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Sample records for overwintering feeding behavior

  1. Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) shoot-feeding characteristics and overwintering behavior in Scotch pine Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Haack, R A; Lawrence, R K; Heaton, G C

    2001-04-01

    Overwintering behavior of Tomicus piniperda (L.) was studied in a Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Christmas tree plantation in Indiana (1992-1994) and a plantation in Michigan (1994). In general, adults feed inside shoots during summer, then move to overwintering sites at the base of trees in autumn. In early autumn, adults were most often found in shoot-feeding tunnels that were still surrounded by green needles, whereas few were in tunnels surrounded by yellow or brown needles. For all years and sites combined, the range in the percentage of recently tunneled shoots that contained live T. piniperda adults decreased from 89 to 96% in mid-October, to 15- 66% in early November, to 2-10% in mid-November, and to 0-2% by late November to early December. In each year, the first subfreezing temperatures in autumn occurred in October, before most adults left the shoots. Of 1,285 T. piniperda-tunneled shoots, one to seven tunnels (mean = 1.6) and zero to three adults were found per infested shoot. Of these 1,285 attacked shoots, 55% of the shoots had one tunnel, 33% had two, 9% had three, 3% had four, and <1% had five to seven tunnels each. When two or more tunnels occurred in a single shoot, adults were most commonly found in the innermost (most basal) tunnel. For the 2,070 tunnels found in the 1,285 shoots, average shoot thickness at the tunnel entrance was 6.0 mm, average distance from the tunnel entrance to the shoot tip was 6.3 cm, and average tunnel length was 2.3 cm. Four Scotch pine Christmas trees were dissected in January 1993. Eighty percent of the tunneled shoots were in the upper quarter of the tree crown and 98% were in the upper half. For the four trees inspected in January, one live adult was found in a shoot and 85 adults were found in the outer bark along the lower trunk from 1 cm below the soil line to 19 cm above the soil line. No overwintering adults were found outside the trunk in the duff or soil near the base of each test tree. Implications of

  2. The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2017-02-01

    We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a Norwegian fjord (150 m) with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat' swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 h prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a "rise and sink" pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 h before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and negative

  3. Estimation of feeding threshold for Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and its application to prediction of overwintering mortality.

    PubMed

    Son, Youngsoo; Groves, Russell L; Daane, Kent M; Morgan, David J W; Krugner, Rodrigo; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-08-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), vectors the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa that induces Pierce's disease of grape. This study determined the effect of temperature on the feeding activity of H. vitripennis adults and the resulting production of excreta. The Logan type I model described a nonlinear pattern that showed excreta production increased up to an optimal temperature (33.1°C), followed by an abrupt decline near an estimated upper threshold (36.4°C). A temperature threshold for feeding, at or below which adults cease feeding, was estimated to be 10°C using a linear regression model based on the percentage of adults producing excreta over a range of constant temperatures. A simulated winter-temperature experiment using fluctuating thermal cycles confirmed that a time period above the temperature threshold for feeding was a critical factor in determining adult survival. Using data from the simulated temperature study, a predictive model was constructed by quantifying the relationship between cumulative mortality and cooling degree-hours. In field validation experiments, the model accurately predicted the temporal pattern of overwintering mortality of H. vitripennis adults held under winter temperatures simulating conditions in Bakersfield and Riverside, California, in 2006-2007. Model prediction using winter temperature data from a Riverside weather station indicated that H. vitripennis adults would experience an average of 92% overwintering mortality before reproduction in the spring, but levels of mortality varied depending on winter temperatures. The potential for temperature-based indices to predict temporal and spatial dynamics of H. vitripennis overwintering is discussed.

  4. To fast or feed: an alternative life history for anadromous brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis overwintering within a harbour.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Dadswell, M J; MacMillan, J; Madden, R; O'Dor, R K; Stokesbury, M J W

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal feeding pattern of sea-run brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis was studied from November to May 2010-2012 in Antigonish Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada (45° 38' N; 61° 55' W). Sixty-three S. fontinalis (mean ± s.d. fork length = 330 ± 70 mm and mass = 536 ± 351 g) captured had fed predominantly on fishes (Fundulidae and Gasterosteidae). Percentage of empty stomachs was highest during autumn (18%) and winter (22%) and lowest in spring (7%). Stomach fullness increased from autumn to a maximum during winter, relating to near-zero body temperatures which may have effectively stopped gastric evacuation. Although feeding occurred during winter (December to March), consumption rates were calculated as negative values, and subsequently returned to positive values in spring (April to May). The over-winter life-history strategy of this sea-run S. fontinalis population appears to be a feeding marine migration in which fish continually increase body condition, representing an alternative to the more common overwintering strategy of starvation in fresh water until spring.

  5. Population sex-ratio affecting behavior and physiology of overwintering bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Sipari, Saana; Haapakoski, Marko; Klemme, Ines; Palme, Rupert; Sundell, Janne; Ylönen, Hannu

    2016-05-15

    Many boreal rodents are territorial during the breeding season but during winter become social and aggregate for more energy efficient thermoregulation. Communal winter nesting and social interactions are considered to play an important role for the winter survival of these species, yet the topic is relatively little explored. Females are suggested to be the initiators of winter aggregations and sometimes reported to survive better than males. This could be due to the higher social tolerance observed in overwintering females than males. Hormonal status could also affect winter behavior and survival. For instance, chronic stress can have a negative effect on survival, whereas high gonadal hormone levels, such as testosterone, often induce aggressive behavior. To test if the winter survival of females in a boreal rodent is better than that of males, and to assess the role of females in the winter aggregations, we generated bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations of three different sex ratios (male-biased, female-biased and even density) under semi-natural conditions. We monitored survival, spatial behavior and hormonal status (stress and testosterone) during two winter months. We observed no significant differences in survival between the sexes or among populations with differing sex-ratios. The degree of movement area overlap was used as an indicator of social tolerance and potential communal nesting. Individuals in male biased populations showed a tendency to be solitary, whereas in female biased populations there was an indication of winter aggregation. Females living in male-biased populations had higher stress levels than the females from the other populations. The female-biased sex-ratio induced winter breeding and elevated testosterone levels in males. Thus, our results suggest that the sex-ratio of the overwintering population can lead to divergent overwintering strategies in bank voles.

  6. Influence of food hoarding behavior on the over-winter survival of pikas in strongly seasonal environments.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shawn F; Pelchat, Graeme; Donahue, Aaron; Hik, David S

    2009-02-01

    Food hoarding is a behavioral adaptation of some herbivores to manage food availability through time and space. In strongly seasonal environments, where summer growing seasons are short relative to winter, an earlier start to hoarding should increase the amount of vegetation stored for winter and improve subsequent survival. We examined hoarding behavior ('haying') and its impact on survival for a small alpine lagomorph, the collared pika (Ochotona collaris) in Yukon, Canada. We used a combination of video surveillance, haypile measurements, and survival data from marked individuals of known age and sex. Annual haypile initiation was strongly influenced by age and year. Adult pikas began haying an average of 16 days earlier in 2004 relative to 2005, whereas young of the year (juveniles) did not vary in the timing of haypile initiation. The mean haying rate per hour increased monthly from 3.7 +/- 0.7 trips in June to 6.6 +/- 0.8 trips in August. Simulation analysis estimated the median haypile mass (dry weight) by mid-September to be 5.5 kg. At least 75% of simulated haypiles had a minimum of 90 days (3 months) of food reserves, and 50% of simulated haypiles had a minimum of 177 days (5.9 months) of food reserves by mid-September, supporting the hypothesis that haypiles serve as the primary source of food during winter. Survival was greatest for pikas in 2005 when they began haying prior to 31 July, but the benefits of earlier accumulation of vegetation on survival also varied between years. The implications of earlier spring snowmelt are discussed with respect to pika foraging and overwinter survival.

  7. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment.

  8. Photosynthesis of overwintering evergreen plants.

    PubMed

    Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2003-01-01

    In this review we focus on photosynthetic behavior of overwintering evergreens with an emphasis on both the acclimative responses of photosynthesis to cold and the winter behavior of photosynthesis in conifers. Photosynthetic acclimation is discussed in terms of the requirement for a balance between the energy absorbed through largely temperature-insensitive photochemical processes and the energy used for temperature-sensitive biochemical processes and growth. Cold acclimation transforms the xanthophyll-mediated nonphotochemical antenna quenching of absorbed light from a short-term dynamic response to a long-term sustained quenching for the whole winter period. This acclimative response helps protect the evergreen foliage from photooxidative damage during the winter when photosynthesis is restricted or prevented by low temperatures. Although the molecular mechanisms behind the sustained winter excitation quenching are largely unknown, it does involve major alterations in the organization and composition of the photosystem II antenna. In addition, photosystem I may play an important role in overwintering evergreens not only by quenching absorbed light photochemically via its support of cyclic electron transport at low temperatures, but also by nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed light irrespective of temperature. The possible role of photosystem II reaction centers in nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed energy in overwintering evergreens is also discussed. Processes like chlororespiration and cyclic electron transport may also be important for maintaining the functional integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus of overwintering evergreens both during periods of thawing in winter and during recovery from winter stress in spring. We suggest that the photosynthetic acclimation responses of overwintering evergreens represent specific evolutionary adaptations for plant species that invest in the long-term maintenance of leaf structure in cold climatic zones as

  9. Treatment of Feeding Problems - A Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Palmer, Sushma

    1974-01-01

    Describes the application of behavioral modification techniques to the treatment of feeding problems in handicapped preschool children, and proposes the inclusion of these techniques in nutrition training programs. (JR)

  10. Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.

  11. Behavioral Treatments for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linscheid, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioral interventions for pediatric feedings problems has been well documented. However, the application of these procedures in the real world is often more complex and difficult than research reports reveal. Multiple factors such as the child's medical condition and history, medical monitoring requirements, and the need to…

  12. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  13. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  14. Physiological ecology of overwintering in hatchling turtles.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Jon P; Lee, Richard E; Ultsch, Gordon R

    2008-07-01

    Temperate species of turtles hatch from eggs in late summer. The hatchlings of some species leave their natal nest to hibernate elsewhere on land or under water, whereas others usually remain inside the nest until spring; thus, post-hatching behavior strongly influences the hibernation ecology and physiology of this age class. Little is known about the habitats of and environmental conditions affecting aquatic hibernators, although laboratory studies suggest that chronically hypoxic sites are inhospitable to hatchlings. Field biologists have long been intrigued by the environmental conditions survived by hatchlings using terrestrial hibernacula, especially nests that ultimately serve as winter refugia. Hatchlings are unable to feed, although as metabolism is greatly reduced in hibernation, they are not at risk of starvation. Dehydration and injury from cold are more formidable challenges. Differential tolerances to these stressors may explain variation in hatchling overwintering habits among turtle taxa. Much study has been devoted to the cold-hardiness adaptations exhibited by terrestrial hibernators. All tolerate a degree of chilling, but survival of frost exposure depends on either freeze avoidance through supercooling or freeze tolerance. Freeze avoidance is promoted by behavioral, anatomical, and physiological features that minimize risk of inoculation by ice and ice-nucleating agents. Freeze tolerance is promoted by a complex suite of molecular, biochemical, and physiological responses enabling certain organisms to survive the freezing and thawing of extracellular fluids. Some species apparently can switch between freeze avoidance or freeze tolerance, the mode utilized in a particular instance of chilling depending on prevailing physiological and environmental conditions.

  15. Motor control of Drosophila feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Olivia; Bohra, Ali Asgar; Liu, Xinyu; Reichert, Heinrich; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Pielage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The precise coordination of body parts is essential for survival and behavior of higher organisms. While progress has been made towards the identification of central mechanisms coordinating limb movement, only limited knowledge exists regarding the generation and execution of sequential motor action patterns at the level of individual motoneurons. Here we use Drosophila proboscis extension as a model system for a reaching-like behavior. We first provide a neuroanatomical description of the motoneurons and muscles contributing to proboscis motion. Using genetic targeting in combination with artificial activation and silencing assays we identify the individual motoneurons controlling the five major sequential steps of proboscis extension and retraction. Activity-manipulations during naturally evoked proboscis extension show that orchestration of serial motoneuron activation does not rely on feed-forward mechanisms. Our data support a model in which central command circuits recruit individual motoneurons to generate task-specific proboscis extension sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19892.001 PMID:28211791

  16. Effect of milk feeding level on development of feeding behavior in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    Evidence exists that early life experiences may influence development of characteristic feeding patterns in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of milk feeding level on performance and development of feeding patterns in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were assigned at birth to a milk replacer feeding level, fed via a teat: (1) ad libitum (ADL) or (2) restricted feeding at 5 L/d (0.75 kg of milk replacer) in 2 feedings/d (RES). All calves were offered concentrate ad libitum during the milk feeding stage. Calves were weaned gradually during wk 7 and then fed a pelleted diet ad libitum for 7 wk. Calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed and milk intakes were recorded daily. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 5 d in each of wk 3, 6, 8, 11, and 14. Calves fed ADL consumed 2.6 times more milk, had greater weight gain (1.2 vs. 0.6 kg/d), and consumed less solid feed (45.2 vs. 98.0 g/d) during the milk feeding period than did calves fed RES. As expected, providing milk ADL resulted in more frequent meals (in wk 6, 7.1 vs. 2.0) and more evenly distributed diurnal patterns of feeding activity compared with the RES milk level. When considering all sucking bouts (milk feeding and nonnutritive sucking), no difference was observed between treatments in daily bout frequency or sucking time/bout. Postweaning, calves fed RES had initially greater rate of intake (24.9 vs. 17.8 g/min) and meal size (160.8 vs. 117.2 g/meal). Diurnal feeding patterns also differed in the first week after weaning, with ADL calves feeding less continuously at the time of feed delivery. Meal characteristics and diurnal patterns of feeding activity were similar between calves by the end of the trial. However, milk feeding level had a longer-term effect on variability in feeding behavior, with calves fed RES having greater day-to-day variability in feeding time and meal size. Variability of meal characteristics also decreased over time across treatments

  17. Behavioral response of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to semiochemicals deployed inside and outside anthropogenic structures during the overwintering period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest in the United States when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. haly...

  18. Development of a livestock feeding behavior monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior contains valuable information that can be used for various needs including: managing livestock, identifying animals that are sick, and determining genetic differences within a herd. Feeding behavior initially was recorded only in individual or small group pens. Currently there are ...

  19. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification.

  20. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    PubMed

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  1. Behavioral responses of herring (Clupea harengus) to 1-2 and 6-7 kHz sonar signals and killer whale feeding sounds.

    PubMed

    Doksaeter, Lise; Rune Godo, Olav; Olav Handegard, Nils; Kvadsheim, Petter H; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Donovan, Carl; Miller, Patrick J O

    2009-01-01

    Military antisubmarine sonars produce intense sounds within the hearing range of most clupeid fish. The behavioral reactions of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus) to sonar signals of two different frequency ranges (1-2 and 6-7 kHz), and to playback of killer whale feeding sounds, were tested in controlled exposure experiments in Vestfjorden, Norway, November 2006. The behavior of free ranging herring was monitored by two upward-looking echosounders. A vessel towing an operational naval sonar source approached and passed over one of them in a block design setup. No significant escape reactions, either vertically or horizontally, were detected in response to sonar transmissions. Killer whale feeding sounds induced vertical and horizontal movements of herring. The results indicate that neither transmission of 1-2 kHz nor 6-7 kHz have significant negative influence on herring on the received sound pressure level tested (127-197 and 139-209 dB(rms) re 1 microPa, respectively). Military sonars of such frequencies and source levels may thus be operated in areas of overwintering herring without substantially affecting herring behavior or herring fishery. The avoidance during playback of killer whale sounds demonstrates the nature of an avoidance reaction and the ability of the experimental design to reveal it.

  2. Feeding Behavior of a Crab According to Cheliped Number

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Diogo Nunes; Christofoletti, Ronaldo Adriano; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2015-01-01

    Cheliped loss through autotomy is a common reflexive response in decapod crustaceans. Cheliped loss has direct and indirect effects on feeding behavior which can affect population dynamics and the role of species in the community. In this study, we assessed the impact of autotomy (0, 1, or 2 cheliped loss) on feeding behavior in the crab Pachygrapsus transversus, an omnivorous and abundant species that inhabits subtropical intertidal rocky shores along the South Atlantic Ocean. Autotomy altered crab feeding patterns and foraging behavior; however, the time spent foraging on animal prey or algae was not affected. These results indicate a plasticity of feeding behavior in P. transversus, allowing them to maintain feeding when injured. PMID:26682546

  3. Management of Behavioral Feeding Problems in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents principles of behavior therapy that can be used alone to treat minor feeding problems in young children or in conjunction with other modalities to treat serious disorders. The article discusses assessment methods; variables in feeding, including time, space, child, feeder, food, and treatment; methods to increase or decrease…

  4. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  5. Parent Feeding Behavior and Child Appetite: Associations Depend on Feeding Style

    PubMed Central

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396

  6. Effects of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior.

    PubMed

    Orban, David A; Siegford, Janice M; Snider, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Zoological institutions develop human-animal interaction opportunities for visitors to advance missions of conservation, education, and recreation; however, the animal welfare implications largely have yet to be evaluated. This behavioral study was the first to quantify impacts of guest feeding programs on captive giraffe behavior and welfare, by documenting giraffe time budgets that included both normal and stereotypic behaviors. Thirty giraffes from nine zoos (six zoos with varying guest feeding programs and three without) were observed using both instantaneous scan sampling and continuous behavioral sampling techniques. All data were collected during summer 2012 and analyzed using linear mixed models. The degree of individual giraffe participation in guest feeding programs was positively associated with increased time spent idle and marginally associated with reduced time spent ruminating. Time spent participating in guest feeding programs had no effect on performance of stereotypic behaviors. When time spent eating routine diets was combined with time spent participating in guest feeding programs, individuals that spent more time engaged in total feeding behaviors tended to perform less oral stereotypic behavior such as object-licking and tongue-rolling. By extending foraging time and complexity, guest feeding programs have the potential to act as environmental enrichment and alleviate unfulfilled foraging motivations that may underlie oral stereotypic behaviors observed in many captive giraffes. However, management strategies may need to be adjusted to mitigate idleness and other program consequences. Further studies, especially pre-and-post-program implementation comparisons, are needed to better understand the influence of human-animal interactions on zoo animal behavior and welfare.

  7. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  8. How can we observe the underwater feeding behavior of endotherms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Yasuhiko

    Marine mammals and marine birds perform diving to forage underwater. Recent technological advances have led to rapid progress in our understanding of diving behavior, but additional research is required into feeding behavior to determine the timing of prey ingestion, prey mass, and prey type. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of the foraging and diving behavior of these endotherms, it is essential to integrate information on feeding behavior with other data. The challenges involved in developing an appropriate research method have been addressed, and several methods have been tested and used in the field, including the stomach temperature method, the esophagus method for marine birds, the stomach temperature telemeter method for seals, and the beak magnet sensor method. In the present study, I review these methods, suggest the necessity of their further development in field studies, and propose a new practical method that involves the measurement of jaw movements underwater as an indicator of the feeding behavior of seals.

  9. The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    la Fleur, Susanne E

    2006-08-30

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic.

  10. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal) nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the endocrine arm of the body's response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and/or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC) regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors. PMID:23785312

  11. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage.

  12. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anjali; Patel, B. H. M.; Maurya, Vipin; Godara, Asu Singh; Verma, Med Ram; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region), weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed). Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version). Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm) was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact) of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min) which differed significantly (p<0.05) from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05) lower in Group II (1.68±0.21) as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52) and Group III (4.27±0.56). Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05) than the other two

  13. Infection with a plant virus modifies vector feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Candice A.; Walker, Gregory P.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Vector infection by some animal-infecting parasites results in altered feeding that enhances transmission. Modification of vector behavior is of broad adaptive significance, as parasite fitness relies on passage to a new host, and vector feeding is nearly always essential for transmission. Although several plant viruses infect their insect vectors, we have shown that vector infection by a plant virus alters feeding behavior. Here we show that infection with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), type member of the only plant-infecting genus in the Bunyaviridae, alters the feeding behavior of its thrips vector, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Male thrips infected with TSWV fed more than uninfected males, with the frequency of all feeding behaviors increasing by up to threefold, thus increasing the probability of virus inoculation. Importantly, infected males made almost three times more noningestion probes (probes in which they salivate, but leave cells largely undamaged) compared with uninfected males. A functional cell is requisite for TSWV infection and cell-to-cell movement; thus, this behavior is most likely to establish virus infection. Some animal-infecting members of the Bunyaviridae (La Crosse virus and Rift Valley fever virus) also cause increased biting rates in infected vectors. Concomitantly, these data support the hypothesis that capacity to modify vector feeding behavior is a conserved trait among plant- and animal-infecting members of the Bunyaviridae that evolved as a mechanism to enhance virus transmission. Our results underscore the evolutionary importance of vector behavioral modification to diverse parasites with host ranges spanning both plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:21606372

  14. Parallel, redundant circuit organization for homeostatic control of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Betley, J Nicholas; Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Ritola, Kimberly D; Sternson, Scott M

    2013-12-05

    Neural circuits for essential natural behaviors are shaped by selective pressure to coordinate reliable execution of flexible goal-directed actions. However, the structural and functional organization of survival-oriented circuits is poorly understood due to exceptionally complex neuroanatomy. This is exemplified by AGRP neurons, which are a molecularly defined population that is sufficient to rapidly coordinate voracious food seeking and consumption behaviors. Here, we use cell-type-specific techniques for neural circuit manipulation and projection-specific anatomical analysis to examine the organization of this critical homeostatic circuit that regulates feeding. We show that AGRP neuronal circuits use a segregated, parallel, and redundant output configuration. AGRP neuron axon projections that target different brain regions originate from distinct subpopulations, several of which are sufficient to independently evoke feeding. The concerted anatomical and functional analysis of AGRP neuron projection populations reveals a constellation of core forebrain nodes, which are part of an extended circuit that mediates feeding behavior.

  15. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  16. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion.

  17. GnIH Control of Feeding and Reproductive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation. Interestingly, recent studies have further indicated that GnIH controls feeding behavior in vertebrates, such as in birds and mammals. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its conservation in vertebrates and the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior and reproductive behavior by GnIH.

  18. GnIH Control of Feeding and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation. Interestingly, recent studies have further indicated that GnIH controls feeding behavior in vertebrates, such as in birds and mammals. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its conservation in vertebrates and the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior and reproductive behavior by GnIH. PMID:28082949

  19. Sibling feeding behavior: Mothers as role models during mealtimes.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    Siblings may act as caregivers and role models during mealtimes, and develop caregiving skills by observing and imitating the behavior of their mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the association between maternal feeding behaviors and encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child during mealtimes. Index children aged 4-8 years (n = 69) were videotaped while eating a routine evening meal at home with one sibling present. Encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child were coded from the videotapes. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to examine the association of maternal Pressure to Eat, Restriction, Monitoring, Verbal Direction, and Coercion with number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child. Models were adjusted for index child's age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and maternal education. Results showed that maternal Pressure to Eat (Rate Ratio (RR): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.69), Restriction (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.60), Verbal Direction (RR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.68, 2.47), and Coercion (RR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.92) were each positively associated with the number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child. Maternal Monitoring was not associated with the number of encouragements to eat delivered from the sibling to the index child (RR: 0.92, 97% CI: 0.78, 1.09). Findings suggest that maternal behavior during mealtimes may affect the index child indirectly by shaping the behavior of siblings. Since controlling feeding behaviors have been associated with greater child obesity risk, future studies may evaluate the compounded effect of experiencing controlling feeding behaviors from both mothers and siblings.

  20. Feeding behavior and injury caused by Lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the importance of Lygus hesperus as a crop pest in the western United States, key aspects of its feeding behavior and consequent injury to cotton are poorly understood. Previous studies of Lygus stage-dependent injury to cotton produced conflicting results. We sought to clarify these relat...

  1. A chronometric approach to the study of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1980-01-01

    In many mammalian genera, the stimulus to feed is intimately associated with circadian rhythms. This stimulus arises from within the brain from biological time-keeping systems. Such a chronometric approach to feeding behavior follows from a consideration of the terrestrial mammal's space-time pattern within the ecological niche. The ecological niche is a division of time as well as space. The restriction of certain behaviors to certain times of day and the concomitant evolution of nocturnality or diurnality represent strong advantages for survival in the wild. Experimental data, primarily from studies on the rat, in support of the chronometric approach, include: the reinstatement of cyclic feeding patterns after food deprivation; the continuation of circadian pattern of wheel running and nocturnal drinking during food deprivation; consideration of the ontogeny of the feeding pattern; the phenomenon of anticipatory appetite--the experimental demonstration that time of day can act as a conditioned stimulus for feeding; the evaluation of rhythms in digestion, absorption and assimilatory biochemical processes; the realization that many of these rhythms are not simply a consequence of the presence of food in the gut; the realization that the brain exerts considerable control over the peripheral rhythmic nutritional processes via ANS and endocrinological systems; and the fact that within the brain the SCN and structures well known to be involved in nutritional regulation, such as the VMH, LHA and monoamine systems, may all be involved in the circadian pattern of feeding. Further, the function of these neurological structures may be understood better by consideration of data from temporal changes in feeding patterns.

  2. Central Amino Acid Sensing in the Control of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heeley, Nicholas; Blouet, Clemence

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein quantity and quality greatly impact metabolic health via evolutionary-conserved mechanisms that ensure avoidance of amino acid imbalanced food sources, promote hyperphagia when dietary protein density is low, and conversely produce satiety when dietary protein density is high. Growing evidence supports the emerging concept of protein homeostasis in mammals, where protein intake is maintained within a tight range independently of energy intake to reach a target protein intake. The behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these adaptations are unclear. While peripheral factors are able to signal amino acid deficiency and abundance to the brain, the brain itself is exposed to and can detect changes in amino acid concentrations, and subsequently engages acute and chronic responses modulating feeding behavior and food preferences. In this review, we will examine the literature describing the mechanisms by which the brain senses changes in amino acids concentrations, and how these changes modulate feeding behavior. PMID:27933033

  3. Distributed network organization underlying feeding behavior in the mollusk Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Paul R

    2012-04-17

    The aim of the work reviewed here is to relate the properties of individual neurons to network organization and behavior using the feeding system of the gastropod mollusk, Lymnaea. Food ingestion in this animal involves sequences of rhythmic biting movements that are initiated by the application of a chemical food stimulus to the lips and esophagus. We investigated how individual neurons contribute to various network functions that are required for the generation of feeding behavior such as rhythm generation, initiation ('decision making'), modulation and hunger and satiety. The data support the view that feeding behavior is generated by a distributed type of network organization with individual neurons often contributing to more than one network function, sharing roles with other neurons. Multitasking in a distributed type of network would be 'economically' sensible in the Lymnaea feeding system where only about 100 neurons are available to carry out a variety of complex tasks performed by millions of neurons in the vertebrate nervous system. Having complementary and potentially alternative mechanisms for network functions would also add robustness to what is a 'noisy' network where variable firing rates and synaptic strengths are commonly encountered in electrophysiological recording experiments.

  4. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition.

  5. Feeding-induced interactions between Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus: effects on feeding behavior and honeydew excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG), salivary flange, and honeydew measurement, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of prior-feeding-induced intra- and inter-specific interactions on subsequent feeding behavior and excretion of rice planthoppers. Feeding of brown planthopper (B...

  6. Feeding behavior improves prediction of dairy cow voluntary feed intake but cannot serve as the sole indicator.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Ben Meir, Y; Miron, J; Maltz, E

    2016-09-01

    Low-cost feeding-behavior sensors will soon be available for commercial use in dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a feed intake model for the individual dairy cow that includes feeding behavior. In a research farm, the individual cows' voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored at every meal. A feed intake model was developed based on data that exist in commercial modern farms: 'BW,' 'milk yield' and 'days in milking' parameters were applied in this study. At the individual cow level, eating velocity seemed to be correlated with feed intake (R 2=0.93 to 0.94). The eating velocity coefficient varied among individuals, ranging from 150 to 230 g/min per cow. The contribution of feeding behavior (0.28) to the dry matter intake (DMI) model was higher than the contribution of BW (0.20), similar to the contribution of fat-corrected milk (FCM)/BW (0.29) and not as large as the contribution of FCM (0.49). Incorporating feeding behavior into the DMI model improved its accuracy by 1.3 (38%) kg/cow per day. The model is ready to be implemented in commercial farms as soon as companies introduce low-cost feeding-behavior sensors on commercial level.

  7. Assessing feed efficiency in beef steers through feeding behavior, infrared thermography and glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Montanholi, Y R; Swanson, K C; Palme, R; Schenkel, F S; McBride, B W; Lu, D; Miller, S P

    2010-05-01

    A better understanding of the factors regulating feed efficiency and their potential as predictors of feed efficiency in cattle is needed. Therefore, the potential of three classes of traits, namely, feeding behavior characteristics: daily time at feeder (TF; min/day), time per meal (TM; min), meal size (MS; g DM), eating rate (ER; g DM/min), number of daily meals (NM) and daily visits to the feeder (VF); infrared (IR) thermography traits (°C): eye (EY), cheek (CK), snout (SN), ribs (RB) and hind area (HA); and glucocorticoid levels: fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM; ng/g) and plasma cortisol (PC; ng/ml) as predictors of efficiency were evaluated in 91 steers (436 ± 37 kg) over 2 years (Y1 = 46; Y2 = 45). Additionally, the individual traits of each of these three classes were combined to define three single traits. Individual daily feed intake of a corn silage and high-moisture corn-based diet was measured using an automated feeding system. Body weight and thermographs were taken every 28 days over a period of 140 days. Four productive performance traits were calculated: daily dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F : G) and residual feed intake (RFI). Steers were also classified into three RFI categories (low-, medium- and high-RFI). Among the feeding behavior characteristics, MS and ER were correlated with all efficiency traits (range: 0.26 to 0.75). Low-RFI (more efficient steers) had smaller MS, lower ER and fewer VF in comparison to high-RFI steers. Less efficient steers (high-RFI) performed more VF during the nocturnal period than more efficient steers. More efficient steers had lower CK and SN temperatures than less efficient steers (28.1°C v. 29.2°C and 30.0°C v. 31.2°C), indicating greater energetic efficiency for low-RFI steers. In terms of glucocorticoids, PC was not correlated with efficiency traits. In contrast, more efficient steers had higher FCM in comparison to less efficient steers (51.1 v. 31.2 ng

  8. Behavioral assessment of feeding problems of individuals with severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    Munk, D D; Repp, A C

    1994-01-01

    As many as 80% of the individuals with severe or profound mental retardation exhibit feeding problems. Although behavioral interventions have been used to treat these problems, no assessment procedure for determining a functional relationship between a person's acceptance of food and the type and texture of that food has been reported. The purpose of this study was to test a behavioral assessment procedure for a feeding problem of limited intake. Five individuals with severe or profound mental retardation were fed 10 to 12 types of foods with one or more textures. Behavioral categories of acceptance, rejection, expulsion, and other negative behavior were recorded. Results indicated that each subject fit into one of four categories of feeding problems: (a) total refusal, (b) type selectivity, (c) texture selectivity, or (d) type and texture selectivity. Thus, although all 5 subjects exhibited limited intake, the food characteristics correlated with the problem were different for each individual. Results suggest that treatments for limited intake may be based on assessments that show the association of food type or texture to a person's rejection or expulsion of food.

  9. Association of fathers' feeding practices and feeding style on preschool age children's diet quality, eating behavior and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Adamsons, Kari; Foster, Jaime S; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-06-01

    The associations of parental feeding practices and feeding style with childhood obesity have gained more attention in the literature recently; however, fathers are rarely included within these studies. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship of paternal feeding practices on child diet quality, weight status, and eating behavior, and the moderating effect of paternal feeding style on these relationships in preschool age children. This study included a one-time, one-on-one interview with biological fathers of preschoolers (n = 150) to assess feeding practices (Child Feeding Questionnaire), feeding style (Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire), child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire), and diet quality (24 hour recall, Healthy Eating Index). Height and weight for each father and child were also measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) or BMI z-score calculated. Linear regression was used to test the relationship between paternal feeding practices, style and child diet quality and/or body weight. Overall, the findings revealed that a father's feeding practices and feeding style are not associated with children's diet quality or weight status. However, child eating behaviors are associated with child BMI z-score and these relationships are moderated by paternal feeding practices. For example, child satiety responsiveness is inversely (β = -.421, p = 0.031) associated with child BMI z-score only if paternal restriction scores are high. This relationship is not significant when paternal restriction scores are low (β = -.200, p = 0.448). These results suggest that some child appetitive traits may be related to child weight status when exposed to certain paternal feeding practices. Future studies should consider the inclusion of fathers as their feeding practices and feeding style may be related to a child's eating behavior.

  10. Prepartum feeding behavior is an early indicator of subclinical ketosis.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Chapinal, N; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-10-01

    Cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK) after calving are at increased risk of developing other diseases and compromised reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in feeding and social behaviors during the transition period were associated with SCK during the week after calving. Feeding behaviors of 101 Holstein dairy cows were monitored from 3 wk before to 3 wk after calving. Ten otherwise healthy animals were identified as having SCK by serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels >or=1,000 micromol/L taken during wk +1. These animals were matched by parity with 10 healthy animals. During the week before calving and the 2 wk after calving, animals with SCK had lower dry matter intake, had fewer visits to the feeder, and spent less time at the feeder than healthy animals. For every 10-min decrease in average daily time spent at the feeder during the week before calving, the risk of SCK increased by 1.9 times. During the same week, a 1-kg decrease in average daily dry matter intake increased the risk of SCK by 2.2 times. The largest increase in risk of SCK was associated with a 1-kg increase in the change in average daily intake from wk -2 to -1. During the week before calving, animals with SCK initiated fewer displacements at the feed bunk compared with animals that remained healthy after calving. The results of this study provide evidence that time spent feeding, dry matter intake, and social behavior play an important role in transition cow health. These results indicate that special consideration should be given to management and social factors that can negatively affect dry matter intake and feed bunk attendance during the transition period.

  11. Assaying Predatory Feeding Behaviors in Pristionchus and Other Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Misako; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol provides multiple methods for the analysis and quantification of predatory feeding behaviors in nematodes. Many nematode species including Pristionchus pacificus display complex behaviors, the most striking of which is the predation of other nematode larvae. However, as these behaviors are absent in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, they have thus far only recently been described in detail along with the development of reliable behavioral assays 1. These predatory behaviors are dependent upon phenotypically plastic but fixed mouth morphs making the correct identification and categorization of these animals essential. In P. pacificus there are two mouth types, the stenostomatous and eurystomatous morphs 2, with only the wide mouthed eurystomatous containing an extra tooth and being capable of killing other nematode larvae. Through the isolation of an abundance of size matched prey larvae and subsequent exposure to predatory nematodes, assays including both "corpse assays" and "bite assays" on correctly identified mouth morph nematodes are possible. These assays provide a means to rapidly quantify predation success rates and provide a detailed behavioral analysis of individual nematodes engaged in predatory feeding activities. In addition, with the use of a high-speed camera, visualization of changes in pharyngeal activity including tooth and pumping dynamics are also possible. PMID:27684744

  12. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity.

  13. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  14. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called "feeding regulatory neuropeptides." There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides. For example, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, and motilin, which are regarded as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, have no effect on feeding behavior in birds. Furthermore, ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone, which are also known as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, suppress feeding behavior in birds. Thus, it is likely that the feeding regulatory mechanism has changed during the evolution of vertebrates. This review summarizes the recent knowledge of peptidergic feeding regulatory factors in birds and discusses the difference in their action between birds and other vertebrates.

  15. Technical note: Validation of a system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and individual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Chizzotti, M L; Machado, F S; Valente, E E L; Pereira, L G R; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G; Ribas, M N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding behavior and feed intake (Intergado Ltd., Contagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil) in freestall-housed dairy cattle. No data have been published that validate either the behavioral measurement or the feed intake of this system. Feeding behavior data were recorded for 12 Holstein cows over 5d using an Intergado system and time-lapse video. The cows were fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder and provided free access to 12 feed bins. The system documented the visit duration and feed intake by recording the animal identification number, bin number, initial and final times, and the difference between feed weight at start and end of each feed bin visit. These data were exported to Intergado web software and reports were generated. Electronic data on animal behavior were compared with video data collected during the same evaluation period. An external scale was used to manually measure and validate the electronic system's ability to monitor dairy cow feed intake for each feed bin visit. The feed intake was manually measured for 4-h time periods and compared with the sum of the feed intake recorded by the monitoring system for each cow visit during the same time period. Video and manual weight data were regressed on the electronic feeding behavior and feeding intake data to evaluate the precision of the monitoring system. The Intergado system presented high values for specificity (99.9%) and sensitivity (99.6%) for cow detection. The visit duration and feed intake per visit collected using the electronic monitoring system were similar to the video and manual weighing data, respectively. The difference between the feed intake measured manually and the sum of the electronically recorded feed intake was less than 250g (25,635±2,428 and 25,391±2,428g estimated using manual weighing and the electronic system, respectively). In conclusion, the Intergado system is

  16. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( < 0.01) less feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( < 0.01), and PEM ( < 0.01) in Exp. 1, but no differences were detected between high- and low-RFI lambs for ADG ( = 0.79), DMD ( = 0.42), BC ( > 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( < 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.02) in low-RFI lambs, whereas G:F ( = 0.02) and PEM ( < 0.01) were improved in high-RFI lambs under the feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at

  17. Relationships between feeding problems, behavioral characteristics and nutritional quality in children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cynthia R; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiqitious in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime behaviors and social, communication, and cognitive levels as well repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, sensory behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, we examined whether feeding habits were predictive of nutritional adequacy. In this sample, we found strong associations between parent reported feeding habits and (1) repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, (2) sensory features, and (3) externalizing and internalizing behavior. There was a lack of association between feeding behaviors and the social and communication deficits of ASD and cognitive levels. Increases in the degree of problematic feeding behaviors predicted decrements in nutritional adequacy.

  18. The Behavioral Determinants of Breast-Feeding in the Netherlands: Predictors for the Initiation of Breast-Feeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kools, Els J.; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral determinants of the initiation of breast-feeding at birth. The prospective cohort study used the attitude, social influence, self-efficacy (ASE) model in 373 pregnant women in five child health care centers. Prenatally, 72% of the women had the intention to breast-feed, and 73% actually started…

  19. Effects of transportation duration on feeding behavior and feed efficiency of freshly-weaned Brahman x hereford calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of long (L; 25.5 h) versus short (S; 5.5 h) duration transport on the feeding behavior and feed efficiency of Brahman x Hereford calves. Calves (8.5±0.4 mo of age) from Overton, TX, were blocked by sex (n=18 steers; n=14 heifers), BW, and temper...

  20. Feeding Behaviors of Transition Dairy Cows Fed Glycerol as a Replacement for Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in nutritive value of a TMR. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and feeding behavior of transition dairy cows. Twenty-six Holstein ...

  1. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.

  2. The influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and body weight of growing geese.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the influence of loose-mix feeding on behavior, feed intake, and BW of growing geese. In total, 252 one-day-old geese (Anser anser) were divided into 2 groups differing in the form of diet they received between 42 and 98 d of age (AMEn 11.55 MJ/kg, CP 16%): a complete pelleted diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (control group) or a mixture containing 500 g of protein-rich pellets and 500 g of sorghum whole seeds/kg (mixed group). Feed intake was measured daily from 42 to 48 d and every 3 d from 49 to 98 d. Individual BW was measured weekly from 42 to 98 d. Goose behavior was monitored by the scan sampling method throughout the experiment, which was divided into 5 periods according to the timing of access to feed: period 1 from 42 to 55 d (ad libitum feeding access), period 2 from 56 to 62 d (2 + 2 h feeding access), period 3 from 63 to 70 d (2 h feeding access), period 4 from 71 to 94 d (1 h feeding access), and period 5 from 95 to 97 d (3 h feeding access). Over the whole period, the feed intake (13,968 and 14,480 g) and the feed conversion ratio (8.53 and 8.15) were similar in both groups (P = 0.112 and P = 0.168; respectively). Body weight was similar in both groups from 42 to 91 d of age, but at 98 d of age, BW was 3.7% lower in the control than in the mixed group (P = 0.006). Goose behavior was influenced by period, because the percentage of birds feeding increased when the daily access time to the feed decreased (P < 0.001), but not by group (P > 0.05). The results suggest that a loose-mix feeding could be recommended in feeding of growing geese because it weakly influences their feed behavior but slightly increases their weight at the end of the growing period.

  3. Improvements in Child Behavior and Family Mealtime Environment After an Intensive Behavioral Feeding Intervention.

    PubMed

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M; Yusupova, Stella

    2016-08-31

    The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings. Results revealed that caregivers perceived all three AYCE family mealtime patterns to improve from preintervention to postintervention, the majority of caregivers rated intervention as being effective for improving the specific child feeding goals identified at preintervention, and caregivers gave high satisfaction ratings for the intervention.

  4. RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF PARENT-PERCEIVED CHILD CHARACTERISTICS TO VARIATION IN CHILD FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Victoria K; Dovey, Terence M; Martin, Clarissa I; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relative impact of co-occurring child characteristics on problematic feeding behavior. The aim of the current study was to assess the relative contributions of parent-perceived child characteristics in multivariable models of child feeding behavior. One hundred sixty-one mothers reported on their child's feeding behavior and a number of key child characteristics. These characteristics were entered into controlled multivariable models of child feeding behavior, using child and parent frequency domains of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; W. Crist et al., 1994) as outcome measures. Child feeding problems were positively associated with food neophobia and external behavioral and social issues, but not with most domains of temperamental difficulty or sensory sensitivity. Feeding problem frequency was associated with externalizing symptoms whereas parental perceptions of problems and coping were associated with social-interaction problems in the child. Population feeding problems appear to be external and interactive problems rather than driven by innate or internalizing factors. The association with externalizing symptoms suggests that feeding problems at this level may fall within a wider profile of challenging behavior; however, the existence of problematic feeding behaviors may constitute a challenge for parents only when the child's social interactions also are seen to be deficient.

  5. Authoritative feeding behaviors to reduce child BMI through online interventions.

    PubMed

    Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration.

  6. Stimulation of blowfly feeding behavior by octopaminergic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Long, Thomas F.; Murdock, Larry L.

    1983-01-01

    Adult blowflies (Phormia regina Meigen) injected with the octopaminergic drug demethylchlordimeform (10 μg per fly) exhibited enhanced proboscis extension responses when their tarsae were touched to water or aqueous sucrose. They drank more water than saline-injected control flies did but the quantity imbibed was within the normal fluid intake capacity. They became grossly hyperphagic when offered 1 M sucrose, doubling (and in some cases even tripling) their initial body weights. Three other drugs enhanced tarsal responsiveness and induced hyperphagia: DL-octopamine, clonidine (which is known to stimulate octopaminergic receptors in insects), and pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Yohimbine, an antagonist of one class of octopaminergic receptor in insects, prevented the hyperphagia induced by all four drugs. Dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and DL-norepinephrine failed to cause hyperphagia. These results suggest that octopaminergic receptors in the nervous system of the blowfly positively modulate feeding and drinking behavior. Images PMID:16593335

  7. Feeding behavior of wild dugongs monitored by a passive acoustical method.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Chika; Ichikawa, Kotaro; Arai, Nobuaki; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Shinke, Tomio; Hara, Takeshi; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about feeding behavior of wild dugongs (Dugong dugon) because direct measurements of feeding events in the water were scarcely feasible. In this study, the authors achieved the first successful feeding sound monitoring in a seagrass area using a full-band underwater recording system (called automatic underwater sound monitoring system for dugong: AUSOMS-D). In total, 175 feeding sounds were identified in 205 h of recording. Feeding sounds were only detected at night, implying diurnal differences in the feeding behavior of the studied dugong population. Differences in periodicity of feeding sounds suggested that two or more individuals were in the acoustically observable area. Furthermore, a feeding position monitored by two AUSOMS-Ds was used to calculate source levels of dugong feeding sounds. Assuming spherical_propagation, source levels were measured between 70.6 and 79.0 dB rms re 1 microPa/square root of Hz.

  8. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  9. Emergence of Culex pipiens from overwintering hibernacula.

    PubMed

    Ciota, Alexander T; Drummond, Cori L; Drobnack, Jason; Ruby, Meghan A; Kramer, Laura D; Ebel, Gregory D

    2011-03-01

    Overwintering populations of Culex pipiens, the principal enzootic vector of West Nile virus in the northeastern USA, were studied over 3 consecutive winters from 2006 to 2008, using mark-recapture techniques to determine when Cx. pipiens females began to disperse from overwintering hibernacula and how their survival influenced early season populations. In February of each year, Cx. pipiens were aspirated and marked using fluorescent powder; 4,067, 752, and 3,070 diapausing Cx. pipiens were marked in each successive year. Mosquitoes were then trapped from mid-April to early May of each year using 19 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and 16 CDC gravid traps. A total of 348, 39, and 111 Culex mosquitoes were captured in the spring of 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. The number of mosquitoes marked in overwintering habitats is generally positively correlated with the number of mosquitoes recaptured in the early spring (linear regression, R2 = 0.79, P = 0.04), yet results also suggest that seasonal variations beyond overwintering population size are likely important in determining the success of emergent populations. A single marked Cx. pipiens was captured in both 2006 and 2008. In 2006, the mosquito was captured 0.5 km from its overwintering site while in 2008 the mosquito was captured 0.3 km from its overwintering site. In all study years, mosquitoes consistently began exiting overwintering hibernacula the 3rd week of April, yet evidence of earlier exodus was observed in 2007, when outside temperatures were significantly higher in preceding days and months.

  10. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  11. Effect of social housing on the development of feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how social housing affects pre- and postweaning feeding behavior and social feeding preferences of dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were housed either individually (IH; 10 calves) or in pairs (PH; 10 calves) from birth. Calves were offered grain concentrate and milk replacer ad libitum via an artificial teat (1 teat provided per calf) and weaned by incrementally diluting the milk replacer from 39 to 49 d of age. Postweaning, IH calves were paired within treatment and all pens (n=5 per treatment) were offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum and followed until 13 wk of age. We recorded feeding times from video for 3 consecutive days in wk 6, 9, and 12 of age and used this to calculate daily meal frequency and meal duration. In wk 9 and 12, frequency and duration of synchronized feeding were also calculated. In addition, preference tests were conducted at time of feed delivery in wk 10 to assess the preference of each calf to feed alongside or out of visual contact of their pen mate. Pair-housed calves consumed more concentrate, in more frequent meals, than IH calves in the week before weaning (wk 6) and continued to have greater concentrate intake during weaning. Milk intake was not affected by treatment, but calves in PH pens consumed their milk in more frequent and smaller meals. Postweaning, intake was similar between treatments, but calves raised in PH pens continued to have meals that were more frequent and shorter in duration. Both treatments had a similar frequency of synchronized meals. However, when offered a choice to feed alone or alongside their pen mate during preference testing, calves raised in PH pens spent more time feeding in the presence of their pen mate than calves raised in IH pens. These results suggest that meal patterns established in response to different early social environments may persist after weaning and that early social contact may have longer-term effects on social feeding behavior.

  12. Feeding and watering behavior of healthy and morbid steers in a commercial feedlot.

    PubMed

    Sowell, B F; Branine, M E; Bowman, J G; Hubbert, M E; Sherwood, H E; Quimby, W

    1999-05-01

    Our objective was to determine whether there were differences in feeding and watering behavior of newly received healthy and morbid feedlot steers. Two separate 32-d feeding trials were conducted in Wellton, Arizona, in July and November 1996. Radio frequency technology was used to record individual animal behaviors from 108 (average weight 139 kg) and 143 (average weight 160 kg) steers in each respective trial. Steers that were subsequently identified as morbid were present at the feed bunk in greater percentages than reported in previous studies. In Trial 1, healthy steers spent more (P < .001) time at the feed bunk and had more (P < .009) feeding bouts than morbid steers. In Trial 2, healthy steers did not spend more time at the feed bunk, but they had more (P < .02) daily feeding bouts than morbid steers. There were no differences in daily time spent at the water trough by healthy or morbid steers in either trial. The greatest proportion of feeding and watering behavior occurred during the daylight hours in response to feed delivery. The pattern of time spent at the feed bunk throughout the 32-d feeding period was similar for healthy and subsequently morbid steers, but healthy steers had more feeding bouts per day.

  13. Neuropeptide Control of Feeding Behavior in Birds and Its Difference with Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an essential behavior for animals to sustain their lives. Over the past several decades, many neuropeptides that regulate feeding behavior have been identified in vertebrates. These neuropeptides are called “feeding regulatory neuropeptides.” There have been numerous studies on the role of feeding regulatory neuropeptides in vertebrates including birds. Some feeding regulatory neuropeptides show different effects on feeding behavior between birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. The difference is marked with orexigenic neuropeptides. For example, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexin, and motilin, which are regarded as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, have no effect on feeding behavior in birds. Furthermore, ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing hormone, which are also known as orexigenic neuropeptides in mammals, suppress feeding behavior in birds. Thus, it is likely that the feeding regulatory mechanism has changed during the evolution of vertebrates. This review summarizes the recent knowledge of peptidergic feeding regulatory factors in birds and discusses the difference in their action between birds and other vertebrates. PMID:27853416

  14. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus) at a Bait Station

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Bryan; Lowry, Dayv; Larson, Shawn; Griffing, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species’ worldwide distribution and evolutionary success. PMID:27243237

  15. Influence of maternal feeding goals and practices on children's eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Debra A; Marx, Jenna M; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-12-01

    Parents are highly influential in shaping their children's dietary habits. This study examined whether negative feeding practices mediated the relationship between feeding goals (health and convenience) and children's eating behaviors. One hundred ninety-two mothers (mean age = 34.2; mean BMI = 27.0) of 7-11 year old children participated via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results showed that negative feeding practices fully mediated the relationship between convenience feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.08/.09, n.s.; goals to feeding practices: β = 0.27, p < 0.01; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.57/.48, p < 0.05). On the other hand, negative feeding practices did not fully mediate the relationship between health feeding goals and children's eating behaviors (goals to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = 0.66/-0.29, p < 0.01; goals to feeding practices: β = -0.28, p < 0.001; feeding practices to healthy/unhealthy eating behaviors: β = -0.26/.44, p < 0.05). In other words, children whose mothers emphasized health goals consumed more healthy food and less unhealthy food, above and beyond the use of negative feeding practices. Because parents are on the front lines of shaping children's eating habits, understanding the best point of intervention for parents (e.g., shaping parents' goals, changing parents' feeding practices) might be especially fruitful, considering that childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis and energy intake is one of the key factors contributing to this problem.

  16. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Chris J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Salathé Jr, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperature, precipitation, wind, and longwave radiation estimates at the mouths of three Puget Sound tributaries (the Skagit, Hamma Hamma, and Nisqually rivers) in two decades, the 1970s and the 2050s. Climate data were used to drive bald eagle bioenergetics models from December to February for each river, year, and decade. Bald eagle bioenergetics were insensitive to climate change: despite warmer winters in the 2050s, particularly near the Nisqually River, bald eagle food requirements declined only slightly (<1%). However, the warming climate caused salmon carcasses to decompose more rapidly, resulting in 11% to 14% less annual carcass biomass available to eagles in the 2050s. That estimate is likely conservative, as it does not account for decreased availability of carcasses due to anticipated increases in winter stream flow. Future climate-driven declines in winter food availability, coupled with a growing bald eagle population, may force eagles to seek alternate prey in the Puget Sound area or in more remote ecosystems. PMID:22822430

  17. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Chris J; Moriarty, Pamela E; Salathé, Eric P

    2012-03-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are recovering from severe population declines, and are exerting pressure on food resources in some areas. Thousands of bald eagles overwinter near Puget Sound, primarily to feed on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. We used modeling techniques to examine how anticipated climate changes will affect energetic demands of overwintering bald eagles. We applied a regional downscaling method to two global climate change models to obtain hourly temperature, precipitation, wind, and longwave radiation estimates at the mouths of three Puget Sound tributaries (the Skagit, Hamma Hamma, and Nisqually rivers) in two decades, the 1970s and the 2050s. Climate data were used to drive bald eagle bioenergetics models from December to February for each river, year, and decade. Bald eagle bioenergetics were insensitive to climate change: despite warmer winters in the 2050s, particularly near the Nisqually River, bald eagle food requirements declined only slightly (<1%). However, the warming climate caused salmon carcasses to decompose more rapidly, resulting in 11% to 14% less annual carcass biomass available to eagles in the 2050s. That estimate is likely conservative, as it does not account for decreased availability of carcasses due to anticipated increases in winter stream flow. Future climate-driven declines in winter food availability, coupled with a growing bald eagle population, may force eagles to seek alternate prey in the Puget Sound area or in more remote ecosystems.

  18. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  19. Rapid and persistent suppression of feeding behavior induced by sensitization training in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-03-14

    In Aplysia, noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of multiple training protocols revealed that the time course of the suppression of feeding was analogous to that of sensitization. In addition, the suppression of feeding was present only at the time points in which sensitization was expressed. These results suggest that, in Aplysia, noxious stimuli may produce concurrent changes in neural circuits controlling both defensive and nondefensive behaviors.

  20. Sampling behavior of dairy cattle: effects of variation in dietary energy density on behavior at the feed bunk.

    PubMed

    Huzzey, J M; Fregonesi, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting sampling behavior of cattle are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to measure the effects of variation in feed quality on the feeding behavior of Holstein dairy heifers. Thirty-two heifers were housed in 4 groups of 8. Each group pen had 8 distinct feeding stations. The total mixed ration (TMR) provided was low energy (TMR-L), moderate energy (TMR-M), or high energy (TMR-H). During trial 1 (d 1 to 8), heifers were offered a uniform baseline diet (TMR-M in all 8 feeding stations) interspaced with 2 uniform test diets on d 3 and 6 (TMR-L or TMR-H in all 8 feeding stations). During trial 2 (d 9 to 17) heifers were offered a nonuniform baseline diet (7 feeding stations with TMR-L and 1 feeding station with TMR-H) interspaced with 3 uniform test diets on d 11, 14, and 17 (TMR-L, TMR-M, or TMR-H in all 8 feeding stations). Heifers were observed in pairs (n=16) for 15 min following delivery of fresh feed. Relative to the uniform baseline period of trial 1, 31% fewer switches occurred between feeding stations when offered TMR-H and 51% more switches when offered TMR-L. Relative to the nonuniform baseline of trial 2, 49% fewer, 27% fewer, and 25% more switches occurred during the TMR-H, TMR-M, and TMR-L treatments, respectively. In general, when heifers were offered a diet that was lower in energy density than that previously experienced, they spent less time at each feeding station and when offered a higher energy diet, heifers spent more time at each feeding station. The greater the contrast in energy density between the test and baseline diets, the greater the change in the behavioral response. Competitive interactions at the feed bunk were most frequent when TMR quality varied among the 8 feeding stations; during the nonuniform baseline period of trial 2, the number of competitive interactions was over 3.5 times higher than during all uniform dietary treatments. In summary, dairy heifers sample feed quality by changing feeding

  1. Horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., overwintering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Putative diapause in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), has frequently been assumed as the pest's mode for overwinter survival from the tropics to temperate regions of northern and southern hemispheres. Examination of the scientific literature indicates that putative horn fly diapause ...

  2. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †

    PubMed Central

    Mitloehner, Frank M.; Dailey, Jeff W.; Morrow, Julie L.; McGlone, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Fine particulate matter (with less than 2.5 microns diameter; aka PM2.5) are a human and animal health concern because they can carry microbes and chemicals into the lungs. Particulate matter (PM) in general emitted from cattle feedlots can reach high concentrations. When feedlot cattle were given an altered feeding schedule (ALT) that more closely reflected their biological feeding times compared with conventional morning feeding (CON), PM2.5 generation at peak times was substantially lowered. Average daily generation of PM2.5 was decreased by 37% when cattle behavior was redirected away from PM-generating behaviors and toward evening feeding behaviors. Behavioral problems such as agonistic (i.e., aggressive) and bulling (i.e., mounting each other) behaviors also were reduced several fold among ALT compared with CON cattle. Intake of feed was less and daily body weight gain tended to be less with the altered feeding schedule while efficiency of feed utilization was not affected. Although ALT may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle had fewer behavioral problems and reduced PM2.5 generation when feed delivery times matched with the natural drive to eat in a crepuscular pattern. Abstract Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion

  3. EVALUATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR AS AN INDICATOR OF PAIN IN SNAKES.

    PubMed

    James, Lauren E; Williams, Catherine J A; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wang, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    The necessity to prevent and manage pain in reptiles is becoming increasingly important, as their use in scientific research and popularity as exotic pets continues to rise. It was hypothesized that feeding behavior would provide an adequate indicator of pain perception in the ball python (Python regius). Normal feeding was defined the previous week, where a dead rodent was struck within 12 sec (n = 10). Eighteen pythons were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: anesthesia only (AO), chemical noxious stimulus (CS; capsaicin injection), or surgical noxious stimulus (SS; surgical incision). The time to strike was recorded 4 hr after the procedure and weekly during the subsequent 3 wk. Delayed feeding was observed in animals in the CS and SS groups, and normal feeding resumed after 1 and 3 wk, respectively. Spontaneous feeding remained uninterrupted for the AO group. These findings demonstrate feeding behavior as a potential model to assess pain in snakes.

  4. Nutritional and behavioral effects of gorge and fast feeding in captive lions.

    PubMed

    Altman, Joanne D; Gross, Kathy L; Lowry, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Nonhuman animals in captivity manifest behaviors and physiological conditions that are not common in the wild. Lions in captivity face problems of obesity, inactivity, and stereotypy. To mediate common problems of captive lions, this study implemented a gorge and fast feeding schedule that better models naturalistic patterns: African lions (Panthera leo) gradually adapted from a conventional feeding program to a random gorge and fast feeding schedule. Digestibility increased significantly and food intake and metabolizable energy intake correspondingly decreased. Lions also showed an increase in appetitive active behaviors, no increase in agonistic behavior, and paced half as frequently on fast days as on feeding days. Thus, switching captive lions to a gorge and fast feeding schedule resulted in improved nutritional status and increased activity.

  5. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity.

  6. Overwintering biology and limits of cold tolerance in larvae of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    PubMed

    Mollaei, M; Izadi, H; Šimek, P; Koštál, V

    2016-08-01

    Pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella is an important pest of pistachio trees. It has an univoltine life-cycle and its larvae tunnel and feed inside pistachio twigs for almost 10 months each year. The last larval instars overwinter inside the twigs. Survival/mortality associated with low temperatures during overwintering stage is currently unknown. We found that overwintering larvae of the Rafsanjan (Iran) population of K. pistaciella rely on maintaining a stably high supercooling capacity throughout the cold season. Their supercooling points (SCPs) ranged between -19.4 and -22.7°C from October to February. Larvae were able to survive 24 h exposures to -15°C anytime during the cold season. During December and January, larvae were undergoing quiescence type of dormancy caused probably by low ambient temperatures and/or changes in host tree physiology (tree dormancy). Larvae attain highest cold tolerance (high survival at -20°C) during dormancy, which offers them sufficient protection against geographically and ecologically relevant cold spells. High cold tolerance during dormancy was not associated with accumulation of any low-molecular mass cryoprotective substances. The SCP sets the limit of cold tolerance in pistachio twig borer, meaning that high mortality of overwintering populations can be expected only in the regions or years where or when the temperatures fall below the average larval SCP (i.e., below -20°C). Partial mortality can be expected also when temperatures repeatedly drop close to the SCP on a diurnal basis.

  7. Inverse vertical migration and feeding in glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale).

    PubMed

    Dypvik, Eivind; Klevjer, Thor A; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2012-01-01

    A bottom-mounted upward-facing 38-kHz echo sounder was deployed at ~400 m and cabled to shore in Masfjorden (~60(°)52'N, ~5(°)24'E), Norway. The scattering layers seen during autumn (September-October) 2008 were identified by trawling. Glacier lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale) were mainly distributed below ~200 m and displayed three different diel behavioral strategies: normal diel vertical migration (NDVM), inverse DVM (IDVM) and no DVM (NoDVM). The IDVM group was the focus of this study. It consisted of 2-year and older individuals migrating to ~200-270 m during the daytime, while descending back to deeper than ~270 m during the night. Stomach content analysis revealed increased feeding during the daytime on overwintering Calanus sp. We conclude that visually searching glacier lanternfish performing IDVM benefit from the faint daytime light in mid-waters when preying on overwintering Calanus sp.

  8. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Amy T; Farrow, Claire V; Martz, Denise M

    2010-07-01

    Research concerning child feeding practices has focused on children and adolescents, and little is known about how feeding practices used in childhood relate to eating behaviors and weight status in early adulthood. We assessed college students' and their parents' retrospective reports of child feeding practices used when the students were in middle childhood. We also assessed the college students' current reports of their eating behaviors using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), and measured their current BMI. Results showed that college students' and their parents' reports about previous parental use of child feeding practices were not correlated. Parent reports of their own use of child feeding practices were more related to students' eating behaviors and BMI than were students' recollections about feeding practices used by their parents. An analysis of gender effects showed that there were positive correlations between parental child feeding practices, BMI, and emotional eating for female students. These relationships did not exist for male students. The results suggest that child feeding practices recollected by parents are linked to the development of emotional eating and weight status of women in early adulthood.

  9. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of Culicoides sonorensis affects subsequent blood feeding behavior, midges injected with either virus-infected or virus-free cell lysates were allowed to blood feed for short (10 min) or long (60 min) periods of time on days 2, 3, and 4...

  10. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior and fecundity. Blood feeding succes...

  11. Assessment of Feeding and Mealtime Behavior Problems in Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, David E.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2004-01-01

    Feeding and mealtime behavior problems are commonly observed among individuals with developmental disabilities. These problems include, but are not limited to, food refusal, food selectivity, mealtime aggression, rumination, pica, and insufficient feeding skills. Difficulties of this type can be associated with life-threatening consequences of…

  12. Genome wide association of changes in feeding behavior due to heat stress in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat stress negatively impacts pork production. Grow-finish production losses include decreased growth, reduced feed intake, and mortality. Pigs change their feeding behavior to decrease heat production when temperatures are elevated. Identification of pigs that are more tolerant of warmer temperatu...

  13. Rapid and Persistent Suppression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Sensitization Training in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…

  14. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior and its predictors in southwest rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Lachat, Carl; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Background Inappropriate child feeding and caring practices are a major cause of malnutrition. To date, no studies have examined concordance and discordance of child feeding and preventive behavior and their predictors in developing countries. Methods We used baseline data generated from A 2-year-longitudinal agriculture-nutrition panel survey conducted from February 9 to April 9, 2014, in nine districts encompassing 20 randomly selected counties in Oromiya Region and Southern Nation, Nationality and Peoples Region in Ethiopia. Households were recruited using the Expanded Program on Immunization sampling method. A total of 623 children under the age of 5 years and their respective caregivers were included in the analyses. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustered observations. Results Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was observed in 45.1% of the children, while 45.5% of the children were suffering from discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Concordance and discordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior had almost different predictors. Concordance of poor child feeding and preventive behavior was significantly associated with the age of the caretaker of ≥40 years (odds ratio (OR)=2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.41), low household dietary diversity (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.04), medium household dietary diversity (OR=2.17; 95% CI: 1.17, 4.00), severe household food insecurity (OR=1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.93), and increase with increasing child age. Conclusion A substantial number of children in the southwest of rural Ethiopia are exposed to both poor child feeding and preventive behavior. Low household dietary diversity and extreme food insecurity household were predictors of concordance of poor child feeding and poor preventive behavior and provide useful entry points for comprehensive interventions to address child feeding and caring in the area. PMID:27511625

  15. Chemical Cues which Include Amino Acids Mediate Species-Specific Feeding Behavior in Invasive Filter-Feeding Bigheaded Carps.

    PubMed

    Claus, Aaron W; Sorensen, Peter W

    2017-03-15

    This study tested whether and how dissolved chemicals might assist food recognition in two filter-feeding fishes, the silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and the bighead carp (H. nobilis). These species evolved in Asia, are now invasive in the Mississippi River, and feed voraciously on microparticles including plankton. The food habits and biology of these carps are broadly similar to many filter-feeding fish, none of whose chemical ecology has been examined. We conducted five experiments. First, we demonstrated that buccal-pharngeal pumping (BPP), a behavior in which fish pump water into their buccal cavities, is responsible for sampling food: BPP activity in both silver and bighead carps was low and increased nearly 25-fold after exposure to a filtrate of a planktonic food mixture (P < 0.01) and over 35-fold when planktonic food was added (P < 0.001). Next, we showed that of nine food filtrates, the one containing chemicals released by spirulina, a type of cyanobacterium, was the most potent planktonic component for both species. The potency of filtrates varied between species in ways that reflected their different chemical compositions. While L-amino acids could explain about half of the activity of food filtrate, other unknown chemical stimuli were also implicated. Finally, occlusion experiments showed the olfactory sense has a very important, but not exclusive, role in bigheaded carp feeding behaviors and this might be exploited in both their control and culture.

  16. Feeding and eating behaviors in children with autism and typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L; Robson, Danielle C

    2008-11-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that children with autism were only marginally more likely to exhibit picky eating behavior (overall style) than their siblings or matched typically developing children. Rates of ritualistic feeding behaviors were equivalent in all groups of children although children with autism were more likely to be currently exhibiting problematic eating and feeding behaviors. The implications of these results for the treatment of feeding difficulties exhibited by children with autism will be discussed.

  17. Influence of feed type and its effect on repressing wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sheep sometimes develop an abnormal behavior termed as wool-biting when kept in an indoor system; however, little is known about this behavior. As the provided feed type may affect the foraging behavior and repress abnormal behavior in animals, we tested the effect of feed type on repressing wool-biting behavior in this study. We used hay prepared in three forms, that is hay bales, rolls and cubes. The wool-biting frequency associated with hay bales was significantly higher than that associated with rolls (P < 0.05) and cubes (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between rolls and cubes. For hay rolls, wool-biting significantly decreased after feeding (P < 0.05), suggesting that rolls may provide sheep with appropriate oral stimulation; thus, decreasing the post-feeding oral abnormal behavior. An individual difference of wool-biting behavior between sheep was also detected, and an unexpected bed-eating behavior was found in the hay cube treatment. We suggest that sheep performing movements that are similar to their natural foraging behavior while grazing would repress wool-biting behavior, which happened in hay roll and hay cube treatments. Considering sanitation and animal welfare, providing sheep with hay rolls may provide an easier method to control wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

  18. Feeding behaviors of transition dairy cows fed glycerol as a replacement for corn.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, E R; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; White, H M; Wilcox, C S; Eicher, S D; Donkin, S S

    2012-12-01

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in the nutritive value of a total mixed ration (TMR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high-moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and the feed intake pattern of transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=26) were paired by expected calving date, housed in individual tie stalls, and fed diets containing either glycerol or high-moisture corn once daily from d -28 to +56 relative to calving. Glycerol was included at 11.5 and 10.8% of the ration dry matter for the pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. The feed consumption pattern was determined by measuring TMR disappearance during the intervals from 0 to 4 h, 4 to 8 h, 8 to 12 h, and 12 to 24 h relative to feed delivery. Feed sorting was determined on d -16, -9, 9, 16, and 51 relative to calving at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after feeding. The TMR particle size profile was determined at feed delivery and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 after feed delivery by using the Penn State Particle Separator (Nasco, Fort Atkinson, WI) to yield long (>19 mm), medium (<19 mm, >8 mm), short (<8 mm, >1.18 mm), and fine (<1.18 mm) particles. Overall feed intake did not differ between diets and was 14.7±0.4 and 20.2±0.5 kg/d for the pre- and postpartum intervals, respectively. During the prepartum period, glycerol decreased the amount of feed consumed during the first 4h after feed delivery (7.22 vs. 5.59±0.35 kg; control vs. glycerol, respectively) but increased feed consumed from 12 through 24 h after feed delivery (2.22 vs. 3.82±0.35 kg; control vs. glycerol, respectively). Similar effects on the feed consumption pattern were observed after calving. During the prepartum period, cows fed the control diet sorted against long particles, whereas cows fed glycerol did not sort against long particles (77.2 vs. 101.5±3.50% of expected intake for control vs. glycerol; significant treatment effect). The data indicate

  19. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems.

  20. Factors affecting feeding behavior and survival of juvenile lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Henry, Mary G.; Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    We explored the importance of experience with feeding on live prey, of cataracts, of strain, and of maternally transferred contaminants for the feeding rate and predator avoidance behavior of young lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Hatchery-reared and feral juvenile lake trout were tested separately as predators on lake trout fry in tanks with artificial cobble reefs. Feral fish captured more prey per day and more prey per strike than did hatchery lake trout. The predatory performance of hatchery and feral fish did not improve significantly with experience. Feeding rates did not differ between lake trout with unilateral cataracts and normal-eyed fish, but significantly diminished for lake trout with bilateral cataracts. Neither strain nor contaminant background affected the ability of fry to feed or to avoid predators. Of the factors studied, previous experience with live food under natural conditions (i.e., the experience of feral fish) was the most important factor affecting feeding behavior of young lake trout.

  1. A preliminary study of the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment on African elephants.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, T.S.; Daniel, E.; Maple, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Although commonly practiced with many species, feeding enrichment in elephants is understudied. The behavioral effects of feeding enrichment were tested in three African elephants by substituting an equal dry weight of browse for hay in an ABA design. The results showed a significant increase in feeding and significant decreases in drinking and inactivity when the browse was present. Additionally, changes in feeding, inactivity, and time spent in contact were observed outside the time the browse was actually presented, although the relationship of these changes to the experimental methodology is unknown. A significant increase in visibility to zoo visitors during the browse conditions demonstrates that browse is an effective, naturalistic method for increasing visibility as well as species-typical behaviors. Managers of captive elephants should consult with a nutritionist to address issues of energetics, nutritional content, and secondary compounds when using browse as feeding enrichment. Zoo Biol 19:485-493, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget E.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on complementary feeding (CF) in westernized settings where primary health concerns are risk of obesity and micronutrient inadequacy. The current evidence is reviewed for: (1) when CF should be introduced, (2) what foods (nutrients and food types) should be prioritized and avoided, and (3) how the infant should be fed. Special attention is paid to the underlying physiological differences between breast- and formula-fed infants that often result in distinctly different nutritional and health risks. This difference is particularly acute in the case of micronutrient inadequacy, specifically iron and zinc, but is also relevant to optimal energy and macronutrient intakes. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay among infants’ early dietary exposures; relatively high energy and nutrient requirements; rapid physical, social and emotional development; and the feeding environment—all of which interact to impact health outcomes. This complexity needs to be considered at both individual and population levels and in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25105082

  3. The effect of days on feed and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation on feeding behavior and live growth performance of Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Walter, L-A J; McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2016-05-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effect of days on feed (d 225-533) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on Holstein steer ( = 110) performance and feeding behavior as part of a serial slaughter trial. Steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 11 harvest groups with 10 steers ( = 5 control and = 5 ZH; ZH at 8.33 mg/kg diet) harvested each 28 d. Steers were weighed every 28 d (d 225, 253, 281, 309, 337, 365, 393, 421, 449, 477, 505, and 533); individual daily meal consumption data for each steer were recorded using GrowSafe technology. In the pretreatment period, dry matter intake expressed a negative quadratic relationship with days on feed (DOF) {DMI = -5.7120 + (0.08370 x DOF)- (0.00011 x DOF); Adj. = 0.2574; RMSE = 0.25 75; 0.01}. A linear increase in BW ( < 0.01) occurred during the pretreatment 308 d period from 466 to 844 kg, {BWend = 137.61 + (1.4740 x DOF); Adj. = 0.8819; RMSE = 37.06; < 0.01}, whereas ADG and G:F decreased linearly. Dry matter intake per meal exhibited a quadratic relationship over days on feed and peaked ( < 0.01) during d 365 to 392 at 1.065 kg coinciding with the highest numerical daily DMI (11.19 kg). Daily consumption visit duration differed ( < 0.01) during the 308 d period, with a low of 52.29 min (d 337-364) and a high of 55.59 min (d 365-392). Consumption rate peaked at 714 g/min (d 337-364) and exhibited a quadratic relationship to DOF. The difference ( < 0.04) in DMI between control and ZH treated cattle across all 11 harvest groups averaged 0.575 kg. Moreover, ZH treatment resulted in decreased ( 0.01) DMI per meal event of 0.093 kg. Gain to feed tended to improve ( = 0.06) with ZH treatment by 0.017 kg gain per kg feed relative to the control cattle. Daily bunk, consumption, and meal visit durations were influenced by ZH during the 20 d treatment period ( = 0.01); the average difference between control and ZH supplemented cattle over the 308 d trial was 9.09, 8.71, and 11.39 min per d, respectively. The data

  4. The effect of milk-feeding method and hay provision on the development of feeding behavior and non-nutritive oral behavior of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Horvath, K C; Miller-Cushon, E K

    2017-02-22

    We investigated the interactive effects of common feeding management factors on the development of feeding and non-nutritive oral behaviors in preweaned calves through the weaning transition. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments that differed by milk-feeding method (teat or bucket) and ad libitum access to chopped timothy hay: control, milk provided by bucket and no access to hay (CON; n = 10); milk provided by bucket and access to hay (H; n = 10); milk provided via a teat and access to hay (TH; n = 10). Calves had ad libitum access to concentrate and water, and were fed 6 L/d of pasteurized waste milk, divided into 2 meals. All calves were weaned by removing the second milk meal for 9 ± 2 d, beginning at 36 d of age. Daily concentrate and hay intake were recorded, and calves were weighed weekly to measure growth. We recorded the behavior of all calves using 2 s time-lapse video during time periods that encompassed milk meals, from 6000 h to 1000 h and 1600 h to 2000 h, on 2 consecutive focal days in wk 2 and 4. We continuously monitored lying time and activity using electronic data loggers. During the preweaning period, hay selection by H and TH calves was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with TH calves increasing hay intake to a greater extent over time. Similarly, we observed a tendency for a treatment × week interaction for hay dry matter intake. Before weaning, concentrate intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, increasing to a greater extent over time for H and TH calves, but was greater overall for CON calves. As predicted, milk-feeding method and hay provision influenced the proportion of time devoted to feeding and non-nutritive behaviors. The CON calves spent the greatest amount of time performing non-nutritive sucking directed at the pen, TH calves the least, and H calves intermediate amounts. Considering the time TH calves sucked on their teat when milk was not present in addition to the time they spent sucking

  5. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    PubMed

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  6. Stress-induced effects on feeding behavior and growth performance of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax): a self-feeding approach.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Fernández-Durán, Begoña; Guillot, Raul; Ríos, Diana; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Repetitive aquaculture-related protocols may act as cyclic stressors that induce chronic stress in cultured fish. The sea bass is particularly sensitive to stressful conditions and the mere presence of humans will disturb feeding behavior. In this paper, we study whether chronic stress induced by repetition of acute stress protocols affects long-term feeding behavior and growth performance in sea bass and whether exogenous cortisol may induce stress-like changes in these parameters. We demonstrate that both chronic stress and dietary cortisol decrease food intake and have a negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, severely impairing sea bass performance. Both experimental approaches induced changes in the daily feeding activity by lengthening the active feeding periods. Fish subjected to a cyclic stressor modify their daily feeding pattern in an attempt to avoid interference with the time of the stressor. The delay in feeding when fish are acutely and repeatedly stressed could be of substantial adaptive importance.

  7. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior is an important component of growth and feed efficiency in swine. Acyl-ghrelin is a peptide produced in the stomach that is orexigenic. The role of ghrelin in regulating feeding behavior in swine under commercial conditions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine ...

  8. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, Frank M; Dailey, Jeff W; Morrow, Julie L; McGlone, John J

    2017-03-01

    Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion). PM2.5 samplers measured respirable particles with a mass median diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) every 15 min over a period of 7 d in April and May. Simultaneously, the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, air pressure, and solar radiation were measured with a weather station. Elevated downwind PM2.5 concentrations were measured at dusk, when cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedule, demonstrated less PM2.5-generating behaviors (p < 0.05). At dusk, steers on ALT vs. CON feeding schedules ate or were waiting to eat (standing in second row behind feeding cattle) at much greater rates (p < 0.05). Upwind PM2.5 concentrations were similar between the treatments. Downwind PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 24 h were lower from ALT compared with CON pens (0.072 vs. 0.115 mg/m³, p < 0.01). However, dry matter intake (DMI) was less (p < 0.05), and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be less (p < 0.1) in cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedules, whereas feed efficiency (aka gain to feed, G:F) was not affected. Although ALT feeding may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle exhibited fewer PM2.5-generating behaviors and

  9. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  10. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) with RFI. The low- and high-RFI groups had similar (P > 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P < 0.05) than high-RFI cows. Low-RFI cows had greater pH and lower ammonia concentrations in ruminal fluid compared to their high-RFI contemporaries. Low-RFI cows had fewer (P < 0.001) daily feeding events, but these were of longer (P < 0.001) duration (min·feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P < 0.001; min/d) for low- compared to high-RFI cows. High

  11. Seasonal shifts in giant panda feeding behavior: relationships to bamboo plant part consumption.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rachel L; Carr, Meghan M; Apanavicius, Carolyn J; Jiang, Pingping; Bissell, Heidi A; Gocinski, Barbara L; Maury, Frances; Himmelreich, Marian; Beard, Sara; Ouellette, John R; Kouba, Andy J

    2010-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is classified as a carnivore, yet subsists on a diet comprised almost exclusively of bamboo. Wild and captive giant pandas use highly selective foraging behaviors for processing and consuming bamboo. These behaviors are for the first time quantified in captive giant pandas over a 5-year period of time showing highly specific seasonal trends. Giant panda feeding behavior was recorded using live video observations of two giant pandas housed at the Memphis Zoo from November 2003 to June 2008. Leaf was the primary plant part consumed from June to December, whereas culm was consumed primarily from February to May, with both bears displaying similar seasonal shifts in plant part consumption. From May to June, leaf consumption increased significantly (P-values<0.001); from June to August, leaf consumption remained high and stable. From December to March, leaf consumption decreased significantly (P-values<0.001). Specific behaviors for bamboo leaf and culm consumption were also observed. Both bears formed wads of leaves before ingestion while feeding on leaf, but the male employed this feeding behavior more often than the female (54 and 33%, respectively). Both bears used similar culm-stripping behavior (26 and 25%), used to remove the outer layer and isolate the pith for consumption. This study indicates that unique seasonal foraging behaviors observed in wild pandas are also apparent in captive animals in relation to plant part selectivity and feeding behaviors.

  12. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  13. Feeding behavior and aggression in wild Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu) living under low predation risk.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christin; Gras, Pierre; Hodges, Keith; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Investigating which factors influence feeding competition is crucial for our understanding of the diversity of social relationships. Socio-ecological models differ in their predictions whether predation risk directly influences feeding competition and which factors exactly predict contest competition. We investigated feeding competition in Siberut macaques (Macaca siberu), a species endemic to Siberut Island (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Siberut macaques experience low predation risk, as major predators (felids, raptors) are absent. They are therefore appropriate subjects to test the prediction that low predation risk reduces feeding competition. To estimate contest potential, we quantified size, spatial distribution and density of food plants, and the availability of alternative resources. We recorded behavior in food patches using a modified focal tree method. Food patches, sorted by decreasing average feeding group size, included large trees (40% of focal plant observations), lianas/strangler (16%), medium trees (9%), small (palm) trees (20%), and rattan (15%). Most food patches were clumped but occurred at low densities relative to the area of average group spread. Thus, availability of alternative food patches was low. Although food patch characteristics indicate high contest potential, the observed aggression rate (0.13 bouts between adults/h) was low relative to other primates. Average feeding group size was small relative to total group size, and feeding group size matched crown volume. Perceived predation risk was low, based on spatial and feeding behavior of juveniles. Together, these results suggest that predation risk may influence feeding competition. Social and temporal factors (patch feeding time), but not ecological factors (fruit abundance in patch and forest, alternative resources) predicted aggression frequency in food patches. Overall, comparative data are still relatively scarce, and researchers should collect more data on group spread, sub

  14. Modulation of appetite and feeding behavior of the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti by the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine: shifts between distinct feeding modes and the influence of feeding status.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Michael P; Panting, Nicholas D; Clark, Thomas M

    2014-03-15

    The effects of the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (2×10(-5) mol l(-1)) on behavior of the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti are described. Four discrete behavioral states dominate larval behavior: wriggling, two distinct types of feeding, and quiescence. Feeding behaviors consist of foraging along the bottom of the container (substrate browsing), and stationary filter feeding while suspended from the surface film. Fed larvae respond to paroxetine with increased wriggling, and reductions in both feeding behaviors. In contrast, food-deprived larvae treated with paroxetine show no change in the proportion of time spent wriggling or feeding, but shift from stationary filter feeding to substrate browsing. Thus, actions of paroxetine in fed larvae are consistent with suppression of appetite and stimulation of wriggling, whereas paroxetine causes food-deprived larvae to switch from one feeding behavior to another. Further analysis of unfed larvae revealed that paroxetine decreased the power stroke frequency during wriggling locomotion, but had no effect on the swimming velocity during either wriggling or substrate browsing. These data suggest that: (1) serotonergic pathways may trigger shifts between distinct behaviors by actions on higher level (brain) integrating centers where behaviors such as feeding and locomotion are coordinated; (2) these centers in fed and food-deprived larvae respond differently to serotonergic stimulation suggesting sensory feedback from feeding status; and (3) serotonergic pathways also modulate central pattern generators of the nerve cord where the bursts of action potentials originate that drive the rhythmic muscle contractions of wriggling.

  15. Artificial feeding synchronizes behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and neural parameters in mother-deprived neonatal rabbit pups

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Elvira; Juárez, Claudia; Melo, Angel I.; Domínguez, Belisario; Lehman, Michael N.; Escobar, Carolina; Meza, Enrique; Caba, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Nursing in the rabbit is under circadian control, and pups have a daily anticipatory behavioral arousal synchronized to this unique event, but it is not known which signal is the main entraining cue. In the present study we hypothesized that food is the main entraining signal. Using mother-deprived pups we tested the effects of artificial feeding on the synchronization of locomotor behavior, plasma glucose, corticosterone, FOS and PER1 protein rhythms in suprachiasmatic, supraoptic, paraventricular and tuberomammillary nuclei. At postnatal day 1 an intragastric tube was placed by gastrostomy. The next day and for the rest of the experiment pups were fed with a milk formula through the cannula at either 02:00 or 10:00 h (feeding time = zeitgeber time (ZT) 0). At postnatal days 5–7 pups exhibited behavioral arousal with a significant increase in locomotor behavior 60 min before feeding. Glucose levels increased after feeding, peaking at ZT4–ZT12 and then declining. Corticosterone was highest around the time of feeding then decreased to trough concentrations at ZT12–ZT16, increasing again in anticipation of next feeding bout. In the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus had a rhythm of FOS and PER1 that was not significantly affected by the feeding schedule. Conversely, the supraoptic, paraventricular and tuberomammillary nuclei had rhythms of both FOS and PER1 induced by the time of scheduled feeding. We conclude that the nursing rabbit pup is a natural model of food entrainment, since food, in this case milk formula, is a strong synchronizing signal for behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and neural parameters. PMID:22098455

  16. Effects of wet corn gluten feed and roughage levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Vasconcelos, J T; Swingle, R S; Defoor, P J; Nunnery, G A; Salyer, G B; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and dietary roughage on performance, carcass characteristics, and feeding behavior of feedlot cattle fed diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). In Exp. 1, crossbred steers (n = 200; BW = 314 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based diet containing 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing 40% WCGF, with either 9, 4.5, or 0% roughage. A linear (P = 0.04) increase in final BW and DMI (P < 0.01) was observed in diets containing WCGF as dietary roughage increased. Steers fed WCGF and higher levels of roughage had greater (P = 0.01) ADG than steers fed lower levels of roughage. Steers fed the CON diet had lower (P = 0.04) daily DMI and greater (P = 0.03) G:F than those fed WCGF. Most carcass characteristics of steers fed CON did not differ (P > 0.10) from those of steers fed WCGF. Based on feed disappearance and visual scan data, consumption rate did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments; however, feeding intensity (animals present at the bunk after feeding) was greater for steers fed CON (P < 0.01) than for steers fed WCGF. In Exp. 2, yearling crossbred steers (n = 1,983; BW = 339 kg) were fed 4 dietary treatments (DM basis): a standard SFC-based control diet that contained 9% roughage (CON) and 3 SFC-based diets containing either 20% WCGF and 9% roughage or 40% WCGF with 9 or 4.5% roughage. Steers fed the CON diet tended to have lower final BW (P = 0.14), ADG (P = 0.01), and DMI (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets containing WCGF. Steers fed the 20% WCGF diet had greater (P = 0.08) G:F than steers fed the 40% WCGF diets. With 40% WCGF, increasing roughage from 4.5 to 9% decreased (P < 0.01) G:F and increased (P = 0.06) DMI. Gain efficiency was improved (P < 0.01) for steers fed CON vs. those fed diets containing WCGF, whereas HCW (P = 0.02) and dressing percentage (P < 0.01) were greater for steers fed WCGF. Percentage of

  17. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder.

  18. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder. PMID:27051550

  19. Effects of climate change on overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; Li, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Climate change significantly affects insects' behaviors. Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most serious insect pests in the world. Much is known about the survival of the overwintering population and spring emergence of H. armigera. However, little is known about the effects of climate change on overwintering and spring emergence of H. armigera. This study investigated the effects of changes of air and soil temperatures and precipitation on overwintering pupae of H. armigera by analyzing historical data from Magaiti County in northwest China using statistical methods. The results showed that during the period of 1989-2006, the climate warming advanced the first-appearance date of overwintering pupae eclosion (FD) and end date of overwintering pupae eclosion (ED) by 1.276 and 0.193 days per year, respectively; the duration between the FD and ED (DFEPE) was prolonged by 1.09 days per year, which resulted in more eclosion of overwintering pupae. For a 1 °C increase in the maximum air temperature ( T max) in winter, the FD became earlier by 3.234 days. Precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED and produced little relative influence on DFEPE. A 1-mm increase of precipitation in winter delayed the FD and ED by 0.850 and 0.494 days, respectively. Mean air temperature ( T mean) in March, with a 41.3 % relative influence, precipitation in winter, with a 49.0 % relative influence, and T mean in March, with a 37.5 % relative influence, were the major affecting factors on FD, ED, and DFEPE, respectively. T max in February with a 53.0 % relative influence was the major affecting factor on the mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP). Increased soil temperatures in October and November and autumn and air temperatures in winter could decrease the MOP, though the relative influences were lower than T max in February. Increased precipitation in winter increased the MOP, but the relative influence was only 4.2 % because of little precipitation

  20. Controlling maternal feeding practices associated with decreased dieting behavior in sixth-grade children.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyung E; Appugliese, Danielle P; Prisco, Alicia; Kaciroti, Niko A; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2010-04-01

    Controlling maternal feeding practices have been linked to increased caloric intake, disinhibited eating, and obesity in children. Its relationship to child dieting behavior, however, is unknown. Using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study examined whether controlling feeding practices are associated with increased or decreased dieting behavior in children. Controlling maternal feeding practices were assessed in third grade with the question, "Do you let your child eat what he/she feels like eating?" Answers ranged from 1 to 4; higher scores were reverse-coded to indicate greater control. Child dieting behavior was assessed in sixth grade and dichotomized into "any dieting behaviors" vs "none." Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between controlling maternal feeding practices and dieting behavior and included the covariates of sex, race, maternal education, maternal weight status, child weight status in third grade, and change in body mass index z score between third and sixth grade. In sixth grade (n=776), 41.5% of children engaged in dieting behavior. In the multivariate analysis, greater maternal control over child eating predicted lower odds of child dieting in sixth grade (odds ratio=0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.64 to 0.97). There was no interaction between controlling maternal feeding practices and child's sex or baseline obesity status. Exerting more control over what a child eats in third grade may protect against future dieting behavior in children, independent of child's weight status or rate of weight gain. Further work is needed to better define which controlling feeding practices are beneficial for the child.

  1. Influence of heavy snow on the feeding behavior of Japanese macaques (macaca fuscata) in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Enari, Hiroto; Sakamaki-Enari, Haruka

    2013-06-01

    Natural disasters can degrade primate habitat and alter feeding behavior. Here, we examined the influence of unusually heavy snow on diet and feeding-site use by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. To compare the winter-feeding behavior under different snow conditions, we recorded the plant species foraged on by macaques in multiple transects of the Shirakami Mountains from 2008 to 2012 (excluding 2011). We used cluster analysis to describe foraged plant assemblages, and applied multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling to evaluate annual variation in feeding-site use by macaques. Our cluster analysis revealed five types of foraged plant assemblages. The proportion of each type present in transects varied considerably across the years, indicating that the diet of macaques in heavy snow conditions was influenced more by resource accessibility than by preference. Multiple dimensional scaling and decision tree modeling demonstrated that heavy snow conditions restricted feeding-site use. Moreover, the distribution of refuges relative to severe external ambient environments was a stronger limiting factor for feeding-site use than was the availability of food resources. While most primate species facing unexpected starvation employ risk-prone foraging tactics (i.e., choosing the option with higher pay-off by accepting risk), Japanese macaques have a tendency to adopt risk-averse foraging behavior (i.e., minimizing energy loss when searching for preferred diet items under long-lasting heavy snow conditions), because winters with temperatures below freezing have higher thermoregulatory costs.

  2. Does feeding behavior facilitate trophic niche partitioning in two sympatric sucker species from the American Southwest?

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew W; Gibb, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    We examined two sympatric desert fishes, Sonora suckers (Catostomus insignis) and desert suckers (Pantosteus clarkii), and asked, does feeding behavior facilitate trophic niche partitioning? To answer this question, we conducted laboratory-based feeding trials to determine whether morphology alone facilitates the diet separation between the relatively unspecialized, omnivorous Sonora sucker and the more morphologically specialized, algivorous desert sucker or whether behavioral differences accompany morphological specialization. We predicted that (1) algivorous desert suckers would maximize contact between jaws and substrate and produce a large mouth-gape to facilitate scraping attached food-material; (2) omnivorous Sonora suckers would be more effective suction feeders when consuming unattached food items from the benthos; and (3) because they are anatomically specialized for scraping, desert suckers could not alter their feeding behavior when presented with different prey types, whereas relatively unspecialized Sonora suckers could vary behavior with prey type. We found that both species maximized jaw contact when feeding on benthic-attached food, although desert suckers produced a greater gape area. We also found that Sonora suckers were more effective suction feeders when feeding on benthic-unattached prey. Counter to our initial predictions, both species altered key aspects of feeding behavior in response to different prey types/locations. It appears that both sucker species can function as generalist feeders to exploit a variety of prey types within their natural habitat; indeed, this behavioral versatility may allow desert and Sonora suckers to respond to the cyclic environmental changes that are characteristic of the aquatic habitats of the American Southwest.

  3. A Parasitoid Wasp Induces Overwintering Behaviour in Its Spider Host

    PubMed Central

    Korenko, Stanislav; Pekár, Stano

    2011-01-01

    Parasites and parasitoids control behaviors of their hosts. However, the origin of the behavior evoked by the parasitic organism has been rarely identified. It is also not known whether the manipulation is universal or host-specific. Polysphinctine wasps, koinobiont ectoparasitoids of several spider species that manipulate host web-spinning activity for their own protection during pupation, provide an ideal system to reveal the origin of the evoked behavior. Larva of Zatypota percontatoria performed species-specific manipulation of theridiid spiders, Neottiura bimaculata and Theridion varians, shortly before pupation. Parasitized N. bimaculata produced a dense web, whereas parasitized T. varians built a cupola-like structure. The larva pupated inside of either the dense web or the cupola-like structure. We discovered that unparasitized N. bimaculata produce an analogous dense web around their eggsacs and for themselves during winter, while T. varians construct an analogous ‘cupola’ only for overwintering. We induced analogous manipulation in unparasitized hosts by altering ambient conditions. We discovered that the behavior evoked by larvae in two hosts was functionally similar. The larva evoked protective behaviors that occur in unparasitized hosts only during specific life-history periods. PMID:21931784

  4. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Luchterhand, Karen M.; Silva, Paula R. B.; Chebel, Ricardo C.; Endres, Marcia I.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score <2 or >4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2–4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts. PMID:27597948

  5. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus–predator interactions. PMID:27041703

  6. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-04-04

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus-predator interactions.

  7. The sleep-feeding conflict: Understanding behavioral integration through genetic analysis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Daniel M; Keene, Alex C

    2010-08-01

    One of the brain's most important functions is the control of homeostatically regulated behaviors. Dysregulation of the neural systems controlling sleep and feeding underlies many chronic illnesses. In a recent study published in Current Biology we showed that flies, like mammals, suppress sleep when starved and identified the genes Clock and cycle as regulators of sleep during starvation. Here we show that starvation specifically disrupts sleep initiation without affecting sleep consolidation. The identification of genes regulating sleep-feeding interactions will provide insight into how the brain integrates and controls the expression of complex behaviors.

  8. Feeding behavior and social interactions of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile change with sucrose concentration.

    PubMed

    Sola, F J; Josens, R

    2016-08-01

    Liquid sugar baits are well accepted by the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and are suitable for the chemical control of this invasive species. We evaluated how sugar concentrations affect the foraging behavior of L. humile individuals. We quantified feeding variables for individual foragers (ingested load, feeding time and solution intake rate) when feeding on sucrose solutions of different concentrations, as well as post-feeding interactions with nestmates. Solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (10-30%) were the most consumed and had the highest intake rates, whereas solutions of high sucrose concentrations (60 and 70%) resulted in extended feeding times, low intake rates and ants having smaller crop loads. In terms of post-feeding interactions, individuals fed solutions of intermediate sucrose concentrations (20%) had the highest probability of conducting trophallaxis and the smallest latency to drop exposure (i.e. lowest time delay). Trophallaxis duration increased with increasing sucrose concentrations. Behavioral motor displays, including contacts with head jerking and walking with a gaster waggle, were lowest for individuals that ingested the more dilute sucrose solution (5%). These behaviors have been previously suggested to act as a communication channel for the activation and/or recruitment of nestmates. We show here that sucrose concentration affects feeding dynamics and modulates decision making related to individual behavior and social interactions of foragers. Our results indicate that intermediate sucrose concentrations (ca. 20%), appear to be most appropriate for toxic baits because they promote rapid foraging cycles, a high crop load per individual, and a high degree of stimulation for recruitment.

  9. Short communication: effects of frequency of feed delivery and bunk space on the feeding behavior of limit-fed dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Westerveld, R S; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Devries, T J

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed provision on the feeding behavior patterns and growth of growing dairy heifers fed a limited amount. Sixteen Holstein dairy heifers (183.4 ± 9.1 d of age, mean ± standard deviation) were divided into 4 groups of 4. The groups were exposed to each of 4 treatments, using a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, over 21-d periods (14-d adaptation period, 7-d data collection periods). The treatments were arranged in 2 feed delivery frequencies (once per day at 1200 h: 1 ×/d, and twice per day at 1200 and 1400 h: 2 ×/d) and 2 levels of feed bunk space (adequate feed bunk space: 0.40 m/heifer, and reduced feed bunk space: 0.29 m/heifer). Pen dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was recorded weekly, and variability in ADG was calculated from the standard deviation of ADG. Feeding, unrewarded behavior (time at feed bunk without feed present), and competitive behavior were recorded using time-lapse video. Feeding and unrewarded behavior were measured for the last 7 d of each period, whereas competitive behavior was recorded on d 16, 18, and 20 of each period. Lying time was recorded for the last 7 d of each period. A tendency for interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed delivery on the feed efficiency of limit-fed dairy heifers was noted. Heifers provided restricted bunk space were reported as being less efficient when fed 2 ×/d; however, no other interactions were found. Although DMI and variability in ADG were similar between treatments, ADG was higher (1.0 vs. 0.9 kg/d) when heifers were provided with 0.40 m of feed bunk space and tended to be higher when fed 1 ×/d compared with that of heifers given restricted bunk space or fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed 1 ×/d spent more time feeding throughout the day (70.5 vs. 58.9 min/d) than heifers fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed at a

  10. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  11. Ethnic differences in parental feeding behaviors in UK parents of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cihang; Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Carnell, Susan

    2017-03-06

    Childhood obesity is prevalent among ethnic minorities in the UK but little is known about parent feeding practices in these populations. We administered questionnaires assessing parental feeding behaviors and perceptions and concerns relating to child weight to White British (n = 271), South Asian (n = 59), and Black Afro-Caribbean (n = 42) parents of UK 3-5 year-olds. Child BMI z-scores were determined from measured heights and weights. South Asian and Black Afro-Caribbean parents exhibited greater pressure to eat than White British parents. Black Afro-Caribbean parents additionally scored higher on instrumental feeding and lower on monitoring, while South Asian parents scored higher on emotional feeding. Black Afro-Caribbean parents reported the greatest concern about both child overweight and underweight. Ethnic differences were unchanged by controlling for perceptions and concerns relating to child weight, or for actual BMI z, parent education, or household income. Exploratory analyses suggested some evidence for sex differences within ethnic groups. For example, South Asian parents of daughters scored higher than White British parents of daughters on emotional feeding, with no ethnic differences apparent for parents of sons. Our findings support considering variation in parent feeding behaviors and weight-related attitudes by parental ethnicity and child sex when developing obesity interventions.

  12. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  13. Agnonistic behavior in short-billed dowitchers feeding on a patchy resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, E.P.; Schneider, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper we describe an instance of unusual, agonistic behavior in a flock of migrant Short-billed Dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus) . We compare this behavior to that of other flocks feeding at the same time at other locations in the same estuary and then present evidence suggesting that this behavior resulted from the patchy distribution of the probable foraging resource of this flock, eggs of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). We propose that an extremely patchy resource has increased the agonistic behavior within the flock by increasing the variation in foraging success among individuals.

  14. Impact of host tree on forest tent caterpillar performance and offspring overwintering mortality.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, M; Mauffette, Y; Rochefort, S; Han, E; Bauce, E

    2010-04-01

    One of the most damaging insect pests in deciduous forests of North America is the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner. It can feed on a variety of plants, but trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) is its preferred host and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) serves as a secondary one in the northern part of its distribution. Because host plant characteristics influence insect performance and survival, we evaluated the impact of trembling aspen and sugar maple foliage on M. disstria performance. Host effects on insect cold hardiness and overwintering survival of offspring were also studied. Forest tent caterpillar reared on aspen leaves had a shorter development time, higher pupal weights and fecundity, and superior egg parameters (length and weight) compared with those reared on sugar maple leaves. Larvae from the two food treatments had low glucose levels during diapause, whereas glycerol content of insects reared on maple was significantly higher during diapause than larvae fed on aspen. Lower glycerol content may explain the higher overwinter mortality of pharate larvae from aspen-reared parents even though their supercooling points were as low as -36 degrees C. This study shows the influence of host plant on insect life history and the need to consider overwintering success and offspring performance in studies to understand and predict population growth and cycling.

  15. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    PubMed

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ≤ 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ≤ 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a

  16. Effect of feeding according to energy balance on performance, nutrient excretion, and feeding behavior of early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Maltz, E; Barbosa, L F; Bueno, P; Scagion, L; Kaniyamattam, K; Greco, L F; De Vries, A; Santos, J E P

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate 2 feeding strategies for early lactation cows on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization. Fifty-eight Holsteins cows were blocked by parity and production during the pretreatment period and then randomly assigned at 21 d postpartum to a control diet [n=29; 16.2% crude protein, 1.64 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE(L)), 22% starch, and 19% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] or a diet with caloric density manipulated weekly (precision diet; n=29; 16.2% crude protein; 1.59 to 1.68 NE(L); 18 to 26% starch; and 16 to 22% forage NDF) to promote a calculated positive energy balance of 5 Mcal/day. Diets were fed as total mixed rations and precision cows had their diets adjusted individually once a week, by feeding additional grain supplementation from 0 to 25% of daily dry matter (DM) offered, according to the energy balance of the preceding week. Energy balance was calculated daily and then averaged weekly. The study lasted from wk 3 to 19 postpartum, and nutrient digestibility, rumen fluid composition, urinary output, estimates of microbial protein synthesis, and feeding behavior were evaluated between wk 9 and 13 postpartum. Compared with controls, precision cows had similar DM intake (24.3 kg/d), but NE(L) intake tended to be greater primarily between wk 4 and 8 postpartum. Yields of milk (45.2 vs. 41.9 kg/d), milk components, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.0 vs. 40.8 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (43.4 vs. 40.2) were all greater for precision than control cows, resulting in greater energy-corrected milk production per kilogram of diet DM consumed (1.79 vs. 1.72). Precision cows produced more milk calories per kilogram of metabolic weight (0.227 vs. 0.213 Mcal of NE(L)/kg), although the amount of consumed calories partitioned into milk (82.3%) and measures of energy status did not differ between treatments throughout the study. Glucose concentrations were greater throughout the day in precision cows

  17. Relationships of feeding behaviors with efficiency in RFI-divergent Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    McGee, M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-08-01

    New approaches to limit expenses associated with input, without compromising profit, are needed in the beef industry. Residual feed intake (RFI) is an efficiency trait that measures variation in feed intake beyond maintenance, growth, and body composition. The addition of feeding behavior analysis to standard RFI tests may provide an approach to more readily identify feed-efficient cattle. The current study analyzes 7 feeding behaviors (BVFREQ: bunk visit frequency, BVDUR: bunk visit duration, FBFREQ: feed bout frequency, FBDUR: feed bout duration, MFREQ: meal frequency, MDUR: meal duration, and AMINT: average meal intake) and their relationships with RFI, ADG, and DMI in Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle. Three cohorts of yearling Wagyu animals were studied using a standard 70-d RFI test, and data from divergent ( ± 0.5 SD from population RFI mean) subsets of animals were analyzed for feeding behaviors [n = 58, bulls on high-concentrate diet (C1); n = 36, bulls on a lower-concentrate diet (C2); n = 34, heifers on a lower-concentrate diet (C3)]. The following behaviors were correlated with ADG: BVFREQ (r = 0.32, P = 0.01; C1 bulls), BVDUR (r = 0.42, P = 0.01, C2 bulls), FBFREQ (r = 0.37, P < 0.01; C1 bulls), FBDUR (r = 0.46, P < 0.01, C1 bulls), and MFREQ (r = 0.42, P < 0.01, C2 bulls). Behaviors were trending or significantly correlated with DMI for all cases except for MFREQ for C3 and AMINT for C2. Residual feed intake was positively correlated with MDUR across all cohorts (r = 0.31, P = 0.02; r = 0.38, P = 0.02; r = 0.54, P ≥ 0.01, respectively). For C2 bulls and C3 heifers, RFI was positively correlated with behavior frequency categories (BVFREQ; r = 0.44, P = 0.01; r = 0.60, P ≤ 0.01, respectively, and FBFREQ r = 0.46, P ≤ 0.01; r = 0.60, P ≤ 0.01, respectively). Bunk visit frequency and FBFREQ were highly correlated with RFI status (high or low) in C2 bulls and C3 heifers. Behavior duration categories (BVDUR, FBDUR, and MDUR) were most correlated with

  18. Analyzing Feeding Behavior of Nezara viridula on Glycine max Using Electrical Penetration Graph Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, is a pest of soybean, Glycine max, throughout the southern United States. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) techniques were adapted to observe feeding behaviors of fifth instar nymphs on soybean. No differences in types of waveforms were found between ex...

  19. Feeding and Eating Behaviors in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Yolanda; Young, Robyn L.; Robson, Danielle C.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers of children aged 2-12 years completed an exhaustive questionnaire assessing feeding and eating behaviors for both themselves and their children with autism, and typically developing siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (where available), or typically developing children with no sibling with a disability. Results indicate that…

  20. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood-Feeding Behavior in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior. Midges were intrathoracically inoc...

  1. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of Bluetongue virus in North America and a competent vector of Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects blood feeding behavior and how this might affect virus transmission....

  2. A Comparison of Sensory Integrative and Behavioral Therapies as Treatment for Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Laura R.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Bachmeyer, Melanie H.; Rivas, Kristi M.; Milnes, Suzanne M.; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory…

  3. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine particulate matter (PM) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2,813 crossbre...

  4. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (<10%). The residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding.

  5. Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Infant and toddler regulatory problems (RPs) including crying, sleeping and feeding, are a frequent concern for parents and have been associated with negative behavioral outcomes in early and middle childhood. Uncertain is whether infant and toddler RPs predict stable, trait-like dysregulated behavior across childhood. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). RPs at 6, 15-18, & 24-30 months and childhood dysregulated behavior at 4, 7, 8, & 9.5 years were assessed using mother report. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) indicated that trajectories of childhood dysregulated behavior were stable over time. All single RPs (i.e., crying, sleeping & feeding problems) were significantly associated with childhood dysregulated behavior. For example, crying problems at 6 months after controlling for confounders (Odds Ratios; 95% Confidence Intervals): Moderate dysregulated behavior: OR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.09 to 2.06], high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.49 to 3.05] and very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.85, 95% CI [1.64 to 4.94]. Multiple RPs were especially strongly associated with dysregulated behavior. For example, the RP composite at 15-18 months: 1 RP, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.17 to 3.57], 2 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 3.46, 95% CI [2.38 to 5.01], 3 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 12.57, 95% CI [6.38 to 24.74]. These findings suggest that RPs in infants and toddlers predict stable dysregulated behavior trajectories across childhood. Interventions for early RPs could help prevent the development of chronic, highly dysregulated behavior.

  6. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Friedlaender, A S; Hazen, E L; Goldbogen, J A; Stimpert, A K; Calambokidis, J; Southall, B L

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral response studies provide significant insights into the nature, magnitude, and consequences of changes in animal behavior in response to some external stimulus. Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) to study behavioral response have faced challenges in quantifying the importance of and interaction among individual variability, exposure conditions, and environmental covariates. To investigate these complex parameters relative to blue whale behavior and how it may change as a function of certain sounds, we deployed multi-sensor acoustic tags and conducted CEEs using simulated mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) and pseudo-random noise (PRN) stimuli, while collecting synoptic, quantitative prey measures. In contrast to previous approaches that lacked such prey data, our integrated approach explained substantially more variance in blue whale dive behavioral responses to mid-frequency sounds (r2 = 0.725 vs. 0.14 previously). Results demonstrate that deep-feeding whales respond more clearly and strongly to CEEs than those in other behavioral states, but this was only evident with the increased explanatory power provided by incorporating prey density and distribution as contextual covariates. Including contextual variables increases the ability to characterize behavioral variability and empirically strengthens previous findings that deep-feeding blue whales respond significantly to mid-frequency sound exposure. However, our results are only based on a single behavioral state with a limited sample size, and this analytical framework should be applied broadly across behavioral states. The increased capability to describe and account for individual response variability by including environmental variables, such as prey, that drive foraging behavior underscores the importance of integrating these and other relevant contextual parameters in experimental designs. Our results suggest the need to measure and account for the ecological dynamics of predator

  7. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  8. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741

  9. Maternal behavior and infant physiology during feeding in premature and term infants over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ashley M; Harrison, Tondi M

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the relationship between maternal behavior and the stability of premature infants' physiologic responses during feeding. In a secondary data analysis, we examined relationships between quality of maternal behavior and cardiorespiratory physiology during feeding in 61 premature and 53 term infants at four times over the first year of life. Measures included heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen saturation; Child Feeding Skills Checklist; and Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment. Birthweight, gestational age, and neurodevelopmental risk were covariates. Quality of maternal behavior did not predict infants' physiologic response to feeding. However, birthweight was related to infant feeding physiology among all infants over the first year of life. Stress during fetal life, which may lead to impaired intrauterine growth and low birthweight, may have longitudinal effects on cardiorespiratory functioning of premature infants. Research is needed to further investigate the biological pathways by which maternal-infant interaction supports behavioral and physiologic feeding outcomes of premature infants.

  10. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    PubMed Central

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea’s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3–4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. Conclusions The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict

  11. Parent Health Literacy and “Obesogenic” Feeding and Physical Activity-related Infant Care Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yin, H. Shonna; Sanders, Lee M.; Rothman, Russell L.; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E.; Cruzatte, Evelyn F.; Perrin, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and “obesogenic” infant care behaviors. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based, early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English and Spanish-speaking parents of 2 month old children enrolled (n=844). The primary predictor variable was a parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA); adequate>=23; low<23). Primary outcome variables involving self-reported obesogenic behaviors: (1) feeding content (more formula than breastmilk, sweet drinks, early solid food introduction) and feeding style-related behaviors (pressuring to finish, laissez-faire bottle propping/television [TV] watching while feeding, non-responsiveness in letting child decide amount to eat); and (2) physical activity (tummy time, TV). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (binary, proportional odds models) performed adjusting for child sex, out of home care, WIC status, parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Results 11.0% of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk (AOR=2.0 [95%CI:1.2–3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (AOR=1.8[1.1–2.8]), bottle prop (AOR=1.8 [1.002–3.1]), any infant TV watching (AOR=1.8 [1.1–3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (<30 minutes/day) (AOR=3.0[1.5–5.8]). Conclusions Low parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. PMID:24370343

  12. Quantitative genetics of feeding behavior in two ecological races of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Caillaud, M C; Via, S

    2012-01-01

    Much of the diversity of herbivorous insects stems from the adaptive divergence of populations onto different host plants. This often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host acceptance that in turn lead to assortative mating for insects that mate exclusively on their hosts. Here, we explore the genetic architecture of feeding behavior in a herbivorous insect that has become a model for the study of incipient speciation, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). We use crosses between individuals specialized to either alfalfa or red clover in order to perform both a biometrical analysis and a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of key feeding behaviors. For each character in each environment, Castle–Wright's estimator for the number of effective factors segregating ranged from 0.11 to 2.54. Similarly, between 0 and 3 QTLs were detected. In one case, a single QTL explained over 50% of the variance in the F2, suggesting that at least one gene (or a complex of tightly linked genes) has a major effect on feeding behavior in the pea aphid. However, the identified QTL explain only 23–73% of the genetic variance for these characters thus additional genes of minor effect are also involved. We found a variety of modes of gene action, including several cases of non-additive gene action. Our results suggest that feeding behavior in pea aphids is neither simple nor highly polygenic. The oligogenetic basis of variation in feeding behavior may facilitate host shifts, providing one explanation for the frequent divergence and speciation of herbivorous insects. PMID:21897437

  13. Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments. PMID:21494685

  14. Clam density and scaup feeding behavior in San Pablo Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulton, Victoria K.; Lovvorn, James R.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2002-01-01

    San Pablo Bay, in northern San Francisco Bay, California, is an important wintering area for Greater (Aythya marila) and Lesser Scaup (A. affinis). We investigated variation in foraging behavior of scaup among five sites in San Pablo Bay, and whether such variation was related to densities of their main potential prey, the clams Potamocorbula amurensis and Macoma balthica. Time-activity budgets showed that scaup spent most of their time sleeping at some sites, and both sleeping and feeding at other sites, with females feeding more than males. In the first half of the observation period (12 January–5 February 2000), percent time spent feeding increased with increasing density of P. amurensis, but decreased with increasing density of M. balthica (diet studies have shown that scaup ate mostly P. amurensis and little or no M. balthica). Densities of M. balthica stayed about the same between fall and spring benthic samples, while densities of P. amurensis declined dramatically at most sites. In the second half of the observation period (7 February–3 March 2000), percent time feeding was no longer strongly related to P. amurensis densities, and dive durations increased by 14%. These changes probably reflected declines of P. amurensis, perhaps as affected by scaup predation. The large area of potential feeding habitat, and alternative prey elsewhere in the estuary, might have resulted in the low correlations between scaup behavior and prey densities in San Pablo Bay. These low correlations made it difficult to identify specific areas of prey concentrations important to scaup.

  15. Mothers’ feeding behaviors in infancy: do they predict child weight trajectories?

    PubMed Central

    Dinkevich, Eugene; Leid, Lucy; Pryor, Katherine; Wei, Ying; Huberman, Harris; Carnell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine associations between mothers’ feeding behaviors in infancy, and child’s weight from infancy through to toddlerhood, in urban, low-income, minority families, and to explore the contribution of concerns about infant eating/weight. Methods We recruited 169 mother-infant dyads (88% African-American) from an inner city pediatric practice. Questionnaires measuring restrictive feeding, pressuring to eat, and concerns about infant overeating/weight and undereating/weight were administered, and infants weighed and measured, at 6–12 months. Anthropometric data up to 30 months were obtained from multiple (8.9±2.6) well-child visits, with 84% completing 11 visits. Results Higher pressuring was associated with lower WLZ over the period from baseline out to 30 months, and higher restriction with higher child WLZ over the same period. Pressuring and concern about infant undereating/weight were independently associated with WLZ, but the relationship between restrictive feeding and WLZ was reduced by accounting for concern about infant overeating/weight. Child weight trajectories were not influenced by feeding behavior. Conclusions Mothers restricted heavier infants and pressured leaner infants to eat, and the relationship between restriction and higher infant weight was mediated by concern about infant overeating/weight. Correcting misperceptions and discussing feeding with mothers reporting concern may help prevent excessive early weight gain. PMID:26537027

  16. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  17. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases. PMID:26839008

  18. Feeding behavior of large calanoid copepods Neocalanus cristatus and N. plumchrus from the subarctic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, B. W.; Landry, M. R.; Hassett, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Oceanic waters of the subarctic Pacific exhibit a special ecological feature, a virtually seasonally invariant standing stock of phytoplankton (measured as chlorophyll a), that seems to reflect a balance, at least during spring and summer, between phytoplankton growth and zooplankton grazing. The grazers presumed to be responsible for the balance are the calanoid copepods Neocalanus cristatus and N. plumchrus. Shipboard grazing experiments, utilizing both natural suspended particulate material and cultured phytoplankton as food for the copepods, showed that both species have at least three attributes of feeding behavior required to maintain steady standing stock of phytoplankton. That is, the Neocalanus species can feed at the low concentrations of phytoplankton that prevail in the open subarctic Pacific, they feed at similar rates on a broad range of particlessizes including the predominant particles, and they respond to small increases in phytoplankton concentration by proportionately larger increases in their feeding rate. Although both species of Neocalanus attain larger body sizes than co-occurring Calanus pacificus and Pseudocalanus sp., they have morphological specializations that seem to account for their unexpected ability to feed on very dilute suspensions of small phytoplankton cells. It appears that the perpetually low phytoplankton concentrations in the open subarctic Pacific do not permit maximum feeding effort by the species of Neocalanus.

  19. Humpback whale song and foraging behavior on an antarctic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Stimpert, Alison K; Peavey, Lindsey E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    Reports of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song chorusing occurring outside the breeding grounds are becoming more common, but song structure and underwater behavior of individual singers on feeding grounds and migration routes remain unknown. Here, ten humpback whales in the Western Antarctic Peninsula were tagged in May 2010 with non-invasive, suction-cup attached tags to study foraging ecology and acoustic behavior. Background song was identified on all ten records, but additionally, acoustic records of two whales showed intense and continuous singing, with a level of organization and structure approaching that of typical breeding ground song. The songs, produced either by the tagged animals or close associates, shared phrase types and theme structure with one another, and some song bouts lasted close to an hour. Dive behavior of tagged animals during the time of sound production showed song occurring during periods of active diving, sometimes to depths greater than 100 m. One tag record also contained song in the presence of feeding lunges identified from the behavioral sensors, indicating that mating displays occur in areas worthy of foraging. These data show behavioral flexibility as the humpbacks manage competing needs to continue to feed and to prepare for the breeding season during late fall. This may also signify an ability to engage in breeding activities outside of the traditional, warm water breeding ground locations.

  20. Flexibility in metabolic rate and activity level determines individual variation in overwinter performance.

    PubMed

    Auer, Sonya K; Salin, Karine; Anderson, Graeme J; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-11-01

    Energy stores are essential for the overwinter survival of many temperate and polar animals, but individuals within a species often differ in how quickly they deplete their reserves. These disparities in overwinter performance may be explained by differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility in response to food scarcity. However, little is known about whether individuals exhibit correlated or independent changes in these traits, and how these phenotypic changes collectively affect their winter energy use. We examined individual flexibility in both standard metabolic rate and activity level in response to food scarcity and their combined consequences for depletion of lipid stores among overwintering brown trout (Salmo trutta). Metabolism and activity tended to decrease, yet individuals exhibited striking differences in their physiological and behavioral flexibility. The rate of lipid depletion was negatively related to decreases in both metabolic and activity rates, with the smallest lipid loss over the simulated winter period occurring in individuals that had the greatest reductions in metabolism and/or activity. However, changes in metabolism and activity were negatively correlated; those individuals that decreased their SMR to a greater extent tended to increase their activity rates, and vice versa, suggesting among-individual variation in strategies for coping with food scarcity.

  1. Modification of non-vector aphid feeding behavior on virus-infected host plant.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zuqing; Zhao, Huiyan; Thieme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Virus-infected host plants can have positive, neutral or negative effects on vector aphids. Even though the proportion of non-vector aphids associated with a plant far exceeds that of vector species, little is known about the effect of virus-infected plants on non-vector aphids. In the present study, the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a non-vector of Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), was monitored on, virus-infected, virus-free and leafhopper/aphid-infested, and virus- and insect-free (control) barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), plants. Electrical penetration graph recordings were performed. Compared with the control plants, S. avenae on infected plants exhibited reduced non-probing and pathway phase, and increased phloem sap ingestion phase, and more aphids reached sustained phloem ingestion. However, the electrical penetration graph parameters described above showed no significant differences in aphid feeding behavior on virus-free and vector pre-infested plants and the control barley plants during S. avenae feeding. The results suggest that WDV/CYDV-RPV-infected host plants positively affected the feeding behavior of the non-vector aphid S. avenae. Based on these results, the reasons and trends among the virus-infected host plants' effects on the feeding behavior of non-vector aphids are discussed.

  2. The effect of childrens' eating behaviors and parental feeding style on childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Demir, Dilek; Bektas, Murat

    2017-03-22

    In is important to determine the factors that affect obesity in childhood, in order to raise generations of healthy children. This study aims to determine the effect of primary school students' eating behaviors and parental feeding styles on obesity in childhood. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 1201 children and their parents between September 2014 and March 2015. The data were collected using the socio-demographic data collection form for children and parents, the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage calculators, mean, Spearman's correlation analysis, Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Of the children, 16.9% were found to be obese. Three models were created considering the relationships between the variables in this study and the occurrence of obesity. In the first model, the factors that affect childhood obesity were found to be enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness and food fussiness. In the second model, the factors were prompting/encouragement and control over eating. Enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, emotional feeding and food fussiness were also found to be the factors in the third model (p<0.05). This study showed that children's eating behaviors and parental feeding style affect the occurrence of obesity in childhood.

  3. The role of animal models in understanding feeding behavior in infants.

    PubMed

    German, R Z; Crompton, A W; Thexton, A J

    2004-11-01

    The common evolutionary history humans share with mammals provides us with a solid basis for understanding normal oropharyngeal anatomy and functions. Physiologically, feeding is a cycle of neurophysiologic activity, where sensory input travels to the CNS which sends motor signals out to the periphery. Research with animal models is valuable because it is possible to disrupt this cycle, and develop predictive models on the causal basis of deviation from normal. Based on work with animal models, normal mammalian infant feeding behavior consists of the tongue functioning as a pump. First, the tongue assists in acquisition of milk from the nipple into the oral cavity, and then it pumps milk from the oral cavity into the valleculae prior to the pharyngeal swallow. Starting with this basic model, feeding in infant pigs was manipulated to determine the impact of variation in sensory input on behavioral output. One set of experiments suggested that chemo- or liquid sensation, in the form of milk is necessary to elicit continuing rhythmic activity. However, the rates of rhythmic suckling are intrinsic to an animal, and variation in rate cannot be entrained. Another set showed that initiation of the swallow does not purely depend on the volume of milk delivered, but also on the sensory stimulation at the mouth. These results support the idea that feeding behavior involves complex sensory integration.

  4. The Insecticide Imidacloprid Causes Mortality of the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus pulex by Interfering with Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Anna-Maija; Hintermeister, Anita; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

    2013-01-01

    If an organism does not feed, it dies of starvation. Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. One of these insecticides is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, a neurotoxic substance acting specifically on the insect nervous system. We show that imidacloprid has the potential to indirectly cause lethality in aquatic invertebrate populations at low, sublethal concentrations by impairing movements and thus feeding. We investigated feeding activity, lipid content, immobility, and survival of the aquatic arthropod Gammarus pulex under exposure to imidacloprid. We performed experiments with 14 and 21 days duration, both including two treatments with two high, one day pulses of imidacloprid and one treatment with a low, constant concentration. Feeding of G. pulex as well as lipid content were significantly reduced under exposure to the low, constant imidacloprid concentration (15 µg/L). Organisms were not able to move and feed – and this caused high mortality after 14 days of constant exposure. In contrast, feeding and lipid content were not affected by repeated imidacloprid pulses. In these treatments, animals were mostly immobilized during the chemical pulses but did recover relatively fast after transfer to clean water. We also performed a starvation experiment without exposure to imidacloprid which showed that starvation alone does not explain the mortality in the constant imidacloprid exposure. Using a multiple stressor toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling approach, we showed that both starvation and other toxic effects of imidacloprid play a role for determining mortality in constant exposure to the insecticide. PMID:23690941

  5. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  6. Sequential observation of infant regulated and dysregulated behavior following soothing and stimulating maternal behavior during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa F.; Pridham, Karen A.; Brown, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe maternal behaviors occurring before infant regulated or dysregulated behavior at three times in early infancy and examine behavioral patterns over time with their prematurely born infants. Method & Design Video-recordings of 37 dyads were coded on infant regulated and dysregulated behaviors following maternal soothing and stimulating behaviors. Results At each time, infants showed more regulation after maternal soothing than after maternal stimulating. Further study is merited. Practice Implications Knowing infant regulation and dysregulation following categories of maternal behavior could help mothers anticipate infant regulatory or dysregulatory behavior in response to their own behavior and identify supportive caregiving strategies. PMID:24417766

  7. Experiments and simulation of thermal behaviors of the dual-drive servo feed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Mei, Xuesong; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Chi; Shi, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The machine tool equipped with the dual-drive servo feed system could realize high feed speed as well as sharp precision. Currently, there is no report about the thermal behaviors of the dual-drive machine, and the current research of the thermal characteristics of machines mainly focuses on steady simulation. To explore the influence of thermal characterizations on the precision of a jib boring machine assembled dual-drive feed system, the thermal equilibrium tests and the research on thermal-mechanical transient behaviors are carried out. A laser interferometer, infrared thermography and a temperature-displacement acquisition system are applied to measure the temperature distribution and thermal deformation at different feed speeds. Subsequently, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the transient thermal behaviors of the boring machine. The complex boundary conditions, such as heat sources and convective heat transfer coefficient, are calculated. Finally, transient variances in temperatures and deformations are compared with the measured values, and the errors between the measurement and the simulation of the temperature and the thermal error are 2 °C and 2.5 μm, respectively. The researching results demonstrate that the FEM model can predict the thermal error and temperature distribution very well under specified operating condition. Moreover, the uneven temperature gradient is due to the asynchronous dual-drive structure that results in thermal deformation. Additionally, the positioning accuracy decreases as the measured point became further away from the motor, and the thermal error and equilibrium period both increase with feed speeds. The research proposes a systematical method to measure and simulate the boring machine transient thermal behaviors.

  8. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Anderson, D L

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four pigs were used to determine the effects of a putative synthetic maternal pheromone on behavior and performance of weanling pigs. Each pen of weaned pigs contained three pigs that were given free access to water and feed. Pigs were videotaped in time lapse for 48 h after weaning and weekly body weights and feed disappearances were recorded for 4 wk. Treatments included: a) control (vehicle applied), b) 30 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to the feeder, or c) 10 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to each of three pigs' snouts. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone spent more (P < 0.05) time with their heads in the feeder and less (P < 0.05) time drinking, lying down, or engaged in agonistic behaviors than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone were more (P < 0.05) active during the 48-h period of video taping than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone (either on the feeder or their snout) had increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and better (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio than control pigs over the 28-d postweaning period. In conclusion, the putative synthetic pheromone, applied once at weaning, stimulated apparent feeding behaviors, and reduced fighting and apparent drinking behaviors during the first 48 h after weaning. ADG and feed:gain ratio were improved by application of the putative synthetic pheromone either directly on the feeder or when painted on the pigs' snouts. Olfactory signals can modulate adaptation to the postweaning environment in ways that may improve pig performance and welfare.

  9. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.

    PubMed

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than

  10. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    PubMed

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification.

  11. Keeping the blood flowing-plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Tellgren-Roth, Asa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A; Liberles, David A

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  12. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  13. The process-dependent impacts of dimethoate on the feeding behavior of rotifer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqiu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional toxicological studies usually depict the dose-effect relationship at the given exposure time while ignore how toxic effects vary during and after the exposure. In the present study, feeding depression of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of dimethoate was evaluated not only in the exposure time but also in the post-exposure time. Both the filtration rates (F) and the ingestion rates (I) of the rotifers varied during the exposure period under any concentration of dimethoate. A three-stepwise stress was observed when the rotifers were exposed to 0.2 and 1.0 mg L(-1) of the pesticide respectively, whereas 1.8 mg L(-1) dimethoate caused only one-step stress on the rotifers during the whole period. In addition, although the feeding behaviors of the rotifers recovered after the exposure, two feeding rates both got even more depressed at 8h in the post-exposure time. The latent inhibition after exposure was related to the exposure concentrations and the exposure time. Our works indicated that the impact of dimethoate on the feeding behavior of the rotifers was highly process-dependent that caused the stepwise stress during the exposure period and the latent stress after the exposure.

  14. West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kramer, Laura D; Jones, Matthew J; Marra, Peter P; Daszak, Peter

    2006-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in North America since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. Understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics. We integrated mosquito feeding behavior with data on the population dynamics and WNV epidemiology of mosquitoes, birds, and humans. We show that Culex pipiens, the dominant enzootic (bird-to-bird) and bridge (bird-to-human) vector of WNV in urbanized areas in the northeast and north-central United States, shifted its feeding preferences from birds to humans by 7-fold during late summer and early fall, coinciding with the dispersal of its preferred host (American robins, Turdus migratorius) and the rise in human WNV infections. We also show that feeding shifts in Cx. tarsalis amplify human WNV epidemics in Colorado and California and occur during periods of robin dispersal and migration. Our results provide a direct explanation for the timing and intensity of human WNV epidemics. Shifts in feeding from competent avian hosts early in an epidemic to incompetent humans after mosquito infection prevalences are high result in synergistic effects that greatly amplify the number of human infections of this and other pathogens. Our results underscore the dramatic effects of vector behavior in driving the transmission of zoonotic pathogens to humans.

  15. Central Control of Feeding Behavior by the Secretin, PACAP, and Glucagon Family of Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Revathi; Wang, Lei; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2017-01-01

    Constituting a group of structurally related brain-gut peptides, secretin (SCT), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), and glucagon (GCG) family of peptide hormones exert their functions via interactions with the class B1 G protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, the roles of these peptides in neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior have been a specific area of research focus for development of potential therapeutic drug targets to combat obesity and metabolic disorders. As a result, some members in the family and their analogs have already been utilized as therapeutic agents in clinical application. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding on the important role of SCT, PACAP, and GCG family of peptides in central control of feeding behavior. PMID:28223965

  16. Feeding behavior and gene expression of appetite-related neuropeptides in mice lacking for neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor subclass.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Niki, Takeshi; Shiiya, Tomohiro

    2008-11-07

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent neurotransmitter for feeding. Besides NPY, orexigenic neuropeptides such as agouti-related protein (AgRP), and anorexigenic neuropeptides such as alpha-melatonin stimulating hormone (MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are also involved in central feeding regulation. During fasting, NPY and AgRP gene expressions are up-regulated and POMC and CART gene expressions are down-regulated in hypothalamus. Based on the network of peptidergic neurons, the former are involved in positive feeding regulation, and the latter are involved in negative feeding, which exert these feeding-regulated peptides especially in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). To clarify the compensatory mechanism of knock-out of NPY system on feeding, change in gene expressions of appetite-related neuropeptides and the feeding behavior was studied in NPY Y5-KO mice. Food intake was increased in Y5-KO mice. Fasting increased the amounts of food and water intake in the KO mice more profoundly. These data indicated the compensatory phenomenon of feeding behavior in Y5-KO mice. RT-PCR and ISH suggested that the compensation of feeding is due to change in gene expressions of AgRP, CART and POMC in hypothalamus. Thus, these findings indicated that the compensatory mechanism involves change in POMC/CART gene expression in arcuate nucleus (ARC). The POMC/CART gene expression is important for central compensatory regulation in feeding behavior.

  17. Variable feeding behavior in Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet 1849): Exploring the relative importance of macroalgal traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Karin; Navarro, Jorge M.; Gómez, Iván; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Quijón, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The feeding behavior of algal consumers inhabiting sandy beaches and the consequences of this behavior on their performance are poorly understood. Food quality has been shown to influence the food preference of algal consumers. However, food preference can often be altered or subordinated to habitat choice. This study analyzes the feeding behavior (preference and consumption rate), absorption efficiency and growth rates of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata (Nicolet, 1849) in relation to the nutritional characteristics of two of the most common macroalgae stranded in the Chilean north-central region. Our experiments show that these amphipods prefer Macrocystis integrifolia over Lessonia nigrescens when presented with fresh fragments of both algae simultaneously. However, this preference did not match the performance of the amphipods when reared on diets of a single algal species: in that growth rates were not different. These results suggest that M. integrifolia is not a superior food item compared to L. nigrescens. The lower content of proteins and total organic matter found in M. integrifolia supports this interpretation. The preference of the amphipods for L. nigrescens over M. integrifolia when dry powdered algae of each species were provided (artificial food), suggested that some aspect of the physical structure of these two algae determined food preference. When the amphipods were maintained with each of the algal species in no choice experiments, they consumed 2 times more M. integrifolia, but showed higher absorption efficiency on L. nigrescens. These results suggest that food quantity and not absorption efficiency was used to compensate for the lower nutritional quality of M. integrifolia. The feeding behavior documented in this study differs significantly from that observed in populations of the same species inhabiting southern Chile, cautioning against generalizing results obtained even within a single species. Our results suggest that

  18. A COMPARISON OF SENSORY INTEGRATIVE AND BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES AS TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC FEEDING DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Laura R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Rivas, Kristi M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Oddo, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of escape extinction (EE) plus noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with sensory integration therapy as treatment for the feeding problems of 2 children. Results indicated that EE plus NCR was more effective in increasing acceptance, decreasing inappropriate behavior, and increasing amount consumed relative to sensory integration for both children. The results are discussed in terms of the challenges of evaluating sensory-integration-based treatments, and the reasons why component analyses of multicomponent treatments like sensory integration are important. PMID:23060661

  19. The Behavioral Function of Feeding Problems as Assessed by the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Stephen B.; Kuhn, David E.; Sturmey, Peter; Laud, Rinita; Cooper, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Differences in subscale scores on the questions about behavioral function (QABF) were assessed for participants identified with pica, rumination, food stealing, food refusal, and mealtime behavior problems (e.g., aggression, self-injurious behavior). The QABF was administered to informants for 125 individuals identified with problematic feeding…

  20. Nutrient mediation of behavioral plasticity and resource allocation in a xylem-feeding leafhopper.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Brent V; Andersen, Peter C; Mizell, Russell F

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical for nutrient-limited organisms that allocate ingested nutrients to the competing demands of reproduction and survivorship. Leafhoppers that feed on xylem fluid allow assessment of plasticity in response to the constant selective pressure of nutritional inadequacy. We examined feeding behavior (host selection and consumption rates) and nutrient allocation (fecundity, change in body mass and composition) of the xylem fluid-feeding leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) on ten genotypes of related Prunus germplasm when adults first seasonally appear, and later during population peaks, to examine the effects of genotypes and season on plasticity of life history and behavioral traits. Behavior and resource allocation to life history traits were both mediated by xylem nutrients, although nutrients impacting behavior differed from those mediating life history. Host selection and consumption varied with genotype between June and July, yet behavior consistently reflected concentrations of dietary glutamine. Resource allocations also increased linearly with nutrient concentrations, but were best correlated to ingested essential amino acids rather than glutamine. Body mass and composition were highly correlated to dietary essential amino acids in June; 6 weeks later, fecundity was instead proportional to essential amino acids. The discrepancy in nutrients which impact behavior versus those mediating life history may explain the weak preference-performance linkage documented for many insects. The demarcation in allocating resources to biomass in June to fecundity in July suggests increased allocation to reproduction during periods of nutrient stress as predicted by the theory of optimal resource allocation; other contributing biotic and abiotic factors are also discussed.

  1. [Problematic eating behavior in childhood: do maternal feeding patterns play a role?].

    PubMed

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Past research indicates an association in adults and young people of emotional and contextual factors with a higher risk for the development of eating disorders or obesity. Few studies focus on problematic eating patterns in childhood, especially in association with parental feeding strategies. 482 mothers completed a questionnaire about eating behaviors and the weight status of their 1- to 10-year-old child as well as their own feeding strategies. A classification of the child's eating behavior (food responsiveness, emotional eating, external eating, eating time and meal structure) using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a conspicuous eating pattern (10%) showing above-average values in all eating behaviors. Controlling for weight and demographic variables mothers of children with conspicuous eating patterns were characterized by restrictive strategies and were less likely to encourage or facilitate their child to control his or her eating. Similar problematic eating patterns were also identified in early childhood. The association of maternal feeding strategies--beyond weight control issues--with conspicuous eating patterns in children might indicate a possibility of early prevention through parent training.

  2. A Small Potassium Current in AgRP/NPY Neurons Regulates Feeding Behavior and Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    He, Yanlin; Shu, Gang; Yang, Yongjie; Xu, Pingwen; Xia, Yan; Wang, Chunmei; Saito, Kenji; Hinton, Antentor; Yan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Chen; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2016-11-08

    Neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are indispensable for normal feeding behavior. Firing activities of AgRP/NPY neurons are dynamically regulated by energy status and coordinate appropriate feeding behavior to meet nutritional demands. However, intrinsic mechanisms that regulate AgRP/NPY neural activities during the fed-to-fasted transition are not fully understood. We found that AgRP/NPY neurons in satiated mice express high levels of the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) and are inhibited by SK3-mediated potassium currents; on the other hand, food deprivation suppresses SK3 expression in AgRP/NPY neurons, and the decreased SK3-mediated currents contribute to fasting-induced activation of these neurons. Genetic mutation of SK3 specifically in AgRP/NPY neurons leads to increased sensitivity to diet-induced obesity, associated with chronic hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Our results identify SK3 as a key intrinsic mediator that coordinates nutritional status with AgRP/NPY neural activities and animals' feeding behavior and energy metabolism.

  3. Long-term consequences of feed restriction during late pregnancy in goats on feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of female offspring.

    PubMed

    Laporte-Broux, Bérengère; Roussel, Sabine; Ponter, Andrew A; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Camous, Sylvaine; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Duvaux-Ponter, Christine

    2012-05-15

    Feed restriction during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on offspring development both during the juvenile period and during adult life. Long-term effects of maternal feed restriction during the last third of pregnancy on growth, metabolism and behavior of female kids, with a focus on feeding behavior and emotional reactivity, were studied in goats. Female kids born to control (CONT, n=17) or born to feed restricted goats (REST, n=15) were artificially reared and monitored from birth to 24 months of age. Maternal feeding restriction globally reduced live weight (P<0.001) and body condition score (P=0.02) of REST compared to CONT offspring. Females from the REST group had a higher daily feed intake (P=0.05) and tended to eat more rapidly (P=0.09) than females from the CONT group at 12 months of age. One year later, REST goats still ate more than CONT goats (P=0.05). Glucose metabolism did not appear to be modified as no differences were observed in glucose or insulin responses to an intravenous glucose tolerance test. No differences in time budget were found at 12 months of age. However, the HPA axis response to an ACTH injection was greater in REST than in CONT goats: higher peak cortisol concentration (P=0.02) and a greater area under the curve were found (P=0.01) at 14 months of age. In conclusion, maternal feed restriction during late pregnancy modified both feeding behavior and the stress physiology of female offspring for up to 2 years of age. However, the changes observed were small.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis potential in feeding behavior of a predatory snail by integration of hunger, taste, and pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Rhanor; Huang, Rong-Chi; Hatcher, Nathan; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2000-03-01

    Hunger/satiation state interacts with appetitive and noxious stimuli to determine feeding and avoidance responses. In the predatory marine snail Pleurobranchaea californica, food chemostimuli induced proboscis extension and biting at concentration thresholds that varied directly with satiation state. However, food stimuli also tended to elicit avoidance behavior (withdrawal and avoidance turns) at concentration thresholds that were relatively low and fixed. When the feeding threshold for active feeding (proboscis extension with biting) was exceeded, ongoing avoidance and locomotion were interrupted and suppressed. Noxious chemostimuli usually stimulated avoidance, but, in animals with lower feeding thresholds for food stimuli, they often elicited feeding behavior. Thus, sensory pathways mediating appetitive and noxious stimuli may have dual access to neural networks of feeding and avoidance behavior, but their final effects are regulated by satiation state. These observations suggest that a simple cost-benefit computation regulates behavioral switching in the animal's foraging behavior, where food stimuli above or below the incentive level for feeding tend to induce feeding or avoidance, respectively. This decision mechanism can weigh the animal's need for nutrients against the potential risk from other predators and the cost of relative energy outlay in an attack on prey. Stimulation of orienting and attack by low-level noxious stimuli in the hungriest animals may reflect risk-taking that can enhance prey capture success. A simple, hedonically structured neural network model captures this computation.

  5. Feeding behavior of finishing goats fed diets containing detoxified castor meal, co-product of the biodiesel industry.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio; Leite, Vagner Maximino; Santos, Stefanie Alvarenga; Borja, Máikal Souza; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Júnior, José Esler Freitas; Leite, Laudi Cunha; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta

    2017-02-01

    An investigation was made into the feeding behavior of goats to evaluate the effects of a detoxified castor bean meal in the diet of goats. Thirty-six ½ crossbred Boer goats were used, with an average weight of 20 ± 3.2 kg. A completely randomized design was used with four treatments (diets with of 0, 100, 200, and 300 g detoxified castor bean meals/kg dry matter) and nine replicates. Castor bean meal was detoxified using calcium oxide. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, and the forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50. The feeding behavior was observed on the 17th, 45th, and 70th days of the experiment. For the evaluation of feeding behavior (feeding, idle, and rumination times), the animals were observed in 5-min intervals for 24 h. The addition of detoxified castor bean meal did not change (P > 0.05) the evaluated behavioral variables. Linear reduction was observed (P < 0.05) in the efficiencies of feeding and rumination, expressed in g dry matter/h. The variables related to the time series discretization of the feeding behavior of goats did not change (P > 0.05) with the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal. The inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal in growing goats' diets does not change the feeding, rumination, and idle times, however, decreases intake, feeding, and rumination efficiencies of dry matter.

  6. The utility of behavioral economics in expanding the free-feed model of obesity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Erin B; Robertson, Stephen H; Rodriguez, Luis R

    2016-06-01

    Animal models of obesity are numerous and diverse in terms of identifying specific neural and peripheral mechanisms related to obesity; however, they are limited when it comes to behavior. The standard behavioral measure of food intake in most animal models occurs in a free-feeding environment. While easy and cost-effective for the researcher, the free-feeding environment omits some of the most important features of obesity-related food consumption-namely, properties of food availability, such as effort and delay to obtaining food. Behavior economics expands behavioral measures of obesity animal models by identifying such behavioral mechanisms. First, economic demand analysis allows researchers to understand the role of effort in food procurement, and how physiological and neural mechanisms are related. Second, studies on delay discounting contribute to a growing literature that shows that sensitivity to delayed food- and food-related outcomes is likely a fundamental process of obesity. Together, these data expand the animal model in a manner that better characterizes how environmental factors influence food consumption.

  7. Associations of infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Juhee; Mathai, Rose Ann

    2011-09-01

    Picky eating behaviors are prevalent during childhood and are often linked to nutritional problems. However, information on the determinants of picky eating behaviors during infancy, when food acceptance patterns develop, is scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of infant feeding practices on the development of picky eating behaviors during preschool years. Baseline survey data from the Synergistic Theory and Research on Obesity and Nutrition Group Kids (STRONG Kids) program were used for this retrospective data analysis. Primary caregiver-child dyads were recruited from child-care centers in Eastern Illinois between February and July of 2009. A total of 129 self-reported responses from mothers of preschool-aged children were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between infant feeding practices and picky eating behaviors. Children who were introduced to complementary foods before 6 months of age had 2.5 times higher odds of developing food neophobia and limited variety of foods (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 5.93 and 1.06 to 5.73, respectively). Children who were breastfed exclusively for 6 months had lower odds of developing a preference for specific food-preparation methods by 78% (95% CI: 19% to 94%), food rejection by 81% (95% CI: 31% to 94%), and food neophobia by 75% (95% CI: 11% to 93%). Breastfeeding and introduction of complementary foods after 6 months of age reduced the odds of picky eating during early childhood. This study documents an association between infant-feeding practices and the development of picky eating behaviors in early childhood.

  8. A Role of Central NELL2 in the Regulation of Feeding Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin Kwon; Kim, Jae Geun; Kim, Han Rae; Lee, Tae Hwan; Park, Jeong Woo; Lee, Byung Ju

    2017-01-01

    A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an im-munohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes in daily body weight, food, and water intake were monitored. Metabolic state-dependent NELL2 expression in the hypothalamus was tested in vivo using a fasting model. NELL2 was noticeably expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei controlling feeding behavior. Furthermore, all arcuatic POMC and NPY positive neurons produced NELL2. The NELL2 gene expression in the hypothalamus was up-regulated by fasting. However, NELL2 did not affect POMC and NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus. A blockade of NELL2 production in the hypothalamus led to a reduction in daily food intake, followed by a loss in body weight without a change in daily water intake in normal diet condition. NELL2 did not affect short-term hunger dependent appetite behavior. Our data suggests that hypothalamic NELL2 is associated with appetite behavior, and thus central NELL2 could be a new therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:28301916

  9. Dietary forage concentration affects the feed sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Beauchemin, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of forage in a total mixed ration influences feed sorting by cows and whether the extent of this sorting changes as they adapt to a new diet. Six lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were provided each of 2 diets in a crossover design (dry matter basis): 1) a higher forage diet (HF; 62.3% forage), and 2) a lower forage diet (LF; 50.7% forage). Dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and sorting activity were monitored for each cow on each diet for 7 d. Fresh feed and orts were sampled daily for each cow and subjected to neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and particle size analysis. The particle size separator contained 2 screens (18 and 9 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 3 fractions (long, medium, and short). Sorting activity [for each fraction, NDF and physically effective NDF (peNDF)] was calculated as the actual intake expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake. Overall, sorting activity was greatest on the LF diet, with cows sorting for short particles but against long particles, medium particles, NDF, and peNDF. On the HF diet, cows sorted against long particles, NDF, and peNDF and sorted for short particles. Treatment x day interactions occurred for sorting for short particles and against peNDF, indicating that it took cows 1 d to adjust their sorting behavior to the LF diet. Cows on the LF diet consumed more dry matter but spent less time feeding, which resulted in a greater intake rate compared with cows on the HF diet. These results indicate that cows rapidly adjust their sorting behavior when subjected to a dietary change, and they exhibit more sorting for short particles and against long particles, NDF, and peNDF when fed an LF diet.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences Associated With Feeding- and Activity-Related Behaviors in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Russell L.; Sanders, Lee M.; Skinner, Asheley C.; Eden, Svetlana K.; Shintani, Ayumi; Throop, Elizabeth M.; Yin, H. Shonna

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine parental reports of feeding and activity behaviors in a cohort of parents of 2-month-olds and how they differ by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Parents participating in Greenlight, a cluster, randomized trial of obesity prevention at 4 health centers, were queried at enrollment about feeding and activity behaviors thought to increase obesity risk. Unadjusted associations between race/ethnicity and the outcomes of interest were performed by using Pearson χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Adjusted analyses were performed by using proportional odds logistic regressions. RESULTS: Eight hundred sixty-three parents (50% Hispanic, 27% black, 18% white; 86% Medicaid) were enrolled. Exclusive formula feeding was more than twice as common (45%) as exclusive breastfeeding (19%); 12% had already introduced solid food; 43% put infants to bed with bottles; 23% propped bottles; 20% always fed when the infant cried; 38% always tried to get children to finish milk; 90% were exposed to television (mean, 346 minutes/day); 50% reported active television watching (mean, 25 minutes/day); and 66% did not meet “tummy time” recommendations. Compared with white parents, black parents were more likely to put children to bed with a bottle (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.97, P < .004; bottle propping, aOR = 3.1, P < .001), and report more television watching (aOR = 1.6, P = .034). Hispanic parents were more likely than white parents to encourage children to finish feeding (aOR = 1.9, P = .007), bottle propping (aOR = 2.5, P = .009), and report less tummy time (aOR = 0.6, P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors thought to relate to later obesity were highly prevalent in this large, diverse sample and varied by race/ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally-adapted interventions. PMID:24639273

  11. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  12. Aggression, behavior and peripheral amine concentrations in relation to ractopamine feeding, sex, and social rank of finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of the widely used feed additive ractopamine (RAC) on behavioral and physiological responses in finishing pigs are limited. Aggression is of concern for its potential to impair pig’s productivity and well-being; thus its relation with feeding of RAC, an adrenoreceptor agonist, warrants f...

  13. Influence of pymetrozine on feeding behaviors of three rice planthoppers and a rice leafhopper using electrical penetration graphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pymetrozine reportedly inhibited feeding of plant sap-sucking insects, such as aphids and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. By using electrical penetration graph (EPG), this study was conducted to investigate any differential effects of pymetrozine on the feeding behaviors of four major r...

  14. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Fleming, Theodore H.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Tschapka, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40–50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10–20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening. PMID:27684373

  15. An Evaluation of Mother-Centered Anticipatory Guidance to Reduce Obesogenic Infant Feeding Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lisa; Skybo, Theresa; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Schwirian, Patricia M.; Murray-Johnson, Lisa; Sternstein, Amy; Eneli, Ihuoma; Boettner, Beth; Groner, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 anticipatory guidance styles (maternal focused [MOMS] and infant focused [Ounce of Prevention]) directed at mothers of infants aged newborn to 6 months on their infant feeding behaviors at 1 year compared with routine advice as outlined in Bright Futures (BF). METHODS: This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 292 mother/infant dyads were enrolled at their first well-child visit to 3 urban pediatric clinics in Columbus, Ohio. Intervention-specific brief advice and 1-page handouts were given at each well visit. In addition to infant weights and lengths, surveys about eating habits and infant feeding practices were completed at baseline and 12 months. RESULTS: Baseline data revealed a group with high rates of maternal overweight (62%) and obesogenic habits. At 12 months, the maternal-focused group gave their infants less juice (8.97 oz vs 14.37 oz, P < .05), and more daily servings of fruit (1.40 vs 0.94, P < .05) and vegetables (1.41 vs 1.03, P < .05) compared with BF mothers. Ounce of Prevention mothers also gave less juice (9.3 oz, P < .05) and more fruit servings (1.26 P < .05) than BF. CONCLUSIONS: Brief specific interventions added to well-child care may affect obesogenic infant feeding behaviors of mothers and deserves further study as an inexpensive approach to preventing childhood obesity. PMID:22891225

  16. Changes of cold hardiness, supercooling capacity, and major cryoprotectants in overwintering larvae of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Atapour, M; Moharramipour, S

    2009-02-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker, which is a key rice pest in northern parts of Iran, overwinters in rice stubble and weeds as mature larvae. Diapause of this pest is initiated between October to November and terminates in March. Seasonal variations in the supercooling point, survival at low temperatures, and sugar contents were studied in field-collected larvae during different phases of diapause. Ambient temperature was lowest in January and February when larvae were at the highest diapause intensity and achieved a high degree of cold hardiness at -10, -15, and -20 degrees C. Glycerol, a major cryoprotectant, reached a peak in January. It appeared that cold hardiness in the larvae is closely associated with the diapause. For the first time, this study suggests that glucose and glycogen are converted to glycerol during cold seasons, but trehalose has no definite role in the interconversion. During the coldest months, supercooling points (SCPs) increased (around -11 degrees C), and larvae could survive below their SCP values, showing that overwintering larvae of C. suppressalis are freeze tolerant in Iran. Our findings suggest that cold hardiness and diapause are essential components for this species. The overwintering larvae have high capacity of cold hardiness and can overcome severe winters. Understanding of cold hardiness and overwintering behavior of this species may help in integrated pest management of the rice stem borer in paddy fields.

  17. Behavioral plasticity of a grass-feeding caterpillar in response to spiny- or smooth-edged leaf blades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontogenetic changes in feeding behavior of armyworms, Pseudaletia unipucta (Haworth), were compared on tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] cultivars with spiny-, intermediate-, or smoothedged leaf blades to clarify whether the edge spines deter caterpillars, in which case release...

  18. Neurodevelopmental Profile, Growth, and Psychosocial Environment of Preterm Infants with Difficult Feeding Behavior at Two Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Crapnell, Tara L.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Inder, Terrie E.; Pineda, Roberta G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of difficult feeding behaviors in very preterm infants at two years of age with growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes and family factors and functioning. Study design Eighty children born ≤30 weeks gestation were studied from birth until two years of age. Feeding difficulties were assessed using the Eating Subscale of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment at age two years alongside growth and developmental testing. Maternal mental health and family factors were assessed using standardized questionnaires. ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used to determine associations between feeding difficulties and growth, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and family characteristics. Results Twenty-one (26%) of the cohort were at risk for feeding difficulties, and an additional 18 (23%) had definite feeding difficulties at age two years. Those with feeding difficulties were more likely to be subject to a range of neurodevelopmental problems including impaired cognition (p=0.02), language (p=0.04), motor (p=0.01) and socio-emotional (p<0.007) skills. Parents of very preterm born children with feeding difficulties had higher parenting stress (p=0.02) and reported more difficulty managing their child’s behavior (p=0.002) and more frequent parent-child interaction problems (p=0.002) than parents of children with fewer feeding difficulties. No associations were found between difficult feeding behaviors and growth, maternal mental health, and family factors. Conclusions Difficult feeding behaviors in children born very preterm appear to be highly comorbid with other developmental and family challenges, including neurodevelopmental impairment and parent-child interaction difficulties. Focusing on improving feeding skills, in conjunction with supporting positive parent-child interactions, may be beneficial for improving outcomes. PMID:26490123

  19. Sublethal Effect of Imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Feeding, Digging, and Foraging Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybees and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, to sublethal dosages of dietary imidacloprid and investigated its effect on ant feeding, digging, and foraging behavior. S. invicta consumed significantly more sugar water containing 0.01 μg/ml imidacloprid than untreated sugar water. Ants fed with 0.01 μg/ml imidacloprid also showed significantly increased digging activity than ants fed with untreated sugar water. However, imidacloprid at ≥ 0.25 μg/ml significantly suppressed sugar water consumption, digging, and foraging behavior. These results indicate that imidacloprid at sublethal concentrations may have a significant and complicated effect on S. invicta.

  20. Effect of different forage sources on performance and feeding behavior of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Araujo, G; Montoro, C; Terré, M

    2012-01-01

    One hundred seventy-nine Holstein male calves [44.7 kg of body weight (BW) and 8.3 d of age] participated in a series of 3 experiments to evaluate the effect of different forage sources on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior. Animals in each study were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 different dietary treatments: control (CON) calves were fed starter feed without any forage provision (this treatment was repeated in each of the 3 experiments), and the 2 other treatments consisted of the same starter feed plus a forage source: chopped alfalfa (AH) or rye-grass hay (RH) in the first study; chopped oat hay (OH) or chopped barley straw (BS) in the second study; corn silage (CS) or triticale silage (TS) in the third study. All calves were offered 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter (DM) twice daily via a bottle until 50 d of age, and 2L of MR at 12.5% DM during the week before weaning (57 d of age). The study finished when calves were 71 d old. Starter feed, MR, and forage intakes were recorded daily and BW weekly. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. Compared with CON, animals receiving OH, TS, and BS consumed more starter feed (0.88 vs. 1.14, 1.17, 1.06 kg/d, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (0.72 vs. 0.93, 0.88, 0.88 kg/d, respectively). Animals in treatments RH, BS, CS, and TS consumed less forage (51 g/d) than AH (120 g/d) and OH (101 g/d) calves. Apparent organic matter, DM, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities did not differ among treatments (81.5, 81.1, and 54.4%, respectively). Apparent crude protein digestibility was greater in RH, CS, and AH treatments than in CON (80.5 vs. 76.4%, respectively). Compared with CON calves, animals in the AH treatment spent less time eating starter feed and lying, animals in AH and RH treatments spent more time ruminating, with odds ratios (OR) of 5.24 and 5.40, respectively. The AH and RH calves devoted less time to performing nonnutritive oral behaviors

  1. Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, M A; Beier, J C; Asiago, C M; el Said, S

    1990-09-01

    Blood meals were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 424 Anopheles sergentii and for 63 An. multicolor collected in Siwa, Farafra and Bahariya oases in the Western Desert of Egypt. Both species were highly zoophilic. Human blood-feeding by An. sergentii was less common in Bahariya (2.3%) and Farafra (1.3%) than in Siwa (15.3%). A likely explanation is that large domestic animals are held at night inside houses in Bahariya and in Farafra whereas in Siwa, animals are usually housed outdoors in sheds. These patterns of An. sergentii human-feeding behavior may contribute to the persistence of low-level Plasmodium vivax transmission in Siwa in contrast to negligible or no transmission in Bahariya and Farafra.

  2. Larval feeding behavior and ant association in frosted elfin, Callophrys irus (Lycaenidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albanese, G.; Nelson, M.W.; Vickery, P.D.; Sievert, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Callophrys irus is a rare and declining lycaenid found in the eastern U.S., inhabiting xeric and open habitats maintained by disturbance. Populations are localized and monophagous. We document a previously undescribed larval feeding behavior in both field and lab reared larvae in which late instar larvae girdled the main stem of the host plant. Girdled stems provide a unique feeding sign that was useful in detecting the presence of larvae in the field. We also observed frequent association of field larvae with several species of ants and provide a list of ant species. We suggest two hypotheses on the potential benefits of stem-girdling to C. irus larvae: 1) Stem girdling provides phloem sap as a larval food source and increases the leaf nutrient concentration, increasing larval growth rates and providing high quality honeydew for attending ants; 2) Stem girdling reduces stem toxicity by inhibiting transport of toxins from roots to the stem.

  3. Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Sub-Lethal Concentrations on Fish Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Giaquinto, Percilia Cardoso; de Sá, Marina Borges; Sugihara, Vanessa Seiko; Gonçalves, Bruno Bastos; Delício, Helton Carlos; Barki, Assaf

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days. At concentrations of 0.2 and 0.6 ppm, food intake decreased on day 13 and then returned to normal on day 15. At the highest glyphosate-based herbicide concentration, 1.8 ppm, food consumption decreased dramatically and did not recover on day 15. This study showed that glyphosate-based herbicide at sub-lethal concentrations can affect feed intake in pacu and consequently inhibits its growth.

  4. Effects of ghrelin on the feeding behavior of Lymantria dispar L. (Lymantriidae) caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Mircić, Dejan; Vlahović, Milena; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Stevanović, Darko; Milosević, Verica

    2009-08-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide which has significant effects on animal appetite, thus influencing body mass. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on the feeding behavior and physiology 4th instar caterpillars of the pest insect, Lymantria dispar L. Treatment of 4th instar caterpillars with four subpicomolar amounts of ghrelin had a positive influence on daily food intake, frass elimination, body mass. Also, locomotor activity increased, while stadium duration decreased in treated caterpillars. The similarity between the effects of ghrelin on caterpillar physiology and those in mammals suggests that using this model system for further studies of neuroendocrinological processes underlying feeding could lead to essential information about more complex organisms.

  5. Abundance, diversity, and feeding behavior of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Cvitanovic, Christopher; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Fulton, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Endemic species are assumed to have a high risk of extinction because their restricted geographic range is often associated with low abundance and high ecological specialization. This study examines the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island in the south-west Pacific, and compares interspecific differences in local abundance to the feeding behavior and geographic range of these species. Contrary to expected correlations between abundance and geographic range, the single most abundant species of butterflyfish was Chaetodon tricinctus, which is endemic to Lord Howe Island and adjacent reefs; densities of C. tricinctus (14.1 ± 2.1 SE fish per 200m2) were >3 times higher than the next most abundant butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus), and even more abundant than many other geographically widespread species. Dietary breadth for the five dominant butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island was weakly and generally negative correlated with abundance. The endemic C. tricinctus was a distinct outlier in this relationship, though our extensive feeding observations suggest some issues with the measurements of dietary breadth for this species. Field observations revealed that all bites taken on benthic substrates by C. tricinctus were from scleractinian corals, but adults rarely, if ever, took bites from the benthos, suggesting that they may be feeding nocturnally and/or using mid-water prey, such as plankton. Alternatively, the energetic demands of C. tricinctus may be fundamentally different to other coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Neither dietary specialization nor geographic range accounts for interspecific variation in abundance of coral reef butterflyfishes at Lord Howe Island, while much more work on the foraging behavior and population dynamics of C. tricinctus will be required to understand its’ abundance at this location. PMID:25478152

  6. Impacts of food web structure and feeding behavior on mercury exposure in Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus).

    PubMed

    McMeans, Bailey C; Arts, Michael T; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-03-15

    Benthic and pelagic food web components in Cumberland Sound, Canada were explored as sources of total mercury (THg) to Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) via both bottom-up food web transfer and top-down shark feeding behavior. Log10THg increased significantly with δ(15)N and trophic position from invertebrates (0.01 ± 0.01 μg · g(-1) [113 ± 1 ng · g(-1)] dw in copepods) to Greenland Sharks (3.54 ± 1.02 μg · g(-1)). The slope of the log10THg vs. δ(15)N linear regression was higher for pelagic compared to benthic food web components (excluding Greenland Sharks, which could not be assigned to either food web), which resulted from THg concentrations being higher at the base of the benthic food web (i.e., in benthic than pelagic primary consumers). However, feeding habitat is unlikely to consistently influence shark THg exposure in Cumberland Sound because THg concentrations did not consistently differ between benthic and pelagic shark prey. Further, size, gender and feeding behavior (inferred from stable isotopes and fatty acids) were unable to significantly explain THg variability among individual Greenland Sharks. Possible reasons for this result include: 1) individual sharks feeding as generalists, 2) high overlap in THg among shark prey, and 3) differences in turnover time between ecological tracers and THg. This first assessment of Greenland Shark THg within an Arctic food web revealed high concentrations consistent with biomagnification, but low ability to explain intra-specific THg variability. Our findings of high THg levels and consumption of multiple prey types, however, suggest that Greenland Sharks acquire THg through a variety of trophic pathways and are a significant contributor to the total biotic THg pool in northern seas.

  7. A Semipersistent Plant Virus Differentially Manipulates Feeding Behaviors of Different Sexes and Biotypes of Its Whitefly Vector

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaohua; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Xueli; Song, Danyang; Bai, Rune; Shi, Yan; Gu, Qinsheng; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Falk, Bryce W.; Yan, Fengming

    2017-01-01

    It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B. tabaci. The results showed that CCYV altered feeding behaviors of both biotypes and sexes of B. tabaci with different degrees. CCYV had stronger effects on feeding behaviors of Q biotype than those of B biotype, by increasing duration of phloem salivation and sap ingestion, and could differentially manipulate feeding behaviors of males and females in both biotype whiteflies, with more phloem ingestion in Q biotype males and more non-phloem probing in B biotype males than their respective females. With regard to feeding behaviors related to virus transmission, these results indicated that, when carrying CCYV, B. tabaci Q biotype plays more roles than B biotype, and males make greater contribution than females. PMID:28098749

  8. EEG signs of "relaxation behavior" during breast-feeding in a nursing woman.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, M; Ruelas, R; Alcalá, V

    1992-01-01

    The presence of electroencephalographic signs of "relaxation behavior"; i.e., groups of synchronic, 6-10 Hz, 100-150 microV EEG waves mainly appearing in parieto-occipital regions, have been investigated in a nursing woman during breast-feeding. EEG was recorded once a week from right and left frontal-central, central-parietal, parietal-temporal and parietal-occipital derivations of the mother during breast-feeding of her own child throughout 16 weeks of nursing (from the 4th to the 20th week after delivery). Groups of synchronic 6-10 Hz, 100-150 microV EEG waves were recorded in central-parietal and parietal-temporal derivations, 15-80 sec after starting of suckling of either breast. Proportions of this synchronic EEG activity ranged between 5 to 28% in the central-parietal and 6 to 22% in the parietal-temporal derivations, and significantly higher proportions were found in the right hemisphere. Similarities between EEG signs of "relaxation behavior" elicited by suckling in nursing cats and those elicited by suckling in a nursing woman lead to the possibility that the above described EEG phenomena are an expression of a functional state of the central nervous system which is a part of the integral response involved in the consummatory activity of nursing behavior in women.

  9. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  10. Maturation of Airway Defensive Reflexes Is Related to Development of Feeding Behavior during Growth in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Coutier-Marie, Laurianne; Ioan, Iulia; Bonabel, Claude; Demoulin, Bruno; Leblanc, Anne-Laure; Debitu, Ludivine; Schweitzer, Cyril; Marchal, François; Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cough and expiration reflex are major lower airway defense mechanisms that have not been studied throughout development in relation with the feeding behavior. Aim: To describe airway defense reflexes evoked by mechanical stimulation of the trachea in developing rabbit pups. Material and Methods: Sixty one pups were allocated to 3 groups according to their feeding behavior: suckling (n = 22), weanling (n = 21) and weaning (n = 18) group. The incidence and sensitivity of defense reflexes triggered by mechanical tracheal stimulation were studied in anesthetized and tracheotomized animals. Data are expressed as median (25th to 75th percentile). Results: The overall incidence of defensive responses (cough and/or expiration reflex) was found to be significantly higher in suckling [100% (50–100%); p = 0.01] and weanling [75% (40–100%); p = 0.05] animals when compared to weaning ones [37.5% (0–75%)]. However, cough motor pattern accounted for only 29% (0–62%) of all defensive responses in suckling rabbits and its frequency was significantly lower in this group when compared with weanling [100%(50–100%); p = 0.006] or weaning group [62%(50–100%), p = 0.05]. In other word the expiration reflex was the dominant response in suckling animals. Conclusion: Incidence and motor pattern of defensive responses were found to be linked to the pup feeding behavior and the expiration reflex was the major response triggered in suckling pups. The results suggest that this reflex is especially fitted to occur during the coordinated swallowing - breathing fast activities of sucking. PMID:28228733

  11. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.

  12. Behavior of cows during and after peak feeding time on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Langford, F M; Rutherford, K M D; Sherwood, L; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B; Haskell, M J

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of groups of housed, lactating dairy cattle was observed over 2 winter housing periods on 20 organic farms and 20 conventional farms in the United Kingdom. Three methods were used: (1) 6 video-clips of 10 min duration were captured of cows feeding at sections of the feed-bunk face during the peak feeding period (0 to 90 min) and continuously observed for aggressive interactions among cows; (2) the proportion of cows at the feed-bunk face was scanned every 15 min for 4.5h to include the peak feeding period (0 to 255 min); and (3) all nonfeeding behaviors were scanned every 15 min for 2.5h after the peak feeding period (120 to 255 min). The latter scans were analyzed post hoc for measures of cow comfort (freestall farms only). Management and health data were collected on each farm. On farms with open-fronted feed-bunk faces, a greater number of aggressive interactions occurred at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding time on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic = 36.3 ± 4.4; conventional = 29.1 ± 3.0). Higher proportions of cows were at the feed-bunk face at peak feeding on organic farms than on conventional farms (organic=0.58 ± 0.04; conventional=0.48 ± 0.03). Housing type (freestall versus straw pen) explained most differences in postfeeding behavior (proportion of ruminating cow in alleyways: freestalls=0.16±0.06 vs. straw-pen=0.08 ± 0.03), with few differences between organic and conventional herds. On freestall farms, the proportions of cows on organic farms lying down postfeeding was smaller than in conventional herds (organic=0.38 ± 0.09 vs. conventional=0.43 ± 0.07). Differences in behavior around peak feeding time could be associated with the reduction in food "quality" on organic farms compared with the energy requirement of the cows, with cows on organic farms being highly motivated to feed. A correlation was observed between farms that had high amounts of lying and farms that had high lameness prevalence (R(2

  13. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  14. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  15. Ontogenetic variability in the feeding behavior of a marine amphipod in response to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Samanta; Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro A

    2016-11-15

    Global stressors like ocean acidification (OA) are expected to influence the quality or palatability of primary producers like algae. Such changes can trigger a response on algal consumers' feeding strategies, and this response may not necessarily be the same for the consumers during the ontogeny. We used a mesocosm's system to expose algae to current and projected OA conditions (390 and 1000ppm, respectively) and then compared the feeding behavior and absorption efficiency of juvenile and adult stages of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Specifically, we measured consumption rates (with and without a choice) and absorption efficiency on algae exposed and not exposed to OA. Our results show that OA affect the amphipod's consumption and feeding preferences, and that these effects were related with the analyzed ontogenetic stage (juveniles versus adults). These results support the existence of an ontogenetic change in the response of this species and others similar marine invertebrates to OA, which highlight the need to incorporate different life stages in the study of OA or others global stressors.

  16. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  17. Effects of sire breed, gender, and postnatal litter size on plasma concentrations of acyl ghrelin and its relationship with growth traits and feeding behavior in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior is an important component of growth and feed efficiency in swine. Acyl ghrelin is a peptide produced in the stomach that is orexigenic. The role of ghrelin in regulating feeding behavior in swine under commercial conditions is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine th...

  18. Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.

    1990-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were observed preying on elk calves (Cervus elaphus) on 60 occasions in Yellowstone National Park, with 29 confirmed kills. Some bears were deliberate predators and effectively preyed on elk calves for short periods each spring, killing up to 1 calf daily. Primary hunting techniques were searching and chasing although some bears used a variety of techniques during a single hunt. They hunted both day and night and preyed on calves in the open and in the woods. Excess killing occurred when circumstances permitted. One bear caught 5 calves in a 15-minute interval. Elk used a variety of antipredator defenses and occasionally attacked predacious bears. The current level of this feeding behavior appears to be greater than previously reported. This is probably related to the increased availability of calves providing a greater opportunity for learning, and the adaptation of a more predatory behavior by some grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

  19. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Clarita; Vasquez, Sandra; Parada, Mary A; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos Velez; Jackson, Chanaye; Yanez, N David; Gelaye, Bizu; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia), Chile. Methods Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bottle-feeding, pacifier use, and other sucking behaviors, was collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by parents. Evaluation of speech problems was conducted at preschools with subsequent scoring by a licensed speech pathologist using age-normative standards. Results A total of 128 three- to five-year olds were assessed, 46% girls and 54% boys. Children were breastfed for an average of 25.2 (SD 9.6) months and used a bottle 24.4 (SD 15.2) months. Fifty-three children (41.7%) had or currently used a pacifier for an average of 11.4 (SD 17.3) months; 23 children (18.3%) were reported to have sucked their fingers. Delayed use of a bottle until after 9 months appeared to be protective for subsequent speech disorders. There was less than a one-third lower relative odds of subsequent speech disorders for children with a delayed use of a bottle compared to children without a delayed use of a bottle (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-0.98). A three-fold increase in relative odds of speech disorder was found for finger-sucking behavior (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.10-8.00) and for use of a pacifier for 3 or more years (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.08-10.81). Conclusion The results suggest extended use of sucking outside of breastfeeding may have detrimental effects on speech development in young children. PMID:19845936

  20. The role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chicken.

    PubMed

    Mortezaei, Sepideh Seyedali; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab; Hasani, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    It has been reported that serotonin can modulate glutamate and GABA release in central nervous system (CNS). The present study was designed to examine the role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chickens. In Experiment 1 intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MK- 801(NMDA receptor antagonist, 15 nmol) performed followed by serotonin (10 μg). In experiments 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 prior to serotonin injection, chickens received CNQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nmol), AIDA (mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol), LY341495 (mGluR2 antagonist, 150 nmol), UBP1112 (mGluR3 antagonist, 2 nmol), picrotoxin (GABA A receptor antagonist, 0.5 μg), CGP54626 (GABAB receptor antagonist, 20 ng) respectively. Cumulative food intake was determined at 3 h post injection. The results of this study showed that the hypophagic effect of serotonin was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MK- 801 and CNQX (p < 0.05) but AIDA, LY341495 and UBP1112 had no effect (p > 0.05). Also, the inhibitory effect of serotonin on food intake was amplified by picrotoxin (p < 0.05) while CGP54626 had no effect (p > 0.05). These results suggest that serotonin as a modulator probably interacts with glutamatergic (via NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors) and GABAergic (via GABAA receptor) systems on feeding behavior in chicken.

  1. Prenatal stress programming of offspring feeding behavior and energy balance begins early in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pankevich, Diana E; Mueller, Bridget R; Brockel, Becky; Bale, Tracy L

    2009-08-04

    To examine the long-term effects of stress experienced early in gestation on the programming of offspring feeding behaviors and energy balance, pregnant mice were exposed to stress during early pregnancy (days 1-7) and adult offspring examined on chow and high fat diets for long-term outcomes. Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) expression was measured to determine the possible sex-specific contribution of prenatal stress (PNS) on fetal programming of embryo growth and development during early pregnancy. PNS mice showed a basal hyperphagia when on chow diet. Prenatal treatment differences were ameliorated when adult mice were on a high fat diet. Interestingly, PNS male mice also had significantly reduced body weights compared to control males on both chow and high fat diets. Body composition analyses revealed reduced body fat and increased lean mass in PNS mice on the high fat diet, but no differences were detected in plasma leptin or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Mechanistic examination of gene expression in embryonic day 12 placentas found that early PNS was associated with increased IGF-2 expression and sex-dependent effects of stress on 11 beta-HSD2, supporting specific aspects of early pregnancy. These studies suggest that the long-term effects of stress during pregnancy on programming of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis begin much earlier in development than previously thought.

  2. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    PubMed Central

    TERASHI, MUTSUMI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; KOYAMA, KEN-ICHIRO; CHAOLU, HUKE; USHIKAI, MIHARU; INUI, AKIO

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1–2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders. PMID:22977506

  3. Plant extracts as phytogenic additives considering intake, digestibility, and feeding behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Camila Sousa; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti; Cavalcante, Edwilka Oliveira; de Lima, Ewerton Ivo Martins; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, José Ricardo Coelho; da Silva, Daniel Cézar

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt. As experimental design, we used a 5 × 5 Latin square design (five treatments and five periods). The data were analyzed through the mixed model through the procedure PROC MIXED of software Systems Statistical Analysis version 9.1, with comparation analysis between the treatment without additive (control) with phytogenic additives produced from vegetable extracts of mesquite pod, of coriander seed, the bulb of garlic, and the oregano leaves. There were no significant differences for the nutrient intake and ingestive behavior patterns. However, the additive intake derived from mesquite pods and coriander extracts provided an increase in digestibility. Extracts from garlic, coriander, and mesquite pods can be used as phytogenic additives in feeding sheep.

  4. Comparison of time-restricted and ad libitum self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme profiles of Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ce; Liu, Ying; Yi, Mengmeng; Zheng, Jimeng; Tian, Huiqin; Du, Yishuai; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-07-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that a predictable feeding regime in animals allows physiological variables to be adjusted to maximize nutrient utilization and, hence, better growth performance, the assumption has rarely been tested. This study compares the Effects of time-restricted versus free access self-feeding on the growth, feeding behavior and daily digestive enzyme rhythms of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). In an experiment that lasted 6 weeks, fish (109.9 g) were divided into two groups: group 1 had free access to a self-feeder (FA); group 2 received three meals per day (2 h per meal) at dawn, midday and dusk via a time-restricted self-feeder (TR). At the end of the experiment, the fish were sampled every 3 h over a 24-h period. The results showed that the TR fish quickly synchronized their feeding behavior to the feeding window and their blood glucose showed a significant postprandial increase, while FA fish displayed no statistically significant rhythms (P<0.05). Pepsin activity of TR fish also showed a significant daily rhythm (P<0.05) with the acrophase at the second feed and a decrease over the next 12 h. Average daily trypsin, lipase and amylase levels of FA fish were significantly lower than those of TR fish (P<0.01); however, the growth performance of both groups was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, the study failed to confirm a link between the entrainment of daily digestive enzyme profiles and growth performance, with the TR group showing comparatively poor blood glucose regulation.

  5. The influence of feeding, enrichment, and seasonal context on the behavior of Pacific Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens).

    PubMed

    Franks, Becca; Lyn, Heidi; Klein, Lauren; Reiss, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Though some research exists concerning general behavior and activity patterns of Walruses in zoos or aquariums, less is known about how these patterns change in response to various environmental and temporal contexts. This study presents two studies assessing behavioral changes in relation to feeding period, object enrichment (OE), and season in a social group of four Pacific Walruses at the New York Aquarium. Study 1 examined behavior in relation to feeding context (nonfeed, prefeed, postfeed); data were collected over a three-week period, resulting in 47 observation sessions for each feeding context. Study 2 examined behavior in relation to OE and season; data were collected in two phases resulting in 12 enrichment and 9 no-enrichment (NE) observation sessions (Phase 1), and 21 enrichment and 18 NE observation sessions (Phase 2). Study 1 showed that after feeding, oral behavior increased while social behavior and total swim frequency decreased. In Study 2, both swim frequency and social behavior were found to interact with OE and phase, while oral behavior remained constant across all conditions. As in the wild, both studies found all animals to be swimming the majority of the time. Though every animal spent much of its swim time engaged in an Individual Swimming Pattern (ISP), both studies showed that the proportion of ISP (in relation to total time swimming) remained stable across all contexts, suggesting a potential functional role of the ISPs. These results are discussed in light of the ongoing debate over the role of stereotypies in welfare assessment.

  6. "Starve a fever and feed a cold": feeding and anorexia may be adaptive behavioral modulators of autonomic and T helper balance.

    PubMed

    Bazar, Kimberly A; Yun, A Joon; Lee, Patrick Y

    2005-01-01

    Anorexia is a common symptom accompanying infections, but the teleology of the phenomenon remains unexplained. We hypothesize that anorexia may represent a prehistoric behavioral adaptation to fight infection by maintaining T helper (Th)2 bias, which is particularly vital in fighting bacterial pathogens. Specifically, we propose that anorexia may avert the reduction of Th2/Th1 ratio by preventing feeding-induced neurohormonal and vagal output from the gut. Emerging evidence suggests that the vagal and neurohormonal output of the gut during feeding promotes Th1 function, which is desirable in fighting viral infections. Since fever may be an adaptation to fight bacteria and "colds" are generally viral in origin, the adage "starve a fever and feed a cold" may reflect a sensible behavioral strategy to tilt autonomic and Th balance in directions that are optimal for fighting the particular type of infection. The ability to modulate T helper balance through the neurohormonal and autonomic axis by adjusting food intake may be the mechanism behind other unexplained clinical observations such as the improved outcomes of ICU patients after enteric versus parenteric feedings. Compared to the prehistoric period when bacterial infection was commonplace, the anorexic response may be less adaptive today when viruses and cancers have become common triggers of anorexia. By promoting host anorexia, cachexia, and insomnia, cancers and viruses can deter behaviors such as digestion and sleep that would raise vagal and Th1 activity against tumors and viruses. Hydration and sleep, unexplained but widely accepted recommendations for flu patients, may also work by promoting vagal and Th1 functions. Modulating feeding, hydration, and sleep may prove beneficial in treating other conditions associated with abnormal autonomic and Th balance.

  7. Some observations on overwintering sites of adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and strategies followed under natural and seminatural conditions.

    PubMed

    Thareja, V; Singh, Rangoli; Singha Naorem, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Field population of adult Culex quinquefasciatus Say, landed in December, congregated and overwintered in indoor artificial sites in Delhi. Repeated sampling strategy by individually collecting the adults was adopted to study their overwintering strategies for 4 years (December to April). They remained vagile and readily repopulated the resting sites after the removal of samples. A large percentage of females was fertile, unfed and nulliparous indicating that reproduction ceased in them. Adult survival was significantly prolonged to a maximum of 3 months under natural conditions. Gonotrophic cycle also got prolonged. Close to quitting, they became gravid and left in April without oviposition. No adults were observed on the sites for the rest of the year. Oviposition was induced in the blood-engorged females when provided with food, water and outdoor conditions. Oviposition might have been induced directly by water and food provided them energy under seminatural conditions. Eggs were laid singly or in the form of rafts, and the number in both the cases was low. Singly laid eggs did not hatch, and in rafts, hatching was ~80 %. Winter conditions seemed to strongly impact fertility, blood feeding, fecundity, oviposition behaviour, egg hatchability and longevity. Use of the overwintering sites as biological tool, as a part of environmental control in IPM, is suggested for organising antivector measures during winter. There is a need of exploring and creating more sites of this kind.

  8. Comparative cranial morphology in living and extinct platypuses: Feeding behavior, electroreception, and loss of teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asahara, Masakazu; Koizumi, Masahiro; Macrini, Thomas E.; Hand, Suzanne J.; Archer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The modern platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, has an eye structure similar to aquatic mammals; however, platypuses also have a “sixth sense” associated with the bill electro- and mechanoreception that they use without opening their eyes underwater. We hypothesize that Ornithorhynchus and the Miocene taxon Obdurodon have different sensory capacities, which may have resulted from differences in foraging behavior. To estimate differences in foraging, sensory systems, and anatomical divergence between these monotremes, we compared their skull morphologies. Results indicate that the bill of Obdurodon is more dorsally deflected than that of Ornithorhynchus, suggesting a pelagic foraging behavior in Obdurodon compared to the bottom-feeding behavior in Ornithorhynchus. The infraorbital foramen of Obdurodon, through which the maxillary nerve passes sensory data from the bill to the brain, is relatively less developed than that of Ornithorhynchus. Whereas bill-focused sensory perception was likely shared among Mesozoic monotremes, the highly developed electrosensory system of Ornithorhynchus may represent an adaptation to foraging in cloudy water. Computed tomography imagery indicates that the enlarged infraorbital canal of Ornithorhynchus restricts the space available for maxillary tooth roots. Hence, loss of functional teeth in Ornithorhynchus may possibly have resulted from a shift in foraging behavior and coordinate elaboration of the electroreceptive sensory system. Well-developed electroreceptivity in monotremes is known at least as far back as the early Cretaceous; however, there are differences in the extent of elaboration of the feature among members of the ornithorhynchid lineage. PMID:27757425

  9. Emotional climate, feeding behaviors, and feeding styles: An observational analysis of the dinner meal in Head Start families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies conducted with ethnically diverse, low-income samples have found that parents with indulgent feeding styles had children with a higher weight status. Indulgent parents are those who are responsive to their child's emotional states but have problems setting appropriate boundaries ...

  10. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  11. Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Dvorak, Robert G.; Manning, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.

  12. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P < 0.001). Furthermore, increased mean mealtime, frequency

  13. The daily catch: Flight altitude and diving behavior of northern gannets feeding on Atlantic mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garthe, Stefan; Guse, Nils; Montevecchi, William A.; Rail, Jean-François; Grégoire, François

    2014-01-01

    Predators utilize a variety of behavioral techniques to capture elusive prey. Behavioral flexibility is essential among generalist predators that pursue a diversity of prey types, and capture efficiency is expected to be intense during the breeding season for parents that engage in self- and offspring-provisioning. We studied the foraging behavior of parental northern gannets in the northwestern Atlantic (Gulf of St. Lawrence) when they were feeding on Atlantic mackerel almost exclusively. Data-loggers recorded short (mean duration: 6.3 s), high speed (inferred vertical speeds of up to 54.0 m*s- 1, equivalent to 194 km*h- 1), and shallow dives (mean depth: 4.2 m; maximum: 9.2 m). Dives tended to occur in bouts, varying between 0.3 and 4.6 per hour (mean = 1.6). During foraging, overall flight heights ranged from 0 to 70 m, with no clear preferences for height. Most plunge-dives were initiated at flight altitudes of 11-60 m (mean ± SE = 37.1 ± 2.8 m; range 3-105 m except for 1 of 162 dives that was initiated at the sea surface). Dive depth and flight altitude at plunge-dive initiation were positively and significantly correlated, though it appears that low flight altitudes were sufficient to reach dive depths at which mackerel were present. Almost all dives were V-shaped indicating that a high acceleration attack is the most effective strategy for gannets feeding on large rapid-swimming prey such as mackerel that owing to thermal preferences does not occur below the thermocline and are thus well available and essentially trapped in the water depths exploited by northern gannets.

  14. A Nutritional Profile of the Trap-Nesting Wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): Comparison of Sexes and Overwintering and Non-Overwintering Generations

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Timothy M.; Fasnacht, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse Saussure is a bivoltine trap-nesting species that possesses a non-overwintering generation (G1) and a generation that overwinters as a prepupa (G2). Thus, the nutritional needs of the G1 individuals were predicted to be different than the G2 because the latter generation needs to store energy prior to diapause. Trap-nesting Trypoxylon are also of interest because, unlike most Hymenoptera, the males guard the nest while females forage. Thus, males may lose nutrients as they stay and guard the nest. In this study, a nutritional profile was created for T. lactitarse to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrates, and lipids) and micronutrient (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn) levels of the different life stages of the wasp and compare individuals of the G1 and G2 generations. There were distinct changes in the nutrient levels relative to the original food source as individuals metamorphosed into larvae, pupae, and adults. G1 larvae had higher levels of carbohydrates than G2 larvae. G2 larvae had higher levels of lipids and K than G1 larvae, indicating possible differences in energy storage. In adults, there was an increase in levels of carbohydrates and Mn. Parental males, which stay and guard the nest, were found to have higher levels of carbohydrates at the end of the nesting period than females and emerging adults. One possible implication is that females may feed males during the nesting period, as the females are the only individuals to forage. PMID:28054943

  15. Secondary biomarkers of insecticide-induced stress of honey bee colonies and their relevance for overwintering strength.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; Ruhnke, Haike; Milchreit, Kathrin; Kleebaum, Katharina; Franke, Monique; Mispagel, Sebastian; Bischoff, Gabriela; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2016-10-01

    The evaluation of pesticide side-effects on honeybees is hampered by a lack of colony-level bioassays that not only are sensitive to physiological changes, but also allow predictions about the consequences of exposure for longer-term colony productivity and survival. Here we measured 28 biometrical, biochemical and behavioural indicators in a field study with 63 colonies and 3 apiaries. Colonies were stressed in early summer by feeding them for five days with either the carbamate growth regulator fenoxycarb or the neurotoxic neonicotinoid imidacloprid, or left untreated. Candidate stress indicators were measured 8-64 days later. We determined which of the indicators were influenced by the treatments, and which could be used as predictors in regression analyses of overwintering strength. Among the indicators influenced by fenoxycarb were the amount of brood in colonies as well as the learning performance and 24h-memory of bees, and the concentration of the brood food component 10HDA in head extracts. Imidacloprid significantly affected honey production, total number of bees and activity of the immune-related enzyme phenoloxidase in forager bee extracts. Indicators predictive of overwintering strength but unrelated to insecticide feeding included vitellogenin titer and glucose oxidase-activity in haemolymph/whole body-extracts of hive bees. Apart from variables that were themselves components of colony strength (numbers of bees/brood cells), the only indicator that was both influenced by an insecticide and predictive of overwintering strength was the concentration of 10HDA in worker bee heads. Our results show that physiological and biochemical bioassays can be used to study effects of insecticides at the colony level and assess the vitality of bee colonies. At the same time, most bioassays evaluated here appear of limited use for predicting pesticide effects on colony overwintering strength, because those that were sensitive to the insecticides were not identical

  16. Suprachiasmatic Vasopressin to Paraventricular Oxytocin Neurocircuit in the Hypothalamus Relays Light Reception to Inhibition of Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Putra; Nakata, Masanori; Ueta, Yoichi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2017-02-07

    Light syncronizes body's circadian rhythms by modulating the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In modern life, the extended and/or irregular light exposure impairs circadian rhythms and consequently promotes feeding and metabolic disorders. However, the neuronal pathway through which light is coupled to feeding behavior is less elucidated. The present study employed the light exposure during dark phase of the day in rats and observed its effect on neuronal activity and feeding behavior. Light exposure acutely suppressed food intake and elevated c-Fos expression in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons of SCN and the oxytocin (Oxt) neurons of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the hypothalamus. The light-induced suppression of food intake was abolished by blockade of the Oxt receptor in the brain. Retrograde tracer analysis demonstrated the projection of SCN AVP neurons to PVN. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of AVP suppressed food intake and increased c-Fos in PVN Oxt neurons. Intra-PVN injection of AVP exerted a stronger anorexigenic effect than icv injection. AVP also induced intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and increased firing frequency in Oxt neurons in PVN slices. These results reveal the novel neurocircuit from SCN AVP to PVN Oxt that relays light reception to inhibition of feeding behavior. This light-induced neurocircuit may serve as a pathway for forming the circadian feeding rhythm, and linking irregular light exposure to arrhythmic feeding and consequently obesity and metabolic diseases.

  17. Cycle-to-cycle variability of neuromuscular activity in Aplysia feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Zhurov, Yuriy; Orekhova, Irina V; Proekt, Alex; Kupfermann, Irving; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Brezina, Vladimir

    2004-07-01

    Aplysia consummatory feeding behavior, a rhythmic cycling of biting, swallowing, and rejection movements, is often said to be stereotyped. Yet closer examination shows that cycles of the behavior are very variable. Here we have quantified and analyzed the variability at several complementary levels in the neuromuscular system. In reduced preparations, we recorded the motor programs produced by the central pattern generator, firing of the motor neurons B15 and B16, and contractions of the accessory radula closer (ARC) muscle while repetitive programs were elicited by stimulation of the esophageal nerve. In other similar experiments, we recorded firing of motor neuron B48 and contractions of the radula opener muscle. In intact animals, we implanted electrodes to record nerve or ARC muscle activity while the animals swallowed controlled strips of seaweed or fed freely. In all cases, we found large variability in all parameters examined. Some of this variability reflected systematic, slow, history-dependent changes in the character of the central motor programs. Even when these trends were factored out, however, by focusing only on the differences between successive cycles, considerable variability remained. This variability was apparently random. Nevertheless, it too was the product of central history dependency because regularizing merely the high-level timing of the programs also regularized many of the downstream neuromuscular parameters. Central motor program variability thus appears directly in the behavior. With regard to the production of functional behavior in any one cycle, the large variability may indicate broad tolerances in the operation of the neuromuscular system. Alternatively, some cycles of the behavior may be dysfunctional. Overall, the variability may be part of an optimal strategy of trial, error, and stabilization that the CNS adopts in an uncertain environment.

  18. period-Regulated Feeding Behavior and TOR Signaling Modulate Survival of Infection.

    PubMed

    Allen, Victoria W; O'Connor, Reed M; Ulgherait, Matthew; Zhou, Clarice G; Stone, Elizabeth F; Hill, Vanessa M; Murphy, Keith R; Canman, Julie C; Ja, William W; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi M

    2016-01-25

    Most metazoans undergo dynamic, circadian-regulated changes in behavior and physiology. Currently, it is unknown how circadian-regulated behavior impacts immunity against infection. Two broad categories of defense against bacterial infection are resistance, control of microbial growth, and tolerance, control of the pathogenic effects of infection. Our study of behaviorally arrhythmic Drosophila circadian period mutants identified a novel link between nutrient intake and tolerance of infection with B. cepacia, a bacterial pathogen of rising importance in hospital-acquired infections. We found that infection tolerance in wild-type animals is stimulated by acute exposure to dietary glucose and amino acids. Glucose-stimulated tolerance was induced by feeding or direct injection; injections revealed a narrow window for glucose-stimulated tolerance. In contrast, amino acids stimulated tolerance only when ingested. We investigated the role of a known amino-acid-sensing pathway, the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway, in immunity. TORC1 is circadian regulated and inhibition of TORC1 decreased resistance, as in vertebrates. Surprisingly, inhibition of the less well-characterized TOR complex 2 (TORC2) dramatically increased survival, through both resistance and tolerance mechanisms. This work suggests that dietary intake on the day of infection by B. cepacia can make a significant difference in long-term survival. We further demonstrate that TOR signaling mediates both resistance and tolerance of infection and identify TORC2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for increasing survival of infection.

  19. Period-regulated feeding behavior and TOR signaling modulate survival of infection

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Victoria W.; O’Connor, Reed M.; Ulgherait, Matt; Zhou, Clarice G.; Stone, Elizabeth F.; Hill, Vanessa M.; Murphy, Keith R.; Canman, Julie C.; Ja, William W.; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Most metazoans undergo dynamic, circadian-regulated changes in behavior and physiology. Currently it is unknown how circadian-regulated behavior impacts immunity against infection. Two broad categories of defense against bacterial infection are resistance, control of microbial growth, and tolerance, control of the pathogenic effects of infection. Our study of behaviorally arrhythmic Drosophila circadian Period mutants identified a novel link between nutrient intake and tolerance of infection with B. cepacia, a bacterial pathogen of rising importance in hospital-acquired infections. We found that infection tolerance in wild-type animals is stimulated by acute exposure to dietary glucose and amino acids. Glucose-stimulated tolerance was induced by feeding or direct injection; injections revealed a narrow window for glucose-stimulated tolerance. In contrast, amino acids stimulated tolerance only when ingested. We investigated the role of a known amino acid-sensing pathway, the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway, in immunity. TORC1 is circadian-regulated and inhibition of TORC1 decreased resistance, as in vertebrates. Surprisingly, inhibition of the less well-characterized TOR complex 2 (TORC2) dramatically increased survival, through both resistance and tolerance mechanisms. This work suggests that dietary intake on the day of infection by B. cepacia can make a significant difference in long-term survival. We further demonstrate that TOR signaling mediates both resistance and tolerance of infection and identify TORC2 as a novel potential therapeutic target for increasing survival of infection. PMID:26748856

  20. AXENIC CULTIVATION OF THE HETEROTROPHIC DINOFLAGELLATE PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE AND OBSERVATIONS ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR(1).

    PubMed

    Skelton, Hayley M; Burkholder, JoAnn M; Parrow, Matthew W

    2008-12-01

    Pfiesteria shumwayae Glasgow et J. M. Burkh. [=Pseudopfiesteria shumwayae (Glasgow et J. M. Burkh.) Litaker, Steid., P. L. Mason, Shields et P. A. Tester] is a heterotrophic dinoflagellate commonly found in temperate, estuarine waters. P. shumwayae can feed on other protists, fish, and invertebrates, but research on the biochemical requirements of this species has been restricted by the lack of axenic cultures. An undefined, biphasic culture medium was formulated that supported the axenic growth of two of three strains of P. shumwayae. The medium contained chicken egg yolk as a major component. Successful growth depended on the method used to sterilize the medium, and maximum cell yields (10(4)  · mL(-1) ) were similar to those attained in previous research when P. shumwayae was cultured with living fish or microalgae. Additionally, P. shumwayae flagellate cells ingested particles present in the biphasic medium, allowing detailed observations of feeding behavior. This research is an initial step toward a chemically defined axenic culture medium and determination of P. shumwayae metabolic requirements.

  1. Gyrfalcon feeding behavior during the nestling period in central west Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food delivery and feeding behavior during the nestling period in central West Greenland during the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. We used time-lapse video cameras installed at three nests to record 2677.25 hours of nestling video. Ptarmigan delivered to nests were usually plucked prior to delivery and included the breast and superior thoracic vertebrae. Arctic hare leverets were rarely plucked and often delivered in parts. The most commonly delivered leveret part was the hind legs attached to the lower back. Passerines were rarely plucked and usually delivered whole. After feeding the young, adults removed 20.9% of prey items from the nest, which included items both with and without obvious muscle still attached. Prey delivery rates were similar among nests and increased as nestlings aged. Prey delivery frequency peaked in the morning and evening, with a distinct lull in the late evening and early morning hours. Male and female adults delivered a similar number of prey, though males typically delivered smaller prey than females. Gyrfalcons cached and re-delivered at least 9.1% of all items delivered, and one item was cached and retrieved three times.

  2. The GCN2 kinase biases feeding behavior to maintain amino acid homeostasis in omnivores.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Anne-Catherine; Jousse, Céline; Averous, Julien; Parry, Laurent; Bruhat, Alain; Cherasse, Yoan; Zeng, Huiqing; Zhang, Yuhong; Harding, Heather P; Ron, David; Fafournoux, Pierre

    2005-04-01

    To insure an adequate supply of nutrients, omnivores choose among available food sources. This process is exemplified by the well-characterized innate aversion of omnivores to otherwise nutritious foods of imbalanced amino acid content. We report that brain-specific inactivation of GCN2, a ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that phosphorylates translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in response to intracellular amino acid deficiency, impairs this aversive response. GCN2 inactivation also diminishes phosphorylated eIF2alpha levels in the mouse anterior piriform cortex following consumption of an imbalanced meal. An ancient intracellular signal transduction pathway responsive to amino acid deficiency thus affects feeding behavior by activating a neuronal circuit that biases consumption against imbalanced food sources.

  3. Feeding behavior and temperature and light tolerance of Mysis relicta in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraeve, G.M.; Reynolds, James B.

    1975-01-01

    Live specimens of Mysis relicta from Lake Michigan were held for one year in the laboratory to determine feeding behavior and tolerance to light and temperature. Mysids fed by moving with rapid, horizontal jerking motions toward food as it settled toward the bottom and by swimming slowly, upside down, to gather particles floating on the surface. Scavenging was common. Mysids tolerated considerably higher temperatures than previously reported. Temperature increases (from 5 C) of 1 C per day and 1 C per minute resulted in TLm values of 20.5 C and 20.4 C, respectively. Mortality increased rapidly at temperatures above 13 C. The upper lethal limit for mysids acclimated to 5 C was about 22 C. Survival under continuous, high light intensity (32 foot-candles) was considerably higher than previously reported. Low water temperature (5 C) may have increased light tolerance.

  4. Genetic architecture underlying convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Wagner, James D; Cline, Sara; Thomas, Frances Ann; Messina, Frank J

    2009-05-01

    Independent populations subjected to similar environments often exhibit convergent evolution. An unresolved question is the frequency with which such convergence reflects parallel genetic mechanisms. We examined the convergent evolution of egg-laying behavior in the seed-feeding beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Females avoid ovipositing on seeds bearing conspecific eggs, but the degree of host discrimination varies among geographic populations. In a previous experiment, replicate lines switched from a small host to a large one evolved reduced discrimination after 40 generations. We used line crosses to determine the genetic architecture underlying this rapid response. The most parsimonious genetic models included dominance and/or epistasis for all crosses. The genetic architecture underlying reduced discrimination in two lines was not significantly different from the architecture underlying differences between geographic populations, but the architecture underlying the divergence of a third line differed from all others. We conclude that convergence of this complex trait may in some cases involve parallel genetic mechanisms.

  5. Feed-forward mechanisms: addiction-like behavioral and molecular adaptations in overeating.

    PubMed

    Alsiö, Johan; Olszewski, Pawel K; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2012-04-01

    Food reward, not hunger, is the main driving force behind eating in the modern obesogenic environment. Palatable foods, generally calorie-dense and rich in sugar/fat, are thus readily overconsumed despite the resulting health consequences. Important advances have been made to explain mechanisms underlying excessive consumption as an immediate response to presentation of rewarding tastants. However, our understanding of long-term neural adaptations to food reward that oftentimes persist during even a prolonged absence of palatable food and contribute to the reinstatement of compulsive overeating of high-fat high-sugar diets, is much more limited. Here we discuss the evidence from animal and human studies for neural and molecular adaptations in both homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite regulation that may underlie the formation of a "feed-forward" system, sensitive to palatable food and propelling the individual from a basic preference for palatable diets to food craving and compulsive, addiction-like eating behavior.

  6. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  7. Neonatal immune challenge affects the regulation of estrus cyclicity and feeding behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Murakami, Masahiro; Kinouchi, Riyo; Shimizu, Fumi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    A single immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the neonatal period has a long-lasting influence on immune response. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether neonatal LPS challenge influences the life-long neuroendocrine sensitivity of reproductive function and feeding behavior to LPS, and whether stress-related neuropeptides and their receptors are involved in neonatal LPS-induced physiological change. On day 10 after birth, all pups were injected with LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Then, in Experiment 1, LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline was injected at diestrous in adulthood, and the length of the estrous cycle, 24h food intake and body weight change were recorded. In Experiment 2, the mRNA expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin (UCN), urocortin 2 (UCN2), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH receptor type 2 (CRH-R2) in the hypothalamus were measured using real-time PCR. LPS injection in adulthood prolonged the estrous cycle in neonatal LPS-injected rats. LPS injection in adulthood decreased food intake and body weight in both neonatal LPS- and saline-injected rats, more so in the latter. Basal expressions of UCN2 and CRH-R2 mRNA were higher in neonatal LPS-injected rats than in saline-injected rats. These findings indicate that neonatal immune challenge influences the anti-stress regulation of the estrous cycle and feeding behavior in adulthood. Increased expression of UCN2 and CRH-R2 might enhance the sensitivity of the estrous cycle in suppressing the effects of LPS.

  8. Nesting habits shape feeding preferences and predatory behavior in an ant genus.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Labrière, Nicolas; Touchard, Axel; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    We tested if nesting habits influence ant feeding preferences and predatory behavior in the monophyletic genus Pseudomyrmex (Pseudomyrmecinae) which comprises terrestrial and arboreal species, and, among the latter, plant-ants which are obligate inhabitants of myrmecophytes (i.e., plants sheltering so-called plant-ants in hollow structures). A cafeteria experiment revealed that the diet of ground-nesting Pseudomyrmex consists mostly of prey and that of arboreal species consists mostly of sugary substances, whereas the plant-ants discarded all the food we provided. Workers forage solitarily, detecting prey from a distance thanks to their hypertrophied eyes. Approach is followed by antennal contact, seizure, and the manipulation of the prey to sting it under its thorax (next to the ventral nerve cord). Arboreal species were not more efficient at capturing prey than were ground-nesting species. A large worker size favors prey capture. Workers from ground- and arboreal-nesting species show several uncommon behavioral traits, each known in different ant genera from different subfamilies: leaping abilities, the use of surface tension strengths to transport liquids, short-range recruitment followed by conflicts between nestmates, the consumption of the prey's hemolymph, and the retrieval of entire prey or pieces of prey after having cut it up. Yet, we never noted group ambushing. We also confirmed that Pseudomyrmex plant-ants live in a kind of food autarky as they feed only on rewards produced by their host myrmecophyte, or on honeydew produced by the hemipterans they attend and possibly on the fungi they cultivate.

  9. Sublethal Effects of ActiveGuard Exposure on Feeding Behavior and Fecundity of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L; Sivakoff, Frances S

    2015-05-01

    Sublethal exposure to pesticides can alter insect behavior with potential for population-level consequences. We investigated sublethal effects of ActiveGuard, a permethrin-impregnated fabric, on feeding behavior and fecundity of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) from five populations that ranged from susceptible to highly pyrethroid resistant. After exposure to ActiveGuard fabric or untreated fabric for 1 or 10 min, adult virgin female bed bugs were individually observed when offered a blood meal to determine feeding attempts and weight gain. Because bed bug feeding behavior is tightly coupled with its fecundity, all females were then mated, and the number of eggs laid and egg hatch rate were used as fecundity measures. We observed that pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible bugs were not significantly different for all feeding and fecundity parameters. Bed bugs exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly less likely to attempt to feed or successfully feed, and their average blood meal size was significantly smaller compared with individuals in all other groups. Independent of whether or not feeding occurred, females exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly more likely to lay no eggs. Only a single female exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min laid any eggs. Among the other fabric treatment-exposure time groups, there were no observable differences in egg numbers or hatch rates. Brief exposure of 10 min to ActiveGuard fabric appeared to decrease feeding and fecundity of pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs, suggesting the potentially important role of sublethal exposure for the control of this ectoparasitic insect.

  10. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    PubMed

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  11. The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Itou, Takuya; Kitamura, Nobuo; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-06-28

    The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Me5), which receives input from oral proprioceptors and projects to higher brain regions, is involved in mastication-induced modulation of satiation. To investigate how the Me5 is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior, we examined the effect of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the Me5 on feeding and exploratory behavior in mice. Mouse feeding and exploratory behaviors were analyzed using a food-search-compulsion-apparatus (FSCA), which was designed to distinguish between the two behaviors under standard living conditions. To assess anxiety in mice in an unfamiliar environment, exploratory activity was analyzed in an automated hole-board apparatus. Mice with bilateral Me5 lesions had unique feeding and exploratory behavior profiles in the FSCA compared with sham-operated mice. Me5-lesioned mice spent more time in the food chamber during each trial in the FSCA, but the number of entries into the food chamber was decreased by 40% compared to sham-operated mice. Moreover, Me5 lesions markedly inhibited exploratory behavior, manifested as low-frequency exploration. In spite of the low-frequency exploration in the FSCA, Me5 lesions had no effect on various exploratory activities analyzed in the hole-board apparatus, i.e., total locomotor activity, frequency and duration of rearing and head-dipping, and latency to the first head-dipping. These results suggest that the Me5 is involved in the control of feeding and exploratory behavior through its ascending neuronal pathways in mice without modulating the emotional state.

  12. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  13. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on the feeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Herskin, M S; Skjøth, F; Jensen, M B

    2010-05-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5L of milk via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5mm). Behavior observed during a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased duration of nonnutritive sucking for calves fed via 1.5-mm tubes compared with calves in the 2 other treatments. The duration of nonnutritive sucking increased with increasing level of hunger. Furthermore, calves with reduced hunger showed a lower frequency of butting than calves at the 2 other hunger levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive sucking and butting when hunger was increased. The results suggest that nonnutritive sucking is a more sensitive indicator than drinking rate of changes in feeding motivation. Consequently, reduction in nonnutritive sucking might be a new candidate in the search for behavioral indicators of disease in dairy calves.

  14. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  15. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Overwintering Summer Steelhead Fallback and Kelt Passage at The Dalles Dam 2008-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2009-09-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of overwintering summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fallback and early out-migrating steelhead kelts downstream passage at The Dalles Dam (TDA) sluiceway and turbines during fall/winter 2008 and early spring 2009, respectively. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). Operating the sluiceway reduces the potential for hydropower production. However, this surface flow outlet may be the optimal non-turbine route for fallbacks in late fall after the sluiceway is typically closed for juvenile fish passage and for overwintering summer steelhead and kelt passage in the early spring before the start of the voluntary spill season. The goal of this study was to characterize adult steelhead spatial and temporal distributions and passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines, and their movements in front of the sluiceway at TDA to inform fisheries managers’ and engineers’ decision-making relative to sluiceway operations. The study periods were from November 1 to December 15, 2008 (45 days) and from March 1 to April 9, 2009 (40 days). The study objectives were to 1) estimate the number and distribution of overwintering summer steelhead fallbacks and kelt-sized acoustic targets passing into the sluiceway and turbines at TDA during the two study periods, respectively, and 2) assess the behavior of these fish in front of sluice entrances. We obtained fish passage data using fixed-location hydroacoustics and fish behavior data using acoustic imaging. For the overwintering summer steelhead, fallback occurred throughout the 45-day study period. We estimated that a total of 1790 ± 250 (95% confidence interval) summer steelhead targets passed through the powerhouse intakes and operating sluices during November 1 to December 15, 2008. Ninety five percent of these fish passed through the sluiceway. Therefore, without the sluiceway as

  16. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  17. Ocean acidification induces changes in algal palatability and herbivore feeding behavior and performance.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristian; López, Jorge; Benítez, Samanta; Manríquez, Patricio H; Navarro, Jorge M; Bonta, Cesar C; Torres, Rodrigo; Quijón, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    The effects of global stressors on a species may be mediated by the stressors' impact on coexisting taxa. For instance, herbivore-algae interactions may change due to alterations in algal nutritional quality resulting from high CO2 levels associated with ocean acidification (OA). We approached this issue by assessing the indirect effects of OA on the trophic interactions between the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata and the brown alga Durvillaea antarctica, two prominent species of the South-east Pacific coast. We predicted that amphipod feeding behavior and performance (growth rate) will be affected by changes in the palatability of the algae exposed to high levels (1000 ppm) of CO2. We exposed algae to current and predicted (OA) atmospheric CO2 levels and then measured their nutritive quality and amphipod preference in choice trials. We also assessed consumption rates separately in no-choice trials, and measured amphipod absorption efficiency and growth rates. Protein and organic contents of the algae decreased in acidified conditions and amphipods showed low preference for these algae. However, in the no-choice trials we recorded higher grazing rates on algae exposed to OA. Although amphipod absorption efficiency was lower on these algae, growth rates did not differ between treatments, which suggests the occurrence of compensatory feeding. Our results suggest that changes in algal nutritional value in response to OA induce changes in algal palatability and these in turn affect consumers' food preference and performance. Indirect effects of global stressors like OA can be equally or more important than the direct effects predicted in the literature.

  18. Feeding behavior of the stink bug Bagrada hilaris is changed by the electrical signals applied during EPG recordings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior of piercing-sucking insects is most rigorously studied using eletropenetrography (EPG). This technique utilizes an electrical circuit to record waveforms caused by voltage fluctuations when a wired insect inserts its stylet into an electrified plant. Past researchers have asserted t...

  19. Effect of Bait Supplements on the Feeding and Tunneling Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined the effects of water soluble chemicals from an aqueous extract of Summon Preferred Food Source disks and from a sports drink, Gatorade, on the feeding and tunneling behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Both Summon extract and Gato...

  20. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...

  1. Behavioral Intervention and Prevention of Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Eicher, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    Although eating is considered an automatic physiologic process, many children experience feeding difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for assessment, treatment and prevention of feeding difficulties in children. Identification and treatment of any factors actively interfering with feeding success is a critical…

  2. Breast-Feeding Attitudes and Behavior among WIC Mothers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaaler, Margaret L.; Stagg, Julie; Parks, Sharyn E.; Erickson, Tracy; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the influence of demographic characteristics on attitudes toward the benefits of breast-feeding, approval of public breast-feeding, and the use of infant formula. Additionally, the study examined whether attitudes were related to infant feeding practices among mothers enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition…

  3. Water Stress Modulates Soybean Aphid Performance, Feeding Behavior, and Virus Transmission in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Nachappa, Punya; Culkin, Christopher T.; Saya, Peter M.; Han, Jinlong; Nalam, Vamsi J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how water stress including drought and flooding modifies the ability of plants to resist simultaneous attack by insect feeding and transmission of insect-vectored pathogen. We analyzed insect population growth, feeding behaviors, virus transmission, and plant amino acid profiles and defense gene expression to characterize mechanisms underlying the interaction between water stress, soybean aphid and aphid-transmitted, Soybean mosaic virus, on soybean plants. Population growth of non-viruliferous aphids was reduced under drought stress and saturation, likely because the aphids spent less time feeding from the sieve element on these plants compared to well-watered plants. Water stress did not impact population growth of viruliferous aphids. However, virus incidence and transmission rate was lowest under drought stress and highest under saturated conditions since viruliferous aphids took the greatest amount time to puncture cells and transmit the virus under saturated conditions and lowest time under drought stress. Petiole exudates from drought-stressed plants had the highest level of total free amino acids including asparagine and valine that are critical for aphid performance. Aphids did not benefit from improved phloem sap quality as indicated by their lower densities on drought-stressed plants. Saturation, on the other hand, resulted in low amino acid content compared to all of the other treatments. Drought and saturation had significant and opposing effects on expression of marker genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Drought alone significantly increased expression of ABA marker genes, which likely led to suppression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes. In contrast, ABA marker genes were down-regulated under saturation, while expression of SA- and JA-related genes was up-regulated. We propose that the apparent antagonism between ABA and SA/JA signaling pathways contributed to an increase in aphid

  4. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, April D.; Morgan, Shannon M. D.; Dupuis, Michelle; Poulliott, Craig E.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Franchini, Rhianna; Clobridge, Anne; Rudd, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1) or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1). Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission. PMID:27195489

  5. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  6. Effects of chronic administration of caffeine and stress on feeding behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Pettenuzzo, Leticia Ferreira; Noschang, Cristie; von Pozzer Toigo, Eduardo; Fachin, Andrelisa; Vendite, Deusa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2008-10-20

    Anorectic effects of caffeine are controversial in the literature, while stress and obesity are growing problems in our society. Since many stressed people are coffee drinkers, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of stress and chronic administration of caffeine on feeding behavior and body weight in male and female rats. Wistar rats (both males and females) were divided into 3 groups: control (receiving water), caffeine 0.3 g/L and caffeine 1.0 g/L (in the drinking water). These groups were subdivided into non-stressed and stressed (repeated-restraint stress for 40 days). During the entire treatment, chow consumption was monitored and rats were weighed monthly. Afterwards, feeding behavior was evaluated during 3-min trials in food-deprived and ad libitum fed animals and also in repeated exposures, using palatable food (Froot Loops and Cheetos). Chronic administration of caffeine did not affect rat chow consumption or body weight gain, but diminished the consumption of both salty (Cheetos) and sweet (Froot Loops) palatable food. In the repeated trial tests, stress diminished savory snack consumption in the later exposures [I.S. Racotta, J. Leblanc, D. Richard The effect of caffeine on food intake in rats: involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and the sympatho-adrenal system. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994, 48:887-892; S.D. Comer, M. Haney, R.W. Foltin, M.W. Fischman Effects of caffeine withdrawal on humans living in a residential laboratory. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997, 5:399-403; A. Jessen, B. Buemann, S. Toubro, I.M. Skovgaard, A. Astrup The appetite-suppressant effect of nicotine is enhanced by caffeine. Diab Ob Metab. 2005, 7:327-333; J.M. Carney Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol. 1982, 75:451-454] and caffeine diminished consumption of both palatable foods (savory and sweet) during the early and later exposures. Most responses to caffeine were stronger

  7. Parallel Evolution of Larval Feeding Behavior, Morphology, and Habitat in the Snail-Kiling fly Genus Tetanocera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, E. G.; Foote, B. A.; Malukiewicz, J.; Hoeh, W. R.

    2005-05-01

    Sciomyzid larvae (Diptera: Acalyptratae) display a wide range of feeding behaviors, typically preying on a wide variety of gastropods. The genus Tetanocera is particularly interesting because its species occupy five larval feeding groups with each species' larvae living in one of two habitat types (aquatic or terrestrial). We constructed a molecular phylogeny for Tetanocera, estimated evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats that occurred during Tetanocera phylogenesis, and investigated potential correlations among larval habitat and morphological characteristics. Approximately 3800 base pairs (both mitochondrial and nuclear) of sequence data were used to build the phylogeny. Larval feeding groups and habitat type were mapped onto the phylogeny and pair-wise comparisons were used to evaluate potential associations between habitat and morphology. Feeding and habitat groups within Tetanocera were usually not monophyletic and it was estimated that Tetanocera lineages made at least three independent aquatic to terrestrial transitions. These parallel habitat shifts were typically accompanied by parallel character state changes in four morphological characteristics (larval color and three posterior spiracular disc characters). These larval habitat-morphology associations were statistically significant and consistent with the action of natural selection in facilitating the morphological changes that occurred during aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions in Tetanocera.

  8. Plant resistance to aphid feeding: behavioral, physiological, genetic and molecular cues regulate aphid host selection and feeding.

    PubMed

    Smith, C Michael; Chuang, Wen-Po

    2014-04-01

    Aphids damage major world food and fiber crops through direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Fortunately, the development of many aphid-resistant crop plants has provided both ecological and economic benefits to food production. Plant characters governing aphid host selection often dictate eventual plant resistance or susceptibility to aphid herbivory, and these phenotypic characters have been successfully used to map aphid resistance genes. Aphid resistance is often inherited as a dominant trait, but is also polygenic and inherited as recessive or incompletely dominant traits. Most aphid-resistant cultivars exhibit constitutively expressed defenses, but some cultivars exhibit dramatic aphid-induced responses, resulting in the overexpression of large ensembles of putative aphid resistance genes. Two aphid resistance genes have been cloned. Mi-1.2, an NBS-LRR gene from wild tomato, confers resistance to potato aphid and three Meloidogyne root-knot nematode species, and Vat, an NBS-LRR gene from melon, controls resistance to the cotton/melon aphid and to some viruses. Virulence to aphid resistance genes of plants occurs in 17 aphid species--more than half of all arthropod biotypes demonstrating virulence. The continual appearance of aphid virulence underscores the need to identify new sources of resistance of diverse sequence and function in order to delay or prevent biotype development.

  9. Prey transport kinematics in Tupinambis teguixin and Varanus exanthematicus: conservation of feeding behavior in 'chemosensory-tongued' lizards.

    PubMed

    Elias, J A; McBrayer, L D; Reilly, S M

    2000-02-01

    Although lizards have been predicted to show extensive intraoral prey-processing behaviors, quantitative analyses of the types of prey-processing behavior they demonstrate and of their kinematics have been limited. The more basal lizard lineages (Iguanians) have undergone some study, but the prey-processing repertoires of crown taxa have not been thoroughly examined and quantitative comparisons of behaviors within or among species have not been made. In this study, the prey transport behavior of the savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus) and gold tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) are described. Although these two lineages have independently evolved tongues that are highly specialized for chemoreception, we found that they share the same three distinct types of transport behavior. These behavior patterns are (i) a purely inertial transport, (ii) an inertial transport with use of the tongue, and (iii) a non-inertial lingual transport. The tongue is used extensively in both the inertial and the purely lingual transport behaviors. More than 75 % of all transport behaviors involved tongue movements. These species appear to exhibit a conservation of feeding kinematics compared with patterns known for basal lizards. A hypothesis for the evolution of inertial feeding is proposed.

  10. Benefits for dominant red deer hinds under a competitive feeding system: food access behavior, diet and nutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; Bartoš, Ludek; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow dominant hinds to consume the preferred components of food. Forty-four red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus) were allowed to consume ad libitum meal consisting of pellets of sunflower, lucerne and orange, and seeds of cereals, corn, cotton, and carob tree. The meal was placed only in one feeder, which reduced accessibility to a few individuals simultaneously. During seven days, feeding behavior (order of access, time to first feeding bout, total time spent feeding, and time per feeding bout) were assessed during the first hour. The relative abundance of each meal component was assessed at times 0, 1 and 5 h, as well as its nutritional composition. Social rank was positively related to the amount of time spent feeding during the 1(st) h (P = 0.048). Selection indices were positively correlated with energy (P = 0.018 during the 1(st) h and P = 0.047 from 1(st) to 5(th)) and fat (only during the 1(st) h; P = 0.036), but also negatively with certain minerals. Thus, dominant hinds could select high energy meal components for longer time under an ad libitum but restricted food access setting. Selection indices showed a higher selectivity when food availability was higher (1(st) hour respect to 1(st) to 5(th)). Finally, high and low ranking hinds had longer time per feeding bout than mid ones (P = 0.011), suggesting complex behavioral feeding tactics of low ranking social ungulates.

  11. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  12. Performances of survival, feeding behavior, and gene expression in aphids reveal their different fitness to host alteration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Yang, Pengcheng; Xu, Yongyu; Luo, Lan; Zhu, Junjie; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-01-13

    Insect populations feeding on different plant species are under selection pressure to adapt to these differences. A study integrating elements of the ecology, behavior, and gene expression of aphids on different host plants has not yet been well-explored. The present study explores the relationship between host fitness and survival, feeding behavior, and salivary gland gene expression of a pea (Pisum sativum) host race of Acyrthosiphon pisum feeding on a common host Vicia faba and on three genetically-related hosts (Vicia villosa, Medicago truncatula, and Medicago sativa). Life table data indicated that aphids on non-favored hosts exhibited small size, low reproduction rate, slow population increase and individual development, and long lifespan. Electrical penetration graph results showed that the aphids spent significantly less time in passive ingestion of phloem sap on all non-preferred host plants before acclimation. After a period of acclimation on M. truncatula and V. villosa, pea host race individuals showed improved feeding behavior. No individuals of the pea host race completed its life history on M. sativa. Interestingly, the number of host-specific differentially-expressed salivary gland genes was negatively correlated with the fitness of aphids on this host plant. This study provided important cues in host plant specialization in aphids.

  13. Feeding behavior and growth of broiler chicks fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to broiler chicks on chick growth. Chicks readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Chicks 3 to 8 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 1,552 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) larvae per chick per day and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 84 g) at the end of the 6 d than for chicks on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 8 d after feeding on larvae for 6 d, the chicks did not compensate for the reduced weight and their body weights were significantly less (mean = 170 g) than for chicks on starter feed for the 14 d. Chicks from age 2 through 9 d were given a choice between broiler starter feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers (mean +/- SD) of larvae consumed per chick per day were: 389 +/- 18, 631 +/- 14, 496 +/- 20, and 287 +/- 33, for Days 2 to 3, 4 to 5, 6 to 7, and 8 to 9, respectively. The body weight of chicks feeding on starter feed and larvae was significantly greater than the weight of chicks consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per chick was less than for chicks provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed.

  14. Feeding behavior and growth of turkey poults fed larvae of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    PubMed

    Despins, J L; Axtell, R C

    1994-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of feeding larvae of the darkling beetle (lesser mealworm), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) [Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae], to turkey poults on poult growth and of beak trimming on poult feeding on the larvae. Young turkey poults readily fed on the larvae and exhibited reduced growth in the absence of other feed. Poults 3 to 5 d old restricted to a diet of only larvae consumed 259 +/- 99 (+/- SD) larvae per poult per day and their body weights were significantly lower (mean = 30 g) at the end of the 3 d than for poults on starter feed during the same time. After return to starter feed for 16 d after feeding on larvae for 3 d, the poults did not compensate for the weight loss although weight gains were normal. Poults from 2 through 10 d of age were given a choice between starter turkey feed and darkling beetle larvae. The numbers of larvae consumed per poult per day were: 174 +/- 8 for Days 2 to 4, 221 +/- 3 for Days 5 to 7, and 189 +/- 80 for Days 8 to 10. There was no significant difference between the body weight of poults feeding on larvae and starter feed compared with that of poults consuming feed only. In the presence of larvae, the mean feed consumption per poult was lower than for poults provided with only starter feed. The beetle larvae were 68% crude protein and 21% fat (DM basis) and had higher amounts of 18 amino acids than the starter feed. Poults that were beak trimmed consumed only about one-third as many larvae as poults with intact beaks. Poults (1 to 3 d old) with intact beaks consumed 169 +/- 20 larvae per poult per day; poults with trimmed beaks consumed 58 +/- 23 larvae per poult per day.

  15. Use of Extended Characteristics of Locomotion and Feeding Behavior for Automated Identification of Lame Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Gian; Starke, Alexander; Schuepbach-Regula, Gertraud; Müller, Hendrik; Kohler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to detect differences in locomotion and feeding behavior in lame (group L; n = 41; gait score ≥ 2.5) and non-lame (group C; n = 12; gait score ≤ 2) multiparous Holstein cows in a cross-sectional study design. A model for automatic lameness detection was created, using data from accelerometers attached to the hind limbs and noseband sensors attached to the head. Each cow’s gait was videotaped and scored on a 5-point scale before and after a period of 3 consecutive days of behavioral data recording. The mean value of 3 independent experienced observers was taken as a definite gait score and considered to be the gold standard. For statistical analysis, data from the noseband sensor and one of two accelerometers per cow (randomly selected) of 2 out of 3 randomly selected days was used. For comparison between group L and group C, the T-test, the Aspin-Welch Test and the Wilcoxon Test were used. The sensitivity and specificity for lameness detection was determined with logistic regression and ROC-analysis. Group L compared to group C had significantly lower eating and ruminating time, fewer eating chews, ruminating chews and ruminating boluses, longer lying time and lying bout duration, lower standing time, fewer standing and walking bouts, fewer, slower and shorter strides and a lower walking speed. The model considering the number of standing bouts and walking speed was the best predictor of cows being lame with a sensitivity of 90.2% and specificity of 91.7%. Sensitivity and specificity of the lameness detection model were considered to be very high, even without the use of halter data. It was concluded that under the conditions of the study farm, accelerometer data were suitable for accurately distinguishing between lame and non-lame dairy cows, even in cases of slight lameness with a gait score of 2.5. PMID:27187073

  16. Arcuate Na+,K+-ATPase senses systemic energy states and regulates feeding behavior through glucose-inhibited neurons.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hideharu; Xu, Kai Y; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Santoso, Putra; Yang, Yifei; Arai, Takeshi; Gantulga, Darambazar; Muroya, Shinji; Lefor, Alan K; Kakei, Masafumi; Watanabe, Eiju; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-08-15

    Feeding is regulated by perception in the hypothalamus, particularly the first-order arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, of the body's energy state. However, the cellular device for converting energy states to the activity of critical neurons in ARC is less defined. We here show that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in ARC senses energy states to regulate feeding. Fasting-induced systemic ghrelin rise and glucose lowering reduced ATP-hydrolyzing activity of NKA and its substrate ATP level, respectively, preferentially in ARC. Lowering glucose concentration (LG), which mimics fasting, decreased intracellular NAD(P)H and increased Na(+) concentration in single ARC neurons that subsequently exhibited [Ca(2+)]i responses to LG, showing that they were glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons. Third ventricular injection of the NKA inhibitor ouabain induced c-Fos expression in agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in ARC and evoked neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent feeding. When injected focally into ARC, ouabain stimulated feeding and mRNA expressions for NPY and AgRP. Ouabain increased [Ca(2+)]i in single NPY/AgRP neurons with greater amplitude than in proopiomelanocortin neurons in ARC. Conversely, the specific NKA activator SSA412 suppressed fasting-induced feeding and LG-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in ARC GI neurons. NPY/AgRP neurons highly expressed NKAα3, whose knockdown impaired feeding behavior. These results demonstrate that fasting, via ghrelin rise and LG, suppresses NKA enzyme/pump activity in ARC and thereby promotes the activation of GI neurons and NPY/AgRP-dependent feeding. This study identifies ARC NKA as a hypothalamic sensor and converter of metabolic states to key neuronal activity and feeding behaviour, providing a new target to treat hyperphagic obesity and diabetes.

  17. Chemogenetic synaptic silencing of neural circuits localizes a hypothalamus→midbrain pathway for feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stachniak, Tevye J.; Ghosh, Anirvan; Sternson, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain function is mediated by neural circuit connectivity, and elucidating the role of connections is aided by techniques to block their output. We developed cell type-selective, reversible synaptic inhibition tools for mammalian neural circuits by leveraging G-protein signaling pathways to suppress synaptic vesicle release. Here, we find that the pharmacologically selective designer Gi-protein coupled receptor, hM4D, is a presynaptic silencer in the presence of its cognate ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Activation of hM4D signaling sharply reduced synaptic release probability and synaptic current amplitude. To demonstrate the utility of this tool for neural circuit perturbations, we developed an axon-selective hM4D–neurexin variant and used spatially targeted intracranial CNO injections to localize circuit connections from the hypothalamus to the midbrain responsible for feeding behavior. This synaptic silencing approach is broadly applicable for cell type-specific and axon projection-selective functional analysis of diverse neural circuits. PMID:24768300

  18. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    PubMed

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution.

  19. Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.).

    PubMed

    Wegner, A; Besseling, E; Foekema, E M; Kamermans, P; Koelmans, A A

    2012-11-01

    As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this uptake on the organism are unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 30-nm PS on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by exposing the organism to different nano PS and different algae (Pavlova lutheri) concentrations. The state of nano PS aggregation in the exposure medium was assessed using dynamic light scattering. In all treatments that contained nano PS, M. edulis produced pseudofeces. The total weight of the feces and pseudofeces increased with increasing nano PS and increasing algae concentration. Furthermore, M. edulis reduced its filtering activity when nano PS was present but still caused a decrease in the apparent nano PS concentration in the water. The presence of nano PS around the foot of M. edulis after the bioassay confirmed that the organism removed nano PS from the water. Chronic effect studies are therefore needed to investigate the effects of nanoplastics in M. edulis and possible consequences for its predators, including humans.

  20. EPG Recordings Reveal Differential Feeding Behaviors in Sogatella furcifera in Response to Plant Virus Infection and Transmission Success

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wenbin; Li, Pei; Han, Yongqiang; Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Lang; Hou, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses are primarily transmitted by insect vectors and virus infection may influence on the vectors’ feeding behaviors. Using an electrical penetration graph, we detected that infection with the Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) and in rice plants both altered the vector’s feeding behavior. When viruliferous WBPH (carrying SRBSDV) were fed on uninfected plants, they spent more time in salivation and phloem sap ingestion than non-viruliferous insects. In comparison with uninfected plants, infected plants showed an arrestant effect on non-viruliferous WBPH for phloem sap ingestion. Differential feeding behaviors were also detected between the WBPH that inoculated or acquired SRBSDV and those that failed to. The WBPH that inoculated SRBSDV exhibited more probing bouts, salivation events and phloem sap ingestion events and longer salivation than those that failed to. The WBPH that acquired SRBSDV were quicker to reach phloem and spent more time in phloem sap ingestion than those that failed to. These behavior alterations in the vector may have adaptive advantages for SRBSDV transmission and spread success because greater salivation by viruliferous vectors on uninfected hosts will promote virus inoculation, whereas more sap ingestion by non-viruliferous vectors on infected hosts will promote virus acquisition. PMID:27492995

  1. Short-term separation from groups by male Japanese macaques: costs and benefits in feeding behavior and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yosuke; Sawada, Akiko; Hanya, Goro

    2014-04-01

    To expand our understanding of fission-fusion behavior and determine its variability among primates, studies of both individual-based and group-based fission-fusion are necessary. We conducted a parallel tracking study of male and female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) during the non-mating season to clarify the general features of separate ranging by males of this species, an example of fission-fusion behavior, and to reveal its associated costs and benefits. Males frequently engaged in short-term separate ranging, leaving the company of females and ranging on their own for periods averaging 68 min in duration. However, the males did not venture outside the group's home range. When ranging separately from the group, males spent more time feeding, particularly on fruit, stayed longer in each feeding tree, and fed at a lower rate than when ranging with the group. These behavioral changes suggest that males can avoid within-group feeding competition by ranging alone. However, this behavior was also associated with higher traveling costs, and these separated males were more vulnerable to intergroup competition and had fewer opportunities for social interaction. The frequency of separate ranging was lower when highly clumped food plant species were the main food source. Lower-ranked males, who received more aggression when ranging with the group, exhibited a higher frequency of separate ranging. This behavioral flexibility with respect to group cohesion may allow males to reduce the costs of group living without completely losing the benefits. Specifically, by ranging alone, males may acquire sufficient feeding time without being disturbed by other group members. Conversely, when ranging with the group, males can access grooming partners and advantages in intergroup competition.

  2. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system. PMID:26252658

  3. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  4. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.

  5. The relation between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates: implications of feeding behavior and ecology.

    PubMed

    De Jonge, Maarten; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluates the relationship between Acid Volatile Sulfides (AVS) and metal accumulation in invertebrates with different feeding behavior and ecological preferences. Natural sediments, pore water and surface water, together with benthic and epibenthic invertebrates were sampled at 28 Flemish lowland rivers. Different metals as well as metal binding sediment characteristics including AVS were measured and multiple regression was used to study their relationship with accumulated metals in the invertebrates taxa. Bioaccumulation in the benthic taxa was primarily influenced by total metal concentrations in the sediment. Regarding the epibenthic taxa metal accumulation was mostly explained by the more bioavailable metal fractions in both the sediment and the water. AVS concentrations were generally better correlated with metal accumulation in the epibenthic invertebrates, rather than with the benthic taxa. Our results indicated that the relation between AVS and metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates is highly dependent on feeding behavior and ecology.

  6. Cold hardiness and deacclimation of overwintering Papilio zelicaon pupae.

    PubMed

    Williams, Caroline M; Nicolai, Annegret; Ferguson, Laura V; Bernards, Mark A; Hellmann, Jessica J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-12-01

    Seasonally-acquired cold tolerance can be reversed at warm temperatures, leaving temperate ectotherms vulnerable to cold snaps. However, deacclimation, and its underlying mechanisms, has not been well-explored in insects. Swallowtail butterflies are widely distributed but in some cases their range is limited by low temperature and their cold tolerance is seasonally acquired, implying that they experience mortality resulting from deacclimation. We investigated cold tolerance and hemolymph composition of Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon) pupae during overwintering in the laboratory, and after four days exposure to warm temperatures in spring. Overwintering pupae had supercooling points around -20.5°C and survived brief exposures to -30°C, suggesting partial freeze tolerance. Overwintering pupae had hemolymph osmolality of approximately 920 mOsm, imparted by high concentrations of glycerol, K⁺ and Na⁺. After exposure to spring warming, supercooling points increased to approximately -17°C, and survival of a 1h exposure to -20°C decreased from 100% to 0%. This deacclimation was associated with decreased hemolymph osmolality and reduced glycerol, trehalose, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentrations. We compared cold tolerance of pupae to weather conditions at and beyond the species' northern range boundary. Minimum temperatures at the range boundary approached the lower lethal temperature of pupae, and were colder north of the range, suggesting that cold hardiness may set northern range limits. Minimum temperatures following warm snaps were likely to cause mortality in at least one of the past three years. Cold snaps in the spring are increasing in frequency as a result of global climate change, so are likely to be a significant source of mortality for this species, and other temperate ectotherms.

  7. Effects of replacing roughage with soy hulls on feeding behavior and milk production of dairy cows under hot weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Halachmi, I; Maltz, E; Livshin, N; Antler, A; Ben-Ghedalia, D; Miron, J

    2004-07-01

    Two total mixed rations (TMR) containing different proportions of roughage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were fed to lactating cows under Israeli summer conditions, and the effects on feeding behavior and milk production were measured. Forty-two lactating cows were divided into 2 groups fed ad libitum a TMR containing either 18% NDF of roughage origin (control group) or only 12% roughage NDF, in which the corn silage component (16.5% of dry matter [DM]) was replaced with soy hulls (experiment group). This and additional adjustments in TMR were reflected in higher net energy for lactation and in vitro digestibility of the experimental TMR. Cow behavior was investigated at the feeding lane during June 2001; about 11,000 cow visits were analyzed. Feed intake per meal and average meal duration were significantly higher in the experiment group (1.51 kg of DM per meal and 12.1 min per meal, respectively) as compared with the control group (1.22 kg of DM per meal and 9.47 min per meal, respectively). However, number of meals per day recorded in the feeding lane was significantly higher in the control group (21.0 vs. 16.6 meals/d per cow). Distribution of meals and feed intake along the day depended more on management practices, such as milking and feed dispensing times, than on feed composition or weather conditions. These differences between groups were expressed in similar daily eating duration (approximately 200 min), and because the rate of feed consumption was similar for both treatments (approximately 127 g DM/min), the daily average DM intake was also similar (25.0 to 25.7 kg). However, NDF intake was higher in the experiment group. Consequently, the average milk yield was higher in the experimental group, and production of milk fat, 4% fat-corrected milk, and economically corrected milk were significantly higher in the experiment group than in the control group. Data imply that the experimental TMR containing only 12% NDF of roughage origin is more suitable for

  8. Effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters on growth and feeding behavior of juvenile chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.; Evans, S.D.; Kelly, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the effects of surgically and gastrically implanted radio transmitters (representing 2.3-5.5% of body weight) on the growth and feeding behavior of 192 juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (114-159 mm in fork length). Throughout the 54-d study, the 48 fish with transmitters in their stomachs (gastric fish) consistently grew more slowly than fish with surgically implanted transmitters (surgery fish), fish with surgery but no implanted transmitter (sham-surgery fish), or fish exposed only to handling (control fish). Growth rates of surgery fish were also slightly impaired at day 21, but by day 54 they were growing at rates comparable with those of control fish. Despite differences in growth, overall health was similar among all test fish. However, movement of the transmitter antenna caused abrasions at the corner of the mouth in all gastric fish, whereas only 22% of the surgery fish had inflammation around the antenna exit wound. Feeding activity was similar among groups, but gastric fish exhibited a coughing behavior and appeared to have difficulty retaining swallowed food. Because growth and feeding behavior were less affected by the presence of surgically implanted transmitters than by gastric implants, we recommend surgically implanting transmitters for biotelemetry studies of juvenile chinook salmon between 114 and 159 mm fork length.

  9. Short communication: Effects of dietary fat supplements and forage:concentrate ratio on feed intake, feeding, and chewing behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kargar, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Yang, W Z

    2010-09-01

    Feed intake and feeding behavior of dairy cows fed diets that varied in fat supplementation and forage:concentrate (F:C) ratio were investigated. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4x4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods. Treatments were 1) no supplemental fat and 34:66 F:C ratio; 2) 2% hydrogenated palm oil and 34:66 F:C ratio; 3) 2% yellow grease and 34:66 F:C ratio; and 4) 2% yellow grease and 45:55 F:C ratio. Cows were fed ad libitum twice daily as total mixed ration with free access to water. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by fat supplementation regardless of fat source, whereas increased F:C ratio (from 34:66 to 45:55) lowered DMI by 7.5%. Meal interval, eating rate, and meal size were lower for cows fed yellow grease, and eating rate was less for cows fed the 45:55 F:C ratio diet. Chewing activity was not affected by fat supplementation, but was greater for cows fed the 45:55 F:C ratio diet. Results suggest that supplementation of 2% hydrogenated palm oil or 2% yellow grease had little effect on DMI and chewing behavior of Holstein dairy cows fed a 34:66 F:C ratio diet. The 2 fat sources can replace each other, depending on the availability or cost. Results also showed that DMI and chewing activity can be effectively manipulated by changing the F:C ratio of diet.

  10. Behavior, disturbance responses, and feeding of bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in the Beaufort Sea, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, W.J.; Buchanan, R.A.; Clark, C.W.; Dorsey, E.M.; Fraker, M.A.

    1982-08-01

    In August and September of 1981, the second year, of a five-year study of bowhead whales was completed in the Canadian Beauford Sea. The purpose of the project was to (1) document the normal behavior of bowheads; (2) describe the characteristics of waterborne noise resulting from offshore oil industry activities; (3) quantify the behavioral responses of bowheads to various offshore oil-industry activities, and (4) characterize bowhead feeding areas. Field activities were based in Tuktoyoktuk N.W.T. and were carried out from aircraft, boats, and shore camps.

  11. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (P<0.05) initial BW, BW gain, and initial hip height and tended (P=0.07) to have lower DMI compared to second-parity females. Females with low RFI as heifers consumed 17% less (P<0.01) forage compared to females with high RFI as heifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (P<0.01) than calves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (P<0.01) at the bunk compared to high-RFI females. First-parity females had more (P<0.05) daily step counts and greater lying-bout frequencies compared to second-parity females, but physical activity was not affected by RFI classification. Heart

  12. Associations between Parental Concerns about Preschoolers’ Weight and Eating and Parental Feeding Practices: Results from Analyses of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Eli, Karin; Lindberg, Louise; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Insight into parents’ perceptions of their children’s eating behaviors is crucial for the development of successful childhood obesity programs. However, links between children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding practices and concerns have yet to be established. This study aims to examine associations between parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors and parental feeding practices. First, it tests the original 8-factor structure of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Second, it examines the associations with parental feeding practices, measured with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Materials and Methods Questionnaires were sent to parents from 25 schools/preschools in Stockholm, Sweden and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. The CEBQ factor structure was tested with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Associations between CEBQ subscales Food approach and Food avoidance and CFQ factors Restriction, Pressure to eat and Monitoring were examined with structural equation modelling (SEM), adjusting for child and parental characteristics, and parental confidence, measured with the Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC). CFQ Concern for child weight and Perceived responsibility for child eating were used as mediators. Results 478 parents completed the questionnaires (children: 52% girls, mean age 5.5 years, 20% overweight/obese). A modified 8-factor structure showed an acceptable fit (TLI = 0.91, CFI = 0.92, RMSEA = 0.05 and SRMR = 0.06) after dropping one item and allowing three pairs of error terms to correlate. The SEM model demonstrated that Food approach had a weak direct effect on Restriction, but a moderate (β = 0.30) indirect effect via Concern, resulting in a substantial total effect (β = 0.37). Food avoidance had a strong positive effect on Pressure to eat (β = 0.71). Discussion The CEBQ is a valid instrument for assessing parental perceptions of preschoolers’ eating behaviors. Parental

  13. Individual (co)variation in standard metabolic rate, feeding rate, and exploratory behavior in wild-caught semiaquatic salamanders.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Matthew E; Clay, Timothy A; Careau, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Repeatability is an important concept in evolutionary analyses because it provides information regarding the benefit of repeated measurements and, in most cases, a putative upper limit to heritability estimates. Repeatability (R) of different aspects of energy metabolism and behavior has been demonstrated in a variety of organisms over short and long time intervals. Recent research suggests that consistent individual differences in behavior and energy metabolism might covary. Here we present new data on the repeatability of body mass, standard metabolic rate (SMR), voluntary exploratory behavior, and feeding rate in a semiaquatic salamander and ask whether individual variation in behavioral traits is correlated with individual variation in metabolism on a whole-animal basis and after conditioning on body mass. All measured traits were repeatable, but the repeatability estimates ranged from very high for body mass (R = 0.98), to intermediate for SMR (R = 0.39) and food intake (R = 0.58), to low for exploratory behavior (R = 0.25). Moreover, repeatability estimates for all traits except body mass declined over time (i.e., from 3 to 9 wk), although this pattern could be a consequence of the relatively low sample size used in this study. Despite significant repeatability in all traits, we find little evidence that behaviors are correlated with SMR at the phenotypic and among-individual levels when conditioned on body mass. Specifically, the phenotypic correlations between SMR and exploratory behavior were negative in all trials but significantly so in one trial only. Salamanders in this study showed individual variation in how their exploratory behavior changed across trials (but not body mass, SMR, and feed intake), which might have contributed to observed changing correlations across trials.

  14. Characterizing spring emergence of adult Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using overwintering shelters and pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the spring emergence of overwintering Halyomorpha halys (Stal) and the environmental cues that triggered emergence. Adults were collected from overwintering sites, marked, and re-settled in experimental shelters deployed in screened cages in six woodlots across three Mid-Atlantic st...

  15. Controlling feeding behavior by chemical or gene-directed targeting in the brain: what's so spatial about our methods?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arshad M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial chemical injection (ICI) methods have been used to identify the locations in the brain where feeding behavior can be controlled acutely. Scientists conducting ICI studies often document their injection site locations, thereby leaving kernels of valuable location data for others to use to further characterize feeding control circuits. Unfortunately, this rich dataset has not yet been formally contextualized with other published neuroanatomical data. In particular, axonal tracing studies have delineated several neural circuits originating in the same areas where ICI injection feeding-control sites have been documented, but it remains unclear whether these circuits participate in feeding control. Comparing injection sites with other types of location data would require careful anatomical registration between the datasets. Here, a conceptual framework is presented for how such anatomical registration efforts can be performed. For example, by using a simple atlas alignment tool, a hypothalamic locus sensitive to the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) can be aligned accurately with the locations of neurons labeled by anterograde tracers or those known to express NPY receptors or feeding-related peptides. This approach can also be applied to those intracranial “gene-directed” injection (IGI) methods (e.g., site-specific recombinase methods, RNA expression or interference, optogenetics, and pharmacosynthetics) that involve viral injections to targeted neuronal populations. Spatial alignment efforts can be accelerated if location data from ICI/IGI methods are mapped to stereotaxic brain atlases to allow powerful neuroinformatics tools to overlay different types of data in the same reference space. Atlas-based mapping will be critical for community-based sharing of location data for feeding control circuits, and will accelerate our understanding of structure-function relationships in the brain for mammalian models of obesity and metabolic disorders

  16. Spatial Distribution and Minimum Sample Size for Overwintering Larvae of the Rice Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) in Paddy Fields.

    PubMed

    Arbab, A

    2014-10-01

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), feeds almost exclusively in paddy fields in most regions of the world. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling procedures, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. Field experiments were conducted during 2011 and 2012 to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the overwintering larvae. Data were analyzed using five distribution indices and two regression models (Taylor and Iwao). All of the indices and Taylor's model indicated random spatial distribution pattern of the rice stem borer overwintering larvae. Iwao's patchiness regression was inappropriate for our data as shown by the non-homogeneity of variance, whereas Taylor's power law fitted the data well. The coefficients of Taylor's power law for a combined 2 years of data were a = -0.1118, b = 0.9202 ± 0.02, and r (2) = 96.81. Taylor's power law parameters were used to compute minimum sample size needed to estimate populations at three fixed precision levels, 5, 10, and 25% at 0.05 probabilities. Results based on this equation parameters suggesting that minimum sample sizes needed for a precision level of 0.25 were 74 and 20 rice stubble for rice stem borer larvae when the average larvae is near 0.10 and 0.20 larvae per rice stubble, respectively.

  17. Delayed plumage maturation increases overwinter survival in North Island robins.

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Asa; Armstrong, Doug P.; Lewis, Rebecca M.

    2004-01-01

    Many bird species show delayed plumage maturation (DPM), retaining sub-adult plumage until after their first breeding season. Most explanations assume that DPM increases fitness over the breeding season. However, unless birds undergo a full moult before breeding, DPM could also be an adaptation to increase survival over the previous winter. The winter adaptation hypothesis has never been tested owing to the difficulty of measuring overwinter survival. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in North Island robins (Petroica longipes) using a closed island population where we could accurately estimate survival. The experiment involved dyeing 41 juveniles to mimic adult males, and comparing their survival with 41 control juveniles treated with the same peroxide base minus the pigment. The population was monitored with a series of resighting surveys, and mark-recapture analysis used to estimate overwinter survival. Survival probability was estimated to be 10% for dyed birds versus 61% for control birds in 2001, and 29% for dyed birds versus 40% for control birds in the winter of 2002, supporting the winter adaptation hypothesis for DPM. Access to suitable habitat is the key factor limiting juvenile survival in this population, and the locations where dyed juveniles were sighted suggest that they were often excluded from suitable areas. PMID:15475331

  18. Deformed wing virus implicated in overwintering honeybee colony losses.

    PubMed

    Highfield, Andrea C; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C M; Noël, Laure M-L J; Hall, Matthew J; Martin, Stephen J; Schroeder, Declan C

    2009-11-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses.

  19. Deformed Wing Virus Implicated in Overwintering Honeybee Colony Losses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Highfield, Andrea C.; El Nagar, Aliya; Mackinder, Luke C. M.; Noël, Laure M.-L. J.; Hall, Matthew J.; Martin, Stephen J.; Schroeder, Declan C.

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses. Recently in the United States, dramatic honeybee losses (colony collapse disorder) have been reported; however, there remains no clear explanation for these colony losses, with parasitic mites, viruses, bacteria, and fungal diseases all being proposed as possible candidates. Common characteristics that most failing colonies share is a lack of overt disease symptoms and the disappearance of workers from what appears to be normally functioning colonies. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to monitor the presence of three honeybee viruses, deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV), during a 1-year period in 15 asymptomatic, varroa mite-positive honeybee colonies in Southern England, and 3 asymptomatic colonies confirmed to be varroa mite free. All colonies with varroa mites underwent control treatments to ensure that mite populations remained low throughout the study. Despite this, multiple virus infections were detected, yet a significant correlation was observed only between DWV viral load and overwintering colony losses. The long-held view has been that DWV is relatively harmless to the overall health status of honeybee colonies unless it is in association with severe varroa mite infestations. Our findings suggest that DWV can potentially act independently of varroa mites to bring about colony losses. Therefore, DWV may be a major factor in overwintering colony losses. PMID:19783750

  20. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on wool production, feeding behavior, and body condition of Merino ewes.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Ding, S; Bush, R D; McAllister, T A

    2013-02-01

    The increasing availability of crude glycerin from the biodiesel industry has led to an interest in its use as an energy source in ruminant diets. However, its effects on ruminal fermentation patterns and methane (CH4) production are unclear, and there are no reports on the effect of its inclusion in the diet on wool production or growth of Merino sheep. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin on in vitro ruminal fermentation and CH4 production and DMI, BW, feeding behavior, and wool growth and quality in Merino ewes. Crude glycerin (99.2% pure, colorless, odorless, viscous liquid) replaced whole wheat grain in completely pelleted diets at levels of 0%, 6%, and 12% DM in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, diets were dried and ground through a 1-mm screen and incubated on 2 different days for 24 h. Modified McDougal's buffer and rumen liquor were mixed 3:1, and gas production and CH4 concentration was measured after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with pH and IVDMD measured at 24 h. Cumulative gas (mL/g DM) and methane (mL) production was similar (P ≥ 0.35) among dietary treatments. In vitro dry matter disappearance (%) increased (P < 0.01) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin. For the in vivo study, 39 Merino ewes were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 13 ewes/treatment). Pelleted diets were available continuously for a 10-wk period through the use of automatic feeders. Ewes were weighed every 7 d. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm(2) shorn at d 0 and d 70. Dye bands were used to determine wool growth and fiber length. Intake and ADG were similar among treatments (P = 0.59). Neither wool yield, length, spinning fineness, nor fiber diameter (μm) were affected after supplementation with crude glycerin (P ≥ 0.13). This study indicates the potential for crude glycerin to be included in the diets of Merino sheep at up to 12% DM without

  1. Monitoring feed amounts in goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) using behavioral conditioning in a large mixed species exhibit.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Michele M; Ratte, Magan E

    2008-09-01

    Goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) are large charismatic species, which are often residents in public aquaria. This study reports a novel approach to feeding techniques for three resident goliath groupers. Because of the size and depth of their exhibit, the groupers were conditioned to hand feed from aquarists. Daily food logs were recorded including the type and number of species, how often the groupers were fed, and how often they accepted the offered food. Mackerel, herring, and sardine represented the highest percentage of the diet, whereas capelin, squid, and shrimp were the lowest percentage. Over a one-year period, records showed that grouper 1 and grouper 3 ate fairly consistently throughout the year. Grouper 2 had a higher degree of variation in his monthly feeding average with a decrease from May to September and an increase through April. Grouper 1 and grouper 3 took food from the aquarists most consistently with a monthly average of 88.8+/-10.8 and 89.7+/-6.15% of the time, respectively. Grouper 2 was not as consistent, hand feeding at only 74.5+/-16.2% of the time offered. Diet management and behavioral conditioning with the goliath groupers have established consistent husbandry records and therefore better monitoring of the individual fish's long-term health status. Zoo Biol 27:414-419, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The effect of varying alkaloid concentrations on the feeding behavior of gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Vonnie D.C.; Smith, Kristen P.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Gordon, Ineta M.; Shaw, Taharah E.; Waranch, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Nine alkaloids (acridine, aristolochic acid, atropine, berberine, caffeine, nicotine, scopolamine, sparteine, and strychnine) were evaluated as feeding deterrents for gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar (L.); Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Our aim was to determine and compare the taste threshold concentrations, as well as the ED50 values, of the nine alkaloids to determine their potency as feeding deterrents. The alkaloids were applied to disks cut from red oak leaves (Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by larvae of this polyphagous insect species. We used two-choice feeding bioassays to test a broad range of biologically relevant alkaloid concentrations spanning five logarithmetic steps. We observed increasing feeding deterrent responses for all the alkaloids tested and found that the alkaloids tested exhibited different deterrency threshold concentrations ranging from 0.1 mM to 10 mM. In conclusion, it appears that this generalist insect species bears a relatively high sensitivity to these alkaloids, which confirms behavioral observations that it avoids foliage containing alkaloids. Berberine and aristolochic acid were found to have the lowest ED50 values and were the most potent antifeedants. PMID:21278814

  3. The effect of dentition on feeding development in piglets and on their growth and behavior after weaning.

    PubMed

    Tucker, A L; Duncan, I J H; Millman, S T; Friendship, R M; Widowski, T M

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dentition on feed-oriented behavior and feed consumption before weaning at 28 d, and whether premolar eruption or occlusion at the time of weaning influenced postweaning growth or behavior. Over 3 trials, 24 litters of Yorkshire piglets (n = 233) were provided with creep feed marked with 1% chromic oxide on d 5. Dental exams were performed on d 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, and 27. Fecal samples were visually assessed for feed consumption (via fecal color) on the same day as dental exams, beginning on d 6. The duration of time spent at, and frequency of visits to, the creep feeder were determined from continuous video recordings on d 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, and 24 for 6 h/d (0700 to 1000 h, 1300 to 1600 h). After weaning, behavior was recorded every 5 min for three 2-h time periods (0600 to 0800 h, 1100 to 1300 h, and 1600 to 1800 h) on d 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Piglets younger than 17 d with their premolars erupted and occluded spent less time at the creep feeder and visited it less often than piglets without their premolars erupted and occluded [duration: p(3) (premolar position 3 on maxilla), d 7 (P = 0.005); p(4) (premolar position 4 on mandible), d 7 (P < 0.0001), d 10 (P = 0.003); p(4 )(premolar position 4 on maxilla), d 17 (P = 0.012); occlusion, d 7 (P < 0.0001), d 10 (P = 0.0004); visits: p(3), d 7 (P < 0.0001); p(4), d 7 (P < 0.0001), d 10 (P = 0.001); p(3 )(premolar position 3 on mandible), d 14 (P = 0.037); p(4), d 17 (P = 0.024); occlusion, d 7 (P < 0.0001), d 10 (P = 0.003)]. By d 21 of age, this trend reversed such that piglets with premolars erupted and occluded spent more time at the feeder and visited it more frequently [duration: p(3), d 24 (P = 0.025); p(4), d 24 (P = 0.0005); occlusion, d 21 (P = 0.001), d 24 (P = 0.0001); visits: p(3), d 21 (P = 0.0002), d 24 (P < 0.0001); p(4), d 24 (P = 0.0002); occlusion, d 21 (P < 0.0001), d 24 (P < 0.0001)]. The percentages of piglets with positive fecal

  4. Effects of overwintering temperature on the survival of the black garden ant (Lasius niger).

    PubMed

    Haatanen, Marja-Katariina; van Ooik, Tapio; Sorvari, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    The overwintering temperatures of ants might well be elevated due to climate change. We studied whether the overwintering temperature affects the survival of the queens and whole colonies of the black garden ant, Lasius niger (Linnaeus, 1758). In two consecutive years (2009, 2010) we collected mated, colony founding queens (n = 280) from the urban area of Turku, Finland. Half of the queens overwintered in +7 to +8 °C and the other half in +2 °C. After the overwintering period, we determined their survival rate and measured the body fat content, body size and immune defence (encapsulation rate) of overwintering queens. Using the same setup, we studied the survival of 1-year-old L. niger colonies (queen & workers). Overwintering at a lower temperature (+2 °C) decreased the survival of workers. The survival of colony founding queens differed between years, but unlike with workers, the overwintering temperature did not affect their survival: neither in the colony experiment nor in the single queen experiment. All of the surviving queens managed to produce their worker offspring at the same rate. The relative amount of body fat of queens was higher for those who overwintered at a lower temperature, which is likely a result of lower energy consumption. We did not detect differences in the encapsulation rate between the temperature treatment groups. The ability of colony founding queens to tolerate wide overwintering temperature variations present in urban environments may explain the success of the colony in urban areas. As the colony grows, the overwintering chambers may extend more deeply into the ground. Thus, workers may not have to cope with such cold conditions as colony founding queens.

  5. An automated system for quantitative analysis of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding.

    PubMed

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Formica, Domenico; Visco, Anna Maria; Scaini, Alberto; Taffoni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel unobtrusive technology-aided system is presented and tested for the assessment of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding. A low-cost monitoring device was designed and developed in order to record Suction (S) and Expression (E) pressures from a typical feeding bottle. A software system was developed to automatically treat the data and analyze them. A set of measures of motor control and coordination has been implemented for the specific application to the analysis of sucking behavior. Experimental data were collected with the developed system on two groups of newborns (Healthy vs. Low Birth Weight) in a clinical setting. We identified the most sensitive S features to group differences, and analyzed their correlation with S/E coordination measures. Then, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the system suitability to automatically identify peculiar oral behaviors. Results suggest the suitability of the proposed system to perform an objective technology-aided assessment of the newborn's oral-motor behavior and coordination during the first days of life.

  6. Implication of dopaminergic modulation in operant reward learning and the induction of compulsive-like feeding behavior in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Bédécarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-05-16

    Feeding in Aplysia provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated with changes in the membrane properties and electrical coupling of essential action-initiating B63 neurons in the buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Moreover, the food-reward signal for this learning is conveyed in the esophageal nerve (En), an input nerve rich in dopamine-containing fibers. Here, to investigate whether dopamine (DA) is involved in this learning-induced plasticity, we used an in vitro analog of operant conditioning in which electrical stimulation of En substituted the contingent reinforcement of biting movements in vivo. Our data indicate that contingent En stimulation does, indeed, replicate the operant learning-induced changes in CPG output and the underlying membrane and synaptic properties of B63. Significantly, moreover, this network and cellular plasticity was blocked when the input nerve was stimulated in the presence of the DA receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. These results therefore suggest that En-derived dopaminergic modulation of CPG circuitry contributes to the operant reward-dependent emergence of a compulsive-like expression of Aplysia's feeding behavior.

  7. Circulating ghrelin concentrations fluctuate relative to nutritional status and influence feeding behavior in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wertz-Lutz, A E; Knight, T J; Pritchard, R H; Daniel, J A; Clapper, J A; Smart, A J; Trenkle, A; Beitz, D C

    2006-12-01

    The objective of these experiments was to establish the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrations with feed intake and hormones indicative of nutritional state of cattle. In Exp.1, 4 steers (BW 450 +/- 14.3 kg) were used in a crossover design to compare plasma ghrelin concentrations of feed-deprived steers with those of steers allowed to consume feed and to establish the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrations with those of GH, insulin (INS), glucose (GLU), and NEFA. After adaptation to a once-daily feed offering (0800), 2 steers continued the once-daily feeding schedule (FED), whereas feed was withheld from the other 2 steers (FAST). Serial blood samples were collected via indwelling jugular catheter from times equivalent to 22 h through 48 h of feed deprivation. Average plasma ghrelin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in FAST compared with FED (690 and 123 +/- 6.5 pg/mL) steers. Average plasma ghrelin concentrations for FED steers prefeeding were elevated (P < 0.001) when compared with those postfeeding (174 and 102 +/- 4.2 pg/mL, respectively). Average plasma GH concentration was elevated (P < 0.05) for FAST steers compared with FED steers. Plasma GLU concentrations were not different; however, for FAST steers, NEFA concentrations were elevated (P < 0.001) and INS concentrations were decreased (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 4 steers (BW 416 +/- 17.2 kg) were used in a crossover design to determine the effects of i.v. injection of bovine ghrelin (bGR) on plasma GH, INS, GLU, and NEFA concentrations; length of time spent eating; and DMI. Steers were offered feed once daily (0800). Serial blood samples were collected from steers via indwelling jugular catheter. Saline or bGR was injected via jugular catheter at 1200 and 1400. A dosage of 0.08 microg/kg of BW bGR was used to achieve a plasma ghrelin concentration similar to the physiological concentration measured in a FAST steer in Exp. 1 (1,000 pg/mL). Injection of bGR resulted in elevated (P < 0

  8. Early neonatal feeding is common and associated with subsequent breastfeeding behavior in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Maria E; Labrique, Alain B; Mehra, Sucheta; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu A; Klemm, Rolf D W; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-07-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding of newborns, a practice recommended by WHO, is hindered in many countries by practices such as prelacteal feeding (feeding other foods before breast milk is fed to infants). This paper describes maternal and infant characteristics and trends over time associated with early neonatal feeding (ENF) in Bangladesh. The analysis used data from 24,992 participants in a randomized controlled trial supplementing vitamin A and β-carotene to women in northwestern rural Bangladesh. A majority of newborns (89.2%) were fed substances other than breast milk in the first 3 d of life. Early neonatal feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with lower maternal education, higher gravidity, lower socioeconomic status, and younger maternal age. A perceived inability to suckle normally after birth was closely related to the risk of an infant being fed a food other than breast milk in the first 3 d of life [OR = 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.11)]. Only 18.8% of newborns fed an early neonatal food were exclusively breastfed between 3 d and 3 mo postpartum compared with 70.6% of those not fed an early neonatal food during this period (P < 0.05). Early neonatal feeding practices should be addressed when scaling-up exclusive breastfeeding in South Asia. Maternal education, antenatal care, and support during labor and delivery may help reduce ENF and promote exclusive breastfeeding.

  9. EFFECTS OF QUARTZ PARTICLE SIZE AND SUCROSE ADDITION ON MELTING BEHAVIOR OF A MELTER FEED FOR HIGH-LEVEL GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    MARCIAL J; KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; SCHWEIGER MJ; SWEARINGEN KJ; TEGROTENHUIS WE; HENAGER SH

    2010-07-28

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5 C/min up to 1200 C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 {micro}m. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-{micro}m quartz particles; particles {ge}150 {micro}m formed clusters. Particles of 5 {micro}m completely dissolved by 900 C whereas particles {ge}150 {micro}m did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200 C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles. Over 100 sites in the United States are currently tasked with the storage of nuclear waste. The largest is the Hanford Site located in southeastern Washington State with 177 subterranean tanks containing over fifty-million gallons of nuclear waste from plutonium production from 1944 through 1987. This waste will be vitrified at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. In the vitrification process, feed is charged into a melter and converted into glass to be ultimately stored in a permanent repository. The duration of waste-site cleanups by the vitrification process depends on the rate of melting, i.e., on the rate of the feed-to-glass conversion. Foaming associated with the melting process and the rate of dissolution of quartz particles (silica being the major glass-forming additive) are assumed to be important factors that influence the rate of melting. Previous studies on foaming of high-alumina feed demonstrated that varying the makeup of a melter feed has a significant impact on foaming. The volume of feeds that contained 5-{micro

  10. Acute central administration of immepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, suppresses hypothalamic histamine release and elicits feeding behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Seiichi; Itateyama, Emi; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2009-04-06

    Histamine suppresses feeding behavior via histamine H1 receptors in the hypothalamus. This study was performed to examine whether the acute reduction of histamine release in the hypothalamus caused by immepip, a histamine H3 agonist, modulates the feeding behavior of rats. Rats had a catheter implanted in the third cerebral ventricle (i3v) and were given central injections of phosphate-buffered-saline or immepip (100-300 pmol/rat). Following the i3v administration of immepip, the rats developed dose-dependent hypokinesia within 10 min of administration. Next to hypokinesia, the rats showed significant dose-dependent feeding behavior. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirmed the reduction in histamine release in the hypothalamus of rats following i3v administration of immepip. These results suggest that i3v administration of immepip, an H3 receptor agonist, suppresses hypothalamic histamine release and elicits feeding behavior in rats.

  11. Potential changes in feeding behavior of Antarctic fish, Pseudotrematomus bernacchii (Boulenger, 1902) on the East Ongul Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanich, Suchana; Viyakarn, Voranop; Nomura, Daiki; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    The feeding habits of the Antarctic fish Pseudotrematomus bernacchii (Previous name: Trematomus bernacchii) under the fast ice around Japanese Syowa Station were investigated in the summers of 2004/2005 and 2009/2010. The results showed that amphipods and krill were the major prey. However, there was a significant difference in the proportions of larger invertebrates such as squids, octopus and other crustaceans found in the fish stomachs between 2009/2010 and the previous years. Moreover, the percentage of amphipods and krill in fish stomachs declined over the 5-year period in all fish size classes. Several factors including sea ice melting, habitat and environmental changes might have influenced the pattern of feeding behavior.

  12. Influence of dry matter intake, dry matter digestibility, and feeding behavior on body weight gain of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relative contribution of feeding behavior, DMI, apparent DM digestibility (DMD), and passage rate on variation in BW gain. One hundred forty-three crossbred steers were used in this study to determine the factors that contribute to variation in BW gain. Steers were 304 ± 1 d of age and had an initial BW of 338 ± 3 kg. Steers had ad libitum access to feed, and fresh feed was offered twice daily at 0800 and 1500 h. Individual feed intake and BW gains were determined for 106 d. Titanium dioxide was used as an external marker to estimate apparent DMD and passage rate. A multiple-regression analysis was used to determine the relative contribution of initial BW, feed intake, feeding behaviors, digestibility, and passage rate to variance in BW gain, and a path analysis was conducted to determine direct and indirect relationships of the variables. In the regression analysis, initial BW and DMI accounted for 33% of the variation in BW gain. Substituting meal events and meal size for DMI did not increase the amount of variance in BW gain (27%) accounted for by the regression model. There was a slight increase in the variance in BW gain (35%) when apparent DMD was added to initial BW and DMI. When meal events and meal size were substituted for DMI, there was a decrease (30%) in variance accounted for in BW gain. The regression coefficient for the passage rate did not differ from zero (P = 0.63) when the passage rate was substituted for apparent DMD in the regression model that also included initial BW and DMI, nor did it differ from zero (P = 0.39) in the model that substitutes meal events and meal size for DMI. Three models were used in the path analysis. For all 3 models there was a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between DMI and BW gain but not between apparent DMD and BW gain. In all 3 models there was a significant correlation between meal size, meal events, and initial BW on DMI (P < 0.001). Results of both the regression and

  13. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience.

  14. An opioid-like system regulating feeding behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Mi Cheong; Artyukhin, Alexander B; You, Young-Jai; Avery, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are essential for the regulation of appetite. Here we show that neuropeptides could regulate feeding in mutants that lack neurotransmission from the motor neurons that stimulate feeding muscles. We identified nlp-24 by an RNAi screen of 115 neuropeptide genes, testing whether they affected growth. NLP-24 peptides have a conserved YGGXX sequence, similar to mammalian opioid neuropeptides. In addition, morphine and naloxone respectively stimulated and inhibited feeding in starved worms, but not in worms lacking NPR-17, which encodes a protein with sequence similarity to opioid receptors. Opioid agonists activated heterologously expressed NPR-17, as did at least one NLP-24 peptide. Worms lacking the ASI neurons, which express npr-17, did not response to naloxone. Thus, we suggest that Caenorhabditis elegans has an endogenous opioid system that acts through NPR-17, and that opioids regulate feeding via ASI neurons. Together, these results suggest C. elegans may be the first genetically tractable invertebrate opioid model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06683.001 PMID:25898004

  15. Plant–Aphid Interactions Under Elevated CO2: Some Cues from Aphid Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yucheng; Guo, Huijuan; Ge, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Although the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) accelerates the accumulation of carbohydrates and increases the biomass and yield of C3 crop plants, it also reduces their nitrogen concentration. The consequent changes in primary and secondary metabolites affect the palatability of host plants and the feeding of herbivorous insects. Aphids are phloem feeders and are considered the only feeding guild that positively responds to elevated CO2. In this review, we consider how elevated CO2 modifies host defenses, nutrients, and water-use efficiency by altering concentrations of the phytohormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. We will describe how these elevated CO2-induced changes in defenses, nutrients, and water statusfacilitate specific stages of aphid feeding, including penetration, phloem-feeding, and xylem absorption. We conclude that a better understanding of the effects of elevated CO2 on aphids and on aphid damage to crop plants will require research on the molecular aspects of the interaction between plant and aphid but also research on aphid interactions with their intra- and inter-specific competitors and with their natural enemies. PMID:27148325

  16. Gender differences and effect of photophase on Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) feeding behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), thought to be primarily a phloem-feeding insect, transmits the presumptive pathogen for Huanglongbing, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’. Because this bacterium is restricted to the phloem and bacterial transmission is the res...

  17. Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS

  18. Principles of motivation revealed by the diverse functions of neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical substrates underlying feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Brian A.; Pratt, Wayne E.; Will, Matthew J.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Bakshi, Vaishali P.; Cador, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. Further complexity is conferred by the wide variety of feeding-modulatory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act within these circuits. An ongoing challenge has been to refine the understanding of the functional specificity of these neurotransmitters and circuits, and there have been exciting advances in recent years. We focus here on foundational work of Dr. Ann Kelley that identified distinguishable actions of striatal opioid peptide modulation and dopamine transmission in subcomponents of reward processing. We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. The findings discussed here strengthen the view that incentive-motivational properties of food are coded by substrates and neural circuits that are distinguishable from those that mediate the acute hedonic experience of food reward. Striatal opioid transmission modulates reward processing by engaging frontotemporal circuits, possibly via a hypothalamic-thalamic axis, that ultimately impinges upon hypothalamic modules dedicated to autonomic function and motor pattern control. We will conclude by discussing

  19. Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding.

    PubMed

    Simon, Malene; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter T

    2012-11-01

    Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s(-1)) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s(-1) after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge.

  20. Quantitative assessment of the probability of bluetongue virus overwintering by horizontal transmission: application to Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Even though bluetongue virus (BTV) transmission is apparently interrupted during winter, bluetongue outbreaks often reappear in the next season (overwintering). Several mechanisms for BTV overwintering have been proposed, but to date, their relative importance remain unclear. In order to assess the probability of BTV overwintering by persistence in adult vectors, ruminants (through prolonged viraemia) or a combination of both, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. Furthermore, the model allowed the role played by the residual number of vectors present during winter to be examined, and the effect of a proportion of Culicoides living inside buildings (endophilic behaviour) to be explored. The model was then applied to a real scenario: overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007. The results showed that the limited number of vectors active during winter seemed to allow the transmission of BTV during this period, and that while transmission was favoured by the endophilic behaviour of some Culicoides, its effect was limited. Even though transmission was possible, the likelihood of BTV overwintering by the mechanisms studied seemed too low to explain the observed re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, other overwintering mechanisms not considered in the model are likely to have played a significant role in BTV overwintering in Germany between 2006 and 2007. PMID:21314966

  1. Sulfur isotopes link overwinter habitat use and breeding condition in Double-crested Cormorants.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Craig E; Bur, Michael; Sherman, David; Shutt, J Laird

    2008-04-01

    North American Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) populations have increased greatly. Both breeding and overwintering ground factors have likely contributed to these increases. However, demonstrating how overwintering conditions may affect breeding birds has not been possible because of the difficulty in linking breeding birds to their wintering grounds. Here, we demonstrate the utility of stable sulfur isotopes to elucidate overwintering habitat use by cormorants breeding on Lake Erie. Sulfur isotopes in feathers grown on overwintering grounds provided insights into the degree to which birds used freshwater vs. marine environments. The proportion of birds utilizing freshwater habitats increased through time. This change may have reflected increases in freshwater aquaculture (i.e., catfish) in the U.S. south. Examination of body condition in birds returning to breed on Lake Erie indicated that those individuals that solely used marine habitats for at least a portion of the overwintering period were in poorer condition than birds using freshwater. Enhanced foraging opportunities at aquaculture facilities may improve the fitness of individuals that have returned to breed after overwintering at such locations. This study is the first to demonstrate a linkage between overwinter habitat use and breeding ground parameters in Double-crested Cormorants. These results underscore that factors throughout the Mississippi flyway are likely acting together to regulate cormorant populations.

  2. Tracking overwintering areas of fish-eating birds to identify mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Raphael A; Kyser, T Kurt; Friesen, Vicki L; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-01-20

    Migration patterns are believed to greatly influence concentrations of contaminants in birds due to accumulation in spatially and temporally distinct ecosystems. Two species of fish-eating birds, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) breeding in Lake Ontario were chosen to measure the impact of overwintering location on mercury concentrations ([Hg]). We characterized (1) overwintering areas using stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and band recoveries, and (2) overwintering habitats by combining information from stable isotopes of sulfur (δ(34)S), carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and δ(2)H in feathers grown during the winter. Overall, overwintering location had a significant effect on [Hg]. Both species showed high [Hg] in (13)C-rich habitats. In situ production of Hg (e.g., through sulfate reducing bacteria in sediments) and allochthonous import could explain high [Hg] in birds visiting (13)C-rich habitats. Higher [Hg] were found in birds with high δ(2)H, suggesting that Hg is more bioavailable in southern overwintering locations. Hotspot maps informed that higher [Hg] in birds were found at the limit of their southeastern overwintering range. Mercury concentrations in winter feathers were positively related to predicted spatial pattern of [Hg] in fish using the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF) based on bird spatial assignment (using δ(2)H). This study indicates that the overwintering location greatly influences [Hg].

  3. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  4. Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Kerry E.; Linklater, Wayne L.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Understanding the behavior of problem animal species assists in understanding and mitigating problems caused by wildlife in urban landscapes. The kākā, a threatened New Zealand native parrot, causes damage to trees while feeding on sap. Through observations of sap foraging kākā in Wellington City, this study builds on the limited knowledge of sap feeding and tests hypotheses about the age and sex of sap feeding birds. We found that sap feeding likely occurs in both sexes and across age groups, and that sap feeding birds also utilize supplementary food. This study suggests that sap is an important food source for kākā and that further provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and associated tree damage. Abstract The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60–100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed

  5. Investigation of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on feeding humpback whale behavior. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Malme, C.I.; Miles, P.R.; Tyack, P.; Clark, C.W.; Bird, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on the behavior of feeding humpback whales in Frederick Sound and Stephens Passage, Alaska in August, 1984. Test sounds were a 100 cu. in. air gun and playbacks of recorded drillship, drilling platform, production platform, semi-submersible drill rig, and helicopter fly-over noise. Sound source levels and acoustic propagation losses were measured. The movement patterns of whales were determined by observations of whale-surfacing positions.

  6. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics.

  7. The role of the frontal ganglion in the feeding and eclosion behavior of the moth manduca sexta

    PubMed

    Miles; Booker

    1998-06-01

    We have examined the musculature and motor patterns of the foregut and the role of the frontal ganglion in the adult moth Manduca sexta. During adult development, the structure of the foregut changes from a simple straight tube to a pump consisting of a flexible-roofed chamber or cibarium, with dilator muscles that raise the roof to draw in fluids and a compressor to push it down and force the fluid down the thin-walled esophagus. The frontal ganglion drives the activity of this cibarial pump during feeding, which is triggered by the application of sucrose solution or water to the proboscis. The feeding motor pattern consists of coupled bursts of the pump dilators and shorter-duration, high-frequency bursts of spikes from the pump compressor. The pump is also activated at the adult molt. At this time, it is used both before the moth emerges from the pupal case for swallowing molting fluid and again after emergence for swallowing air. These behaviors are important for eclosion and are necessary for the expansion of the wings after eclosion. Their motor patterns are similar to the feeding program. Up to 24 h before adult ecdysis, this motor pattern can be triggered by the peptide eclosion hormone. The other eclosion-related peptide, Manduca sexta eclosion-triggering hormone, does not appear to trigger activity of the cibarial pump.

  8. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Letian; Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Bo; Lu, Min; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical. PMID:27809267

  9. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  11. Seeking behavior, place conditioning, and resistance to conditioned suppression of feeding in rats intermittently exposed to palatable food.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Sánchez, Clara; Santos, Jeffrey W; Smith, Karen L; Ferragud, Antonio; Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro

    2015-04-01

    Binge eating disorder is characterized by excessive consumption of highly palatable food within short periods of time accompanied by loss of control over eating. Extensive evidence provides support for the consideration of binge eating disorder as an addiction-like disorder. In this study, we wanted to determine whether rats undergoing an operant binge-like eating procedure could develop maladaptive forms of conditioned feeding behaviors. For this purpose, we trained male rats to self-administer either a sugary, highly palatable diet ("Palatable" rats) or a chow diet ("Chow" rats) for 1 hour a day. After escalation and stabilization of palatable food intake, we tested Chow and Palatable rats in (a) a conditioned place preference test, (b) a second-order schedule of reinforcement, (c) a cue-induced suppression of feeding test. In the conditioned place preference task, Palatable rats spent significantly more time in the compartment that was previously paired with the palatable food, compared to Chow controls. Furthermore, in the second-order schedule of reinforcement task, Palatable rats exhibited active lever responding 4- to 6-fold higher than Chow control rats. Finally, in the cue-induced suppression of feeding test, although Chow control subjects reduced responding by 32% in the presence of the conditioned punishment, Palatable rats persevered in responding despite the aversive cue. These results further characterize this animal model of binge-like eating and provide additional evidence for the addictive properties of highly palatable food.

  12. Behavioral responses of gray whales to industrial noise: feeding observations and predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Malme, C.I.; Wuersig, B.; Bird, J.E.; Tyack, P.

    1986-08-01

    An investigation was made of the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum-industry activities on feeding gray whales. The investigation consisted of two components, a field study and an acoustic model study. The field study was performed near Southeast Cape, St. Lawrence Island in August, 1985, using a 100 cu. in. air gun source and playback of drillship noise. Sound-source levels and acoustic-propagation losses were measured to permit estimation of sound exposure levels at whale-sighting positions. For the air-gun source there was a 0.5 probability that the whales would stop feeding and move away from the area when the average pulse levels reached 173 dB.

  13. Migration pathways, behavioural thermoregulation and overwintering grounds of blue sharks in the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Campana, Steven E; Dorey, Anna; Fowler, Mark; Joyce, Warren; Wang, Zeliang; Wright, Dan; Yashayaev, Igor

    2011-02-23

    The blue shark Prionace glauca is the most abundant large pelagic shark in the Atlantic Ocean. Although recaptures of tagged sharks have shown that the species is highly migratory, migration pathways towards the overwintering grounds remain poorly understood. We used archival satellite pop-up tags to track 23 blue sharks over a mean period of 88 days as they departed the coastal waters of North America in the autumn. Within 1-2 days of entering the Gulf Stream (median date of 21 Oct), all sharks initiated a striking diel vertical migration, taking them from a mean nighttime depth of 74 m to a mean depth of 412 m during the day as they appeared to pursue vertically migrating squid and fish prey. Although functionally blind at depth, calculations suggest that there would be a ~2.5-fold thermoregulatory advantage to swimming and feeding in the markedly cooler deep waters, even if there was any reduced foraging success associated with the extreme depth. Noting that the Gulf Stream current speeds are reduced at depth, we used a detailed circulation model of the North Atlantic to examine the influence of the diving behaviour on the advection experienced by the sharks. However, there was no indication that the shark diving resulted in a significant modification of their net migratory pathway. The relative abundance of deep-diving sharks, swordfish, and sperm whales in the Gulf Stream and adjacent waters suggests that it may serve as a key winter feeding ground for large pelagic predators in the North Atlantic.

  14. Migration Pathways, Behavioural Thermoregulation and Overwintering Grounds of Blue Sharks in the Northwest Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Campana, Steven E.; Dorey, Anna; Fowler, Mark; Joyce, Warren; Wang, Zeliang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The blue shark Prionace glauca is the most abundant large pelagic shark in the Atlantic Ocean. Although recaptures of tagged sharks have shown that the species is highly migratory, migration pathways towards the overwintering grounds remain poorly understood. We used archival satellite pop-up tags to track 23 blue sharks over a mean period of 88 days as they departed the coastal waters of North America in the autumn. Within 1–2 days of entering the Gulf Stream (median date of 21 Oct), all sharks initiated a striking diel vertical migration, taking them from a mean nighttime depth of 74 m to a mean depth of 412 m during the day as they appeared to pursue vertically migrating squid and fish prey. Although functionally blind at depth, calculations suggest that there would be a ∼2.5-fold thermoregulatory advantage to swimming and feeding in the markedly cooler deep waters, even if there was any reduced foraging success associated with the extreme depth. Noting that the Gulf Stream current speeds are reduced at depth, we used a detailed circulation model of the North Atlantic to examine the influence of the diving behaviour on the advection experienced by the sharks. However, there was no indication that the shark diving resulted in a significant modification of their net migratory pathway. The relative abundance of deep-diving sharks, swordfish, and sperm whales in the Gulf Stream and adjacent waters suggests that it may serve as a key winter feeding ground for large pelagic predators in the North Atlantic. PMID:21373198

  15. Trade-offs between force and fit: extreme morphologies associated with feeding behavior in carabid beetles.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Junji; Chiba, Satoshi

    2007-07-01

    We explored how functional trade-offs in resource handling strategies are associated with the divergent morphology of predators. The malacophagous carabid Damaster blaptoides shows two extreme morphologies in the forebody; there is an elongate small-headed type and a stout large-headed type. A feeding experiment showed that the small-headed type obtained a high feeding performance on snails with a thick shell and a large aperture by penetrating the shell with its head. In contrast, the large-headed type showed a high feeding performance on snails that had a thin shell and a small aperture, and they ate these prey by crushing the shell. The large-headed, strong-jawed beetles are efficient at shell crushing but are ineffective at shell entry; the large mandibles and musculature that allow for shell crushing make the beetle's head too wide to penetrate shell apertures. On the other hand, small-headed, weak-jawed beetles crush poorly but can reach into shells for direct predation on snail bodies. These findings are hypothesized to be functional trade-offs between force and fit due to morphological constraints. This trade-off would be a primary mechanism affecting both resource handling ability in animals and phenotypic diversity in predators and prey.

  16. Diel feeding behavior and ingestion rate in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus in the southern Gulf of Maine during late spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Edward G.; Campbell, Robert G.; Gilman, Sharon L.; Durbin, Ann G.

    In situ feeding was measured on late stage Calanus finmarchicus in the southern Gulf of Maine during late spring 1988 and 1989. The region is a spring feeding ground for the planktivorous right whale, Eubalaena glacialis. Measurements in 1988 were made during the declining spring bloom, when phytoplankton showed considerable spatial variability. 1989 observations were made after summer stratification had become established, when phytoplankton biomass was low and dominated by the <7 μm size fraction. In situ ingestion rates of C. finmarchicus reflected these differences in food, and ranged from 30.2% body C day -1 at a spring bloom station to 0.6% body C day -1 after stratification. These values compare with a maximum ingestion rate of 44.3% body C day -1 measured in a shipboard grazing experiment using cultured algae as food, and indicate that C. finmarchicus became food limited in the southern Gulf of Maine after stratification. Calanus finmarchicus diet feeding behavior and diet vertical migration patterns changed during the seasonal progression from spring bloom to summer stratification. Diet feeding rhythms and vertical migration were absent during the bloom, but developed as the bloom declined. During the post-bloom stratified conditions, diet feeding rhythms continued but vertical migration ceased. Most of the C. finmarchicus population remained near the surface, while a small population of nonmigratory individuals resided at depth and appeared to be feeding upon sedimented spring bloom diatoms. At the spring bloom station C. finmarchicus ingested only a small proportion of the phytoplankton standing stock in the > 7 μm size fraction (2.9% day -1), reflecting the high biomass of phytoplankton and the stage composition of the C. finmarchicus population, dominated by early copepodite stages with low biomass. In contrast, at the post-bloom stations in 1989, the dense surface aggregations of C. finmarchicus populations were dominated by late copepodite stages

  17. Effects of salinity on survival, feeding behavior and growth of the juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus (Miers, 1876)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shentu, Jikang; Xu, Yongjian; Ding, Zhangni

    2015-05-01

    Effect of salinity on survival, feeding behavior and growth of juvenile swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus was investigated under 5 salinity levels of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40. The results show that the crab juveniles fed 2 or 3 times at the salinity 20 and 30, each lasted for about 25 minutes, for a total feeding time of 73.2±22.65 minutes per day. At these salinities, there were significantly higher in the frequency of feeding and in total feeding time than those at lower salinities of 5 and 10. All crab juveniles moulted when reared at a salinity of 20 during the 5 days duration of the experiment, which is significantly higher than those at other salinities. All juveniles survived at salinity 20, and the survivorship was not significantly different from that at 30, but was significantly higher than those at other salinities. The crab juveniles reared at a salinity of 20 had the highest value of food ration of 0.190 8±0.011 3 g/gBW, average body weight gain of 0.796±0.128 g, gain rate of 87%-96%, and food conversion ratio of 1.20±0.09. There was no significant difference in the values found between 20 and 30 but these values were significantly lower than that at the other salinities ( P >0.05). Highest activities of digestive enzymes (Amylase, Protease, Lipase) and lowest activities of protective enzymes (SOD, PO, CAT) were also obtained on crab juveniles reared at salinity of 20.

  18. Effect of milking frequency and feeding level before and after dry off on dairy cattle behavior and udder characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C B; Lacy-Hulbert, S J; Webster, J R

    2009-07-01

    The effects of 2 common dry-off management procedures, feed restriction [8 vs. 16 kg of dry matter (DM)/d] and reduced milking frequency (once, 1x vs. twice, 2x/d), on the behavior and udder characteristics of dairy cattle were assessed in late lactation and the early dry period. Milking cows 1x instead of 2x in the week before dry off reduced milk yield (7.0 vs. 8.9 +/- 0.95 kg/d for 1x and 2x, respectively), but had little effect on behavior before or after cessation of milking. In comparison, feed restriction reduced milk yield (6.9 vs. 9.1 +/- 0.95 kg/d for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively), udder firmness after dry off (7.3 vs. 8.0 +/- 0.24 g force for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively), milk leakage (2 d after dry off, 14% of cows offered 8 kg of DM/d were leaking milk compared with 42% cows offered 16 kg of DM/d), and the likelihood of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infection (nonclinical mastitis; 12.5 vs. 62.5% of groups with at least 1 cow with a new intramammary infection for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively). Despite these benefits, cows offered only 8 kg of DM/d spent less time eating (7.3 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.28 h/d for 8 and 16 kg DM/d, respectively), more time lying (8.8 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.24 h/d), and vocalized more before dry off than cows offered 16 kg of DM/d (0.8 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.15 calls/min for 8 and 16 kg of DM/d, respectively). These behavioral changes indicate that this level of feed restriction may cause hunger. Information is needed about alternative dry-off procedures that maintain the health benefits and comfort associated with lower milk yield before dry off but prevent hunger, such as feeding low quality diets ad libitum.

  19. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  20. Wood frog adaptations to overwintering in Alaska: new limits to freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Larson, Don J; Middle, Luke; Vu, Henry; Zhang, Wenhui; Serianni, Anthony S; Duman, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2014-06-15

    We investigated the ecological physiology and behavior of free-living wood frogs [Lithobates (Rana) sylvaticus] overwintering in Interior Alaska by tracking animals into natural hibernacula, recording microclimate, and determining frog survival in spring. We measured cryoprotectant (glucose) concentrations and identified the presence of antifreeze glycolipids in tissues from subsamples of naturally freezing frogs. We also recorded the behavior of wood frogs preparing to freeze in artificial hibernacula, and tissue glucose concentrations in captive wood frogs frozen in the laboratory to -2.5°C. Wood frogs in natural hibernacula remained frozen for 193 ± 11 consecutive days and experienced average (October-May) temperatures of -6.3°C and average minimum temperatures of -14.6 ± 2.8°C (range -8.9 to -18.1°C) with 100% survival (N=18). Mean glucose concentrations were 13-fold higher in muscle, 10-fold higher in heart and 3.3-fold higher in liver in naturally freezing compared with laboratory frozen frogs. Antifreeze glycolipid was present in extracts from muscle and internal organs, but not skin, of frozen frogs. Wood frogs in Interior Alaska survive freezing to extreme limits and durations compared with those described in animals collected in southern Canada or the Midwestern United States. We hypothesize that this enhancement of freeze tolerance in Alaskan wood frogs is due to higher cryoprotectant levels that are produced by repeated freezing and thawing cycles experienced under natural conditions during early autumn.

  1. Administration of theanine, a unique amino acid in tea leaves, changed feeding-relating components in serum and feeding behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Nishimura, Yuko; Sakurai, Takumi; Terashima, Takehiko; Okubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-05-01

    We identified an effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine) on feeding in a rat study. Oral theanine suppressed the food intake of rats. The serum glucose level did not differ from the control, but the insulin concentration was reduced and the corticosterone concentration was increased by theanine. We suggest that the effect of theanine on feeding involved hormones.

  2. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  3. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity.

    PubMed

    Bikker, J P; van Laar, H; Rump, P; Doorenbos, J; van Meurs, K; Griffioen, G M; Dijkstra, J

    2014-05-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can be identified by ear movements, a proprietary model classifies sensor data as "ruminating," "eating," "resting," or "active." The objective of the study was to evaluate this sensor on accuracy and precision. First, a pilot evaluation of agreement between 2 independent observers, recording behavior from 3 cows for a period of approximately 9h each, was performed. Second, to evaluate the sensor, the behavior of 15 cows was monitored both visually (VIS) and with the sensor (SENS), with approximately 20 h of registration per cow, evenly distributed over a 24-h period, excluding milking. Cows were chosen from groups of animals in different lactation stages and parities. Each minute of SENS and VIS data was classified into 1 of 9 categories (8 behaviors and 1 transition behavior) and summarized into 4 behavioral groups, namely ruminating, eating, resting, or active, which were analyzed by calculating kappa (κ) values. For the pilot evaluation, a high level of agreement between observers was obtained, with κ values of ≥ 0.96 for all behavioral categories, indicating that visual observation provides a good standard. For the second trial, relationships between SENS and VIS were studied by κ values on a minute basis and Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficient analysis on behavior expressed as percentage of total registration time. Times spent ruminating, eating, resting, and active were 42.6, 15.9, 31.6, and 9.9% (SENS) respectively, and 42.1, 13.0, 30.0, and 14.9% (VIS), respectively. Overall κ for the comparison of SENS and VIS was substantial (0.78), with κ values of 0.85, 0.77, 0.86, and 0.47 for "ruminating," "eating," "resting," and "active

  4. Overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles negatively affect Salamanders and Anurans in native amphibian communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, M.D.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the interactive effects of overwintered Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles and pond hydroperiod on a community of larval amphibians in outdoor mesocosms including American Toads (Bufo americanus), Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) - species within the native range of Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders and Southern Leopard Frogs were negatively influenced by the presence of overwintered Bullfrogs. Spotted Salamanders had shorter larval periods and slightly smaller masses at metamorphosis, and Southern Leopard Frogs had smaller masses at metamorphosis when reared with Bullfrogs than without. Presence of overwintered Bullfrogs, however, did not significantly affect American Toads. Longer pond hydroperiods resulted in greater survival, greater size at metamorphosis, longer larval periods, and later time until emergence of the first metamorphs for Southern Leopard Frog tadpoles and Spotted Salamander larvae. Our study demonstrated that overwintered Bullfrog tadpoles can respond to changing pond hydroperiods and can negatively impact metamorphosis of native amphibians.

  5. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  6. The Leafhoppers: Anatomy, Physiology and Behavior of Feeding and Its Sensory Mediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present book contains chapters summarizing all major aspects of the biology of leafhoppers (family Cicadellidae), among the most numerous and important insect pests in the world. Major chapter topics discussed include internal and external morphology, physiology, behavior, reproduction, taxonom...

  7. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  8. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  9. Effect of barley silage chop length and inoculation on growth performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal acidosis in finishing feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Addah, W; Baah, J; Okine, E K; McAllister, T A

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chop length and inoculation of barley silage on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of finishing feedlot steers. Barley forage (22-35% DM) was chopped to a theoretical chop length (TCL) of either 1.0 (short chop; SC) or 2.0 cm (long chop; LC) and ensiled without or with an esterase-producing bacterial inoculant in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with TCL and inoculation as the main factors. The resultant silages were then incorporated into 4 finishing diets and fed to 80 feedlot steers (n = 20) housed in feedlot pens equipped with a GrowSafe system. Each pen consisted of 8 intact and 2 cannulated steers. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH were measured continuously using the GrowSafe system and ruminal indwelling pH probes, respectively. On average, inoculated silages had higher acetic acid concentrations and lower NDF concentrations. Increasing the TCL from 1.0 to 2.0 cm increased DMI by 0.5 kg/d (P = 0.001), but intake was unaffected ( P= 0.56) by inoculation. Feed efficiency and ADG were not affected (P ≥ 0.46) by TCL, inoculation, or TCL × inoculation interaction. Steers fed LC silage exhibited a reduced eating rate compared to those fed SC silage (8.6 vs. 9.2 kg DM/h) and consequently spent more time (77.5 vs. 70.2 min/(visit∙d)) at the feed bunk. Inoculation also reduced the area under the curve and duration of ruminal pH below 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2 for steers fed the LC diet but increased (P ≤ 0.003) these parameters for those fed the SC diet. It was concluded that incorporation of longer chopped silage into a finishing diet increased DMI, with responses of ruminal pH to inoculation differing between SC and LC silage. Increasing the TCL of barley silage from 1.0 to 2.0 cm may have no additional benefits to finishing feedlot operators as it did not improve rumen function or the growth performance of feedlot steers.

  10. Behavior and Characteristics of Sap-Feeding North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis) in Wellington, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Charles, Kerry E; Linklater, Wayne L

    2013-08-16

    The North Island kākā (Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis), a threatened New Zealand native parrot, was successfully reintroduced to an urban sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand. Conflict has recently begun to emerge with Wellington City residents due to tree damage caused by kākā sap foraging. Little is known about sap foraging behavior of kākā, and this study aimed to gain a greater understanding of this behavior, and to test hypotheses that sap feeding is predominantly a female activity and that one technique, forming transverse gouges through bark, may be restricted to adult kākā. We used instantaneous scan sampling to record the behavior of kākā during 25 60-100 minute observation periods at Anderson Park, Wellington Botanic Garden, and during 13 opportunistic observations of sap feeding kākā in Wellington City. Forty-one observations of sap feeding were made of 21 individually-identified birds. Sap feeding birds were predominantly young and, based on estimated sex, females were no more likely to sap feed than males (exact binomial test p = 0.868). Twenty of the 21 identified sap feeding kākā utilized supplementary feeding stations at Zealandia-Karori Wildlife Sanctuary. Kākā were observed defending sap feeding sites from tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae) and conspecifics. Sap appears to be an important resource for kākā across sexes and life stages, and provision of supplementary food is unlikely to reduce sap feeding and tree damage in Wellington City.

  11. Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Katie E.; Sinclair, Brent J.

    2012-01-01

    Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

  12. Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Katie E; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-01-01

    Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

  13. Overwintering of West Nile virus in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Fang, Ying; Lothrop, Hugh D; Martinez, Vincent M; Wilson, Jennifer; Oconnor, Paul; Carney, Ryan; Cahoon-Young, Barbara; Shafii, Marzieh; Brault, Aaron C

    2006-03-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) invaded southern California during 2003, successfully overwintered, amplified to epidemic levels, and then dispersed to every county in the state. Although surveillance programs successfully tracked and measured these events, mechanisms that allowed the efficient overwintering and subsequent amplification of WNV have not been elucidated. Our current research provided evidence for three mechanisms whereby WNV may have persisted in southern California during the winters of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005: 1) continued enzootic transmission, 2) vertical transmission by Culex mosquitoes, and 3) chronic infection in birds. WNV was detected in 140 dead birds comprising 32 species, including 60 dead American crows, thereby verifying transmission during the November-March winter period. Dead American crows provide evidence of recent transmission because this species always succumbs rapidly after infection. However, WNV RNA was not detected concurrently in 43,043 reproductively active female mosquitoes comprising 11 species and tested in 1,258 pools or antibody in sera from 190 sentinel chickens maintained in 19 flocks. Although efficient vertical transmission by WNV was demonstrated experimentally for Culex tarsalis Coquillett infected per os, 369 females collected diapausing in Kern County and tested in 32 pools were negative for WNV. Vertical transmission was detected in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say adults reared from field-collected immatures collected from Kern County and Los Angeles during the summer transmission period. Chronic infection was detected by finding WNV RNA in 34 of 82 birds that were inoculated with WNV experimentally, held for >6 wk after infection, and then necropsied. Frequent detection of WNV RNA in kidney tissue in experimentally infected birds >6 wk postinfection may explain, in part, the repeated detection of WNV RNA in dead birds recovered during winter, especially in species such as

  14. Feeding behaviors during home-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition using corn-soy blends or lipid-based nutrient supplements.

    PubMed

    Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Ouedraogo, Albertine; Ritz, Christian; Draebel, Tania Aase; Ashorn, Per; Filteau, Suzanne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2016-12-02

    Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months. The study included a mixed methods approach using questionnaires, focus group discussions and home visits and interviews with a subsample of 20 caretakers of trial participants. We found that LNS, compared to CSB, were more likely to be mixed into other foods (OR [95% CI] 1.7 [1.3-2.2], p = <.001), served with a meal (OR [95% CI] 1.6 [1.1-2.3], p = <.018)or between meals (OR [95% CI] 1.5 [1.1-1.9], p = <.005), and fed using an encouraging feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 23% [6%:40%], p = .01). CSB were more likely to be fed using a forced feeding style (mean difference in percentage points [95% CI] 18% [3%:33%], p = .02) and were often observed to be served unprepared. The main differences in feeding behaviors between the two diet groups were linked to how and when supplements were served. Educational instructions should therefore be adapted according to the supplement provided; when providing CSB, efforts should be made to promote an encouraging feeding style, and emphasis should be made to ensure preparations are made according to recommendations.

  15. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  16. Species, Diaspore Volume and Body Mass Matter in Gastropod Seed Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Conclusions and Significance Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size. PMID:23844239

  17. [The sensory and nutritional experience of parents guide offsprings' feeding behavior].

    PubMed

    Parnet, Patricia; Paillé, Vincent; Bolaños Jimenez, Francisco; Kaeffer, Bertrand; Schaal, Benoist; Bouret, Sébastien G; Amarger, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Eating behavior is strongly regulated by intrinsic physiological factors and largely influenced by the individual and cultural environments. Excessive food intake and sedentary lifestyle are the main reasons for the global epidemic of obesity. The influence of family background on eating habits makes no doubt but the fact that the nutritional, metabolic and hormonal status of the parents before conception, and of the mother during gestation and lactation, may influence the child's future eating behavior is an innovative concept that opens the way for preventive policies. In the last decades, research on human cohorts and animal models have targeted biological mechanisms (neuroanatomical, epigenetic) that give some clues on how eating behavior can be formatted by early nutrition and related sensory experience.

  18. Developmental timing of a sensory-mediated larval surfacing behavior correlates with cessation of feeding and determination of final adult size

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, Lauren J.; Ainsley, Joshua A.; Johnson, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled organismal growth to an appropriate adult size requires a regulated balance between nutrient resources, feeding behavior and growth rate. Defects can result in decreased survival and/or reproductive capability. Since Drosophila adults do not grow larger after eclosion, timing of feeding cessation during the third and final larval instar is critical to final size. We demonstrate that larval food exit is preceded by a period of increased larval surfacing behavior termed the Intermediate Surfacing Transition(IST) that correlates with the end of larval feeding. This behavioral transition occurred during the larval Terminal Growth Period (TGP), a period of constant feeding and exponential growth of the animal. IST behavior was dependent upon function of a subset of peripheral sensory neurons expressing the Degenerin/Epithelial sodium channel(DEG/ENaC) subunit, Pickpocket1(PPK1). PPK1 neuron inactivation or loss of PPK1 function caused an absence of IST behavior. Transgenic PPK1 neuron hyperactivation caused premature IST behavior with no significant change in timing of larval food exit resulting in decreased final adult size. These results suggest a peripheral sensory mechanism functioning to alter the relationship between the animal and its environment thereby contributing to the length of the larval TGP and determination of final adult size. PMID:20630480

  19. Habitat relationships of birds overwintering in a managed coastal prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, H.Q.; Grace, J.B.; Barrow, W.C.; Rohwer, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Grassland birds are considered to be rapidly declining in North America. Management approaches for grassland birds frequently rely on prescribed burning to maintain habitat in suitable condition. We evaluated the relationships among years since burn, vegetation structure, and overwintering grassland bird abundance in coastal prairie. Le Conte's Sparrows (Ammodramus leconteii) were most common in areas that had: (1) been burned within the previous 2 years, (2) medium density herbaceous vegetation, and (3) sparse shrub densities. Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) were associated with areas: (1) burned within 1 year, (2) with sparse herbaceous vegetation, and (3) with sparse shrub densities. Sedge Wrens (Cistothorus platensis) were most common in areas that had: (1) burned greater than 2 years prior and (2) dense herbaceous vegetation. Swamp Sparrows (Melospiza georgiana): (1) were most common in areas of dense shrubs, (2) not related to time since burnings, and (3) demonstrated no relationship to herbaceous vegetation densities. The relationships to fire histories for all four bird species could be explained by the associated vegetation characteristics indicating the need for a mosaic of burn rotations and modest levels of woody vegetation.

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Lak; Perring, Thomas M; Yacoub, Rosie; Bartels, David W; Elms, David

    2006-12-01

    A 4-yr landscape-scale study was conducted to investigate spatial and temporal dynamics of overwintering Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the lower San Joaquin Valley, California. Spatial structures of H. coagulata distributions were characterized with Moran's I index, and spatial associations between H. coagulata and the surrounding environment were investigated with a geographic information system. H. coagulata was caught consistently with sticky traps throughout the winter, and trap catches formed a distinctive peak in December or January, indicating active flight of H. coagulata during the winter. In 2000-2001, the mean +/-SE trap count was 4.8 +/- 1.21 per trap per wk, and H. coagulata trap catches were spatially autocorrelated within approximately 1.3 km. Approximately 49% of H. coagulata were caught in citrus, 23% in stone fruit, and 11% in grape. After a control program began in spring 2001, the mean trap count was considerably lower (0.041 +/- 0.0004 per trap per wk), and no spatial autocorrelations were detected in 2001-2004. H. coagulata trap catch-crop associations also changed after initiation of the control program. Between 25 and 38% of H. coagulata trap catches were from citrus, between 8 and 20% were from stone fruit, and between 11 and 25% were from grape. Potential for winter-season spread and management of Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a pathogen causing Pierce's disease, are discussed.

  1. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  2. Effects of Total Ginsenosides on the Feeding Behavior and Two Enzymes Activities of Mythimna separata (Walker) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Hua; Tan, Shi-Qiang; Zhao, Yan; Lei, Feng-Jie; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenosides, the main effective components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L., are important allelochemicals of ginseng. Although many studies have targeted the pharmacological, chemical, and clinical properties of ginsenosides, little is known about their ecological role in ginseng population adaptation and evolution. Pests rarely feed on ginseng, and it is not known why. This study investigated the effects of total ginsenosides on feeding behavior and activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) in Mythimna separata (Walker) larvae. The results showed that the total ginsenosides had significant antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae, determined by nonselective and selective antifeeding bioassays. In addition, the total ginsenosides had inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. The antifeeding ratio was the highest at 8 h, then decreased, and was the lowest at 16 h. Both GST and AChE activities decreased from 0 h to 48 h in all total ginsenosides treatments but increased at 72 h. Total ginsenosides had antifeeding activity against M. separata larvae and inhibitory effects on the activities of GST and AChE. PMID:26074991

  3. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 maintain dopaminergic neuronal properties and control feeding behavior in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pristerà, Alessandro; Lin, Wei; Kaufmann, Anna-Kristin; Brimblecombe, Katherine R.; Threlfell, Sarah; Dodson, Paul D.; Magill, Peter J.; Fernandes, Cathy; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Ang, Siew-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons are implicated in cognitive functions, neuropsychiatric disorders, and pathological conditions; hence understanding genes regulating their homeostasis has medical relevance. Transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 (FOXA1/2) are key determinants of mDA neuronal identity during development, but their roles in adult mDA neurons are unknown. We used a conditional knockout strategy to specifically ablate FOXA1/2 in mDA neurons of adult mice. We show that deletion of Foxa1/2 results in down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of dopamine (DA) biosynthesis, specifically in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). In addition, DA synthesis and striatal DA transmission were reduced after Foxa1/2 deletion. Furthermore, the burst-firing activity characteristic of SNc mDA neurons was drastically reduced in the absence of FOXA1/2. These molecular and functional alterations lead to a severe feeding deficit in adult Foxa1/2 mutant mice, independently of motor control, which could be rescued by l-DOPA treatment. FOXA1/2 therefore control the maintenance of molecular and physiological properties of SNc mDA neurons and impact on feeding behavior in adult mice. PMID:26283356

  4. Impact of feed counterion addition and cyclone type on aerodynamic behavior of alginic-atenolol microparticles produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica; Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica; Smyth, Hugh David Charles

    2016-12-01

    The inhalatory route has emerged as an interesting non-invasive alternative for drug delivery. This allows both pulmonary (local) and systemic treatments (via alveolar absorption). Further advantages in terms of stability, dose and patient preference have often lead researchers to focus on dry powder inhaler delivery systems. Atenolol is an antihypertensive drug with low oral bioavailability and gastrointestinal side effects. Because atenolol possesses adequate permeation across human epithelial membranes, it has been proposed as a good candidate for inhalatory administration. In a previous work, atenolol was combined with alginic acid (AA) and microparticles were developed using spray-drying (SD) technology. Different AA/atenolol ratios, total feed solid content and operative variables were previously explored. In order to improve particle quality for inhalatory administration and the SD yield, in this work the AA acid groups not neutralized by atenolol were kept either free or neutralized to pH∼7 and two different SD cyclones were used. Particle morphology, flow properties, moisture uptake and in vitro aerosolization behavior at different pressure drops were studied. When the AA acid groups were neutralized, particle size decreased as a consequence of the lower feed viscosity. The SD yield and in vitro particle deposition significantly increased when a high performance cyclone was employed, and even when lactose carrier particles were not used. Although the in vitro particle deposition decreased when the storage relative humidity increased, the developed SD powders showed adequate characteristics to be administered by inhalatory route up to storage relative humidities of about 60%.

  5. Test of recrudescence hypothesis for overwintering of West Nile virus in gray catbirds.

    PubMed

    Owen, J C; Moore, F R; Williams, A J; Ward, M P; Beveroth, T A; Miller, E A; Wilson, L C; Morley, V J; Abbey-Lee, R N; Veeneman, B A; DeRussy, B M; McWhorter, M S; Garvin, M C

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus is a pathogen of concern for both human and wildlife health. Although many aspects of the ecology of West Nile virus are well understood, the mechanisms by which this and similar mosquito-borne viruses overwinter and become reinitiated each spring in temperate regions is not known. A thorough understanding of this mechanism is crucial to risk assessment and development of control strategies. One of the hypotheses to explain the mechanism by which this virus persists from year to year is the spring recrudescence of latent virus in avian reservoir hosts. Stress-related immunosuppression is implicated in the recrudescence of latent viruses in birds. We tested the spring recrudescence hypothesis in a controlled laboratory experiment using hatching-year gray catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis) captured in northern Ohio (July-August 2006). Catbirds (n = 60) were experimentally infected (September 2006) and later examined for the effects of immunosuppression through exogenous hormones and artificially induced migratory disposition. We found no effect of either testosterone or migratory behavior on infection status in any of the treatment birds. Moreover, we detected no viral RNA in the kidney, spleen, brain, or liver upon necropsy at 24 wk postinfection.

  6. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  7. Improving Feeding Skills and Mealtime Behaviors in Children and Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    A single-subject multiple treatment design counterbalanced across nine participants with moderate to severe and multiple disabilities was used to determine the efficacy of a school-based multi-treatment package (a combined dysphagia treatment and positive reinforcement behavior management program) for children and youth (ages 4-17) with feeding…

  8. Sublethal effect of imidacloprid on Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feeding, digging, and foraging behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides at sublethal levels impairs colonies of honeybee and other pollinators. Recently, it was found that sublethal contamination with neonicotinoids also affect growth and behavior of ants. In this study, we exposed red imported fi...

  9. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

  10. Gene--environment interactions influence feeding and anti-predator behavior in wild and transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Sundström, L F; Löhmus, M; Devlin, R H

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions are known to affect phenotypic development in many organisms, making the characteristics of an animal reared under one set of conditions not always representative of animals reared under a different set of conditions. Previous results show that such plasticity can also affect the phenotypes and ecological interactions of different genotypes, including animals anthropogenically generated by genetic modification. To understand how plastic development can affect behavior in animals of different genotypes, we examined the feeding and risk-taking behavior in growth-enhanced transgenic coho salmon (with two- to threefold enhanced daily growth rates compared to wild type) under a range of conditions. When compared to wild-type siblings, we found clear effects of the rearing environment on feeding and risk-taking in transgenic animals and noted that in some cases, this environmental effect was stronger than the effects of the genetic modification. Generally, transgenic fish, regardless of rearing conditions, behaved similar to wild-type fish reared under natural-like conditions. Instead, the more unusual phenotype was associated with wild-type fish reared under hatchery conditions, which possessed an extreme risk averse phenotype compared to the same strain reared in naturalized conditions. Thus, the relative performance of genotypes from one environment (e.g., laboratory) may not always accurately reflect ecological interactions as would occur in a different environment (e.g., nature). Further, when assessing risks of genetically modified organisms, it is important to understand how the environment affects phenotypic development, which in turn may variably influence consequences to ecosystem components across different conditions found in the complexity of nature.

  11. Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior transitions during snail-killing fly evolution (Diptera: Sciomyzidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transitions in habitats and feeding behaviors were fundamental to the diversification of life on Earth. There is ongoing debate regarding the typical directionality of transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats and the mechanisms responsible for the preponderance of terrestrial to aquatic transitions. Snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) represent an excellent model system to study such transitions because their larvae display a range of feeding behaviors, being predators, parasitoids or saprophages of a variety of mollusks in freshwater, shoreline and dry terrestrial habitats. The remarkable genus Tetanocera (Tetanocerini) occupies five larval feeding groups and all of the habitat types mentioned above. This study has four principal objectives: (i) construct a robust estimate of phylogeny for Tetanocera and Tetanocerini, (ii) estimate the evolutionary transitions in larval feeding behaviors and habitats, (iii) test the monophyly of feeding groups and (iv) identify mechanisms underlying sciomyzid habitat and feeding behavior evolution. Results Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of molecular data provided strong support that the Sciomyzini, Tetanocerini and Tetanocera are monophyletic. However, the monophyly of many behavioral groupings was rejected via phylogenetic constraint analyses. We determined that (i) the ancestral sciomyzid lineage was terrestrial, (ii) there was a single terrestrial to aquatic habitat transition early in the evolution of the Tetanocerini and (iii) there were at least 10 independent aquatic to terrestrial habitat transitions and at least 15 feeding behavior transitions during tetanocerine phylogenesis. The ancestor of Tetanocera was aquatic with five lineages making independent transitions to terrestrial habitats and seven making independent transitions in feeding behaviors. Conclusions The preponderance of aquatic to terrestrial transitions in sciomyzids goes against the trend generally observed

  12. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    PubMed

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  13. CerioFAST{trademark}: An acute toxicity test based on Ceriodaphnia dubia feeding behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Rhodes, K.; Koopman, B.

    1996-02-01

    The authors have developed a rapid acute toxicity test (CerioFAST{trademark}) based on suppression of feeding activity of Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of toxicants. The bioassay consists of a 1-h exposure period to a given toxicant. Yeast cells, stained with a fluorescent dye, are added 20 min before the end of the exposure period. Response to a toxic sample is indicated by the absence of fluorescence in the gut of the daphnids. CerioFAST was compared to the standard 48-h C. dubia acute bioassay, using heavy metals and organic compounds.CerioFAST EC50s of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ag, Zn, and carbofuran were in the 0.01--0.1-mg/L range, whereas EC50s of hexachloroethane, pentachlorophenol, trichlorophenol, and lindane were in the 1--10-mg/L range. CerioFAST EC50s of the heavy metals and organics were well correlated with Ec50s obtained with the 48-h C. dubia bioassay.

  14. Quantifying the Effects of Predator and Prey Body Size on Sea Star Feeding Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Rebecca A; Harley, Christopher D G

    2015-06-01

    Body size plays a crucial role in determining the strength of species interactions, population dynamics, and community structure. We measured how changes in body size affect the trophic relationship between the sea star Pisaster ochraceus and its prey, the mussel Mytilus trossulus. We tested the effects of a wide range of predator and prey sizes on sea stars' prey-size preference, feeding rate, and prey tissue consumption. We found that preferred prey size increased with sea star size. Pisaster consumption rate (mussels consumed per day) and tissue intake rate (grams of tissue consumed per day) also increased with sea star size. Pisaster consumption rate, but not tissue intake rate, decreased with increasing mussel size. Juvenile sea stars preferred the most profitable prey sizes-that is, those that maximized tissue consumed per unit handling time. When adult sea stars were offered larger, more profitable mussels, tissue intake rates (grams per day) tended to increase, although this relationship was not statistically significant. Our results indicate that the Pisaster-Mytilus interaction depends on the sizes of both predator and prey, that predation rates are sensitive to even small changes in body size, and that shifts in size distributions may affect predator energetics and prey numbers differently depending on the factors that limit tissue consumption rates.

  15. Cooling cows efficiently with water spray: Behavioral, physiological, and production responses to sprinklers at the feed bunk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2016-06-01

    Dairies commonly mount nozzles above the feed bunk that intermittently spray cows to dissipate heat. These sprinklers use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource-but there is little experimental evidence for how much is needed to cool cows in loose housing. Sprinkler flow rate may affect the efficacy of heat abatement, cattle avoidance of spray (particularly on the head), and water waste. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate affects cattle behavioral, physiological, and production responses when cows are given 24-h access to spray in freestall housing, and to evaluate heat abatement in relation to water use. We compared 3 treatments: sprinklers that delivered 1.3 or 4.9L/min (both 3min on and 9min off, 24h/d) and an unsprayed control. Nine pairs of high-producing lactating Holstein cows received each treatment at a shaded feed bunk for 2d in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design [air temperature (T): 24-h maximum=33±3°C, mean ± SD]. Cows spent 5.8±0.9h/24h (mean ± SD) at the feed bunk overall, regardless of treatment. With few exceptions, cows responded similarly to the 1.3 and 4.9L/min flow rates. Sprinklers resulted in visits to the feed bunk that were on average 23 to 27% longer and 13 to 16% less frequent compared with the control, perhaps because cows avoided walking through spray. Indeed, when the sprinklers were on, cows left the feed bunk half as often as expected by chance, and when cows chose to walk through spray, they lowered their heads on average 1.7- to 3-fold more often than in the control. Despite possible reluctance to expose their heads to spray, cows did not avoid sprinklers overall. In warmer weather, cows spent more time at the feed bunk when it had sprinklers (on average 19 to 21min/24h for each 1°C increase in T), likely for heat abatement benefits. Compared with the control, sprinklers resulted in 0.3 to 0.7°C lower body temperature from 1300 to 1500h and 1700 to 2000h overall and attenuated the rise in this

  16. Neural activation patterns underlying basolateral amygdala influence on intra-accumbens opioid-driven consummatory vs. appetitive high-fat feeding behaviors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kyle E.; McCabe, Matt P.; Johns, Howard W.; Lund, Dane K.; Odu, Fiona; Sharma, Rishi; Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Cornelison, DDW; Will, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the role of the amygdala in mediating a unique pattern of feeding behavior driven by intra-accumbens (Acb) opioid activation in the rat. Temporary inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), via GABAA agonist muscimol administration prevents increased consumption following intra-Acb opioid administration of the selective µ-opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO), yet leaves food approach behaviors intact, particularly after consumption has ended. One interpretation is that inactivation of the BLA selectively blocks neural activity underlying DAMGO-driven consummatory (consumption), but not appetitive (approach) behaviors. The present experiments take advantage of this temporal dissociation of consumption and approach behaviors to investigate their associated neural activity. Following either intra-Acb saline or DAMGO administration, with or without BLA muscimol administration, rats were given 2hr access to a limited amount of high-fat diet. Immediately following the feeding session, rats were sacrificed and brains assayed for neural activity patterns across critical brain regions known to regulate both appetitive and consummatory feeding behaviors. The results show that intra-Acb DAMGO administration increased c-Fos activation in orexin neurons within the perifornical area of the hypothalamus and that this increase in activation is blocked by BLA muscimol inactivation. Intra-Acb DAMGO administration significantly increased c-Fos activation within dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area, compared to saline controls, and BLA inactivation had no effect on this increase. Overall, these data provide underlying circuitry that may mediate the selective influence of the BLA on driving consummatory, but not appetitive, feeding behaviors in a model of hedonically-driven feeding behavior. PMID:26501175

  17. Feeding Experience Affects the Behavioral Response of Polyphagous Gypsy Moth Caterpillars to Herbivore-induced Poplar Volatiles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Andrea C; Reinecke, Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2016-05-01

    Plant volatiles influence host selection of herbivorous insects. Since volatiles often vary in space and time, herbivores (especially polyphagous ones) may be able to use these compounds as cues to track variation in host plant quality based on their innate abilities and previous experience. We investigated the behavioral response of naïve (fed on artificial diet) and experienced (fed on poplar) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, a polyphagous species, towards constitutive and herbivore-induced black poplar (Populus nigra) volatiles at different stages of herbivore attack. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, both naïve and experienced caterpillars were attracted to constitutive volatiles and volatiles released after short-term herbivory (up to 6 hr). Naïve caterpillars also were attracted to volatiles released after longer-term herbivory (24-30 hr), but experienced caterpillars preferred the odor of undamaged foliage. A multivariate statistical analysis comparing the volatile emission of undamaged plants vs. plants after short and longer-term herbivory, suggested various compounds as being responsible for distinguishing between the odors of these plants. Ten compounds were selected for individual testing of caterpillar behavioral responses in a four-arm olfactometer. Naïve caterpillars spent more time in arms containing (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate than in solvent permeated arms, while avoiding benzyl cyanide and salicyl aldehyde. Experienced caterpillars avoided benzyl cyanide and preferred (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) over solvent. Only responses to DMNT were significantly different when comparing experienced and naïve caterpillars. The results show that gypsy moth caterpillars display an innate behavioral response towards constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but also that larval behavior is plastic and can be modulated by previous feeding experience.

  18. Peripheral obestatin has no effect on feeding behavior and brain Fos expression in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kobelt, Peter; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Bannert, Norbert; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Inhoff, Tobias; Noetzel, Steffen; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Obestatin is produced in the stomach from proghrelin by post-translational cleavage. The initial report claimed anorexigenic effects of obestatin in mice. Contrasting studies indicated no effect of obestatin on food intake (FI). We investigated influences of metabolic state (fed/fasted), environmental factors (dark/light phase) and brain Fos response to intraperitoneal (ip) obestatin in rats, and used the protocol from the original study assessing obestatin effects in mice. FI was determined in male rats injected ip before onset of dark or light phase, with obestatin (1 or 5 μmol/kg), CCK8S (3.5 nmol/kg) or 0.15 M NaCl, after fasting (16 h, n = 8/group) or ad libitum (n = 10-14/group) food intake. Fos expression in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei was examined in freely fed rats 90 min after obestatin (5 μmol/kg), CCK8S (1.75 nmol/kg) or 0.15 M NaCl (n = 4/group). Additionally, fasted mice were injected ip with obestatin (1 μmol/kg) or urocortin 1 (2 nmol/kg) 15 min before food presentation. No effect on FI was observed after obestatin administration during the light and dark phase under both metabolic conditions while CCK8S reduced FI irrespectively of the conditions. The number of Fos positive neurons was not modified by obestatin while CCK8S increased Fos expression in selective brain nuclei. Obestatin did not influence the refeeding response to a fast in mice, while urocortin was effective. Therefore, peripheral obestatin has no effect on FI under various experimental conditions and did not induce Fos in relevant central neuronal circuitries modulating feeding in rodents. PMID:18342400

  19. Milk production and feeding behavior in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) during 4 watering regimens.

    PubMed

    Bekele, T; Lundeheim, N; Dahlborn, K

    2011-03-01

    Camels survive and produce milk during recurrent prolonged hot and dry periods. The objective was to evaluate how different watering intervals affected milk production and feeding. Eight lactating camels (Camelus dromedarius) were recruited and subjected to 4 watering regimens in a Latin square design experiment performed at Haramaya University in Ethiopia. Each regimen lasted 16 d with 5 d of daily watering between periods: water was offered at 1,315 h once daily (W1); on d 4, 8, 12, and 16 (W4); on d 8 and 16 (W8); and on d 16 (W16). One camel became sick in the second period and its results were excluded. Camels were kept in a pen with minimal shade and a noon temperature of 30.9±0.1°C. They had free access to hay and were offered 2 kg of concentrates 3 times daily. At noon on d 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16, a blood sample was taken from the jugular vein before watering. All calves were kept together in a separate pen. Morning and afternoon calves stimulated milk let-down before the camels were hand-milked, after which the calves suckled, emptying the udder. Camels maintained the milk volume during water deprivation for about 1 wk, but they produced less milk during the second week during W16. Morning milk osmolality increased from 315±3 on d 1 to 333±3 mosm/kg on d 4 during W4 and from 321±3 on d 1 to 342±3 mosm/kg on d 8 during W8. After watering at 1315 h, milk osmolality decreased to 316±3 and 323±3 mosm/kg, respectively, the same afternoon and then increased during recurrent water deprivation to 338±3 (W4) and 347±3 mosm/kg (W8) on d 16, respectively. During W16, osmolality increased from 318±3 to 336±3 mosm/kg during the first 4 d of water deprivation, but during the remaining 12 d the further rise in osmolality was not higher compared with that on d 4. The change in milk osmolality was linearly correlated to plasma osmolality (r=0.8), but milk lactose content did not increase. Contrary to widespread belief, camels did not dilute their milk when

  20. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  1. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in fish

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Kouhei

    2013-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I, and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint. PMID:23754974

  2. A Novel Nociceptin Receptor Antagonist LY2940094 Inhibits Excessive Feeding Behavior in Rodents: A Possible Mechanism for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Statnick, Michael A; Chen, Yanyun; Ansonoff, Michael; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Rorick-Kehn, Linda; Suter, Todd M; Song, Min; Hu, Charlie; Lafuente, Celia; Jiménez, Alma; Benito, Ana; Diaz, Nuria; Martínez-Grau, Maria Angeles; Toledo, Miguel A; Pintar, John E

    2016-02-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17 amino acid peptide, is the endogenous ligand of the ORL1/nociceptin-opioid-peptide (NOP) receptor. N/OFQ appears to regulate a variety of physiologic functions including stimulating feeding behavior. Recently, a new class of thienospiro-piperidine-based NOP antagonists was described. One of these molecules, LY2940094 has been identified as a potent and selective NOP antagonist that exhibited activity in the central nervous system. Herein, we examined the effects of LY2940094 on feeding in a variety of behavioral models. Fasting-induced feeding was inhibited by LY2940094 in mice, an effect that was absent in NOP receptor knockout mice. Moreover, NOP receptor knockout mice exhibited a baseline phenotype of reduced fasting-induced feeding, relative to wild-type littermate controls. In lean rats, LY2940094 inhibited the overconsumption of a palatable high-energy diet, reducing caloric intake to control chow levels. In dietary-induced obese rats, LY2940094 inhibited feeding and body weight regain induced by a 30% daily caloric restriction. Last, in dietary-induced obese mice, LY2940094 decreased 24-hour intake of a high-energy diet made freely available. These are the first data demonstrating that a systemically administered NOP receptor antagonist can reduce feeding behavior and body weight in rodents. Moreover, the hypophagic effect of LY2940094 is NOP receptor dependent and not due to off-target or aversive effects. Thus, LY2940094 may be useful in treating disorders of appetitive behavior such as binge eating disorder, food choice, and overeating, which lead to obesity and its associated medical complications and morbidity.

  3. An Evaluation of a High-Probability Instructional Sequence to Increase Acceptance of Food and Decrease Inappropriate Behavior in Children with Pediatric Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Meeta R.; Reed, Gregory K.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Bachmeyer, Melainie H.; Layer, Stacy A.; Pabico, Ryan S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of escape extinction with and without a high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence on food acceptance and inappropriate behavior for children diagnosed with feeding problems. The high-p sequence consisted of three presentations of a response that was similar topographically (i.e., presentations of an empty nuk[R],…

  4. Key Theoretical Frameworks for Intervention: Understanding and Promoting Behavior Change in Parent-Infant Feeding Choices in a Low-Income Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Silk, Kami; Horodynski, Mildred A.; Mercer, Laura; Olson, Beth

    2009-01-01

    The early introduction of solids to infants is a risk factor associated with later health problems including allergies, overweight, and diabetes. The Infant Feeding Series (TIFS), a newly designed curriculum that promotes the appropriate transition to solids through parenting education and behavior change among low-income mothers, used the Theory…

  5. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  6. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  7. Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Feeding Practices in Elementary School-Aged Latino Children: A Pilot Qualitative Study on the Impact of the Cultural Role of Mothers in the US-Mexican Border Region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  8. Combined effects of water flow and copper concentration on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in tissue of the infaunal polychaete Polydora cornuta.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Marienne A; Hentschel, Brian T; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-12-01

    We performed an experiment in a laboratory flume to test the effects of water flow speed and the concentration of aqueaous copper on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in the tissues of juvenile polychaetes Polydora cornuta. The experiment included two flow speeds (6 or 15 cm/s) and two concentrations of added copper (0 or 85 μg/L). Worms grew significantly faster in the faster flow and in the lower copper concentration. In the slower flow, the total time worms spent feeding decreased significantly as copper concentration increased, but copper did not significantly affect the time worms spent feeding in the faster flow. Across all treatments, there was a significant, positive relationship between the time individuals spent feeding and their relative growth rate. Worms were observed suspension feeding significantly more often in the faster flow and deposit feeding significantly more often in the slower flow, but copper concentration did not affect the proportion of time spent in either feeding mode. The addition of 85 μg/L copper significantly increased copper accumulation in P. cornuta tissue, but the accumulation did not differ significantly due to flow speed. There was a significant interaction between copper and flow; the magnitude of the difference in copper accumulation between the 0 and 85 μg/L treatments was greater in the faster flow than in the slower flow. In slow flows that favor deposit feeding, worms grow slowly and accumulate less copper in their tissue than in faster flows that favor suspension feeding and faster growth.

  9. Blood-feeding behavior of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles melas in Ghana, western Africa.

    PubMed

    Tuno, Nobuko; Kjaerandsen, Jostein; Badu, Kingsley; Kruppa, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is the predominant malaria vector species in Ghana, western Africa, with a strong local presence of Anopheles melas Theobald along the southern coast. We studied the biting behavior of these two species of the Anopheles gambiae complex inland and at the coast in Ghana, with special attention to the local peoples' preference for outdoor sleeping. We collected mosquitoes at two sites in 2007, representing the moist semideciduous forest zone and the strand and mangrove zone, and the sampling was repeated in the dry and rainy seasons. Sampled mosquitoes were examined for species, parity and size (wing length), and we identified the hosts of their bloodmeals. We interviewed 288 of the village people to determine where and when they slept outdoors. Our study confirmed that An. gambiae is the only species of the An. gambiae complex in the Ashanti region and revealed that An. melas is highly dominant on the western coast of Ghana. Both species showed high human blood rates in indoor resting mosquito samples. More people sleep outside on the coast than inland. An. melas demonstrated high exophily. An. gambiae bit people more frequently indoors and did so more often during the dry season than in the rainy season. We suggest that the degree of exophily in An. melas may be affected by humidity and the availability of human as well as by the mosquitoes' innate habits.

  10. A trematode parasite alters growth, feeding behavior, and demographic success of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus).

    PubMed

    Sargent, Lindsey W; Baldridge, Ashley K; Vega-Ross, Maraliz; Towle, Kevin M; Lodge, David M

    2014-07-01

    Nonindigenous species can cause major changes to community interactions and ecosystem processes. The strong impacts of these species are often attributed to their high demographic success. While the importance of enemy release in facilitating invasions has often been emphasized, few studies have addressed the role of parasites in the invasive range in controlling demographic success of potential invaders. Here we examine whether a trematode parasite (Microphallus spp.) can contribute to previously documented alternate states in the abundance of invasive rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) in north temperate lakes in Wisconsin, USA. Microphallus infect O. rusticus after emerging from their first intermediate host, a hydrobiid snail. As previously documented, O. rusticus reduce densities of hydrobiid snails through direct predation and destruction of macrophyte habitat. Therefore, if Microphallus substantially reduce O. rusticus fitness, these parasites may reinforce a state of low crayfish abundance, and, at the other extreme, abundant crayfish may repress these parasites, reinforcing a state of high crayfish abundance. From samples collected from 109 sites in 16 lakes, we discovered (1) a positive relationship between crayfish infection intensity and hydrobiid snail abundance, (2) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish abundance, and (3) a negative relationship between parasite prevalence and crayfish population growth. With experiments, we found that infection with Microphallus reduced foraging behavior and growth in O. rusticus, which may be the mechanisms responsible for the population reductions we observed. Overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that Microphallus contributes to alternate states in the abundance and impacts of O. rusticus.

  11. Decline of Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico- Is the Migratory Phenomenon at Risk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Lincoln; Taylor, Orley R.; Williams, Ernest H.; Slayback, Daniel; Zubieta, Raul R.; Ramirez, M. Isabel

    2012-01-01

    1.During the 2009-2010 overwintering season and following a 15-year downward trend, the total area in Mexico occupied by the eastern North American population of overwintering monarch butterflies reached an all-time low. Despite an increase, it remained low in 2010-2011. 2. Although the data set is small, the decline in abundance is statistically significant using both linear and exponential regression models. 3. Three factors appear to have contributed to reduce monarch abundance: degradation of the forest in the overwintering areas; the loss of breeding habitat in the United States due to the expansion ofGM herbicide-resistant crops, with consequent loss of milkweed host plants, as well as continued land development; and severe weather. 4. This decline calls into question the long-term survival of the monarchs' migratory phenomenon

  12. Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct "terror bird" Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae).

    PubMed

    Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P; Moreno, Karen; Witmer, Lawrence M; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-08-18

    The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (approximately 40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of Andalgalornis steulleti is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of Andalgalornis at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in "pullback" simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that Andalgalornis engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy.

  13. Mechanical Analysis of Feeding Behavior in the Extinct “Terror Bird” Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Degrange, Federico J.; Tambussi, Claudia P.; Moreno, Karen; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The South American phorusrhacid bird radiation comprised at least 18 species of small to gigantic terrestrial predators for which there are no close modern analogs. Here we perform functional analyses of the skull of the medium-sized (∼40 kg) patagornithine phorusrhacid Andalgalornis steulleti (upper Miocene–lower Pliocene, Andalgalá Formation, Catamarca, Argentina) to assess its mechanical performance in a comparative context. Based on computed tomographic (CT) scanning and morphological analysis, the skull of Andalgalornis steulleti is interpreted as showing features reflecting loss of intracranial immobility. Discrete anatomical attributes permitting such cranial kinesis are widespread phorusrhacids outgroups, but this is the first clear evidence of loss of cranial kinesis in a gruiform bird and may be among the best documented cases among all birds. This apomorphic loss is interpreted as an adaptation for enhanced craniofacial rigidity, particularly with regard to sagittal loading. We apply a Finite Element approach to a three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull. Based on regression analysis we estimate the bite force of Andalgalornis at the bill tip to be 133 N. Relative to results obtained from Finite Element Analysis of one of its closest living relatives (seriema) and a large predatory bird (eagle), the phorusrhacid's skull shows relatively high stress under lateral loadings, but low stress where force is applied dorsoventrally (sagittally) and in “pullback” simulations. Given the relative weakness of the skull mediolaterally, it seems unlikely that Andalgalornis engaged in potentially risky behaviors that involved subduing large, struggling prey with its beak. We suggest that it either consumed smaller prey that could be killed and consumed more safely (e.g., swallowed whole) or that it used multiple well-targeted sagittal strikes with the beak in a repetitive attack-and-retreat strategy. PMID:20805872

  14. Blood-Feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi but not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Buchta, Jessica N; Zarndt, Bethany S; Garver, Lindsey S; Rowland, Tobin; Shi, Meng; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D

    2015-06-01

    Animal models are often used to study hematophagous insect feeding behavior and evaluate products such as topical repellents. However, when these models are used the study animals often experience significant drops in core body temperature because of the effects of anesthesia. This study used a guinea pig model to investigate whether maintaining a normothermic core body temperature during anesthesia influenced the rate of Anopheles stephensi and Phlebotomus papatasi blood feeding. Experiments were conducted with anesthetized animals that had their body temperatures either maintained with a warming device or were allowed to drop naturally. Results showed that when guinea pigs were actively warmed by a heating device, An. stephensi feeding behavior was similar at the beginning and end of anesthesia. However, when a warming device was not used, fewer An. stephensi took a blood meal after the animals' temperatures had dropped. Phlebotomus papatasi were not as sensitive to changes in temperature and feeding rates were similar whether a warming device was used or not. These results are discussed and it is recommended that warming devices are used when conducting feeding experiments with insects sensitive to changes in host body temperature, such as An. stephensi.

  15. Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately −15.3°C during summer to −26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to −15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

  16. Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; Sutherland, Mhairi; Pirner, Glenna; Picinin, Guilherme; May, Matthew; Backus, Brittany; McGlone, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Transportation has the potential to negatively affect the health and welfare of weaned pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. Piglets were transported for 32 h, with and without feed and water, and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Transportation negatively impacted body weight, Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio (N:L), and post-transport body weight gain, indicating that not providing water during transport can negatively impact the well-being of recently weaned pigs. Provision of water may aid in reducing stress during long distance transport and improve the animals’ well-being. Abstract Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h), with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON); weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+); weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T−); weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F); and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W). The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water) on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water (p < 0.05). Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided. PMID:27153096

  17. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  18. Overwinter mass loss of snowshoe hares in the Yukon: starvation, stress, adaptation or artefact?

    PubMed

    Hodges, Karen E; Boonstra, Rudy; Krebs, Charles J

    2006-01-01

    1. Overwinter mass loss can reduce energetic requirements in mammals (Dehnel's phenomenon). Alternatively, mass loss can result from food limitation or high predation risk. 2. We use data from fertilizer, food-supplementation and predator-exclusion experiments in the Yukon during a population cycle from 1986 to 1996 to test the causes of overwinter mass loss by snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). In all years, some hares on control sites gained mass overwinter. During the increase phase the majority gained mass, but in all other phases the majority lost mass. 3. Snowshoe hares weighing <1000 g in autumn always gained mass overwinter, as did the majority that weighed 1000-1400 g. Hares weighing >1800 g in autumn usually lost mass. 4. Snowshoe hares on the predator-exclosure + food site gained mass overwinter in all years. Hares on the food-supplementation sites lost mass during the decline but gained mass in all other phases. Fertilization had little effect on mass dynamics. 5. Snowshoe hares were more likely to lose mass during winters with low survival rates. Snowshoe hares on the predator-exclosure treatments were more likely to gain mass than were hares on control sites. 6. Overwinter mass loss was correlated with maximum snow depth. At equivalent snow depths, hares on food-supplemented areas lost 98 g (+/- 14.6 SE) less on average than hares on the controls and predator-exclosure treatment. 7. Bone-marrow fat was related to body mass and cause of death. Small hares had the lowest marrow fat. Hares killed by humans had higher marrow fat than those killed by predators; hares that simply died had the lowest marrow fat. Hares on food-supplemented sites had the highest kidney and marrow fat. 8. Overwinter-mass loss for snowshoe hares is explained interactively by winter conditions, food supply, predation risk and autumn mass. Some snowshoe hares lost mass overwinter in all years and on all treatments, suggesting that reducing body mass may facilitate survival

  19. Cold hardiness and overwintering strategy of the pink maize stalk borer,Sesamia nonagrioides Lef (lepidoptera, noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gillyboeuf, N; Anglade, P; Lavenseau, L; Peypelut, L

    1994-09-01

    The cold-hardening capacity of larvae of the pink maize stalk borer,Sesamia nonagrioides Lef., was examined. Supercooling points (SCPs) of field collected diapausing larvae from south-east and south-west France and non-diapausing and diapausing laboratory-reared larvae did not differ and ranged between -5 and -8°C. Thus, this insect possesses sufficient supercooling ability to avoid freezing over its normal environmental temperature ranges. Despite this, we found thatSesamia presents paradoxical cold reactions. Mortality of cold acclimated diapausing larvae after short-term exposure to temperatures above the SCP is high, supporting the view thatSesamia is cold-sensitive. On the other hand,Sesamia could survive freezing for at least 24 h to temperatures close to the SCP. This ability does not seem to be related to haemolymph trehalose, the sole cold-accumulated compound detected by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Despite the mildness of the winter 1990-1991, only 5% of the field population survive and pupate in April. The main part of the population died from November to January, the period during which larvae were mainly located in the part of the corn stem above the ground and experienced air temperatures. After January, all surviving larvae were excuusively located in the root, 10 cm below the soil, where they experienced milder temperatures than air. They exhibited a constant low rate of mortality, possibly independent of the cold. In their current distribution area, survival of overwintering larvae ofS. nonagrioides is only related to the microclimate of the overwintering site and freezing tolerance capacity seems to be irrelevant. This study allows us to propose a non-pollutant pest control method based on the "behavioral strategy" of this insect.

  20. Rice stripe virus counters reduced fecundity in its insect vector by modifying insect physiology, primary endosymbionts and feeding behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guijun; Jiang, Shoulin; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Guoqing; Tao, Xiaorong; Pan, Weidong; Sword, Gregory A.; Chen, Fajun

    2015-01-01

    Virus-vector relationships can be complex and diverse as a result of long-term coevolution. Understanding these interactions is crucial for disease and vector management. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is known to be transovarially transmitted within its vector, Laodelphax striatellus, and causes serious rice stripe disease. In RSV-infected L. striatellus, we found contrasting changes in vector fecundity, physiology, primary endosymbionts (i.e. yeast-like symbionts, YLS) and feeding behavior that can interact to affect the spread of RSV. RSV-infected L. striatellus exhibited a significant decrease in fecundity that could lead a reduction of viruliferous individuals in populations. As a potential response to this loss, RSV infection also significantly shortened nymphal stage duration, which can strengthen RSV vertical circulation in L. striatellus populations and promote RSV spreading by adult migration and dispersal. Down-regulated JHAMT and up-regulated CYP307A1 in the juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid pathways, respectively, were linked to accelerated development. RSV-infected adults were also found to have higher body weight in conjunction with increased YLS abundance. Furthermore, prolonged host plant phloem exposure to salivation by RSV-infected adults should further enhance RSV horizontal transmission. Our study highlights potential strategies of RSV in enhancing its transmission, and provides new insights into the complexity of virus-vector interactions. PMID:26211618

  1. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  2. A new simplex approach to highlight multi-scale feeding behaviors in forager species from stomach contents: application to insectivore lizard population.

    PubMed

    Semmar, Nabil; Roux, Maurice

    2014-04-01

    Stomach contents represent complex mixture systems which depend on feeding mode and level of forager species (carnivores, herbivores) as well as on natural availability/distribution of food resources (preys, plants). Such mixture systems can be considered as small black boxes condensing wide ecological information on (i) feeding behaviors of predator (or herbivore) and (ii) local diversity of preys (or host plants). Feeding behaviors of a hunter species toward different prey taxa show a complex variability whose investigation requires multivariate statistical tools. This paper presents a new computational approach which statistically analyzes stomach contents' variability in a predator population to graphically highlight different feeding behaviors. It is a simulation approach iteratively combining the variability of different diet patterns by using a simplex mixture design. Average combinatorial results are graphically visualized to highlight scale-dependent relationships between consumption rates of different food types found in the stomachs. The simplex approach was applied on different subpopulations of Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre, an insectivore lizard species. These subpopulations were initially defined by different criteria including statistical clusters, gender and sampling periods. Results highlighted successive trade-offs over months of captured potential preys switching from small and less mobile preys to large and flying ones. In these dietary transitions, P. douglassi manifested a systematic memorization of previous preys and a gradual foraging learning of the next ones. These results highlighted lightness on dietary flexibility helping this specialist predator to switch between diets based on different potential preys. Adult male and adult female lizards showed different feeding behaviors due to some predation lag-time between them and different dietary ratios toward the same considered preys.

  3. Feeding behavior, diet, and the functional consequences of jaw form in orangutans, with implications for the evolution of Pongo.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrea B

    2006-04-01

    Orangutans are amongst the most craniometrically variable of the extant great apes, yet there has been no attempt to explicitly link this morphological variation with observed differences in behavioral ecology. This study explores the relationship between feeding behavior, diet, and mandibular morphology in orangutans. All orangutans prefer ripe, pulpy fruit when available. However, some populations of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio and P. p. wurmbii) rely more heavily on bark and relatively tough vegetation during periods of low fruit yield than do Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). I tested the hypothesis that Bornean orangutans exhibit structural features of the mandible that provide greater load resistance abilities to masticatory and incisal forces. Compared to P. abelii, P. p. morio exhibits greater load resistance abilities as reflected in a relatively deeper mandibular corpus, deeper and wider mandibular symphysis, and relatively greater condylar area. P. p. wurmbii exhibits most of these same morphologies, and in all comparisons is either comparable in jaw proportions to P. p. morio, or intermediate between P. p. morio and P. abelii. These data indicate that P. p. morio and P. p. wurmbii are better suited to resisting large and/or frequent jaw loads than P. abelii. Using these results, I evaluated mandibular morphology in P. p. pygmaeus, a Bornean orangutan population whose behavioral ecology is poorly known. Pongo p. pygmaeus generally exhibits relatively greater load resistance capabilities than P. abelii, but less than P. p. morio. These results suggest that P. p. pygmaeus may consume greater amounts of tougher and/or more obdurate foods than P. abelii, and that consumption of such foods may intensify amongst Bornean orangutan populations. Finally, data from this study are used to evaluate variation in craniomandibular morphology in Khoratpithecus piriyai, possibly the earliest relative of Pongo from the late Miocene of Thailand, and the late

  4. The effect of water to ethanol feed ratio on physical properties and aerosolization behavior of spray dried cromolyn sodium particles.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Barghi, Mohammadali; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2005-05-01

    Cromolyn sodium (CS) was spray dried under constant operation conditions from different water to ethanol feed ratios (50:50-0:100). The spray dried CS samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties including crystallinity, particle size distribution, morphology, density, and water/ethanol content. To determine quantitatively the crystallinity of the powders, an X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was developed using samples with different crystallinity prepared by physical mixing of 100% amorphous and 100% crystalline CS materials. The aerodynamic behavior of the CS samples was determined using an Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) with a Spinhaler at an air flow of 60 L/min. Binary mixtures of each spray dried CS powder and Pharmatose 325, a commercial alpha-lactose monohydrate available for DPI formulations, were prepared and in vitro aerosol deposition of the drug from the mixtures was analyzed using ACI to evaluate the effect of carrier on deposition profiles of the spray dried samples. CS spray dried from absolute ethanol exhibited XRD pattern characteristic for crystalline materials and different from patterns of the other samples. The crystallinity of spray dried CS obtained in the presence of water varied from 0% to 28.37%, depending on the ratio of water to ethanol in the feed suspensions. All samples presented different particle size, water/ethanol content, and bulk density values. CS particles spray dried from absolute ethanol presented uniform elongated shape whereas the other samples consisted mainly of particles with irregular shape. Overall, fine particle fraction increased significantly (p < 0.01) with decreasing d50% and water and ethanol content of spray dried CS samples. Significant difference (p < 0.01) in deposition profiles of the drug were observed between corresponding carrier free and carrier blended formulations. The difference in deposition profiles of CS aerosolized from various spray dried samples were described according to

  5. Growth, feed intake, carcass characteristics, and eating behavior of feedlot lambs fed high-concentrate diets containing soybean hulls.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, E M; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Mendes, C Q; Gentil, R S; Araujo, R C; Amaral, R C; Loerch, S C

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of replacing ground corn with soybean hulls (SH) in high-concentrate diets on the growth (56-d period), carcass characteristics, and eating behavior of feedlot lambs. Sixty-four Santa Inês ram lambs (18.3 ± 2.8 kg of BW and 69 ± 5 d of age) were assigned to a randomized complete block design experiment with 8 blocks and 4 diets. The control diet contained 10% coastcross (Cynodon sp.) hay, 70% corn, and no SH (SH0) in the dietary DM. In the remaining diets, SH replaced corn at the rate of 15 (SH15), 30 (SH30), or 45% (SH45) of the original corn concentration, resulting in 0, 10.5, 21.0, or 31.4% SH in the dietary DM. Dry matter intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) when SH replaced ground corn (1.0, 1.0, 1.1, and 1.1 kg/d for SH0, SH15, SH30, and SH45, respectively). There was no effect on ADG of lambs, with values of 276, 278, 282, and 287 g for SH0, SH15, SH30, and SH45, respectively. Feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with SH inclusion. Carcass measures were not affected by SH as a replacement for ground corn. Eating time, expressed as minutes per day and minutes per gram of NDF, showed a quadratic effect (P < 0.05), whereas no effect was observed when expressed as minutes per gram of DM. Rumination, in minutes per day, was not influenced by dietary SH inclusion, but a linear decrease (P < 0.01) was observed when this variable was expressed as minutes per gram of NDF. Soybean hulls can replace up to 45% of the ground corn (31.4% of SH in the dietary DM) in high-concentrate diets fed to feedlot lambs without negative effects on ADG and carcass measures. The linear decrease in feed efficiency (11.6% reduction from SH0 to SH45) suggests that optimal dietary SH inclusion rates should be dictated by the relative costs of SH and corn.

  6. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  7. Higher weight status of only and last-born children. Maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes among 4-8 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Rana H; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Peterson, Karen E; Rosenblum, Katherine; Baylin, Ana; Miller, Alison L

    2015-09-01

    Birth order has been associated with childhood obesity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine maternal feeding and child eating behaviors as underlying processes for increased weight status of only children and youngest siblings. Participants included 274 low-income 4-8 year old children and their mothers. The dyads completed a videotaped laboratory mealtime observation. Mothers completed the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Path analysis was used to examine associations of birth order, maternal feeding behavior, child eating behavior, and child overweight/obese status. The association between only child status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was fully mediated by higher maternal Verbal Discouragement to eat and lower maternal Praise (all p values < 0.05). The association between youngest sibling status and greater likelihood of overweight/obesity was partially mediated by lower maternal Praise and lower child Food Fussiness (all p values < 0.05). Results provide support for our hypothesis that maternal control and support and child food acceptance are underlying pathways for the association between birth order and weight status. Future findings can help inform family-based programs by guiding family counseling and tailoring of recommendations for family mealtime interactions.

  8. Infant Formula Feeding at Birth Is Common and Inversely Associated with Subsequent Breastfeeding Behavior in Vietnam123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Withers, Mellissa; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between infant formula feeding at birth and subsequent feeding patterns in a low- or middle-income context is not clear. Objective: We examined the association of infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth with subsequent infant formula feeding and early breastfeeding cessation in Vietnam. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 10,681 mothers with children aged 0−23 mo (mean age: 8.2 mo; 52% boys) about their feeding practices during the first 3 d after birth and on the previous day. We used stratified analysis, multiple logistic regression, propensity score-matching analysis, and structural equation modeling to minimize the limitation of the cross-sectional design and to ensure the consistency of the findings. Results: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth (50%) was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding [stratified analysis: 7−28% higher (nonoverlapping 95% CIs for most comparisons); propensity score-matching analysis: 13% higher (P < 0.001); multiple logistic regression: OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 1.30, 1.67)]. This practice was also associated with a higher prevalence of early breastfeeding cessation (e.g., <24 mo) [propensity score-matching analysis: 2% (P = 0.08); OR: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.59)]. Structural equation modeling showed that infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with a higher prevalence of subsequent infant formula feeding (β: 0.244; P < 0.001), which in turn was linked to early breastfeeding cessation (β: 0.285; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Infant formula feeding during the first 3 d after birth was associated with increased subsequent infant formula feeding and the early cessation of breastfeeding, which underscores the need to make early, exclusive breastfeeding normative and to create environments that support it. PMID:27605404

  9. ARPOP: an appetitive reward-based pseudo-outer-product neural fuzzy inference system inspired from the operant conditioning of feeding behavior in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Cheu, Eng Yeow; Quek, Chai; Ng, See Kiong

    2012-02-01

    Appetitive operant conditioning in Aplysia for feeding behavior via the electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve contingently reinforces each spontaneous bite during the feeding process. This results in the acquisition of operant memory by the contingently reinforced animals. Analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the feeding motor circuitry revealed that activity-dependent neuronal modulation occurs at the interneurons that mediate feeding behaviors. This provides evidence that interneurons are possible loci of plasticity and constitute another mechanism for memory storage in addition to memory storage attributed to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. In this paper, an associative ambiguity correction-based neuro-fuzzy network, called appetitive reward-based pseudo-outer-product-compositional rule of inference [ARPOP-CRI(S)], is trained based on an appetitive reward-based learning algorithm which is biologically inspired by the appetitive operant conditioning of the feeding behavior in Aplysia. A variant of the Hebbian learning rule called Hebbian concomitant learning is proposed as the building block in the neuro-fuzzy network learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm possesses the distinguishing features of the sequential learning algorithm. In addition, the proposed ARPOP-CRI(S) neuro-fuzzy system encodes fuzzy knowledge in the form of linguistic rules that satisfies the semantic criteria for low-level fuzzy model interpretability. ARPOP-CRI(S) is evaluated and compared against other modeling techniques using benchmark time-series datasets. Experimental results are encouraging and show that ARPOP-CRI(S) is a viable modeling technique for time-variant problem domains.

  10. Addressing Feeding Disorders in Children on the Autism Spectrum in School-Based Settings: Physiological and Behavioral Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twachtman-Reilly, Jennifer; Amaral, Sheryl C.; Zebrowski, Patrecia P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this article are to define the nature of feeding difficulties in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of feeding disorders specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within the…

  11. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on overwintering characteristics and survival of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Fang; Liu, Zhudong; Yin, Jin; Su, Jianwei; Wang, Chenzhu; Ge, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the overwintering generation of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are unknown. We hypothesized that a Bt cotton diet may adversely affect fitness of this generation and examined fresh weight, lipids, glycogens, low-molecular-weight sugars and SCPs (supercooling points) of pupae, as well as survival of larvae, diapausing pupae and adult emergence in comparison with controls. Field and laboratory experiments showed that larvae fed on Bt cotton had a decreased pupation rate, and fewer entered diapause and emerged as adults compared with larvae fed non-Bt cotton. Furthermore, larvae fed Bt cotton had reduced pupal weight, glycogen content and trehalose levels both in diapausing and in non-diapausing pupae, and only diapausing pupae had an increased SCP compared to controls. The SCPs of diapausing pupae reared on Bt cotton were significantly higher than those reared on non-Bt cotton. The trehalose levels of diapausing pupae reared on Bt cotton were significantly lower than those of larvae reared on non-Bt cotton. Thus, these results suggest that a Bt cotton diet weakens the preparedness of cotton bollworm for overwintering and reduces survival of the overwintering generation, which will in turn reduce the density of the first generation in the following year. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on the overwintering generation of cotton bollworm appear to have significantly contributed to the suppression of cotton bollworm observed throughout northern China in the past decade.

  12. Wet meadow ecosystems contribute the majority of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured alpine tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Williams, Mark W.

    2016-04-01

    We measured soil respiration across a soil moisture gradient ranging from dry to wet snow-scoured alpine tundra soils throughout three winters and two summers. In the absence of snow accumulation, soil moisture variability was principally determined by the combination of mesotopographical hydrological focusing and shallow subsurface permeability, which resulted in a patchwork of comingled ecosystem types along a single alpine ridge. To constrain the subsequent carbon cycling variability, we compared three measures of effective diffusivity and three methods to calculate gradient method soil respiration from four typical vegetation communities. Overwinter soil respiration was primarily restricted to wet meadow locations, and a conservative estimate of the rate of overwinter soil respiration from snow-scoured wet meadow tundra was 69-90% of the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) respired by seasonally snow-covered soils within this same catchment. This was attributed to higher overwinter soil temperatures at wet meadow locations relative to fellfield, dry meadow, and moist meadow communities, which supported liquid water and heterotrophic respiration throughout the winter. These results were corroborated by eddy covariance-based measurements that demonstrated an average of 272 g C m-2 overwinter carbon loss during the study period. As a result, we updated a conceptual model of soil respiration versus snow cover to express the potential for soil respiration variability from snow-scoured alpine tundra.

  13. Mortality of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.): Avian Predation at Five Overwintering Sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Calvert, W H; Hedrick, L E; Brower, L P

    1979-05-25

    Analyses of predated butterflies on the forest floor at five monarch overwintering sites in Mexico and observations of birds foraging in mixed flocks indicate that individual birds of several species have learned to penetrate the monarch's cardenolide-based chemical defense. Predation is inversely proportional to colony size and appears to be one evolutionary explanation of the dense aggregations.

  14. Modeling stream network-scale variation in coho salmon overwinter survival and smolt size

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple regression and hierarchical mixed-effects models to examine spatial patterns of overwinter survival and size at smolting in juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in relation to habitat attributes across an extensive stream network in southwestern Oregon over ...

  15. Sex-Age Related Rumination Behavior of Père David’s Deer under Constraints of Feeding Habitat and Rainfall

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies have been conducted on the rumination behavior of domestic herbivores. However, studies on wild animals are limited, particularly wild animals with specific ruminating parameters. In this study, Père David’s deer, a previously extirpated species, was observed to analyze the effects of sex-age, feeding habitat, and rainfall on rumination behavior in the Dafeng Nature Reserve, China. Rumination behavior was investigated based on four parameters: proportion of bedding time spent chewing, bolus processing time (s/bolus), chewing frequency (chews/bolus), and chewing rate (chews/s). Results showed that all three factors affect rumination behavior. The extent of their effects varied based on the four rumination parameters. Chewing rate and frequency decreased based on sex–age levels, i.e., from fawns to juvenile female, juvenile male, adult female, stag, and harem holder. Therefore, body size played a major role in shaping rumination behavior. Deer found in grasslands could chew faster compared with deer found in woodlands. This result might be caused by the effects of dietary composition and sunlight intensity. A deer spends a longer time ruminating while bedding during rainy days compared with rainless days to maximize energy and nutrition intake and compensate for the loss of feeding time during rainy days. Therefore, rumination behavior is plastic and is shaped by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:23823072

  16. Effects of Quartz Particle Size and Sucrose Addition on Melting Behavior of a Melter Feed for High-Level Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, Jose; Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Swearingen, Kevin J; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Henager, Samuel H

    2010-08-11

    The behavior of melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming additives) during waste-glass processing has a significant impact on the rate of the vitrification process. We studied the effects of silica particle size and sucrose addition on the volumetric expansion (foaming) of a high-alumina feed and the rate of dissolution of silica particles in feed samples heated at 5°C/min up to 1200°C. The initial size of quartz particles in feed ranged from 5 to 195 µm. The fraction of the sucrose added ranged from 0 to 0.20 g per g glass. Extensive foaming occurred only in feeds with 5-μm quartz particles; particles >150 µm formed clusters. Particles of 5 µm completely dissolved by 900°C whereas particles >150 µm did not fully dissolve even when the temperature reached 1200°C. Sucrose addition had virtually zero impact on both foaming and the dissolution of silica particles.

  17. Behavioral characterization of a model of differential susceptibility to obesity induced by standard and personalized cafeteria diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Gac, L; Kanaly, V; Ramirez, V; Teske, J A; Pinto, M P; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increase in obesity prevalence over the last decades, humans show large inter-individual variability for susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Understanding the biological basis of this susceptibility could identify new therapeutic alternatives against obesity. We characterized behavioral changes associated with propensity to obesity induced by cafeteria (CAF) diet consumption in mice. We show that Balb/c mice fed a CAF diet display a large inter-individual variability in susceptibility to diet-induced obesity, such that based on changes in adiposity we can classify mice as obesity prone (OP) or obesity resistant (OR). Both OP and OR were hyperphagic relative to control-fed mice but caloric intake was similar between OP and OR mice. In contrast, OR had a larger increase in locomotor activity following CAF diet compared to OP mice. Obesity resistant and prone mice showed similar intake of sweet snacks, but OR ate more savory snacks than OP mice. Two bottle sucrose preference tests showed that OP decreased their sucrose preference compared to OR mice after CAF diet feeding. Finally, to test the robustness of the OR phenotype in response to further increases in caloric intake, we fed OR mice with a personalized CAF (CAF-P) diet based on individual snack preferences. When fed a CAF-P diet, OR increased their calorie intake compared to OP mice fed the standard CAF diet, but did not reach adiposity levels observed in OP mice. Together, our data show the contribution of hedonic intake, individual snack preference and physical activity to individual susceptibility to obesity in Balb/c mice fed a standard and personalized cafeteria-style diet.

  18. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Methods Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. Results All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included “heat” and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Conclusion Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is

  19. Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract stimulates whole brain 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism and reduces feeding behavior and body weight in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Ahmed, Maryam; Parveen, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese person has increased markedly since several decays. Obesity is associated with increased risked factor for many diseases such as, diabetes, heart complications, arthritis and certain types of cancer. Feeding behavior is in controlled by a major interaction between central nervous system and many organs of the body. The role of serotonin (5-HT) in feeding behavior is well recognized. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of Anethum graveolens seeds aqueous extract (AGAE) on food intake, body weight and serotonin metabolism in over weight rats. Five weeks oral administration of AGAE shows significant decrease in body weight, food intake and significant increase in whole brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan level in brain and plasma of experimental animals. Increased level of 5-HT induced satiety and suppressed food intake and result is the reduction in body weight.

  20. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  1. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  2. Pen-2 overexpression induces Aβ-42 production, memory defect, motor activity enhancement and feeding behavior dysfunction in NSE/Pen-2 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nam, So Hee; Seo, Su Jin; Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Jee Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Lee, Hae Ryun; Hwang, In Sik; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Bae, Chang Jun; Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Hye Sung; Shim, Sun Bo; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2011-12-01

    Pen-2 is a key regulator of the γ-secretase complex, which is involved in the production of the amyloid β (Aβ)-42 peptides, which ultimately lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD). While Pen-2 has been studied in vitro, Pen-2 function in vivo in the brains of transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human Pen-2 (hPen-2) protein has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether Pen-2 overexpression could regulate the AD-like phenotypes in Tg mice. NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice were produced by the microinjection of the NSE/hPen-2 gene into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. The expression of the hPen-2 gene under the control of the NSE promoter was successfully detected only in the brain and kidney tissue of NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice. Also, 12-month-old NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice displayed behavioral dysfunction in the water maze test, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction in food intake/water intake/motor activity monitoring system. In addition, tissue samples displayed dense staining with antibody to the Aβ-42 peptide. Furthermore, NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice exhibiting feeding behavior dysfunction were significantly more apt to display symptoms related to diabetes and obesity. These results suggest that Pen-2 overexpression in NSE/hPen-2 Tg mice may induce all the AD-like phenotypes, including behavioral deficits, motor activity and feeding behavior dysfunction, Aβ-42 peptide deposition and chronic disease induction.

  3. Studies on the Influence of Host Plants and Effect of Chemical Stimulants on the Feeding Behavior in the Muga Silkworm, Antheraea assamensis

    PubMed Central

    Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2011-01-01

    The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound β-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

  4. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P < 0.05) intake of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than those fed diets composed of mineral salt only. In addition, the animals that received protein-energy supplementation had longer period in grazing and spent on average more time per period eating at the trough (P < 0.05), however no significant differences were observed in the time per period in rumination and time per period in idle (P > 0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

  5. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying.

  6. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on production, feeding behavior, total-tract digestibility, and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rottman, L W; Ying, Y; Zhou, K; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2015-07-01

    insulin or glucose at individual time points but did modify the phase and amplitude of the daily rhythms. Daily average plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased by H/L compared with CON and L/H, and H/L treatments decreased the amplitude of the daily rhythm of NEFA by 3.4 and 6.7μEq/L compared with CON and L/H, respectively. The amplitude of the daily rhythm of plasma blood urea N was increased by more than 15% by H/L compared with CON and L/H. Feeding multiple rations over the day changed the daily pattern of starch and fiber intake and decreased daily intake without decreasing milk yield or body weight gain over the 23-d observation periods. Feeding a high-fiber diet during the high-intake period of the day and a low-fiber diet during the low-intake overnight period failed to show other benefits, likely because of the change in feeding behavior.

  7. Effects of feeding a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation on feedlot performance, feeding behavior, carcass characteristics, rumenitis, and blood gas profile of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls.

    PubMed

    Millen, D D; Pacheco, R D L; DiLorenzo, N; Martins, C L; Marino, C T; Bastos, J P S T; Mariani, T M; Barducci, R S; Sarti, L M N; DiCostanzo, A; Rodrigues, P H M; Arrigoni, M D B

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing monensin (MON) with a spray-dried multivalent polyclonal antibody preparation (PAP) against several ruminal microorganisms on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, feeding behavior, blood gas profile, and the rumenitis incidence of Brangus and Nellore yearling bulls. The study was designed as a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, replicated 6 times (4 bulls per pen and a total of 24 pens), in which bulls ( = 48) of each biotype were fed diets containing either MON fed at 300 mg/d or PAP fed at 3 g/d. No significant feed additive main effects were observed for ADG ( = 0.27), G:F ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.99), or dressing percentage ( = 0.80). However, bulls receiving PAP had greater DMI ( = 0.02) and larger ( = 0.02) final LM area as well as greater ( < 0.01) blood concentrations of bicarbonate and base excess in the extracellular fluid than bulls receiving MON. Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) ADG and DMI expressed in kilograms, final BW, heavier HCW, and larger initial and final LM area than Nellore bulls. However, Nellore bulls had greater daily DMI fluctuation ( < 0.01), expressed as a percentage, and greater incidence of rumenitis ( = 0.05) than Brangus bulls. In addition, Brangus bulls had greater ( < 0.01) DMI per meal and also presented lower ( < 0.01) DM and NDF rumination rates when compared with Nellore bulls. Significant interactions ( < 0.05) between biotype and feed additive were observed for SFA, unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), MUFA, and PUFA concentrations in adipose tissues. When Nellore bulls were fed PAP, fat had greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA contents but less ( < 0.01) UFA and MUFA than Nellore bulls receiving MON. For Brangus bulls, MON led to greater ( < 0.05) SFA and PUFA and less ( < 0.05) UFA and MUFA than Brangus bulls fed PAP. Feeding a spray-dried PAP led to similar feedlot performance compared with that when feeding MON. Spray

  8. Reinforcement in an in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding behavior in Aplysia: blockade by a dopamine antagonist.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Fredy D; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2005-01-01

    In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in Aplysia, the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this possibility, methylergonovine was used to antagonize DA receptors. Methylergonovine (1 nM) blocked the pairing-specific increase in fictive feeding that is usually induced by in vitro classical conditioning. The present results and previous observation that methylergonovine also blocks the effects of contingent reinforcement in an in vitro analog of appetitive operant conditioning suggest that DA mediates reinforcement for appetitive associative conditioning of feeding in Aplysia.

  9. Environmental concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine impact specific behaviors involved in reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance in the fish Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Joel; Klaper, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) have been found in surface waters worldwide, but little is understood of their effects on the wildlife that inhabit these waters. Fluoxetine (Prozac; Eli Lilly), a highly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a commonly found PPCP in surface water. The purpose of this project was to determine if environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine impact behavior that is important for population survival in native fish species, including reproduction, feeding and predator avoidance. Chronic 4-week exposures were conducted with doses ranging from 100 ng/L to 100 μg/L to cover a range of environmentally relevant concentrations up to higher concentrations comparable to other published studies with the same drug that have documented various physiological impacts. Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), a species native to North America, was used as it conducts a range of specific mating behaviors and therefore serves as an excellent model of specific impacts on brain function. Fluoxetine concentrations as low as 1 μg/L, a concentration that has been found in many freshwater environments, were found to significantly impact mating behavior, specifically nest building and defending in male fish. Males were also found to display aggression, isolation, and repetitive behaviors at higher concentrations. Female mating behavior was largely unaffected. In addition, predator avoidance behaviors in males and females were also impacted at 1 μg/L. Feeding was impacted at 10 μg/L and in the highest exposure (100 μg/L), egg production was limited by deaths of females due to significant male aggressive behaviors in first two weeks of exposure. Specific behavioral changes occurred at each concentration (most noticeably 1 μg/L and 100 μg/L) indicating a dose dependent effect that triggered different responses at lower exposures versus higher exposures or differential impacts of dose depending on brain region

  10. Cardenolide connection between overwintering monarch butterflies from Mexico and their larval food plant,Asclepias syriaca.

    PubMed

    Seiber, J N; Brower, L P; Lee, S M; McChesney, M M; Cheung, H T; Nelson, C J; Watson, T R

    1986-05-01

    The majority (85%) of 394 monarch butterflies sampled from overwintering sites in Mexico contain the same epoxy cardenolide glycosides, including most conspicuously a novel polar glycoside with a single genin-sugar bridge (aspecioside), as occur in the milkweedsAsclepias speciosa andA. syriaca. This cardenolide commonality was established by isolating aspecioside and syriobioside from the wings of overwintering monarchs and the two plant species, and comparing Chromatographie and NMR spectrometric characteristics of the isolates. When combined with the migratory pattern of monarchs and the distribution of these two milkweed species, this chemical evidence lends strong support to the hypothesis thatA. syriaca is the major late summer food plant of monarchs in eastern North America. This finding may be of ecological importance, forA. syriaca contributes less cardenolide and cardenolides of lower emetic potency to monarchs than most milkweeds studied to date.

  11. Metabolomics reveals drastic compositional changes during overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Morten R; Bach, Vibe; Edelenbos, Merete; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-09-19

    Metabolic changes were investigated in overwintering Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) metabolomics. Three varieties were studied; as a result of overwintering, the amount of inulin was found to decrease in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. This was mainly due to its conversion to sucrose and, at the same time, formation of inulin with a lower degree of polymerization. Major effects on the concentration of citric acid, malic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and adenosine were also found. Intriguingly, malic acid concentration increased and citric acid concentration decreased. These changes, together with an increase in sucrose and GABA concentrations, were ascribed to mobilization of nutrients prior to sprouting, suggesting that malic acid and GABA serve as carbon and nitrogen sources during sprouting of Jerusalem artichokes.

  12. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; Rossmann, Anne; Rizos, Zoe; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Lorcaserin ((1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine HCl) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist with clinical efficacy in phase-III obesity trials. Based on evidence that this drug class also affects behaviors motivated by drug reinforcement, we compared the effect of lorcaserin on behavior maintained by food and nicotine reinforcement, as well as the stimulant and discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine in the rat. Acutely administered lorcaserin (0.3-3 mg/kg, subcutaneous (SC)) dose dependently reduced feeding induced by 22-h food deprivation or palatability. Effects up to 1 mg/kg were consistent with a specific effect on feeding motivation. Lorcaserin (0.6-1 mg/kg, SC) reduced operant responding for food on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. In this dose range lorcaserin also reversed the motor stimulant effect of nicotine, reduced intravenous self-administration of nicotine, and attenuated the nicotine cue in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from saline. Lorcaserin also reduced the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior elicited by a compound cue comprising a nicotine prime and conditioned stimulus previously paired with nicotine reinforcement. Lorcaserin did not reinstate nicotine-seeking behavior or substitute for a nicotine cue. Finally, lorcaserin (0.3-1 mg/kg) reduced nicotine-induced increases in anticipatory responding, a measure of impulsive action, in rats performing the five-choice serial reaction time task. Importantly, these results indicate that lorcaserin, and likely other selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, similarly affect both food- and nicotine-motivated behaviors, and nicotine-induced impulsivity. Collectively, these findings highlight a therapeutic potential for 5-HT(2C) agonists such as lorcaserin beyond obesity into addictive behaviors, such as nicotine dependence.

  13. Mechanisms of drift-feeding behavior in juvenile Chinook salmon and the role of inedible debris in a clear water Alaskan stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuswanger, Jason R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Hughes, Nicholas F.

    2014-01-01

    Drift-feeding fish are challenged to discriminate between prey and similar-sized particles of debris, which are ubiquitous even in clear-water streams. Spending time and energy pursuing debris mistaken as prey could affect fish growth and the fitness potential of different foraging strategies. Our goal was to determine the extent to which debris influences drift-feeding fish in clear water under low-flow conditions when the distracting effect of debris should be at a minimum. We used high-definition video to measure the reactions of drift-feeding juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to natural debris and prey in situ in the Chena River, Alaska. Among all potential food items fish pursued, 52 % were captured and quickly expelled from the mouth, 39 % were visually inspected but not captured, and only 9 % were ingested. Foraging attempt rate was only moderately correlated with ingestion rate (Kendall’s τ = 0.55), raising concerns about the common use of foraging attempts as a presumed index of foraging success. The total time fish spent handling debris increased linearly with foraging attempt rate and ranged between 4 and 25 % of total foraging time among observed groups. Our results help motivate a revised theoretical view of drift feeding that emphasizes prey detection and discrimination, incorporating ideas from signal detection theory and the study of visual attention in cognitive ecology. We discuss how these ideas could lead to better explanations and predictions of the spatial behavior, prey selection, and energy intake of drift-feeding fish.

  14. [Impact of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on growth and development and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-dong; Zhang, De-qi; Wang, Han-fang; Shao, Yun-hui; Fang, Bao-ting; Lyu, Feng-rong; Yue, Jun-qin; Ma, Fu-ju

    2015-03-01

    The effect of temperature increment before the over-wintering period on winter wheat development and grain yield was evaluated in an artificial climate chamber (TPG 1260, Australia) from 2010 to 2011. Winter wheat cultivar 'Zhengmai 7698' was used in this study. Three temperature increment treatments were involved in this study, i.e., temperature increment last 40, 50 and 60 days, respectively, before the over-wintering period. Control was not treated by temperature increment. The results showed that temperature increment before the over-wintering period had no significant effect on earlier phase spike differentiation. But an apparent effect on later phase spike differentiation was observed. High temperature effect on spike differentiation disappeared when the difference of effective accumulated temperature between the temperature increment treatment and the control was lower than 25 °C. However, the foliar age at the jointing stage was enhanced more than 0.8, heading and physiological ripening were advanced 1 day each, when the effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period increased 60 °C. Higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period accelerated winter wheat growth and development, which resulted in a short spike differentiation period. Winter wheat was easy to suffer freeze damage, which lead to floret abortion and spikelet death in spring under this situation. Meanwhile, higher effective accumulated temperature before the over-wintering period also reduced, photosynthetic capacity of flag leaf, shortened the grain filling period, and led to wheat grain yield reduction.

  15. Overwintering tadpoles and loss of fitness correlates in Polypedates braueri tadpoles that use artificial pools in a lowland agroecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsu, Juei-Ling; Kam, Yeong-Choy; Fellers, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth, development, and metamorphic traits of Polypedates braueri tadpoles in Taiwan to elucidate the cause of tadpole overwintering in man-made water containers in lowland orchards on the Bagua Terrace. Polypedates braueri bred from March to August, but tadpoles were present year round. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that tadpole overwintering was facultative; low temperatures and limited food retarded both growth and development, resulting in overwintering in the tadpole stage. Tadpoles at the lowest experimental temperature (15°C) never reached metamorphosis. A field experiment demonstrated that 78, 28, and 4% of tadpoles raised in high, medium, and low food regimes, respectively, metamorphosed before the onset of winter. Tadpoles that did not metamorphose by fall continued to grow slowly and either metamorphosed during the winter or the following spring. These findings indicate that food availability plays a key role in inducing overwintering in tadpoles. Jumping performance of metamorphs was positively correlated with food regimes, but body lipid content was significantly higher in metamorphs raised with either low or high food regimes than in those with medium levels of food. Overwintering by P. braueritadpoles has not been previously reported; however, agricultural activities have created new breeding habitats (i.e., man-made bodies of water), some of which are sufficiently food-limited that tadpoles overwinter to complete development and metamorphosis. An understanding of the survivorship, life history traits, and physiology of these frogs is needed to shed light on how man-made breeding sites affect the population dynamics of native frog populations.

  16. Internal Body Temperatures of an Overwintering Adult Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle)

    DOE PAGES

    Burke, Russell L.; Calle, Paul P.; Figueras, Miranda P.; ...

    2016-09-01

    Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) is the only turtle species in which adults are known to be tolerant of freezing. We report the first systematically collected data on internal body temperatures of an overwintering Eastern Box Turtle. Despite nearby air temperatures as low as -21.8 °C, this turtle probably supercooled rather than froze. Snow cover, thermal inertia, and the insulating effects of its refugium’s substrate may have protected this turtle from the very cold conditions.

  17. Internal Body Temperatures of an Overwintering Adult Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Russell L.; Calle, Paul P.; Figueras, Miranda P.; Green, Timothy M.

    2016-09-01

    Terrapene carolina (Eastern Box Turtle) is the only turtle species in which adults are known to be tolerant of freezing. We report the first systematically collected data on internal body temperatures of an overwintering Eastern Box Turtle. Despite nearby air temperatures as low as -21.8 °C, this turtle probably supercooled rather than froze. Snow cover, thermal inertia, and the insulating effects of its refugium’s substrate may have protected this turtle from the very cold conditions.

  18. Overwinter survival of neotropical migratory birds in early successional and mature tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Powell, G.V.N.; Nichols, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Many Neotropical migratory species inhabit both mature and early successional forest on their wintering grounds, yet comparisons of survival rates between habitats are lacking. Consequently, the factors affecting habitat suitability for Neotropical migrants and the potential effects of tropical deforestation on migrants are not well understood. We estimated over-winter survival and capture probabilities of Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina), and Kentucky Warbler (Oporomis formosus) inhabiting two common tropical habitat types, mature and early-successional forest. Our results suggest that large differences (for example, ratio of survival rates (gamma) < 0.85) in overwinter survival between these habitats do not exist for any of these species. Age ratios did not differ between habitats, but males were more common in forest habitats and females more common in successional habitats for Hooded Warblers and Kentucky Warblers. Future research on overwinter survival should address the need for age- and sex-specific survival estimates before we can draw strong conclusions regarding winter habitat suitability. Our estimates of over-winter survival extrapolated to annual survival rates that were generally lower than previous estimates of annual survival of migratory birds. Capture probability differed between habitats for Kentucky Warblers, but our results provide strong evidence against large differences in capture probability between habitats for Wood Thrush, Hooded Warblers, and Ovenbirds. We found no temporal or among site differences in survival or capture probability for any of the four species. Additional research is needed to examine the effects of winter habitat use on survival during migration and between-winter survival.

  19. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere.

  20. Growth, physiochemical and antioxidant responses of overwintering benthic cyanobacteria to hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Zhang, Min; Yu, Yang; Shi, Xiaoli

    2016-12-01

    The recruitment of overwintering benthic cyanobacteria from the sediment surface is important for the development of cyanobacterial blooms during warm spring seasons. Thus, controlling the growth of cyanobacteria at the benthic stage to inhibit their recruitment is vital to control or delay the formation of summer blooms. In this study, overwintering benthic cyanobacteria were exposed to ascending hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 20 mg/L) in a simulated overwintering environment. Photosynthetic pigments, physiochemical features, and antioxidant responses were evaluated to determine the inhibitory effects of H2O2 on the growth of benthic cyanobacteria and to identify the potential mechanisms thereof. These H2O2-treated cyanobacteria were then collected through filtration and transferred to an optimum environment to evaluate their recovery capacity. The results showed that chlorophyll a and phycocyanin contents, photosynthetic yield, and esterase activity decreased significantly in H2O2 treated groups compared to the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in benthic cyanobacteria were inhibited after 72 h exposure to H2O2, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated at the same time. These results indicate that H2O2 can inhibit the growth of benthic cyanobacteria, and H2O2-induced oxidative damage might be one of the mechanisms involved. The recovery experiment showed that the impairment of benthic cyanobacteria was temporary at a low dose of 1 mg/L H2O2, but permanent damage was induced when H2O2 concentrations were increased to 5 and 20 mg/L. Overall, our results highlight that H2O2 is a potential cyanobacteria inhibitor and can be used to decreasing the biomass of overwintering cyanobacteria, and could further control the intensity of cyanobacteria during the growth seasons.

  1. Overwintering of Anopheles Lindesayi Japonicus Larvae in the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Journal of the Anlerican Mosquito Control Association. 25( 1):32-37, 2009 Copyright © 2009 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc...LEE,4 HYUN-DOO KIM,4 LEOPOLDO M. RUEDAs AND TERRY A. KLEIN(I.7 ABSTRACT. Mosquito larval surveillance for environmental 1110nitoring and pest- control ...2007 through April 2008. During this study, nlosquitoes collected as overwintering larvae were Aedes togoi in brackish rock pools along the seashore

  2. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  3. Potential oversummering and overwintering regions for the wheat stripe rust pathogen in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma-Poudyal, Dipak; Chen, Xianming; Rupp, Richard Alan

    2014-07-01

    Epidemics of wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst), are more frequent in the regions where Pst can oversummer and overwinter. Regions for potential oversummering and overwintering of Pst were determined in the contiguous United States using a survival index (SI) ranging from 0 (most unfavorable) to 10 (most favorable) developed based on long-term weather data. The pathogen can survive in cool summer in the most regions north of latitude 40°N, particularly Washington, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and California. Due to limiting high temperatures, it survives marginally during summer in Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island and Texas. Similarly, unfavorable hot summer restricts summer survival of the pathogen in the most regions south of 40°N except for highlands in the Rocky or Appalachian Mountains. Warm winters favor fungal survival in most regions south of 40°N and the Pacific Coast, including Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas and Washington. Severe winters do not allow survival in most regions north of 40°N and east of the Rocky Mountains, whereas less severe winter in Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia permits marginal survival of Pst. Most wheat-growing regions have climatic suitability for either oversummering or overwintering. Both oversummering and overwintering can occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon and Washington), Arizona, California, North Carolina, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. These regions may provide primary inoculum for stripe rust epidemics in their own and surrounding regions.

  4. Behavioral and Stereological Analysis of the Effects of Intermittent Feeding Diet on the Orally Administrated MDMA (“ecstasy”) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Zeinab; Karimi, Zeinab; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Daraei, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Background: 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine or MDMA (also known as “ecstasy” or “molly”) is a commonly abused drug that affects behavior and can lead to neuronal damage. Intermittent feeding is an effective dietary protocol that promotes neuroprotection and improves behavioral outcomes in animal models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and histological outcomes of the effect of intermittent feeding on the orally administered MDMA in mice. Methods: The animals (male albino mice) were divided into four groups: ad libitum (AL), intermittent feeding (IF) (food given every other day), and AL and IF control groups. After five weeks, AL and IF groups were given a single oral dose of 20 or 60mg/kg MDMA. Behavior was assessed with the elevated plus-maze and the open field tests. Each of the treatment groups were then divided in to two groups: AL-AL (AL diet throughout), AL-IF (IF after MDMA administration), IF-IF (IF diet throughout), IF-AL (AL after MDMA administration). The second behavioral assessment was performed on ninth and 12th day after MDMA administration. The brains were then prepared with cresyl fast violet stain for stereology of the CA1 area of hippocampus. Results: The AL groups showed enhanced locomotion and anxiety compared to the IF (p<0.001); however, IF groups showed significantly (p<0.05) more locomotor activity and less anxiety recovery at ninth and 12th days compared to the AL animals. The neuronal numerical density was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the hippocampus in the AL-IF groups compared to the AL-AL. Conclusion: IF regimen can significantly modify various behavioral characteristics induced by MDMA and promotes faster recovery from MDMA’s anxiogenic effects. Additionally, IF regimen had neuroprotective effects on the neurons of the CA1 area of the hippocampus after a single oral dose of MDMA. We believe the results of our study support the need for further research

  5. Advective loss of overwintering Calanus finmarchicus from the Faroe-Shetland Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullyanto, Arief; Jónasdóttir, Sigrún H.; Visser, André W.

    2015-04-01

    The flow of deep water from the Norwegian Sea to the North Atlantic via the Faroe-Shetland Channel is one of the critical bottlenecks in the meridional overturn circulation. It is also a flow that potentially carries with it a large number of the overwintering copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, a regionally important secondary producer. Using a high resolution hydrodynamic model, MIKE 3 FM, we simulate the overflow of deep water and estimate the associated loss rate of C. finmarchicus as a function of the water depth strata within which they reside. We estimate a net advective loss from the Norwegian Sea population of 80±10 kt carbon bound in lipids of C. finmarchicus biomass per year, a number that constitutes about 50% of the total overwintering population. Estimates of water mass characteristics and particle tracking suggest that the fate of individuals transported in the overflowing water is to be entrained into warmer waters of the North Atlantic Basin, a habitat that appears to be unsuitable for successful overwintering.

  6. Modeling spatial variation of Russian wheat aphid overwintering population densities in Colorado winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Holtzer, Thomas O; Peairs, Frank B; Lester, Philip J

    2009-04-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), is a pest of small grain crops that has caused hundreds of millions of dollars of damage since it was first reported in the United States in 1986. Much is known about D. noxia population dynamics during the spring and early summer when most of the cr