly earned them a "healthy" BMI grouping. We find that overweight categorization generates small impacts on girls' subsequent BMI and weight. Whereas presumably an intent of BMI report cards was to slow BMI growth among heavier students, BMIs and weights did not decline relative to healthy peers when assessed the following academic year. Our results speak to the discrete categorization as overweight for girls with BMIs near the overweight cutoff, not to the overall effect of BMI reporting in New York City.

  13. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.

  14. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Rebecca K; Magnussen, Costan G; Sabin, Matthew A; Cheung, Michael; Juonala, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more aggressive pharmacological treatments. Limitations in the literature relate to the paucity of studies reporting specific effects for the adolescent age group of overweight and obese individuals. Nonetheless, intervention for adiposity-related hypertension in adolescence may partially mitigate some of the cardiovascular risk in adulthood. PMID:26543386

  15. Parenting an Overweight or Obese Teen: Issues and Advice from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…

  16. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the longer-term risk that obese children and adolescents will become obese adults and suffer other health problems as a result. Daniels notes that many obesity-related health conditions once thought applicable only to adults are now being seen in children and with increasing frequency. Examples include high blood pressure, early symptoms of hardening of the arteries, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disorder, and disordered breathing during sleep. He systematically surveys the body's systems, showing how obesity in adulthood can damage each and how childhood obesity exacerbates the damage. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes. Daniels shows how much the same generalization applies to other obesity-related disorders-metabolic, digestive, respiratory, skeletal, and psychosocial-that are appearing in children either for the first time or with greater severity or prevalence. Daniels notes that the possibility has even been raised that the increasing prevalence and severity of childhood obesity may reverse the modern era's steady increase in life expectancy, with today's youth on average living less healthy and ultimately shorter lives than their parents-the first such reversal in lifespan in modern history. Such a possibility, he concludes, makes obesity in children an

  17. A framework for physician assistant intervention for overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Lawrence; McGinnity, John G; Doll, Michael; Peterson, Eric D; Russell, Amanda; Largay, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Overweight and obesity compose a chronic disease process of epidemic proportions that presents on a continuum, likely affecting nearly two out of every three patients treated by physician assistants (PAs). However, meaningful and actionable definitions, including but not limited to anthropometric and clinical descriptors, are needed. The effective treatment of overweight and obesity requires an efficient and timely process of screening, diagnosis, evaluation of complications, staging, and clear algorithmic management. PAs are trained as primary care providers and can diagnose and treat overweight and obese patients regardless of practice setting and across the spectrum of the disease and patient's age.

  18. Celiac disease and overweight in children: an update.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Antonella; Capriati, Teresa; Basso, Maria Sole; Panetta, Fabio; Di Ciommo Laurora, Vincenzo Maria; Bellucci, Francesca; Cristofori, Fernanda; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2014-01-02

    The clinical presentation of celiac disease in children is very variable and differs with age. The prevalence of atypical presentations of celiac disease has increased over the past 2 decades. Several studies in adults and children with celiac disease indicate that obesity/overweight at disease onset is not unusual. In addition, there is a trend towards the development of overweight/obesity in celiac patients who strictly comply with a gluten-free diet. However, the pathogenesis and clinical implications of the coexistence of classic malabsorption (e.g., celiac disease) and overweight/obesity remain unclear. This review investigated the causes and main clinical factors associated with overweight/obesity at the diagnosis of celiac disease and clarified whether gluten withdrawal affects the current trends of the nutritional status of celiac disease patients.

  19. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  20. Making a Difference for Overweight Children: The School Nurse Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosca, Nancy W.

    2005-01-01

    This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.

  1. Overweight is more prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Morales-Briceño, Hugo; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Calleja-Castillo, Juan; Corona, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Underweight and malnutrition are well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD), while overweight has been less reported. We carried out a cross-sectional study including 177 healthy controls and 177 PD patients attending a tertiary care center. We recorded weight and height for all participants. A statistically significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) between controls and PD patients (29.1±5.4 versus 27.2±4.7, p<0.001). In the PD Group, two patients were underweight, 32.7% were within normal range, 46.9% had overweight, and 19.2% were obese. Overweight and normal weight were more prevalent in the PD Group (p=<0.01 and <0.001, respectively) when compared to controls. In conclusion, overweight/obesity are common among patients with PD, while underweight is almost negligible.

  2. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Being Overweight Obesity is bad news for both body and mind. Not only can it make someone feel tired ...

  3. When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems that might become permanent if not treated. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . Girls who are overweight may miss periods — or ... hair growth, worsening acne, and male-type baldness. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, a precursor to ...

  4. Dealing With Feelings When You're Overweight (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some teens who are overweight get teased, and bullying can be a real problem. It's just another ... a few true friends can help buffer any bullying or demeaning comments. But what about when friends ...

  5. Alarming high prevalence of overweight/obesity among Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    Nagwa, M A; Elhussein, Abdelrahim M; Azza, M; Abdulhadi, N H

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Khartoum state, Sudan. Multistage stratified random sampling methodology was used. Sampling included different residential areas within the state. A total of 1138 children between the ages of 10 and 18 years were involved in the study. More than 9% of the children were obese, 10.8% were overweight whereas combined overweight/obesity scored 20.5%. The prevalence of combined overweight/obesity among higher, middle and lower socioeconomic class children was 56.8, 27.3 and 3.1%, respectively. These figures, being higher than those reported among Nigerian and South African children, living in similar conditions, may refer to an emerging problem of overweight and obesity especially among children of the higher and middle class families. Adoption of national programs of promoting healthy food habits and physical activity among children is recommended.

  6. New directions for the study of overweight.

    PubMed

    Allan, J D

    1998-02-01

    and associations of anthropometric and psychosocial variables with feelings about weight. Her work adds to our understanding about critical periods and risks for weight gain. Allan (1998, in this issue), in a study of African American, Euro-American, and Mexican American women, reports women's explanatory models of overweight and the congruence of these models with professional models and recommendations for treatment for overweight. Her research contributes needed understandings of how high-risk populations view overweight, how participants' lifestyles and situations influence their ideas about weight, and how these perspectives influence efforts to control weight. Nursing needs to continue to refine and rethink what constitutes research on weight. This special issue offers some examples of scholars attempting to trailblaze new directions in nursing weight research. One thrust has been the significant attention on weight as a focus of investigation and not just as one of several health behaviors. A second and equally compelling area of inquiry has been the explicit attention directed to studying people of color, especially women, within the social context of their lives. Because ethnicity, social status, and gender are inextricably intertwined with health, one challenge is to try to understand weight issues through an ethnic, gender, and social status lens. Researchers who embrace this paradigm refuse to look at weight as a homogeneous condition but focus their attention instead on specific subgroups in the population without making middle-class Euro-Americans the norm. The number of researchers who are examining connections between ethnicity and social status and weight is growing. The complexity of weight-health promotion requires that we not only boldly examine weight in relationship to the individual in context but also explicate the macroenvironmental influences on weight. More needs to be done to translate findings from this body of research into better models

  7. The overweight: a rare presentation of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Capriati, T; Francavilla, R; Ferretti, F; Castellaneta, S; Ancinelli, M; Diamanti, A

    2016-02-01

    We describe the nutritional status of a cohort of celiac disease (CD) children at presentation and during follow-up on gluten-free diet (GFD). Two Italian centers (Rome and Bari) prospectively enrolled 445 biopsy-confirmed CD children, diagnosed between 2009 and 2013. Body Mass Index was used as a measure of nutritional status according to Italian growth charts of Cacciari. The overweight/obese subject was 7.8% at onset and did not significantly increase during follow-up (9.8% at final assessment). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher among males than females. Furthermore, overweight/obesity children as compared with those with normal weight were significantly older and had significantly lower levels of tTG antibodies. This study shows that some CD children are obese/overweight at diagnosis; therefore, overweight/obesity can be considered a rare but a possible mode of CD presentation. Thus, CD diagnosis must be considered even in overweight/obese children where this diagnosis can be easily missed.

  8. Perceptions of overweight in US and global cultures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William G; Bluestein, Bess B; Dasilva, Fernanda; Moubray, Nataliya I; Orton, Maggie L; Balagaye, Herieth; Paredes, Karina Franco; Kim, Mirihae

    2015-04-01

    We explored the hypothesis that perceptions of overweight vary in accord with the prevalence of overweight in specific populations. The present study investigated this relationship in samples from diverse groups in the US and four other countries. The perceptual threshold for overweight is the scalar point at which individuals determine the transition from normal to overweight. Perceptual thresholds for overweight were obtained from 812 adults in Korea, Mexico, Ukraine, Tanzania, and the US (Black, Hispanic, White and college student samples). A linear relationship was observed between the perceptual threshold for overweight and the population prevalence (r=0.52, adjusted R(2)=0.22, F (1/15)=5.24, p<.05), and this relationship was considerably stronger in the non-US samples. This finding links with the results of other studies documenting the influence of the social environment on both weight perception and weight transmission. Together, they suggest that the socio-cultural milieu and weight norms are components of the obesogenic environment and argue for the inclusion of weight norm interventions in weight management programs and public health initiatives.

  9. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  10. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  11. Overweight and urban pollution: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Giubilati, Roberto; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Sancini, Angela

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study is to determine whether in workers exposed to urban pollution the risk of developing overweight and obesity is higher in workers exposed to urban pollution compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 150 volunteers, 75 workers exposed to urban pollution (50 women and 25 men) and 75 indoor workers (50 women and 25 men). Once measured the weight and height and calculated body mass index (BMI) for each worker, the research was based on the comparison, between the two groups, of the mean values of the measurements and of the frequency of workers with BMI index higher than the cut-off of normality. The only statistically significant difference found was for the mean value of weight in women, which was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers. The mean values of BMI and the frequency of workers with BMI higher than normal was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers in both sexes, but not statistically significant. The data suggest that outdoor workers may be subject to an additional risk of developing obesity as a result of exposure to urban air pollution (which, like obesity, is a source of oxidative stress). So, our preliminary study encourages to continue this line of research by implementing the sample and considering all the confounding factors. Furthermore, the results highlight the necessity to take account of gender differences in the context of health surveillance of workers.

  12. Intervention for Spanish Overweight Teenagers in Physical Education Lessons

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Emilio J.; Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Moral-García, José E.; Pantoja-Vallejo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Physical education is a favourable educational framework for the development of programmes aimed at increasing physical activity in children and thus reducing sedentarism. The progressive increase of overweight students demands global control and follow-up measurement of these behaviours in both in and out of school. The pedometer can be a useful tool in this field. It is easy to use and allow Physical Education (PE) departments to quantify their students' number of steps/day. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a pedometer intervention on body fat and BMI levels in overweight teenagers. Besides, the effects of the programme are analysed according to two other variables: pedometer ownership and gender, distinguishing between out-of-school and school hours, weekdays and weekends. The sample comprises 112 overweight students (49 boys and 63 girls) from 5 secondary schools. Participants were asked to follow a physical activity programme consisting on a minimum of 12000 and 10000 steps/day for boys and girls, respectively. It also allowed them to get up to 2 extra points in their PE marks. Results were measured after 6 weeks of programme application as well as after 6 weeks of retention. Results revealed significantly reduced BMI in the teenagers with their own pedometer (p < 0.05). The difference observed in the number of steps/day between boys (12050) and girls (9566) was significant in all measured time periods (p < 0.05). Besides, both overweight boys and girls were observed to take 1000 steps/day less at weekends than in weekdays. Therefore, it is concluded that the proposal of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight boys and girls, respectively, accompanied by a reinforcement programme in their final PE marks, seems sufficient to obtain significant BMI reductions. Besides, PE is shown a favourable framework for the proposal of pedometer-impelled weight loss programmes in overweight youth. Key pointsA programme of 12000 and 10000 steps for overweight

  13. Long–Term Effects of Energy-Restricted Diets Differing in Glycemic Load on Metabolic Adaptation and Body Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A randomized controlled trial of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets with food provided for 6 months and self-administered for 6 additional months at 30% caloric restriction (CR) was performed in 29 overweight adults (mean+/-SD, age 35+/-5y; BMI 27.5+/-1.5 kg/m2). Total energy e...

  14. Early life growth trajectories and future risk for overweight

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Smith, J C; Neufeld, L M; Laraia, B; Ramakrishnan, U; Garcia-Guerra, A; Fernald, L C H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard approaches have found that rapid growth during the first 2 years of life is a risk factor for overweight in later childhood. Our objective was to test whether growth velocity, independent of concurrent size, was associated with overweight using a nonlinear random-effects model that allows for enhanced specifications and estimations. Methods: Longitudinal data from a birth cohort in Mexico (n=586) were used to estimate growth trajectories over 0–24 months for body mass index (BMI), length and weight using the SuperImposition by Translation and Rotation (SITAR) models. The SITAR models use a nonlinear random-effects model to estimate an average growth curve for BMI, length and weight and each participant's deviation from this curve on three dimensions—size, velocity and timing of peak velocity. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between overweight status at 7–9 years and size, velocity and timing of BMI, length and weight trajectories during 0–24 months. We tested whether any association between velocity and overweight varied by relative size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Results: SITAR models explained the majority of the variance in BMI (73%), height (86%) and weight (85%) between 0–24 months. When analyzed individually, relative BMI/length/weight (size) and BMI/length/weight velocity during 0–24 months were each associated with increased odds of overweight in late childhood. Associations for timing of peak velocity varied by anthropometric measure. However, in the mutually adjusted models, only relative BMI/length/weight (size) remained statistically significant. We found no evidence that any association between velocity and overweight varied by size during 0–24 months or birth weight. Conclusions: After mutual adjustment, size during 0–24 months of life (as opposed to birth size), but not velocity or timing of peak velocity, was most consistently associated with overweight in later childhood. PMID

  15. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children’s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4–5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. Results Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. Conclusions Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children’s overweight or obesity. PMID:28179618

  16. Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G; Nosek, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

  17. Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context – particularly the national prevalence of obesity – predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels. PMID:24358291

  18. Unbearable weight: young adult women's experiences of being overweight.

    PubMed

    Yu-Jen, Chang; Yiing-Mei, Liou; Shuh-Jen, Sheu; Mei-Yen, Chen

    2004-06-01

    Being overweight is a hazard to health. Overweight people have a very negative image due to the marketing strategies for weight reduction and beauty products. Young women establishing self-image, seeking affirmation of social peers, and looking for potential mates are usually concerned about their weight and figure. To investigate the experience of young women who think they are overweight, how they come to think in this way, and the impact of this thinking, this qualitative pilot study conducted semi-structured interviews with five participants. On the basis of the qualitative method, data was subjected to constant comparison and content analysis. The phenomenon can thus be described in three major categories: (1) Social labeling of the overweight - a slim image is overwhelmingly preferred; (2) Pursuing attractiveness or health - a self-struggling process; (3) Weight reduction and self control - an endless struggle. The result of the study suggests there is a need for a competitive image to counter current obsessions with painfully slender figures in society. To protect the public's mental and physical health, nurses should play an active role in weight education based on a deeper and more dynamic understanding of being overweight.

  19. Overweight and obesity in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Minges, Karl E; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is now prevalent and accounts for significant health consequences, including cardiovascular complications and dual diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and lifestyle are modifiable and play an important role in the prevention and management of excessive weight, but it is unclear how these factors relate to overweight and obese youth with T1D. Thus, a systematic review was conducted to examine how physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and diet are related to overweight/obesity in youth with T1D. Seven observational and intervention studies published between 1990 and 2013 were included in the review. Prevalence of overweight ranged from 12.5% to 33.3%. Overweight in youth with T1D was associated with infrequent napping, increased screen time, and skipping breakfast and dinner but was not related to time engaged in physical activity. Weight-related interventions indicated modest weight loss along with improved glycemic control. In light of this review, there is a need for high quality research that examines all levels of activity in youth with T1D to identify lifestyle modification targets for weight prevention and management.

  20. Eating behaviors are risk factors for the development of overweight.

    PubMed

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés, Ana

    2013-10-01

    This research aimed to characterize eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their gender and body mass index and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in the eating behavior of normal-weight and overweight people, and also between men and women. Further, we hypothesized that overweight participants would show more abnormal eating behaviors than their normal-weight counterparts. Two hundred ninety-two participants (205 women and 87 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean body mass index was 26.58 kg/m² (women 26.22 kg/m², men 27.41 kg/m²), that is, within the overweight range. Participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) tended to eat faster and in greater quantities, selected more hyper-calorie foods, and engaged in a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds. The results suggest that, in addition to what people eat, the question of how people eat may also contribute to the rapid increase in the levels of overweight and obesity in the Chilean population.

  1. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  2. Association between food assistance program participation and overweight

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition. PMID:26039391

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Schokker, D F; Visscher, T L S; Nooyens, A C J; van Baak, M A; Seidell, J C

    2007-03-01

    This paper shows the trends in the prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI] >or= 25 kg m-2) and obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg m-2) in the Netherlands. Overweight (obesity) prevalence in adult males increased from 37% (4%) in 1981 to 51% (10%) in 2004, and in adult females from 30% (6%) in 1981 to 42% (12%) in 2004, according to self-reported data. In boys and girls, obesity prevalence doubled or even tripled from 1980 to 1997, and again from 1997 to 2002-2004 a two- or threefold increase was seen for almost all ages. According to the most recent data, overweight (obesity) prevalence figures range, depending on age, from 9.2% to 17.3% (2.5-4.3%) in boys, and from 14.6% to 24.6% (2.3-6.5%) in girls. There is a lack of data on the national prevalence of overweight and obesity based on measured height and weight and on prevalences in different subgroups of the population. Regular national representative health examination surveys that measure height and weight are needed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its distribution over subgroups in the population, and to properly direct and evaluate prevention activities.

  4. Perception of Overweight and Self-esteem During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Method Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11–21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for socio-demographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60–3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Discussion Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. PMID:19536882

  5. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  6. Glycaemic Profiles of Children With Overweight and Obesity in Free-living Conditions in Association With Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Karnebeek, Kylie; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Dorenbos, Elke; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Stouthart, Pauline; Plat, Jogchum; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is common among children with overweight and obesity. However, knowledge about glucose fluctuations in these children is scarce. This study aims to evaluate glycaemic profiles in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions, and to examine the association between glycaemic profiles with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk parameters. One hundred eleven children with overweight and obesity were included. 48-hour sensor glucose concentrations in free-living conditions, fasting plasma and post-glucose load concentrations, serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and blood pressure were evaluated. Hyperglycaemic glucose excursions (≥7.8 mmol/L) were observed in 25% (n = 28) of the children. The median sensor glucose concentration was 5.0 (2.7–7.3) mmol/L, and correlated with fasting plasma glucose concentrations (rs = 0.190, p = 0.046), serum insulin concentrations (rs = 0.218, p = 0.021), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.230, p = 0.015). The hyperglycaemic area under the curve (AUC) correlated with waist circumference z-score (rs = 0.455, p = 0.025), triacylglycerol concentrations (rs = 0.425, p = 0.024), and HOMA-IR (rs = 0.616, p < 0.001). In conclusion, hyperglycaemic glucose excursions are frequently observed in children with overweight and obesity in free-living conditions. Children with insulin resistance had higher median sensor glucose concentrations and a larger hyperglycaemic sensor glucose AUC, which are both associated with specific parameters predicting cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27534260

  7. [Overweight and obesity; recommendations from the National Health Council].

    PubMed

    Meinders, A E; Fogteloo, J

    2003-09-20

    The Health Council of the Netherlands has issued a report on overweight and obesity. These are considered major threats to personal health, the public health care services and economic welfare. Overweight and obesity are no longer considered variations of the norm, but as a disease. As genetically predisposing factors cannot be influenced, major initiatives to contain further deterioration of the problem must be on environmental factors i.e. on macronutrient intake and physical exercise. Special target groups (young people, people of low socioeconomic status and immigrants) need to be defined. Government, health care organisations, industry and the general public should work together to combat overweight and obesity. The chances of success are not predictable but are certainly big enough to justify action.

  8. [Factors influencing self-perception of overweight people].

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Podstawka, Danuta; Goclon, Karolina

    2013-11-01

    Shaping of self-perception is among others influenced by physical, interpersonal, emotional, and cultural factors. In self-perception of overweight people an important role is played by interpersonal factors, which include the opinions of others and the relationship with the surrounding. The evaluation of the body image is also affect by sociocultural factors including the media, which create an unrealistic and impossible to achieve ideal of beauty. Contemporary ideal of beauty, where a slim figure is dominant, more frequently contributes to the occurrence of discrimination and stigmatization of overweight people. This phenomenon causes negative self-perception leading to the occurrence of such emotional problems as low self-esteem, lack of confidence, depression and anxiety disorders. Overweight children and adolescents are also frequently stigmatized and discriminated because of their body weight, which results in the development of a negative body image that may lead to low self-esteem and symptoms of depression.

  9. Emotional Openness, problematic eating behaviours, and overweight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-04-01

    Overweight, a common health condition in adolescence, has been linked with difficulties in emotional processing. This study investigates associations between emotional processing, conceptualised through the model of Emotional Openness (EO), problematic eating behaviours, including Eating in the Absence of Hunger and disinhibited eating, and overweight in adolescents. Several self-report instruments were completed by 160 youngsters (mean age: 14.36±0.61years) from the community, including 39 overweight and obese adolescents (24.5%). In girls, bootstrap analyses supported a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between three EO dimensions and body mass index percentile, in particular the communication of emotions, the cognitive-conceptual representation of emotions, and the perception of bodily indicator of emotions. No mediating effect was found in boys. These results have important implications for psychological weight management interventions, as they underline the relevance of work on emotional processing in order to reduce problematic eating behaviours.

  10. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. PMID:24555142

  11. No Laughing Matter. Young People Who Are Overweight Can Face a Lifetime of Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, David

    1997-01-01

    The reality in many school environments is that overweight children face ridicule and rejection. Focusing on size as one facet of human diversity can help diffuse prejudice against the overweight. Other strategies to discourage teasing and unkindness are suggested. (SLD)

  12. Body size, body composition, and metabolic profile explain higher energy expenditure in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lower relative rates of energy expenditure (EE), increased energetic efficiency, and altered fuel utilization purportedly associated with obesity have not been demonstrated indisputably in overweight children. We hypothesized that differences in energy metabolism between nonoverweight and overweight...

  13. LOADING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-10-01

    A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

  14. Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Ana Cristina Resende; Mendonça, Vanessa Amaral; Andrade, Camila Alves de; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Neves, Camila Danielle Cunha; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira, Murilo Xavier; Júnior, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed.

  15. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  16. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  17. Neuroendocrine Inflammatory Responses in Overweight/Obese Infants

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Camila Alves; Oliveira, Katherine Simone Caires; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Neves, Camila Danielle Cunha; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira, Murilo Xavier; Júnior, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors, chemokines, BDNF, serum cortisol and redox status were measured. Unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze the results and a probability of p<0.05 was acceptable for rejection of the null hypothesis. The Pearson correlation was used to verify the association between the biomarkers analyzed in each group. Plasma levels of leptin (p = 0.0001), adiponectin (p = 0.0007) and BDNF (p = 0.003), and serum cortisol (p = 0.048) were significantly higher in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight infants. In contrast, the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.004), and catalase (p = 0.045) and superoxide dismutase activity (p = 0.02) were lower in overweight/obese infants than normal-weight peers. All the results together indicate neuroendocrine inflammatory response changes in overweight/obese infants between 6 and 24 months. Although there is already an environment that predisposes for a subsequent pro-inflammatory response, neuroendocrine secretion changes that permit the control of the inflammatory process in this age interval can be observed. PMID:27907172

  18. Meta-analysis: overweight, obesity, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhu; Guan, Zhenlong; Wang, Liqin; Song, Guangyao; Ma, Boqing; Wang, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurological disease and its risk factors remain largely unknown. A meta-analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship of overweight and obesity with PD. Methods. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify studies of associations between overweight/obesity and PD. Overweight, obesity, and PD were used as keywords, and published works were retrieved until September 30, 2013. The extracted data were classified (BMI ≥ 30, 25 ≤ BMI < 30, and BMI < 25) according to BMI values and analyzed using RevMan5.2 and Stata11.0. Results. Four cohort studies and three case-control studies were used to evaluate the association between overweight/obesity and PD, including 2857 PD patients and 5, 683, 939 cases of non-PD controls. There was a statistically significant difference between 25 ≤ BMI < 30  and BMI < 25 in the cohort study (RR = 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.32,  P = 0.03), but there was no difference between BMI ≥ 30  and BMI < 25 or BMI ≥ 30  and 25 ≤ BMI < 30, where the respective RR was 1.16 and 0.84; the respective 95% CI was 0.67-2.01 and 0.61-1.15, respectively, and the P values were 0.60 and 0.28, respectively. Case-control studies showed that there was no statistical difference between any two groups. Conclusion. Meta-analysis showed that overweight might be a potential risk factor of PD. Demonstration of a causal role of overweight/obesity in PD development could have important therapeutic implications.

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight among Adolescents in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    BORIČIĆ, Katarina; SIMIĆ, Snežana; VASILJEVIĆ, Nađa; MARINKOVIĆ, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The pandemic of obesity in adolescents is one of the challenges of public health. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the association of overweight with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors among Serbian adolescents. Method A cross-sectional study of 2139 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years was carried out. Data used in this study were from the 2006 Health Survey. In accordance with the international sex- and age-specific Body Mass Index cut-off points, all participants were classified as being normal weight or overweight, including obese. The association between the risk factors and overweight were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results The study showed that 28.9% of boys and 17.0% of girls were overweight, while 14.5% of boys and 8.1% of girls were obese. Boys were more likely to be overweight/obese, compared with girls. Being younger (p< 0.01 for 14 to 15 years) and (p< 0.01, for 16 to 19 years), engaging in physical activities that last less than 7 hours a week, in such a manner that they breathe quickly and become sweaty, (p< 0.01) and skipping breakfast (p< 0.05) were risk factors significantly associated with overweight among adolescents. No significant association was found with wealth index. Conclusion These findings should be an integral part of further preventive interventions, especially oriented towards younger adolescents, who are physically inactive, have a habit of skipping breakfast and are boys. PMID:27669514

  20. Ethics and prevention of overweight and obesity: an inventory.

    PubMed

    ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further

  1. Acute effects of an oral supplement of (−)-epicatechin on postprandial fat and carbohydrate metabolism in normal and overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela; Ortiz-Vilchis, Pilar; Vacaseydel, Claudia M.; Rubio-Gayosso, Ivan; Meaney, Eduardo; Villarreal, Francisco; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia, in particular when accompanied by excessive hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, mainly in overweight or obese subjects, as it favors oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, treatments that favorably modulate metabolism by reducing steep increases in postprandial serum glucose and triglycerides, are of considerable interest. Evidence suggests that (−)-epicatechin (EPI) is responsible for reductions in cardiometabolic risk associated with chocolate consumption these effects may be associated with favorable effects of EPI on postprandial metabolism. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of EPI on postprandial metabolism in normal-weight and overweight/obese subjects. Twenty adult volunteers (normal and overweight) underwent oral metabolic tolerance tests in the absence and presence of oral EPI (1 mg/kg). Metabolic responses were examined using indirect calorimetry and determining blood glucose and triglycerides at 0, 2 and 4 hours after metabolic load ingestion. Results show that EPI increased postprandial lipid catabolism, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the respiratory quotient, which implies an increase in fat oxidation. The effect was associated with significantly lower postprandial plasma glucose and triglycerides concentrations. The effects were more prominent in overweight subjects. In conclusion, EPI modulates postprandial metabolism by enhancing lipid oxidation accompanied by reductions in glycemia and triglyceridemia. PMID:24458104

  2. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  3. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  4. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  5. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  6. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  7. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  8. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles,...

  9. GDM Women’s Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Li, Weiqin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Liu, Gongshu; Li, Nan; Redman, Leanne M.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity) and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG) with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55), 2.98 (1.89-4.69), and 2.93 (2.07-4.13), respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84), 2.89 (1.78-4.70), and 2.84 (1.98-4.06), respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73), 1.96 (1.24-3.09), and 1.59 (1.15-2.21), respectively]. Conclusions Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG. PMID:26098307

  10. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  11. Overweight and Obese Humans Overeat Away from Home

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, John M.; King, George A.; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gonzalez-Ayala, Salvador; Kooshian, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    The built environment has been implicated in the development of the epidemic of obesity. We investigated the differences in the meal patterns of normal weight vs. overweight/obese individuals occurring at home vs. other locations. The location of meals and their size in free-living participants were continuously recorded for 7 consecutive days. Study 1: 81 males and 84 females recorded their intake in 7-d diet diaries and wore a belt that contained a GPS Logger to record their location continuously for 7 consecutive days. Study 2: 388 males and 621 females recorded their intake in diet diaries for 7 consecutive days. In both studies, compared to eating at home, overweight/obese participants ate larger meals away from home in both restaurants and other locations than normal weight participants. Overweight/obese individuals appear to be more responsive to environmental cues for eating away from home. This suggests that the influence of the built environment on the intake of overweight/obese individuals may contribute to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22565154

  12. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  13. Evaluation of a Training to Improve Management of Pediatric Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchman, Josephine; Beno, Luke; Dennison, David; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Despite widespread concern about pediatric obesity, health care professionals report low proficiency for identifying and treating this condition. This paper reports on the evaluation of pediatric overweight assessment and management training for clinicians and staff in a managed care system. The training was evaluated for its impact…

  14. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  15. Initial Validation of the Activity Choice Index among Overweight Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Sean P.; Silva, Marlene N.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was designed to evaluate psychometric properties of the Activity Choice Index (ACI), a measure for assessing one's choice to engage in more effortful, physically active behaviors in the course of daily routines over less-demanding, sedentary behaviors, in a sample of overweight women. Method: The sample included 192…

  16. Pre-School Overweight and Obesity in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Page, Kirsty

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a summary of current policy and research related to pre-school overweight and obesity, and to provide a rationale for why early years settings are being placed at the forefront of strategies to address the problem. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a narrative review of current research, policy…

  17. Alternative High School Students: Prevalence and Correlates of Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…

  18. Exercise and energy intake in overweight, sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kristin L; Spring, Bonnie; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Exercise expends energy, but without dietary intervention, exercise does not appear to produce substantial weight loss. The present study examined whether overweight, sedentary individuals increase their energy intake after moderate intensity exercise, particularly in the presence of negative mood. A repeated measures design was used where overweight, sedentary individuals (N=65) completed, in counterbalanced order, two conditions: 3 min of exercise (Active) and 3 min of sedentary activity (Sedentary) during one session. Snack foods were presented 10 min after each activity. Mixed-effects regression modeling revealed no significant effect of Active versus Sedentary condition on energy intake. However, moderational analyses revealed that change in negative mood interacted with condition to predict energy intake, such that participants who reported increased negative mood during exercise consumed more calories in the Active compared to the Sedentary condition. That a short bout of exercise resulted in mood deterioration and increased energy intake for some overweight, sedentary individuals is concerning. Further research examining behavioral and physiological mechanisms of mood deterioration and caloric overcompensation following exercise in overweight, sedentary individuals is warranted.

  19. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  20. Nurses and families rising to the challenge of overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The obesity epidemic in children demands that healthcare providers must develop proficiency in treating overweight in children. This article provides nurse practitioners and other health professionals with information on incidence and pathophysiology of childhood obesity, as well as guidelines on ev...

  1. Frequency of family meals and childhood overweight: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Valdés, J; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F; Aguilar, L; Jaén-Casquero, M B; Royo-Bordonada, M Á

    2013-02-01

    Energy balance is influenced by understudied genetic, social and other environmental factors. The frequency of family meals (FFM) may be one of these factors since it is associated with a healthier dietary pattern in children and adolescents. The objective of this review is to evaluate the scientific evidence on the association between FFM and the risk of childhood and adolescent overweight. The electronic literature search identified 394 articles published during 2005-2012. Of these, 15 studies gave precise information of the studied association, of which four were longitudinal. We found great variability regarding the measurement of FFM. Six out of 11 cross-sectional studies and 1 out of 4 longitudinal studies found statistically significant inverse associations between FFM and being overweight, mainly in children, with odds ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.93. Of those, only one adjusted for all the potential confounding factors considering socio-demographic, physical activity- and diet-related variables. Therefore, this review found inconsistent and weak evidence of an inverse association between FFM and risk of childhood overweight. In conclusion, further research is needed to establish whether family meals have an effect on childhood overweight. These studies ideally should have longitudinal or experimental designs, a clear and standardized definition of the exposure under study, a measure of the exposure based on direct observation or validated questionnaires and an adequate adjustment for potential confounders.

  2. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  3. [Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The worldwide situation].

    PubMed

    Pigeot, I; Buck, C; Herrmann, D; Ahrens, W

    2010-07-01

    There is a worldwide increase of overweight and obesity not only in adults, but also in children. Data used to estimate prevalence are, however, collected in differing age groups using nonstandardized measurements and instruments and refer to differing time periods. Moreover, various reference systems to classify overweight and obesity exist, thus, adding to the difficulty in comparing countries. In this paper, these problems are discussed in detail. The most common reference systems are introduced, and their impact on the estimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity is demonstrated. Based on available data of the global situation, maps that depict the worldwide distribution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are presented. Finally, these maps will be discussed critically. Although it may be assumed that these data are collected according to the best quality standards available, the lack of a unified protocol to conduct studies on childhood obesity hampers the comparability of data between countries. Obvious limitations in that respect are the use of different reference systems, differing sampling schemes, and differing age groups. More subtle limitations result from, e.g., different measurement methods, including self-reported weight and height.

  4. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  5. Overweight and obesity in military personnel: sociodemographic predictors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracey J; Marriott, Bernadette P; Dotson, Laura; Bathalon, Gaston P; Funderburk, Leslee; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Young, Andrew J

    2012-07-01

    In the United States, nationally representative civilian studies have shown that BMI is associated with select sociodemographic characteristics. Active-duty military personnel are not included in these surveys and the persistence of these associations in military personnel is unknown. Data from the worldwide, representative 2002 and 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Surveys of Health-Related Behaviors Among Active Duty Military Personnel were used to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and, the association of BMI with sociodemographic characteristics. The final response bases included 12,756 (2002) and 16,146 (2005) personnel. Results indicated that the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity in military personnel increased to an all-time high in 2005 (60.5%) with higher prevalence of obesity in 2005 compared to 2002 (12.9% vs. 8.7, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). Holding other variables constant, regression analysis indicated that women were significantly less likely than men to be overweight or obese in both survey years (P ≤ 0.0001), which is contrary to civilian data. Similar to civilian data, the prevalence of obesity was significantly associated with increased age, black or Hispanic/Latino race/ethnicity, and being married (P ≤ 0.01). US military personnel are not immune to the US obesity epidemic. Demographic characteristics associated with being overweight should be considered when developing military-sponsored weight management programs.

  6. Assessment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate appropriate assessment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is a critical aspect of contemporary medical care. However, physicians and other health care professionals may find this a somewhat thorny field to enter. The BMI has become the standard as a reliable indicator of ...

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Melissa N.; Miller, William C.; Staples, Betty; Bravender, Terrill

    2008-01-01

    College obesity is increasing, but to the authors' knowledge, no researchers to date have evaluated risk factors in this population. Objective: The authors assessed whether abnormal eating perceptions and behaviors were associated with overweight in college students. Participants and Methods: A sample of undergraduates (N = 4,201) completed an…

  8. Assessing the benefits of multisensory audiotactile stimulation for overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Spence, Charles; Mu, Bingbing; Zhou, Xi; Ho, Cristy

    2014-04-01

    We report an experiment designed to examine whether individuals who are overweight would perform differently when trying to detect and/or discriminate auditory, vibrotactile, and audiotactile targets. The vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the participant's abdomen or to his hand. Thirty-six young male participants were classified into normal, underweight, or overweight groups based on their body mass index. All three groups exhibited a significant benefit of multisensory (over the best of the unisensory) stimulation, but the magnitude of this benefit was modulated by the weight of the participant, the task, and the location from which the vibrotactile stimuli happened to be presented. For the detection task, the overweight group exhibited a significantly smaller benefit than the underweight group. In the discrimination task, the overweight group showed significantly more benefits than the other two groups when the vibrotactile stimuli were delivered to their hands, but not when the stimuli were delivered to their abdomens. These results might raise some interesting questions regarding the mechanisms underlying audiotactile information processing and have applied relevance for the design of the most effective warning signal (e.g., for drivers).

  9. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  10. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  11. Middle School Physical Education Teachers' Perspectives on Overweight Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Sarah A.; Rukavina, Paul B.; Li, Weidong; Manson, Mara; Beale, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Using the Social Ecological Constraints model, a qualitative multiple case study design was used to explore experienced and committed middle school physical education teachers' perspectives on overweight and obese students (OWS), and how and why they acted to include OWS in physical education and physical activity opportunities in their school…

  12. Addressing the "Epidemic" of Overweight Children by Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Mick; Wallinga, Charlotte; Bales, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Internet can be of great assistance to early childhood teachers in planning educational activities for the classroom and with families. This article explores how early childhood teachers can use resources online to address what has been called an "epidemic" of overweight children. Guidelines for using online resources are presented. (Contains…

  13. Comparison Balance and Footprint Parameters in Normal and Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Amir Hossein; Bagheri, Ahmad; Azimi, Reza; Darchini, Mohsen Ali; Nik, Hossein Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was done in order to compare balance and footprint parameters in two groups of normal and overweight children. Methods: This semi-experimental study included randomly selected 22 male children (11 normal and 11 overweight boys). To measure the footprint parameters, an ink paper system was used, i.e., after putting their feet in the ink, the subjects were asked to stand comfortably on paper and their footprints were recorded. Then, with the use of ImageJ software, the areas of anterior, middle, and posterior parts, the total area, and the arch index parameter were calculated. For measuring balance in three posterolateral, posteromedial, and anterior directions as well as the total balance, Y-balance test was done. Finally, to analyze the data, mean and standard deviation were calculated and ANOVA test was used to compare the parameters. Results: Data analysis showed a significant difference between normal and overweight subjects in the anterior and posterior areas, whereas, in balance test, only the anterior areas showed significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that area parameters in these two groups do not have significant difference; hence, it cannot be used as the criteria for analyzing the effects of being overweight on these parameters. In addition, it is probable that, in a dynamic situation, recorded footprints are more valid parameters for analyzing foot structure. PMID:23717778

  14. Pre-diabetes in overweight youth and early atherogenic risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare atherogenic lipoprotein particles and vascular smooth muscle biomarkers in overweight youth with pre-diabetes (PD) vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT). 144 adolescents (60 black, 84 white; 102 female; PD=45, NGT=99) aged 10-19 years underwent a fasting blood draw and 2-h OGTT. Lipoprotein ...

  15. Assessing Overweight and Cardiovascular Risks among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlaing, Way Way; Nath, Subrata D.; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2007-01-01

    Although studies regarding health issues and the obesity epidemic have increased in recent years, few of these studies target college-aged students. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in race/ethnicity with respect to prevalence of overweight/obesity (defined by body mass index or BMI) among college students…

  16. Overweight and obesity in Massachusetts: epidemic, hype or policy opportunity?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Katharine Kranz; Man, Lynne H

    2007-01-23

    In 2005, more than 56 percent of Massachusetts adults were overweight, a 40 percent increase from rates reported in 1990. Overall, nearly 21 percent of Massachusetts adults are obese. Both Blacks and Hispanics in the state are more likely than whites to be both overweight and obese, whereas Asians are the least likely to be overweight or obese. Nationally, rates of overweight and obesity are even higher. Obesity is a risk factor for multiple serious health problems in adults, including heart disease, hardening of the arteries, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, certain types of cancer, stroke, diabetes, muscle and bone disorders and gallbladder disease. In Massachusetts, it is estimated that direct costs for obesity-related medical expenditures came to a total of $1.8 billion (4.7% of total medical expenditures) in 2003. Medical expenditures for obese people are estimated to be 25-27% higher than normal weight people, and 44% higher among people who are very obese. Costs are largely attributed to higher rates of coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes, and longer hospital stays. Indirect costs associated with obesity approached $3.9 billion in 1995 reflecting 39.2 million lost workdays, 239 million restricted activity days, 89.5 million hospital bed-days, and 62.6 million physician visits. Causes of obesity include the wide availability of unhealthy foods, increased consumption, changing eating habits, high-calorie beverages, advertising and lack of physical activity. Although a number federal, state and local programs, policies and initiatives aimed at curbing the obesity epidemic have been implemented, more needs to be done. What is the responsibility of government in curbing the obesity epidemic, and how much of the burden should be left up to the individual? These important questions will be discussed at the Massachusetts Health Policy Forum on January 23, 2007. Overweight and obesity continue to climb steadily in the United States among both

  17. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOEpatents

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  18. Oral Health Behavior and Lifestyle Factors among Overweight and Non-Overweight Young Adults in Europe: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Nihtila, Annamari; West, Nicola; Lussi, Adrian; Bouchard, Philippe; Ottolenghi, Livia; Senekola, Egita; Llodra, Juan Carlos; Viennot, Stephane; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Being overweight is a risk factor for many chronic diseases including oral diseases. Our aim was to study the associations between oral health behavior, lifestyle factors and being overweight among young European adults, 2011–2012. The subjects constituted a representative sample of adult population aged 18–35 years from eight European countries participating in the Escarcel study. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits, oral health behavior, smoking, exercise, height, and weight. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 using the World Health Organization criteria. Mean BMI was 23.2 (SD 3.48) and 24.3% of the study population were overweight. Those who were overweight drank more soft drinks (p = 0.005) and energy drinks (p = 0.006) compared with those who were non-overweight. Brushing once a day (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.0), emergency treatment as the reason for last dental visit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3–1.9) and having seven or more eating or drinking occasions daily (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.7) were statistically significantly associated with overweight. Associations were found between oral health behavior, lifestyle and overweight. A greater awareness of the detrimental lifestyle factors including inadequate oral health habits among overweight young adults is important for all healthcare providers, including oral health care professionals. PMID:27417609

  19. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  20. Body size matters in provision of help: factors related to children's willingness to help overweight peers.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanobar L; Holub, Shayla C

    2012-02-01

    Although children who are overweight may be vulnerable to negative social experiences, little is known about whether children will offer help to peers who are overweight. The present study examined whether children would offer aid to peers who are overweight with everyday tasks (such as picking up toys). This study also examined whether weight stereotypes and intentions to befriend these peers are related to intentions to help. Fifty-one children, aged 4-8, were interviewed about their stereotypes and behavioral intentions. Findings revealed that children were less likely to help overweight than average weight peers. Children who did not hold positive stereotypes about thinness and those who chose to play with overweight peers were more likely to help peers who are overweight. Results suggest that weight prejudice is pervasive and that children who are overweight might not be offered aid in classroom settings, highlighting the need for early intervention.

  1. Health Outcomes in Relation to Physical Activity Status, Overweight/Obesity, and History of Overweight/Obesity: A Review of the WATCH Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-11-02

    Previous research has shown that physical activity may mitigate the association between overweight/obesity and a number of negative health outcomes; however, less is known on how the duration of overweight/obesity alters this association. Therefore, the purpose of this leading article was to synthesize recent studies from our research group examining how physical activity, overweight/obesity classification, and importantly, overweight/obesity duration impact the association with a variety of different health outcomes. Five studies were analyzed, each of which used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to analyze six mutually exclusive groups and their respective association with cardiovascular disease risk, all-cause mortality, multi-morbidity, health-related quality of life, and mild depressive symptoms. These studies detailed that physical inactivity, overweight/obesity classification, and overweight/obesity duration were each independently associated with cardiovascular disease risk and multi-morbidity. Additionally, physical activity reduced the risk of all-cause mortality across all weight classifications/durations, and also reduced the association with depressive symptoms and poor health-related quality of life among those overweight/obese for longer durations. These results illustrate that, while physical activity may reduce the association with negative health outcomes, overweight/obesity appears to increase this association independent of physical activity level, with this further exacerbated by the duration of overweight/obesity. Therefore, the emerging studies examining the importance of physical activity among overweight/obese individuals should also consider the duration of overweight/obesity as this will likely alter the associations present.

  2. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    PubMed Central

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-01-01

    Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be

  3. Impact of android overweight or obesity and insulin resistance on basal and postprandial SR-BI and ABCA1-mediated serum cholesterol efflux capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nesrine; Fournier, Natalie; Vedie, Benoît; Cambillau, Michèle; Beaune, Philippe; Ziegler, Olivier; Grynberg, Alain; Paul, Jean-Louis; Guerci, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    Since android overweight/obesity and insulin resistance are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we investigated their impact on basal and postprandial scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated serum cholesterol efflux. Twelve android overweight to obese and 9 normal weight controls women underwent body composition analysis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, and an oral fat load with blood sampling at initial time (T0), 4h (T4) and 10h (T10) after the fat load. Serum lipids and HDL-parameters, capacities of serum to promote cholesterol efflux from SR-BI expressing Fu5AH hepatoma cells or from ABCA1-expressing J774 macrophages and to abilities of serum to induce a net removal of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells were measured at T0, T4 and T10. Sera from overweight/obese exhibited moderately decreased SR-BI-mediated cholesterol efflux capacities, in accordance with reduced HDL concentrations, but importantly increased ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and increased cholesterol extraction capacities over the postprandial period, partly related to higher prebeta-HDL concentrations. In multiple regression analyses, android obesity-related parameters and HDL-PL or prebeta-HDL levels remained the only independent correlates for SR-BI or ABCA1-dependent fractional cholesterol efflux while only prebeta-HDL levels remained correlated to cholesterol extraction capacities. Our results suggest that android overweight/obesity may not result in an impaired cholesterol efflux capacity.

  4. The relationship between temperament and character and psychopathology in community children with overweight.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jun Won; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Boong Nyun; Shin, Min Sup; Kim, Seog Ju; Cho, Soo Churl

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between temperament and character and psychopathology in at risk of overweight and overweight children. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) questionnaires were administered to 453 children (10-12 years of age, 203 boys and 250 girls) in Kimpo, South Korea. Subjects were divided into three groups; (1) nonoverweight children (n = 345), (2) children at risk of overweight (n = 72), and (3) overweight children (n = 36). CBCL and the JTCI scores were compared among three groups. In addition, the relationships between subscales of the CBCL and the JTCI were evaluated. On the CBCL, overweight children had higher scores in social problems, delinquent problems, and total problems compared to nonoverweight children. Children at risk of overweight showed higher scores only in social problems compared to nonoverweight children. On the JTCI, lower persistence and tendency of higher novelty seeking was observed in overweight children compared to nonoverweight children. Persistence scores were negatively correlated with scores of delinquent problems, externalizing problems, and total problems in overweight children. Compared to nonoverweight and children at risk of overweight, overweight children had distinct patterns of temperament and character that were related to the specific psychopathology.

  5. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  6. Inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Yong; Kim, Jung Chul; Kim, Shin Kon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 636 adult patients who underwent mesh plug inguinal hernia repair performed by one surgeon from November 2001 to January 2009.The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed. According to the body mass index, patients higher than 23 were defined as overweight and obese patient group (O group) and patients between 18.5 and 23 were defined as normal weight patient group (N group). Seventeen underweight patients were excluded in this study. Results Of 619 cases, the number for O group was 344 (55.6%) and for N group was 275 (44.4%). The mean age was significantly higher in N group (62.2 ± 12.6 vs. 64.4 ± 14.8, P = 0.048). Underlying diseases were present in 226 (65.7%) of the O group and 191 (69.5%) of the N group (P = 0.322). Anesthesia method, operative time and postoperative hospital stay had no significant difference between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 41 (11.9%) of the O group and in 28 (10.2%) of the N group, respectively, and no major complications developed in either group. Conclusion Adult inguinal hernias developed at a relatively younger age in overweight and obese patients than in normal weight patients. There were no specific differences in other clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Therefore inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients is a safe procedure as in normal weight patients. PMID:22066122

  7. [Effect of healthy life style in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Móczár, Csaba; Borda, Ferenc; Faragó, Katalin; Borgulya, Gábor; Braunitzer, Ferencné; Vörös, Vera

    2007-01-14

    Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Change of life style plays very important role for the management of overweight and obesity and related cardiovascular risk factors. Patients need to acquire and adopt these changes. The aim of this study was to screen practices for overweight and obese patients, to decrease their cardiovascular risk and prevent development of cardiovascular diseases. 2489 overweight patients were screened from 29 general practices since April of 2001. The authors surveyed their characteristics of life style: eating and exercise habits, body mass index, waist line, resting blood pressure, heart rate and plasma glucose, total cholesterin, triglyceride, HDL after a 12-hour fasting. A team, which consisted of an internist, a dietician and a physical instructor dealt with the patients. After ruling out secondary obesity the team tailored an individual life-style which focused on dietary interventions (low calorie diet) and increased physical activity. 12 months later the body mass index decreased significantly by 0.56 kg/m 2 on average and further 0.088 kg/m 2 by the end of the second year, the waist line first did not change significantly then decreased 0.04 cm. The rest systolic blood pressure cut down significantly on average 5.9 Hg mm in the first year, and more 0.11 Hg mm by the end of second year. The metabolic parameters also decreased significantly: total cholesterin 0.23 mmol/l in the first year, 0.07 mmol/l in the second year, triglyceride: 0.18 mmol/l; 0.08 mmol/l, blood glucose: 0.15 mmol/l; 0.19 mmol/l. The level of HDL did not change. It is very important for management of overweight and obesity that patients adopt changes of life style. The authors' results show that these patients must be followed very strictly.

  8. Overweight and obesity among African immigrants in Oslo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norway is experiencing an increase in overweight/obese adults, with immigrants from developing countries carrying a heavy burden. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Somali immigrants in Oslo. Findings A cross-sectional study involving 208 respondents aged 25 and over was conducted among Somali immigrants in Oslo, using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of overweight/obesity varied by gender, with women having a significantly higher prevalence (66%) than men (28%). The mean BMI for females and males were 27.4 and 23.6, respectively. Similarly, 53% of women and 28% of men were abdominally obese. In a logistic regression analysis, both generalized and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increasing duration of residence in Norway, and with being less physically active. Conclusion Public health policymakers should facilitate an environment that enables Somali immigrants, particularly women, to lead healthy lifestyles. In this time of epidemiological transition, health education in the areas of physical exercise and healthy eating should be a major focus for working with new immigrants. PMID:23531273

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  10. Child feeding practices and overweight status among Mexican immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to compare maternal perceptions, feeding practices, and overweight status of children in immigrant households in California (US) with a cohort in Guanajuato, Mexico (MX). In 2006, staff interviewed mothers and weighed and measured their children, 1-6 years (US: n = 95 and MX: n = 200). Prevalence of overweight [body mass index z-score (BMIZ) >1.0 and <1.65] and obesity (BMIZ > 1.65) was 21.1 and 28.4% in the US respectively, compared to 11.5 and 12.9% in MX (p < 0.001). No differences were observed in maternal ability to identify correctly the child's weight status or ever being told the child was overweight. US children ate away from home more often (p < 0.0001), had fewer family meals (p < 0.0001), and played outdoors less often than MX children (p < 0.0002). Further analyses should examine how differences in eating and activity patterns explain the disparity in childhood obesity across the countries.

  11. Fibrinolysis in diabetes mellitus. Role of overweight and hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Cucuianu, M; Fekete, T; Marcusiu, C; Mösler, R; Duţu, A

    1984-01-01

    The variations of dilute blood clot lysis time (DBCLT) in 103 diabetic patients were investigated in terms of insulin dependency, body weight, serum lipids and presence of diabetic vascular diseases. The results showed that DBCLT was significantly longer in the 34 overweight diabetic patients (437 +/- 68 min) than in the 69 diabetics at or below the ideal body weight (240 +/- 28 min) or in the 76 normalipidemic normal weight control subjects (253 +/- 12 min). DBCLT was also longer in the hypertrigliceridemic diabetic patients than in the normolipidemic ones. The mean lysis time was similar in diabetic patients with and without retinopathy. However, a higher level of fibrinolytic inhibitors was found in patients with diabetic small vessel disease. In vitro inhibition of plasma factor XIII by p-chlormercuribenzoate (PCMB) caused an acceleration of DBCLT and the differences between lysis time in the overweight diabetics and in the controls were attenuated. These results suggested that deficient thrombolysis is rather due to overweight and to disturbances of lipid metabolism than to diabets and/or its vascular complications and that enhanced fibrin crosslinking is at least partially responsible for delayed clot lysis.

  12. Effects of Integrated Health Management Intervention on Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiting; Ma, Chung Wah; Yang, Yide; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Xiaoliang; Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Zhongping; Wang, Zhenghe; Meng, Xiangkun; Ma, Dongmei; Ma, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p < 0.05) except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), body fat ratio (BFR), and hipline (p < 0.05). The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity. PMID:28115972

  13. Does being overweight affect seminal variables in fertile men?

    PubMed

    Taha, Emad A; Sayed, Sohair K; Gaber, Hisham D; Abdel Hafez, Hatem K; Ghandour, Nagwa; Zahran, Asmaa; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-12-01

    The effect of being overweight on seminal variables was assesed in 165 fertile men. Participants were divided into three groups: fertile men with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), fertile overweight men (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and fertile obese men (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). Medical history was taken, a clinical examination conducted. Semen analysis was undertaken and BMI measured. Seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by chemiluminescent assay, sperm vitality by the hypo-osmotic swelling test and sperm DNA fragmentation by propidium iodide staining with flowcytometry. Fertile obese men had significantly lower sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility and sperm normal morphology, with significantly higher seminal ROS and sperm DNA fragmentation compared with fertile normal-weight men and overweight men (all P < 0.05). BMI was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.091; P = 0.014), progressive sperm motility (r = -0.697; P = 0.001), normal sperm morphology (r = -0.510; P = 0.001), sperm vitality (r = -0.586; P = 0.001), but positively correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation percentage (r = 0.799; P = 0.001) and seminal ROS (r = 0.673; P = 0.001). Increased BMI was found to affect semen parameters negatively even in fertile men.

  14. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  15. Insulin Resistance, Hyperinsulinemia, and Energy Intake in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Rutledge, Margaret S.; Kozlosky, Merel; Salaita, Christine G.; Gustafson, Jennifer K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Fleisch, Abby F.; Roberts, Mary D.; Ning, Cong; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between energy intake during a buffet meal and indices of insulin dynamics in overweight children. Study design 95 non-diabetic, overweight (BMI ≥95th percentile) children (age 10.3±1.4y) selected lunch from a 9,835kcal buffet eaten ad libitum after an overnight fast. The associations between energy intake and measures of insulin dynamics, in the post-absorptive state and during a 2h-hyperglycemic clamp, were determined. Covariates in the statistical model included race, sex, skeletal age, fat-free mass, fat mass, socioeconomic status, and number of foods in the buffet rated as acceptable. Results Energy intake was positively associated with the fasting homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β=0.24, p=0.042), fasting insulin/glucose ratio (β=0.24, p=0.044), 1st-phase insulin (β=0.23, p=0.032), and 1st-phase C-peptide (β=0.21, p=0.046); energy intake was negatively associated with clamp-derived insulin sensitivity (SIclamp; β= -0.29, p=0.042). Each 10% decrease in SIclamp predicted 27 kcal greater energy intake. Conclusions Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are associated with greater energy intake after an overnight fast in overweight children. These associations suggest mechanisms whereby insulin resistance may contribute to excessive weight gain in children. PMID:18410761

  16. Overweight and Obesity in Pediatric Secondary Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Grace l.; Sheldon, Claire A.; Burrows, Evanette K.; Chilutti, Marianne R.; Liu, Grant T.; Mccormack, Shana E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the clinical, demographic, and anthropometric patient characteristics of secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome in children and adolescents based on the recently revised diagnostic criteria. Design Retrospective observational case series. Methods Patients seen at a tertiary children's hospital for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome were classified as having either primary idiopathic (n = 59) or secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (n = 16), as rigorously defined by recently revised diagnostic criteria. Outcomes included body mass index Z-scores (BMI-Z), height and weight Z-scores, demographics, and clinical features at presentation, such as headache, sixth nerve palsy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure. Results In this cohort, the associated conditions and exposures seen in definite secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome included tetracycline-class antibiotics (n = 11), chronic kidney disease (n = 3), withdrawal from chronic glucocorticoids (n = 1), and lithium (n = 1). Other associations observed in the possible secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome group included Down syndrome, vitamin A derivatives, and growth hormone. In comparison with primary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, definite secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome patients were on average older (15.0 vs 11.6 years; P = .003, Mann-Whitney test). According to US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifications, 79% of children with secondary pseudotumor cerebri syndrome were either overweight or obese (36% overweight [n = 5] and 43% obese [n = 6]), as compared to 32% nationally. Conclusions Even when a potential inciting exposure is identified for pediatric pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, the possible contribution of overweight and obesity should be considered. PMID:25447107

  17. Laboratory assessment of cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of developing cardiovascular diseases. The global prevalence of overweight and obesity among children shows an increasing tendency. Many of overweight or obese children will become obese adults with enhanced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Childhood obesity is often accompanied by serious consequences such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, pro-inflammatory state and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hypertension, high LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, insulin resistance, inflammation and disturbances in adipocytokines secretion are associated with endothelial dysfunction which precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Obese children and adolescents with a clinically-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is currently recognized as the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome, are at more severe cardiovascular risk compared with normal-weight. Obesity-related insulin resistance is highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and is associated with the increased lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipokines contribute to obesity-atherosclerosis relationships yet among several recently discovered adipokines only few (adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, fibroblast growth factor 21, apelin) have been partly studied in obese pediatric population. The aim of this review was to describe the spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities observed in children with overweight and obesity and the role of laboratory in the assessment of cardiometabolic risk in order to differentiate between healthy obese and those at risk to most effectively prevent progression of cardiovascular disease in childhood.

  18. Obesity, overweight and body-weight perception in a High Atlas Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Lahmam, A; Baali, A; Hilali, M K; Cherkaoui, M; Chapuis-Lucciani, N; Boetsch, G

    2008-03-01

    In order to study the prevalence of obesity and overweight and to understand how the human body is perceived among Moroccan mountain populations, we carried out a survey that covered a sample of 436 Amazigh individuals aged 20 years and more from the High Moroccan Atlas. Through this survey, we noticed that obesity is still low among men (2.4%), whereas the prevalence of obesity among women is alarming and reaches 13.3%. The prevalence of overweight is also high, especially among women, with 32.8% vs. 21.8% among men. Obesity prevalence, especially overweight, is higher than that recorded in the national rural level. The high prevalence of overweight that can develop to obesity should be taken into account mainly when dealing with women that still value overweight. In fact, women in our sample underestimate their overweight more than men and wish to have a heavier body.

  19. The Effect of Interactive Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: LTC Melba C. Stetz, PhD...Simulations on Exercise Adherence with Overweight and Obese Adults 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-2-0010 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC...exercise motivation, and self-efficacy in overweight and obese Army personnel. Although increased activity level has proven to be a critical element

  20. Parents often do not recognize overweight in their child, regardless of their socio-demographic background.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Wilma; Brug, Johannes

    2006-12-01

    To involve parents successfully in the treatment of overweight in their child, they first need to be aware of the problem and its accompanying health risks. Data on 1840 9-11 year olds from the Rotterdam Youth Health Monitor were analysed to investigate whether awareness of parents differs according to socio-demographic characteristics. In the case of overweight children, 50% of the parents do not recognize that their child is overweight. Except for age none of the investigated socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnicity and parental education, was associated with awareness. Parents of obese children show greater awareness than parents of overweight children.

  1. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiling; Yang, Bo; Liu, Dayou; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yanlong; Zhang, Xiuhua; Hu, Lufeng

    2015-01-01

    The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01). According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  2. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    PubMed

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients.

  3. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status - the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Theresa A.; Adolph, Anne L.; Butte, Nancy F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to 1) assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and 2) test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (SES) Hispanic families at high risk for obesity. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess dietary intake in low-SES non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study. Multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls were recorded on two random, weekday occasions. Diet quality was evaluated according to United States (US) Dietary Guidelines. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using z-scores based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Subjects/Setting The study included 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents, ages 4-19 y, in Houston, Texas who participated between November 2000 and August 2004. Statistical analysis STATA was used for generalized estimating equations and random effects regression. Results Diet quality did not adhere to US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar and sodium. Although energy intake was significantly higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight children. Relative to EAR or AI, mean nutrient intakes were adequate (70-98% probability) in the non-overweight and overweight children, except for vitamins D and E, pantothenic acid, calcium and potassium for which z-scores cannot be interpreted given the uncertainty of their AI's. Conclusion While the diets of low-SES, non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, other components of a healthy diet, which promote long-term health, were suboptimal. Knowledge of the diet of high risk Hispanic children will inform nutritional interventions and

  4. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lascurain, Mary Beth; Capps, Gary J; Franzese, Oscar

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  5. Is overweight associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Tehranian school children?

    PubMed

    Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Alamdari, Shahram; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amiri, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between overweight and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Tehranian school children. A total of 631 school children aged 8-14 year old were selected from elementary and secondary schools, and body weight status was determined according to WHO growth references for 5-19 year old children. Children were categorized into the overweight and non-overweight groups. The HRQoL was assessed using Iranian versions of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory version™ 4.0 (PedsQL). Overweight elementary school boys had significantly higher scores for physical functioning, school functioning and total HRQoL, compared to non-overweight ones (p < 0.05). On the other hand, except for emotional functioning subscale, overweight secondary school boys had significantly lower HRQoL scores, compared to their non-overweight counterparts (p < 0.05). In girls, only social functioning subscale scores were significantly lower in elementary school girls compared to non-overweight ones (p < 0.05). Based on parents' perspective, overweight elementary school boys had poorer HRQoL compared to their non-overweight counterparts, significant only for emotional functioning (p < 0.05). For secondary school boys, overweight boys had lower HRQoL scores compared to non-overweight ones, significant for all subscales except for emotional functioning. Based on parents' reports, in both elementary and secondary school girls, there were no significant differences in HRQoL scores between overweight and non-overweight groups. To conclude, in boys while overweight significantly increased HRQoL in children, it significantly decreased HRQoL among adolescents. However, except for social functioning in elementary school girls, there was no significant association between HRQoL scores and overweight. Parents' reports showed an association between overweight and HRQoL, only in boys.

  6. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  7. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. Objectives This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. Patients and Methods A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. Results In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with

  8. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    PubMed

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general.

  9. Eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Masayasu; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between eating behavior and childhood overweight among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Data was collected from fourth graders (9 or 10 years of age) from Ina Town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, and lifestyle, including eating behaviors (eating until full and chewing thoroughly), was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, and height and weight were measured directly. Overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 4027 subjects (2079 boys and 1948 girls) were analyzed. Chewing thoroughly was associated with a significantly decreased odds ratio (OR) for being overweight, whereas eating until full significantly increased the OR for being overweight (OR: 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.94) among boys. However, eating until full was not associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight among the group that reported chewing thoroughly, whereas it was associated with a significantly increased OR for being overweight (2.02, 1.38-2.94) among boys who did not chew thoroughly. In conclusion, eating until full or not chewing thoroughly was associated with being overweight among elementary schoolchildren. Results of this study suggest that chewing thoroughly may be an avenue to explore childhood overweight prevention efforts.

  10. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  11. Design and Implementation of Training to Improve Management of Pediatric Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beno, Luke; Hinchman, Josephine; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Clinicians report a low proficiency in treating overweight children and using behavioral management strategies. This paper documents the design and implementation of a training program to improve clinicians' skills in the assessment and behavioral management of pediatric overweight. Methods: Two one-hour CME trainings were designed…

  12. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    PubMed

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = -0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  13. Fostering Inclusion and Positive Physical Education Experiences for Overweight and Obese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obese students are often socially and instructionally excluded from physical education and school physical activity opportunities. This article describes teaching strategies from a study of middle school physical education teachers who are committed to providing effective teaching and positive experiences for overweight and obese…

  14. Do You Hear What I Hear? Overweight Children's Perceptions of Different Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986, 1999) served as the framework to explore overweight children's perceptions of different physical activity settings. Participants were children (n = 67) enrolled in an after-school and summer program for overweight African-American and Hispanic-American children from low-income families. To gain insight into…

  15. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Eunsook; Park, HyunJu; Ha, Yeongmi; Hwang, Won Ju

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children with intellectual disabilities may be a major health threat. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Korean children with intellectual disabilities aged 7-18 years who did not have specific genetic syndromes or physical disabilities. Materials and methods:…

  16. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  17. Weight-Based Victimization toward Overweight Adolescents: Observations and Reactions of Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Luedicke, Joerg; Heuer, Cheslea

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight-based victimization has become increasingly reported among overweight youth, but little is known about adolescents' perceptions and observations of weight-based teasing and bullying. This study examined adolescents' observations of and reactions to weight-based victimization toward overweight students at school. Methods:…

  18. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Shape and Weight Concerns in Overweight Pre-Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based…

  20. Socio-Demographic and Economic Correlates of Overweight Status in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim; Clark, Florence; Palmer, Paula H.; Gallaher, Peggy; Sun, Ping; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate overweight prevalence and socio-demographic and economic correlates in Chinese adolescents. Methods: Weight, height, waist circumference, and socio-demographic and economic variables of 6863 middle and high school students were measured. Results: 10% of girls and 17% of boys were overweight. Waist circumference and…

  1. In-Shoe Plantar Pressures and Ground Reaction Forces during Overweight Adults' Overground Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…

  2. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.

  3. Food Consumption Patterns in Mediterranean Adolescents: Are There Differences between Overweight and Normal-Weight Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Brussee, Sandra E.; Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yiannakouris, Nikolaos; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify food consumption (based on food group classification) during several time periods in a sample of adolescents and to identify potential differences in food patterns between normal-weight and overweight participants. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants were classified as normal weight and overweight/obese. Dietary…

  4. Overweight and Its Relationship to Middle Eastern American College Students' Sociodemographics and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2007-01-01

    Overweight and obesity plague American society and their burden is shared disproportionately by minorities at all age levels. The ramifications of overweight are well documented and include chronic morbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Immigrants, who comprise 11% of…

  5. The Role of Childcare Providers in the Prevention of Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Kathleen; Russo, Theresa J.; Baker, Ida; Dennison, Barbara A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood overweight has received increased national attention as a social and health problem. Childcare providers play an increasingly prominent role in the lives of young children and are therefore important in initiating change. This qualitative study determined the role of childcare professionals in the prevention of childhood overweight.…

  6. School-Based Interventions for Overweight and Obesity in Minority School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…

  7. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  8. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  9. [Occupational aspects of epidemiology of overweight: contemporary tendencies and prospects of prophylaxis (review of literature)].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The review article covers occupational aspects of overweight as one of the major behavioral risk factors in many diseases. As this topic is undercovered by the national studies, the review considers the foreign works more. The authors present main concepts of work process influence on overweight and of prophylactic leverages on this influence.

  10. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity (hereafter overweight)…

  11. Factors Influencing Health-Related Quality of Life of Overweight and Obese Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Park, Jiyoung; Ma, Yumi; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of overweight and obese children in Korea. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive study design. A total of 132 overweight and obese children participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included body mass index, percent body…

  12. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Overweight Children's Cognitive Functioning: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew

    2007-01-01

    The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control…

  13. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  14. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of overweight and obesity in indigenous Australian children: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Suzanne Marie; Gomersall, Judith Streak; Smithers, Lisa Gaye; Davy, Carol; Coleman, Dylan T; Street, Jackie Mary

    2017-05-03

    Evidence-based profiling of obesity and overweight in Indigenous Australian children has been poor. This study systematically reviewed evidence of the prevalence and patterns of obesity/overweight, with respect to gender, age, remoteness, and birth weight, in Indigenous Australian children, 0-18 years (PROSPERO CRD42014007626). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Twenty-five publications (21 studies) met inclusion criteria, with large variations in prevalence for obesity or overweight (11 to 54%) reported. A high degree of heterogeneity in study design was observed, few studies (6/21) were representative of the target population, and few appropriately recruited Indigenous children (8/21). Variability in study design, conduct, and small sample sizes mean that it is not possible to derive a single estimate for prevalence although two high-quality studies indicate at least one in four Indigenous Australian children are overweight or obese. Four of six studies reporting on gender, found overweight/obesity higher in girls and eight studies reporting on overweight/obesity by age suggest prevalence increases with age with one high quality large national study reporting total overweight/obesity as 22.4% of children aged 2-4 years, 27.5% of those aged 5-9, 38.5% aged 10-14, and 36.3% aged 15-17. Three of four studies, reporting obesity/overweight by region, found lower rates for children living in more remote areas than urban areas.

  16. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  17. Early weaning and other potential risk factors for overweight among preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Geni; Motta, Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida; Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether early weaning constitutes a risk factor for overweight at preschool age and to identify other factors that affect this association. METHODS This was a case-control study of 366 children aged 2 to 6 years (176 boys and 190 girls) from three cities. The case group comprised overweight children, as defined by body mass index (BMI) for age greater than or equal to the 85th percentile. The main exposure analyzed was early weaning (exclusive or predominant breastfeeding for less than four months). RESULTS Early weaning was a significant risk factor for overweight in univariate analysis (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.10–2.60; p = 0.02), but not in multivariate analysis (OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.86–2.34; p = 0.17). Maternal overweight, birth weight ≥ 3,500 g and sedentarism were the main risk factors for overweight in multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION In our study, the protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight was only shown in univariate analysis; it did not persist after controlling for other variables. It is possible that breastfeeding has only a small protective role against overweight in comparison with other variables of greater importance. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the potential protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight among preschool children is weaker than genetic and other environmental factors. PMID:20186302

  18. Overweight in Adolescents: Differences per Type of Education. Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissers, Dirk; Devoogdt, Nele; Gebruers, Nick; Mertens, Ilse; Truijen, Steven; Van Gaal, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the lifestyle and prevalence of overweight among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents attending 4 different types of secondary education (SE). Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Participants: A community sample of 994 adolescents (body mass index [BMI]: 15-43 kg/m[superscript 2]). Variables Measured: Overweight and obesity…

  19. Overweight and obesity among affluent Bengalee schoolgirls of Lake Town, Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2007-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 431 Bengalee schoolgirls aged 6-9 years in Kolkata, India. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were made on 431 girls. The body mass index (BMI) was computed following the standard equation. Overweight and obesity was defined following the internationally accepted BMI cut-off points. Results revealed that the overall rates of overweight and obesity were 17.63% and 5.10%, respectively. A steady increase in number of overweight individuals was observed from 6 to 9 years. The prevalence of overweight among affluent Bengalee children was higher than those reported from other Asian countries.

  20. Spatial quantile regression using INLA with applications to childhood overweight in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mtambo, Owen P L; Masangwi, Salule J; Kazembe, Lawrence N M

    2015-04-01

    Analyses of childhood overweight have mainly used mean regression. However, using quantile regression is more appropriate as it provides flexibility to analyse the determinants of overweight corresponding to quantiles of interest. The main objective of this study was to fit a Bayesian additive quantile regression model with structured spatial effects for childhood overweight in Malawi using the 2010 Malawi DHS data. Inference was fully Bayesian using R-INLA package. The significant determinants of childhood overweight ranged from socio-demographic factors such as type of residence to child and maternal factors such as child age and maternal BMI. We observed significant positive structured spatial effects on childhood overweight in some districts of Malawi. We recommended that the childhood malnutrition policy makers should consider timely interventions based on risk factors as identified in this paper including spatial targets of interventions.

  1. How low-income mothers with overweight preschool children make sense of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Cayce C; Sherman, Susan N; Whitaker, Robert C

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiologic and qualitative studies have found that most mothers with overweight preschool children do not think their children are overweight. This might present a challenge for clinicians who wish to address obesity in young children. To understand mothers' perceptions of their overweight children's weight, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 mothers of overweight preschool children enrolled in Kentucky's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Although these mothers did not label their children as overweight, they were worried about children's weight, particularly as it related to their emotional well-being. These worries about obesity were reflected in three central tensions that shaped the way mothers perceived their children's weight and informed maternal feeding strategies: (a) nature vs. nurture, (b) medical authority vs. lived experience, and (c) relieving immediate stress vs. preventing long-term consequences. Acknowledging mothers' concerns and tensions might help clinicians communicate more effectively with them about obesity.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms associated with overweight and obesity in uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kasim, Nor Bahirah; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Ibrahim, Luqman; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar

    2016-01-01

    Generally, obese and overweight individuals display higher free fatty acid levels, which stimulate insulin resistance. The combination of overweight or obesity with insulin resistance can trigger Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and are primary contributing factors to the development of uncontrolled T2DM. Genetic polymorphisms also play an important role as they can impact a population's susceptibility to becoming overweight or obese and developing related chronic complications, such as uncontrolled T2DM. This review specifically examines the genetic polymorphisms associated with overweight and obesity in patients with uncontrolled T2DM. Particularly, gene polymorphisms in ADIPOQ (rs1501299 and rs17300539), LepR (rs1137101 and rs1045895), IRS2 (rs1805092), GRB14 (rs10195252 and rs3923113) and PPARG (rs1801282) have been associated with overweight and obesity in uncontrolled T2DM.

  3. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  4. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  5. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  6. Canagliflozin: Effects in overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E; Weinstein, Richard; Law, Gordon; Canovatchel, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on body weight in overweight and obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] ≥27 and <50 kg/m2). Methods This 12-week, Phase 2b, randomized, double-blind study enrolled 376 subjects without diabetes mellitus who received canagliflozin 50, 100, or 300 mg or placebo once daily. The primary endpoint was the percent change in body weight from baseline through Week 12. Results Canagliflozin increased urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner and produced statistically significant reductions in body weight compared with placebo (least squares mean percent changes from baseline of −2.2%, −2.9%, −2.7%, and −1.3% with canagliflozin 50, 100, and 300 mg and placebo; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Overall adverse event (AE) rates were similar across groups. Canagliflozin was associated with higher rates of genital mycotic infections in women, which were generally mild and led to few study discontinuations. Osmotic diuresis-related AE rates were low and similar across groups. Conclusions In overweight and obese subjects without diabetes mellitus, canagliflozin significantly reduced body weight compared with placebo and was generally well tolerated. PMID:24227660

  7. Overweight effect on spirometric parameters in adolescents undergoing exercise

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Rayana de Oliveira; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Lacerda, Eliana Mattos; Dias, Rodrigo; Pezolato, Vitor Alexandre; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; Krinski, Kleverton; Correia, Marco Aurélio de Valois; Cieslak, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate effects of overweight on spirometric parameters in adolescents who underwent bronchial provocation test for exercise. Methods We included 71 male adolescents. The diagnosis of asthma was done based on participants’ clinical history and on the International Study Questionnaire Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, and the diagnosis of obesity was based on body mass index above 95th percentile. The bronchospasm induced by exercise was assessed using the run-walk test on a treadmill for eight minutes. The decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second > or equal to 10% before exercise was considered positive, and to calculate the intensity in exercise-induced bronchospasm we measured the maximum percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second and above the curve area. Data analysis was carried out using the Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test (ANOVA), followed by Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). In addition, we used Fisher’s exact test to analyze the exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency. Results Significant differences were observed among obese adolescents in exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency (p=0,013) and in relation to time required for recovery after exercise (p=0,007). Conclusion Overweight can influence the increase in the exercise-induced bronchospasm frequency in non-asthmatic adolescents compared with eutrophic adolescents. PMID:27462892

  8. Mobile App to Reduce Inactivity in Sedentary Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Bedra, McKenzie; Li, Xuan; Wood, Jeffrey; Ouyang, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the duration of inactivity (sedentary state) is independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our goal was to develop the technology that can measure the amount of inactivity in real time, remind a person that a preprogrammed period of inactivity has occurred and encourage a period of activity, and provide web-based feedback with tailored information to the participant and investigators. Once it was developed, we carried out a pilot study in a group of sedentary overweight women. The objective of the study was to assess potential of the mobile app to reduce inactivity in our target population. A randomized crossover design was employed with study subjects randomly assigned to a 4-week each "message-on" and "message-off" periods. Out of 30 enrolled subjects, 27 completed the study. The average age of particpants was 52±12; BMI: 37±6; 47% were white and 47% were African American. Overall, inactivity was significantly lower (p<0.02) during "message-on" periods (24.6%) as compared to the "message-off" periods (30.4%). We conluded that mobile app monitoring inactivity and providing a real-time notification when inactivity period exceeds healthy limits was able to significantly reduce inactivity periods in overweight sedentary women.

  9. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  10. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  11. Impact of overweight and obesity on obstetric outcomes.

    PubMed

    Triunfo, S; Lanzone, A

    2014-04-01

    Abnormal nutritional status is an increasingly common complication in developed countries and, as reproductive age women are a part of this trend, the effect of maternal obesity on the pregnancy and neonate must be investigated. Pregestational obesity or overweight condition or an excessive gestational weight gain can be an independent risk factor for feto-maternal complications and long-term risks in adult life for the fetus. The selected risks include infertility, miscarriage, congenital anomalies, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, intrauterine fetal death, macrosomia, and delivery complications. From an etiological point of view, the causes of the adverse outcomes include maternal body habitus, proinflammatory state of obesity, and metabolic dysfunction. Actually, a weight management guidance for obese pregnant women is limited, recommending a gain between 5 and 9 kg during the pregnancy period, while weight loss is discouraged. Mainly, therapeutic approach is prevention using specific programs of reducing weight before pregnant status. In addition, mechanistic studies, in animal models especially, have identified potential areas for intervention which might limit adverse risk factors for obesity from mothers to infants during pregnancy. In this article, a review of the literature on selected obstetrical risks associated with maternal overweight and obesity has been performed and both the target prevention and management strategies have been assessed.

  12. Oportunidades to reduce overweight and obesity in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Andalón, Mabel

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates the causal effect of Oportunidades, a conditional cash-transfer program in Mexico, on overweight and obesity of adolescents living in poor rural areas. Affecting youth weight was not a goal of this program. However, health economics research suggests that the provision of schooling, health information sessions and sizable cash transfers to Oportunidades participants could have substantially changed their overweight and obesity rates. Exploiting an exogenous jump in program participation by means of a fuzzy Regression Discontinuity (RD) design, the evidence of this paper suggests that Oportunidades decreased obesity among participant women. The identified local average treatment effect (LATE) at the threshold for program eligibility suggests that female obesity would decrease if the program was expanded to cover slightly better-off households. The design of the program does not allow disentangling the causal pathways that contributed to the lower prevalence of obesity among women, but the effect likely resulted from increased access to information and schooling, improved dietary quality, increased monitoring of health outcomes and (possibly) increased physical activity. Suggestive evidence shows that teen pregnancy rates were higher among non-participants. Therefore, weight gain after childbirth might also explain higher obesity rates among non-participant females.

  13. Arkansas School Nurses' Role in Statewide Assessment of Body Mass Index to Screen for Overweight Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Bushmiaer, Margo

    2005-01-01

    National surveys that have tracked weight and physical activity in the United States for more than 40 years have shown a continuing increase in the number of overweight children and adolescents. Overweight children and adolescents are showing an increase in diseases related to overweight: Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and…

  14. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-13

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.

  15. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions. PMID:26580638

  16. Overview of Requirements for Using Overweight Vehicles to Ship Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Thrower, A.W.; Offner, J.; Bolton, P.

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, considered a range of options for transportation. In evaluating the impacts of the mostly-legal weight truck scenario, DOE assumed that some shipments would use overweight trucks. The use of overweight trucks is also considered in the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, issued for public comment in Fall 2007. With the exception of permit requirements and operating restrictions, the vehicles for overweight shipments would be similar to legal-weight truck shipments but might weigh as much as 52,200 kilograms (115,000 pounds). The use of overweight trucks was determined to be acceptable for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because the payload is not divisible and the packaging alone may make shipments overweight. Overweight truck shipments are common, and states routinely issue overweight permits, some for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight up to 58,500 kilograms (129,000 pounds). This paper will present an overview of state overweight truck permitting policies and national and regional approaches to promote safety and uniformity. In conclusion: Overweight truck shipments are made routinely by carriers throughout the country. State permits are obtained by the carriers or by companies that provide permitting services to the carriers. While varying state permit restrictions may add complexity to OCRWM's planning activities, the well-established experience of commercial carriers and efforts to bring uniformity to the permitting process should allow the overweight shipment of SNF to be a viable option. (authors)

  17. Perceptions of Low-Income Mothers about the Causes and Ways to Prevent Overweight in Children

    PubMed Central

    Danford, Cynthia A.; Schultz, Celeste M.; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity remain major health conditions, affecting nearly one-third of children in the United States. Multiple factors have been identified that contribute to children becoming overweight; however, little is known regarding what low-income mothers perceive to be the causes of and the ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. Methods Low-income mothers (n = 286) with children aged 4–8 years participated in semi-structured interviews during which they were asked their opinions about the causes and ways to prevent children from becoming overweight. After themes were identified, interviews were coded for the presence or absence of each theme. Results The majority of mothers were non-Hispanic White (69.2%) and overweight or obese (77.3%). Additionally, many of the children (41.9%) were overweight or obese. Six causes of children becoming overweight were identified by mothers: types or quantities of food eaten (90.9%); parenting behaviors (44.9%); lack of activity (42.3%); genetics, slow metabolism, or medical issues (24.5%); stress or emotion (5.2%); and limited access to resources (3.5%). Five ways to prevent children from becoming overweight identified by mothers included: healthy eating (84.9%), more activity (54.8%), limiting screen time (19.9%), limiting sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (12.2%), and drinking more water (6.6%). The majority of mothers (77.1%) reported that they carried out their suggestions to prevent their children from becoming overweight. Conclusion Within this cohort with a high prevalence of maternal and child overweight, most mothers identified many of the evidence-based strategies for childhood obesity prevention. Future intervention development may benefit from focusing on content areas that were less commonly identified by mothers as well as helping mothers translate knowledge to implementation. PMID:25980311

  18. Lightening the Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    Overweight: advancing our understanding of its impact on the knee and hip,” Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , no. 66 (2007): 141- 142. Tzu, Sun...Std Z39-18 One of the most powerful weapons available to the commander is speed. The unit that can consistently move and act faster than its enemy...has a powerful advantage. The ability to plan, decide, execute, and assess faster than the enemy creates advantage that commanders can exploit

  19. Reprint of: Eating like you are overweight: the effect of overweight models on food intake in a remote confederate study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Sharps, Maxine; Price, Nicola; Dallas, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the food consumption of either normal/healthy weight or overweight individuals. Eighty female participants took part in a between-subjects experiment, in which we used a remote-confederate design and manipulated whether participants saw intake information about normal/healthy weight or overweight previous participants (remote confederates). Regardless of the weight-status of the remote confederates, participants ate more food when they believed that previous participants had eaten a large amount of food, in comparison with when they believed previous participants had eaten a smaller amount of food. These findings indicate that women may model the food intake of other women, even when they believe they are of a different weight status to themselves.

  20. Eating like you are overweight: the effect of overweight models on food intake in a remote confederate study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Sharps, Maxine; Price, Nicola; Dallas, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    There is consistent evidence that people model the eating behaviour of others. The extent to which people model the amount of food consumed by other people of different weight statuses has received less attention. Here we tested the effect on food consumption of exposing female participants to information about the food consumption of either normal/healthy weight or overweight individuals. Eighty female participants took part in a between-subjects experiment, in which we used a remote-confederate design and manipulated whether participants saw intake information about normal/healthy weight or overweight previous participants (remote confederates). Regardless of the weight-status of the remote confederates, participants ate more food when they believed that previous participants had eaten a large amount of food, in comparison with when they believed previous participants had eaten a smaller amount of food. These findings indicate that women may model the food intake of other women, even when they believe they are of a different weight status to themselves.

  1. Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in a Nigerian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maruf, Fatai A.; Udoji, Nwannedimma V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This survey explored prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associations with socio-demographic variables in a Nigerian population. Methods This cross-sectional survey involved 1521 adults in Nnewi. Age, sex, educational and occupational status, and BMI were recorded. Results Prevalence of overweight was higher in males (32.3%; 95% CI, 29.5%–35.2%) than in females (29.8%; 95% CI, 26.8%–33.0%); the reverse was the case for prevalence of obesity (19.6%; 95% CI, 17.3%–22.2% in males and 36.0%; 95% CI, 32.8%–39.4% in females). Higher odds ratios (ORs) for overweight and obesity were observed in participants aged 41–60 years (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.57–2.61 for overweight and OR 4.29; 95% CI, 3.25–5.67 for obesity) and those >60 years (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21–2.43 for overweight and OR 4.21; 95% CI, 2.86–6.19 for obesity) compared to those aged 18–40 years. Female sex was associated with higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96–1.51) and obesity (OR 2.21; 95% CI, 1.73–2.83). Participants with secondary education had marginally higher ORs for overweight (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88–1.51) and obesity (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 0.86–1.59) than those with tertiary education, and so were those with primary education for obesity (OR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.74–1.89) but higher OR for overweight (OR 1.44; 95% CI, 0.98–2.13). Unskilled participants had about the same OR for overweight and obesity as professionals, and while skilled participants had about the same OR for overweight as professionals, their OR for obesity (OR 1.27; 95% CI, 0.67–2.43) was fairly higher than that for professionals. Conclusions Prevalence of overweight is higher in males than in females, but the reverse is the case for prevalence of obesity. Older age and female sex are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, while working at a skilled occupation is associated with obesity, and tertiary educational attainment is associated with overweight. PMID:26005065

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  3. Fetal programming of overweight through the microbiome: boys are disproportionately affected.

    PubMed

    Kozyrskyj, A L; Kalu, R; Koleva, P T; Bridgman, S L

    2016-02-01

    Maternal and childhood obesity in pregnancy are worrisome public health issues facing our world today. New gene sequencing methods have advanced our knowledge of the disruptive effect of birth interventions and postnatal exposures on the maturation of gut microbiota and immunity during infancy. Yet, little is known about the impact of maternal pregnancy overweight on gut microbes and related processes, and how this may affect overweight risk in offspring. To address this gap in knowledge, we surveyed human studies for evidence in children, infants and pregnant women to piece together the limited literature and generate hypotheses for future investigation. From this literature, we learned that higher Lactobacillus yet lower Bacteroides spp. colonization of gut microbiota within 3 months of birth predicted risk for infant and child overweight. The abundance of bifidobacteria and staphylococci also appeared to play a role in the association with overweight, as did infant fecal immunoglobulin A levels, glycoproteins of the gut immune system that are acquired from breast milk and produced by the infant. We proposed that pregnancy overweight influences the compositional structure of gut microbiota in infants through vertical transfer of microbiota and/or their metabolites during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. Finally, we brought forward emerging evidence on sex dimorphism, as well as ethnic and geographic variation, in reported associations between maternal overweight-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and overweight risk.

  4. The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in a Malay population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop; Saw, Seang Mei; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-10-01

    In developed countries in the West, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. The authors examined the association between SES defined by education and income and overweight/obesity in a population-based cohort of 2807 individuals of Malay ethnicity (age 40-80 years, 51% women) in Singapore. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) in men and women was 50.4% and 65.1%, respectively. In women, the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased with lower levels of education and income. Compared with the higher categories of SES, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of overweight/obesity in women was 1.42 (1.06-1.89) for education and 2.08 (1.33-3.26) for income. In contrast, in men, the prevalence of overweight/obesity decreased with lower levels of education and income (P interaction by gender <.05 for all SES variables). Lower SES was positively associated with overweight/obesity in Malay women, and the association was in the opposite direction in Malay men.

  5. From "overweight" to "about right": evidence of a generational shift in body weight norms.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary A; Heiland, Frank W; Nadler, Carl M

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we describe differences in the self-perception of weight status in the United States between the two most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) periods (1988-1994 and 1999-2004), and test the hypothesis that secular increases in adult mean BMI, adult obesity, and childhood obesity contributed to changes over time in weight perceptions. We find that the probability of self-classifying as overweight is significantly lower on average in the more recent survey, for both women and men, controlling for objective weight status and other factors. Among women, the decline in the tendency to self-classify as overweight is concentrated in the 17-35 age range, and is more pronounced among women with normal BMI than those with overweight BMI. Among men, the shift away from feeling overweight is roughly equal across age groups. Overweight men exhibit a sharper decline in feeling overweight than normal weight men. Despite the declines in feeling overweight between surveys, weight misperception did not increase significantly for men and decreased by a sizable margin among women. We interpret the findings as evidence of a generational shift in social norms related to body weight. As a result, people may be less likely to desire weight loss than previously, limiting the effectiveness of public health campaigns aimed at weight reduction. On the other hand, there may be health benefits associated with improved body image.

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Chuku, Abali; John, Collins; Ohagwu, Kenneth Arinze; Imoh, Miracle Erinma; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel; Oviasu, Efosa

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major health problem, and there is an increasing trend of overweight and obese individuals in developing countries. Being overweight or obese is known to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates in various countries around the world. We therefore aimed to identify and discuss current epidemiological data on the prevalence of obesity in Nigeria. Method A systematic review of papers published on the prevalence of obesity among adults in the country was carried out. We covered work published in MEDLINE, PubMed, Google, and African Journals Online using the terms “prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria” or “overweight and obesity in Nigeria.” In addition, personal inquiries were made. The search limits were articles published from January 2001 to September 2012. Only studies that used the body mass index to assess for overweight and obesity were included. Results Four studies met the inclusion criteria out of the 75 studies reviewed. In Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight individuals ranged from 20.3%–35.1%, while the prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.1%–22.2%. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals in Nigeria is of epidemic proportions. There is a need to pay closer attention to combating these health disorders. PMID:23573067

  7. Temperament Dispositions, Problematic Eating Behaviours and Overweight in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Walther, Mireille; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a common health condition in adolescence leading to severe medical complications, is assumed to be influenced by temperament factors. This paper investigates associations between reactive and regulative temperament, problematic eating behaviours and excess weight. Several self-report instruments were completed by 130 adolescents (mean age 14.13 ± 0.61 years), including 27 overweight and obese individuals (20.8%). Bootstrap analysis revealed a mediating effect of restrained eating on the relation between reactive temperament and body mass index percentile, which differed according to gender: Restrained eating, which predicted weight gain, was more present in girls having a higher sensitivity to reward and in boys showing a higher sensitivity to punishment. No effect of regulative temperament was found. These results have important implications for weight management programmes, as they suggest that reducing restrained eating by working on temperament may help to control weight.

  8. The overweight container problem and international intermodal transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Hayuth, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Containerization has become the dominant method of transporting general cargo commodities in international trade. In 1991 over 93 million 20-foot equivalent unit (TEU) containers were handled worldwide, and 15.7 million were transferred through US ports alone. The deregulation of the trucking industry and the railways in 1980 and the US Shipping Act of 1984 advanced the development of intermodal movements of containerized cargo in domestic and international trade. Despite the rapid progress of containerization and intermodality, the US freight transport system is still struggling with the basic issue of overweight containers. A study conducted by the Federal Highway Administration revealed that between October 1987 and September 1988 more than one million containers, or 33.5 percent of the containers in the sample, carried weights that could violate federal vehicle weight laws.

  9. 2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Overweight and Obesity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kang, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Bom Taeck; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Eun Mi; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Kyu Rae; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Seon Yeong; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Chang Beom; Chung, Sochung; Jeong, In Kyung; Hur, Kyung Yul

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities are major health concerns in Korea. Obesity is defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in Korea. Current estimates are that 32.8% of adults are obese: 36.1% of men and 29.7% of women. The prevalence of being overweight and obese in national surveys is increasing steadily. Early detection and the proper management of obesity are urgently needed. Weight loss of 5% to 10% is the standard goal. In obese patients, control of cardiovascular risk factors deserves the same emphasis as weight-loss therapy. Since obesity is multifactorial, proper care of obesity requires a coordinated multidisciplinary treatment team, as a single intervention is unlikely to modify the incidence or natural history of obesity. PMID:25559568

  10. Overweight, Obesity and Postmenopausal Invasive Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian. L; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Prentice, Ross L.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan; Carty, Cara L.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette J.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Urrutia, Rachel Peragallo; Knudtson, Jennifer; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Over ⅔ of U.S. women are overweight or obese, placing them at increased risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. OBJECTIVE To investigate the associations of overweight and obesity with risk of postmenopausal invasive breast cancer after extended follow-up in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial. DESIGN The WHI protocol incorporated measured height and weight, baseline and annual or biennial mammography, and adjudicated breast cancer endpoints. SETTING 40 U.S. clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS n=67,142 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years were enrolled from 1993–1998 with a median of 13 years of follow-up through 2010; 3388 invasive breast cancers were observed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Height and weight were measured at baseline and weight was measured annually thereafter. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history and personal habits (smoking, physical activity). Women underwent annual or biennial mammograms. Breast cancers were verified by medical records reviewed by physician adjudicators. RESULTS Women who were overweight and obese had an increased invasive breast cancer risk vs. normal weight women. Risk was greatest for obesity grades 2+3 (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) (hazard ratio [HR] for invasive breast cancer =1.58, 95% CI 1.40–1.79). BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2 was strongly associated with risk for ER+/PR+ breast cancers (HR=1.86 95% CI 1.60–2.17), but was not associated with ER− cancers. Obesity grade 2+3 was also associated with advanced disease including larger tumor size (HR=2.12 95%CI 1.67–2.69). (P=0.02), positive lymph nodes (HR=1.89 95%CI 1.46–2.45), (P=0.06), regional/distant stage (HR=1.94, 95%CI 1.52–2.47) (P=0.05) and deaths after breast cancer (HR=2.11 95%CI 1.57–2.84) (P<0.001). Women with baseline BMI<25.0 kg/m2 who gained >5% of bodyweight over the follow-up period had an increased breast cancer risk (HR=1.36 95% CI 1.1–1.65), but among women already overweight or

  11. Lifestyle Intervention for Sleep Disturbances among Overweight or Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soohyun; Stewart, Kerry J.; Dobrosielski, Devon A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of different lifestyle interventions on sleep disturbances among sedentary obese or overweight persons. We randomized 35–65 year-old men and women, to 6-months of a weight loss diet (D); or D combined with supervised exercise training (D+E). Measurements were self-reported sleep disturbances; the Profile of Mood States questionnaire; BMI; total, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging; and aerobic fitness expressed as VO2peak. The groups did not differ in changes for body weight, abdominal total fat, VO2peak, and sleep disturbances. The novel finding herein is that reduced abdominal subcutaneous fat and depressive symptoms with either D or D+E, were associated with less sleep disturbances. PMID:26375410

  12. Overweight and obesity: helping clients to take action.

    PubMed

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lacey, Anne

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative research project to explore factors that encourage or discourage overweight people from low income groups to access weight loss services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people attending a commercial slimming organization in South Yorkshire. The study revealed weight loss decisions to be complex and fragile. The experiences reported mirror the 'stages of change' model described by Prochaska and DiClemente (1992). Triggers to action occurred cumulatively and decisions were reached gradually. The triggers included embarrassment and humiliation, health, fear, critical events and image. Disincentives to action were denial, previous bad experiences, previous failure and money. Decisions were linked to low self-esteem and confidence, making people vulnerable at the point they take action. The implications of this for nursing practice and services in primary care are considered.

  13. Health care costs attributable to overweight calculated in a standardized way for three European countries.

    PubMed

    Lette, M; Bemelmans, W J E; Breda, J; Slobbe, L C J; Dias, J; Boshuizen, H C

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a tool to calculate health care costs attributable to overweight in a comparable and standardized way. The purpose is to describe the methodological principles of the tool and to put it into use by calculating and comparing the costs attributable to overweight for The Netherlands, Germany and Czech Republic. The tool uses a top-down and prevalence-based approach, consisting of five steps. Step one identifies overweight-related diseases and age- and gender-specific relative risks. Included diseases are ischemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer, kidney cancer and osteoarthritis. Step two consists of collecting data on the age- and gender-specific prevalence of these diseases. Step three uses the population-attributable prevalence to determine the part of the prevalence of these diseases that is attributable to overweight. Step four calculates the health care costs associated with these diseases. Step five calculates the costs of these diseases that are attributable to overweight. Overweight is responsible for 20-26% of the direct costs of included diseases, with sensitivity analyses varying this percentage between 15-31%. Percentage of costs attributable to obesity and preobesity is about the same. Diseases with the highest percentage of costs due to overweight are diabetes, endometrial cancer and osteoarthritis. Disease costs attributable to overweight as a percentage of total health care expenditures range from 2 to 4%. Data are consistent for all three countries, resulting in roughly a quarter of costs of included diseases being attributable to overweight.

  14. High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hong, Borah; Patterson, Lance; Petit, Christopher J; Ham, J Nina

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P < 0.01). Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

  15. Predictors of Overweight During Childhood in Offspring of Parents With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Pflüger, Maren; Kreichauf, Susanne; Hummel, Michael; Ziegler, Anette-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study which perinatal factors affect the risk of childhood overweight in offspring with a first-degree relative (FDR) with type 1 diabetes and to determine whether maternal diabetes is an independent contributor to overweight risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on a child's weight and height were collected at age 2, 5, and 8 years from 1,214 children participating in the prospective BABYDIAB study. All children had an FDR with type 1 diabetes, including 783 whose mothers had type 1 diabetes. Overweight was defined as BMI percentile ≥90. Data on birth size, breast-feeding, maternal age, and smoking during pregnancy were collected by questionnaires. Risk estimates were calculated by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS Breastfeeding duration and birth size both contributed significantly to overweight risk at all age intervals. Full breast-feeding >4 months or any breast-feeding >6 months reduced risk of overweight (aged 8 years: odds ratio 0.3 [95% CI 0.2–0.7], P = 0.004; and 0.3 [0.1–0.6], P = 0.001). Large-for-gestational-age status increased risk of overweight (aged 8 years: 2.4 [1.4–4.3], P = 0.002). Importantly, no evidence was found for an independent contribution of maternal type 1 diabetes to childhood overweight. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that maternal type 1 diabetes is not an independent risk factor for overweight during childhood in offspring of type 1 diabetic mothers but that factors associated with maternal type 1 diabetes, such as short breast-feeding duration and high birth size, predispose children to overweight during childhood. PMID:19228867

  16. Decreased response to inhaled steroids in overweight and obese asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Forno, Erick; Lescher, Rachel; Strunk, Robert; Weiss, Scott; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Celedón, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanisms and consequences of the observed association between obesity and childhood asthma are unclear. Objectives To determine the effect of obesity on treatment responses to inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic children. Methods We performed a post hoc analysis to evaluate the interaction between body mass index (BMI) and treatment with inhaled budesonide on lung function in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) trial. Participants were then stratified into overweight/obese and non-overweight, and their response to inhaled budesonide was analyzed longitudinally over the 4 years of the trial. Results There was a significant interaction between BMI and budesonide for pre-BD FEV1/FVC (P=0.0007) and bronchodilator response (BDR) (P=0.049), and a non-significant trend for an interaction between BMI and budesonide on pre-BD FEV1 (P=0.15). Non-overweight children showed significant improvement with inhaled budesonide in lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and BDR) during the early (years 1–2) and late stages (years 3–4) of the trial. Overweight/obese children had improved FEV1 and BDR during the early but not the late stage of the trial, and showed no improvement in FEV1/FVC. When comparing time points where both groups showed significant response, the degree of improvement among non-overweight children was significantly greater than in overweight/obese children at most visits. Non-overweight children had a 44% reduction in the risk of ER visits or hospitalizations throughout the trial (P=0.001); there was no reduction in risk among overweight/obese (P=0.97). Conclusions Compared to children of normal weight, overweight/obese children in CAMP showed a decreased response to inhaled budesonide on measures of lung function and ER visits/hospitalizations for asthma. PMID:21377042

  17. High prevalence of overweight among adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Two previous surveys conducted in Ho Chi Minh City revealed an increasing prevalence of overweight and obese adolescents, from 5.9% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2004. From 2004 to 2010, the government set up and implemented health promotion programs to promote physical activity and good nutritional habits in order to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Our study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in urban areas of Ho Chi Minh City in 2010. Methods A representative sample of 1,989 students aged 11–14 years was selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. 23 schools were randomly selected from the full list of all public junior high schools. In each selected school, 2 classes were chosen at random and all students from the class were examined. Age- and sex-adjusted overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Taskforce cut-offs. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 17.8% and 3.2%, respectively. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were significantly higher in boys (22%, 5.4% ) than in girls (13.3%, 1.3%, p<0.001) and higher in children from districts with a high economic level (20.5% , 3.8% ) than in those from districts with a low economic level (12.1%, 3.8%, p<0.001). Additionally, children living in wealthier families were more overweight and obese than those living in less wealthy families. When using WHO cutoffs, the overall prevalences of overweight and obesity reached 19.6% and 7.9%, respectively. Conclusion Our study’s findings suggest that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school students remains high, especially among boys living in wealthier families. Public health programs should therefore be developed or improved in order to promote good eating habits and physical activity among youth in HCMC. PMID:23414441

  18. Overweight and obesity in a rural Amerindian population in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico, 1968-2000.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Reyes, Maria Eugenia Peña; Tan, Swee Kheng; Buschang, Peter H; Little, Bertis B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate secular change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural Zapotec Indian community in southern Mexico between 1968 and 2000. Cross-sectional surveys of children 6-13 years, adolescents 13-17 years, and adults 19 years of age and older resident in a rural community in Oaxaca were conducted in 1968/1971, 1978, and 2000. Individuals present in the 1968, 1978, and 2000 surveys provided a small longitudinal component. Height and weight were measured; the BMI was calculated. International criteria for overweight and obesity were used. Overweight and obesity were virtually absent in school children 6-13 years in 1968 and 1978 and in adolescents in 1978. Small proportions of children (boys, 5%; girls, 8%) and adolescents (boys, 3%; girls, 15%) were overweight in 2000; two children (1%) and no adolescents were obese. Among adults, 7% of males and 19% of females were overweight and <1% of males and 4% of females were obese in 1971/1978, but 46% of males and 47% of females were overweight; and 5% of males and 14% of females were obese in 2000. The trends for children, adolescents, and adults were confirmed in the longitudinal subsamples. In conclusion, overweight and obesity are not presently a major problem in children and adolescents in this rural Zapotec community. Overweight, in particular, and to a lesser extent obesity have increased in prevalence among adults since the late 1970s. The results suggest adulthood as a critical period for onset of overweight and obesity in this sample.

  19. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288

  20. Are there different sociocultural influences on body image and body change strategies for overweight adolescent boys and girls?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Holt, Kate

    2010-08-01

    This study examined how sociocultural messages differ for overweight and normal weight adolescents and how these messages predict body image and body change strategies. In total, 590 adolescents participated in the study. Overweight adolescents experienced greater body dissatisfaction, engaged in more strategies to lose weight, and experienced greater sociocultural messages to lose weight. Body dissatisfaction and sociocultural pressures predicted weight loss among overweight boys. Body image importance, and sociocultural pressures predicted increasing muscle bulk for normal and overweight boys. Weight loss for overweight girls was predicted by sociocultural pressures. Sociocultural pressures also predicted muscle increase for overweight and normal weight girls. Implications for intervention and prevention programs for overweight adolescent boys and girls are discussed.

  1. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  2. Yoga: Managing overweight in mid-life T2DM

    PubMed Central

    Tikhe, Ashwini Sham; Pailoor, Subramanya; Metri, Kashinath; Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity as well as public health care expenses worldwide. Previous research suggests that yoga holds promise for obesity and T2DM management. Objective: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of intensive integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) on body fat and body mass index (BMI) and resting metabolism in mid-life overweight patients with T2DM (BMI, Mean ± SD, 27.05 ± 4.51). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four mid-life patients (6 females) with T2DM (Age, Mean ± SD, 55.38 ± 7.96 years) participated in the study and practiced IAYT for 7 days. The IAYT works at five layers of human existence (physical, vital, mental, intellectual and bliss) to bring positive health. The body fat and BMI and resting metabolism were recorded before and after IAYT using Karada Scan body composition monitor HBF-375 from Omron Healthcare Singapore PTE LTD. Statistical Analysis: SPSS-16 was used to analyze the data. Shapiro-Wilk test showed that the data was not normally distributed. Further, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used to analyze the change in means of pre- and post-measurements. Results: Data analysis showed that there was a significant decrease in body fat and BMI and resting metabolism (in all assessments, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study suggests that 7 days practice of IAYT has a great promise for the management of overweight in mid-life patients with T2DM. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made. PMID:26167059

  3. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Mizgier, Małgorzata; Andrzejak, Karolina; Kędzia, Witold; Sajdak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) form. Material and methods Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI), i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter. PMID:26327896

  4. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  5. Dual burden of underweight and overweight among women in Bangladesh: patterns, prevalence, and sociodemographic correlates.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    The discourse of dual burden caused through underweight and overweight is well-documented globally but this issue and its connection with women's health in Bangladesh is yet to be explored widely. To enrich the current debate, this study, in the context of Bangladesh, examines the patterns, prevalence, and socioeconomic factors influencing the ever-married women of being underweight and overweight over normal weight. Data used in this study have been extracted from the most recent 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. To achieve results connected with the research objectives, both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses have been employed. In bivariate analysis, we used seven categories of BMI cutoff points for Asian countries as prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the net effect of socioeconomic factors on underweight, pre-overweight, and overweight over normal weight. The results confirm the co-existence of underweight and overweight among women as we found the prevalence of underweight, normal weight, pre-overweight, overweight, and obesity to be 24.1%, 46.7%, 12.8%, 13.5%, and 2.9% respectively. Compared to the richest, the women from the poorest households were significantly (p<0.001) most likely to be underweight (OR=2.75, 95% CI 2.27-3.35) and least likely to be overweight (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.19) over normal weight. The urban women, compared to their rural counterparts, were significantly (p<0.001) less likely to be underweight (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) and more likely to be overweight (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.51) than normal weight. The other socioeconomic grades that were most marked to be underweight and overweight are age, women's education, marital status, age at first childbirth, parity, number of children aged ≤ 5 years at the household, and food security. The findings confirm the dual burden of both under- and overweight. Systematic and regular

  6. School-based interventions for overweight and obesity in minority school children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric measures. Effectiveness was greater when program objectives were specific, implemented across the school environments, extended into the community, and were culturally relevant. Because minority school children are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and poor health behaviors, and since schools may be the primary setting to address childhood overweight and obesity in communities, school nurses can be an advocate for school-based programs and facilitate success.

  7. Sensory integration and response to balance perturbation in overweight physically active individuals.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Peggy P Y; Azevedo, Liane B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sensory integration and response to balance perturbation between physically active normal weight and overweight adults. Physically active young adults were grouped into normal weight (n = 45) or overweight (n = 17) according to the World Health Organization body mass index classification for Asian adults. Participants underwent two balance tests: sensory organization and motor control. Overweight participants presented marginally lower somatosensory score compared to normal weight participants. However, they scored significantly higher in response to balance perturbation. There was no difference in the onset of participants' active response to balance perturbation. Physical activity might have contributed to improved muscle strength and improved the ability of overweight individuals to maintain balance.

  8. Movement skill mastery in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Magarey, Anthea M

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of fundamental movement skill (FMS) mastery and advanced skill proficiency among treatment-seeking 6-10-year old children with overweight/obesity. A total of 132 participants (8.4 ± 1.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), 55% female, 76.5% obese) were assessed on 12 FMS and compared with a normative sample. The prevalence of FMS mastery was significantly lower among children categorized as overweight/obese for all skills across all age groups (all p < 0.05). Excluding the leap for 6-7-year olds, differences between the two samples remained when the prevalence of advance skill proficiency was examined for children categorized as overweight/obese. Physical activity programs designed for children with overweight/obesity need to address deficiencies in FMS proficiency as part of an overall strategy to promote physical activity participation.

  9. Overweight and obesity: The efficacy of diets for weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success.

  10. Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: How Parents Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Teasing and Bullying of Obese and Overweight Children: How Parents Can ... Parents & Children Should Respond to This Type of Bullying: Tell an adult. Stay in a group. As ...

  11. The PICO project: aquatic exercise for knee osteoarthritis in overweight and obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aquatic exercise is recommended by the Osteoarthritis Research Society (OARSI), by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) as a nonpharmacological method of controlling the knee osteoarthritis (KOA) symptoms. Moreover, given that weight loss results in a reduction of the load that is exerted upon the knee during daily activities, obesity is also considered to be a modifiable risk factor for the development and or exacerbation of KOA. The implementation of an exercise based weight loss program may, however, itself be limited by the symptoms of KOA. The aquatic program against osteoarthritis (termed “PICO” in Portuguese) prioritizes the control of symptoms and the recovery of functionality, with an attendant increase in the patient’s physical activity level and, consequently, metabolic rate. Our laboratory is assessing the effectiveness of 3 months of PICO on the symptoms of KOA, on physical function, on quality of life and on gait. In addition, PICO shall examine the effects of said exercise intervention on inflammatory biomarkers, psychological health, life style and body composition. Methods/Design The trial is a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, and involves 50 overweight and obese adults (BMI = 28–43.5 kg/m2; age 40–65 yrs) with radiographic KOA. The participants are randomly allocated into either an educational attention (control) group or an aquatic (exercise program) group. This paper describes the experimental protocol that is used in the PICO project. Discussion The PICO program shall provide insight into the effectiveness of an aquatic exercise program in the control of KOA symptoms and in the improvement of the quality of life. As such, they are likely to prove a useful reference to health professionals who intend to implement any kind of therapeutic intervention based around aquatic exercise. Trial registration NCT01832545. PMID:24219758

  12. Early feeding practices and family structure: associations with overweight in children.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16,224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We

  13. Risk factors for overweight and overfatness in rural South African children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Craig, E.; Reilly, J.J.; Bland, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine risk factors for overweight/overfatness in children and adolescents from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods Anthropometric data were collected from a cross-sectional sample (n = 1519, ages 7, 11 and 15 years) and linked to demographic information (n = 1310 and n = 1317 in overweight and overfat analyses, respectively). Candidate risk factors for overweight/overfatness were identified and tested for associations with overweight (BMI-for-age >+1SD, WHO reference) and overfatness (>85th centile body fatness, McCarthy reference) as outcomes. Associations were examined using simple tests of proportions (χ2/Mann–Whitney U tests) and multivariable logistic regression. Results Sex was a consistent variable across both analyses; girls at significantly increased risk of overweight and overfatness (overweight: n = 180, 73.9 and 26.1% females and males, respectively (P < 0.0001); overfat: n = 187, 72.7 and 27.3% females and males, respectively (P < 0.0001)). In regression analyses, sex and age (defined by school grade) were consistent variables, with boys at lower risk of overweight (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.40 (confidence interval (CI) -0.28–0.57)) and risk of overweight increasing with age (AOR 0.65 (CI- 0.44–0.96), 0.50 (CI-0.33–0.75) and 1.00 for school grades 1, 5 and 9, respectively). Results were similar for overfatness. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-adolescent/adolescent females may be the most appropriate targets of future interventions aimed at preventing obesity in rural South Africa. PMID:25742718

  14. [Interventions to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru].

    PubMed

    Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.

  15. Pediatricians’ Communication About Weight With Overweight Latino Children and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Montaño, Sergio; Lin, Hua; Hoang, Kim; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine pediatrician weight-management communication with overweight Latino children and their parents and whether communication differs by pediatrician-patient language congruency. METHODS: Mixed-methods analysis of video-recorded primary care visits with overweight 6- to 12-year-old children. Three independent reviewers used video/transcript data to identify American Academy of Pediatrics–recommended communication content and establish communication themes/subthemes. Language incongruence (LI) was defined as pediatrician limited Spanish proficiency combined with parent limited English proficiency (LEP). Bivariate analyses examined associations of LI with communication content/themes. RESULTS: The mean child age (N = 26) was 9.5 years old; 81% were obese. Sixty-two percent of parents had LEP. Twenty-seven percent of pediatricians were Spanish-proficient. An interpreter was used in 25% of LI visits. Major themes for how pediatricians communicate overweight included BMI, weight, obese, chubby, and no communication (which only occurred in LI visits). The pediatrician communicated child overweight in 81% of visits, a weight-management plan in 50%, a culturally relevant dietary recommendation in 42%, a recommendation for a follow-up visit in 65%, and nutrition referral in 50%. Growth charts were used in 62% of visits but significantly less often in LI (13%) versus language-congruent (83%) visits (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Many overweight Latino children do not receive direct communication of overweight, culturally sensitive dietary advice, or follow-up visits. LI is associated with a lower likelihood of growth chart use. During primary care visits with overweight Latino children, special attention should be paid to directly communicating child overweight, formulating culturally sensitive weight-management plans, and follow-up. With LEP families, vigilance is needed in providing a trained interpreter and using growth charts. PMID:25311599

  16. Prevalence and correlates of adult overweight in the Muslim world: analysis of 46 countries.

    PubMed

    Kahan, D

    2015-04-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index ≥ 25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations >50% Muslim; N = 46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide

  17. Two Novel Treatments to Reduce Overeating in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Zucker, Nancy L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Rydell, Sarah A.; Cafri, Guy; Harnack, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose in this study was to examine 2 treatments targeted at reducing eating in the absence of hunger in overweight and obese children. Method: Thirty-six overweight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children (58% female; mean age = 10.3 years, SD = 1.3), with high scores on eating in the absence of hunger, and their parents were…

  18. Dietary and other factors associated with overweight among women workers in two electronics factories in selangor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hwei Mian; Chee, Hengleng; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Jamaluddin, Jamilah; Nordin, Noranitamegat; Shuib, Rashidah

    2003-09-01

    This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among 122 women workers employed in the electronics factories in the Ulu Klang Free Trade Zone (FTZ) and the Bangi FTZ, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to examine the problem of overweight (>25.0 kg/m2) among this group of women, and factors (socio-demographic, work, exercise, and dietary) associated with overweight, and, to study the food intake pattern of the women in both the overweight and non-overweight groups. Data was collected using a set of questionnaires, while anthropometric measurements were obtained to calculate body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR). The results of the study indicated that 64.0% of the women were overweight (29.5% pre-obese, 34.5% obese). About one-tenth of the women (11.5%) had a WHR of above 0.85. From the bivariate analysis, it was found that women who were older, ever married, had lower educational level, had higher salary, not living in the hostel, involved in shiftwork, and trying to lose weight were more likely to be overweight. After adjusting for age, each of the above factors, except for educational level, remained significantly associated with overweight. Women's diet was found to be monotonous and lacking in variety as accessibility to and availability of a variety of food was a problem for them due to the nature of their work. They also had a sedentary lifestyle. Therefore, further research focusing on changing the poor dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle of the women workers is necessary to address the problem of overweight.

  19. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  20. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, Carl W.; Nodine, Robert N.; Wallace, Steven Allen

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  1. Energy expenditure and intake in infants born to lean and overweight mothers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Savage, J; Coward, W A; Chew, B; Lucas, A

    1988-02-25

    We investigated the contributions of low energy expenditure and high energy intake to excessive weight gain in infants born to overweight mothers. The subjects were infants of 6 lean and 12 overweight mothers, recruited soon after birth. Total energy expenditure and metabolizable energy intake were measured with a new doubly labeled water method over a period of seven days when the infants were 3 months of age, and the postprandial metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry when the infants were 0.1 and 3 months of age. The results were related to weight gain in the first year of life. No significant difference was observed between infants who became overweight by the age of one year (50 percent of infants born to overweight mothers) and those who did not, with respect to weight, length, skinfold thicknesses, metabolic rate at 0.1 and 3 months of age, and metabolizable energy intake at 3 months. However, total energy expenditure at three months of age was 20.7 percent lower in the infants who became overweight than in the other infants (means +/- SE, 256 +/- 27 and 323 +/- 12 kJ per kilogram of body weight per day; P less than 0.05). This difference could account for the mean difference in weight gain. These data suggest that reduced energy expenditure, particularly on physical activity, was an important factor in the rapid weight gain during the first year of life in infants born to overweight mothers.

  2. Sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information concerning each subject's sex, age, and lifestyle was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of his or her height and weight were carried out. Childhood overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 3,433 children were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a statistically significant dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and overweight among boys (p for trend = 0.014) but not among girls (p for trend = 0.149). Short sleep duration was associated with childhood overweight, and the sex difference in the association was observed. These findings suggested that it is important to consider sleep duration as part of any program to prevent overweight among elementary schoolchildren, especially among boys.

  3. Meta-analyses between 18 candidate genetic markers and overweight/obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims The goal of our study is to investigate the associations between 18 candidate genetic markers and overweight/obesity. Methods A total of 72 eligible articles were retrieved from literature databases including PubMed, Embase, SpingerLink, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang. Meta-analyses of 18 genetic markers among 56,738 controls and 48,148 overweight/obese persons were done by Review Manager 5.0. Results Our results showed that SH2B1 rs7498665 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of overweight/obesity (overall odds ratio (OR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-1.34, P = 0.0004). Increased risk of overweight/obesity was also observed in FAIM2 rs7138803 polymorphism (overall OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.22, P = 0.04). Conclusion Our meta-analyses have shown the important role of 2 polymorphisms (SH2B1 rs7498665 and FAIM2 rs7138803) in the development of overweight/obesity. This study highlighted the importance of above two candidate genes (SH2B1 and FAIM2) in the risk of overweight/obesity. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2785487401176182. PMID:24621099

  4. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M.; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Mayor, Ángel M.; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS. PMID:26885384

  5. An Evaluation of the Identification and Management of Overweight and Obesity in a Pediatric Clinic.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in overweight and obesity in children, it is imperative for health care providers to routinely address appropriate body mass index for children during primary care visits. The purposes of this project were to determine if overweight and obese children are accurately being identified and to evaluate provider adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the management of obesity. A retrospective chart review was completed for all children ages 2, 6, and 10 years who presented for a well-child visit from January 1, 2011, through June 30, 2011. Based on a review of 255 charts, 21.6% of patients were overweight and 18.4% were obese according to standards of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of these children, 34% were properly documented as being either overweight or obese, and documentation was lacking for the remaining 66%. Of the children correctly identified as being overweight or obese, only 11% and 26%, respectively, were counseled on therapeutic lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise. This review provides evidence that providers have opportunities to intervene early with well-child examinations and that providers have great room for improvement on counseling overweight and obese children.

  6. Physical activity correlates of overweight and obesity in school-going children of Dehradun, Uttarakhand

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Madhavi; Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is important for prevention of overweight and obesity in growing children. Objective: The present study aims to explore the association of overweight and obesity in school children of the district of Dehradun with physical activity, sports, and recreation at home and school. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 1266 schoolchildren of select private and government schools in urban and rural areas was done. Results: Overall 15.6% of children were overweight, of which 5.4% were obese. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with physical inactivity related to passive transport to school, missed opportunities for play during lunch breaks, lack of participation in household work, and excessive viewing of television. Conclusion: We found a significant association between the lack of physical activity and overweight and obesity. There is a need to enhance physical activity, sports, and recreational opportunities at school as well as home to prevent overweight and obesity in children. Family physicians should include counseling for this important and cheap modifiable risk factor in their family care practice. PMID:28217584

  7. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fields, S A; Sabet, M; Reynolds, B

    2013-11-01

    Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that has been linked with obesity. To explore profiles of impulsive behavior potentially associated with adolescent weight status, we measured multiple dimensions of impulsivity (delay discounting, sustained attention, and behavioral disinhibition) using laboratory behavioral tasks in a sample of adolescents (N=61). For comparison purposes, we also assessed self-reported impulsive behavior with the BIS-11-A. Participants differed in body mass index: obese (n=21), overweight (n=20), and healthy-weight (n=20). Obese and overweight adolescents were more impulsive on the measure of delay discounting than healthy-weight adolescents, but no difference was found between obese and overweight adolescents on this measure. Obese adolescents also were more impulsive on the measure of inattention compared to overweight and healthy-weight adolescents, who did not differ on this measure. Behavioral disinhibition had no association with weight status, nor did the self-report measure of impulsivity. The additive pattern of these findings for certain laboratory behavioral measures indicates that obese adolescents are more impulsive than their healthy-weight counterparts on two dimensions of behavior, whereas overweight adolescents are more impulsive on only one dimension. Consequently, adolescents who are impulsive on two dimensions of behavior (i.e., delay discounting and sustained attention) may be at greater risk of becoming obese rather than overweight compared to adolescents who are impulsive on only one dimension of behavior (i.e., delay discounting).

  8. Longitudinal associations between maternal feeding and overweight in low-income toddlers.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Retzloff, Lauren; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L

    2017-02-15

    Maternal feeding is a frequent intervention target for the prevention of early childhood obesity but longitudinal associations between feeding and child overweight are poorly understood. This observational cohort study sought to examine the cross-lagged associations between maternal feeding and overweight across ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Feeding was measured by maternal self-report (n = 222) at each age. Child weight and length were measured. Cross-lagged analysis was used to evaluate longitudinal associations between feeding and overweight, adjusting for infant birth weight, maternal body mass index, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms. The sample was 50.5% white, 52.3% male and 37.8% of mothers had a high school education or less. A total of 30.6%, 29.2%, and 26.3% of the sample was overweight at each age, respectively. Pressuring to Finish, Restrictive with regard to Amount, Restrictive with regard to Diet Quality, Laissez-Faire with regard to Diet Quality, Responsiveness to Satiety, Indulgent Permissive, Indulgent Coaxing, Indulgent Soothing, and Indulgent Pampering each tracked strongly across toddlerhood. There were no significant associations between maternal feeding and child overweight either in cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations. Our results do not support a strong causal role for feeding in childhood overweight. Future work longitudinal work should consider alternative approaches to conceptualizing feeding and alternative measurement approaches.

  9. Breastfeeding Duration and Childhood Overweight Among Low-Income Children in Kansas, 1998–2002

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Sandra B.; Holcomb, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether increased duration of breast-feeding was associated with decreased risk of overweight among 4-year-old children in Kansas families with limited means. Methods. We linked data on Kansas families from the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System and Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, 1998 to 2002, to determine breastfeeding duration and weight status at age 4 years. Overweight among 4-year-old children was defined as body mass index–for-age at the 95th percentile and above. Linked analysis included 3692 children. Logistic regression was applied to determine odds of being overweight at each duration of breastfeeding. Results. Breastfeeding duration considered independently showed a significant protective association with childhood overweight at age 4 years for all non-Hispanics (odds ratio [OR]=0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55, 0.94) and for Whites only (OR=0.68; CI=0.50, 0.92). When we controlled for other significant risk factors for childhood overweight, the association diminished and was not statistically significant. Conclusions. Although breastfeeding for longer duration appeared to be protective against overweight among 4-year-old non-Hispanic children, cultural and environmental factors may override this protective benefit. PMID:18048788

  10. Differences in food supplies of U.S. households with and without overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Abbot, Jaclyn Maurer

    2009-04-01

    Household food supplies of families with at least one child 12 years or younger (n=100) were inventoried in order to describe its nutrient content and compare food supplies of families with and without overweight individuals (i.e., healthy vs. overweight mothers; healthy vs. overweight fathers; healthy vs. overweight child[ren]). Nutrient adequacy ratios (NAR) for carbohydrate, dietary fiber, calcium, iron, total fat, and saturated fat were approximately one indicating amounts available per 2000 calories approximately equaled the Daily Value. NARs for protein, sugar, vitamin A, vitamin C, and sodium exceeded one and cholesterol NAR was less than one. Households were similar in number of household members, days until they planned to grocery shop again, and total days of meals and snacks to be served from household food supplies until the next grocery shopping trip. Frozen vegetables contributed significantly greater amounts of calories, carbohydrates, fat, and protein and meat supplied significantly more fat and protein in households with overweight fathers than in households with healthy weight fathers. In households with an overweight child, grains supplied significantly more protein and carbohydrate than in comparison households. Encouraging healthful changes to the home food supply may result in improvements in dietary intake and overall weight status.

  11. Is overweight a risk factor for sports injuries in children, adolescents, and young adults?

    PubMed

    Kemler, E; Vriend, I; Paulis, W D; Schoots, W; van Middelkoop, M; Koes, B

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity and sports participation are promoted to counteract the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young adults. Both high body mass index and physical activity level have been associated with an increased risk of sports injuries. The objective is to determine the relationship between sports injuries and overweight in sports participants (4-24 years), taking physical activity into account. Data were obtained from the 2006-2011 "Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands" survey. Analyses were based on a representative sample of 3846 sports participants (4-24 years). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between sports injury and weight status. Of all the sports participants, 14.7% were overweight. Compared with normal-weight sports participants, the odds of sustaining a sports injury was 0.73 [confidence interval (CI): 0.53-1.00, P = 0.050] for overweight sports participants; the odds for underweight sports participants was 0.80 (CI: 0.56-1.15, P = 0.226). There is some evidence that overweight sports participants (4-24 years) do not have an increased injury risk compared with normal-weight sports participants, even when the level of physical activity is taken into account. Additional research is recommended regarding overweight people who start to participate in a physically active lifestyle.

  12. Analysis of Related Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Secondary School Students in Chongqing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-fang; Liu, Da-mei; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Bei; Han, Ling-li; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Li; Zhao, Yong

    To analyze the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as the risky factors among secondary school students, and to put forward policy suggestions for health management department. A stratified and cluster sampling trial was conducted in Chongqing, China. A total of 524 students who met the criteria from 5 secondary schools were recruited in the study. The study carried out by questionnaire. The overweight and obesity among the students were overall prevalent, and the rates were 7.82% and 1.72%, respectively. The body mass index (BMI) of parents and birth weightof the students were significantly correlated (P <0.05). It was of great significantly difference on the living habits and food consumption choices, such as eating food two hours before bedtime, having pressure to learning, introvert, eating vegetables infrequently and drinking carbonated drinks often, among the overweight and obesity students group and control group (P <0.05). Multiple variables Logistic regression analysis showed that the BMI of parents, birth weight, and bad eating habits were the risky factors of the secondary school students in overweight and obesity, while doing exercise was the protective factor. The BMI of parents and the birth weight of students were significantly correlated with the BMI of the students. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity of the students in the study was significantly lower than the average of the nation, but overweight and obesity among the adolescents are nutritional problems, which should be emphasized by all sectors of society instead of neglected.

  13. Weight Loss and Mortality in Overweight and Obese Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Malgorzata; Beeken, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess adiposity is a risk factor for poorer cancer survival, but there is uncertainty over whether losing weight reduces the risk. We conducted a critical review of the literature examining weight loss and mortality in overweight or obese cancer survivors. Methods We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles reporting associations between weight loss and mortality (cancer-specific or all-cause) in overweight/obese patients with obesity-related cancers. Where available, data from the same studies on non-overweight patients were compared. Results Five articles describing observational studies in breast cancer survivors were included. Four studies reported a positive association between weight loss and mortality in overweight/obese survivors, and the remaining study observed no significant association. Results were similar for non-overweight survivors. Quality assessment indicated high risk of bias across studies. Conclusions There is currently a lack of observational evidence that weight loss improves survival for overweight and obese cancer survivors. However, the potential for bias in these studies is considerable and the results likely reflect the consequences of disease-related rather than intentional weight loss. There is a need for stronger study designs, incorporating measures of intentionality of weight loss, and extended to other cancers. PMID:28060948

  14. Pavlovian conditioning to hedonic food cues in overweight and lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Monica D; Risbrough, Victoria B; Liang, June; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2015-04-01

    Obese individuals develop heightened reactivity to environmental cues associated with hedonic foods through Pavlovian conditioning. This study examined differences between overweight (n = 16) and lean (n = 17) 18-26 year-olds in their acquisition of a swallowing response to visual cues paired with chocolate milk, tasteless water and no taste stimulus. We hypothesized that, compared to lean participants, overweight participants would demonstrate a heightened conditioned swallowing response to the visual cue paired with chocolate milk as well as a resistance to extinction of this response. Results showed that overweight participants swallowed more in response to the visual cue previously paired with chocolate than the cue previously paired with tasteless water (t(15) = -3.057, p = .008) while lean participants showed no cue discrimination (t(16) = -1.027, p = .320). The results evaluating the extinction hypothesis could not be evaluated, as the lean participants did not acquire a conditioned response. In evaluating the conditioned swallow response of overweight participants only, results indicated that there was not a significant decrease in swallowing to cues paired with chocolate milk or water, but overall, overweight participants swallowed more to cues paired with chocolate than cues paired with water. These are the first results to show differential acquisition of Pavlovian conditioned responding in overweight individuals compared to lean individuals, as well as differential conditioning to cues paired with hedonic food stimuli compared to cues paired with neutral stimuli.

  15. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional

  16. Influences of Alignment and Obesity on Knee Joint Loading in Osteoarthritic Gait

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Pater, Mackenzie; Beavers, Daniel P.; Legault, Claudine; Loeser, Richard F.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the influences of frontal plane knee alignment and obesity on knee joint loads in older, overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of alignment and obesity on knee joint loads using community dwelling older adults (age ≥ 55 yrs.; 27 kg·m−2 ≥ BMI ≤ 41 kg·m−2; 69% female) with radiographic knee osteoarthritis that were a subset of participants (157 out of 454) enrolled in the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) clinical trial. Results A higher BMI was associated with greater (p = 0.0006) peak knee compressive forces [overweight, 2411 N (2182, 2639), class 1 obesity, 2772 N (2602, 2943), class 2+ obesity, 2993 N (2796, 3190)] and greater (p = 0.004) shear forces [overweight, 369 N (322, 415), class 1 obesity, 418 N (384, 453), class 2+ obesity, 472 N (432, 513)], independent of alignment, and varus alignment was associated (p < 0.0001) with greater peak external knee adduction moments, independent of BMI [valgus, 18.7 Nm (15.1, 22.4), neutral, 27.7 Nm (24.0, 31.4), varus, 37.0 Nm (34.4, 39.7)]. Conclusion BMI and alignment were associated with different joint loading measures; alignment was more closely associated with the asymmetry or imbalance of loads across the medial and lateral knee compartments as reflected by the frontal plane external adduction moment, while BMI was associated with the magnitude of total tibio-femoral force. These data may be useful in selecting treatment options for knee osteoarthritis patients (e.g., diet to reduce compressive loads or bracing to change alignment). PMID:24857973

  17. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  18. Load Induced Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005d`) was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus—a phenomenon of load induced blindness. PMID:18823196

  19. Melatonin and Female Hormone Secretion in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Chojnacki, Jan; Stępień, Agnieszka; Wachowska-Kelly, Patrycja; Klupińska, Grażyna; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL) was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-β estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control)—women without menstrual disorders, group II—postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III—postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-β-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders. PMID:25569084

  20. Overweight, Obesity, and Neighborhood Characteristics among Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Todd, Michael; Ainsworth, Barbara; Records, Kathryn; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Nagle Williams, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in Latinas. Design and Methods. Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health) is a 12-month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This paper describes the initial body composition of the sample, social support, and neighborhood contextual correlations of overweight and obese Latina mothers within the first 6 months after birth. Results. The mean body mass index was 29.68 with 38.56% bioelectrical impedence analysis for body fat. Elements of the environment (e.g., opportunities to walk) received middle or high scores. Access to healthy food was positively related to favorability of the walking environment. Waist-to-hip ratio was uncorrelated with other obesity-related indices. Conclusions. The body adiposity of these Latina mothers was coupled with low levels of social support from family and friends and neighborhood characteristics that were unfavorable to walking. PMID:23476752

  1. FEEDING INFLUENCES ADIPOSE TISSUE RESPONSES TO EXERCISE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Chih; Travers, Rebecca L; Walhin, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez, Javier T; Koumanov, Francoise; Betts, James A; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-03-14

    Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations. Adipose tissue samples were obtained at baseline and one hour post-exercise to examine changes in adipose tissue mRNA expression and secretion of selected adipokines ex-vivo. Adipose tissue mRNA expression of PDK4, ATGL, HSL, FAT/CD36, GLUT4 and IRS2 in response to exercise were lower in FED compared to FASTED conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). Post-exercise adipose IRS2 protein was affected by feeding (p ≤ 0.05), but Akt2, AMPK, IRS1, GLUT4, PDK4 and HSL protein levels were not different. Feeding status did not impact serum and ex-vivo adipose secretion of IL-6, leptin or adiponectin in response to exercise. This is the first study to show that feeding prior to acute exercise affects post-exercise adipose tissue gene expression and we propose that feeding is likely to blunt long-term adipose tissue adaptation to regular exercise.

  2. Current Approaches to the Management of Pediatric Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ridolfi, Danielle R.; Hayes, Jacqueline F.; St Paul, Michelle; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Family-based behavioral intervention has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe treatment for childhood obesity and should be considered a first-line treatment option. However, access to such intensive evidence-based treatment is limited and, currently, obesity care is dominated by high intensity behavioral treatment implemented in specialty clinics or less effective, low intensity treatments implemented in primary care. However, capitalizing on the established and ongoing relationship between primary care providers and families, primary care providers hold an invaluable role in early identification of overweight and obesity, and subsequent referral to an evidence-based treatment. key aspects of effective treatment include: early intervention, moderate- to high-intensity intervention of sufficient duration, multi-component intervention targeting dietary modification, physical activity and behavioral strategies, family involvement and goals targeting family members, and follow-up contact during maintenance. The purpose of this review is to present the current empirically supported treatment options for pediatric obesity including primary care-based interventions and diagnostic tools, multi-component behavioral intervention with a focus on family-based behavioral intervention, immersion treatment, and pharmacologic and surgical management. PMID:25205083

  3. Treating overweight children through parental training and contingency contracting.

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, J; Cassady, J; Drabman, R S

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen overweight girls aged 5 to 11 yr were randomly assigned to one of two weight-reduction treatments: response-cost plus reinforcement, response-cost only, or a no-treatment control group. In the response-cost plus reinforcement group, parents contracted to facilitate their child's weight loss by carrying out reinforcement and stimulus control techniques, completing weekly charts and graphs, and encouraging their child to exercise. The response-cost only group parents did not contract to reinforce their child's performance. The response-cost program applied to both experimental groups was conducted in weekly meetings in which parents lost previously deposited sums of money. Twenty-five per cent was deducted for missing the weekly meeting, 25% for failing to fill out charts and graphs, and 50% if their child failed to meet her specified weekly weight-loss goal. At the end of the 12-week treatment period, both experimental groups had lost significantly more weight than the control group. After an eight-week, no-contact follow-up, some of the lost weight was regained. The response-cost plus reinforcement group was still significantly below the controls. The response-cost group just missed significance. A 31-week, no-contact follow-up failed to show a treatment effect, but did show a trend towards slower weight gain by the response-cost plus reinforcement group. PMID:1184491

  4. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  5. Overweight and obese adolescents: what turns them off physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and ‘grey’ literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner’s model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberman’s cross-case analysis was integrated with thematic networking to synthesize the individual, interpersonal and environmental level barriers for boys and girls of different ethnicities and socioeconomic status, across school settings and generalised context. Thirty-five barriers were identified, 13 of which occurred in physical activity situations in the school setting, 18 were not linked to a specific setting, and the remainder were common across both contexts. The fact that these barriers emerged from studies that focused on topics such as victimisation and mental health is particularly poignant and reflects the potentially pervasive influence of adolescent’s excessive weight not only in relation to physical activity situations but other aspects of their lives. Furthermore, socioeconomic status and ethnicity was poorly considered, with only one study linking these participant characteristics to quotations and discussing the potential implications. At present, there are few qualitative studies with sufficiently thick description or interpretive validity that provide insight into this vulnerable group of adolescents, and give them a voice to influence policy and practice. PMID:22554016

  6. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  7. Dynamic Model Predicting Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487

  8. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake.

  9. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6-10 Years.

    PubMed

    Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser; Campbell, Jennifer; Desapriya, Ediriweera

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6-10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11) number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.

  10. Overweight and obesity related factors in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Corso, Arlete Catarina Tittoni; Caldeira, Gilberto Veras; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Schmitz, Bethsáida de Abreu Soares; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation of socioeconomic, dietary, and anthropometric-nutritional variables of parents and their children to overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This is a transversal study conducted on 4,964, 6 to 10-year-old schoolchildren registered in 345 Santa Catarina elementary schools. The following data were acquired: the children's current weight and height, birth weight and length, duration of breastfeeding, age at which water, herbal tea and other foods were introduced to their diet; parental income, education level, age, weight and height were also obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obese children were estimated by point and by interval with a 95% confidence; prevalence rates were obtained based on the Poisson model. An hierarchical approach was used, in which variables were adjusted within blocks and included in the model when they presented p < 0.05 at the outcome (overweight including obesity). The results indicate that 47.8% of the subjects were male. The prevalence of overweight and obese students was 15.4% (C195%: 14.4%-16.5%) and 6.1% (C195%: 5.4%-6.7%) respectively and were statistically similar among sexes and age ranges. BMI values were higher in males and among older children (p < 0.05). After adjustment within and among blocks, the variables per capita household income and parents' BMI values remained associated with overweight (including obesity). Overweight (including obesity) in schoolchildren is associated with a higher per capita household income and parental overweight and obesity.

  11. Differences in left ventricular mass between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Huertas, Jose; Livingstone, Kristina; Banach, Alayna; Klentrou, Panagiota; O'Leary, Deborah

    2008-12-01

    This study examined cardiac and arterial differences between overweight and normal-weight preadolescent children. Twenty children (10.2 +/- 0.4 years of age) classified as overweight, on the basis of age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) cutoffs, were compared with 43 normal-weight controls. Height, mass, and body surface area were measured. Relative body fat and lean body mass were estimated from skinfold thickness. Each child's weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent (PAME) was calculated using a standardized questionnaire, and his or her sexual maturation was self-assessed using the Tanner scale. Peak aerobic power was assessed using a cycle ergometer and normalized to lean body mass. Mean arterial pressure was calculated from systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) measurements taken with a Finapres. Cardiac dimensions were measured, using Mu-mode 2-dimensional echocardiography, and normalized to body surface area and height2.7. Left carotid artery pulse pressure (CaPP) was assessed with applanation tomometry. Overweight boys and girls had a higher left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVMHT2.7 than normal-weight boys and girls. CaPP was signficantly lower in the overweight than in the normal-weight groups, whereas PAME and relative peak aerobic power were significantly higher in the boys than the girls. Although overweight children had significantly higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than normal-weight children, ejection fraction was similar in the weight groups. Adjusted LVMHT2.7 was associated with cardiac volume measurements, BMI, and DBP in normal-weight children, whereas in the overweight children LVMHT2.7 did not significantly correlate with any variable. In conclusion, we found that cardiovascular adaptations can be seen in prepubescent overweight children as young as 10 years of age.

  12. The Prevalence and Epidemiology of Overweight and Obesity in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Millie D.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Leibowitz, Ian H.; Duffy, Lynn; del Rosario, Fernando; Kim, Sandra C.; Integlia, Mark J.; Berman, James; Grunow, John; Colletti, Richard B.; Schoen, Bess T.; Patel, Ashish S.; Baron, Howard; Israel, Esther; Russell, George; Ali, Sabina; Herfarth, Hans H.; Martin, Christopher; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant public health threat to children in the United States. Aims 1) Determine the prevalence of obesity in a multi-center cohort of children with IBD; 2) Evaluate whether overweight and obese status is associated with patient demographics or disease characteristics. Methods We used data from the ImproveCareNow Collaborative for pediatric IBD, a multi-center registry of children with IBD, collected between April 2007 and December 2009. Children ages 2-18 years were classified into BMI percentiles. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare demographic and disease characteristics by overweight (BMI>85%) and obese (BMI>95%) status. Results The population consisted of 1598 children with IBD. The prevalence of overweight/obese status in pediatric IBD is 23.6%, (20.0% for Crohn's disease (CD) and 30.1% for ulcerative colitis (UC) and indeterminate colitis (IC)). African American race (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.48) and Medicaid insurance (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.19-2.34) were positively associated with overweight/obese status. Prior IBD related surgery (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.82) was also associated with overweight and obese status in children with CD. Other disease characteristics were not associated with overweight and obesity in children with IBD. Conclusions Approximately 1/5 of children with CD and 1/3 with UC are overweight or obese. Rates of obesity in UC are comparable to the general population. Obese IBD patients may have a more severe disease course, as indicated by increased need for surgery. Sociodemographic risk factors for obesity in the IBD population are similar to those in the general population. PMID:21910178

  13. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  14. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-11-16

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0-8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0-6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.26 (1.05-1.51), 1.06 (1.00-1.11) and 1.27 (1.14-1.42), respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of obesity (with 7.0-8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0-6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.24 (0.97-1.57), 0.94 (0.87-1.01) and 1.42 (1.24-1.63), respectively. Continuous splines regressions support non-linear U shape associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0-8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p < 0.01; obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p < 0.01). U-shape associations were found between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0-8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity.

  15. Women’s Experience of Abuse in Childhood and Their Children’s Smoking and Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Galea, Sandro; Austin, S. Bryn; Corliss, Heather L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking and overweight are principal determinants of poor health for which individual-level interventions are at best modestly effective. This limited effectiveness may be partly because these risk factors are patterned by parents’ experiences preceding the individual’s birth. Purpose To determine whether women’s experience of abuse in childhood was associated with smoking and overweight in their children. Methods In 2012, data were linked from two large longitudinal cohorts of women (Nurses’ Health Study II [NHSII], N=12,666) and their children (Growing Up Today [GUTS] Study, N=16,774), 1989–2010. Odds ratios of children following higher-risk smoking trajectories and risk ratios (RR) of children’s overweight and obesity by their mother’s childhood experience of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were calculated. The extent to which mother’s smoking and overweight, socioeconomic indicators, family characteristics, and child’s abuse exposure accounted for possible associations was ascertained. Results Children of women who experienced severe childhood abuse had greater likelihood of higher-risk smoking trajectories (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.21, 1.61), overweight (RR=1.21, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.33), and obesity (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.21, 1.74) across adolescence and early adulthood compared with children of women who reported no abuse. Mother’s smoking and overweight and children’s abuse exposure accounted for more than half of the elevated risk of following the highest-risk smoking trajectory and overweight in children of women abused. Conclusions These findings raise the possibility that childhood abuse may not only adversely affect the health of the direct victim but may also affect health risk factors in her children decades after the original traumatic events. PMID:24512863

  16. Costs Attributable to Overweight and Obesity in Working Asthma Patients in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chongwon; Lee, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byoung-Whui; Song, Jong-hwa; Song, Hee; Jung, Sujin; Bai, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Haedong; Jeung, Seungwon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To estimate annual health care and productivity loss costs attributable to overweight or obesity in working asthmatic patients. Materials and Methods This study was conducted using the 2003–2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) in the United States. Patients aged 18 to 64 years with asthma were identified via self-reported diagnosis, a Clinical Classification Code of 128, or a ICD-9-CM code of 493.xx. All-cause health care costs were estimated using a generalized linear model with a log function and a gamma distribution. Productivity loss costs were estimated in relation to hourly wages and missed work days, and a two-part model was used to adjust for patients with zero costs. To estimate the costs attributable to overweight or obesity in asthma patients, costs were estimated by the recycled prediction method. Results Among 11670 working patients with a diagnosis of asthma, 4428 (35.2%) were obese and 3761 (33.0%) were overweight. The health care costs attributable to obesity and overweight in working asthma patients were estimated to be $878 [95% confidence interval (CI): $861–$895] and $257 (95% CI: $251–$262) per person per year, respectively, from 2003 to 2013. The productivity loss costs attributable to obesity and overweight among working asthma patients were $256 (95% CI: $253–$260) and $26 (95% CI: $26–$27) per person per year, respectively. Conclusion Health care and productivity loss costs attributable to overweight and obesity in asthma patients are substantial. This study's results highlight the importance of effective public health and educational initiatives targeted at reducing overweight and obesity among patients with asthma, which may help lower the economic burden of asthma. PMID:27873513

  17. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0–8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.26 (1.05–1.51), 1.06 (1.00–1.11) and 1.27 (1.14–1.42), respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of obesity (with 7.0–8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting <5.0 hours, 5.0–6.9 hours and ≥9.0 hours of sleep were 1.24 (0.97–1.57), 0.94 (0.87–1.01) and 1.42 (1.24–1.63), respectively. Continuous splines regressions support non-linear U shape associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0–8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p < 0.01; obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p < 0.01). U-shape associations were found between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0–8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity. PMID:26568253

  18. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Giavoli, Claudia; Trombetta, Claudia; Bianchini, Sonia; Montinaro, Valentina; Spada, Anna; Montomoli, Emanuele; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-02

    Obesity may be a risk factor for increased hospitalization and deaths from infections due to respiratory pathogens. Additionally, obese patients appear to have impaired immunity after some vaccinations. To evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in overweight and obese children, 28 overweight/obese pediatric patients and 23 healthy normal weight controls aged 3-14 years received a dose of TIV. Four weeks after vaccine administration, significantly higher seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 strain were observed among overweight/obese children compared with normal weight controls (p<0.05). Four months after vaccination, similar or slightly higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were detected in overweight/obese than in normal weight children, whereas significantly higher rates of seroconversion and seroprotection against the B strain were found in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls (p<0.05 for seroconversion and seroprotection). Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and fold increase against B strains were significantly higher in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls 4 months after vaccine administration (p<0.01 for GMT values and p<0.05 for fold increase). The frequency of local and systemic reactions was similar between the groups, and there were no serious adverse events. The results of this study indicate that in overweight and obese children, antibody response to TIV administration is similar or slightly higher than that evidenced in normal weight subjects of similar age and this situation persists for at least 4 months after vaccine administration in the presence of a favorable safety profile.

  19. Comparison of three criteria for overweight and obesity classification in brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the nutritional status of adolescents using three criteria for nutritional status classification (Conde & Monteiro, International Obesity Task Force - IOTF and Word Health Organization - WHO), to analyze the correlation between these three criteria as for the overweight proportion, and to investigate whether factors associated with overweight and obesity differ among the three criteria. Methods Demographic (gender, age, geographic area) and anthropometric (body weight, height) variables were measured in 33.728 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years. The following criteria were investigated: IOTF (2000); Conde & Monteiro (2006); and WHO (2007). Results The overall overweight prevalence was 20.6% for the Conde & Monteiro criteria; 15.3% for the IOTF criteria and 20.1% for the WHO criteria. Both for boys and girls, the estimated overweight prevalence using the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria were higher than that using the IOTF criteria. Higher concordance was found between the Conde & Monteiro (2006) and WHO (2007) criteria for all age groups. Regarding associated factors, similar associations were found for the three criteria for higher BMI classification: being male, 11–12 and 13–14 years of age and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Conclusion The criteria for BMI classification estimate overweight prevalence in a different way, and the criteria proposed by Conde & Monteiro resulted in higher prevalence in both sexes. Higher concordance between the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria was found for all age groups. The groups most vulnerable to showing overweight and obesity for the three criteria for BMI classification were males, age 11–12 and 13–14 years, and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Overweight and obesity are considered a public health problem prevalent among adolescents in Brazil, regardless of the criteria adopted. PMID:23294869

  20. Risk factors for overweight in five- to six-year-old Hispanic-American children: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adolfo J; Chen, Edwin H; Binns, Helen J; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and possible risk factors for overweight in a sample of 5- to 6-year-old Hispanic (predominantly Mexican American) children in Chicago, Illinois, to see if overweight is more common in more highly acculturated immigrant families. There were 250 kindergarten students (92% of those eligible) attending two public elementary schools serving primarily Mexican American neighborhoods measured for height and weight. Consenting mothers were interviewed (n = 80) and measured (n = 38). The interview tool covered demography, acculturation, infant and toddler feeding practices, current eating patterns and food preparation habits, physical activity, and psychosocial family characteristics. Overweight was conservatively defined as weight-for-height at or above the National Center for Health Statistics 95th percentile. The data were used to describe the prevalence of overweight. Overweight and nonoverweight children were compared on all survey variables using appropriate statistical tests, with significance set at.05. There were 23% of the total sample of children (n = 250) and 26% of the subsample of children (those whose mothers were interviewed) who were overweight. Analysis limited to children in the subsample explored risk factors. The median score on the Acculturation Scale was 4.0 (range 2.4 - 10.4) on a scale of 2.4 (entirely not acculturated) to 12 (fully acculturated). There was no significant association between overweight and Acculturation Scale score. Overweight children were more likely than those not overweight to watch television for more than 3 hours during weekend days (48% vs. 22%, P =.03). Overweight children were also more likely to consume sweetened beverages (powdered drinks, soda pop, atole) daily (67% vs. 39%, P =.03). There was a trend indicating that free access to food at home increased the risk of overweight (P = 0.06). No other family- or child-level variables were related to overweight

  1. Phalange Tactile Load Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tactile load cell that has particular application for measuring the load on a phalange in a dexterous robot system. The load cell includes a flexible strain element having first and second end portions that can be used to mount the load cell to the phalange and a center portion that can be used to mount a suitable contact surface to the load cell. The strain element also includes a first S-shaped member including at least three sections connected to the first end portion and the center portion and a second S-shaped member including at least three sections coupled to the second end portion and the center portion. The load cell also includes eight strain gauge pairs where each strain gauge pair is mounted to opposing surfaces of one of the sections of the S-shaped members where the strain gauge pairs provide strain measurements in six-degrees of freedom.

  2. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  5. Load sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  6. Dynamic localized load balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balandin, Sergey I.; Heiner, Andreas P.

    2003-08-01

    Traditionally dynamic load balancing is applied in resource-reserved connection-oriented networks with a large degree of managed control. Load balancing in connectionless networks is rather rudimentary and is either static or requires network-wide load information. This paper presents a fully automated, traffic driven dynamic load balancing mechanism that uses local load information. The proposed mechanism is easily deployed in a multi-vendor environment in which only a subset of routers supports the function. The Dynamic Localized Load Balancing (DLLB) mechanism distributes traffic based on two sets of weights. The first set is fixed and is inverse proportional to the path cost, typically the sum of reciprocal bandwidths along the path. The second weight reflects the utilization of the link to the first next hop along the path, and is therefore variable. The ratio of static weights defines the ideal load distribution, the ratio of variable weights the node-local load distribution estimate. By minimizing the difference between variable and fixed ratios the traffic distribution, with the available node-local knowledge, is optimal. The above mechanism significantly increases throughput and decreases delay from a network-wide perspective. Optionally the variable weight can include load information of nodes downstream to prevent congestion on those nodes. The latter function further improves network performance, and is easily implemented on top of the standard OSPF signaling. The mechanism does not require many node resources and can be implemented on existing router platforms.

  7. Overweight and obesity: overrepresentation in the pediatric reconstructive burn population.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Theresa; Gottschlich, Michele M; Allgeier, Chris; Khoury, Jane; Kagan, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric burn patients are predisposed to excessive weight gain in the reconstructive period, but the cause is unclear. An overweight (OW) or obese (OB) condition is associated with numerous health risks, decreased physical function, and increased morbidity. The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of OW status in reconstructive, pediatric burn patients with the prevalence in the US population. The authors reviewed the records of 1533 pediatric patients, >1 year from acute burn, admitted for an elective reconstructive procedure. Body mass index between 85th and 95th percentile, according to the National Center for Health Statistics for 2000 growth charts, was classified as OW, and body mass index >95th percentile was classified as OB. Frequency of OW and OB and racial disparity was calculated as a percentage of total patients and compared with pediatric data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999 to 2006, a nationally representative sample. The rate of OW and OB was 16.3 and 24.1%, respectively, in the authors' pediatric burn population. White patients had OW and OB rates of 15.9 and 23.6%, respectively, compared with 18.2 and 30.2%, respectively, in black patients. All OW and OB rates were outside the 95% confidence interval of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey population. The rates of OW and OB in pediatric reconstructive burn patients exceed the US population standard across age and race stratifications. The prevention and treatment of excessive weight gain should be a component of rehabilitation in pediatric burns.

  8. Thyroid dysfunction and hepatic steatosis in overweight children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbach, T. E.‐M.; Graeter, T.; Oeztuerk, S.; Holzner, D.; Wabitsch, M.; Denzer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Overt or subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in adult populations affected by non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, there are only sparse data available on the association of thyroid dysfunction and NAFLD in obese children and adolescents. Objective The study aims to investigate the association of thyroid function test values with NAFLD and metabolic risk factors in a population of obese children and adolescents. Methods A total of 332 overweight and obese children and adolescents (170 girls) aged between 10 and 19 years were analysed. Subjects underwent ultrasound examination of the liver. Thyroid function was evaluated by laboratory determination of thyroid‐stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (T3) and total thyroxine levels. All included subjects were either euthyroid or had subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 4 μU mL−1, normal thyroxine). Further metabolic profiling included the determination of lipid status, insulin and liver function tests. Anthropometric parameters body mass index, waist and hip circumference were documented. Results The prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 29.8%. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher TSH levels than those without (p = 0.0007). After dividing TSH values into quartiles, both univariate and multivariate analyses (adjusted for age, body mass index–standard deviation scores and stage of puberty) showed a significant association with hepatic steatosis (p < 0.05). Conclusion Taking possible variables into consideration, our results show that there is a significant association between hepatic steatosis and the TSH levels in obese children and adolescents. Mild thyroid dysfunction may therefore have a role in determining an unfavourable metabolic profile in obese children and adolescents. PMID:26877190

  9. Maternal Overweight Programs Insulin and Adiponectin Signaling in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Kartik; Kang, Ping; Harrell, Amanda; Zhong, Ying; Marecki, John C.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight and fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45% fat). In this report, we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced programming at postnatal d 21 before challenge with the high-fat diet. We conducted global transcriptome profiling, gene/protein expression analyses, and characterization of downstream signaling of insulin and adiponectin pathways in conjunction with endocrine and biochemical characterization. Offspring born to OW dams displayed increased serum insulin, leptin, and resistin levels (P < 0.05) at postnatal d 21 preceding changes in body composition. A lipogenic transcriptome signature in the liver, before development of obesity, was evident in OW-dam offspring. A coordinated locus of 20 sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated target genes was induced by maternal OW. Increased nuclear levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and recruitment to the fatty acid synthase promoter were confirmed via ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, respectively. Higher fatty acid synthase and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase protein and pAKT (Thr308) and phospho-insulin receptor-β were confirmed via immunoblotting. Maternal OW also attenuated AMP kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in the offspring liver, including transcriptional down-regulation of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-regulated genes. Hepatic mRNA and circulating fibroblast growth factor-21 levels were significantly lower in OW-dam offspring. Furthermore, serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin (P < 0.05) were decreased in OW-dam offspring. Phosphorylation of hepatic AMP-kinase (Thr172) was significantly decreased in OW-dam offspring, along with lower AdipoR1 mRNA. Our results strongly suggest that gestational exposure to maternal

  10. Individual empowerment in overweight and obese patients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struzzo, Pierluigi; Fumato, Raffaella; Tillati, Silvia; Cacitti, Anita; Gangi, Fabrizio; Stefani, Alessia; Torcutti, Alessia; Crapesi, Lucia; Tubaro, Gianni; Balestrieri, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem in Europe and it causes many diseases. Many weight-reducing methods are reported in medical literature, but none of them proved to be effective in maintaining the results achieved over time. Self-empowerment can be an important innovative method, but an effectiveness study is necessary. In order to standardise the procedures for a randomised controlled study, a pilot study will be run to observe, measure and evaluate the effects of a period of self-empowerment group treatment on overweight/obese patients. Methods and analysis Non-controlled, experimental, pilot study. A selected group of patients with body mass index >25, with no severe psychiatric disorders, with no aesthetic or therapeutic motivation will be included in the study. A set of quantitative and qualitative measures will be utilised to evaluate the effects of a self-empowerment course in a 12 month time. Group therapy and medical examinations will also complete this observational phase. At the end of this pilot study, a set of appropriate measures and procedures to determine the effectiveness of individual empowerment will be identified and agreed among the different professional figures. Results will be recorded and analysed to start a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Udine in March 2012. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and public events involving the local administrations of the towns where the trial participants are resident. Trial Registration http://www.clinicalstrials.gov identifier NCT01644708. PMID:23676799

  11. Parent-rated behavior problems associated with overweight before and after controlling for sleep disordered breathing

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Kaemingk, Kristine L; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers and clinicians are seeking to develop efficacious behavioral interventions to treat overweight children; however, few studies have documented the behavioral correlates of overweight children in community samples. The goal of this study was to determine the nature and prevalence of behavior problems for overweight school-aged children versus normal weight peers before and after controlling for the effect of sleep disordered breathing. Methods Hispanic and Caucasian children were invited to participate in a study of sleep through public elementary school classrooms. Anthropometric evaluation and behavioral ratings were collected for 402 children aged 6–11 years. Overweight was calculated using the Centers for Disease Control age- and gender-specific guidelines. Children were classified as overweight if they were at or above the 95th percentile for their age and gender group. Behavior problems were measured using the Conners' Parent Rating Scales-Revised and the Child Behavior Checklist. Sleep disordered breathing was assessed using in-home overnight polysomnography. Results Approximately 15% (59/402) of the sample was classified as overweight. Simple odds ratios indicated that overweight children were more likely to have clinically relevant levels of internalizing symptoms (OR 2.23, CI 1.05–4.72), psychosomatic complaints (OR 2.15, CI 1.02–4.54), withdrawal (OR 4.69, CI 2.05–10.73), and social problems (3.18, 1.53–6.60). When odds ratios were adjusted for level of sleep disordered breathing, withdrawal (OR 3.83 CI 1.59–9.22) and social problems (OR 2.49 CI 1.14–5.44) remained significantly higher for overweight subjects. Conclusion After controlling for the effect of sleep disordered breathing, behaviors such as withdrawal and social problems, are common in overweight children and need to be taken into account in the design of interventions and services as they may act to moderate the efficacy of behavioral treatments. PMID

  12. The big five and self-esteem among overweight dieting and non-dieting women.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2006-11-01

    Overweight is one of the most frequent phenomena, which poses serious health risks, emotional disturbances and esthetic and social problems in the Western world. This study investigated personality differences between women with normal weight, dieting overweight women and non-dieting overweight women. Thirty women with normal weight (NW), 30 overweight women who participated in diet groups (OWD), and 30 overweight women who did not participate in such groups (OWND) filled in a demographic questionnaire, Costa and McCrae's [Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] NEO-FFI, and Rosenberg's [Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.] Self-Esteem questionnaire. The results indicate that the OWND are significantly more neurotic and less open, conscientious, agreeable, and extravert than the other two groups. Self-esteem of the OWND is also lower than both OWD and NW. Contrary to hypothesis, OWD and NW do not significantly differ from each other with respect to both the Big Five and self-esteem.

  13. [Practice clinical guideline. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Avila-Jiménez, Laura; Cano-Pérez, Evaluz; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Parrilla-Ortiz, Juan Ismael; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Sosa-Caballero, Alejandro; Sosa-Ruiz, María del Rosario; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, due to its size, speed of growth and the negative effect on health. Currently, Mexico and United States have the highest prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is nearly ten times higher than that of Japan or Korea (4 %). In our country, the trends of overweight and obesity in different national surveys show steady increase in prevalence over time. According to the results of the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012 (ENSANUT, according to its initials in Spanish), the combined prevalence of overweight or obese (BMI = 25 kg/m(2)) in the population over 20 years is higher in women (73.0 %) than men (69.4 %), while the prevalence of obesity (BMI = 30 kg/m(2)) is almost higher in females than in males. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight requires formulating and coordinating comprehensive and efficient multilevel strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual, family and community behavior. It is unlikely that a single intervention can modify the incidence or natural history of overweight and obesity.

  14. Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity and Its Associated Factors among University Students from 22 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T. Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H.; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes. PMID:25050651

  15. [Factors associated with being overweight among adults using low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Machado, Ísis Eloah; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Borges, Angélica Marques; Filgueiras, Jullyane Hott

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this article is to assess the nutritional status of users of low-budget restaurants and soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte and to identify factors associated with being overweight. It involved a cross-sectional analytical study conducted among adults of both sexes in low-budget restaurants and soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Being overweight was the dependent variable and was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2. This was correlated with socio-demographic variables and the level of physical activity. The data were obtained directly through weight and height measurement and a semi-structured questionnaire. The study involved 1334 individuals, the majority being male. The prevalence of being overweight was 42.9% among the men and 45.8% among the women. The following factors were positively associated with being overweight: being older for both sexes; having a partner for the women; taking less physical exercise and higher socioeconomic level for the men. Detection of factors associated with being overweight reveals that there is a need to implement an effective systematic program of dietary and nutritional education in order to prevent and remedy this condition, so that low-budget restaurants fulfill their objective.

  16. Using Virtual Reality to Distract Overweight Children from Bodily Sensations During Exercise.

    PubMed

    Baños, Rosa M; Escobar, Patricia; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Alvarez Pitti, Julio; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Botella, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the potential of virtual reality (VR) to enhance attentional distraction in overweight children as they experience bodily sensations during exercise. It has been suggested that one reason why obese children stop exercising is the perception of bodily sensations. In a counterbalanced design, a total of 109 children (33 overweight, 10-15 years old) were asked to walk twice for 6 minutes on a treadmill under one of two conditions: (a) traditional condition (TC)-focusing their attention on their physical feelings and sensations or (b) distraction condition (DC)-focusing their attention on a virtual environment. Attentional focus during exercise, bad-good feeling states (pre- and postexperimental), perceived exertion (3 minutes and post), heart rate, and enjoyment were assessed. Results indicated that overweight children focused on internal information under the TC, but they significantly shifted their attention to regard the external environment in the DC. This attentional distraction effect of VR was more intense in overweight than in normal-weight children. No differences between groups were found when examining changes in feeling states and perceived exertion. VR increased enjoyment during exercise, and children preferred exercise using virtual environments. VR is useful to promote distraction and may help overweight and obese children to enjoy exercise.

  17. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  18. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental education level. The boys' Unhealthy cluster was associated with low SEP status (parental income and education), and the girls' Healthy Academic cluster was associated with high parental income. Not all unhealthy adolescent clusters were associated with overweight and obesity. The findings suggest sex-specific diet and activity clusters can be used to identify at-risk subgroups and inform multifaceted interventions to address overweight and obesity.

  19. Prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander

    2014-07-21

    Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.

  20. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals.

  1. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: Income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Adair, Linda; Mroz, Thomas; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects include 2151 schoolchildren aged 7-13 derived from cross-sectional waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys in 1995 and in 2002. Diet was assessed by 24-h recall and physical activity (hrs/week) and household income by parental questionnaire. Hours spent in vigorous activities were low (1.0-1.5 hrs/week), and time spent in sedentary behaviors increased from 31 to 37 hrs/week between 1995 and 2002. In 1995 there was a direct relationship of income to energy and fat intake, and time spent in vigorous activity, and an inverse relationship of income to hrs/wk spent in moderate activities (such as walking to school). The effect of having low income parents was less in 2002 than in 1995. Overweight prevalence did not differ significantly by income in either year, but there was a significant decline in overweight among high income children. Only hours spent in moderate physical activity was moderately protective against overweight. Income disparities do not explain trends in overweight among Russian children. PMID:21840274

  2. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  3. 'Get alongside us', women's experiences of being overweight and pregnant in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mills, Annie; Schmied, Virginia A; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2013-07-01

    Studies of women's experiences of being overweight and pregnant are limited in the literature. Given the increasing rates of obesity in pregnant women, and the impact of being overweight on the health of the mother and the child, this qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight pregnant women attending two maternity units in Sydney, Australia. Fourteen women aged between 25 and 42 years with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2) participated in a face-to-face interview in their third trimester of pregnancy or in the early post-natal period. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Field notes were also recorded following each interview. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'being overweight and pregnant', 'being on a continuum of change', 'get alongside us' and finally 'wanting the same treatment as everyone else'. Most women recognised their weight as an issue both for their own health and well-being and for its impact on the baby. Women believed health professionals should address the issue of obesity with them but do so in a supportive and positive way that recognised their individual needs and expectations. Health professionals need to consider new approaches or models of care for overweight women that give them support and enable individual needs and expectations to be met. Culturally specific programs may also need to be developed.

  4. Effect of paternal overweight or obesity on IVF treatment outcomes and the possible mechanisms involved

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingling; Zhao, Feifei; Hu, Linli; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Nan; Yao, Guidong; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere lengths (LTLs) are shorter in obese compared with normal weight people. However, it is not known whether sperm telomere length (STL) is related to obesity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of men’s body mass index (BMI) on STL, embryo quality, and clinical outcomes in couples undergoing IVF. In total, 651 couples were recruited, including 345 men with a normal BMI and 306 men with an overweight BMI (normal BMI group: 20–25 kg/m2; overweight BMI group: >28 kg/m2). We found that couples with male’s BMI over 28 kg/m2 exhibited a significantly lower fertilization rate, good-quality embryo rate and clinical pregnancy rate compared to their normal BMI counterparts. The mean STL in the overweight BMI group was also significantly shorter than that of the normal BMI group. The results also showed that individuals with higher BMI had higher ROS (Reactive oxygen species) content and sperm DNA fragmentation rate when compared with normal BMI individuals. Mitochondrial activity was also lower in the overweight BMI group than in the normal BMI group. This is the first report to find that STL is shorter in overweight/obese men, which may account for their poorer treatment outcomes in IVF cycles. PMID:27412918

  5. Low weight and overweightness in older adults: risk and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Eiman; De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of individuals who are overweight or obese is growing exponentially in the United States and worldwide. This growth is concerning, as both overweightness and obesity lead to impaired physical function, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of chronic diseases. Additionally, overweightness and obesity are related to increased mortality among young and middle-aged adults. This weight-related risk of mortality is more ambiguous among older adults. In fact, obesity may be protective in this population, a relationship described as the "obesity paradox". In this review we discuss the effects of overweightness and obesity among the elderly on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, along with the risks of low weight. We conclude by discussing the goal of weight management among older adults, focusing particularly on benefits of preserving lean body mass and muscular strength while stabilizing body fat. Ideally, overweight or mildly obese elderly individuals should devise a plan with their physicians to maintain their weight, while increasing lean body mass through a plan of healthy diet, behavioral therapy, and physical activity.

  6. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels.

  7. Overweight or about right? A norm comparison explanation of perceived weight status

    PubMed Central

    Kersbergen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives Body‐weight norms may explain why personal evaluations of weight status are often inaccurate. Here, we tested a ‘norm comparison’ explanation of weight status perceptions, whereby personal evaluations of weight status are biased by perceived body‐weight norms. Methods Study 1 examined whether perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person predict personal evaluations of weight status. Study 2 examined whether manipulating perceptions of how one's own body weight compares to an average person influences whether or not a person identifies their own weight status as being overweight. Results In Study 1, if participants rated their body weight as being similar to the body weight of an average person, they were less likely to identify their weight status as being overweight. In Study 2, participants that were led to believe that their body weight was heavier than the average person were more likely to perceive their own weight status as being overweight. Conclusions Personal perceptions of weight status are likely to be shaped by a ‘norm comparison’ process. As overweight becomes more normal, underestimation of weight status amongst individuals with overweight and obesity will be more common.

  8. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Adolescents: Comparison of Different Anthropometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544

  9. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  10. High-quality embryos retain their implantation capability in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Farhi, Jacob; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Sapir, Onit; Fisch, Benjamin; Ashkenazi, Jacob

    2010-11-01

    To assess the effect of obesity on implantation rate, pregnancy rate and course of pregnancy in young women undergoing IVF in whom only high-quality embryos were transferred, a cohort study included women attending the IVF unit in 2006-2007 with favourable parameters to achieve pregnancy (<38years, fewer than three IVF cycles, transfer of two high-quality embryos), grouped by body mass index (BMI). Of 230 women, 160 had a BMI ⩽25kg/m(2) (mean 21.6±2.2) and 73 had BMI >25kg/m(2) (mean 29.5±3.7). The overweight group had a higher consumption of gonadotrophins during stimulation. There were no between-group differences in treatment protocols, duration of gonadotrophin stimulation, maximal oestradiol concentrations, endometrial thickness and number of oocytes retrieved/fertilized, or in rates of pregnancy (51.3%, 52.1%), implantation (34.5%, 37.5%), multiple pregnancy, and abortion. Rate of gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced hypertension was higher in the overweight group (23.3%, 8.2%; P=0.045). Within the overweight group, those with multiple pregnancies were at highest risk (31.3%, 6.9%; P=0.031). In conclusion, implantation and pregnancy rates are not compromised in overweight women when high-quality embryos are transferred. However, in overweight women, pregnancy complications remain high, mainly in those with multiple pregnancies.

  11. Opportunities for probiotics and polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve metabolic health of overweight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mokkala, K; Röytiö, H; Ekblad, U; Laitinen, K

    2017-02-07

    Overweight during pregnancy predisposes both the mother and foetus to health complications. Maternal complications include gestational diabetes, obstetric problems and type 2 diabetes later in life. Complications for the offspring are not only restricted to the foetal period or birth, such as prematurity and foetal macrosomia, but may also have long-term metabolic health implications through the mechanism of early nutrition programming. One of the key metabolic components characterising overweight in the non-pregnant state is low-grade inflammation manifested by elevated levels of circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokines. In pregnancy, in addition to adipose tissue and placenta, inflammatory response may originate from the gut. The extent to which overweight induces metabolic maladaptation during pregnancy and further compromises maternal and child health is currently poorly understood. In this review, we evaluate recent scientific literature and describe the suggested links between overweight, gut and low-grade inflammation associated metabolic disorders. We focus on overweight pregnant women and gestational diabetes, and discuss how specific dietary factors, probiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil), might confer health benefits in combatting against metabolic risk factors.

  12. Childhood overweight/obesity and pediatric asthma: the role of parental perception of child weight status.

    PubMed

    Musaad, Salma M A; Paige, Katie N; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M; Fiese, Barbara H; The Strong Kids Research Team

    2013-09-23

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child's weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child's overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy.

  13. The effects of eccentric exercise on muscle function and proprioception of individuals being overweight and underweight.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Deli, Chariklia K; Raso, Vagner; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Giakas, Giannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of being overweight or underweight on proprioception at rest and after muscle damaging eccentric exercise. Twelve lean, 12 overweight, and 8 underweight female participants performed an eccentric exercise session using the knee extensor muscles of the dominant leg. Muscle damage indices and proprioception were assessed up to 3 days postexercise. The results indicated that proprioception at baseline of the lean individuals was superior to that of the other 2 groups. The overweight individuals exhibited a smaller knee joint reaction angle to release than did the lean group, whereas the underweight individuals exhibited a larger reaction angle to release than did the lean group. After eccentric exercise, proprioception was affected more in the overweight and the underweight groups than in the lean group. The greater exercise-induced muscle damage appeared in the overweight group, and the deficient muscle mass of the underweight participants could explain in part the greater disturbances that appeared in proprioception in these 2 groups than for the lean counterparts. In conclusion, deviating from the normal body mass is associated with significant disturbances in the proprioception of the legs at rest and after participation in activities involving eccentric actions.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.

  15. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan Heath; Kumar, Krishna; Pemminati, Sudhakar; Gorantla, Vasavi Rakesh; Kadur, Kishan; Millis, Richard Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf) were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P < 0.05) in the absence of a significant effect on the 1-RM load in the contralateral untrained legs (P > 0.1). Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05) and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09). Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction. PMID:28392959

  16. CRITICAL LOADS METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I summarize the results of an interagency project that 1) defines a generic approach to quantifying and reporting critical loads, and 2) exercises that generic approach by examining a data rich system -- the critical loads of sulfur deposition and it's effect on the chronic acidi...

  17. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  18. Microbial load monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, R. S.; Royer, E. R.

    1977-01-01

    Design analysis of a microbial load monitor system flight engineering model was presented. Checkout of the card taper and media pump system was fabricated as well as the final two incubating reading heads, the sample receiving and card loading device assembly, related sterility testing, and software. Progress in these areas was summarized.

  19. Load induced blindness.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James S P; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-10-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of perceptual load in a letter-search task and assessed its effect on the conscious perception of a search-irrelevant shape stimulus appearing in the periphery, using a direct measure of awareness (present/absent reports). Detection sensitivity (d') was consistently reduced with high, compared to low, perceptual load but was unaffected by the level of working memory load. Because alternative accounts in terms of expectation, memory, response bias, and goal-neglect due to the more strenuous high load task were ruled out, these experiments clearly demonstrate that high perceptual load determines conscious perception, impairing the ability to merely detect the presence of a stimulus--a phenomenon of load induced blindness.

  20. Load Induced Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  1. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. Methods/Design Based on information from the Danish National Birth Registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either a high birth weight, a mother who was overweight prior to pregnancy, or a familial low socioeconomic status. Selected children (n = 5,902) were randomized into three groups; an intervention group, a shadow control group followed in registers exclusively, and a control group examined at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Approximately 21% agreed to participate. Children who presented as overweight prior to the intervention were excluded from this study (n = 92). In the intervention group, 271 children were included, and in the control group 272 were included. Information obtained from the shadow control group is on-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 1½ year between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity. The intervention also included participation in cooking classes and play arrangements. Information on dietary intake, meal habits, physical activity, sleep habits, and

  2. An increasing socioeconomic gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; James, Sherman A; Merli, M Giovanna; Zheng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets from health economics, social epidemiology, and health behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality, played a prominent role in the country's increasing SES gap in childhood obesity and overweight.

  3. Influence of Excess Adiposity on Exercise Fitness and Performance in Overweight Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Anne-Caroline; Drinkard, Bart; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Ghorbani, Samareh; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Relatively little is known about how excess body mass affects adolescents’ capacity to perform sustained exercise. We hypothesized that most of the difficulty that severely overweight adolescents have with sustained exercise occurs because the metabolic costs of moving excess mass result in use of a high proportion of their total oxygen reserve. Methods We compared results from a maximal cycle ergometry fitness test in 129 severely overweight adolescents who had BMIs of 41.5 ± 9.7 kg/m2 and ages of 14.5 ± 1.8 years (range: 12.1–17.8 years) and 34 nonoverweight adolescents who had BMIs of 20.1 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and ages of 14.5 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–18.1 years). Oxygen uptake (V̇o2) was compared at 3 times: during a 4-minute period of unloaded cycling (ULV̇o2), at the lactate thresh-old estimated by gas exchange (LTV̇o2), and at maximal exertion (V̇o2 max). Heart rate was obtained at rest and at V̇o2 max. Participants also completed a 12-minute walk/run performance test to obtain distance traveled (D12) and heart rate. Results Absolute LTV̇o2 and V̇o2 max and LTV̇o2 as a percentage of V̇o2 max were not different in overweight and nonoverweight adolescents during the cycle test. However, absolute ULV̇o2 was significantly greater in overweight adolescents: ULV̇o2 accounted for 35 ± 8% of V̇o2 max (and 63 ± 15% of LTV̇o2) in overweight adolescents but only 20 ± 5% of V̇o2 max (and 39 ± 12% of LTV̇o2) in nonoverweight adolescents. Resting heart rate before initiating the cycle test was significantly greater in overweight than nonoverweight adolescents (94 ± 14 vs 82 ± 15 beats per minute). However, maximal heart rate during the cycle test was significantly lower in overweight adolescents (186 ± 13 vs 196 ± 11 beats per minute). During the walk/run test, mean D12 was significantly shorter for overweight than for nonoverweight adolescents (1983 ± 323 vs 1159 ± 194 m). D12 was negatively related to BMI SDS (r = −0.81) and to ULV

  4. How do treatment seeking overweight youth and their parent describe weight promoting factors in their family?

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Annmarie; Riesch, Susan K.; Sanders, Linda; Sass-DeRuyter, Suzanne M.; Birchmeier, Becky; Kotula, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to describe youth and parents perceptions of potential weight promoting factors among families seeking treatment for youth overweight. We identified two important gaps in the vast multi-disciplinary literature: (a) a lack of studies addressing both the youth and the parent perceptions about family factors that are potentially weight-promoting and (b) a lack of interventions that community health nurses could deliver specifically targeting families seeking treatment for overweight youth. Focus group data were content analyzed. Broad themes included: (a) Mixed Messages, (b) Food and Exercise as Battleground, (c) Problem Solving, and (d) Social Aspects of Youth Overweight. We conclude that youth and parents could benefit from community health nursing interventions to implement healthcare professionals' recommendations incorporating all family members and creating and maintaining an accepting and demanding family climate. PMID:23136859

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Kumah, D. B.; Akuffo, K. O.; Abaka-Cann, J. E.; Affram, D. E.; Osae, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among students in the Kumasi metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20 years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Height and weight were measured in all participants and the body mass index (BMI) of each individual was calculated. Body mass index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Out of the 500 students, 290 (58.00%) were males and 210 (42.00%) were females. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20%, and 0.80%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity. There is therefore the need to establish effective public health promotion campaigns among students in order to curtail future implications on health. PMID:25763282

  6. Overweight and Obesity among Children: An Evaluation of a Walking Program.

    PubMed

    Zuraikat, Nashat; Dugan, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among 5,158 school-age children and to evaluate the effectiveness of a walking program to encourage physical activity among children in Western Pennsylvania. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), obesity in school-age children affects approximately 19% of children 6-11 years old in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010c ). Data were collected over six years. The results of the study revealed the prevalence of obesity and overweight was higher than the national averages: 36% versus 20%. The results also revealed the walking program to be beneficial in reducing students' prevalence of obesity and overweight and keeping them moving.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese American children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Au, Loretta; Kwong, Kenny; Chou, Jolene C; Tso, Alan; Wong, Mei

    2009-10-01

    Childhood obesity has been a growing concern in recent years. The extent of obesity in various ethnic pediatric populations including Chinese Americans has not been fully explored. In this study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Chinese American pediatric population (6-19 years) was determined through a chart review of 4,695 patients from a large community health center in New York City. Demographic characteristics including sex, age and immigrant status were used in a logistic regression to determine risk factors for obesity in this community. Overall, 24.6% of the children studied were overweight or obese (defined as BMI > or = 85th percentile for age and sex). Among US born boys aged 6-12 years, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be as high as 40%. Further studies are needed to understand the complex interplay of factors that contribute to obesity in pediatric immigrant groups.

  8. Transportation and handling loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrem, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    Criteria and recommended practices are presented for the prediction and verification of transportation and handling loads for the space vehicle structure and for monitoring these loads during transportation and handling of the vehicle or major vehicle segments. Elements of the transportation and handling systems, and the forcing functions and associated loads are described. The forcing functions for common carriers and typical handling devices are assessed, and emphasis is given to the assessment of loads at the points where the space vehicle is supported during transportation and handling. Factors which must be considered when predicting the loads include the transportation and handling medium; type of handling fixture; transport vehicle speed; types of terrain; weather (changes in pressure of temperature, wind, etc.); and dynamics of the transportation modes or handling devices (acceleration, deceleration, and rotations of the transporter or handling device).

  9. Impact of canine overweight and obesity on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Yam, P S; Butowski, C F; Chitty, J L; Naughton, G; Wiseman-Orr, M L; Parkin, T; Reid, J

    2016-05-01

    Canine obesity is increasing in prevalence in the UK and raises concerns about dog welfare. This study compares the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of dogs of varying body condition: overweight and obese (BCS 4 and 5) versus non-overweight dogs (BCS 2 and 3), obese (BCS 5) versus non-overweight (BCS 2 and 3) and an overall comparison between all four BCS (BCS 2, 3, 4 and 5) using a novel, validated HRQL instrument which is both web and mobile tablet/phone app based. Of 271 dog owners who were approached, 174 completed a web-based instrument (2013) or a mobile tablet app instrument (2014) during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Automatically generated scores in four domains of HRQL (energetic/enthusiastic, happy/content, active/comfortable, calm/relaxed) were compared for dogs with each of the body condition scores (BCS 2-5). For all body condition scores a statistically significant difference was found between the HRQL scores in two of the domains: energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.02) and active comfortable (p=0.004). When BCS 2 and 3 were compared to BCS 4 and 5, statistical significance was found in the same two domains - energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.01) and active comfortable (p=0.001) - as it was in comparison of non-overweight (BCS 2 and 3) compared to obese dogs (BCS 5): energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.012) and active comfortable (p=0.004). These results suggest that overweight and obese dogs have a reduced HRQL in two of the domains compared to non-overweight dogs, and that differences in HRQL are detectable between BCS scores 2, 3, 4 and 5.

  10. Secular trends of the impact of overweight and obesity on hypertension in Japan, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masato; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Takashima, Naoyuki; Kadota, Aya; Miyagawa, Naoko; Saito, Yoshino; Nishi, Nobuo; Okuda, Nagako; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Abbott, Robert D; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miura, Katsuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI)=25.0-29.9 kg m(-)(2)) and obesity (⩾30.0 kg m(-)(2)) has been increasing over the last several decades in Japan. We examined trends of the impact of overweight and obesity on hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ⩾140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive drugs use) using four national surveys in Japan, from which the participants were randomly sampled from the entire population. Study participants aged 30-79 years were selected for each survey (10 370 in 1980, 8005 in 1990, 5327 in 2000 and 2547 in 2010). The results showed that the impact of overweight and obesity on hypertension had increased significantly (P=0.040 and 0.006 in men and women, respectively). From 1980 to 2010, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for hypertension, comparing overweight and obesity with normal weight (BMI =18.5-24.9 kg m(-)(2)), went from 1.94 (95% confidence intervals: 1.64, 2.28) to 2.82 (2.07, 3.83) in men, and from 2.37 (2.05, 2.73) to 3.48 (2.57, 4.72) in women. Most of the association was observed in overweight participants, as only 3% of the Japanese were obese. In addition to the relationship between excessive BMI and other adverse health conditions, the rise in the association with hypertension increases the urgency in addressing weight control. We need to address the overweight and obesity epidemic.

  11. Female Sexual Function of Overweight Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Torloni, Maria Regina; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Scomparini, Flávia Burin; Mattar, Rosiane

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are increasing worldwide and may compromise female sexual function. We hypothesize that among GDM patients in the third trimester of pregnancy, those with excess body fat would have worse female sexual function scores than normal weight women. Our aim was to assess the sexual function of overweight compared to normal weight women with GDM. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 143 Brazilian women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy: 76 were overweight (pre-pregnancy body mass index-BMI≥25.0 Kg/m2) and 67 were normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 Kg/m2). Participants were recruited from March 2010 to April 2013 at the antenatal clinic of a single public tertiary teaching institution. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to assess sexual function. Overall, 51.7% of the 143 participants were at risk for sexual dysfunction symptoms (FSFI scores ≤26); this rate was significantly higher among overweight compared to normal weight women (60.5% versus 41.8%, p = 0.038). Mean total FSFI scores were significantly lower in overweight compared to normal weight women (21.7±9.2 versus 24.9±8.0, p = 0.029). Compared to normal weight women, overweight participants had lower mean scores in desire (3.4±1.2 versus 4.0±1.4, p = 0.007) and lubrication (3.8±2.0 versus 4.5±1.6, p = 0.023). According to these results, overweight women with GDM in the third trimester of pregnancy have lower female sexual function scores than normal weight women with the same disorder. PMID:24736490

  12. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Aline; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight. Results The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048), red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043), rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001), salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022), and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007). Conclusions Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations. PMID:27706222

  13. Maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and overweight and obesity in offspring: a study in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y L; Ma, R M; Lao, T T; Chen, Z; Du, M Y; Liang, K; Huang, Y K; Zhang, L; Yang, M H; Sun, Y H; Li, H; Ding, Z B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and breast feeding on childhood overweight and obesity in a mainland Chinese population. The incidence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity were compared between children of mothers with (n=1068) and without (n=1756) GDM. The independent roles of the associated factors were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of overweight was higher (16.6 v. 12.6%, P=0.002) in the GDM group, but that of obesity was not different (10.7 v. 12.0%, P=0.315). At age 1-2 and 2-5 years, no difference in overweight (11.0 v. 12.0%, P=0.917, and 15.7 v. 14.6%, P=0.693, respectively) was found, while obesity (8.0 v. 13.6%, P=0.019, and 8.4 v. 13.4%, P=0.014, respectively) was less frequent in the GDM offspring. At age 5-10 years, increased overweight (22.2 v. 12.1%, P<0.001) and obesity (15.9 v. 9.0%, P=0.001) were found in the GDM group, which was associated with maternal obesity, being born large-for-gestational age, male gender and formula feeding. After adjusting for confounding factors, GDM remained an independent determinant of offspring overweight and obesity (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.61-3.22), suggesting that the effects of GDM were independent of breast feeding, as well as of maternal obesity and birth size.

  14. Dietary patterns of adults living in Ouagadougou and their association with overweight

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Urbanization in developing countries comes along with changes in food habits and living conditions and with an increase in overweight and associated health risks. The objective of the study was to describe dietary patterns of adults in Ouagadougou and to study their relationship with anthropometric status of the subjects. Methods A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to 1,072 adults living in two contrasted districts of Ouagadougou. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis and described by multivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to study their association with overweight. Results The diet was mainly made of cereals, vegetables and fats from vegetable sources. The two first components of the principal component analysis were interpreted respectively as a "snacking" score and as a "modern foods" score. Both scores were positively and independently associated with the economic level of households and with food expenditures (p ≤ 0.001 for both). The "snacking" score was higher for younger people (p = 0.004), for people having a formal occupation (p = 0.006), for those never married (p = 0.005), whereas the "modern foods" score was associated with ethnic group (p = 0.032) and district of residence (p < 0.001). Thirty-six percent of women and 14.5% of men were overweight (Body Mass Index > 25 kg/m2). A higher "modern foods" score was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight when confounding factors were accounted for (OR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.03-1.36]) but there was no relationship between overweight and the "snacking" score. Conclusions Modernisation of types of foods consumed was associated with the living conditions and the environment and with an increased risk of overweight. This should be accounted for to promote better nutrition and prevent non communicable diseases. PMID:20307296

  15. Implications of Overweight Onset and Persistence for Social and Behavioral Development between Kindergarten Entry and Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sara; Krull, Jennifer L.; Chang, Yiting

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the social and behavioral development of school-age children with different histories of overweight onset. Eight thousand children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) participated. Three groups of children were identified for analysis: (1) those who were persistently overweight from…

  16. Overweight and Obesity in Youth in Schools--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrley, Melissa; Leibold, Nancyruth

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that school nurses have the knowledge and expertise to promote the prevention of overweight and obesity and address the needs of overweight and obese youth in schools. The school nurse collaborates with students, families, school personnel, and health care providers to promote healthy…

  17. Effects on Physical Health of a Multicomponent Programme for Overweight and Obesity for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…

  18. Urban-Rural Differences in Overweight Status and Physical Inactivity among US Children Aged 10-17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J.; Harun, Nusrat; Probst, Janice C.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among children and adolescents living in rural America. Purpose: We examined urban and rural differences in the prevalence of overweight status and physical inactivity among US children. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of…

  19. Association of Overweight with Academic Performance and Social and Behavioral Problems: An Update from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Jahns, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Background: Childhood overweight is a condition that is prevalent within our society, affecting more and more children each year. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child overweight and educational outcomes. Methods: Data are reported for 13,680 children in third grade from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, a…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  1. Coping against Weight-Related Teasing among Adolescents Perceived to Be Overweight or Obese in Urban Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Wright, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping against weight-related teasing among adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese in urban physical education. Forty-seven students perceived to be overweight or obese from a large urban school district were interviewed. Trustworthiness of data analysis was established by using a member-checking…

  2. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  3. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  4. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Iranian preschoolers: Interrelationship with physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Farzad, Babak; Salari, Mansoureh; Kamjoo, Somaieh; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee; Peeri, Maghsoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: The preschool years are a crucial time to study the determinants of childhood obesity, as it is when eating and physical activity habits are becoming established. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschoolers living in the capital of Iran and to determine relationships between overweight and obesity and selected motor- and health-related fitness parameters. Materials and Methods: This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted with 190 boys and 191 girls aged 5−6 years. Study children were selected from the kindergartens in Tehran, the capital of Iran. All children underwent anthropometric, motor- and health-related fitness tests. Height, body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and percentage of body fat (PBF) were measured for anthropometric assessments. Sit-and-reach, modified sit-ups, modified pull-ups, the 4 m × 9 m shuttle run, the 20 m sprint test and the 20 m multistage shuttle run test were measured for motor- and health-related fitness tests. Overweight and obesity prevalence was determined by the International Obesity Task Force, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization standard criteria. Results: International Obesity Task Force criteria indicate almost 12% (23/190) of boys and 22.5% (43/191) of girls were overweight or obese with 4.73% (9/190) of boys and 10.99% (21/191) of girls in the obese category. Significant correlations were found between modified pull-ups test and body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF in boys and modified pull-ups and modified sit-ups tests were significantly correlated with body mass, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and PBF in girls. Compared to their counterparts, overweight and obese boys demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups and predicted VO2max and overweight and obese girls demonstrated inferior performance in modified pull-ups, modified sit

  5. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity

  6. Correlates of depressive symptoms after birth for Latinas who are overweight or obese.

    PubMed

    Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Coonrod, Dean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Todd, Michael; Belyea, Michael; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska; Vega Lopez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Depression symptoms and overweight/obesity are common concerns during childbearing. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes at birth and can have long-lasting consequences. Predictors of depressive symptoms among overweight and obese low-income and ethnically diverse women are not known. Data are from the Madres para la Salud trial with 139 postpartum Latinas. Depressive symptoms during a prior pregnancy were positively related, while social support and moderate intensity physical activity (PA) were negatively related to depressive symptoms after birth. Social support and PA may be effective interventions, particularly for women who have experienced depressive symptoms in a prior pregnancy.

  7. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Local load shedding

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M.; Thorne, D.K. )

    1988-08-01

    Equipment overloads in an underground transmission network are caused by unscheduled outages. Repairs or replacements of damaged cables and/or transformers in urban areas are inherently difficult and time-consuming. Therefore, for overloads greatly in excess of short-time ratings, speed of load shedding is of paramount importance. Under such conditions, the system operator is faced with: recognizing the problem, determining the course of action and shedding the correct amount of load at the right locations. These tasks are difficult to perform, particularly under pressure of time. Reliance on pre-specified load shedding lists is not satisfactory since the load shedding lists do not necessarily match the amounts and locations of the required loads to be shed. Clearly, there has been a need for a local load shedding scheme, which in the first order of importance, would relieve the overloaded equipment within the time limits imposed by the equipment short-time ratings and in the second order of importance, would ''minimize'' the amount of load to be curtailed. This paper describes an approach which meets the dual objective, providing a practical solution to a difficult engineering/operating problem.

  10. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Workplace Social Capital: Opposing Effects of Gender on Overweight among Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies have sought to examine the health associations of workplace social capital; however, evidence of associations with overweight is sparse. We examined the association between individual perceptions of workplace social capital and overweight among Japanese male and female employees. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey among full-time employees at a company in Osaka prefecture in February 2012. We used an 8-item measure to assess overall and sub-dimensions of workplace social capital, divided into tertiles. Of 1050 employees, 849 responded, and 750 (624 men and 126 women) could be linked to annual health check-up data in the analysis. Binomial logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overweight (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m2, calculated from measured weight and height) separately for men and women. The prevalence of overweight was 24.5% among men and 14.3% among women. Among men, low levels of bonding and linking social capital in the workplace were associated with a nearly 2-fold risk of overweight compared to high corresponding dimensions of social capital when adjusted for age, sleep hours, physiological distress, and lifestyle. In contrast, among women we found lower overall and linking social capital to be associated with lower odds for overweight even after covariate adjustment. Subsequently, we used multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships between a 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in mean social capital and odds of underweight/overweight relative to normal weight. Among men, a 1-SD decrease in overall, bonding, and linking social capital was significantly associated with higher odds of overweight, but not with underweight. Among women, no significant associations were found for either overweight or underweight. Conclusions/Significance We found opposite gender relationships between perceived low linking

  11. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  12. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  13. 16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. UPPER PASSENGER LOADING ZONE, NOTE LOADING ZONE BELOW WITH TURN STILES - Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Arch, Mississippi River between Washington & Poplar Streets, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  14. Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren's risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Hurley, Kristen; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. The SFE comprises food from school food kiosks (casetas); food from home or purchased in the street; and food provided by the school (refacción). School casetas, street vendors and children's parents largely provide sandwiches, calorie-rich snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Refacción typically serves energy dense atol, a traditional beverage. The current school food program (refacción), the overall SFE and the roles/opinions of vendors and principals reveal persistent anxiety concerning undernutrition and insufficient concern for overweight/obesity. Predominant concern for elementary schoolchildren remains focused on undernutrition. However, by the time children reach elementary school (ages 6-12+), food environments should encourage dietary behaviors to prevent childhood overweight/obesity.

  15. Neural Correlates to Food-Related Behavior in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Participants

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Alan; Kennedy, James; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index. PMID:23028988

  16. Intercontinental differences in overweight of adopted Koreans in the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley; Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A greater proportion of the United States (US) population is overweight or obese (with BMI over 25kg/m(2)) relative to all Western European populations, and it might be expected that migrants to either the US or Western Europe would develop patterns of overweight and obesity that reflect this difference. This paper examines the effects of obesogenic environments on Asians by reporting differences in rates of overweight (which is taken to include obesity in this analysis) among 261 adult South Koreans, which had been adopted in early-life into white middle class families living in the US and in Western European Nations. Data collected during an international adoption survey carried out for the Korean government in 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight of adopted Koreans raised in the US significantly exceeds the level among adopted Koreans in Europe by 11.3%. These intercontinental differences are statistically significant after controlling for sex, current age, age of adoption, and education. This paper supports the view that life-style factors are more detrimental for the weight status of people in the US than in Western Europe.

  17. Attitudes toward Overweight Individuals among Fitness Center Employees: An Examination of Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, James A.; Hallett, Bree E.; Grove, J. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Our study assessed implicit and explicit evaluations of overweight individuals among a sample of fitness center employees (N = 70). Participants completed a general demographics questionnaire and an explicit, self-report Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT). Participants also completed two Implicit Association Tests (IATs) to measure implicit attitudes…

  18. The Feasibility of Reducing Sitting Time in Overweight and Obese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Dori E.; Gell, Nancy M.; Jones, Salene M. W.; Renz, Anne; Kerr, Jacqueline; Gardiner, Paul A.; Arterburn, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obese older adults have high sedentary time. We tested the feasibility and preliminary effects of a sedentary time reduction intervention among adults over age 60 with a body mass index over 27 kg/m2 using a nonrandomized one-arm design. Methods: Participants (N = 25, mean age = 71.4, mean body mass index = 34) completed…

  19. Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…

  20. Genetic approach identifies distinct asthma pathways in overweight vs normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Butsch Kovacic, M; Martin, L J; Biagini Myers, J M; He, H; Lindsey, M; Mersha, T B; Khurana Hershey, G K

    2015-08-01

    The pathogenesis of asthma in the context of excess body weight may be distinct from asthma that develops in normal weight children. The study's objective was to explore the biology of asthma in the context of obesity and normal weight status using genetic methodologies. Associations between asthma and SNPs in 49 genes were assessed, as well as, interactions between SNPs and overweight status in child participants of the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository. Asthma was significantly associated with weight (OR = 1.38; P = 0.037). The number of genes and the magnitude of their associations with asthma were notably greater when considering overweight children alone vs normal weight and overweight children together. When considering weight, distinct sets of asthma-associated genes were observed, many times with opposing effects. We demonstrated that the underlying heterogeneity of asthma is likely due in part to distinct pathogenetic pathways that depend on preceding/comorbid overweight and/or allergy. It is therefore important to consider both obesity and asthma when conducting studies of asthma.

  1. Exploring the Climate for Overweight and Obese Students in a Student Health Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Peggy J.; Ketcham, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of health care providers, in conjunction with a nonthreatening physical environment, are important components in establishing a constructive and supportive climate for care of overweight and obese students. Objective: The authors explored providers' attitudes about obesity and assessed the physical environment in a student…

  2. Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in adipose tissue is not known. Objectives: To determine whether 25(OH)D is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) in overweight and obese persons an...

  3. Prevalence of Obesity-Related Chronic Health Conditions in Overweight Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Rimmer, James H.; Lowry, Brienne D.; Vogel, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of 15 common obesity-related chronic health conditions was examined in a convenience sample of adolescents, ages 12-18 years old, with mobility and non-mobility limitations (n=208 and 435, respectively). In both groups, overweight adolescents (BMI[greater than or equal to] 85th %ile) had a significantly higher number of…

  4. Rural-Urban Differences in Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Overweight Prevalence of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joens-Matre, Roxane R.; Welk, Gregory J.; Calabro, Miguel A.; Russell, Daniel W.; Nicklay, Elizabeth; Hensley, Larry D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The increasing prevalence of overweight in youth has been well chronicled, but less is known about the unique patterns and risks that may exist in rural and urban environments. A better understanding of possible rural-urban differences in physical activity profiles may facilitate the development of more targeted physical activity…

  5. Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Mediterranean Region: Prevalence and Possible Causes

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to explore the prevalence of overweight and obesity among various age groups as well as discuss the possible factors that associated with obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A systematic review of published papers between 1990 and 2011 was carried out. Obesity reached an alarming level in all age groups of the EMR countries. The prevalence of overweight among preschool children(<5 years) ranged from 1.9% to 21.9%, while the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children ranged from 7% to 45%. Among adults the prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 25% to 81.9%. Possible factors determining obesity in this region include: nutrition transition, inactivity, urbanization, marital status, a shorter duration of breastfeeding, frequent snacking, skipping breakfast, a high intake of sugary beverages, an increase in the incidence of eating outside the home, long periods of time spent viewing television, massive marketing promotion of high fat foods, stunting, perceived body image, cultural elements and food subsidize policy. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce the economic and health burden of obesity in this region. PMID:21941635

  6. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  7. Overweight Status, Obesity, and Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…

  8. Guatemalan school food environment: impact on schoolchildren's risk of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pehlke, Elisa L.; Letona, Paola; Hurley, Kristen; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala suffers the double burden of malnutrition with high rates of stunting alongside increasing childhood overweight/obesity. This study examines the school food environment (SFE) at low-income Guatemalan elementary schools and discusses its potential impact on undernutrition and overweight/obesity. From July through October 2013, direct observations, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and food kiosk vendors (n = 4, 2 interviews each) and also focus groups (FGs) with children (n = 48, 8 FGs) were conducted. The SFE comprises food from school food kiosks (casetas); food from home or purchased in the street; and food provided by the school (refacción). School casetas, street vendors and children's parents largely provide sandwiches, calorie-rich snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Refacción typically serves energy dense atol, a traditional beverage. The current school food program (refacción), the overall SFE and the roles/opinions of vendors and principals reveal persistent anxiety concerning undernutrition and insufficient concern for overweight/obesity. Predominant concern for elementary schoolchildren remains focused on undernutrition. However, by the time children reach elementary school (ages 6–12+), food environments should encourage dietary behaviors to prevent childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:25823911

  9. Treatment of pediatric overweight: an examination of feasibility and effectiveness in an applied clinical setting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and feasibility of an evidence-based treatment for weight loss in children. METHODS: A total of 41 children who were overweight and their families were provided a modified version of the Traffic Light Diet (TLD) in an applied setting. Children who received tr...

  10. Perception of Overweight Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in US Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florin, Todd A.; Shults, Justine; Stettler, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting the relationship between adolescent obesity and poor academic performance, we examined the association of overweight or perceived weight status with academic achievement. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 14-17-year-olds (N = 11,012) from the nationally representative…

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Guaraní-Mbyá from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the fat distribution pattern in Mbyá-Guaraní children and adults from Misiones, Argentina. Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured in 197 individuals aged 2-60 years. Body mass index (BMI), fat and muscle areas, and subscapular/tricipital index were calculated. All data were transformed to z-scores using US references (NHANES I and II). Overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs between the 85th-95th or above the 95th percentile, respectively. Compared to NHANES references, the Mbyá were shorter and lighter, although their BMI was slightly higher. There were no substantial differences in body composition (fat and muscle) between the Mbyá and the reference. Prevalences of overweight and obesity reached (on average) 16.2 and 14.7%, respectively, and were similar in both sexes. Stunting was higher in females than in males (49.6 vs. 33.3%). Sixty percent of overweight and obese subjects showed a centralized adiposity pattern, and 49% had a high risk for abdominal adiposity. The present results provide new evidence of a striking increase in obesity rates in Amerindians as a part of the process of nutritional transition. The contribution of each component of energy balance, physical activity, and lifestyle could play an important role in this observed tendency, justifying further research in these transitional populations.

  12. Overweight and obesity among North American Indian infants, children, and youth.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of overweight and obesity among North American Indian children and youth exceeds that of other ethnic groups in the United States. This observation is based on studies using body mass index as the primary measure of overweight and obesity. In the mid-20th century, there were regional differences among North American Indian groups in sub-adults' size and shape and only a few Southwestern groups were characterized by high rates of overweight and obesity. In most populations, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity developed in the last decades of the 20th century. Childhood obesity may begin early in life as many studies report higher birth weights and greater weight-for-height in the preschool years. Contributing factors include higher maternal weights, a nutritional transition from locally caught or raised foods to store bought items, psychosocial stress associated with threats to cultural identity and national sovereignty, and exposure to obesogenic pollutants, all associated to some degree with poverty. Obesity is part of the profile of poor health among Native Americans in the US and Canada, and contributes to woefully high rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Interventions that are culturally appropriate are needed to reduce weights at all points in the lifespan.

  13. Age standardization in mapping adult overweight and obesity trends in the WHO European Region.

    PubMed

    Doak, C M; Wijnhoven, T M A; Schokker, D F; Visscher, T L S; Seidell, J C

    2012-02-01

    This study aims to improve comparability of available data within the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region taking into account differences related to the aging of the population. Surveys were included if they were conducted on adults aged 25-64 years between 1985 and 2010 in the WHO European Region. Overweight/obesity prevalences were adjusted to the European standard population aged 25-64. Data were entered for each of the 5-year categories between 1981 and 2010. Measured height and weight data were available for males in 16 and females in 24 of the 53 countries. The 50-64-year-olds had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared to the 25-49-year-olds. This pattern occurs in every country, by male and female, in almost all surveys. Age-standardized overweight prevalence was higher among males than females in all countries. Trend data showed increases in most countries. Age-standardized maps were based on self-reported data because of insufficient availability of measured data. Results showed more countries with available data as well as the higher category of obesity in the later surveys. Measured values are needed and age adjustment is important in documenting emerging overweight and obesity trends, independent of demographic changes, in the WHO European Region.

  14. Overweight and obesity among Hispanic children entering foster care: a preliminary examination of polyvictimization.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold-Clark, Janet S; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective medical chart review examined the prevalence of overweight/obesity (≥85th percentile) and obesity (≥95th percentile) in Hispanic foster children aged 2-18 years in Los Angeles, California. Logistic regression was used for boys and girls separately to analyze polyvictimization (i.e., one vs. two or more types of maltreatment), type of maltreatment (abuse vs. neglect), and age-group as risk factors for overweight and obesity. Almost 40% of participants were overweight/obese, with the highest prevalence (47.7%) observed among children aged 12-18. Children aged 6-18 were at an increased risk of overweight/obesity and obesity compared with children aged 2-5. Although polyvictimization has been shown to have adverse health effects, in this study, it was related to slightly lower odds of obesity for boys but was unrelated to high weight for girls. Addressing the obesity epidemic among Hispanic foster children is vital to preventing continued obesity and the development of obesity-related health problems, especially by focusing on important community and family influences.

  15. The influence of socioeconomic factors on health parameters in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.

  16. Relationship between overweight, obesity and socioeconomic factors of adolescents in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Rakic, R; Bozic-Krstic, V; Pavlica, T

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is a very important issue in developed societies and depends on many factors. The aim of this paper was to determine a possible relationship between overweight, obesity and socioeconomic factors among adolescents in Vojvodina. A cross-sectional anthropometric study was carried out from 2001 to 2004 in towns of Vojvodina, northern Serbia. The research included height and body weight measurements as well as body mass index (BMI) of 1236 schoolboys and 1414 schoolgirls aged 15-18 years. The socioeconomic factors (SES) included parents' level of education and monthly income per family member. The overweight prevalence of about 10% (8595) were recorded in both male and female adolescents. A significant correlation (p<0.01) between all socioeconomic factors was observed in male subjects, although there were no significant differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity when different categories of subjects set by SES were compared. In females lower rates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity were detected in the subjects whose parents had a university education, but the difference was not significant. Regarding the prevalence of obesity, a significant difference was recorded between females with high and low incomes, those with a high income showing significantly greater prevalence of obesity than females coming from low income families. The results of the research indicate that in Vojvodina the family income is the only factor that significantly correlates with female obesity.

  17. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China: the long arm of institutional power.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; George, Linda K

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have widely reported that the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight and obesity in China is significant and positive, which lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective. Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063, 1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic regression analyses show that parental state-sector employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of political power during the market transformation has changed from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997 to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of market transformation, this research not only documents the effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity but also calls for the use of multifaceted, culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the fundamental cause perspective across time and space.

  18. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  19. A School-Based Program for Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Barton, Bruce; Schneider, Kristin L.; Olendzki, Barbara; Gapinski, Mary A.; Kurtz, Stephen; Osganian, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given the dramatic increase in adolescent overweight and obesity, models are needed for implementing weight management treatment through readily accessible venues. We evaluated the acceptability and efficacy of a school-based intervention consisting of school nurse-delivered counseling and an afterschool exercise program in improving…

  20. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  1. The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Assim A.; Al-Dhwayan, Madhawi M.; Alharbi, Abdulhameed A.; Khudhair, Basema K. Al; Nozha, Omar M. Al; Al-Qahtani, Nawal M.; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Bardisi, Wedad M.; Sallam, Reem M.; Riva, John J.; Brożek, Jan L.; Schünemann, Holger J.; Moore, Ainsley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assist healthcare providers in evidence-based clinical decision-making for the management of overweight and obese adults in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assembled an expert Saudi panel to produce this clinical practice guideline in 2015. In collaboration with the methodological working group from McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, which describes both the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence Results: After identifying 11 questions, corresponding recommendations were agreed upon as guidance for the management of overweight and obese adults. These included strong recommendations in support of lifestyle interventions rather than usual care alone, individualized counseling interventions rather than generic educational pamphlets, physical activity rather than no physical activity, and physical activity in addition to diet rather than diet alone. Metformin and orlistat were suggested as conditional recommendations for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery was recommended, conditionally, for the management of obese adults (body mass index of ≥40 or ≥35 kg/m2 with comorbidities). Conclusions: The current guideline includes recommendation for the non-pharmacological, pharmacological, and surgical management of overweight and obese adults. In addition, the panel recommends conducting research priorities regarding lifestyle interventions and economic analysis of drug therapy within the Saudi context, as well as long term benefits and harms of bariatric surgery. PMID:27652370

  2. Training Health Care Professionals to Manage Overweight Adolescents: Experience in Rural Georgia Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, David A.; Yin, Zenong; Kibbe, Debra; Burns, Susan; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Context: The obesity epidemic threatens the present and future health of adolescents in the United States. Yet, health care providers lack specific training for pediatric obesity assessment and management. Purpose: This study examined the adherence of rural Georgia primary care practitioners to an overweight adolescent management protocol. The…

  3. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Collegiate American Football Players, by Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Emily Millard; Wagner, Dale R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine overweight and obesity prevalence in a collegiate football team. Participants: Eighty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football players volunteered to participate. Methods: The authors measured height, weight, and waist circumference (WC), and estimated…

  4. In psychiatrically healthy individuals, overweight women but not men have lower tryptophan levels

    PubMed Central

    Raheja, Uttam K.; Fuchs, Dietmar; Giegling, Ina; Brenner, Lisa A.; Rovner, Sergio F.; Mohyuddin, Iqra; Weghuber, Daniel; Mangge, Harald; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in tryptophan (TRP) breakdown in obese individuals have been previously reported. This could be both contributory to, as well as a consequence of, gender differences in mood changes among obese people. To exclude the potential effect of depression on TRP breakdown and its levels in obesity, we replicated analyses in psychiatrically healthy individuals. In 1000 participants, plasma kynurenine (KYN), TRP, and the KYN/TRP ratio were compared between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals using analysis of covariance, with adjustment for age and gender. Bivariate post hoc tests were also conducted. There were no significant relationships between KYN, TRP, or the KYN/TRP ratio and overall overweight/obese status. However, a significant gender by weight category interaction was identified for TRP only, with overweight/obese women having lower TRP than overweight/obese men (p = 0.02). No gender differences in TRP were found in non-obese participants. Our study in psychiatrically healthy individuals suggested that lower TRP levels in obese women were not secondary to depression, strengthening the possibility that TRP levels could mediate depression in vulnerable women. Thus experimental manipulations of TRP levels could be used to advance theoretical knowledge, prevention, and clinical control of depression in obese women. PMID:26251562

  5. Organized sports, overweight, and physical fitness in primary school children in Germany.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Steiner, Ronald P; Brandstetter, Susanne; Klenk, Jochen; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with poor physical fitness and increased body weight. This study examined the relationship between participation in organized sports and overweight as well as physical fitness in primary school children in southern Germany. Height, weight, and various components of physical fitness were measured in 995 children (7.6 ± 0.4 years). Sports participation and confounding variables such as migration background, parental education, parental body weight, and parental sports participation were assessed via parent questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression as well as multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine associations between physical fitness, participation in organized sports, and body weight. Participation in organized sports less than once a week was prevalent in 29.2%, once or twice in 60.2%, and more often in 10.6% of the children. Overweight was found in 12.4% of the children. Children participating in organized sports more than once per week displayed higher physical fitness and were less likely to be overweight (OR  =  0.52, P < 0.01). Even though causality cannot be established, the facilitation of participation in organized sports may be a crucial aspect in public health efforts addressing the growing problems associated with overweight and obesity.

  6. Overweight and obese status in children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Criado, Kristen K; Sharp, William G; McCracken, Courtney E; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James T; Eugene Arnold, L; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection. The mean age of the children with autism spectrum disorder was 7.9 ± 2.6 years; 84.4% were males. In the autism spectrum disorder group, the prevalence was 42.4% for overweight and 21.4% for obesity compared to 26.1% for overweight and 12.0% for obesity among controls (p < 0.001 for each contrast). Within the autism spectrum disorder sample, obesity was associated with minority status and lower daily living skills. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are at increased risk for obesity and underscore the need for weight management interventions in this population.

  7. Parental Perceptions of Childhood Overweight in the Mexican American Population: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carroll L.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight in Mexican American children has been increasing at a steady rate over the past few years. People of Mexican origin make up the largest proportion of the Hispanic population, which has been reported by the U.S. Census Bureau to be the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The purpose of this integrative…

  8. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kasaeian, Amir; Nasli-Esfahani, Ensieh; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Context Obesity has now become a common health problem worldwide. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the problem in Iran, we systematically reviewed all available studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Iranian pediatric population. Evidence Acquisition We systematically searched PubMed, ISI, SCOPUS, as well as Iranmedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID) databases.All studies on mean and standard deviation or percentile categories of BMI, WC, WHR, or WHtR or prevalence of obesity/overweight in Iranian child and adolescence, were performed from January 1990 to the end of December 2013. Refining processes were conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment and data extraction followed based on validated form. As, these data were heterogeneous, meta-analysis was not performed. Results From 3253 records, through three refining steps, 129 articles were found related to our study. In Iran, national studies are limited and nearly there is no comprehensive study for sub-national trends. Different age and sex groups had large variations in the prevalence of obesity and overweight (from 1% up to 16.1% and from 4.4% up to 42.3% respectively for obesity and overweight). Conclusions Related data are very scattered or limited to some specific subgroups in some living areas. For comparing, aggregating, and imputing the information we need more modern practical statistical methods. PMID:27617064

  9. Clinical Inquiries: Can mobile technology improve weight loss in overweight and obese patients?

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa M; Mounsey, Anne; Nashelsky, Joan

    2017-02-01

    Yes, this technology can help in the short term. Mobile technology compared with minimal or no intervention increases short-term (⟨6 months) weight loss (1.4 to 2.7 kg) in overweight and obese patients. Interventions that combine nonelectronic measures with mobile technology increase weight loss more effectively (3.7 kg) than no intervention.

  10. Overweight trends among Polish schoolchildren before and after the transition from communism to capitalism.

    PubMed

    Gomula, Aleksandra; Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia; Danel, Dariusz P; Koziel, Slawomir

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to reveal the secular trends in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Polish schoolchildren between the years 1966-2012, during which intense socio-political changes took place. Four surveys were conducted in several districts of Poland looking at 69,746 schoolchildren aged 7-18. Significant increase in mean BMI as well as in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed. During this time the highest increase in both mean BMI and excess weight was observed between 1988 and 2012, i.e. after the political transformation, resulting in the improvement of living conditions. However, with respect to girls in late adolescence, between these years, the mean BMI as well as the prevalence of overweight were leveling off, while the percentage of boys with excess body fat in the same developmental category significantly increased in 2012. In the years 1966-1978 and 1978-1988 the pattern of changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity reflected the social and economic circumstances, i.e. temporary economic improvements, or deepening political crises and food shortage. In conclusion, the weight status of schoolchildren strongly reflects socio-political changes that took place in Poland, as well as in most of the Central European countries in the last half century.

  11. The Consequences of Being Overweight: A Controlled Study of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Jayne; Lauer, Monica L.

    1987-01-01

    Consequences of body weight were explored in sample of women and men. Average weight subjects showed preference for thin women but not for thin men; women are more negatively affected by body size in opposite-sex relationships; being overweight negatively affected self-attitudes of all subjects, but particularly those of women; and women are…

  12. Psychosocial correlates of shape and weight concerns in overweight pre-adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Meghan M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Aspen, Vandana; Theim, Kelly R; Stein, Richard I; Saelens, Brian E; Epstein, Leonard H; Wilfley, Denise E

    2012-01-01

    Shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents heighten risk for eating disorders and weight gain. Treatment and prevention efforts require consideration of psychosocial factors that co-occur with these concerns. This study involved 200 overweight pre-adolescents, aged 7-12 years (M age = 9.8; SD = 1.4), presenting for family-based weight control treatment. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the influence of pre-adolescents' individual characteristics and social experiences, and their parents' psychological symptoms, on shape and weight concerns as assessed by the Child Eating Disorder Examination. Findings revealed that higher levels of dietary restraint, greater feelings of loneliness, elevated experiences with weight-related teasing, and higher levels of parents' eating disorder symptoms predicted higher shape and weight concerns among overweight pre-adolescents. Interventions addressing overweight pre-adolescents' disordered eating behaviors and social functioning, as well as their parents' disordered eating behaviors and attitudes, may be indicated for those endorsing shape and weight concerns.

  13. The Presence of Real Food Usurps Hypothetical Health Value Judgment in Overweight People123

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Davies, Kirsty M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To develop more ecologically valid models of the neurobiology of obesity, it is critical to determine how the neural processes involved in food-related decision-making translate into real-world eating behaviors. We examined the relationship between goal-directed valuations of food images in the MRI scanner and food consumption at a subsequent ad libitum buffet meal. We observed that 23 lean and 40 overweight human participants showed similar patterns of value-based neural responses to health and taste attributes of foods. In both groups, these value-based responses in the ventromedial PFC were predictive of subsequent consumption at the buffet. However, overweight participants consumed a greater proportion of unhealthy foods. This was not predicted by in-scanner choices or neural response. Moreover, in overweight participants alone, impulsivity scores predicted greater consumption of unhealthy foods. Overall, our findings suggest that, while the hypothetical valuation of the health of foods is predictive of eating behavior in both lean and overweight people, it is only the real-world food choices that clearly distinguish them. PMID:27280152

  14. Attitudes of Overweight and Normal Weight Adults Regarding Exercise at a Health Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…

  15. The Relationship between Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase Level and Overweight in Korean Urban Children

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Kim, Chan-Won; Hur, Yang-Im

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been reported that gamma-glumyltransferase (GGT) is associated with various cardiovascular risk factors including overweight in adults. However, there are few studies on the relationship between GGT and cardiovascular risk factors in children. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serum GGT level and overweight in Korean urban children. Methods This study was a cross-sectional study using data on 390 4th grade students of elementary schools in Gunpo, Korea. Children were divided into 4 groups according to gender-specific quartiles of serum GGT level. Body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage were quantified as adiposity indices. Results All adiposity indices in children of the highest GGT level quartile were higher than those in children of the lowest quartile. Adjusted odd ratios on overweight of the highest quartile of GGT level compared to the lowest quartile were 14.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.43 to 46.83) in boys and 2.94 (95% CI, 1.06 to 8.16) in girls. Conclusion This study shows that high serum GGT level is related with overweight in Korean urban children and this relationship is stronger in boys compared to girls. PMID:22745853

  16. Sleep and the Body Mass Index and Overweight Status of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Adam, Emma K.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between sleep and the body mass index (BMI) and overweight status of children and adolescents were estimated using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 2,281 children aged 3-12 years at baseline. Controlling for baseline BMI, children who slept less, went to bed later, or got up earlier at the time of the first…

  17. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  18. Overweight status is associated with extensive signs of microvascular dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sunni R.; Bellary, Srikanth; Karimzad, Said; Gherghel, Doina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate if overweight individuals exhibit signs of vascular dysfunction associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). One hundred lean and 100 overweight participants were recruited for the present study. Retinal microvascular function was assessed using the Dynamic Retinal Vessel Analyser (DVA), and systemic macrovascular function by means of flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Investigations also included body composition, carotid intimal-media thickness (c-IMT), ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (BP), fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol levels (HDL-C and LDL-C), and plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF). Overweight individuals presented with higher right and left c-IMT (p = 0.005 and p = 0.002, respectively), average 24-h BP values (all p < 0.001), plasma glucose (p = 0.008), TG (p = 0.003), TG: HDL-C ratio (p = 0.010), and vWF levels (p = 0.004). Moreover, overweight individuals showed lower retinal arterial microvascular dilation (p = 0.039) and baseline-corrected flicker (bFR) responses (p = 0.022), as well as, prolonged dilation reaction time (RT, p = 0.047). These observations emphasise the importance of vascular screening and consideration of preventive interventions to decrease vascular risk in all individuals with adiposity above normal range. PMID:27578554

  19. Overweight among Low-Income Texas Preschoolers Aged 2 to 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kayan L.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger; Mirchandani, Gita; Sayegh, M. Aaron; Moehlman, Clint; Van Eck, Mary; Petrilli, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine child/maternal factors associated with overweight among 2- to 4-year-olds enrolled in the Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Matched child and maternal data collected by self-report of the mother during WIC certification. These data were extracted from existing…

  20. Literature review: perceptions and management of body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people.

    PubMed

    Nissen, N K; Holm, L

    2015-02-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge discrepancies are found between their own perceptions and study categorizations. The studies also indicate that normal weight and moderately overweight people are actively engaged in managing their body size through numerous managing strategies, and dieting is widespread. Together the studies do not form a unified and coherent research field, and there is a bias towards North American study populations. Methodological problems were identified in some publications, raising questions about generalizability of the findings. Moreover, only few studies give deeper insight into the specific perceptions and actions. Repeated studies are needed in broader and more differentiated geographical, social and cultural contexts, and longitudinal studies and more in-depth explorations are especially needed.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-Peng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-11-24

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48-1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20-1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34-1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades.

  2. Lipid metabolism predicts changes in body composition during energy restriction in overweight humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this analysis of a subset from a multi-center 12 wk weight-loss trial was to determine if calcium supplementation or dairy food consumption during energy restriction changed circulating lipids compared with an energy-restricted placebo group. Overweight adults (n = 63) were randomiz...

  3. Prevalence of overweight and malnutrition among ethnic minority children and adolescents in China, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Sifan; Zhao, Chunhua; Ma, Qinghua; Sun, Hong-peng; Pan, Chen-wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and malnutrition in a large Chinese ethnic minority population from 1991 to 2010. In the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health from 1991 to 2010, multistage stratified sampling was conducted in the series of cross-sectional studies. Participants were 7–18-year-old students randomly selected by sex and region, and included Han and 26 ethnic minorities. During the survey period, the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 5.8% to 13.5%, and malnutrition trend increased from 3.6% to 4.1% in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Moreover, Korean and Mongol children were more likely than Han children to be obese (Korean: RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.48–1.56; Mongol: RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.20–1.28). Among these minorities, the Dongxiang and Li children were more likely to be malnourished (Li: RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37–1.57; Dongxiang: RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.34–1.58). Shui, Khalkhas, Lisu, and Monguor children were less likely to be overweight and malnourished compared with the Hans. The prevalence of overweight among ethnicities increased yearly while that for malnutrition has fluctuated over the past few decades. PMID:27881845

  4. Adolescent Diet and Time Use Clusters and Associations with Overweight and Obesity and Socioeconomic Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors…

  5. Global uterine and blastocyst gene expression patterns associated with maternal overweight at conception

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to maternal overweight (OW) increases the risk of obesity in adult-life. Maternal OW was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45% fat). This is assoc...

  6. Leisure Activity Patterns and Their Associations with Overweight: A Prospective Study among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between individual leisure activities (television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs or scouts, sports, outdoor activities) and being overweight using logistic regression and latent class analysis in a…

  7. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Bonin, Cecilia; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Zambotti, Francesca; Livornese, Dario; Donà, Silvia; Tosi, Flavia; Baldisser, Giulia; Ihnatava, Tatsiana; Di Sarra, Daniela; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA) throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9–22.8] vs 26.5[25.5–29.0] kg/m2, respectively), medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) modified questionnaire, at 14–16, 24–28 and 30–32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week) during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy. PMID:27829017

  8. Overweight and obesity: The efficacy of diets for weight maintenance after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Kister, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The report examines which diets are successful as therapy for overweight and obese persons. In general all considered diets are effective. Besides the food the patients have to change the kinesic behaviour and the lifestyle to achieve sustained success. PMID:23904889

  9. Associations of Eating Two Breakfasts with Childhood Overweight Status, Sociodemographics, and Parental Factors among Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Afuso, Kevin; Mason, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: School breakfast may contribute to increased risk for obesity because children may be consuming two breakfasts: at home and at school. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of preschoolers consuming two breakfasts and to assess relationships with overweight/obesity and other factors. Method: Head Start parents (n =…

  10. A School Nurse-Delivered Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary A.; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula

    2013-01-01

    Background: Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and ef?cacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Six high…

  11. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9–5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r2 = 0.484, p < 0.001) and the TSH incremental area under the curve during the TRH stimulation test (r2 = 0.307, p < 0.001). These results suggest that pituitary TSH release in response to TRH stimulation might be an important factor contributing to high normal serum TSH concentrations, which is a regular finding in children with overweight and obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27485208

  12. [Overweight and obesity as a prognosis factor of desmotivation in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, Ma J; González Jiménez, E; Padilla López, C A; Guisado Barrilao, R; Sánchez López, A M

    2012-01-01

    Spain has become the country in the European Union with the fourth highest number of overweight and obese children. This condition directly affects physical health as well as mental health. The objective of this research study was to evaluate motivational aspects in one group of obese or overweight adolescents and another group of normal-weight adolescents. For this purpose a descriptive observational study was carried out in an educational institution in Guadix (Granada). The universe was composed of 200 children of ages 10 to 14. A sample of 24 children was selected by means of proportional random sampling with an error of 0.19, and was divided into the following groups (i) 12 normal-weight children; (ii) 12 obese children. Motivation was measured by means of the School Motivation Analysis Test (SMAT), a multidimensional measuring instrument based on Cattell's dynamic model of motivation and emotions. Our study evaluated five motivational parameters: TAO (total autism-optimism), TGI (total general information), TIN (total integration), TPI (total personal interest), and TCO (total conflict). Our results showed that for each of the SMAT variables, the overweight and obese children obtained an average value of 4.5 in contrast to the normal-weight children, who obtained an average value of 5.9. This indicates that overweight and obese children have low motivational states and a higher level of frustration. They also tend to distort reality by alleging the existence of obstacles that prevent them from achieving their goals.

  13. Overweight and Weight Gain Predict Psoriasis Development in a Population-based Cohort.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Kjersti; Wilsgaard, Tom; Olsen, Anne Olaug; Furberg, Anne-Sofie

    2017-03-10

    Overweight is a proposed risk factor for psoriasis. How-ever, evidence from prospective studies is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association be-tween overweight, weight gain and risk of psoriasis, and potential synergism with smoking, within a population-based cohort including 8,752 individuals followed from 1994 up to 2008. There was a 32% increased odds of psoriasis from a body mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m2, in multi-variable logistic regression analysis, further increasing to 43% at BMI 28 kg/m2, and to 71% at BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in non-smokers. There was a dose-response association between weight gain from age 25 years, with up to 90% higher odds of psoriasis from middle age, independent of weight category. There was no indication of a synergism between overweight and smoking, and no interaction with sex. Overweight and weight gain represent modifiable risk factors that may be targets for primary prevention of psoriasis.

  14. Eating Patterns and Overweight Status in Young Adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies have focused on the association between eating patterns and obesity. However, the findings have not been consistent. The goal of the present study was to identify the eating patterns associated with overweight among young adults aged 19-28 years (n = 504) in Bogalusa, Louisiana. Fo...

  15. Dietary & health predictors associated with overweight & obesity in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined independent associations between diet and lifestyle behaviors; differences in markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); and self-reported health problems among normal weight (NW); overweight (OW), and obese (OB) young adults. Cross-sectional data on pa...

  16. Dietary intake and overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV in Atlanta Georgia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Dominica; Kalichman, Seth; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar

    2016-10-10

    In the U.S., there has been a rise in overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in PLWH in Atlanta Georgia relative to the U.S.

  17. Does weight loss in overweight or obese women improve fertility treatment outcomes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Partridge, S R; Sainsbury, A

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review assessed the effect of weight loss in overweight and/or obese women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) on their subsequent pregnancy outcome. Weight losses achieved by diet and lifestyle changes, very-low-energy diets, non-surgical medical interventions and bariatric surgery translated into significantly increased pregnancy rates and/or live birth in overweight and/or obese women undergoing ART in 8 of the 11 studies reviewed. In addition, regularization of the menstrual pattern, a decrease in cancellation rates, an increase in the number of embryos available for transfer, a reduction in the number of ART cycles required to achieve pregnancy and a decrease in miscarriage rates were reported. There were also a number of natural conceptions in five of the six studies that reported this outcome. Non-surgical medical weight loss procedures and bariatric surgery induced the greatest weight losses, but their use, as well as that of very-low-energy diets, for weight loss prior to ART requires careful consideration. While the overall quality of the studies included in this review was poor, these results support the clinical recommendation of advising overweight and/or obese women to lose weight prior to ART. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required to establish efficacious evidence-based guidelines for weight loss interventions in overweight and/or obese women prior to ART treatment.

  18. Dietary Behaviors of a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Californians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…

  19. Overweight and Perceived Health in Mexican American Children: A Pilot Study in a Central Texas Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Diane O.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed actual and perceived health status of overweight Mexican American clients at a central Texas school-based health center in a predominately Hispanic school district. It also explored the participants' interest in making lifestyle changes to promote a healthy weight. A medical records review indicated that of the Hispanic…

  20. TRACKING OF OVERWEIGHT STATUS FROM CHILDHOOD TO YOUNG ADULTHOOD: THE BOGALUSA HEART STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if childhood overweight tracks into young adulthood in a biracial sample. A longitudinal sample was created from cross-sectional surveys at two time points, childhood (baseline) and young adulthood (follow-up). The setting is Bogalusa Heart Study, Louisia...

  1. Body fat mass of exclusively breastfed infants born to overweight mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there is evidence that maternal prepregnancy obesity (body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m2] =30) results in elevated risk of obesity in the offspring later in life, maternal prepregnancy overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9) has not been clearly demonstrated as a risk factor for the future devel...

  2. Maternal overweight induces integrative changes in gene expression in the offspring in metabolically active tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW rat dams (Sprague Dawley) gain greater body weight (p less than 0.005), fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high-fat diets (45 percent fat). Hepatic microarray analyses ...

  3. Attitudes to Childhood Overweight and Obesity: The Limits of Cultural Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Suparna; Abbott, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore attitudes to and beliefs about childhood overweight and obesity among Bangladeshi mothers and to check maternal perceptions of their children's weight status. Design: Mixed methods cross-sectional study. Setting: A general practice in East London, UK. Methods: Qualitative interviews with 14 mothers; weighing and measuring 22…

  4. Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, T; Dibb, S

    2005-08-01

    A recent review of the literature concluded that advertising of foods on television may influence children's food choices and encourage unhealthy diets, but the review acknowledged there was a lack of clear evidence in coming to this conclusion. The present paper examines ecological evidence for a link between advertising to children and the risk of overweight using data from surveys of advertising on children's television and estimates of the prevalence of overweight among children, in the USA, Australia and eight European countries. A significant association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the numbers of advertisements per hour on children's television, especially those advertisements that encourage the consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods (r = 0.81, P < 0.005). A weaker, negative association was found between the proportion of children overweight and the number of advertisements encouraging healthier diets (r = -0.56, P < 0.10). The quantity of advertising on children's television appears to be related to the prevalence of excess body weight among children. Furthermore, the content of the advertising appears to have a specific effect. The findings justify the need for taking precautionary measures to reduce children's exposure to obesogenic marketing practices.

  5. Prevalence and Prediction of Overweight and Obesity among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Geraldine; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Boles, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high rates of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States have generated interest in schools as sites for monitoring body mass index (BMI) information. This study established baseline values for a 5-year longitudinal assessment of BMI of elementary school children and examined variation across the schools, because little…

  6. Inhibitory control in otherwise healthy overweight 10-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, S; Peirano, P; Peigneux, P; Lozoff, B; Algarin, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preventing obesity is a worldwide public health priority. In vulnerable children living in obesogenic environments, with easy access to high-caloric food, alterations in inhibitory control functions might favor excessive food intake and affect energy regulation. We hypothesized that overweight/obese children would present lower inhibitory control in comparison to normal weight children. METHODS We measured inhibitory control functions in 93 otherwise healthy overweight/obese and 92 normal weight 10-year-old children using the Stroop test and the Go/No-Go task. Event-related potentials were recorded during the Go/No-Go task. RESULTS Overweight/obese children showed slower reaction times (1248.6 ms (95% confidence interval (CI): 1182.9–1314.3) vs 1149.0 ms (95% CI: 1083.0–1215.1)) on the Stroop test, higher reaction time variability (0.25 (95% CI: 0.22–0.27) vs 0.21 (95% CI: 0.19–0.24)) on the Go/No-Go task and decreased P300 amplitude (4.1 µV (95% CI: 3.0–5.2) vs 6.4 µV (95% CI: 5.2–7.6)) on event-related potentials compared with normal weight children. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate altered inhibitory control functions in otherwise healthy overweight/obese children, which might contribute to their excessive food consumption. PMID:25869603

  7. Where do Overweight Women in Ghana Live? Answers from Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Contextual influence on health outcomes is increasingly becoming an important area of research. Analytical techniques such as spatial analysis help explain the variations and dynamics in health inequalities across different context and among different population groups. This paper explores spatial clustering in body mass index among Ghanaian women by analysing data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques. Overweight was a more common occurrence in urban areas than in rural areas. Close to a quarter of the clusters in Ghana, mostly those in the southern sector contained women who were overweight. Women who lived in clusters where the women were overweight were more likely to live around other clusters where the women were also overweight. The results suggest that the urban environment could be a potential contributing factor to the high levels of obesity in urban areas of Ghana. There is the need for researchers to include a spatial dimension to obesity research in Ghana paying particular attention the urban environment.

  8. Elevated Myocardial Oxygen Consumption During Cutaneous Cold Stress in Young Adult Overweight and Obese Africans

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Toyib; Olatunji, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated cardiovascular responses to stressful stimuli (such as cold exposure) has been linked to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which in turn has been demonstrated to predict the development of future hypertension. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that enhanced change in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) to cutaneous cold stress may be one potential mechanism that predisposes overweight/obese individuals in Africa to developing hypertension. The Rate-Pressure-Product (a non-invasive determinant of MVO2) was measured in normotensive young individuals aged between 18 and 25 years at baseline and during sympathetic activation elicited by cutaneous cold stimulation (CCS). Following CCS, there was a significant enhanced rate pressure product (RPP) change in overweight individuals (P = 0.019). Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis showed that body mass index, but not body weight had a significant influence on RPP variation following CCS. Thus, it can be concluded that normotensive overweight or obese individuals have an exaggerated RPP response to the CCS. However, exposure to cold may augment sympathetic reactivity in overweight/obese individuals, which may contribute to increased risk of developing myocardial dysfunction, even in young normotensive individuals. PMID:28299141

  9. Middle School Teachers' Strategies for Including Overweight Students in Skill and Fitness Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rukavina, Paul B.; Doolittle, Sarah; Li, Weidong; Manson, Mara; Beale, Angela

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper describes teachers' perspectives and strategies on including overweight and obese students (OWS) in instruction related to motor skill/game play and fitness development in physical education. Using the Social Ecological Constraints framework, a qualitative multicase study was conducted using multiple in-depth…

  10. Impact of Overweight and Obesity on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function and Value of Tissue Doppler Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Kossaify, Antoine; Nicolas, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction is a common cause of heart failure with preserved systolic function in obese patients. Objective To assess diastolic function in a series of overweight and obese patients using conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Setting and method University hospital; left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated in 99 patients (mean age 61.59 ± 13.9 years); body mass index and waist circumference were assessed, and patients were subdivided into three groups according to their body mass index (kg/m2): [normal, (18.5–24.9); overweight, (25–29.9); obese, (>29.9)]. Peak early (E) and late (A) transmitral flow and peak early (E′) diastolic mitral annulus velocities were measured. Results Diastolic dysfunction was significantly higher in the overweight/obese groups compared to the normal body mass index group. The analysis was made with regard to waist circumference and other clinical characteristics, and multivariate regression analysis showed a direct and independent effect of body mass index on diastolic function [OR: 2.75; CI: 1.34–5.67; P = 0.006]. Discussion was made in view of the latest clinical data. Also, an insight into normal weight obesity is presented and discussed. Conclusion Overweight and obesity are found to have an independent negative impact on diastolic function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. PMID:23471126

  11. The effects of meal glycemic load on blood glucose levels of adults with different body mass indexes

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Tuba; Al, Ayhan; Rakıcıoğlu, Neslişah

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to determine the effect of meal glycemic load (GL) on blood glucose levels of healthy people with different body mass indexes (BMIs). Methods: Thirty healthy controls were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their BMI as normal group (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, n = 15) and overweight group (BMI = 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, n = 15). Dietary assessment was done by the 24-h recall method for 3 successive days. Cases were fed by breakfasts with two different GL on consecutive days. Energy values of the test meal, adjusted to meet 25% of daily energy requirements of each case, were identical in low and high GL meal (483 kcal and 482 kcal, respectively). Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken on 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. Results: Average daily energy intake in normal and overweight group was found as 2514.3 ± 223.8 kcal, 2064.1 ± 521.6 kcal and 2211.4 ± 368.7 kcal, 2494.8 ± 918 kcal in males and females, respectively. Blood glucose level was increased and remained more stable in both high GL meal groups compared to low (P < 0.05). The effects of GL on BMI classified groups were also found different. High GL meal was found to be more effective for increasing blood glucose level, especially on overweight group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The effects of GL meal were found to be different on normal and overweight individuals. The high GL meals were more effective to increase the blood glucose level than low GL meal, especially on overweight people. PMID:28217501

  12. Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: findings from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Do, Loan Minh; Larsson, Viveca; Tran, Toan Khanh; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Eriksson, Bo; Ascher, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective The aim of this study was to understand mothers’ conceptions of childhood overweight. Design Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4–6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called ‘Concept of overweight’, contained mothers’ views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, ‘Identification of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, ‘Causes of overweight’, showed mothers’ understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, ‘Management of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions The study gives an understanding of the mothers’ conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings highlight the roles of

  13. Association of overweight and elevation with chronic knee and low back pain: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2014-04-22

    It is known that overweight is associated with chronic knee pain (CKP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Several risk factors for these conditions have been postulated, including age, sex, overweight, occupation, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, physical environment has been studied as a potential risk factor in recent years. However, the associations of overweight and physical environment with CKP and CLBP remains unclear. The aim of this study conducted in a rural mountainous region was to examine whether overweight individuals living at higher elevations have an increased probability of experiencing CKP and CLBP. In 2009, we conducted a mail survey with a random sample aged between 40 to 79 years. Questionnaires were sent to 6,000 individuals and a total of 4,559 individuals responded to this survey. After excluding the respondents with missing data, we conducted a logistic regression analysis of the data for 3,109 individuals. There was statistically significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of CKP for those who were overweight living at low elevation (aOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.21-2.98), moderate elevation (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.05-2.87), and high elevation (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.31-3.46) than those who were not overweight living at low elevation. However, similar patterns were not observed for CLBP. Our results show that specific overweight-elevation associations were observed for CKP in a rural mountainous region.

  14. Overweight, resting heart rate, and prediabetes/diabetes: A population-based prospective cohort study among Inner Mongolians in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao Yan; Wu, Jia Hui; Zhou, Jing Wen; Liang, Zhu; Qiu, Qiao Yan; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhong, Chong Ke; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Yong Hong

    2016-03-31

    We aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of overweight and resting heart rate on prediabetes/diabetes incidence in an 10-year follow-up study in Inner Mongolians. Among 1729 participants who were free from prediabetes and diabetes at baseline, 503 and 155 subjects developed prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. We categorized the participants into 4 subgroups according to overweight and resting heart rate status. The multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) in normal weight with heart rate ≥80 bpm, overweight with heart rate <80 bpm, and overweight with heart rate ≥80 bpm were 1.24 (0.95-1.61), 1.83 (1.29-2.61), 2.20 (1.41-3.45) for prediabetes and 1.52 (0.97-2.40), 3.64 (2.21-6.01), 4.61 (2.47-8.61) for diabetes, respectively, compared with normal weight with heart rate <80 bpm. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for the prediction of diabetes incidence for a model containing overweight and resting heart rate, along with conventional factors (AUC = 0.751), was significantly (P = 0.003) larger than the one containing only conventional factors (AUC = 0.707). Our study indicated that overweight was an independent risk factor of prediabetes and diabetes, and overweight with faster resting heart rate might further increase the risk of prediabetes and diabetes.

  15. Prevalence of overweight in adolescents with intellectual deficiency. Differences in socio-educative context, physical activity and dietary habits.

    PubMed

    Mikulovic, Jacques; Marcellini, Anne; Compte, Roy; Duchateau, Guillaume; Vanhelst, Jérémy; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuan, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    The study investigates the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents. An observational study was conducted on a group of 410 ID children, living in France. Overweight and obesity, defined according to international standards, were analyzed and related to demographic and sociological parameters, educational care, physical activity and dietary habits. The study highlighted a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (19.0%) in ID adolescents and 22.5% in oldest teenagers, age 15-20 y. This observation was more likely in medico-educative institutes (25.1%) than in general schools (12.3%). Average time spent in physical activity was 4.5 h/week, compared with 3.5 h/week in obese subjects. Time spent in sedentary behavior was 26.6 h/week for the whole population, compared with 18.6 h/week in obese adolescents. Meals were ingested regularly, and adherence to eating breakfast was good. However, snacks and soft drinks were consumed between and during meals by 66.5% of subjects. Overweight in young ID appeared to be related to parental overweight. Even though ID adolescents receive a balanced diet and practice sport regularly, they exhibit a high prevalence for overweight and obesity. In subjects more than 15 years of age, enrollment in medico-educative institutes and parental overweight were contributory factors to poor weight status.

  16. Living at Higher Altitude and Incidence of Overweight/Obesity: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Pons Izquierdo, Juan José; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2016-01-01

    Background Residence at high altitude has been associated with lower obesity rates probably due to hypoxia conditions. However, there is no evidence of this association in a free-living population. Objectives We assessed the association between the altitude where each participant of a Spanish cohort (the SUN Project) was living and the incidence of overweight/obesity. Methods The SUN Project is a dynamic, prospective, multipurpose cohort of Spanish university graduates with a retention rate of 89%. We included in the analysis 9 365 participants free of overweight/obesity at baseline. At the baseline questionnaire, participants reported their postal code and the time they had been living in their city/village. We imputed the altitude of each postal code according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and categorized participants in tertiles. We used Cox regression models to adjust for potential confounding variables. Results During a median follow-up of 10 years, we identified 2 156 incident cases of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for sex, age, time of residence at current city, baseline body mass index, physical activity, sedentarism and years of education (≤ 3 years, ≥ 4 years, Master/PhD), those participants in the third tertile (>456 m) exhibited a statistically significant 14% reduction in the risk of developing overweight/obesity in comparison to those in the first tertile (<124 m) (adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). Conclusions Living in cities of higher altitude was inversely associated with the risk of developing overweight/obesity in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. PMID:27812092

  17. Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among Mississippi public school students, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Kolbo, Jerome R; Zhang, Lei; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Harbaugh, Bonnie L; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Armstrong, Mary G; Werle, Nichole

    2012-05-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mississippi public school students in grades K - 12 and assessed changes in the prevalence between 2005 and 2011. In 2011, Body Mass Index was calculated using measured height and weight data for a weighted representative sample of 4,235 public school students. Additional analyses compared 2011 prevalence estimates by gender, race, and grade levels and for changes between 2005 and 2011. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among public school students no longer appears to be increasing although a significant downward trend was not observed (p = 0.0845), and rates remain higher than national averages. In 2011, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity for all students in grades K - 12 was 40.9% as compared to 42.4% in 2009, 42.1% in 2007 and 43.9% in 2005. Significant decreases in overweight and obesity were found among white students and elementary school student groups from 2005 to 2011. White students' combined rates fell from 40.6% in 2005 to 34.8% in 2011 (p = 0.0006). Similarly, combined rates in elementary school students dropped from 43.0% in 2005 to 37.3% in 2011 (p = 0.0045). In 2011, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly lower among white students than black students (p < 0.001) and significantly lower among white female students than black female students at all three grade levels. These findings are discussed in light of recent statewide educational initiatives and health disparities. Implications for future practice, policy, and research are presented.

  18. Being overweight or obese and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis among women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Hiraki, Linda; Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Malspeis, Susan; Chen, Chia-Yen; Awosogba, J. Adebukola; Arkema, Elizabeth V.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between being overweight or obese and developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) Methods We followed 109,896 women enrolled in NHS and 108,727 in NHSII who provided lifestyle, environmental exposure and anthropometric information through biennial questionnaires. We assessed the association between time-varying and cumulative body mass index (BMI) in WHO categories of normal, overweight, and obese (18.5-< 25, 25.0-<30, ≥30.0 kg/m2) and incident RA meeting the 1987 ACR criteria. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall RA and serologic subtypes with Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. We repeated analyses restricted to RA diagnosed at age 55 years or younger. Results During 2,765,195 person-years of follow-up (1976–2008) in NHS and 1,934,518 person-years (1989–2009) in NHSII, we validated 1181 incident cases of RA (826 in NHS, 355 in NHSII). There was a trend toward increased risk of all RA among overweight and obese women [HR (95% CI): 1.37 (0.95, 1.98) and 1.37 (0.91, 2.09), p for trend=0.068]. Among RA cases diagnosed at age 55 years or younger, this association appeared stronger [HR 1.45(1.03, 2.03) for overweight and 1.65(1.34, 2.05) for obese women (p trend <0.001)]. Ten cumulative years of being obese, conferred a 37% increased risk of RA at younger ages [HR 1.37 (1.11, 1.69)]. Conclusions Risks of both seropositive and seronegative RA were elevated among overweight and obese women, particularly among women diagnosed with RA at earlier ages. PMID:25057178

  19. Why are poorer children at higher risk of obesity and overweight? A UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited evidence on which risk factors attenuate income inequalities in child overweight and obesity; whether and why these inequalities widen as children age. Method: Eleven thousand nine hundred and sixty five singletons had complete data at age 5 and 9384 at age 11 from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Overweight (age 5 : 15%; age 11 : 20%) and obesity (age 5 : 5%; age 11 : 6%) were defined using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cut-points. To measure socioeconomic inequalities, we used quintiles of family income and as risk factors, we considered markers of maternal health behaviours and of children’s physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet. Binary and multinomial logistic regression models were used. Results: The unadjusted analyses revealed stark income inequalities in the risk of obesity at age 5 and 11. At age 5, children in the bottom income quintile had 2.0 (95% CI: 1.4–2.8) increased relative risk of being obese whilst at age 11 they had 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.5) increased risk compared to children in the top income quintile. Similar income inequalities in the risk of overweight emerged by age 11. Physical activity and diet were particularly important in explaining inequalities. Income inequalities in obesity and overweight widened significantly between age 5 and 11 and a similar set of risk factors protected against upward and promoted downward movements across weight categories. Conclusions: To reduce income inequalities in overweight and obesity and their widening across childhood the results support the need of early interventions which take account of multiple risk factors. PMID:26659411

  20. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.