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Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Evidence for a potential role of neuropeptide Y in ovine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Keator, C S; Custer, E E; Hoagland, T A; Schreiber, D T; Mah, K; Lawson, A M; Slayden, O D; McCracken, J A

    2010-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurohormone that is typically associated with food intake, but it has also been reported to affect the production of progesterone from luteal tissue in vitro. However, NPY has not been previously immunolocalized in the ovine ovary or in the corpus luteum (CL) of any species, and the effects of this neurohormone on luteal function in vivo are not known. Thus, we performed fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) to localize NPY in the ovine ovary and used avidin-biotin immunocytochemistry (ICC) to further define the intracellular localization within follicles and the CL. We then infused NPY directly into the arterial supply of the autotransplanted ovaries of sheep to determine the in vivo effect of exogenous NPY on ovarian blood flow and on the luteal secretion rate of progesterone and oxytocin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the NPY antigen was localized to cells within the follicles and CL, in the nerve fibers of the ovarian stroma, and in the vessels of the ovarian hilus. In the follicle, the NPY antigen was localized to nerves and vessels within the theca interna layer, and strong staining was observed in the granulosal cells of antral follicles. In the CL, NPY was localized in large luteal cells and in the vascular pericytes and/or endothelial cells of blood vessels, found dispersed throughout the gland and within the luteal capsule. In vivo incremental infusions of NPY at 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/min, each for a 30-min period, into the arterial supply of the transplanted ovary of sheep bearing a CL 11 d of age increased (P< or =0.05) ovarian blood flow. The intra-arterial infusions of NPY also increased (P< or =0.05) in a dose-dependent manner the secretion rate of oxytocin, which was positively correlated (P< or =0.05) with the observed increase in ovarian blood flow. The infusions of NPY had a minimal effect on the secretion rate of progesterone, and similar intra-arterial infusions of NPY into sheep with ovarian transplants

  2. Corpus luteum hemorrhage in women with bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ron; Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Bleeding into the corpus luteum following ovulation rarely has clinical significance in healthy women, but may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage in women with congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Women who are at an increased risk for corpus luteum hemorrhage (CLH) can be divided in two categories; first, those taking anticoagulants because of a thrombotic disorder; and second, women with congenital bleeding disorders. The management and prevention of CLH is still unsettled and the literature dealing with this problem is based on case reports only. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options of an acute bleeding event and prevention modalities of CLH in women with bleeding disorders.

  3. The role of GPR1 signaling in mice corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Li; Ren, Li-Rong; Sun, Li-Feng; Huang, Chen; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Chen, Jie; Zabel, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin, a chemokine, plays important roles in immune responses, inflammation, adipogenesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our recent research has shown that chemerin has an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion from the testis and ovary. However, whether G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), the active receptor for chemerin, regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum is still unknown. In this study, we established a pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG-hCG) superovulation model, a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) luteolysis model, and follicle and corpus luteum culture models to analyze the role of chemerin signaling through GPR1 in the synthesis and secretion of gonadal hormones during follicular/luteal development and luteolysis. Our results, for the first time, show that chemerin and GPR1 are both differentially expressed in the ovary over the course of the estrous cycle, with highest levels in estrus and metestrus. GPR1 has been localized to granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro, we found that chemerin suppresses hCG-induced progesterone production in cultured follicle and corpus luteum and that this effect is attenuated significantly by anti-GPR1 MAB treatment. Furthermore, when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was blocked, the attenuating effect of GPR1 MAB was abrogated. Interestingly, PGF2α induces luteolysis through activation of caspase-3, leading to a reduction in progesterone secretion. Treatment with GPR1 MAB blocked the PGF2α effect on caspase-3 expression and progesterone secretion. This study indicates that chemerin/GPR1 signaling directly or indirectly regulates progesterone synthesis and secretion during the processes of follicular development, corpus luteum formation, and PGF2α-induced luteolysis. PMID:27149986

  4. Formation and early development of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B D; Gévry, N; Ruiz-Cortés, T; Coté, F; Downey, B R; Sirois, J

    2001-01-01

    Numerous corpora lutea form from the multiple follicles that ovulate during the oestrous cycle of pigs. Vascular elements invade the follicle from the theca compartment, first centripetally, and subsequently by lateral branching of centripetal veins and arteries. The vessels are the vehicle for dispersion of steroidogenic theca cells throughout the corpus luteum. Mitosis occurs in both the theca and granulosa layers before ovulation, and in luteal cells well into the luteal phase. Luteal cell proliferation undergoes gradual restriction as the corpus luteum matures, but the mechanisms of exit from the cell cycle are unknown. The extracellular ligands that direct luteinization and maintain the corpus luteum include LH, prolactin, insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). These ligands induce qualitative and quantitative changes in steroid output, with progesterone as the principal product. These changes upregulate the cholesterol synthetic pathways to increase substrate availability. The intracellular regulation of luteinization is complex. A model is presented in which LH stimulates arachidonic and lineoleic acid metabolism to produce ligands for the nuclear proteins of the peripheral peroxisome activator receptor family. These ligands have downstream effects on cell differentiation and exit from the cell cycle. Luteal function is maintained by interactions among ligands, cholesterol regulatory proteins and constitutively expressed and regulated transcription factors. PMID:11980202

  5. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  6. Isolation of endothelial cells and pericytes from swine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Basini, G; Falasconi, I; Bussolati, S; Grolli, S; Ramoni, R; Grasselli, F

    2014-07-01

    From an angiogenesis perspective, the ovary offers a unique opportunity to study the physiological development of blood vessels. The first purpose of this work was to set up a protocol for the isolation of pig corpus luteum endothelial cells, which were characterized by both morphologic parameters and the expression of typical molecular markers; we also verified their ability to form capillary-like structures in a 3-dimensional matrix, their response to hypoxia and their migration in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The effectiveness of our isolation protocol was confirmed by the characteristic "cobblestone shape" of isolated cells at confluence as well as their expression of all the examined endothelial markers. Our data also showed a significant cell production of VEGF and nitric oxide. Isolated endothelial cells were also responsive to hypoxia by increasing the expression and production of VEGF and decreasing that of nitric oxide. In the angiogenesis bioassay, cells displayed the ability of forming capillary-like structures and also exhibited a significant migration in the scratch test. Our data suggest that the isolation of luteal endothelial cells represents a promising tool in experiments designed to clarify the biology of the angiogenic process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the isolated population comprises a subset of cells with a multidifferentiative capacity toward the chondrocytic and adipocytic phenotypes. These data suggest the presence of a perivascular or adventitial cell niche in the vascular wall of the corpus luteum populated with cells showing mesenchymal stem cell-like features, as already demonstrated for the adipose tissue and endometrium.

  7. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor production and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bagavandoss, P; Wiggins, R C; Kunkel, S L; Remick, D G; Keyes, P L

    1990-02-01

    The potential involvement of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in regression of the corpus luteum was investigated at different stages of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy by use of immunocytochemical methods and a TNF bioassay. Few macrophages (11 +/- 6 per high power field of 8-microns frozen sections of corpus luteum, Day 10 of pseudopregnancy) were observed until the very end of pseudopregnancy, when the number of macrophages increased greatly (176 +/- 42 per high power field, Day 19 of pseudopregnancy). Pregnancy, of 32 days duration, delayed large-scale macrophage accumulation until 3 days after parturition (154 +/- 30 per high power field). Low TNF activity (approximately 1.0 U/mg protein) was detected in incubations of luteal tissue at all stages; in response to lipopolysaccharide, TNF values in medium increased 10- to 30-fold at times of luteal regression and macrophage accumulation (1 day postpartum and Day 19 of pseudopregnancy). Class II-positive T lymphocytes were observed in luteal tissue, but unlike macrophages, the number of lymphocytes did not increase at the time of regression of the corpus luteum. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that involution of the corpus luteum is promoted through the interactions of inflammatory cells and action of TNF, although the action of TNF has not been determined in this luteal tissue. Through unknown mechanisms, pregnancy postpones the accumulation of macrophages in the corpus luteum, in association with the prolongation of luteal function until the time of parturition.

  9. Abnormal function of the corpus luteum in some ewes with phyto-oestrogenic infertility.

    PubMed

    Adams, N R; Hearnshaw, H; Oldham, C M

    1981-01-01

    Ewes with permanent phyto-estrogenic infertility show oestrus less regularly than normal ewes, and the present study examines the extent to which this results from abnormal ovarian function. Forty-nine affected ewes and 53 controls were run with rams fitted with marking crayons and harnesses, and crayon marks were recorded and laparoscopy performed at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Fewer affected ewes showed oestrus accompanied by ovulation (28 v. 49, P less than 0.001), and four of these affected ewes had a second ovulation during the experiment. More of the ovulations observed in affected ewes were unaccompanied by behavioural oestrus than in controls (8 out of 38 v. 2 out of 50; P less than 0.05). Six affected ewes had no corpus luteum or oestrus, and five of these had adhesions over the genitalia. Hydrops uteri in five other affected ewes was accompanied by prolonged maintenance of the corpus luteum. Some other abnormalities were also observed. In a second study, plasma progesterone concentrations were measured twice daily in 12 affected ewes which were run with rams. Five ewes had oestrous cycles of abnormal duration (two of more than 23 days, two of 21 days, and one of 11 days), and these were accompanied by plasma progesterone patterns different from those of the ewes with an oestrous cycle duration of 16-18 days. It is concluded that the irregular oestrous cycles in affected ewes are due mainly to abnormal life span and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, which in turn largely result from changes in the uterus. PMID:7196218

  10. Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stormshak, Fredrick

    2003-01-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge of oxytocin production by the preovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is presented. Corpora lutea of a number of mammalian species have been found to synthesize oxytocin. However, the synthesis and secretion of this nanopeptide by the corpus luteum of the ruminant has been most extensively studied because of the potential role of this peptide in facilitating luteal regression. While much information exists relative to various biochemical and endocrine factors that impact on oxytocin gene expression, this aspect about luteal synthesis of this peptide hormone remains enigmatic. Prostaglandin F-2α (PGF-2α) has been shown to be a primary endogenous hormone responsible for triggering luteal secretion of oxytocin. Details are provided regarding the PGF-2α-induced intracellular signal transduction pathway that ultimately results in exocytosis of luteal oxytocin. Evidence is also presented for potential autocrine/paracrine actions of oxytocin in regulating progesterone production by luteal and granulosa cells. Concluding remarks highlight aspects about luteal oxytocin production that require further research. PMID:14613532

  11. Hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, hepatic portal blood flow, and corpus luteum blood perfusion in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ruminants, a decrease in pregnancy rates may be due to decreased concentrations of progesterone (P4). It is important to note that both production from the corpus luteum and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4. Cattle with an elevated dry matter intake have inc...

  12. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  13. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-07-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  14. Intraperitoneal haemorrhage from a ruptured corpus luteum. A cause of "acute abdomen" in women.

    PubMed

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Singh, A; Rachagan, S P; Raman, S

    1986-04-14

    During the 10-year period 1974-1983, 68 patients with intraperitoneal haemorrhage as a result of the rupture of a corpus luteum were managed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were aged between 18 and 35 years. In 63% of the patients the rupture occurred between the 14th and the 35th day of the menstrual cycle, and 10 patients had intraperitoneal bleeding severe enough (450-1500 mL) to require blood transfusion. The condition is often confused with other surgical emergencies such as appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. An increased awareness of the problem in women of reproductive age and the use of laparoscopy, when indicated, will allow a more conservative approach to be adopted for those patients with minimal bleeding. The performance of an appendicectomy in the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity did not appear to increase morbidity in those patients with a preoperative diagnosis of "appendicitis".

  15. Massive hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia/hypofibrinogenemia is a rare inherited hematologic disorder in which a patient lacks or has insufficient level of fibrinogen, the blood coagulation factor I. The incidence of this uncommon disease is 1 to 2 per 1 million individuals. Hence, massive hemoperitoneum caused by ovulation in a woman with congenital afibrogenemia is also a very rare clinical condition. Massive hemoperitoneum usually presents as acute abdominal pain with potential findings of peritonitis including abdominal distention, hypotension and tachycardia with critical consequences. We performed emergent endoscopic surgery for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case report of such treatment in Korea. PMID:26430672

  16. Ultrasound confirmation of ovulation in mares: a normal corpus luteum or a haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle?

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2013-02-01

    The most common pathological anovulatory condition that occurs spontaneously during the breeding season in the mare is the haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF). A relatively high proportion of mares, soon after ovulation, develop a corpus haemorrhagicum (CH) with a central lacuna. This type of corpora lutea may resemble an HAF, which may complicate the accurate diagnosis of ovulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the ultrasound data of mares examined frequently with HAFs and CHs to elucidate whether it is possible to distinguish them from each other. A total of 135 ovulating mares were classified according to the morphology of the corpus luteum (CL) in mares with: a solid CL, a CH with small or with large central cavities. Ultrasound characteristics of the development of 11 HAF and 13 CHs with a large central cavity were compared. The pre-ovulatory follicular diameter of ovulatory mares was significantly correlated with the diameter of CH with large central cavities. The percentage of mares with post-ovulatory areas eligible to be mistaken with a CH was <25%. Although a predictive diagnosis of an HAF/CH can be made on the basis of several ultrasonographic endpoints, the only parameter that allows a definitive diagnosis is the thickness of the luteal border. This is <3 mm in HAFs in contrast to >5 mm in CHs. However, this only applies when the unidentified structure has non-organized contents.

  17. Repeated intrauterine infusions of lipopolysaccharide alter gene expression and lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Lingemann, B; Wellnitz, O; Hankele, A K; Schmicke, M; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control. In all cycles, blood sampling and ultrasonography of the ovaries were performed on d 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, and then every 2d until ovulation. Endometrial cells were collected for cytology and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 0, 6, and 9, and on d 0 and 6, respectively, and luteal tissue was collected for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 6 and 9. Both, PBS and LPS infusions induced subclinical endometritis, which was accompanied by increased endometrial mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL8, and tumor necrosis factor α. Additionally, LPS challenge induced premature luteolysis, which was characterized by increased plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolite, decreased plasma progesterone concentrations, and reduced luteal size and blood flow compared with the control. The luteal mRNA expression of the LPS receptor TLR4, PGE synthase, and the apoptosis-related factor CASP3 were higher, and those of steroidogenic factors STAR and HSD3B, the PGF receptor, and the angiogenic factor VEGFA121 were lower after LPS challenge compared with the control. In conclusion, repeated intrauterine LPS infusions during the first 9d of the estrous cycle alter gene expression and shorten the lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:27179870

  18. DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Are Associated with Repression of the Inhibin α Promoter in the Rat Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Meldi, Kristen M.; Gaconnet, Georgia A.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the α subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin α gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin α gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin α proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin α promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin α promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

  19. Effect of a prostaglandin F2α analogue on the cyclic corpus luteum during its refractory period in cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine the response of the cyclic corpus luteum of cows to the administration of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF) during the transition of refractoriness to responsiveness by investigating ultrasonographic changes in the corpus luteum and changes in plasma progesterone concentration in cows following the administration of PGF 3 and 5 days after ovulation. Results All cows that responded to PGF given on day 5 ovulated on day 9. In the cows that did not respond on day 5, the luteal cross-sectional area stagnated after treatment, whereas the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. In the cows that received PGF on day 3 of the oestrous cycle, the luteal cross-sectional area and the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the transition of the bovine corpus luteum from refractoriness to responsiveness to PGF occurs during day 5 of the oestrous cycle because in 5 of 8 cows given PGF on day 5, early luteal regression was evident during the examination 24 hours after PGF administration. PMID:23151276

  20. Formation and regression of the corpus luteum of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; You-Xiang, Q.; Cox, M.C.; Matter, J.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Luteal morphology of the American alligator is unique when compared to other reptiles but is similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives, the birds. The theca is extensively hypertrophied, but the granulosa never fills the cavity formed following the ovulation of the ovum. The formation of the corpus luteum (CL) is correlated with elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, which decline dramatically after oviposition with the onset of luteolysis. Unlike those of most other reptiles, the central luteal cell mass is composed of two cell types; one presumably is derived from the granulosa, whereas the other is from the theca interna. Both cell types are present throughout gravidity but only one cell type is seen during mid to late luteolysis. A significant decline in luteal volume occurs following oviposition and continues throughout the post-oviposition period. The fastest decline in luteal volume occurs in the month immediately after oviposition; this rate then slows. Luteolysis appears to continue for a year or more following oviposition, as distinct structures of luteal origin can still be identified in animals 9 months after oviposition. The size of persistent CL can be used to determine whether a given female oviposited during the previous nesting season. Females with CL having volumes greater than 0.2 cm2 or CL diameters greater than 0.4 cm were active the previous season. 

  1. Evidence that the subunit structure of gonadotropin receptor is preserved during regression of rat corpus luteum

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Menon, K.N.J.

    1986-05-29

    The level of hCG/LH receptor has been shown to undergo marked changes during the life span of rat corpus luteum. To evaluate whether these fluctuations are due to changes in the receptor subunit structure or receptor protein content, the /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity and the receptor subunit structure were determined during different time periods of pseudopregnancy. The maximum /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity was observed on day 7, after which it decreased by 20 and 45% on day 11 and day 14, respectively. The Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-hCG binding data showed that the decrease in binding activity was caused by a change in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the binding affinity. The LH/hCG receptor in ovarian membranes obtained on days 7, 11 and 14 were characterized by the method of affinity cross-linking. All four subunits of the LH/hCG receptor were detected in the ovarian membranes at all stages while the intensity decreased parallel to a decrease in hCG binding from day 7 to day 14.

  2. Prolactin in maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pseudopregnancy in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Harris, K H; Murphy, B D

    1981-08-01

    The role of prolactin in the maintenance of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy was studied in the golden hamster. Nine groups of seven to fourteen animals each received 1 mg bromocriptine at 11.00 h on days 1, 2 or 3 of pseudopregnancy (three groups for each day). On each day of treatment with bromocriptine, one group of hamsters was injected with bovine prolactin 4 h before bromocriptine, and one group received prolactin 4 h before bromocriptine for three consecutive days following treatment with bromocriptine. One group received bromocriptine only. These nine groups were compared with a control group of animals given 0.85% saline instead of bromocriptine and prolactin. Peripheral blood samples were taken from all hamsters at 11.00 h on days 3, 4, 5 and 6 of pseudopregnancy and plasma levels of progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Luteolysis, indicated by a decline in progesterone level by 24 or 48 h after treatment with bromocriptine, occurred in all hamsters given bromocriptine alone, whether it was administered on day 1, 2 or 3. Pretreatment with a single dose of prolactin did not mitigate the bromocriptine-induced fall in progesterone. In the majority of cases, pretreatment with prolactin plus daily doses of prolactin maintained the progesterone at levels not different from saline-treated hamsters. These data suggest that prolactin is a necessary luteotrophin during early pseudopregnancy without which luteolysis ensues.

  3. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3α, LC3β, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  4. Corpus luteum function and pregnancy outcome in buffaloes during the transition period from breeding to non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Pacelli, C; Prandi, A; Gasparrini, B; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2010-12-01

    The aim in this study was to investigate corpus luteum function and embryonic loss in buffaloes mated by artificial inseminations (AI) during the transitional period from breeding to non-breeding season. The study was carried out using 288 multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows at 110 ± 4 days in milk. The buffaloes were mated by AI after synchronization of ovulation by the Ovsynch-TAI protocol 25 days after AI buffaloes underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to assess embryonic development. Pregnancy diagnosis was confirmed on Days 45 and 70 after AI by rectal palpation. Buffaloes pregnant on Day 25 but not on Day 45 were considered to have undergone late embryonic mortality (LEM), whilst buffaloes pregnant on Day 45 but not on Day 70 were considered to have undergone foetal mortality (FM). Corpus luteum size and blood flow were determined by real-time B-mode/colour-Doppler on day 10 after AI in 122 buffaloes. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at the time. Milk samples were collected on Days 10, 20 and 25 after AI in all inseminated buffaloes for the assay of whey P4 concentrations. Data were analysed by anova. Pregnancy rate on Day 25 after AI was 48.6% (140/288) and declined to 35.4% (102/288) and 30.6% (88/288) by Day 45 and Day 70 respectively. The incidences of LEM and FM were respectively 27.1% (38/140) and 13.7% (14/102). Pregnant buffaloes had greater (p < 0.01) whey concentrations of P4 from Day 20 onwards than buffaloes which showed LEM, whilst P4 in buffaloes that showed FM did not differ from the other two groups on Day 10 and Day 20. Corpus luteum blood flow on Day 10 after AI showed higher RI (p < 0.05) and PI (p = 0.07) values in buffaloes that subsequently were not pregnant on Day 25 compared with pregnant buffaloes. Buffaloes that were not pregnant on Day 45 also had a higher (p = 0.02) RI value on Day 10 than pregnant buffaloes, whilst PI values on Day 10 did not differ for the two

  5. Bovine corpus luteum regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Randel, R D; Peterson, L A

    1987-05-01

    Two trials evaluated bovine corpus luteum (CL) regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Expression of at least one estrous cycle (16 to 26 d) and a palpable mid-cycle CL were required prior to random assignment of females to receive 0, .38, .75, 1.50 or 2.25 mg AP/100 kg body weight. Alfaprostol was evaluated in Brahman cows and heifers that were treated on d 11 to 13 (trial 1) and in Simmental X Brahman-Hereford (crossbred) heifers that were treated on d 8 to 10 or d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle (trial 2). In trial 1, Brahman heifers appeared to require a higher AP dose (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and expression of estrus than Brahman cows. Alfaprostol treatment (greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight) induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in Brahman cows and heifers. In trial 2, crossbred heifers that received AP on d 8 to 10 appeared to require a higher dose of AP (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and estrus than heifers that received AP on d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle. Alfaprostol treatment greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight on d 8 to 10 and d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in crossbred heifers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3583939

  6. Glucose transporter 1 expression accompanies hypoxia sensing in the cyclic canine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Papa, Paula de Carvalho; Sousa, Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho; Silva, Renata dos Santos; de Fátima, Luciana Alves; da Fonseca, Vanessa Uemura; do Amaral, Vanessa Coutinho; Hoffmann, Bernd; Alves-Wagner, Ana Bárbara; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The canine corpus luteum (CL) functions as a source of progesterone (P4) and 17β-oestradiol (E2); however, the transport of energy substrates to maintain its high hormonal output has not yet been characterised. This study involved the localisation and temporal distribution of the facilitative glucose transporter 1 and the quantification of the corresponding protein (GLUT1) and gene (SLC2A1) expression. Some GLUT1/SLC2A1 regulatory proteins, such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2); mRNAs, such as HIF1A, FGF2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA); and VEGFA receptors 1 and 2 (FLT1 and KDR) were also analysed from days 10 to 70 after ovulation. Additionally, plasma P4 and E2 levels were assessed via chemiluminescence. Moreover, the canine KDR sequence has been cloned, thereby enabling subsequent semi-quantitative PCR analysis. Our results demonstrate time-dependent variations in the expression profile of SLC2A1 during dioestrus, which were accompanied by highly correlated changes (0.84

  7. Expression and regulation of progestin membrane receptors in the rat corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zailong; Stocco, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Despite evidence strongly supporting progesterone's autocrine actions in the rat corpus luteum (CL), classical progesterone receptors (PR) have not been detected in this gland. Alternatively, in several other systems, progestins have been reported to activate nongenomic pathways via putative progestin membrane receptors (PMRs). The aim of this investigation was to determine whether rat CL membranes bind progestins and contain PMR homologs and whether these proteins are expressed during CL development in a manner that parallels luteal function. We found that luteal cell membranes specifically bind progesterone. Low levels of progesterone and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone decreased binding of [(3)H]progesterone, whereas androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and pregnenolone were less potent. Other steroids, including corticosterone, mifepristone, and estradiol, were ineffective. We found that the rat CL expresses five genes previously postulated to encode for putative PMRs: PMRalpha, PMRbeta, PMRgamma, PR membrane component 1 (PRMC1), and Rda288. Pmralpha, Pmrgamma, and Prmc1 transcripts rose steadily during pregnancy whereas Pmrbeta and Rda288 remained constant. Just before parturition, concomitant with falling progesterone levels, Pmralpha, Pmrbeta, and Prmc1 decreased. Luteal PMRalpha and PRMC1 protein levels were lower in samples taken at the end of pregnancy compared with midpregnancy samples. Ergocriptine, which inhibits the secretion of prolactin, the primary luteotrophic hormone in the rat CL, reduced Pmralpha, Pmrbeta, and Prmc1 expression significantly. Ergocriptine effects were prevented by coadministration of prolactin. These findings provide evidence for the expression and regulation of putative membrane-bound progestin-binding proteins in the rat CL, a tissue that does not express detectable levels of nuclear progesterone receptors. PMID:16123161

  8. Early pregnancy modulates survival and apoptosis pathways in the corpus luteum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeHoon; Banu, Sakhila K; McCracken, John A; Arosh, Joe A

    2016-03-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland. Functional and structural demise of the CL allows a new estrous cycle. On the other hand, survival of CL and its secretion of progesterone are required for the establishment of pregnancy. Survival or apoptosis of the luteal cells is precisely controlled by interactions between survival and apoptosis pathways. Regulation of these cell signaling components during natural luteolysis and establishment of pregnancy is largely unknown in ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the regulation of survival and apoptosis signaling protein machinery in the CL on days 12, 14, and 16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in sheep. Results indicate that: i) expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, β-catenin, NFκB -p65, -p50, -p52, p-Src, p-β -arrestin, p-GSK3β, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and p-CREB proteins are suppressed during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are sustained or increased during establishment of pregnancy; ii) expressions of cleaved caspase-3, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), c-Fos, c-Jun, and EGR-1 proteins are increased during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are decreased during establishment of pregnancy; and iii) expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bad, and Bax proteins are not modulated during natural luteolysis while expressions of Bcl2 and Bcl-XL proteins are increased during establishment of pregnancy in sheep. These proteomic changes are evident in both large and small luteal cells. These results together indicate that regression of the CL during natural luteolysis or survival of the CL during establishment of pregnancy is precisely controlled by distinct programmed suppression or activation of intraluteal cell survival and apoptosis pathways in sheep/ruminants. PMID:26585285

  9. Lipopolysaccharide enhances apoptosis of corpus luteum in isolated perfused bovine ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Möller, B; Kradolfer, D; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Miyamoto, A; Ulbrich, S E; Bollwein, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, has detrimental effects on the structure and function of bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vivo. The objective was to investigate whether these effects were mediated directly by LPS or via LPS-induced release of PGF2α. Bovine ovaries with a mid-cycle CL were collected immediately after slaughter and isolated perfused for 240 min. After 60 min of equilibration, LPS (0.5 μg/ml) was added to the medium of five ovaries, whereas an additional six ovaries were not treated with LPS (control). After 210 min of perfusion, all ovaries were treated with 500 iu of hCG. In the effluent perfusate, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and PGF2α were measured every 10 and 30 min, respectively. Punch biopsies of the CL were collected every 60 min and used for RT-qPCR to evaluate mRNA expression of receptors for LPS (TLR2, -4) and LH (LHCGR); the cytokine TNFA; steroidogenic (STAR, HSD3B), angiogenic (VEGFA121, FGF2), and vasoactive (EDN1) factors; and factors of prostaglandin synthesis (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR) and apoptosis (CASP3, -8, -9). Treatment with LPS abolished the hCG-induced increase in P4 (P≤0.05); however, there was a tendency (P=0.10) for increased release of PGF2α at 70 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of TLR2, TNFA, CASP3, CASP8, PGES, PGFS, and VEGFA121 increased (P≤0.05) after LPS treatment, whereas all other factors remained unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, reduced P4 responsiveness to hCG in LPS-treated ovaries in vitro was not due to reduced steroidogenesis, but was attributed to enhanced apoptosis. However, an impact of luteal PGF2α could not be excluded. PMID:26483517

  10. Progesterone promotes survival of the rat corpus luteum in the absence of cognate receptors.

    PubMed

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Deis, Ricardo P; Gibori, Geula; Telleria, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Progesterone production by the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for preparation of the endometrium for implantation and for the maintenance of gestation. Progesterone modulates its own production and opposes functional luteal regression induced by exogenous agents, such as prostaglandin F(2alpha). In the present study, we evaluated whether progesterone is also capable of interfering with the process of structural luteal regression, which is characterized by a decrease in weight and size of the gland because of programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis). We have found that a low number of luteal cells undergo apoptosis throughout gestation. On the day of parturition, but following the initial decline in endogenous progesterone production, a small increase in the number of luteal cells undergoing cell death was observed. This increase in apoptotic cells continued postpartum, reaching dramatic levels by Day 4 postpartum, and was accompanied by a marked decrease in average luteal weight. We have established that the exogenous administration of progesterone significantly reduces the decline in luteal weight observed during structural luteal regression postpartum. This effect was associated with a decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis and with enhanced circulating levels of androstenedione. Furthermore, in vivo administration of progesterone delayed the occurrence of DNA fragmentation in postpartum CL incubated in serum-free conditions. Finally, we have shown that neither the CL of gestation nor the newly formed CL after postpartum ovulation express the classic progesterone-receptor mRNA. In summary, the present results support a protective action of progesterone on the function and survival of the CL through inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of androstenedione production. Furthermore, this effect is carried out in the absence of classic progesterone receptors.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved in corpus luteum regression in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway.

  12. Quantitative light microscopic analysis of corpus luteum growth during pseudopregnancy in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, A M; Mastroyannis, C; Yoshimura, Y; Atlas, S J; Wallach, E E; Zirkin, B R

    1988-05-01

    We employed stereological methods at the light-microscope level to examine the mechanism by which corpora lutea (CL) grow during the course of pseudopregnancy in the rabbit. Corpus luteum volume per ovary, the absolute volume of luteal cells per CL, individual luteal cell volume, the number of luteal and endothelial cells per CL, and capillary surface area per CL were examined in rabbits at Days 1, 4, 7, 11, and 18 of pseudopregnancy. Total CL volume increased from 3.7 +/- 0.1 microliter to 30.3 +/- 0.5 microliter over Days 1 to 11 and thereafter decreased to 15.2 +/- 1.1 microliter by Day 18. Stereological analyses showed that the increases in CL volume from Day 1 to Day 11 were due primarily to increases in the volume of individual luteal cells (from 2.6 +/- 0.2 pl on Day 1 to 23.5 +/- 1.7 pl on Day 11, 1 pl = (10 mu)3; r = 0.96), and that the decrease in CL volume after Day 11 resulted largely from a decrease in luteal cell volume (to 12.8 +/- 1.5 pl). In contrast, no change was seen in the number of luteal cells per CL (range 9.1 x 10(5)-12.5 x 10(5)). These data show that CL growth and subsequent regression during pseudopregnancy result primarily from changes in the volume of individual luteal cells, and not from changes in the number of luteal cells. These data support the hypothesis that modulation of progesterone production during pseudopregnancy is due to changes in individual luteal cell volume and not to changes in cell number.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway Is Involved in Corpus Luteum Regression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

  14. Bovine corpus luteum regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Randel, R D; Peterson, L A

    1987-05-01

    Two trials evaluated bovine corpus luteum (CL) regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Expression of at least one estrous cycle (16 to 26 d) and a palpable mid-cycle CL were required prior to random assignment of females to receive 0, .38, .75, 1.50 or 2.25 mg AP/100 kg body weight. Alfaprostol was evaluated in Brahman cows and heifers that were treated on d 11 to 13 (trial 1) and in Simmental X Brahman-Hereford (crossbred) heifers that were treated on d 8 to 10 or d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle (trial 2). In trial 1, Brahman heifers appeared to require a higher AP dose (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and expression of estrus than Brahman cows. Alfaprostol treatment (greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight) induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in Brahman cows and heifers. In trial 2, crossbred heifers that received AP on d 8 to 10 appeared to require a higher dose of AP (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and estrus than heifers that received AP on d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle. Alfaprostol treatment greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight on d 8 to 10 and d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in crossbred heifers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

    2014-12-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, ρ₅. We find that weak (low ρ₅) or strong (high ρ₅) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of ρ₅, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows.

  16. Molecular regulation of progesterone secretion by the human corpus luteum throughout the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Devoto, Luigi; Vega, Margarita; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Carvallo, Pilar; Palomino, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) within the human corpus luteum (CL) in conjunction with other molecules that regulate the apoptotic process of the CL. Our results indicate that the primary 1.6 kb StAR transcript occurs in greater abundance in early and mid-luteal phase compared with late luteal phase CL. Mature StAR protein (30 kDa) was present in lower amounts within late CL compared with early and mid-luteal phase. The pre-protein (37 kDa), which has been considered the active isoform to favor cholesterol translocation and subsequently steroid hormone synthesis, was also detected in lower amount in late CL. Several molecules, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, steroids and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), have been linked as pro-apoptotic regulatory agents. Moreover, many of these molecules diminish progesterone synthesis in human cultured luteal cells. Interestingly, these molecules preferentially decrease progesterone biosynthesis in mid and late luteal cells in culture. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of these molecules, as well as the amount of apoptotic cells in the CL are age dependent. The number of luteal apoptotic cells, as well as luteal cells stained positive for iNOS, increased from early to late CL. To examine the effects of hCG on StAR expression and apoptosis, we used two models-(1) in vivo hCG administration during the late luteal phase; and (2) in vitro incubation of explants of late CL with hCG. hCG increased both the level of StAR expression and the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 within the late CL. We conclude that mRNA and protein expression of StAR and bcl-2 are important target elements for hCG during the CL rescue. PMID:12062818

  17. The presence of corpus luteum may have a negative impact on in vitro developmental competency of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hajarian, Hadi; Shahsavari, Mohammad H; Karami-shabankareh, Hamed; Dashtizad, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of corpus luteum (CL) on in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and divided according to the presence (CL(+) oocytes) or absence (CL(-) oocytes) of a CL in the ovary. Control oocytes (C group) were obtained from ovaries which were not selected toward the presence or absence of CL. All oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. In experiment 2, the oocytes from the CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries were divided into grown (BCB(+)) and growing (BCB(-)) categories by means of the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. The oocytes from all groups (CL(+)/BCB(+), CL(-)/BCB(+), CL(+)/BCB(-), CL(-)/BCB(-) and control oocytes) were subjected to in vitro embryo production. In experiment 1, the cleavage and blastocyst rates of CL(-) oocytes were higher than those of CL(+) oocytes (83.9% and 43% vs. 69.3% and 22.5%, respectively). In experiment 2, there was less BCB(+) oocytes (more competent oocytes) in the group of CL(+) oocytes than in the group of CL(-) oocytes. Furthermore, developmental competence of all CL(+) oocytes (CL(+)/BCB(+) and CL(+)/BCB(-)) was lower than that of all CL(-) oocytes (CL(-)/BCB(+) and CL(-)/BCB(-)). Thus, the presence of a corpus luteum in the ovary may have negative effects on developmental competence of ipsilateral oocytes. PMID:26952753

  18. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Devoto, L; Kohen, P; Gonzalez, R R; Castro, O; Retamales, I; Vega, M; Carvallo, P; Christenson, L K; Strauss, J F

    2001-11-01

    The expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the human corpus luteum (CL) was examined throughout the luteal phase. The primary 1.6-kb StAR transcript was in greater abundance in early (3.1-fold) and mid (2.2-fold) luteal phase CL compared with late luteal phase CL. The larger StAR transcript (4.4 kb) was found in early and midluteal phase CL, but was not detected in late luteal phase specimens. Mature StAR protein (30 kDa) was present in lower amounts within late CL compared with early and midluteal phase CL. The StAR preprotein (37 kDa) was also detected in greater abundance in early and midluteal CL. Immunohistochemistry revealed that StAR staining was most prominent in thecal-lutein cells throughout the luteal phase. The intensity of the signal for StAR exhibited significant changes throughout the luteal phase, being most intense during the midluteal phase and least during the late luteal phase. Plasma progesterone concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.73 and r = 0.79) with luteal expression of the preprotein and mature StAR isoforms, respectively, throughout the luteal phase. To examine the LH dependency of StAR expression, the GnRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, was administered during the midluteal phase. Cetrorelix caused a decline in serum LH levels within 2 h, which, in turn, caused a pronounced decline in plasma progesterone within 6 h. The StAR 4.4-kb transcript was not detectable, and the 1.6-kb transcript was reduced by approximately 50% within 24 h of Cetrorelix treatment. The mature 30-kDa StAR protein level declined approximately 30% after Cetrorelix treatment. We conclude that 1) StAR mRNA and protein are highly expressed in early and midluteal phase CL; 2) StAR protein is present in both thecal-lutein and granulosa-lutein cells throughout the luteal phase; 3) StAR protein levels in the CL are highly correlated with plasma progesterone levels; 4) declining StAR mRNA and protein levels are characteristic of late luteal

  19. The corpus luteum periodicum in the bitch: histochemical and biochemical investigations during different phases of the cycle.

    PubMed

    Dreier, K H; Choi, H S; Hager, H

    1975-12-01

    The corpus luteum periodicum (c.l.p.) of the bitch was studied using enzyme histochemistry, clinical and biochemical methods. Assessment of variations of the serum progesterone level during different stages of the ovarian cycle and the study of enzymatic activity of the luteal tissue furnished informations on vitality and biosynthetic capacity of luteinizing cells: The period of functional activity of the c.l.p. nearly ceased about day 60 of the cycle (proestrus included) in the animals examined. In the light microscope the neo-synthesis of progesterone in the c.l.-tissue can be made visible by histochemical demonstration of the activity of Delta(5)-3 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) only up to a progesterone level exceeding 6.7 ng/ml plasma. The data obtained contribute to our baseline knowledge of the mechanism involved in the etiology of pseudopregnancylike conditions in the bitch.

  20. Luteal responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the luteal phase: relation to the age of corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Caruso, A; Lanzone, A; Fulghesu, A M; Mancuso, S

    1987-02-01

    The pituitary and luteal responsiveness of GnRH were studied in 20 normal women at different stages of the luteal phase (LP). Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 180 min before and 120 min after the iv injection of 25 micrograms GnRH. The studies were performed in the early LP (ELP; days 2-3 of LP; n = 5), mid-LP (MLP: days 4-8 of LP; n = 11), late LP (LLP; days 9-12 of LP; n = 13), and premenstrual phase (PMP; days 13-14 of LP; n = 3). Plasma LH, FSH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E) levels were assayed by RIA. The data were analyzed as integrated secretory area before (ISAb) and after GnRH stimulation (ISAs) and in terms of their percent increase with respect to the basal value. In all studies, GnRH elicited increases in plasma LH and FSH (P less than 0.001). On the other hand, in the ELP, GnRH did not alter steroid ISAs compared to their ISAb, while significant increases in plasma P and E levels were found in the MLP (P, P less than 0.01; E, P less than 0.02) and LLP (P and E, P less than 0.01). In the PMP, two women had no increase in steroid secretion; in the remainder of the subjects, both P and E ISAs markedly increased. This different pattern was not related to basal steroid levels. All women who had a blunted steroid response in the ELP or PMP had a normal secretory response of both P and E when studied at the other LP stages of the same cycle. Furthermore, there was a positive linear correlation between plasma P and E for the ISAb and ISAs values, while the secretory patterns of gonadotropins and steroids were not related to each other. In conclusion, the corpus luteum is able to respond to GnRH to GnRH at a well identified period of the LP. This pattern indicates variable dependence of the corpus luteum on the functional activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  1. Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction

  2. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  3. Changes in the proteome of functional and regressing corpus luteum during pregnancy and lactation in the rat.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Martínez-Galisteo, Emilia; Gaytán, Francisco; Bárcena, José Antonio; Sánchez-Criado, José Eugenio

    2008-07-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an exquisitely regulated transitory endocrine gland necessary for the onset and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. Most of the data on the mechanisms of CL differentiation at the molecular level come from genomic studies, but direct protein data are scarce. Here we have undertaken a differential expression proteomic approach to identify, in an unbiased way, those proteins whose levels change significantly in the rat CL as it evolves from functionality during pregnancy to regression after parturition. Moreover, we have compared the regressing CL with the newly formed functional CL that coexist during lactation under the same endocrine environment. We have defined a "proteomic signature" of CL functionality, which is constituted by a set of 24 proteins with a few differences between pregnancy and lactation. Most of these markers are new and are involved in microtubule assembly, retinoic acid transport, and Raf kinase signaling cascade; 10 are enzymes that define a ketogenic metabolic landscape, demonstrating, for the first time, the prevalence of de novo cholesterol synthesis in luteal cells. The "proteomic signature of regression," on the other hand, is composed of nine proteins, one of which is 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and two, ferritin and gamma-actin, are new. The discovery of unpredictable new actors in the differentiation process of CL reported here will contribute to new hypotheses that explain the complex female reproductive function at the protein level. It will also open new doors to research on each identified protein by relating them to cellular differentiation.

  4. Corpus luteum derived copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase serves as a luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor in sheep.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Huet, Jean-Claude; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Martal, Jacques; Locatelli, Alain

    2003-01-31

    In the present study, we report the purification and characterization of a polypeptide from the sheep corpus luteum of pregnancy with a potent luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor (LH-RIF) bioactivity that stained as a single band in SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 16000 Da. The amino acid sequences obtained after sequence analysis of peptides derived from the trypsin digestion of LH-RIF were subjected to a protein data bank search and were found to be identical with regions of sheep copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The measured mass of LH-RIF (15604.2+/-1.9 Da) was found to be similar to the theoretical mass of sheep Cu,Zn-SOD (15603.5 Da), with a disulfide bond and N acetylated alanine at the N-terminus. The inhibitory action of Cu,Zn-SOD on pulsatile LH secretion would suggest that this antioxidant may play an important role, either independently or in concert with some neurotransmitters, in the neuroendocrine regulation of sheep female reproductive function.

  5. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Possible action of vasohibin-1 as an inhibitor in the regulation of vascularization of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nitta, Akane; Nibuno, Sayo; Sasahara, Kiemi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-04-01

    The development of the corpus luteum (CL), which secretes large amounts of progesterone to establish pregnancy, is accompanied by active angiogenesis, vascularization, and lymphangiogenesis. Negative feedback regulation is a critical physiological mechanism. Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) was recently discovered as a novel endothelium-derived negative feedback regulator of vascularization. We therefore investigated the expression of VASH1 in the bovine CL. Expression of VASH1 mRNA and protein was predominantly localized to luteal endothelial cells (LECs). VASH1 expression in the CL was constant through the early to late luteal phases and decreased during CL regression relating with the action of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2)(α) in vivo. To investigate the role of VASH1, we determined whether VASH1 treatment affects angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis using LECs and lymphatic endothelial cells (LyECs) in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulated the expression of VASH1 in LECs but not in LyECs, and VASH1 completely blocked VEGFA-induced formation of capillary-like tube structures of LECs and LyECs in vitro. In summary, VASH1 is predominantly located on LECs in the bovine CL and inhibits the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic actions of VEGFA. Bovine CL therefore has a VEGFA-VASH1 system that may be involved in regulation of luteal function, especially in the development of the CL. The results indicate that VASH1 has the potential to act as a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the CL in cows.

  7. Expressions of VEGF and its receptors in rat corpus luteum during interferon alpha administration in early and pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Korgun, Emin Turkay; Savas, Burhan; Demir, Ramazan

    2004-04-01

    It is accepted that angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of the corpus luteum (CL) and is probably necessary for normal lutein cell function. A number of drugs currently being tested in clinical trials as possible angiogenesis inhibitors were not originally developed with the intention of suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is one of the notable examples of such 'accidental angiogenesis inhibitors' and daily administration of IFN-alpha is known to suppress tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and down-regulation of various growth factors. We investigated the effects of IFN-alpha treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors KDR and Flt-1, and CD34 in CL during the first week of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in hormonally induced rat ovaries by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Basal body temperatures of the drug-treated rats, as an indicator of treatment effect, were determined daily and were increased significantly when compared to controls (38.03 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C), respectively. The effect of IFN-alpha treatment was minimal when the entire week was evaluated, however, the expression of VEGF decreased at 3rd, 5th, and 7th days of both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, when compared to the 1st day, whereas there was not a such alteration in the untreated rats regarding these days. The daily subcutaneous administrations of 672.500 U IFN-alpha2b had minimal effects on the expressions of VEGF, and its two receptors KDR and Flt-1 in either pregnant or pseudopregnant corpora lutea utilizing HSCORE.

  8. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  9. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  10. Dynamics of Immune Cell Types Within the Macaque Corpus Luteum During the Menstrual Cycle: Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cecily V; Xu, Fuhua; Molskness, Theodore A; Stouffer, Richard L; Hennebold, Jon D

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to characterize the immune cell types within the primate corpus luteum (CL). Luteal tissue was collected from rhesus females at discrete intervals during the luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle. Dispersed cells were incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the immune cell surface proteins CD11b (neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages), CD14 (monocytes/macrophages), CD16 (natural killer [NK] cells), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), and CD3epsilon (T-lymphocytes) for analysis by flow cytometry. Numbers of CD11b-positive (CD11b(+)) and CD14(+) cells increased significantly 3 to 4 days after serum progesterone (P4) concentrations declined below 0.3 ng/ml. CD16(+) cells were the most abundant immune cell type in CL during the mid and mid-late luteal phases and were 3-fold increased 3 to 4 days after serum P4 decreased to baseline levels. CD3epsilon(+) cells tended to increase 3 to 4 days after P4 decline. To determine whether immune cells were upregulated by the loss of luteotropic (LH) support or through loss of LH-dependent steroid milieu, monkeys were assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), the GnRH antagonist Antide, Antide plus synthetic progestin (R5020), or Antide plus the estrogen receptor agonists diarylpropionitrile (DPN)/propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) during the mid-late luteal phase. Antide treatment increased the numbers of CD11b(+) and CD14(+) cells, whereas progestin, but not estrogen, replacement suppressed the numbers of CD11b(+), CD14(+), and CD16(+) cells. Neither Antide nor steroid replacement altered numbers of CD3epsilon(+) cells. These data suggest that increased numbers of innate immune cells in primate CL after P4 synthesis declines play a role in onset of structural regression of primate CL.

  11. Corpus luteum function and embryonic mortality in buffaloes treated with a GnRH agonist, hCG and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Gasparrini, B; Prandi, A; Galiero, G; D'Occhio, M J

    2007-05-01

    The effect of treatment with a GnRH agonist, hCG or progesterone (P(4)) on corpus luteum function and embryonic mortality was investigated in buffaloes inseminated during mid-winter. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (n=309) were synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed-AI program and mated by AI at 16 h (Day 0) and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. On Day 5, buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (no treatment, n=69), GnRH agonist (buserelin acetate, 12.6 microg, n=73), hCG (1500 IU, n=75) and P(4) (PRID without E(2) for 10 days, n=77). Progesterone (pg/ml) was determined in milk whey on Days 5, 10, 15 and 20 and pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Day 26 by ultrasound and Day 40 by rectal palpation. Treatment with buserelin and hCG increased (p<0.05) P(4) on Day 15 compared with controls (456+/-27, 451+/-24 and 346+/-28 pg/ml, respectively). Buffaloes treated with a PRID had intermediate P(4) concentrations (380+/-23 pg/ml). Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 (22.9%) and pregnancies at Day 40 (48.9%) did not differ between treatments. A higher (p<0.01) P(4) concentration was found on Day 20 in pregnant animals compared with non-pregnant and embryonic mortality buffaloes, which did not differ. In summary, buserelin and hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 15 but this was not associated with a reduced incidence of embryonic mortality in buffaloes during mid-winter. PMID:17403533

  12. Systematic Determination of Differential Gene Expression in the Primate Corpus Luteum during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Randy L.; Murphy, Melinda J.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and cellular processes required for development, function, and regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are poorly defined. We hypothesized that there are dynamic changes in gene expression occurring during the CL life span, which represent proteins and pathways critical to its regulation. Therefore, a genomic approach was utilized to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during the luteal phase of natural menstrual cycles. CL were collected between d 3–5 (early stage), d 7–8 (mid), d 10–12 (mid-late), d 14–16 (late), or d 18–19 (very-late) after the midcycle LH surge. From the early through very-late stages, 3234 transcripts were differentially expressed, with 879 occurring from the early through late stages that encompass the processes of luteinization, maintenance, and functional regression. To characterize gene changes most relevant to these processes, ontology analysis was performed using the list of 879 differentially expressed transcripts. Four main groups of related genes were identified with relevance to luteal physiology including: 1) immune function; 2) hormone and growth factor signaling; 3) steroidogenesis; and 4) prostaglandin biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling. A subset of genes representing each of the four major categories was selected for validation of microarray results by quantitative real-time PCR. Results in mRNA levels were similar between the two methodologies for 17 of 18 genes. Additionally, protein levels for three genes were determined by Western blot analysis to parallel mRNA levels. This database will facilitate the identification of many novel or previously underappreciated pathways that regulate the structure and function of the primate CL. PMID:18258683

  13. The corpus luteum of the domestic cat: histologic classification and intraluteal hormone profile.

    PubMed

    Amelkina, Olga; Braun, Beate C; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to histologically stage and characterize the structural life span of the CL in the domestic cat. Moreover, the intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens were determined throughout the pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant, PP) luteal phases. On the basis of observed histomorphology of CL, the following stages were identified: CL formation (preimplantation period, PP1), development/maintenance (Days 10-36 of pregnancy, PP2), early regression (Days 38 and 39 of pregnancy, PP3), late regression (Day 48 of pregnancy, PP4), and corpus albicans. The main cellular markers included luteal cell shape, the type and degree of vacuolation, nucleus condition, and the ratio of nonsteroidogenic to luteal cells. Intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens differed significantly throughout stages of pseudopregnancy (P < 0.01, progesterone; P < 0.0001, estrogens). The progesterone level in PP2 was higher compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.05). The estrogen level in PP1 was higher compared with PP2 (P < 0.05), PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005), as well as in PP2 compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005). The staging of the domestic cat luteal phase established here provides a basis for further research on feline luteotropic and luteolytic factors. These data will contribute to comparative studies in felids.

  14. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  15. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  16. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gabriela Pacheco; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Papa, Paula de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1—the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2—the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3—the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96). However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01). In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the extracellular

  17. Corpus luteum development and function and relationship to pregnancy during the breeding season in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Gasparrini, B; Russo, M; Pacelli, C; Prandi, A; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain corpus luteum (CL) development and function in buffaloes synchronized and mated by artificial insemination (AI) during the breeding season. Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows (n = 43) at 86.5 ± 2.7 days postpartum were synchronized by the Ovsynch-TAI Program and inseminated using frozen thawed semen at 20 and 44 h after the second injection of GnRH. The CL dimensions (diameter and area) and blood flow were examined on Days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 after AI by realtime B-mode/colour-Doppler ultrasonography. The resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and time average medium velocity (TAMV) were recorded at each time, together with CL dimensions. Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay by RIA. Data were grouped into pregnant or non-pregnant and retrospectively analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and correlation analyses. Dimensions of the CL on Days 10, 20, and 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) in buffaloes pregnant on Day 45 (n = 18) compared with non-pregnant buffaloes (n = 25). The former buffaloes also showed a greater (P < 0.01) rate of CL growth between Days 5 and 10 after AI. Blood flow to the CL on Day 10 after AI showed a higher TAMV (P < 0.01) and lower RI (P < 0.05) in pregnant buffaloes compared with non-pregnant buffaloes. Negative correlations were observed on Day 10 after AI between CL diameter and RI (r = -0.61; P < 0.01) and PI (r = -0.60; P < 0.01); P4 concentrations and RI (r = -0.46; P < 0.02); and RI and pregnancy (r = 0.45; P < 0.02). Positive correlations were observed between pregnancy and CL size (r = 0.54; P < 0.01), ΔCL diameter between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.52; P < 0.01), ΔCL area between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.48; P < 0.015), and ΔP4 between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Based on these findings it is concluded that the period between Day 5 and 10 is very important for CL growth and crucial in evaluating pregnancy. Accordingly, the assessment of CL

  18. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  19. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio

  20. Effects of synchronization treatments on ovarian follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth, and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2012-02-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=57) ≥45 d postpartum at first service were enrolled in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate treatments to synchronize estrus and ovulation. At 10 d before artificial insemination (AI), animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) d -10 GnRH (GnRH1; 10 μg of buserelin, i.m.) and controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg of dinoprost, i.m.); d -2 CIDR out; and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH (GnRH2) 36 h after CIDR out and timed AI (TAI) 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); or (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (Ovsynch). Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess follicle size before ovulation and on d 4, 8, and 15 after the presumptive day of estrus (d 0) to measure the corpus luteum (CL). Blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of estradiol (E2; d -10, -9, -3, -2, -1, and 0) and P4 (d -10, -9, -2, -1, 0, 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 15). No treatment differences were observed in either circulating concentrations of P4 or the ovulatory response to GnRH1 at the onset of synchronization treatments. Circulating concentrations of P4 were greater for CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI compared with Ovsynch at 24 h after CIDR insertion (5.34 and 4.98 vs. 1.75 ng/mL) and immediately before CIDR removal (1.65 and 1.48 vs. 0.40 ng/mL). Peak circulating concentrations of E2 were greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (3.85 vs. 2.39 pg/mL), but CIDR_TAI (2.82 pg/mL) did not differ from either CIDR_OBS or Ovsynch. The interval from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 did not differ between CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch (52.1 vs. 49.8 h). Both CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch, however, had shorter intervals from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 concentrations compared with CIDR_OBS (67.8 h). The diameter of the dominant follicle before ovulation was greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (18.5 vs. 16.0 mm) but CIDR_TAI (17.1 mm) did not differ from either of

  1. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo. Efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support.

    PubMed

    Simon, J A; Danforth, D R; Hutchison, J S; Hodgen, G D

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  2. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  3. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait.

  4. Control of corpus luteum function in the pregnant rabbit: role of the placenta ("placental luteotropin") in regulating responsiveness of corpora lutea to estrogen.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, J E; Keyes, P L

    1984-08-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the interaction between estrogen and "placental luteotropin," the two luteotropins thought to be required for corpus luteum maintenance in the pregnant rabbit. Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether estrogen alone was luteotropic in the absence of "placental luteotropin." Pregnant rabbits were assigned to the following groups: Group A, sham hysterectomy; Group B, hysterectomy; Group C, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 20; and Group D, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 22. "Placental luteotropin" was removed on Day 21 of pregnancy by hysterectomy and estrogen was administered via an estradiol-filled Silastic implant which was placed s.c. before (Day 20, Group C) or after (Day 22, Group D) hysterectomy. Daily blood samples were taken for radioimmunoassay of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Corpus luteum weights were measured at autopsy on Day 27. Hysterectomy caused serum progesterone concentrations to fall rapidly from 13 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 21 to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 23, and to 1 ng/ml or less on Days 24-27. In sham hysterectomized rabbits (Group A), pregnancy was maintained and serum progesterone concentrations remained elevated at 9-15 ng/ml throughout (Days 20-27). Estradiol treatment (Groups C and D) did not prevent or reverse luteal regression induced by hysterectomy and serum progesterone concentrations declined in a similar fashion to Group B. Serum estradiol concentrations were 4-8 pg/ml in all groups and did not vary substantially with stage of pregnancy or treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6466753

  5. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  6. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function.

  7. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  8. PPAR ligand association with prostaglandin F2α and E2 synthesis in the pig corpus luteum-An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska, A; Chojnowska, K; Bogacki, M; Bogacka, I

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated the involvement of PPARs in prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α production in the corpus luteum (CL) of pigs on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The tissue explants were incubated for 6h in the presence of PPARα, PPARβ, PPARγ ligands. The concentration of PGs in the incubation media was determined by radioimmunoassay, while mRNA abundance of PG synthetases (PGES and PGFS) was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that L-165,045 and rosiglitazone stimulated PGES synthesis on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle, whereas all factors that were assessed did not affect PGE2 release. The PGFS mRNA abundance in the CL did not change in the presence of PPAR ligands during the assessment periods. However, PPARβ agonist inhibited PGF2α secretion on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle and on days 14-16 of pregnancy. Interestingly, PPAR antagonists, MK 886, GW 9662 or T0070907 decreased PGF2α release by the slices on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle. It is concluded that the CL has a different susceptibility (greatest during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle) to the PPAR ligands, which is related to the physiological status of animal. The inhibition of PGF2α release and augmentation of PGES mRNA concentration during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle might suggest luteotropic properties of PPAR ligands. PMID:27477116

  9. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination.

  10. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

  11. In vitro assessment of progesterone and prostaglandin e(2) production by the corpus luteum in cattle following pharmacological synchronization of estrus.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Pilawski, Wojciech; Woclawek Potocka, Izabela; Bah, Mamadou Moussa; Majewska, Magdalena; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan

    2009-04-01

    We studied the secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) in cows following different estrus synchronization protocols. Estrus was synchronized using one (n=4) or two injections (n=5) of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); dinoprost), two injections of different analogues of PGF(2alpha) (aPGF(2alpha)), luprostiol (n=5) and cloprostenol (n=5), at eleven-day intervals, a gestagen implant (norgestomet, n=5, for 10 days) or norgestomet together with a subsequent dinoprost injection on the day of implant removal (n=5). CL samples were collected by ovariectomy on Day 7-8 of the estrous cycle. Luteal strips were stimulated with LH (100 ng/ml) or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2), 10(-6)M) for 24 h in culture media. The progesterone (P(4)) and PGE(2) concentrations in the media were measured by enzyme immunoassay. In the control CL (spontaneous estrus; n=5), LH and PGE(2) stimulated P(4) and PGE(2) (P<0.001). The effects of both factors on P(4) were reduced in the CL following dinoprost- and cloprostenol-synchronized estrus (P<0.05) and were absent in the luprostiol-synchronized CL (P>0.05). In the norgestomet-synchronized CL, the stimulatory effects of LH and PGE(2) were higher compared with the CL synchronized by aPGF(2alpha) (P<0.05). Pharmacological manipulation of the estrous cycle using aPGF(2alpha) may cause lower P(4) secretion. Estrus synchronization inhibited CL sensitivity to luteotropic factors. Therefore, attention should be focused on the estrous synchronization method in both in vivo and in vitro studies of CL functions in cattle.

  12. VEGF system expression in different stages of estrous cycle in the corpus luteum of non-treated and superovulated water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Moura, C E B; Artoni, L P; Fátima, L A; Campos, D B; Marques, J E B; Baruselli, P S; Binelli, M; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R

    2007-11-01

    Water buffaloes are easily adaptable animals, whose raising and economical exploitation have been growing in the last three decades all over the world. Hyperstimulation of ovarian function in this species is a common technique aiming to improve reproductive performance. Superovulatory treatment affects corpus luteum (CL) function, which is highly correlated to angiogenic process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the temporal protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in the CL of non-treated and superovulated buffaloes. For that purpose blood samples and CL from 36 healthy (30 untreated, groups 1-5, and 6 superovulated, group 6) non-pregnant buffaloes were collected and the samples were divided into 6 groups according to the age of CL. Plasma samples were submitted to RIA to measure progesterone concentration and CL were subjected to immunohistochemistry and real time PCR for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1) and KDR (kinase insert domain containing region). The VEGF system protein and mRNA expression during CL life span of untreated animals showed a specific time-dependent profile, although protein did not always reflect mRNA concentrations. VEGF expression in luteal cells was high correlated to plasma progesterone levels. Superovulated CL showed a significant increase of the VEGF-system protein and a significant decrease of mRNA expression compared to untreated animals in the same stage of the oestrous cycle. We conclude that VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR protein and mRNA expression in buffalo CL is dependent of estrous cycle stage and superovulatory treatment is able to increase the translation rate of this system.

  13. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination. PMID:25219366

  14. Effect of Decreasing Intraluteal Progesterone on Sensitivity of the Early Porcine Corpus Luteum to the Luteolytic Actions of Prostaglandin F2alpha1

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Luo, Wenxiang; Wiltbank, Milo C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) causes luteolysis of the pig corpus luteum (CL) only after Day 12 of the estrous cycle. Recent evidence indicates that progesterone (P4) may protect the CL from cell death. The present study tested the hypothesis that acute inhibition of P4 by treatment with epostane (EPO; 3betaHSD inhibitor) in CL lacking luteolytic capacity (Day 9 CL) will allow PGF to induce responses associated with luteolysis. Multiple PGF-induced responses were evaluated, including genes involved in production of PGF and estradiol-17beta, apoptosis (caspase 3), and transcription (FOSB). These responses are associated with PGF-induced luteolysis and do not normally occur in CL lacking luteolytic capacity. Animals on Day 7 after estrus were divided into four groups: 1) control (C), 2) PGF, 3) EPO, and 4) PGF plus EPO (PGF+EPO). Treatment with EPO (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given every 12 h for 36 h. Treatment with PGF (25 mg) or vehicle was given at 38 h, and CL were collected from all animals at 48 h. Some CL from each animal were frozen in liquid nitrogen for mRNA and protein analysis. Remaining CL were incubated in media for 2 h for determination of P4 and PGF production. EPO dramatically decreased production of P4 by luteal tissue (ng/mg tissue) by 90% and 95% in EPO and PGF+EPO groups, respectively, compared to C (P < 0.01). Low production of PGF by luteal tissue was found in C, PGF, and EPO groups; however, treatment with PGF+EPO dramatically increased (782%) luteal PGF production. Similar to intraluteal PGF production, increased mRNA for cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 (group IB; PLA2G1B) was found in the PGF+EPO, but not in the EPO or PGF, group. Aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA was not induced by PGF or EPO; however, PGF+EPO caused a more than 40-fold increase in CYP19A1 mRNA (P < 0.01). CASP3 mRNA was increased (P < 0.01) by EPO (3.4-fold) and by PGF (2.7-fold) but was most dramatically increased by PGF+EPO (5.3-fold), whereas caspase activity was only

  15. Cloning of a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor: changes in its expression and concentration in the buffalo cow corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Verma-Kumar, Shalu; Srinivas, S V; Muraly, P; Yadav, Vijay K; Medhamurthy, R

    2004-06-01

    Acting primarily through its specific G protein-coupled receptor termed FPr, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) induces regression of the corpus luteum (CL) at the end of a non-fertile oestrous cycle. This study was aimed at cloning a full-length cDNA for FPr and determining its expression and protein concentrations during different stages of CL development in the water buffalo. Serum progesterone and StAR expression were determined to establish temporal relationships between indices of steroidogenesis and changes in FPr expression at different stages of CL development. In contrast to the dairy cow, the stage IV CL (day 20 of the oestrous cycle) did not appear to be functionally regressed in the buffalo. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the buffalo FPr yielded a full length 2193 bp FPr cDNA containing a single open reading frame encoding a 362 amino acid protein with seven putative membrane-spanning domains. The deduced buffalo FPr amino acid sequence possesses a high degree of identity with the other mammalian homologues. Steady state concentration of buffalo FPr transcript increased (P > 0.05) from stage I to stage II/III, and declined at 18 h post PGF(2alpha) injection. The FPr concentration expressed as fmol/microg of plasma membrane protein showed an increase (P > 0.05) from stage I (1.98 +/- 0.10), through stage II/III (2.42 +/- 0.48) to stage IV (2.77 +/- 0.18). High affinity FPr was observed in stage I (K(d) 4.86 nmol) and stage II/III (K(d) 6.28 nmol) while low affinity FPr (K(d) 19.44 nmol) was observed in stage IV. In conclusion, we have cloned a full length FPr cDNA from buffalo cow CL and observed that FPr mRNA expression, receptor number and affinity did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) within the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle.

  16. The control of progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat: prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Freeman, M E; Neill, J D

    1975-01-01

    The hormonal factors associated with converting a corpus luteum of estrous cycle into a corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy were studied by measuring LH and FSH prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels in decapitated rats during the 4-day estrous cycle and a comparable time of pseudopregnancy (lights on 0600-0800 hr.). During the estrous cycle, prolactin, LH and FSH remained low and unchanging except on the afternoon of proestrus, when typical proestrous surges were observed. In contrast, estradiol levels began to increase on D-1, from baseline values of 7 pg/ml to approximately 15-20 pg/ml. These levels were maintained until the afternoon of D-2 when estradiol further increased to reach peak levels of 40-50 pg/ml by 0900 hr on proestrus. Estradiol then declined in relation to the increase in LH secreation and had returned to baseline by estrus. Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea of the cycle also increased on the afternoon of D-1 and reached a maximum value of 25-30 ng/ml early on the morning of D-2. At this time, a precipitious fall in progesterone occurred, returning to baseline values of 5-1- ng/ml by 0700 on D-2 signifying the regression of the corpora lutea of the cycle. Progesterone remained low thereafter until the afternoon of proestrus when levels increased in response to the proestrus when levels increased in response to the proestrous surge of LH. Following cervical stimulation at 1900 hr on proestrus, no differences were noted, with respect to the estrous cycle, in LH, FSH or estradiol secreation through the afternoon of D-2. Surprisingly, progesterone levels did not differ in the cycle and pseudopregnancy until the early morning of D-29 instead of progesterone levels falling to baseline as they had during the cycle, the corpora lutea of pseudopregnancy were rescused, progesterone increasing dramatically to reach levels of 45-50 ng/ml by 1700 hr on that same day. The only difference in hormone secretion that was noted which could account for

  17. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  18. Profiles of circulating steroid hormones, gonadotropins, immunoreactive inhibin and prolactin during pregnancy in goats and immunolocalization of inhibin subunits, steroidogenic enzymes and prolactin in the corpus luteum and placenta.

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Sosa, Gamal A; Abou El-Roos, Mahmoud E A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Alaa E; Li, Jun Y; Manabe, Noboru; El Azab, Abd El Salam I; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    The current study was performed to follow up the circulating hormonal changes and to correlate the findings with the physiological activity of the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta during pregnancy in goats. Blood samples were collected weekly from five goats during pregnancy for measuring steroid and protein hormones. A gradual increase was observed in immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, with maximal levels at the 17th week. The plasma concentrations of estradiol and prolactin (PRL) showed nearly similar patterns during pregnancy, where they declined to basal levels during the first 4 weeks post-breeding and then increased significantly, with the maximal concentration during late pregnancy. The plasma FSH and LH concentrations were maintained at basal levels throughout the gestation period. The plasma progesterone concentration abruptly increased in the first week post-breeding and remained at high values throughout the pregnancy period. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin alpha, beta(A), beta(B) and steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), cytochrome 17alpha-hydroxylase P450 and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 in the cyclic and pregnant goat CL revealed positive immunoreactivity without affinity differences between the luteal and pregnancy stages. The placental syncytiotrophoblasts also showed positive staining, except for inhibin beta(A) and 3betaHSD. The giant binucleate cells of the placenta showed positive immunoreactions to PRL. These results suggest that the high concentrations of ir-inhibin, estradiol and PRL during late pregnancy are of placental origin and that the placenta may have a vital role in the maintenance of pregnancy, regulation of mammary growth and preparation for kidding and lactation in goats.

  19. Differential gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum during transition from early phase to midphase and its potential role in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Salem, Mohamed; Yao, Jianbo; Inskeep, E Keith; Flores, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2alpha)) brings about regression of the bovine corpus luteum (CL). This luteolytic property of PGF(2alpha) is used in beef and dairy cattle to synchronize estrus. A limitation of this protocol is insensitivity of the early CL to luteolytic actions of PGF(2alpha). The mechanisms underlying this differential luteal sensitivity are poorly understood. The developing CL has a maximum number of PGF(2alpha) receptors; therefore, differences in signaling events may be responsible for luteal insensitivity. Hence, differential gene expression at two developmental stages of CL, Day 4 (D-4) and D-10 after estrus, might account for differences in signal transduction pathways associated with luteal sensitivity. This possibility was examined in these studies. Microarray analysis (n = 3 cows per stage) identified 167 genes that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). These were categorized into genes involved in protein biosynthesis and modification (18.5%), transcription regulation and DNA biosynthesis (18.5%), miscellaneous (17.0%), cell signaling (12.0%), steroidogenesis and metabolism (10.2%), extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins (9.5%), unknown functions (6.0%), protein degradation (5.3%), and antioxidant property (3.0%). Real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of nine selected genes, including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygense activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and regulator of G protein signaling 2 24-kDa (RGS2), observed in microarray. Furthermore, the in vivo effect of exogenous PGF(2alpha) (n = 3 cows per stage) on selected genes that were found to be differentially expressed during this developmental transition was examined. PGF(2alpha) increased the expression of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 1 (GNB1) in D-4 CL and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 beta (CAMKK2) in D-10 CL. Therefore, GNB1, CAMKK2, YWHAZ, and RGS2 are candidate genes that may

  20. Prostaglandin F2α Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.

    2008-01-01

    In most mammals, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2α by inducing the expression of TGF β1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2α-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2α-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2α-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2α increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2α stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression. PMID:17916653

  1. Expression of the full-length and alternatively spliced equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor mRNAs in the primary corpus luteum and fetal gonads during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Chopineau, Maryse; Dupont, Joëlle; Combarnous, Yves

    2004-08-01

    The full-length equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor (eLH/CG-RA) cDNA and two alternatively spliced isoforms (eLH/CG-RB,C) were isolated from luteal tissue and characterized using a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The 680-amino acid full sequence of eLH/CG-RA displayed 87-92% homology with other mammalian LH/CG-Rs. The eLH/CG-RB and eLH/CG-RC cDNA isoforms were truncated from the 3'-end of exon X: eLH/CG-RB spliced out of frame into the last exon whereas eLH/CG-RC contained an in-frame stop codon within a divergent sequence. Consequently, both eLH/CG-RB and eLH/CG-RC cDNA isoforms encoded putative proteins without transmembrane and intracellular domains. In order to study the responsiveness of the primary corpus luteum (CL) and fetal gonads to eCG, the expression of eLH/CG-R mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis during early and mid-pregnancy. All three eLH/CG-R cDNA isoforms (eLH/CG-RA,B,C) were expressed from day 14 to day 83 of pregnancy in the primary CL and from day 44 to day 222 in fetal gonads. Interestingly, the primary CL at days 89 and 151 expressed only truncated eLH/CG-R cDNA isoforms. The relative values of Northern hybridized major 7, 5.7, 3.9 and 1.8 kb eLH/CG-R mRNA transcripts tended to decrease in the primary CL whereas the unique major 1.8 kb eLH/CG-R mRNA was steadily expressed in fetal gonads during pregnancy. These results show that the expression of eLH/CG-R mRNAs occurs in the fetal gonads before ceasing in the primary CL and suggest that eCG may be involved in the gradual transition from a luteal to a feto-placental output of steroids during equine pregnancy. PMID:15280561

  2. Efficacy of PGF(2alpha) to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis) is dependent upon plasma progesterone concentration, corpus luteum size and ovarian follicular status before treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Satrapa, R; Marson, E P; Kastelic, J P

    2002-09-16

    This study was conducted to identify factors affecting PGF(2alpha) efficacy to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows. After detection of a corpus luteum (CL) by rectal palpation, cows were treated (im) with dinoprost (12.5, 25 or 50mg) or D(+) cloprostenol (75, 150 or 300 microg) in a total of 66 treatments. Blood samples were collected 0, 24 and 48 h after treatment and ultrasound examinations and observations for estrus were performed daily to the day of ovulation or to 6 days after treatment. No PGF(2alpha) dose-response pattern was observed and overall rates of luteal regression (progesterone <1.0 ng/ml at 48 h), estrus, no detected behavioral estrus with ovulation occurring, and ovulation were 71.2, 36.4, 19.7 and 54.5%, respectively. To analyze plasma progesterone concentrations and ovarian dynamics, cows were divided in three groups according to their response to treatment. Cows that failed to have ovulations from a follicle after treatment (Group A, n = 30) had (P < 0.05) a lower plasma progesterone concentration (2.98 ng/ml) and smaller CL area (CLA; 187.3 mm(2)) before treatment as compared with cows that had an ovulation from a follicle (4.43 ng/ml and 223.7 mm(2), respectively; Groups B and C, n = 36). In cows that failed to ovulate, plasma progesterone concentration decreased in the first 24 h, but did not decline further and was >1.0 ng/ml 48 h after treatment. Moreover, no significant change in CLA after treatment was detected, indicating that treatment induced only partial luteolysis. In cows that ovulated, plasma progesterone concentration and CLA decreased continuously from treatment to ovulation (consistent with complete luteolysis). Threshold values of 2.8 ng/ml for plasma progesterone concentration and 189 mm(2) for CLA were identified as the best predictors of ovulation before treatment (83.3 and 80.6% sensitivity and 58.6 and 65.5% specificity, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values around 71%). When the origin of the

  3. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations.

  4. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units.

  5. Treatment of chronic anovulation and corpus luteum deficiency with epimestrol.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Prieto, J; Martinez, M R; Pesenti, B; Villalobos, A S; Clavijo, M G

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients presenting with anovulatory syndrome (AS, 4 patients), inadequate luteal phase (ILP, 3 patients) and short luteal phase (SLP, 3 patients) were treated with epimestrol for 29 cycles in total. The initial treatment was always 10 mg/day for 10 days followed by a modification of the daily dose and/or length of treatment needed. Ovulation was induced in all 4 AS patients with an adequate luteal phase (ALP) in 3 of them. In all other patients (with ILP and SLP) an ALP was induced; 2 of them became pregnant. No side-effects were reported.

  6. Differential regulation of apoptosis in the corpus luteum of pregnancy and newly formed corpus luteum after parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Shuji; Sugino, Norihiro; Esato, Kikue; Karube-Harada, Ayako; Sakata, Aki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kato, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Apoptosis contributes to luteal regression in many species. In the postpartum rat, there are two different types of corpora lutea (CL) in the ovary: CL of pregnancy (CLP) and newly formed CL (NCL). To investigate the regulation of apoptosis in the two different types of CL during luteal regression, apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were examined in the CL obtained on Days 7, 15, and 21 of pregnancy and Days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 postpartum. Furthermore, the effect of lactation on apoptosis in the CL was examined in two groups of postpartum rats: lactating rats that nurse more than 10 pups, and nonlactating rats that nurse no pups. Apoptotic cells were detected after Day 21 of pregnancy. In the CLP, remarkable increases in the number of apoptotic cells on Days 5 and 9 postpartum were observed in nonlactating rats (P < 0.01), but not in lactating rats. Changes in caspase-3 activity in the CLP were not consistent with those in number of apoptotic cells. In the NCL, an increase in apoptosis was found only on Day 5 postpartum in nonlactating rats (P < 0.01), but not in lactating rats. Changes in caspase-3 activity in the NCL were consistent with those in number of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, apoptosis is, at least in part, involved in luteal regression after parturition, and lactation appears to inhibit apoptosis. This study also suggests the presence of a caspase-3-independent mechanism for apoptosis in CLP regression in the rat.

  7. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL.

  8. Activation of Gq/11 in the mouse corpus luteum is required for parturition.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Rachel; Waite, Courtney; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Mice with a deletion of Gα(q/11) in granulosa cells were previously shown to be subfertile. They also have a reduced ovulatory response due to a deficiency in the ability of the activated LH receptor to fully induce the granulosa cell progesterone receptor. Because this conditional deletion of Gα(q/11) will interfere with the actions of any G protein-coupled receptor that activates G(q/11) in granulosa or luteal cells, we sought to determine whether the actions of other hormones that contribute to fertility were also impaired. We focused our attention on prostaglandin F2 (PGF2)α, because this hormone is known to activate phospholipase C (a prominent Gα(q/11) effector) in luteal cells and because the action of PGF2α on luteal cells is the first step in the murine parturition pathway. Our data show that the conditional deletion of Gα(q/11) from granulosa cells prevents the ability of PGF2α to induce Akr1c18 in luteal cells. Akr1c18 codes for 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that inactivates progesterone. The PGF2α-mediated induction of this enzyme towards the end of pregnancy increases the inactivation of progesterone and precipitates parturition in mice. Thus, the conditional deletion of Gαq/11 from granulosa/luteal cells prevents the progesterone withdrawal that occurs at the end of pregnancy and impairs parturition. This novel molecular defect contributes to the subfertile phenotype of the mice with a deletion of Gα(q/11) from granulosa cells.

  9. Endocrine disruptors and human corpus luteum: in vitro effects of phenols on luteal cells function.

    PubMed

    Romani, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Scarinci, Elisa; Dello Russo, Cinzia; Lisi, Lucia; Catino, Stefania; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are well known to impair fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (p-NP) on human luteal function in vitro. In particular, in luteal cells isolated from 21 human corpora lutea progesterone, prostaglandin (PG) F2α, PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, as well as VEGF expression were evaluated. BPA and p-NP negatively affected both luteal steroidogenesis and luteotrophic/ luteolytic factors balance, without influencing VEGF mRNA expression. Actually, BPA and p-NP impaired human luteal cells function in vitro, underlining the already suggested correlation between phenols and reproductive failure.

  10. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  11. Change in responsiveness of rabbit corpus luteum to prostaglandin F-2 alpha during pregnancy and pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, J L; Moy, E S; Bahr, J M

    1992-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) may have a role in luteolysis in rabbits. Rabbits (4-6/group) were given a single injection of saline, or 100, 500 or 2500 micrograms PGF-2 alpha (i.m.) on Day 7, 9, 12 or 15 of pregnancy or pseudopregnancy. Daily blood samples were taken via the marginal ear vein before and for 3 days after the PGF-2 alpha injection. Concentrations of serum progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay in pseudopregnant rabbits. There were no significant differences between PGF-2 alpha-treated and control rabbits on Days 7 or 9. On Day 12 of pseudopregnancy, progesterone concentration was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in treated than in control rabbits, the effect being dose dependent. On Day 15 of pseudopregnancy, it was not possible to distinguish between controls and treated groups because luteolysis occurred in all rabbits. In contrast, on Days 7 and 9 of pregnancy, the concentration of progesterone in treated groups was lower than in the control groups (P less than 0.05), the effect being dose dependent. This difference was maintained throughout the sampling period and resulted in termination of pregnancy. By Day 12 of pregnancy, the response to PGF-2 alpha was transient, with a significant decline in progesterone for only 2 days, followed by a return to control concentrations and normal delivery of litters. On Day 15 of pregnancy, no treatment with PGF-2 alpha significantly altered progesterone concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Luteal regression vs. prepartum luteolysis: regulatory mechanisms governing canine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-04-01

    Canine reproductive physiology exhibits several unusual features. Among the most interesting of these are the lack of an acute luteolytic mechanism, coinciding with the apparent luteal independency of a uterine luteolysin in absence of pregnancy, contrasting with the acute prepartum luteolysis observed in pregnant animals. These features indicate the existence of mechanisms different from those in other species for regulating the extended luteal regression observed in non-pregnant dogs, and the actively regulated termination of luteal function observed prepartum as a prerequisite for parturition. Nevertheless, the supply of progesterone (P4) depends on corpora lutea (CL) as its primary source in both conditions, resulting in P4 levels that are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches during almost the entire luteal life span prior to the prepartum luteolysis. Consequently, the duration of the prolonged luteal phase in non-pregnant bitches frequently exceeds that of pregnant ones, which is a peculiarity when compared with other domestic animal species. Both LH and prolactin (PRL) are endocrine luteotrophic factors in the dog, the latter being the predominant one. In spite of increased availability of these hormones, luteal regression/luteolysis still takes place. Recently, possible mechanisms regulating the expression and function of PRL receptor have been implicated in the local, i.e., intraluteal regulation of PRL bioavailability and thus its steroidogenic potential. Similar mechanisms may relate to the luteal LH receptor. Most recently, evidence has been provided for an autocrine/paracrine role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a luteotrophic factor in the canine CL acting at the level of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR)-protein mediated supply of steroidogenic substrate, without having a significant impact on the enzymatic activity of the respective steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3βHSD, HSD3B2) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1). Together with the strongly time-dependent expression of prostaglandin transporter, luteal prostaglandins seem to be involved more in the process of luteal formation than in termination of CL function in the dog. The possible roles of other factors such as vasoactive compounds, growth factors or cytokines have not been extensively studied but should not be neglected. PMID:24856467

  13. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  14. Mycoplasmas and ovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Jones, G E; Foggie, A; Sutherland, A; Harker, D B

    1976-08-21

    The clinical course of an outbreak of keratoconjunctivitis in housed lambs and their dams was followed. Signs were transient generally and became severe in only a small proportion of lambs. The outbreak became most obvious when the lambs were 46 to 55 days old, when 46.9 per cent were affected. Mycoplasma conjunctivae isolations, confirmed by comparison with the type strain by biochemical and serological reactions, increased to 62.1 per cent of all eyes swabbed, but no correlation could be demonstrated between presence of the organism and clinical status. The reasons for this are discussed. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was also recovered from the eyes of a small number of lambs. Instillation of a broth culture of M conjunctivae into the conjunctival sacs of four hoggs produced a transient keratoconjunctivitis similar to that observed in the field, but no effect was observed in animals inoculated intravenously. M conjunctivae may therefore be the aetiological agent of non-follicular infectious ovine keratoconjunctivitis, although further work in gnotobiotic or specific pathogen free lambs is required to establish the fact beyond doubt.

  15. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  17. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  18. Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

  19. Bilingual corpus callosum variability.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Porter E; Kennedy, Teresa J; Armstrong, Terry A

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals compared to monolingual individuals. The main interpretation of this finding is that the precentral gyrus is involved in bilingual faculty adaptation assuming a role consistent with the somatotopical input to areas dedicated to the mouth, and input to association tracts connecting the premotor and supplementary motor cortices. This paper discusses possible implications to neuroscientists, second language educators, and their students.

  20. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  1. Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

  2. Incidence of spontaneous ovulation and development of the corpus luteum in non-mated dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Ulrich

    2005-07-15

    The occurrence of spontaneous ovulation in dromedaries was examined in two separate studies including 20 non-lactating, barren and 12 lactating dromedaries, respectively. Lactating camels were milked twice a day with an automatic bucket milking machine. Ovarian activity was monitored by repeated ultrasonography. Blood samples for progesterone were collected daily or two to three times a week. To compare CL development after spontaneous and induced ovulations, ovulation was induced by a GnRH analogue in eight lactating dromedaries. Spontaneous ovulation was observed in one non-lactating camel (1 of 20 camels, 5%; 1 of 70 follicular waves, 1.4%), whereas, spontaneous ovulation was detected more frequently in lactating dromedaries (5 of 12 camels, 41.7%; 13 of 91 follicular waves, 14.3%). In one lactating camel, spontaneous ovulation occurred repeatedly for nine times. There was a significant effect of type of ovulation (spontaneous versus induced, P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.001) on serum progesterone concentration. Mean serum progesterone levels and total progesterone production (AUC) were higher after induced ovulation. Luteal diameter and serum progesterone concentration were positively correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), but there was a significant difference between morphological and functional development of the CL. In dromedaries, morphological development starts earlier, morphological regression starts later and last longer than functional development and regression of the CL. Compared to induced ovulation, functional development of the CL after spontaneous ovulation might be altered but the morphological development is not affected.

  3. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  4. Morphological changes in the trophoblast, uterus and corpus luteum during delayed implantation and implantation in the western spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A A; Mead, R A

    1976-03-01

    Morphological interactions of tropholbast and uterus from stages of preimplantation and implantation were studied in 14 western spotted skunks. In addition, the granulosa lutein cells and plasma progesterone levels were studied. In animals several days from implantation the height of epithelial cells decreased, but began to increase in animals approaching implantation. During the preimplantation period a few leucocytes infiltrated the epithelium, but in animals just prior to implantation many leucocytes infiltrated the epithelium.

  5. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39.7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows.

  6. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...

  7. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells. PMID:27625564

  8. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells.

  9. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  10. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    PubMed

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of

  11. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  12. Ovine pericardium: a new material for duraplasty.

    PubMed

    Parízek, J; Husek, Z; Mĕricka, P; Téra, J; Nĕmecek, S; Spacek, J; Nĕmecková, J; Suba, P

    1996-03-01

    The authors report on their 2 1/2-year clinical experience using a dural substitute, ovine pericardium, stabilized with 0.3% glutaraldehyde, flat freeze-dried, and sterilized with gamma-irradiation. Packaging of the ovine pericardium in double-plastic transparent bags allows simple storage in operating rooms and the opportunity for the surgeon to choose an ideal graft according to its shape, size, and plasticity. The ovine pericardia were examined histologically and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in their native, freeze-dried, and irradiated forms. The final product is composed solely of pericardium fibrosum interwoven with artificially formed extracellular microcavities that serve as natural pores for the ingrowth of host tissue. The surfaces of the grafts appear smooth on the inner and rough on the outer sides. Sixteen grafts were examined macroscopically at autopsy and four of these were also examined histologically to illustrate their successful healing with no adhesion to the underlying brain. As a new dural substitute, ovine pericardium proved to be superior to bovine and allogeneic pericardia because of its workability, flexibility, and reduced thickness. In a study of 120 grafts, all but one healed without complications.

  13. Oculomotor-corpus callosum dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Acers, T E; Blackwell, C

    1982-01-01

    An infant with congenital bilateral ophthalmoplegia with levator and pupillary sparing is presented. The eyes are fixed in a divergent position with no apparent motility. The baby is otherwise clinically normal and is developing in a normal fashion except for delayed growth pattern. Visual attention is present and he fixates with either eye. Computed tomography demonstrates an associated dysplasia of the corpus callosum and an abnormal ventricular system. Neuroendocrine studies performed at one year of age demonstrate subnormal levels of growth hormone. It is postulated that this represents an embryodysgenesis involving the developing mesencephalic tegmentum (oculomotor nuclei) and the diencephalic lamina reuniens (corpus callosum). It is the first reported case of congenital ophthalmoplegia with corpus callosum dysplasia. The "embryodysgenic" relationship with other forebrain-ocular anomalies has been alluded to and remains speculative. PMID:7182958

  14. Corpus-based Customization for an Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    CCAT scans a corpus of text for terms, and computes lexical similarity between corpus terms and taxonomy terms. Based on a set of metrics and a learning algorithm, the system inserts corpus terms into the taxonomy. Conversely, terms from the taxonomy are disambiguated based on the text in the corpus. Unused terms are discarded, and infrequently used senses of terms are collapsed to make the taxonomy more manageable.

  15. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay...

  16. 76 FR 10266 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3), we amended the regulations to authorize the importation of... of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... or frozen) ovine meat from Uruguay. Based on the evidence in a risk assessment that we have...

  17. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  18. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  19. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

  20. Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Kevin M.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2016-11-01

    Computational models of the brain rely on accurate constitutive relationships to model the viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Current viscoelastic models have been derived from experiments conducted in a single direction at a time and therefore lack information on the effects of multiaxial loading. It is also unclear if the time-dependent behavior of brain tissue is dependent on either strain magnitude or the direction of loading when subjected to tensile stresses. Therefore, biaxial stress relaxation and cyclic experiments were conducted on corpus callosum tissue isolated from fresh ovine brains. Results demonstrated the relaxation behavior to be independent of strain magnitude, and a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was able to accurately fit the experimental data. Also, an isotropic reduced relaxation tensor was sufficient to model the stress-relaxation in both the axonal and transverse directions. The QLV model was fitted to the averaged stress relaxation tests at five strain magnitudes while using the measured strain history from the experiments. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the stresses from cyclic tests at two strain magnitudes. In addition to deriving a constitutive model from the averaged experimental data, each specimen was fitted separately and the resulting distributions of the model parameters were reported and used in a probabilistic analysis to determine the probability distribution of model predictions and the sensitivity of the model to the variance of the parameters. These results can be used to improve the viscoelastic constitutive models used in computational studies of the brain.

  1. Passive mechanical properties of ovine rumen tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Stephen J.; Cater, John E.; Walker, Cameron G.; Amirapu, Satya; Waghorn, Garry C.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and structural properties of ovine rumen tissue have been determined using uniaxial tensile testing of tissue from four animals at five rumen locations and two orientations. Animal and orientation did not have a significant effect on the stress-strain response, but there was a significant difference between rumen locations. Histological studies showed two orthogonal muscle layers in all regions except the reticulum, which has a more isotropic structure. A quasi-linear viscoelastic model was fitted to the relaxation stage for each region. Model predictions of the ramp stage had RMS errors of 13-24% and were within the range of the experimental data.

  2. Immunophenotypic characterization of ovine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad R; Chandrashekran, Anil; Smith, Roger K W; Dudhia, Jayesh

    2016-05-01

    The clinical potential of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has led to the essential development of analytical tools such as antibodies against membrane-bound proteins for the immunophenotypic characterization of human and rodent cells. Such tools are frequently lacking for emerging large animal models like the sheep that have greater relevance for the study of human musculoskeletal diseases. The present study identified a set of commercial nonspecies specific monoclonal antibodies for the immunophenotypic characterization of ovine MSCs. A protocol combining the less destructive proteolytic activity of accutase and EDTA was initially developed for the detachment of cells from plastic with minimum loss of cell surface antigens. A range of commercially available antibodies against human or rodent MSC antigens were then tested in single and multistain-based assays for their cross-reactivity to bone marrow derived ovine MSCs. Antibody clones cross-reactive to ovine CD73 (96.9% ± 5.9), CD90 (99.6% ± 0.3), CD105 (99.1 ± 1.5), CD271 (97.7 ± 2.0), and MHC1 (94.0% ± 7.2) antigens were identified using previously reported CD29, CD44, and CD166 as positive controls. Multistaining analysis indicated the colocalization of these antigens on MSCs. Furthermore, antibody clones identified to cross-react against white blood cell antigens exhibited either negative (CD117 (0.1% ± 0.1)) or low (MHCII (10.5% ± 16.0); CD31 (14.6% ± 4.2), and CD45 (39.4% ± 31.8)) cross-reactivity with ovine MSCs. The validation of these antibody clones to sheep MSC antigens is essential for studies utilizing this large animal model for stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27077783

  3. Purification and characterization of ovine pancreatic elastase.

    PubMed

    Erlendsson, L S; Filippusson, H

    1998-07-01

    Elastase was isolated from ovine pancreas and purified to homogeneity by two different procedures. One involved precipitation with ammonium sulphate, p-aminobenzamidine-Sepharose chromatography, CM-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography and S-300 Sephacryl chromatography. The other involved the direct adsorption of elastase by tri-L-alanyl-Sepharose chromatography and a CM-Sepharose step. The enzyme, which was produced in an inactive form in the pancreas, was activated with a trace of trypsin prior to chromatography. Ovine pancreatic elastase has an isoelectric point above pI 9.3 and its molecular mass is estimated at approximately 25 kDa. The optimal pH range for activity is between 8.0 and 8.4 and the enzyme is unstable at pH below 4.0 and above 10.0 and at temperatures above 65 degrees C. The kinetic properties of the enzyme were determined with succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide as the substrate. Km and kcat Km-1 proved to be similar to the kinetic parameters of porcine elastase determined simultaneously. PMID:9787815

  4. Ovine footrot: new insights into bacterial colonisation.

    PubMed

    Maboni, G; Frosth, S; Aspán, A; Tötemeyer, S

    2016-09-01

    Ovine footrot is characterised by interdigital dermatitis (ID) and by the separation of the skin and hoof horn (under-running footrot). Dichelobacter nodosus is the essential pathogen causing footrot; the role of other microorganisms in this disease remains unclear. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the colonisation of D nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Treponema species in biopsies from the ovine interdigital skin of healthy, ID and footrot-affected feet and (ii) to characterise the virulence of D nodosus strains in those biopsies. Postslaughter biopsy samples (n=241) were collected and analysed by real-time PCR to determine prevalence and load of the different bacterial species. The highest prevalence and load of D nodosus were found on feet with ID. The vast majority of samples contained virulent D nodosus and some samples contained both virulent and benign D nodosus Notably, the more pathogenic subspecies of F necrophorum was found in samples from UK sheep. Our findings provide further insights into the role bacterial colonisation may play in the early stage of ID and in the progression towards footrot. PMID:27317761

  5. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Oakley, Brian B; Dowd, Scot E; Green, Laura E; Medley, Graham F; Ul-Hassan, Atiya; Bateman, Vicky; Gaze, William; Witcomb, Luci; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Kaler, Jasmeet; Russell, Claire L; Wellington, Elizabeth MH

    2011-01-01

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified as having either healthy interdigital skin (H) and interdigital dermatitis (ID) or virulent footrot (VFR). The ovine interdigital skin bacterial community varied significantly by flock and clinical condition. The diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units was greater in tissue from sheep with ID than H or VFR-affected sheep. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla comprising 25 genera. Peptostreptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus were associated with H, ID and VFR, respectively. Sequences of Dichelobacter nodosus, the causal agent of ovine footrot, were not amplified because of mismatches in the 16S rRNA universal forward primer (27F). A specific real-time PCR assay was used to demonstrate the presence of D. nodosus, which was detected in all samples including the flock with no signs of ID or VFR. Sheep with ID had significantly higher numbers of D. nodosus (104–109 cells per g tissue) than those with H or VFR feet. PMID:21430786

  6. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  7. A functional comparison of ovine and porcine trypsins.

    PubMed

    Dallas Johnson, Keryn; Clark, Alan; Marshall, Sue

    2002-03-01

    Trypsin was isolated from ovine and porcine pancreas using affinity chromatography on immobilized p-aminobenzamidine. Molecular masses of the two proteins were 23900 and 23435 Da, determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The purified trypsins were compared using the kinetic properties K(m) and k(cat) which were determined at pH 8.0 and between 25 and 55 degrees C. Comparison of the Michaelis constants for ovine and porcine trypsins toward N-alpha-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BapNA) indicated that ovine trypsin had higher affinity for this substrate than the porcine enzyme. The rates of the reactions catalysed by the two enzymes correlated strongly over the range of temperatures and substrate concentrations tested, as did the k(cat) values. The specific activity of ovine trypsin for BapNA was, on average, approximately 10% higher than that of the porcine enzyme over the range of conditions tested. Porcine trypsin was less susceptible to denaturation at low pH or high temperature than was ovine trypsin. Porcine and ovine trypsin produced seven identically sized fragments from auto-catalytic hydrolysis. Proposed regions of identity between ovine and porcine trypsins were I(54)-K(77), L(98)-R(107), S(134)-K(178) and N(209)-K(116). Hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin, egg white lysozyme or casein by ovine or porcine trypsin yielded virtually identical patterns of fragments although the rate at which fragments were produced, in the case of beta-lactoglobulin, differed between the two enzymes. On balance the two enzymes appear to be functionally identical in their action. PMID:11959024

  8. Ovine β-lactoglobulin at atomic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kontopidis, George; Nordle Gilliver, Anna; Sawyer, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of the triclinic form of the milk protein β-lactoglobulin from sheep (Ovis aries) at 1.1 Å resolution is described together with a comparison of the triclinic structures of the low-pH bovine and high-pH ovine proteins. All three structures are remarkably similar, despite the well known pH-dependent conformational transition described for the bovine and porcine proteins that occurs in solution. The high resolution of the present structure determination has allowed a more accurate description of the protein than has hitherto been possible, but it is still not clear whether flexibility changes in the external loops can compensate for the presence of a significant void in the unliganded interior of the structure. PMID:25372816

  9. Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. )

    1988-11-01

    Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

  10. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  11. Enriching Language Learning through a Multimedia Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerley, Katherine; Coccetta, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, use has been made almost exclusively of text-based concordancers in the analysis of spoken corpora. This article discusses research being carried out on Padua University's Multimedia English Corpus (Padova MEC) using the multimodal concordancer "MCA "("Multimodal Corpus Authoring System," Baldry, 2005). This highly innovative…

  12. Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

  13. Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective…

  14. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  15. Corpus Callosum MR Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, A.; Coenen, F.; Jiang, C.; García-Fiñana, M.; Sluming, V.

    An approach to classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data is described. The specific application is the classification of MRI scan data according to the nature of the corpus callosum, however the approach has more general applicability. A variation of the “spectral segmentation with multi-scale graph decomposition” mechanism is introduced. The result of the segmentation is stored in a quad-tree data structure to which a weighted variation (also developed by the authors) of the gSpan algorithm is applied to identify frequent sub-trees. As a result the images are expressed as a set frequent sub-trees. There may be a great many of these and thus a decision tree based feature reduction technique is applied before classification takes place. The results show that the proposed approach performs both efficiently and effectively, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% in the case of the given application.

  16. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to 18 ± 2.2 days (n = 8). In PSP + D rats, serum progesterone and PRL levels, and luteal 3betaHSD activities were higher than in pseudopregnant rats on day 11. Decidualization also prevented the increase in luteal 20alphaHSD activities observed on day 11 of PSP. Administration of the dopaminergic agonist CB154 in PSP + D rats on day 10 of PSP induced a decline in both serum PRL and progesterone on day 11 of PSP, values that were not different from that of pseudopregnant controls. Conclusions We have established that during the final period of PSP a decline in progesterone biosynthesis occurs before the increase in progesterone catabolism. We have also shown that decidualization in pseudopregnant rats extends the life of the CL by prolonging the production of pituitary PRL, and by maintaining high 3betaHSD and low 20alphaHSD activities within the CL leading to sustained production of progesterone. PMID:15140254

  17. Effects of diets containing free gossypol on follicular development, embryo recovery and corpus luteum function in Brangus heifers treated with bFSH.

    PubMed

    Randel, R D; Willard, S T; Wyse, S J; French, L N

    1996-04-01

    Thirty 2 yr old Brangus heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: Control, 0 g of free gossypol (FG) per head per day (FGHD) from corn and soybean meal (SBM); 5 g of FGHD from cottonseed meal (CSM); and 15 g of FGHD from whole cottonseed (WCS). Blood samples were collected weekly for serum progesterone (P(4)) and later quantified by RIA. Whole blood was collected on Days 1, 28, 42, 56 and 70 for erythrocyte fragility (EF) analysis. Following 65 d on dietary treatments and estrus detection, the heifers received bovine-FSH (bFSH) once daily on Days 10, 11 and 12 postestrus, and PGF(2alpha) on Day 12 postestrus. Fifteen of the thirty heifers were randomly selected, and 12 h following PGF(2alpha), the ovaries were removed and follicular diameters, ovarian weight and stromal weights were recorded. Follicular fluid was analyzed for steroid content by RIA. The remaining fifteen heifers were artificially inseminated. Embryos were recovered non-surgically on Day 7 postestrus and graded, and the recovery efficiencies were calculated. Following embryo collection, both ovaries were removed, the number of CLs was recorded, and CL P(4) content was determined by RIA. By Day 42 of treatment, heifers receiving CSM had elevated (P < 0.04) EF compared with the Controls, and remained elevated above that of Controls throughout the study. At Day 70, the CSM heifers tended to have higher (P < 0.07) EF than the WCS group, which in turn tended to be higher (P < 0.06) than the Controls. The Control and CSM heifers gained weight during the 70 d treatment period, while heifers consuming WCS lost weight (P < 0.05). Ovarian and stromal weights did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatment groups. Heifers receiving CSM had fewer (P < 0.05) follicles > 5 mm than WCS or Control heifers. Follicular fluid weights and steroid content did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. Both CL weight and the number of CLs per heifer were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. Heifers receiving CSM or WCS had a higher (P < 0.003) CL P(4) content per gram of CL tissue than the Controls. Progesterone content per CL was greater in WCS heifers (P < 0.003) than in CSM heifers, while both the CSM and WCS heifers had a higher CL P(4) content than the Control heifers. Weekly and Day 7 postestrus serum concentrations of P(4) were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. The number of embryos recovered, number of degenerated embryos, embryo grades and recovery efficiencies were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary treatments. To standardize heifers relative to the number of degenerated embryos, the percentage of degenerated embryos recovered was calculated and tended to be greater (P < 0.06) in heifers consuming CSM than in either the Control or WCS groups. While most ovarian, follicular and embryo characteristics were not affected by dietary free gossypol, these results suggest that differences in the availability of free gossypol and/or dietary components between CSM and WCS may influence weight gain, CL P(4) content and embryo viability. PMID:16727852

  18. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P<0.01), area of CL vascularization (<0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period.

  19. Metritis Following Parturition: Serum Progesterone and 17β-Oestradiol Levels. The Significance of the Corpus luteum and the Advisability of using a Luteolytic Agent as a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, P.; Lamothe, P.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 22 postpartum Holstein Friesian cows showing abnormal uterus were divided into two groups and treated with a) PGF2α or b) diethylstilboestrol and oxytocin. Most blood P4 values were under 0.5 ng/mL whereas E2 blood level was higher than in normal cycling cows. The report emphasizes the need for a careful clinical examination in order to apply the proper therapy. PMID:7189134

  20. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  1. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump.

  2. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  3. Corpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism

    PubMed Central

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to interhemispheric functioning. Participants with autism displayed reductions in total corpus callosum volume and in several of its subdivisions. Relationships were also observed between volumetric alterations and performance on several cognitive tests including the Tower of Hanoi test. These findings provide further evidence for volumetric alterations in the corpus callosum in autism, but warrant additional studies examining the relationship of this structure and specific measures of interhemispheric connectivity. PMID:19165587

  4. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Attorney's Office immediately upon learning that a petition for writ of habeas corpus has been filed. All... guidance from Litigation Division. (e) Foreign court orders. A foreign court should not inquire into...

  5. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Attorney's Office immediately upon learning that a petition for writ of habeas corpus has been filed. All... guidance from Litigation Division. (e) Foreign court orders. A foreign court should not inquire into...

  6. Corpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism.

    PubMed

    Keary, Christopher J; Minshew, Nancy J; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2009-06-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to interhemispheric functioning. Participants with autism displayed reductions in total corpus callosum volume and in several of its subdivisions. Relationships were also observed between volumetric alterations and performance on several cognitive tests including the Tower of Hanoi test. These findings provide further evidence for anatomical alterations in the corpus callosum in autism, but warrant additional studies examining the relationship of this structure and specific measures of interhemispheric connectivity. PMID:19165587

  7. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  8. Analysis of corrinoids in ovine tissues.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R J; Gruner, T M; Furlong, J M; Sykes, A R

    2006-08-01

    Corrinoids from various ovine tissue samples (liver, blood, small intestinal fluid and faeces) were analysed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a radioisotope dilution assay (RIDA) to estimate the distribution of corrinoids--the cobalamins hydroxocobalamin (OH-cbl), methylcobalamin (me-cbl) and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (ado-cbl), and cobalamin analogues--in these tissues. Samples were taken from either cobalt-deficient or cobalt-replete ewes, and ruminant and pre-ruminant lambs. In liver, ado-cbl predominated, followed by analogues, OH-cbl and me-cbl. Supplementation with either cobalt (ruminant) or vitamin B12 injections (pre-ruminant) increased the amount of ado-cbl and decreased analogues. In blood, OH-cbl predominated, followed by ado-cbl, analogues and me-cbl, respectively. In small intestinal fluid, the distribution from largest to smallest percentage was analogues, ado-cbl, OH-cbl and me-cbl. In faeces, analogues constituted the greatest proportion, followed by OH-cbl, ado-cbl and me-cbl, respectively. Owing to the small sample sizes only cautionary interpretations can be made. In contrast to humans, where me-cbl constitutes the highest proportion of corrinoids in plasma and ado-cbl in the liver, in sheep the amount of ado-cbl was consistently higher than me-cbl in all tissues. This may be due to the higher metabolic need of sheep for ado-cbl due to gluconeogenesis. Analogues and OH-cbl were found in each tissue, contrary to previous postulations. The much higher amount of vitamin B12 in small intestinal fluid compared with faeces indicates that a large proportion of the vitamin is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:16345011

  9. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  10. Effect of maternal ketoacidosis on the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Kuthiala, Shikha; Liu, Hai L.; Durosier, Daniel L.; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Frasch, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Ketoacidosis during pregnancy carries significant risk of intrauterine fetal demise, but little is known about the impact of ketoacids on the ovine fetus. We report a case series of maternal ketoacidosis in ewes. Maternal ketoacidosis may result in biochemical and acid-base fetal abnormalities associated with changes in feto-placental unit perfusion. PMID:26246634

  11. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  12. Growth and development of the ovine conceptus.

    PubMed

    Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E; Thatcher, W W

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize development of the ovine conceptus throughout gestation to establish the temporal relationships in metabolites, electrolytes, fluid volumes within the placenta, and hormonal changes with fetal growth. Length and weight of placentae, weight of cotyledons, and uterine weight increased between d 25 and 80 of gestation in advance of increases in fetal growth between d 80 and 140 of gestation. Allantoic fluid volumes changed (P < 0.01) between d 25 (21 mL) and 40 (91 mL), decreased to d 70 (32 mL), and then increased to d 140 (438 mL). Concentrations and total amounts of proteins in allantoic fluid were reduced between d 25 and 50, but total protein increased (P < 0.01) from d 40 (63 mg) to d 140 (2,991 mg). Concentrations of fructose in allantoic fluid varied between 2 and 6 mg/mL throughout gestation, but total fructose increased (P < 0.01) between d 25 (46 mg) and d 120 (679 mg). Concentrations of glucose ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/mL, and total glucose increased (P < 0.05) from d 25 (3 mg) to d 140 (63 mg) of gestation. Amniotic fluid volume increased (P < 0.01) between d 30 and 140. Concentrations of estrogens in allantoic fluid, maternal uterine artery, and uterine vein increased (P < 0.01) with advancing pregnancy, and concentrations of progesterone in allantoic fluid (P < 0.07) and plasma (P < 0.05) were affected by day of gestation. Concentrations of glucose were greater (P < 0.05) in uterine artery than uterine vein, but concentrations of electrolytes and osmolarity of plasma were not affected by day of gestation. Increases in weights of fetal organs were proportional to increases in fetal weight during gestation. Results of the present study of conceptus growth and development highlight areas of needed research and provide benchmarks for comparisons when evaluating effects of various treatments, environmental conditions, and epigenetics on successful outcomes of pregnancy in sheep.

  13. [The endothelium of the corpus cavernosum].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the endothelium of corpus cavernosum plays an important role in the physiology of erection. Endothelial cells synthesize and release constricting and relaxing factors. These factors are essentially represented by endothelin and nitric oxide. Endothelin is a peptide generated by endothelial cells with potent vasoconstrictor properties. This peptide provokes more sustained constriction of corpus cavernosum smooth muscles than noradrenaline. This effect suggested that endothelin may play a role in the regulation of tone in penile vascular and cavernous tissues in man. In addition, recent experimental studies showed an important role of nitric oxide for cavernous smooth muscle relaxation. This factor may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The characteristics of these substances are reviewed. PMID:7822706

  14. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  15. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  16. Neural net simulation of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Cook, N D

    1988-02-01

    The effects of simulated anatomical and physiological parameters were investigated in a "neural net" model, where two neural nets corresponding to two small patches of cerebral cortex were connected by a simulated "corpus callosum." The isolated neural nets have previously been shown to exhibit oscillatory activity similar to the raw EEG. By connecting the nets with fibers which have a specified percentage of inhibition and a specified percentage of homotopicity, the effects of such parameters on the cyclic activity of the nets were studied. It was found that, regardless of the inhibitory-excitatory nature of the simulated corpus callosum, the cyclic activity established in one hemisphere is more readily transferred to the contralateral hemisphere, the greater the percentage of homotopic callosal fibers. Learning was more rapid when the effect of the corpus callosum was primarily excitatory, but learning also took place over inhibitory or mixed callosal tracts. The simulation does not therefore resolve the issue of the predominant physiological effect of the corpus callosum, but does indicate that, given the assumptions of the simulation, "learning" can occur regardless of the percentage of excitatory or inhibitory fibers. It is noteworthy that homotopicity was more important for learning across an inhibitory tract than across an excitatory tract.

  17. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  18. Integrating Corpus Consultation in Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence…

  19. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  20. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  1. EFL Students' Perceptions of Corpus-Tools as Writing References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested the potentials of corpus tools in vocabulary learning. However, there are still some concerns. Corpus tools might be too complicated to use; example sentences retrieved from corpus tools might be too difficult to understand; processing large number of sample sentences could be challenging and time-consuming;…

  2. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  3. Identification of peptides in functional Scamorza ovine milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Marino, R; Della Malva, A; Caroprese, M; Sevi, A

    2015-12-01

    Ovine bulk milk was used to produce Scamorza cheese with probiotics: either a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis or Lactobacillus acidophilus as the probiotic strains. Peptides obtained from reverse phase-HPLC water-soluble extract of Scamorza cheeses were analyzed using a quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Identified fragments were derived from casein hydrolysis or probiotic bacterial enzymes; some of the fragments showed encrypted peptide sequences that shared structural homology with previously described bioactive peptides in ovine milk and dairy products. Bifidobacterium longum and B. lactis showed greater proteolytic potential both in terms of level of pH 4.6 water-soluble nitrogen extract and ability to generate peptides with potential biofunctionality. Fragments deriving from microbial enzymes may be regarded as tracing fragments useful for monitoring probiotic activity in functional Scamorza cheese. PMID:26409967

  4. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    PubMed

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/∼pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost.

  5. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http

  6. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show..., Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary safety zone is... necessary to ensure the safety of participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi...

  7. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  8. Temporal Release, Paracrine and Endocrine Actions of Ovine Conceptus-Derived Interferon-Tau During Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Nett, Terry M; Ashley, Ryan L; Webb, Brett T; Smirnova, Natalia P; Bott, Rebecca C; Bruemmer, Jason E; Bazer, Fuller W; Anthony, Russell V; Hansen, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    The antiviral activity of interferon (IFN) increases in uterine vein serum (UVS) during early pregnancy in sheep. This antiviral activity in UVS collected on Day 15 of pregnancy is blocked by anti-IFN-tau (anti-IFNT) antibodies. Conceptus-derived IFNT was hypothesized to induce IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in endometrium and extrauterine tissues during pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, blood was collected from ewes on Days 12-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Serum progesterone was >1.7 ng/ml in pregnant (P) and nonpregnant (NP) ewes until Day 13, then declined to <0.6 ng/ml by Day 15 in NP ewes. A validated IFNT radioimmunoassay detected IFNT in uterine flushings (UFs) on Days 13-16 and in UVS on Days 15-16 of pregnancy. IFNT detection in UF correlated with paracrine induction of ISGs in the endometrium and occurred prior to the inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 and oxytocin receptor expression in uterine epithelia on Day 14 of pregnancy. Induction of ISG mRNAs in corpus luteum (CL) and liver tissue occurred by Day 14 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Day 15 in P ewes. Expression of mRNAs for IFN signal transducers and ISGs were greater in the CL of P than that of NP ewes on Day 14. It is concluded that: 1) paracrine actions of IFNT coincide with detection of IFNT in UF; 2) endocrine action of IFNT ensues through induction of ISGs in peripheral tissues; and 3) IFNT can be detected in UVS, but not until Days 15-16 of pregnancy, which may be limited by the sensitivity of the IFNT radioimmunoassay.

  9. Temporal Release, Paracrine and Endocrine Actions of Ovine Conceptus-Derived Interferon-Tau During Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Nett, Terry M; Ashley, Ryan L; Webb, Brett T; Smirnova, Natalia P; Bott, Rebecca C; Bruemmer, Jason E; Bazer, Fuller W; Anthony, Russell V; Hansen, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    The antiviral activity of interferon (IFN) increases in uterine vein serum (UVS) during early pregnancy in sheep. This antiviral activity in UVS collected on Day 15 of pregnancy is blocked by anti-IFN-tau (anti-IFNT) antibodies. Conceptus-derived IFNT was hypothesized to induce IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in endometrium and extrauterine tissues during pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, blood was collected from ewes on Days 12-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Serum progesterone was >1.7 ng/ml in pregnant (P) and nonpregnant (NP) ewes until Day 13, then declined to <0.6 ng/ml by Day 15 in NP ewes. A validated IFNT radioimmunoassay detected IFNT in uterine flushings (UFs) on Days 13-16 and in UVS on Days 15-16 of pregnancy. IFNT detection in UF correlated with paracrine induction of ISGs in the endometrium and occurred prior to the inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 and oxytocin receptor expression in uterine epithelia on Day 14 of pregnancy. Induction of ISG mRNAs in corpus luteum (CL) and liver tissue occurred by Day 14 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Day 15 in P ewes. Expression of mRNAs for IFN signal transducers and ISGs were greater in the CL of P than that of NP ewes on Day 14. It is concluded that: 1) paracrine actions of IFNT coincide with detection of IFNT in UF; 2) endocrine action of IFNT ensues through induction of ISGs in peripheral tissues; and 3) IFNT can be detected in UVS, but not until Days 15-16 of pregnancy, which may be limited by the sensitivity of the IFNT radioimmunoassay. PMID:26559679

  10. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  11. Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that

  12. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

  13. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  14. The Effect of Ovine Secreted Soluble Factors on Human Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: In androgenetic alopecia, follicular miniaturization and dynamic changes to the hair cycle produce patterned baldness. The most effective treatment for baldness is hair transplantation surgery. The major limitation to hair transplantation is the availability of donor hair from the relatively unaffected occipital scalp. Hair induction with in vitro expansion of donor follicle populations has the potential to overcome this. The major obstacle to this is that in vitro expansion of human dermal papilla cell (DPC) colonies is associated with irreversible loss of aggregative behavior and hair follicle-inductive potential. In contrast, cultured ovine DPCs maintain these properties after extensive proliferation. Aims: To determine whether aggregating ovine DPC secrete factors that enhance the aggregative behavior or inductive potential of human DPC. Subjects and Methods: Fluorescently-labelled ovine DPC were mixed in culture with human DPC at passage number seven-nine, which had lost their aggregative behavior. The effects of different culture substrates and medium compositions on aggregative behavior were determined. Ovine and human papilla cells were co-cultured, separated by a permeable membrane to determine whether the ovine cells secrete soluble factors that affect human papilla cells. Results: In direct co-culture experiments, well-formed aggregates were produced by 90:10 human:ovine and 50:50 human:ovine DPC mixtures. In contrast, unmixed human DPC remained in a monolayer state after 18 days. Both human and ovine DPC had a higher tendency to aggregate in medium containing 20% (v/v) lamb serum (LS) compared to 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS). In co-culture experiments separated with permeable membrane, the human DPC aggregates were bigger and more rapidly formed with the addition of ovine secreted soluble factors. Conclusions: Soluble factors secreted by ovine DPC and present in LS increase the aggregative behavior of human DPC. These molecules might

  15. The Effect of Ovine Secreted Soluble Factors on Human Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: In androgenetic alopecia, follicular miniaturization and dynamic changes to the hair cycle produce patterned baldness. The most effective treatment for baldness is hair transplantation surgery. The major limitation to hair transplantation is the availability of donor hair from the relatively unaffected occipital scalp. Hair induction with in vitro expansion of donor follicle populations has the potential to overcome this. The major obstacle to this is that in vitro expansion of human dermal papilla cell (DPC) colonies is associated with irreversible loss of aggregative behavior and hair follicle-inductive potential. In contrast, cultured ovine DPCs maintain these properties after extensive proliferation. Aims: To determine whether aggregating ovine DPC secrete factors that enhance the aggregative behavior or inductive potential of human DPC. Subjects and Methods: Fluorescently-labelled ovine DPC were mixed in culture with human DPC at passage number seven-nine, which had lost their aggregative behavior. The effects of different culture substrates and medium compositions on aggregative behavior were determined. Ovine and human papilla cells were co-cultured, separated by a permeable membrane to determine whether the ovine cells secrete soluble factors that affect human papilla cells. Results: In direct co-culture experiments, well-formed aggregates were produced by 90:10 human:ovine and 50:50 human:ovine DPC mixtures. In contrast, unmixed human DPC remained in a monolayer state after 18 days. Both human and ovine DPC had a higher tendency to aggregate in medium containing 20% (v/v) lamb serum (LS) compared to 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS). In co-culture experiments separated with permeable membrane, the human DPC aggregates were bigger and more rapidly formed with the addition of ovine secreted soluble factors. Conclusions: Soluble factors secreted by ovine DPC and present in LS increase the aggregative behavior of human DPC. These molecules might

  16. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.

    PubMed

    Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G

    2010-12-01

    An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks.

  17. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Browne, John A.; O'Sullivan, Jack; McGettigan, Paul A.; Mulcahy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts’ immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines. Methodology/principal findings This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS), respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18) or activated (e.g. miR155-5p) in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including ‘Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) signaling’, ‘Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages’, ‘Toll-like Receptor (TLRs) Signaling’, ‘Death Receptor Signaling’ and ‘IL17 Signaling’. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed. Significance In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq). This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines. PMID:27661612

  18. Secretion of platelet-activating factor by periovulatory ovine follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.; Van Kirk, E.A.; Murdoch, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in vitro by ovine follicles and ovarian interstitium obtained at various times before, during and after the endogenous preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulation was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Release of PAF by the preovulatory follicle increased within 2 h after initiation of the surge of LH. Capacity for secretion of PAF was greatest at the time of ovulation, then declined thereafter. Production of PAF by ovarian interstitium throughout the periovulatory period was relatively low and did not change with time. It appears that PAF could act as an intrafollicular mediator in the mechanisms of ovulation and(or) luteinization.

  19. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  20. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  1. Ovine blood: establishment of a list of reference values relevant for blood coagulation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Tiede, Andreas; Teebken, Omke E; Bisdas, Theodosios; Haverich, Axel; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Ovine animal models are widely used to conduct preclinical studies, e.g., to evaluate cardiovascular prostheses intended to be applied in man. However, although analyzed in many of those studies, information about ovine blood reference values is scanty. The aim of this study is to establish a reference list of ovine blood parameters relevant for blood coagulation. A cohort of 47 mature ewes was evaluated. Parameters comprised the following: cells and cellular components-platelet, red, and white cell counts (including subsets), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and MCH concentration (MCHC); global tests of coagulation-prothrombin time (Quick's time) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT); and parameters relevant for blood coagulation-fibrinogen, antithrombin (AT), and von Willebrand Factor. After explorative data analysis, a list of ovine reference values was established. Interestingly, a comparison with human reference values revealed some interspecies differences between sheep and man, i.e., much higher ovine ranges for some cell counts (neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, eosinophils, and platelets) but lower values for some other parameters (Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, AT, and Quick's test). We established a reference list of ovine blood count and blood coagulation parameters. Because of some peculiarities of the ovine blood, this list may have implications for the interpretation of experimental data.

  2. Immunohistochemical identification of Campylobacter fetus in natural cases of bovine and ovine abortions.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Anderson, M L; Walker, R L; Blanchard, P C; Barbano, L; Chiu, P; Martínez, A; Combessies, G; Bardon, J C; Cordeviola, J

    2005-04-01

    An immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of Campylobacter fetus antigens using an avidin-biotin complex technique was performed on formalin fixed bovine and ovine fetal tissues from 26 natural cases of Campylobacter spp. abortion (four ovine and 22 bovine). The species of Campylobacter isolated included C. fetus ssp. venerealis from 13 bovine fetuses, C. fetus ssp. fetus from two ovine and one bovine fetus, Campylobacter jejuni from seven bovine fetuses, Campylobacter lari from two ovine fetuses and an unspeciated Campylobacter species in one bovine fetus. Histologic lesions identified in the aborted fetuses included placentitis, serositis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Campylobacter fetus antigens were identified by IHC in 13 of 13 bovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. venerealis was isolated and in two of two ovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. fetus was isolated. The IHC stains were negative in tissues from seven bovine fetuses from which C. jejuni was isolated, one bovine fetus infected with C. fetus ssp. fetus, one bovine fetus infected with the unspeciated Campylobacter and two ovine fetuses infected with C. lari. In positive cases, the IHC stain most frequently identified bacteria in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. The C. fetus IHC procedure performed on formalin fixed tissues is a practical tool for the diagnosis of natural cases of ovine and bovine abortion caused by C. fetus.

  3. Ovine trophoblasts express cathelicidin host defence peptide in response to infection.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Christopher; Wheelhouse, Nick; Jacques, Maxime; Longbottom, David; Svoboda, Pavel; Pohl, Jan; Duncan, W Colin; Rae, Michael T; Barlow, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Cationic host defence peptides (CHDP; also known as antimicrobial peptides) are key components of the immune response in the female reproductive tract. The role of the placental trophoblast in ovine host defence remains poorly understood. This study characterises expression of genes for cathelicidin and defensin peptides in primary ovine placental tissues, the ovine trophoblast cell line (AH-1) and in response to the TLR-4 ligand LPS, the abortifacient organism Waddlia chondrophila and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Using RT-PCR, expression of the CHDP SMAP-29, sBD-1 and sBD-2 was assessed in the AH-1 cell line in response to LPS, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exposure (a known stimulator of cathelicidin gene expression), or W. chondrophila infection. Expression of cathelicidin in the trophoblast compartment of the ovine placenta and in the ovine trophoblast cell line (AH-1) was also established. AH-1 cells did not upregulate expression of CHDP in response to LPS, but sBD-1 and sBD-2 expression was significantly increased in response to W. chondrophila infection. SMAP-29 expression was not altered by in vitro exposure to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. This study demonstrates that the ovine trophoblast expresses cathelicidins, but does not upregulate expression of CHDP in response to LPS. Ovine trophoblasts are shown to differentially regulate expression of CHDP and lack a demonstrable vitamin D-mediated cathelicidin response. PMID:27348190

  4. Survival of sheep x goat hybrid inner cell masses after injection into ovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Anderson, G B; Bon Durant, R H; Pashen, R L

    1989-10-01

    Modified blastocyst injection techniques were used to inject immunosurgically isolated sheep x goat hybrid inner cell masses (ICM) into ovine blastocysts, with subsequent transfer of composite embryos to ovine recipients. Hybrid embryos were collected from does artificially inseminated with Barbados ram semen. A total of 13 live and 2 aborted offspring resulted from the 34 composite embryos transferred to recipient ewes (38% embryo survival). Of the 15 offspring, 4 exhibited phenotypic hybridism and 2 (13%) of these were determined to be hybrid mean value of -sheep chimeras by karyotype, serum protein and isoenzyme analyses, and fiber identification. Each of the 4 was produced by an injection procedure that involved damage of the ovine host ICM. One additional offspring was unusual in appearance, but the presence of hybrid cells was not proven. Similarly, caprine ICM were immunosurgically isolated and injected into ovine blastocysts that were then transferred to ovine recipients. Of the 13 composite embryos transferred, 12 offspring were produced (92% embryo survival). Eleven were overt goat mean value of -sheep chimeras and, of these, 7 were also blood chimeras. The hybrid ICM was shown to be capable of contributing to normal embryonic and fetal development after injection into an ovine blastocyst but may be less likely to be incorporated with the ovine host ICM than is the caprine ICM. PMID:2620076

  5. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum and Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ilik, Faik; Bilgilisoy, Ugur T

    2015-07-01

    The corpus callosum is the main band of interhemispheric axonal fibers in the human brain. Corpus callosum agenesis has widely varying symptoms, mainly associated with epilepsy, cognitive failure, and different neuropsychiatric disorders. Our case of corpus callosum agenesis includes eyelid myoclonia with absences. In the literature, there is no reported case of this combination. We report this case because it is rare, and relevant for the understanding of interhemispheric communications, based on our electrophysiological findings.

  6. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  7. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

  8. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  9. Designing a Corpus for Translation and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardini, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Describes a million-word corpus for English-Italian translation students. Outlines the design, which makes multiple types of comparisons possible among originals and translations and illustrates how to use the corpus to teach sociocultural insights, discourse-structuring expressions, and lexical patterns. (Author/VWL)

  10. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  11. Corpus-Based Learning of Cantonese for Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Wong, Tak-Sum

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our experience in using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, as a second language. The parallel corpus consists of pairs of word-aligned sentences in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese, drawn from television programs in Hong Kong (Lee, 2011). We evaluated our pedagogical approach with…

  12. Educational Implications for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Shirley A.

    This case study evaluates the case of a 20-year-old young Australian adult born with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the area of the brain uniting the hemispheres. Deficits commonly associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum are mental retardation, motor involvement, seizure activity, and lateral transfer difficulties. The report: (1)…

  13. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  14. Codeswitching, Borrowing and Mixing in a Corpus of Xhosa English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses selected aspects of the codeswitching behaviour in a spoken corpus of the English of 326 people, all of them mother-tongue speakers of Xhosa (a local African language in South Africa), and all of whom would see themselves as Xhosa/English bilinguals. The corpus comprises approximately 550,000 transcribed words of spontaneous,…

  15. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  16. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies.

  17. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

  18. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  19. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  20. Corpus callosum involvement and postoperative outcomes of patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Wu, Tai-Wei Erich; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Chen-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Corpus callosum involvement is associated with poorer survival in high grade glioma (HGG), but the prognostic value in low grade glioma (LGG) is unclear. To determine the prognostic impact of corpus callosum involvement on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG and LGG, the records of 233 glioma patients treated from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to identify corpus callosum involvement. Age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky performance scale, postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score and extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated with respect to PFS and OS. The incidence of corpus callosum involvement was similar among HGG (14 %) and LGG (14.5 %). Univariate analysis revealed that PFS and OS were significantly shorter in both WHO grade II and grade IV glioma with corpus callosum involvement (both, p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that grade II glioma with corpus callosum involvement have shorter PFS (p = 0.03), while EOR, instead of corpus callosum involvement (p = 0.16), was an independent factor associated with PFS in grade IV glioma (p < 0.05). Corpus callosum involvement was no longer significantly associated with OS after adjusting age, gender, EOR, preoperative and postoperative performance status (p = 0.16, 0.17 and 0.56 in grade II, III and IV gliomas, respectively). Corpus callosum involvement happened in both LGG and HGG, and is associated with lower EOR and higher postoperative ECOG score both in LGG and HGG. Corpus callosum involvement tends to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS in LGG, but not for OS in LGG or in HGG.

  1. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  2. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  3. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  4. Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

    2008-11-15

    Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant were selected and used for the experiment. Freshly isolated neutrophils were incubated with the extracts of the residues at increasing doses, and then they were tested for adhesion and superoxide production induced with PMA. The residues of Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris, Salix alba, Sinupret, Helianthus annuus, Mangifera indica modulated the neutrophil immune functions, moreover, Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris and Salix alba presented the highest anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Cooling-induced contraction in ovine airways smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S M; Pilcher, C W; Williams, K I

    1999-02-01

    The mechanism of cold-induced bronchoconstriction is poorly understood. This prompted the present study whose aim was to determine the step-wise direct effect of cooling on smooth muscle of isolated ovine airways and analyse the role of calcium in the mechanisms involved. Isolated tracheal strips and bronchial segments were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses during stepwise cooling from 37 to 5 degrees C were examined. Cooling induced a rapid and reproducible contraction proportional to cooling temperature in ovine tracheal and bronchial preparations which was epithelium-independent. On readjustment to 37 degrees C the tone returned rapidly to basal level. Maximum contraction was achieved at a temperature of 5 degrees C for trachea and 15 degrees C for bronchiole. Cooling-induced contractions (CIC) was resistant to tetrodotoxin (1; 10 micrometer), and not affected by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 micrometer) or the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (1 micrometer), or the histamine H1-antagonist mepyramine (1 micrometer) or indomethacin (1 micrometer). Ca2+ antagonists (nifedipine and verapamil) and Mn2+ raised tracheal but not bronchiolar tone and augmented CIC. Incubation in Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing Krebs' solution for 5 min had no effect on CIC, although it significantly reduced KCl-induced contraction by up to 75%. Cooling inhibited Ca2+ influx measured using 45Ca2+ uptake. Caffeine (100 micrometer) significantly inhibited CIC. The results show that cooling-induced contractions do not appear to involve activation of nerve endings, all surface reception systems or Ca2+ influx. However, CIC is mainly dependent on release of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:10072702

  6. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  7. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  8. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving

  9. Automatic recognition of corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Unser, Michael A.; Ketter, Terence A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose a new method to find the corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images automatically. First, we calculate the statistical characteristics of the corpus callosum and obtain shape information. The recognition algorithm consists of two stages: extracting regions satisfying the statistical characteristics (gray level distribtuions) of the corpus callosum, and finding a region matching the shape information. An innovative feature of the algorithm is that we adaptively relax the statistical requirement until we find a region matching the shape information. In order to match the shape information, we propose a new directed window region growing algorithm instead of using conventional contour matching. Experiments show promising results.

  10. A corpus of noise-induced word misperceptions for Spanish.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Máté Attila; García Lecumberri, María Luisa; Tang, Yan; Cooke, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Word misperceptions are valuable in designing and evaluating detailed computational models of speech perception, especially when a number of listeners agree on the misperceived word. The current paper describes the elicitation of a corpus of Spanish word misperceptions induced by different types of noise. Stimuli were presented using an adaptive procedure designed to promote the rapid discovery of misperceptions. The final corpus contains 3235 misperceptions along with speech and masker waveforms, permitting further experimental and modeling studies into the origin of each misperception. The corpus is available online as an open resource.

  11. Identification and biological activity of ovine and caprine calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptides 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christopher J; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Yandle, Timothy G; Minamino, Naoto

    2008-08-01

    We have recently reported the isolation of three new members of the calcitonin (CT) gene-related peptide family of peptides, the CT receptor (CT-R)-stimulating peptides (CRSPs). We now report the sequencing and characterization of ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2. Mature ovine and caprine CRSP-1 are identical and have strong structural homology to CRSP-1s identified to date from other species. As with other CRSP-1s, ovine/caprine CRSP-1 binds to and activates the CT-R but not the CT-like receptor (CL-R) in combination with the receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 does not activate any of these receptor-RAMP complexes. Intravenous infusions of ovine CRSP-1 to normal conscious sheep induced dose-dependent reduction in plasma total Ca levels (P=0.02) and corrected Ca levels (P=0.017) associated with increases in plasma cAMP (P=0.002). CRSP-1 reduced both plasma amino-terminal pro-C-type natriuretic peptide levels (P=0.006) and plasma renin activity (P=0.028). There were no significant effects observed on hemodynamic or renal indices measured. In conclusion, we have sequenced ovine/caprine CRSP-1 and caprine CRSP-2 precursors. This newly identified CRSP-1 has been shown to share the structural and biological features of CRSP-1s known to date. In vivo studies confirm that ovine CRSP-1 reduces plasma Ca levels in sheep, presumably via a cAMP-mediated mechanism. By contrast, caprine CRSP-2 did not stimulate any combination of CT-R, CL-R, and RAMPs. Accession numbers of cDNA determined in this study are caprine CRSP-1, AB364646; caprine CRSP-2, AB364647; and ovine CRSP-1, AB364648.

  12. Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium).

  13. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  14. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study

    PubMed Central

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Methods: Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root ‘sublux.’ Results: It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as ‘subluxation:’ i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. Conclusions: In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. PMID:27385839

  15. Corpus callosum: normal imaging appearance, variants and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Battal, B; Kocaoglu, M; Akgun, V; Bulakbasi, N; Tayfun, C

    2010-12-01

    Various types of lesions can occur within the corpus callosum (CC) which is a white matter tract communicating corresponding regions of the cerebral hemispheres. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for the evaluation of the CC. In addition, diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging can provide additional information about the CC. The aim of this study is to illustrate the imaging features of the corpus callosum and its pathologies. PMID:21199431

  16. A diffusion and T2 relaxation MRI study of the ovine lumbar intervertebral disc under compression in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Simon C.; Silva, Pujitha; Crozier, Stuart; Pearcy, Mark J.

    2004-08-01

    The ovine lumbar intervertebral disc is a useful model for the human lumbar disc. We present preliminary estimates of diffusion coefficients and T2 relaxation times in a pilot MRI study of the ovine lumbar intervertebral disc during uniaxial compression in vitro, and identify factors that hamper the ability to accurately monitor the temporal evolution of the effective diffusion tensor at high spatial resolution.

  17. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis.

  18. Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H

    2008-07-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum. PMID:18493931

  19. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã

    PubMed Central

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  20. How does the corpus callosum mediate interhemispheric transfer? A review.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, Lisette J; van der Ham, Ineke J M

    2011-09-30

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the human brain, connecting cortical regions of both hemispheres. Complete and partial callosotomies or callosal lesion studies have granted more insight into the function of the corpus callosum, namely the facilitation of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. How the corpus callosum mediates this information transfer is still a topic of debate. Some pose that the corpus callosum maintains independent processing between the two hemispheres, whereas others say that the corpus callosum shares information between hemispheres. These theories of inhibition and excitation are further explored by reviewing recent behavioural studies and morphological findings to gain more information about callosal function. Additional information regarding callosal function in relation to altered morphology and dysfunction in disorders is reviewed to add to the discussion of callosal involvement in interhemispheric transfer. Both the excitatory and inhibitory theories seem likely candidates to describe callosal function, however evidence also exists for both functions within the same corpus callosum. For future research it would be beneficial to investigate the functional role of the callosal sub regions to get a better understanding of function and use more appropriate experimental methods to determine functional connectivity when looking at interhemispheric transfer.

  1. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P

    2012-02-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight

  2. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  3. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ).

    PubMed

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A₁-D₁, A₂-D₂) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A₃-C₃) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A₄-B₄, A₅-B₅) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A₁, A₂ and A₃ were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A₁-A₃, A₁-C₃, B₁-A₃ and B₁-C₃ were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  4. Prosody meets syntax: the role of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sammler, Daniela; Kotz, Sonja A; Eckstein, Korinna; Ott, Derek V M; Friederici, Angela D

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary neural models of auditory language comprehension proposed that the two hemispheres are differently specialized in the processing of segmental and suprasegmental features of language. While segmental processing of syntactic and lexical semantic information is predominantly assigned to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere is thought to have a primacy for the processing of suprasegmental prosodic information such as accentuation and boundary marking. A dynamic interplay between the hemispheres is assumed to allow for the timely coordination of both information types. The present event-related potential study investigated whether the anterior and/or posterior portion of the corpus callosum provide the crucial brain basis for the online interaction of syntactic and prosodic information. Patients with lesions in the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum connecting orbital and frontal structures, or the posterior third of the corpus callosum connecting temporal, parietal and occipital areas, as well as matched healthy controls, were tested in a paradigm that crossed syntactic and prosodic manipulations. An anterior negativity elicited by a mismatch between syntactically predicted phrase structure and prosodic intonation was analysed as a marker for syntax-prosody interaction. Healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum showed this anterior negativity demonstrating an intact interplay between syntax and prosody. No such effect was found in patients with lesions in the posterior corpus callosum, although they exhibited intact, prosody-independent syntactic processing comparable with healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum. These data support the interplay between the speech processing streams in the left and right hemispheres via the posterior portion of the corpus callosum, building the brain basis for the coordination and integration of local syntactic and prosodic features during

  5. Expression of factors associated with apoptosis in the porcine corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy: their possible involvement in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Witek, K J; Kaczmarek, M M; Andronowska, A; Ziecik, A J

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity have been focused mainly on molecular changes induced in the luteal tissue after treatment with exogenous PGF2α or on physiological changes occurring during the estrous cycle. The comparison of changes leading to the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity after Day 12 of the estrous cycle and corresponding days of pregnancy has not been investigated in the pig. The present study was undertaken to evaluate (1) apoptosis measured as the proportions of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and viable cells; (2) expression of factors involved in the extrinsic (TNFA/TNFα, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1, TNFRSF1B/TNFR2, FAS/Fas, and FASLG/FasL) and intrinsic (CASP3/Casp3, TP53/p-53, BAX/Bax, and BCL2/Bcl-2) apoptotic pathways, with two components of the activating protein-1 complex, i.e., FOS/Fos and JUN/Jun and IFNG/IFNγ; and (3) concentrations of luteal and blood plasma progesterone (P4) throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected postmortem on Days 8, 10, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle and the corresponding days of pregnancy. The luteal tissue was subjected to RNA and/or protein isolation and disaggregation of CL cells followed by flow cytometry analysis aimed to determine apoptotic changes. Luteal and blood plasma P4 concentrations decreased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). A significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed on Day 14 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Increase (P < 0.05) of TNFA messenger RNA (mRNA) level coincided with that of IFNG on Day 12 of the estrous cycle but not on the corresponding day of pregnancy. The content of FAS mRNA and protein increased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of CASP3, BCL-2 and BAX was unchanged in cyclic and pregnant CL, while level of TP53 increased (P < 0.05) on Day 12 of the estrous cycle versus Day 8. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus the remaining days. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle than that on the corresponding day of pregnancy. In summary, the simultaneous increase of TNFA and IFNG transcript in cyclic CL suggests the crucial role of both cytokines in sensitization of porcine CL to further luteolytic action of PGF2α. The upregulated expression of FAS, FOS, and JUN mRNA in the late luteal phase in cyclic CL can indicate their involvement in structural luteolysis. The increased viability of luteal cells and elevated P4 concentrations in pregnant CL confirm the protective role of luteal P4 against apoptosis.

  6. Induction of chemokines and prostaglandin synthesis pathways in luteinized human granulosa cells: potential role of luteotropin withdrawal and prostaglandin F2α in regression of the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenxiang; Salih, Sana M; Bormann, Charles L; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants (forskolin or hCG) on expression of chemokines and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in luteinized human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were collected from 12 women undergoing oocyte retrieval and were luteinized in vitro with forskolin or hCG. In first experiment, granulosa-lutein cells were treated with PGF2α, the primary luteolytic hormone in most species. In second experiment, granulosa cells that had been luteinized for 8 d had luteotropins withdrawn for 1, 2, or 3 d. Treatment with PGF2α induced mRNA for chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) and CXC ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as interleukin-8) in granulosa cells luteinized for 8 d but not in cells that were only luteinized for 2 d. Similarly, luteinization of human granulosa cells for 8 d with forskolin or hCG followed by withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants, not only decreased P4 production, but also increased mRNA concentrations for CXCL8, CXCL-2 (after forskolin withdrawal), and PTGS2. These results provide evidence for two key steps in differentiation of luteolytic capability in human granulosa cells. During 8 d of luteinization, granulosa cells acquire the ability to respond to luteolytic factors, such as PGF2α, with induction of genes involved in immune function and PG synthesis. Finally, a decline in luteotropic stimuli triggers similar pathways leading to induction of PTGS2 and possibly intraluteal PGF2α production, chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and activation, and ultimately luteal regression. PMID:26679166

  7. Effects of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol on isolated ovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Chlordecone (CHLO, 1-30 uM) and chlordecone alcohol (CHLO ALC, 1-23 uM) altered the permeability of isolated ovine erythrocytes (OE) as evidenced by a concentration- and time-dependent induction of K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis. Hemolysis, but no K/sup +/ efflux, was markedly delayed when OE were suspended in isotonic sucrose. Low concentrations of both compounds (1-4 uM) protected OE against hypotonic hemolysis. Neither CHLO (30 uM) nor CHLO ALC (23 uM) induced the release of trapped K/sup +/ from KSCN-loaded, OE-lipid, unilamellar liposomes. CHLO- and CHLO ACL-induced hemolysis and K/sup +/ efflux were dependent upon the pH of the external media. CHLO ALC-induced K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis showed a slight pH dependence, with increased potency of the compound detected over the pH range 8.3-9.4 CHLO ALC-induced protection against hypotonic hemolysis was pH independent. The potency of CHLO in all three assays decreased as the pH was raised from 6.4 to 9.4. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO and (/sup 14/C)-CHLO ALC binding to OE and OE membranes was pH independent. However, the binding of (/sup 14/C)-CHLO to polypropylene and glass was pH dependent. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO binding to polypropylene and glass decreased from pH 6.4 to pH 10.4. The pKa of CHLO was estimated to be 8.9. After the CHLO results were corrected for the fraction of CHLO present in the unionized form, it was estimated the ionized CHLO possessed 1/3 to 1/20 of the activity of the unionized species.

  8. Aquaporin gene expression and regulation in the ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Hooper, S B; Armugam, A; Dawson, N; Ferraro, T; Jeyaseelan, K; Thiel, A; Koukoulas, I; Wintour, E M

    2003-01-01

    Fetal lung development is dependent upon secretion of liquid into the future airways which must be cleared at birth to establish air-breathing. Aquaporins (AQP) 1, 3, 4 and 5 are membranous water channel proteins that are present in the lung after birth in rodents, with little expression before birth. Our aim was to describe the changes in AQP1, 3, 4 and 5 expression and protein levels in the fetal lung of a long-gestation species (sheep) and in response to physiological factors known to alter fetal lung liquid dynamics. Both mRNA and high protein levels were detected for AQP1, 3, 4 and 5 by day 100 (term is ≈150 days in ovine fetuses). A cortisol infusion (120–131 days) significantly (P < 0.05) increased AQP1 (0.9 ± 0.2 (n = 4) vs.1.8 ± 0.3 (n = 5)) and AQP5 (8.8 ± 0.6 vs. 14.1 ± 1.2) mRNA levels in fetal lung (measured by real-time PCR). Ten days of tracheal obstruction significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AQP5 mRNA levels (6.1 ± 0.9 (n = 5) vs. 2.7 ± 0.3 (n = 5)). Immunohistochemistry was used to show that protein levels changed in parallel with the mRNA changes. These findings suggest that AQPs could be involved in lung liquid production and reabsorption during fetal development in long-gestation species. PMID:12819302

  9. Androgen Receptor and Histone Lysine Demethylases in Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Cleys, Ellane R.; Halleran, Jennifer L.; Enriquez, Vanessa A.; da Silveira, Juliano C.; West, Rachel C.; Winger, Quinton A.; Anthony, Russell V.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Clay, Colin M.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  10. Transcriptomic Determinants of Scrapie Prion Propagation in Cultured Ovine Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F.; Aguilar Pierlé, Sebastián; Schneider, David A.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Stanton, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by prions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence and host expression of the cellular prion protein (PrPC); however, cellular expression of a genetically susceptible PrPC is insufficient. As an example, it has been shown in cultured cells that permissive and resistant sublines derived from the same parental population often have similar expression levels of PrPC. Thus, additional cellular factors must influence susceptibility to prion infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with relative permissiveness and resistance to scrapie prions in cultured cells derived from a naturally affected species. Two closely related ovine microglia clones with different prion susceptibility, but no detectable differences in PrPC expression levels, were inoculated with either scrapie-positive or scrapie-negative sheep brainstem homogenates. Five passages post-inoculation, the transcriptional profiles of mock and infected clones were sequenced using Illumina technology. Comparative transcriptional analyses identified twenty-two differentially transcribed genes, most of which were upregulated in poorly permissive microglia. This included genes encoding for selenoprotein P, endolysosomal proteases, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, in highly permissive microglia, transforming growth factor β–induced, retinoic acid receptor response 1, and phosphoserine aminotranspherase 1 gene transcripts were upregulated. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified proteolysis, translation, and mitosis as the most affected pathways and supported the upregulation trend of several genes encoding for intracellular proteases and ribosomal proteins in poorly permissive microglia. This study identifies new genes potentially involved in scrapie prion propagation, corroborates results from other studies, and extends those results into another cell culture model. PMID:26807844

  11. Determinants of mechanical properties in the developing ovine thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Wells, S M; Langille, B L; Lee, J M; Adamson, S L

    1999-10-01

    We previously reported changes in mechanical properties and collagen cross-linking of the ovine thoracic aorta during perinatal development and postnatal maturation, and we now report changes in biochemical composition (elastin, collagen, and DNA contents per mg wet wt) over the same developmental intervals. A comparison of results from the present and previous studies has yielded novel and important observations concerning the relationship between aortic mechanics and composition during maturation. Developmental changes in aortic incremental elastic modulus at low tensile stress (E(low)) closely followed changes in relative elastin content (i.e., per mg wet wt). An 89% increase in E(low) during the perinatal period was associated with a 69% increase in relative elastin content, whereas neither variable changed during postnatal life. Incremental elastic modulus at high tensile stress (E(high)) did not change during the perinatal period but increased 88% during postnatal life. This pattern closely paralleled changes in collagen cross-linking index, which did not change perinatally but almost doubled postnatally. In contrast, relative collagen content (per mg wet wt) increased only slightly from fetal to adult life, a trend that was unrelated to aortic mechanics. Substantial, progressive decreases in measures of wall viscosity (pressure wave attenuation coefficient and viscoelastic phase angle) from fetal to adult life followed the pattern observed for relative DNA (smooth muscle cell) content (per mg wet wt). Our findings suggest that accumulation of elastin per milligram wet weight contributes most to developmental changes in E(low), change in collagen cross-linking is the primary determinant of developmental changes in E(high), and cell accumulation contributes most to developmental changes in wall viscosity.

  12. Prerigor and postrigor changes in tenderness of ovine longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    A novel approach was used to measure the tenderness of prerigor ovine longissimus thoracis et lumborum by avoiding the confounding effects of heat-induced shortening resulting from cooking prerigor meat. The objective was to determine the tenderness of the muscle at the time of slaughter and to monitor changes in tenderness during rigor development and postmortem aging. Nine Romanov and 12 Finnsheep rams were slaughtered at 49.3 kg live weight. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum were removed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 72, or 336 h after exsanguination. Five of the eight sample times were represented in each carcass and all carcasses were sampled at 0, 12, and 24 h. Prerigor muscle samples (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h) were clamped between two metal plates before excision to prevent shortening. The samples were frozen at -30 degrees C then stored at -5 degrees C for 10 d to allow glycolysis to proceed to completion, and thus ultimate pH and complete rigor mortis were attained. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum was then cut into chops and cooked and shear force was determined. Sarcomere length decreased through 24 h postmortem, then increased slightly through 336 h postmortem. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were 5.1 kg at 0 and 3 h, increased to 8.3 kg from 3 to 9 h, and then declined to 3.1 kg from 24 to 336 h postmortem. These data imply that longissimus thoracis et lumborum at slaughter is intermediate in tenderness, rigor shortening toughens the meat, and proteolysis tenderizes the meat, resulting in more tender meat after 14 d of aging than at slaughter.

  13. Collagen fibril orientation in ovine and bovine leather affects strength: a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study.

    PubMed

    Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Cooper, Sue M; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2011-09-28

    There is a large difference in strength between ovine and bovine leather. The structure and arrangement of fibrous collagen in leather and the relationship between collagen structure and leather strength has until now been poorly understood. Synchrotron based SAXS is used to characterize the fibrous collagen structure in a series of ovine and bovine leathers and to relate it to tear strength. SAXS gives quantitative information on the amount of fibrous collagen, the orientation (direction and spread) of the collagen microfibrils, and the d-spacing of the collagen. The amount of collagen varies through the thickness of the leather from the grain to the corium, with a greater concentration of crystalline collagen measured toward the corium side. The orientation index (OI) is correlated strongly with strength in ovine leather and between ovine and bovine leathers. Stronger leather has the fibrils arranged mostly parallel to the plane of the leather surface (high OI), while weaker leather has more out-of-plane fibrils (low OI). With the measurement taken parallel to the animal's backbone, weak (19.9 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.422 (0.033), stronger (39.5 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.452 (0.033), and bovine leather with a strength of (61.5 N/mm) has an OI of 0.493 (0.016). The d-spacing profile through leather thickness also varies according to leather strength, with little variation being detected in weak ovine leather (average=64.3 (0.5) nm), but with strong ovine leather and bovine leather (which is even stronger) exhibiting a dip in d-spacing (from 64.5 nm at the edges dropping to 62 nm in the center). This work provides a clear understanding of a nanostructural characteristic of ovine and bovine leather that leads to differences in strength.

  14. The Corpus Callosum and Forensic Issues-An Overview.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    The corpus callosum is a large central white matter tract that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It permits placental mammals to have a more sophisticated interhemispheric integration of sensory cortices and allows communication between cortical and subcortical neurons. Search of the literature and the pathology archives at The University of Adelaide was undertaken to identify lesions and injuries within the corpus callosum that may have forensic significance. These include developmental/congenital lesions with agenesis/dysgenesis, vascular malformations, and lipomas; inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis; and acquired lesions involving trauma, neoplasia, demyelination, vascular conditions, infections, fat embolism, aging/dementia, and the effects of toxins. The finding of lesions within the corpus callosum should initiate careful examination of the adjacent brain and other organ systems for related phenomena as this may shed some light on the nature of the underlying condition, and also help to determine whether there are any forensic implications.

  15. Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent.

    PubMed

    Duggan, P S; Chambers, P A; Heritage, J; Forbes, J M

    2000-10-01

    To assess the likelihood that the bla gene present in a transgenic maize line may transfer from plant material to the microflora associated with animal feeds, we have examined the survival of free DNA in maize silage effluent, ovine rumen fluid and ovine saliva. Plasmid DNA that had previously been exposed to freshly sampled ovine saliva was capable of transforming competent Escherichia coli cells to ampicillin resistance even after 24 h, implying that DNA released from the diet could provide a source of transforming DNA in the oral cavity of sheep. Although target DNA sequences could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction from plasmid DNA after a 30-min incubation in silage effluent and rumen contents, only short term biological activity, lasting less than 1 min, was observed in these environments, as shown by transformation to antibiotic resistance. These experiments were performed under in vitro conditions; therefore further studies are needed to elucidate the biological significance of free DNA in the rumen and oral cavities of sheep and in silage effluent.

  16. Primary human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Chuan Aaron, Foo Song; Dawn, Chong Q. Q.; Kenneth, Chang T. E.; Hoe, Ng Wai; Yen, Soh Shui; Chee Kian, Tham

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary intracranial germinomas are a rare subset of intracranial tumors derived from mis-incorporated germ cells within the folding neural plate during embryogenesis. Though known to arise from midline structures in the central nervous system (CNS), occurrence within the corpus callosum is exceedingly rare. Case Description: We present a rare case of secreting primary intracranial germinoma with extensive intraventricular metastasis presenting as a multi-cystic butterfly lesion in the genu of the corpus callosum in a young boy. Conclusion: Intracranial germ cell tumors must be considered for any multi-cystic lesion arising from midline structures in the CNS in the preadult population. PMID:24233184

  17. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input.

  18. Agenesis of corpus callosum and frontotemporal dementia: a casual finding?

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Spadaro, Letteria; Marra, Angela; Balletta, Tina; Cammaroto, Simona; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-06-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of corpus callosum with a good neuropsychological profile. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the third most common cause of cortical dementia, and it is characterized by alterations in personality and social relationship, often associated with deficits in attention, abstraction, planning, and problem solving. Herein, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with FTD associated with primary AgCC. The possible "causal or casual" relationship between these 2 different conditions should be investigated in large prospective studies.

  19. Corpus-based identification and refinement of semantic classes.

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, A.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Habert, B.

    1997-01-01

    Medical Language Processing (MLP), especially in specific domains, requires fine-grained semantic lexica. We examine whether robust natural language processing tools used on a representative corpus of a domain help in building and refining a semantic categorization. We test this hypothesis with ZELLIG, a corpus analysis tool. The first clusters we obtain are consistent with a model of the domain, as found in the SNOMED nomenclature. They correspond to coarse-grained semantic categories, but isolate as well lexical idiosyncrasies belonging to the clinical sub-language. Moreover, they help categorize additional words. PMID:9357693

  20. Characterization of biomechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Keping; Pham, Thuy; Li, Kewei; Martin, Caitlin; He, Zhaoming; Sun, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a highly complex cardiac valve consisting of an annulus, anterior and posterior leaflets, chordae tendineae (chords) and two papillary muscles. The chordae tendineae mechanics play a pivotal role in proper MV function: the chords help maintain proper leaflet coaptation and rupture of the chordae tendineae due to disease or aging can lead to mitral valve insufficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral chordae tendineae. The human and ovine chordal specimens were categorized by insertion location (i.e., marginal, basal and strut) and leaflet type (i.e., anterior and posterior). The results show that human and ovine chords of differing types vary largely in size but do not have significantly different elastic and failure properties. The excess fibrous tissue layers surrounding the central core of human chords added thickness to the chords but did not contribute to the overall strength of the chords. In general, the thinner marginal chords were stiffer than the thicker basal and strut chords, and the anterior chords were stiffer and weaker than the posterior chords. The human chords of all types were significantly stiffer than the corresponding ovine chords and exhibited much lower failure strains. These findings can be explained by the diminished crimp pattern of collagen fibers of the human mitral chords observed histologically. Moreover, the mechanical testing data was modeled with the nonlinear hyperelastic Ogden strain energy function to facilitate accurate computational modeling of the human MV.

  1. Characterization of biomechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Keping; Pham, Thuy; Li, Kewei; Martin, Caitlin; He, Zhaoming; Sun, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a highly complex cardiac valve consisting of an annulus, anterior and posterior leaflets, chordae tendineae (chords) and two papillary muscles. The chordae tendineae mechanics play a pivotal role in proper MV function: the chords help maintain proper leaflet coaptation and rupture of the chordae tendineae due to disease or aging can lead to mitral valve insufficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral chordae tendineae. The human and ovine chordal specimens were categorized by insertion location (i.e., marginal, basal and strut) and leaflet type (i.e., anterior and posterior). The results show that human and ovine chords of differing types vary largely in size but do not have significantly different elastic and failure properties. The excess fibrous tissue layers surrounding the central core of human chords added thickness to the chords but did not contribute to the overall strength of the chords. In general, the thinner marginal chords were stiffer than the thicker basal and strut chords, and the anterior chords were stiffer and weaker than the posterior chords. The human chords of all types were significantly stiffer than the corresponding ovine chords and exhibited much lower failure strains. These findings can be explained by the diminished crimp pattern of collagen fibers of the human mitral chords observed histologically. Moreover, the mechanical testing data was modeled with the nonlinear hyperelastic Ogden strain energy function to facilitate accurate computational modeling of the human MV. PMID:27315372

  2. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  3. Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M S; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Bogers, A J J C; Hoerstrup, S P; Baaijens, F P T

    2013-08-01

    Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models. PMID:23849135

  4. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future.

  5. Discovery and Genomic Characterization of a Novel Ovine Partetravirus and a New Genotype of Bovine Partetravirus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Herman; Tsoi, Hoi-Wah; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Xin-Chun; Liu, Haiying; Zhou, Boping; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively). In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae. PMID:21980506

  6. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

  7. Comparison of virulence of ovine respiratory mycoplasmas in the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Buddle, B M; Herceg, M; Davies, D H

    1984-08-01

    The virulence of isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini from pneumonic and unaffected ovine lungs was compared in a mouse mammary gland model. The isolates varied in their ability to induce a neutrophilic response in the mammary gland. A moderate to severe form of mastitis was induced by 3 M. ovipneumoniae isolates recovered from pneumonic lungs, while the remaining M. ovipneumoniae isolates from pneumonic lungs and those from unaffected lungs induced a very mild histopathological response. The severity of the mastitis could not be increased by the simultaneous inoculation of a mixture of 5 mycoplasma isolates. Mycoplasma arginini isolates induced only a very mild histopathological response despite having been isolated from pneumonic lungs. The finding that the 3 most virulent M. ovipneumoniae isolates were initially recovered from pneumonic ovine lungs suggested that these virulent isolates may contribute to ovine pneumonia. However, the isolation of M. ovipneumoniae from pneumonic ovine lungs does not necessarily imply that these organisms are the causal agents, since M. ovipneumoniae isolates may vary in virulence.

  8. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA... or ovine meat from animals that have been born, raised, and slaughtered in Uruguay. (b) Foot-and... bovines or sheep that originate from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been present during...

  9. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  10. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Muge, Gabriel R. S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  11. Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secret...

  12. Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2),carried by sheep,causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide,while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1)...

  13. Sensory and Microbiological Evaluation of Traditional Ovine Ricotta Cheese in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Isabella; Cardamone, Cinzia; Fiorenza, Gerlando; Macaluso, Giusi; Arcuri, Luigi; Miraglia, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated). The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture). Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese) guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries. PMID:27800345

  14. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Muge, Gabriel R S; Veras, Adonney A O; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G M; Guimarães, Luís C; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  15. Phylogenetic clades of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family that infects sheep. OPPV-induced clinical disease progresses slowly over time and manifests primarily in the lungs and central nervous system. Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory distress, and inevitably ...

  16. [The gene ontology and electro localization of ovine skin derived EST-SSR markers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun-Bao; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yu, Peng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Ban, Qian; Liang, Yao-Wei; Zheng, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract: In order to study the potential gene function of ovine EST-SSR markers, nine original EST of Ovine Skin Derived polymorphic EST-SSR loci, which were developed in an early study by our lab, were ontology annotated and Electro localized. The results revealed that the original ESTs of the six loci had high homology with known genes and three of them probably played an important role in wool traits. Compared with its cDNA library, 8 loci were located on chromosomes of cattle. The homology of chromosomes between cattle and sheep was estimated based on the similarity coefficients calculated by positioning markers. Additionally, NJ clustering tree was establishedto serve for electro localization of ovine EST-SSR markers. Finally, 8 EST-SSR markers were successfully positioned on ovine chromosomes. The results from this study not only provide references for further studies on genetic mapping, in silico cloning of key genes for wool traits, but also are helpful to the researchs of chromosome evolution in animal.

  17. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  18. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future. PMID:26247934

  19. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

  20. Development of an in vivo system to measure antibody-blocking of ovine herpesvirus 2 entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), has never been propagated in vitro. Thus, an alternative to in vitro virus neutralization is needed to assess neutralizing antibody activity to OvHV-2 in SA-MCF vaccine development. Herein we ev...

  1. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  2. Instability and apparent lack of metabolism of phomopsin A during incubation with ovine rumen fluid.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P

    1988-06-01

    To investigate the stability and possible metabolism of phomopsin A in rumen fluid, phomopsin A was incubated in ovine rumen fluid - buffer mixtures for 24 h. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of extracted incubation mixtures demonstrated that although phomopsin A was degraded, metabolism by rumen microorganisms appears not to be important during 24 h incubation.

  3. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  4. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment.

  5. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

  6. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  7. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  8. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  9. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging. PMID:26573426

  10. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  11. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  12. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Althaf; Manjunatha, C M; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography.

  14. Commissurotomy of the Corpus Callosum and the Remedial Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Elaine

    Testimony presented at a congressional hearing on illiteracy (March 1986) indicated that good readers use their myelinated corpus callosum fibers (which connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain) at millisecond speeds to coordinate the two brain hemispheres. Students taught using the whole-word recognition method (also called the…

  15. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  17. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  18. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  19. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  20. Corpus Consultation and Advanced Learners' Writing Skills in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela; O'Sullivan, Ide

    2004-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment of language learning and teaching, electronic literacies have an increasingly important role to play. While much research on new literacies focuses on the World Wide Web, the aim in this study is to investigate the importance of corpus consultation as a new type of literacy which is of particular relevance in…

  1. Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

  2. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  3. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  4. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  5. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  6. A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

  7. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  8. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  9. Separating Fact and Fiction: The Real Story of Corpus Use in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates uses of corpora in language learning ("data-driven learning") through analysis of a 600K-word corpus of empirical research papers in the field. The corpus can tell us much--the authors and the countries the studies are conducted in, the types of publication, and so on. The corpus investigation itself starts with…

  10. Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon

    2002-01-01

    This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

  11. Integrating Corpus Work into Secondary Education: From Data-Driven Learning to Needs-Driven Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into English-language classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language…

  12. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  13. The Contribution of the Corpus Callosum to Language Lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Hinkley, Leighton B.N.; Marco, Elysa J.; Brown, Ethan G.; Bukshpun, Polina; Gold, Jacquelyn; Hill, Susanna; Findlay, Anne M.; Jeremy, Rita J.; Wakahiro, Mari L.; Barkovich, A. James; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    The development of hemispheric lateralization for language is poorly understood. In one hypothesis, early asymmetric gene expression assigns language to the left hemisphere. In an alternate view, language is represented a priori in both hemispheres and lateralization emerges via cross-hemispheric communication through the corpus callosum. To address this second hypothesis, we capitalized on the high temporal and spatial resolution of magnetoencephalographic imaging to measure cortical activity during language processing, speech preparation, and speech execution in 25 participants with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and 21 matched neurotypical individuals. In contrast to strongly lateralized left hemisphere activations for language in neurotypical controls, participants with complete or partial AgCC exhibited bilateral hemispheric activations in both auditory or visually driven language tasks, with complete AgCC participants showing significantly more right hemisphere activations than controls or than individuals with partial AgCC. In AgCC individuals, language laterality positively correlated with verbal IQ. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum helps to drive language lateralization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The role that corpus callosum development has on the hemispheric specialization of language is poorly understood. Here, we used magnetoencephalographic imaging during linguistic tests (verb generation, picture naming) to test for hemispheric dominance in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and found reduced laterality (i.e., greater likelihood of bilaterality or right hemisphere dominance) in this cohort compared with controls, especially in patients with complete agenesis. Laterality was positively correlated with behavioral measures of verbal intelligence. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the callosum aids in functional specialization throughout neural development and that the loss of this mechanism

  14. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  15. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  16. Isolation and morphological characterization of ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yunyun; Tao, Li; Zhao, Siriguleng; Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Dongjun; Liu, Pengxia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell populations for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of utmost importance to MSC research is identification of MSC sources that are easily obtainable and stable. Several studies have shown that MSCs can be isolated from amniotic fluid. The sheep is one of the main types of farm animal, and it has many biophysical and biochemical similarities to humans. Here, we obtained MSCs from ovine amniotic fluid and determined the expansion capacity, surface and intracellular marker expression, karyotype, and multilineage differentiation ability of these ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (oAF-MSCs). Moreover, expression levels of differentiation markers were measured using reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Our phenotypic analysis shows that the isolated oAF-MSCs are indeed MSCs. PMID:26616638

  17. Development of an ovine model of occlusive arterial injury for the evaluation of endovascular interventions.

    PubMed

    Reva, Viktor A; Morrison, Jonathan J; Denisov, Alexey V; Seleznev, Alexey B; Zhabin, Anatoly V; Bozhedomova, Elvira R; Samokhvalov, Igor M

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular intervention for occlusive arterial trauma is becoming more common in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to present an ovine model of extremity arterial injury for use in future endovascular translational research. Animals under general anesthesia had their left superficial femoral artery exposed, which was bluntly injured over a 2-cm section using a hemostat and injection of air. Occlusion was confirmed on angiography and the flow characteristics measured by ultrasonography. Of five animals enrolled, four occluding lesions were created successfully. Post injury, there was a significant reduction in the median (interquartile range) systolic velocity (cm/sec) on the left (injury) compared to the right (control) side (3.5 (0-16.5) vs. 29 (23.8-43.3); p < 0.001). The ovine superficial femoral artery can be used to consistently produce an occlusive lesion that is suitable for use in the future evaluation of endovascular trauma interventions. PMID:26546598

  18. A specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) using synthetic ovine CRF. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Murakami, K.; Ohno, N.; Kageyama, J.; Aoki, Y.; Takahara, J.; Ota, Z.

    1983-02-28

    This newly developed specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) had a sensitivity range of 25 pg/tube to 4 ng/tube. Intra and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 9.8%, respectively. Rat median eminence extracts showed a parallel dose response curve with synthetic ovine CRF and a significant cross reaction was not evident with other tested neuropeptides. The highest mean levels of CRF were found in the median eminence (6.61 ng/mg proparaventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and ventromedial nucleus. The immunoreactive CRF of the rat medial basal hypothalamus coeluted with bioassayable CRF and with iodinated CRF on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results indicate that rat hypothalamus contains a CRF similar to ovine CRF.

  19. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    PubMed

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

  20. The permeation of nalmefene hydrochloride across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Gani; Gao, Yongliang; Nie, Shufang; Pan, Weisan

    2006-12-01

    The permeability of nalmefene hydrochloride (NH) across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa was investigated in vitro. Five different regions of ovine nasal mucosa (superior turbinate mucosa, middle turbinate mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, posterior septum mucosa, and anterior septum mucosa) were studied. The results showed that the permeability coefficients of NH through different regions of nasal mucosa were different, and the suitable regions for the absorption of NH were the middle turbinate mucosa, the posterior septum mucosa and the superior turbinate. At the same time, the middle turbinate mucosa was the largest region among the five regions, thus it was the main absorption region for NH. The high uniformity of the middle turbinate mucosa also made it the most suitable model for the permeation of NH in vitro.

  1. Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

  2. Implicit causality bias in English: a corpus of 300 verbs.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Evelyn C; Garnham, Alan; Manouilidou, Christina

    2011-03-01

    This study provides implicit verb causality norms for a corpus of 305 English verbs. A web-based sentence completion study was conducted, with 96 respondents completing fragments such as "John liked Mary because..." The resulting bias scores are provided as supplementary material in the Psychonomic Society Archive, where we also present lexical and semantic verb features, such as the frequency, semantic class and emotional valence. Our results replicate those of previous studies with much smaller numbers of verbs and respondents. Novel effects of gender and its interaction with verb valence illustrate the type of issues that can be investigated using stable norms for a large number of verbs. The corpus will facilitate future studies in a range of areas, including psycholinguistics and social psychology.

  3. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  4. Cortical thickness in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Beaulé, Vincent; Tremblay, Sara; Lafleur, Louis-Philippe; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2015-10-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation that can occur in isolation or in association with other neurological conditions. Although the behavioral manifestations associated with AgCC have been widely studied, the effects of complete absence of the corpus callosum (CC) on cerebral cortex anatomy are still not completely understood. In this study, cortical thickness in adults with complete AgCC was compared to a group of healthy controls. Results showed highly variable patterns of cortical thickness in AgCC individuals, with few areas showing significant and consistent alterations including primary visual cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex. These results suggest relatively limited effects of AgCC on cortical morphology, which are mostly restricted to primary sensory and motor areas.

  5. Conformational changes of ovine α-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    α-1-Proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human α-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine α-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this α-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( Kα) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine α-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human α-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that α-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in α-helical content and a concomitant increase in β-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the α-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  6. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  7. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Kishan Andre; Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O'Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access. PMID:27285947

  8. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  9. Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar

    2014-07-01

    Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported.

  10. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Kishan Andre; Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O'Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access.

  11. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O’Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5–0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0–0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access. PMID:27285947

  12. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  13. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  14. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  15. [Wine and women: an overlooked passage in the Hippocratic corpus].

    PubMed

    Villard, L

    1997-01-01

    A passage taken from the Hippocratic Corpus states that at the beginning of pregnancy women say that they do not like the taste of wine. This passage should be added to evidence about wine drinking by women in Classical Greece. It shows that, contrary to previous opinion, women drank wine when they were in good health and corresponds with the notion that it was often prescribed by physicians in order to cure illness.

  16. Thickness profile generation for the corpus callosum using Laplace's equation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Christopher L; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David C; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The corpus callosum facilitates communication between the cerebral hemispheres. Morphological abnormalities of the corpus callosum have been identified in numerous psychiatric and neurological disorders. To quantitatively analyze the thickness profile of the corpus callosum, we adapted an automatic thickness measurement method, which was originally used on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cerebral cortex (Hutton et al. [2008]: NeuroImage 40:1701-10; Jones et al. [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 11:12-32; Schmitt and Böhme [2002]: NeuroImage 16:1103-9; Yezzi and Prince [2003]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 22:1332-9), to MR images of the corpus callosum. The thickness model was derived by computing a solution to Laplace's equation evaluated on callosal voxels. The streamlines from this solution form non-overlapping, cross-sectional contours the lengths of which are modeled as the callosal thickness. Apart from the semi-automated segmentation and endpoint selection procedures, the method is fully automated, robust, and reproducible. We compared the Laplace method with the orthogonal projection technique previously published (Walterfang et al. [2009a]: Psych Res Neuroimaging 173:77-82; Walterfang et al. [2008a]: Br J Psychiatry 192:429-34; Walterfang et al. [2008b]: Schizophr Res 103:1-10) on a cohort of 296 subjects, composed of 86 patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSZ), 110 individuals with first-episode psychosis, 100 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR; 27 of whom later developed psychosis, UHR-P, and 73 who did not, UHR-NP), and 55 control subjects (CTL). We report similar patterns of statistically significant differences in regional callosal thickness with respect to the comparisons CSZ vs. CTL, UHR vs. CTL, UHR-P vs. UHR-NP, and UHR vs. CTL.

  17. Comparison of biaxial mechanical properties of coronary sinus tissues from porcine, ovine and aged human species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed a multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, less SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models.

  18. Cellular differentiation and proliferation in the ovine lung during gestation and early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Martineau, H M; Dagleish, M P; Cousens, C; Underwood, C; Forbes, V; Palmarini, M; Griffiths, D J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation in specific anatomical regions of the ovine lung during prenatal and postnatal development. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify ciliated epithelial cells, Clara cells, neuroepithelial bodies and type II pneumocytes in the lungs of preterm (67, 127 and 140 days of gestation), full-term (147 days) and postnatal (9, 16 and 91 days old) lambs. Differentiation of ciliated epithelial cells was seen at 67 days of gestation and at term for Clara cells. Neuroepithelial bodies were first detected at 127 days of gestation. From 16 to 91 days of age there was a significant (P <0.05) increase in beta-tubulin (present in ciliated epithelial cells) and Clara cell protein (present in Clara cells) in multiple regions of the lung. Detection of Ki67, a marker of proliferation, in preterm lambs showed a reduction in proliferation index in multiple anatomical regions of the lung between 70 days of gestation and term. Cell proliferation increased following parturition, and then decreased between 16 and 91 days of age, with the largest reduction occurring in the alveolar compartment. Knowledge of which cells are present at specific times of lung development provides valuable information on the anatomy of the ovine lung, improving its use as a model for ovine and human neonatal disease. In addition, the antibodies used here will be valuable for future studies requiring the identification and quantification of respiratory epithelial cell phenotypes in the sheep lung.

  19. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  20. Effect of leptin on in vitro development of ovine preantral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Kamalamma, P; Kona, S S R; Praveen Chakravarthi, V; Siva Kumar, A V N; Punyakumari, B; Rao, V H

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human or ovine leptin on in vitro culture of preantral follicles (PFs) isolated from sheep ovaries was investigated. Among the 12 different concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) of human leptin tested, proportion of PFs exhibiting growth, mean increase in diameter, antrum formation, and maturation of the oocytes to MII stage were the best in 10 ng/mL. Culture of sheep ovarian PFs in TCM 199 supplemented with 10 ng/mL of human or ovine leptin FSH (2.5 μg/mL), thyroxine (1 μg/mL), insulinlike growth factor I (10 ng/mL), and GH (1 mIU/mL) resulted in significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater average increase in diameter (11 and 9 vs. 6 μm), better proportions of PFs exhibiting growth (66% and 58% vs. 48%), antrum formation (51% and 51% vs. 34%), and maturation of oocytes to MII stage (24% and 22% vs. 7%) than the control medium. It is concluded that (1) the optimum dose of leptin for the growth of sheep PFs in vitro was 10 ng/mL, (2) human or ovine leptin supported similar development in vitro of PFs in sheep, (3) inclusion of leptin along with FSH, thyroxine, insulinlike growth factor I, and GH resulted in only a marginal further improvements in in vitro development of sheep PFs'.

  1. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  2. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation.

  3. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    PubMed

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-08-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antibacterial agents may account for some animal variability in resistance to pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis, and antibacterial agents can also be used for characterizing ruminal pyrrolizidine alkaloid-biotransforming microflora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial agents on biotransformation of a predominant S. jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloid, jacobine, in ovine ruminal contents. Ovine ruminal jacobine biotransformation was tested in vitro with 20 independent antibacterial agents. Low amounts of rifampin and erythromycin prevented jacobine biotransformation. Chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, penicillin G, and tetracycline were slightly less effective at inhibiting jacobine biotransformation. Bacitracin, crystal violet, kanamycin, and neomycin were moderately inhibitory against jacobine biotransformation. Brilliant green, chloramphenicol, gramicidin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B SO4, sodium azide, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin had little to no effect on jacobine biotransformation. The antibiotics that were most effective at inhibiting biotransformation were those that are active against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, gram-positive bacteria are most likely critical members of the jacobine-biotransforming consortia.

  4. CT-based geometry analysis and finite element models of the human and ovine bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Tawhai, Merryn H; Hunter, Peter; Tschirren, Juerg; Reinhardt, Joseph; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2004-12-01

    The interpretation of experimental results from functional medical imaging is complicated by intersubject and interspecies differences in airway geometry. The application of computational models in understanding the significance of these differences requires methods for generation of subject-specific geometric models of the bronchial airway tree. In the current study, curvilinear airway centerline and diameter models have been fitted to human and ovine bronchial trees using detailed data segmented from multidetector row X-ray-computed tomography scans. The trees have been extended to model the entire conducting airway system by using a volume-filling algorithm to generate airway centerline locations within detailed volume descriptions of the lungs or lobes. Analysis of the geometry of the scan-based and model-based airways has verified their consistency with measures from previous anatomic studies and has provided new anatomic data for the ovine bronchial tree. With the use of an identical parameter set, the volume-filling algorithm has produced airway trees with branching asymmetry appropriate for the human and ovine lung, demonstrating the dependence of the method on the shape of the lung or lobe volume. The modeling approach that has been developed can be applied to any level of detail of the airway tree and into any volume shape for the lung; hence it can be used directly for different individuals or animals and for any number of scan-based airways. The resulting models are subject-specific computational meshes with anatomically consistent geometry, suitable for application in simulation studies.

  5. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with decreased birth weight, tailing weight, weaning weight and pre-weaning growth rate; and increased post-weaning growth rate in male lambs. In male lambs, the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with an increased shoulder yield and proportion shoulder yield. No associations with growth or carcass traits were detected for the presence (or absence) of the other variants. These results suggest that variation in ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  6. Culture of ovine embryos in the absence of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Russler-Long, J A; Dickey, J F; Richardson, M E; Ivey, K W

    1991-02-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a relatively impure protein, is routinely used as a component of embryo culture media. Since media containing BSA are chemically undefined, it would be desirable to replace BSA with substitutes of similar activity which are either chemically better defined and/or better standardized than BSA. Two commercial products, Ultroser((R)) G (USG) and Solcoseryl((R)) (SOL), were evaluated as replacements for BSA in culture with respect to the development of ovine embryos in vitro. A total of 126 late 8-cell and early 16-cell embryos were distributed among modified Brinster's medium for ovum culture (BMOC-2) containing either 1.5% BSA, 2.0% USG or 2.0% SOL. All three culture media supported development of ovine embryos. Results indicate that 8- and 16-cell embryos will develop into blastocysts in a BSA-free medium containing either USG or SOL. A higher number of embryos developed into blastocysts in media containing BSA than in media containing USG or SOL, and more blastocysts hatched in media containing BSA. Although the overall degree of embryonic development was more advanced in BSA-supplemented media, the concentrations of USG and SOL that were used in this study may not have been optimal for ovine embryo culture. PMID:16726908

  7. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  8. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  9. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  10. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized.

  11. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

  12. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized. PMID:129268

  13. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  14. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  15. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  16. A Study of Applicability of SNP Chips Developed for Bovine and Ovine Species to Whole-Genome Analysis of Reindeer Rangifer tarandus.

    PubMed

    Kharzinova, Veronika R; Sermyagin, Alexander A; Gladyr, Elena A; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Brem, Gottfried; Zinovieva, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus.

  17. A Study of Applicability of SNP Chips Developed for Bovine and Ovine Species to Whole-Genome Analysis of Reindeer Rangifer tarandus.

    PubMed

    Kharzinova, Veronika R; Sermyagin, Alexander A; Gladyr, Elena A; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Brem, Gottfried; Zinovieva, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus. PMID:26447215

  18. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M.

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and

  20. Quantitative analysis of [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma by capillary liquid chromatography-nanospray ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wan, Haibao; Umstot, Edward S; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2004-04-15

    The synthetic opioid peptide analog Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA; [Dmt= 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) is a highly potent and selective mu opioid-receptor agonist. A very sensitive and robust capillary liquid chromatography/nanospray ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry method has been developed to quantify [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma, using deuterated [Dmt(1)]DALDA as the internal standard. The standard MS/MS spectra of d(0)- and d(5)-[Dmt(1)]DALDA were obtained, and the collision energy was experimentally optimized to 25%. The product ion [ M + 2H-NH(3)](2+) (m/z 312.2) was used to identify and to quantify the synthetic opioid peptide analog in ovine plasma samples. The MS/MS detection sensitivity for [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 625 amol. A calibration curve was constructed, and quantitative analysis was performed on a series of ovine plasma samples.

  1. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  2. Celsus and the Hippocratic Corpus: the originality of a 'plagiarist".

    PubMed

    Pardon, Muriel

    2005-01-01

    A study of all the passages connected to lippitudo and ophthalmia--Latin compilers used these two terms to refer to one and the same eye disease--shows that while Celsus claims to be a follower of Hippocrates, he does not mention some of the explanations which appear in his main sources. He both clarifies and completes the prescriptions of the 'Father of Medicine'. It can therefore be said that the De Medicina is a descendant of the Hippocratic Corpus in the same way as La Fontaine's Fables are a descendant of Aesop's. PMID:17144085

  3. In vivo implant fixation of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) is theoretically suitable as a material for use in hip prostheses, offering excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and the absence of metal ions. To evaluate in vivo fixation methods of CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in bone, we examined radiographic and histological results for cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model with implantation up to 52 weeks. CFR/PEEK cups and stems with rough-textured surfaces plus hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for cementless fixation and CFR/PEEK cups and stems without HA coating for cement fixation were manufactured based on ovine computed tomography (CT) data. Unilateral total hip arthroplasty was performed using cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses. Five cementless cups and stems and six cemented cups and stems were evaluated. On the femoral side, all cementless stems demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation and all cemented stems demonstrated stable fixation without any gaps at both the bone-cement and cement-stem interfaces. All cementless cases and four of the six cemented cases showed minimal stress shielding. On the acetabular side, two of the five cementless cups demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation. Our results suggest that both cementless and cemented CFR/PEEK stems work well for fixation. Cup fixation may be difficult for both cementless and cemented types in this ovine model, but bone ongrowth fixation on the cup was first seen in two cementless cases. Cementless fixation can be achieved using HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants, even under load-bearing conditions.

  4. High levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy modify the development of ovine-bovine interspecies nuclear transferred embryos.

    PubMed

    Hua, Song; Lu, Chenglong; Song, Yakun; Li, Ruizhe; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of mitochondrial heteroplasmy on embryo development, cloned embryos produced using bovine oocytes as the recipient cytoplasm and ovine granulosa cells as the donor nuclei were complemented with 2pL mitochondrial suspension isolated from ovine (BOOMT embryos) or bovine (BOBMT embryos) granulosa cells; cloned embryos without mitochondrial injection served as the control group (BO embryos). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and sodium bisulfite genomic sequencing were used to analyse mRNA and methylation levels of pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2) and mitochondrial genes (TFAM, POLRMT) in the early developmental stages of cloned embryos. The number of mitochondrial DNA copies in 2pL ovine-derived and bovine-derived mitochondrial suspensions was 960±110 and 1000±120, respectively. The blastocyst formation rates were similar in BOBMT and BO embryos (P>0.05), but significantly higher than in BOOMT embryos (P<0.01). Expression of OCT4 and SOX2, as detected by RT-qPCR, decreased significantly in BOOMT embryos (P<0.05), whereas the expression of TFAM and POLRMT increased significantly, compared with expression in BOOMT and BO embryos (P<0.05). In addition, methylation levels of OCT4 and SOX2 were significantly greater (P<0.05), whereas those of TFAM and POLRMT were significantly lower (P<0.01), in BOOMT embryos compared with BOBMT and BO embryos. Together, the results of the present study suggest that the degree of mitochondrial heteroplasmy may affect embryonic development.

  5. PTEN expression in ovine granulosa cells increases during terminal follicular growth.

    PubMed

    Froment, Pascal; Bontoux, Martine; Pisselet, Claudine; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2005-04-25

    In the present paper, we have studied the expression of the Phosphatase and TENsin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and its putative biological role in the sheep ovary. We found by Northern-blot, immunohistochemistry and immunoblot that PTEN is highly expressed in granulosa cells from large differentiated follicles (LF) in comparison with small proliferating follicles (SF) (P < 0.001), with no clear effect of follicle quality. Moreover, the PTEN lipid phosphatase activity is also higher in LF than in SF (P < 0.01). In contrast, levels of the phosphorylated form of AKT (pAKT) are lower in LF than in SF (P < 0.0001). IGF-I and insulin but not FSH, LH or forskolin are able to stimulate the expression of PTEN mRNA (P < 0.001) and protein by ovine granulosa cells after 48 h of culture in vitro. An IGF-1 time course analysis showed that expression of PTEN protein appeared after 12h of culture, concomitant with the fall of the pAKT levels, which peaked after 6h of stimulation with IGF-I. Moreover, transfection experiments showed that overexpression of PTEN in ovine granulosa cells induced a decrease and an increase in E2F and p27 promoter activity, respectively (P < 0.05). Overall, our present data show for the first time that the expression of PTEN increases during terminal follicular growth. This increase, that might be induced by IGF-I but not FSH, would participate in the proliferation/differentiation transition of ovine granulosa cells in differentiating follicles.

  6. Ovine tendon collagen: Extraction, characterisation and fabrication of thin films for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, M B; Lokanathan, Y; Aminuddin, B S; Ruszymah, B H I; Chowdhury, S R

    2016-11-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications. PMID:27524008

  7. Ovine tendon collagen: Extraction, characterisation and fabrication of thin films for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, M B; Lokanathan, Y; Aminuddin, B S; Ruszymah, B H I; Chowdhury, S R

    2016-11-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Ovine tracheal muscle contraction in vitro: inhibition by calcium channel blockers gallopamil and verapamil.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, J; Chapman, G A; Abraham, W M; Ahmed, T

    1993-01-01

    We compared the inhibitory effects of calcium channel blockers, gallopamil and verapamil on acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contractions of ovine tracheal muscle in vitro. Adult sheep were sacrificed and tracheal strips were obtained by cutting the single tracheal rings from the mid-trachea. Tracheal strips were suspended in Krebs-Henseleit solution and isometric tension measured upon stimulation with cumulative doses of Ach (10(-7) to 10(-4) M) without and after pretreatment with gallopamil (10(-7) to 10(-6) M) or verapamil (10(-6) to 10(-5) M). In untreated tissues, the mean concentration of Ach required to produce 50% of maximal response (EC50) was 4.3 x 10(-6) M Ach. Both gallopamil and verapamil inhibited the Ach-induced contractions of ovine tracheal smooth muscle, by shifting the dose-response curves to Ach to the right. EC50 Ach for gallopamil (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) was 2.6 x 10(-5) and 5.2 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Dose ratio defined as postantagonist EC50 Ach/control EC50 Ach, was 7.7 for gallopamil and 2.0 for verapamil. Thus, the inhibitory effect of gallopamil was approximately 4-fold more potent than that of verapamil. Gallopamil was 17-fold more potent than verapamil in relaxing precontracted tracheal strips. The dose of calcium antagonists required to produce 25% relaxation (EC25) of tracheal strips precontracted with 10(-4) Ach was 3.7 x 10(-5) M for verapamil and 2.2 x 10(-6) M for gallopamil. These results indicate that gallopamil is effective against Ach-induced contractions of ovine trachealis muscles, and is more potent than verapamil. PMID:8469817

  9. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image.

    PubMed

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2015-02-01

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma.

  10. The history of nephrology in the Talmudic corpus.

    PubMed

    Dvorjetski, Estée

    2002-07-01

    The kidneys, the bladder and nephrology in general were discussed in the Talmudic literature from their anatomical, pathological and philological aspects. The Sages' deliberations were based on the Biblical texts. The characteristic phraseology of the scriptures uses the kidneys as symbols of the human emotions, contrary to the heart, which is regarded as the location of wisdom. The kidney is considered to be the individual's seat of their deepest desires--perhaps because it is an "internal" organ, well hidden, surrounded by a capsule and by a layer of perinephric fat. The Talmudic corpus considers the kidneys to be the origin of secret counsels--"the kidneys advise". An injury to the kidneys is used symbolically as an example of a cruel and serious injury. The sages were concerned with nephrological problems such as a diseased kidney of small size, fluid and pus in the kidney, injuries, perforations and more. Fascinating advice is given regarding micturition, its timing, characteristics and significance. The Halakhah is concerned with the kidneys during the examination of an animal after slaughter for the fitness for its ritual consumption. The paper presents various nephrological diseases from the Talmudic corpus. Among them are, for example, "Tzemirtha"--urolithiasis; "Hydrakon"--hydronephrosis; "Suskhinta"--urinary retention; "Tzinit"--podagra, gout, and "Yerakon"--icterus. A survey of some Talmudic personalities will exemplify the existence of these conditions.

  11. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders׳ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  12. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Roger L.; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders’ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  13. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    PubMed

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis.

  14. A computerized approach for morphological analysis of the corpus callosum

    SciTech Connect

    Davatzikos, C.; Vaillant, M.; Letovsky, S.; Bryan, R.N.; Prince, J.L.; Resnick, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosum is presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairach space using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of this transformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape with respect to the Talairach atlas, which is treated as a standard. In particular, a deformation function measures the enlargement/shrinkage associated with this elastic deformation. Intersubject comparisons are made by comparing deformation functions. This technique was applied to eight male and eight female subjects. Based on the average deformation functions of each group, the posterior region of the female corpus callosum was found to be larger than its corresponding region in the males. The average callosal shape of each group was also found, demonstrating visually the callosal shape differences between the two groups in this sample. The proposed methodology utilizes the full resolution of the data, rather than relying on global descriptions such as area measurements. The application of this methodology to an elderly group indicated sex-related differences in the callosal shape and size. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  15. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  16. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, E.; Avia, M.; Rangel, G.; de Molina, A.; Alejo, A.; Sevilla, N.

    2016-01-01

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. PMID:26739058

  17. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  18. An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

  19. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

  20. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  1. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  2. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  3. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  4. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  5. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  6. A Corpus-Based Study on English Prepositions of Place, "In" and "On"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjan, Asmeza; Abdullah, Noor Hayati; Roslim, Norwati

    2013-01-01

    This corpus-based study examined the usage, mastery and developmental pattern (Norwati, 2004) of English prepositions of place, "in" and "on" across three different academic levels namely Form 4, Form 5 and College students. The Malaysian Corpus of Students Argumentative Writing (MCSAW) was used as the source of data in…

  7. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  8. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  9. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  10. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  11. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  12. Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…

  13. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  14. Linking Adverbials in First-Year Korean University EFL Learners' Writing: A Corpus-Informed Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Myung-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and usage patterns of linking adverbials in Korean students' essay writing in comparison with native English writing. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 105 essays that were produced by first-year university students in Korea. The control corpus was taken from the American LOCNESS…

  15. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  16. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  17. Automated segmentation of the corpus callosum in midsagittal brain magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Huh, Shin; Ketter, Terence A.; Unser, Michael A.

    2000-04-01

    We propose a new algorithm to find the corpus callosum automatically from midsagittal brain MR (magnetic resonance) images using the statistical characteristics and shape information of the corpus callosum. We first extract regions satisfying the statistical characteristics (gray level distributions) of the corpus callosum that have relatively high intensity values. Then we try to find a region matching the shape information of the corpus callosum. In order to match the shape information, we propose a new directed window region growing algorithm instead of using conventional contour matching. An innovative feature of the algorithm is that we adaptively relax the statistical requirement until we find a region matching the shape information. After the initial segmentation, a directed border path pruning algorithm is proposed in order to remove some undesired artifacts, especially on the top of the corpus callosum. The proposed algorithm was applied to over 120 images and provided promising results.

  18. Lesions of the corpus callosum and other commissural fibers: diffusion tensor studies.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Christopher G; Cauley, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the brain, connecting the 2 hemispheres. The functions of the corpus callosum are many and varied, and lesions frequently cause only subtle clinical findings. The range of diseases that can affect the corpus callosum is vast and includes all potential white matter disease. The distribution of lesions in the corpus callosum is disease specific in only a few entities such as Susac syndrome and Marchiafava-Bignami disease. Group studies have found significant differences of diffusivity metrics in the corpus callosum in preterm infants, patients suffering seizure activity, and patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Given the challenges that multiple orientation of fibers within the callosum presents, advanced postprocessing methods may be required to reveal ultrastructural disease.

  19. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  20. Effect of long term administration of ovine prolactin on hypothalamic-pituitary testicular axis in rat.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, R; Falaschi, P; Rocco, A; Iellamo, R; Manente, L; Motta, M; Frajese, G

    1983-05-01

    The effect of hyperprolactinaemia on testicular morphology and on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was studied in adult male Wistar rats. Animals received ovine prolactin (oPRL) 200 micrograms twice daily s.c.) for 24 and 36 days and were killed by exanguination. Blood was collected for hormonal determinations and sex accessory glands were removed for histological studies. Circulating testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels showed a significant reduction after 36 days of treatment whereas plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were unchanged in all animals. No macroscopic or light microscopic histological modifications were observed in the testes. The present results, while excluding a direct effect of hyperprolactinaemia on seminiferous tubules, suggest that LH suppression is the consequence of a central effect of the ovine PRL long-term administration. The increased DA turnover in the hypothalamus suggested as inhibitory on GnRH neurons could account for this effect. The reduction of T levels seems to be mediated by the LH suppression, even though a direct effect of oPRL on Leydig cell receptors could be hypothesized.

  1. Field isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae exhibit distinct cytopathic effects in ovine tracheal organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; DeBey, M C; Niyo, Y; Andrews, J J; Kaeberle, M L

    1998-02-01

    Ovine tracheal ring explants were infected with four different Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and one M. arginini field isolate and their ability to induce cytopathic effects was tested by measuring ciliary activity and intracellular calmodulin release. Infected tracheal rings showed significantly decreased ciliary activity as compared to the non-infected control rings. There were, however, marked differences between isolates in the onset and severity of the effects which correlated with their ability to produce hydrogen peroxide. Infected tracheal rings released more calmodulin than the non-infected controls. The amount of calmodulin released also varied between isolates, and somewhat reflected the degree of loss of ciliary activity in the corresponding rings induced by the different isolates. Light and electron microscopic examinations of infected tracheal rings revealed disorganisation and sloughing of the epithelium, and association of mycoplasmas only with the cilia. Following repeated in vitro passages, the organisms had reduced ability to inhibit ciliary activity which correlated with decreased hydrogen peroxide production. Addition of catalase to the organ cultures delayed loss of ciliary activity. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced ciliostasis in ovine tracheal ring explants which correlated with hydrogen peroxide production. Furthermore, these M. ovipneumoniae-induced injuries to respiratory epithelial cells could contribute to the role that this organism may play in sheep respiratory disease.

  2. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior.

  3. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  4. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  5. Therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid on experimental osteoarthrosis of ovine temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Lee, B J; Yoon, J; Seo, K M; Park, J H; Lee, J W; Cho, E S; Hong, J J; Lee, Y S; Park, J H

    2001-10-01

    A symptomatic relief by hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 3.5 x 10(6)), which is synthesized by Streptococcus spp, was investigated in experimental ovine osteoarthrosis. Bilateral osteoarthrosis (OA) of the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJs) was induced by perforating discs and by scrapping subchondral condylar surface. HA was intra-articularly injected into the left joints of 6 sheep on 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days after the operation and physiological saline as the control was injected into the contralateral (right) joints on the same day. Three sheep were killed at I month post-operation (MPO) and the remaining three sheep were killed at 3 MPO. Various responses such as proliferation of fibrous tissue, denudation, erosion, osteophyte formation, subcortical cyst formation and ankylosis were observed radiographically and histopathologically. The treatment of HA ameliorated the degenerative changes and lowered the osteoarthrotic score in the left joints at I MPO (9.96 vs 5.81) and 3 MPO (10.86 vs 5.29) compared to the right joints. These results indicate that a repeated intra-articular injection of HA inhibits the progression of OA in ovine TMJs by inducing the development of articular cartilage and by reducing the proliferation of fibrotic tissue.

  6. Recent studies of ovine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses from BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David N; Neverman, Nicole J; Chen, Jarol Z; Chang, Chia-Tien; Houweling, Peter J; Barry, Lucy A; Tammen, Imke; Hughes, Stephanie M; Mitchell, Nadia L

    2015-10-01

    Studies on naturally occurring New Zealand and Australian ovine models of the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (Batten disease, NCLs) have greatly aided our understanding of these diseases. Close collaborations between the New Zealand groups at Lincoln University and the University of Otago, Dunedin, and a group at the University of Sydney, Australia, led to the formation of BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network. This review focusses on presentations at the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease), recent relevant background work, and previews of work in preparation for publication. Themes include CLN5 and CLN6 neuronal cell culture studies, studies on tissues from affected and control animals and whole animal in vivo studies. Topics include the effect of a CLN6 mutation on endoplasmic reticulum proteins, lysosomal function and the interactions of CLN6 with other lysosomal activities and trafficking, scoping gene-based therapies, a molecular dissection of neuroinflammation, identification of differentially expressed genes in brain tissue, an attempted therapy with an anti-inflammatory drug in vivo and work towards gene therapy in ovine models of the NCLs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)".

  7. Malignant catarrhal fever-like disease in sheep after intranasal inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; O'Toole, Donal; Kim, Okjin; Oaks, J Lindsay; Crawford, Timothy B

    2005-03-01

    A malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-like disease was induced experimentally in 3 sheep after aerosol inoculation with ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Each of 3 OvHV-2-negative sheep was nebulized with 2 ml of nasal secretions containing approximately 3.07 X 10(9) OvHV-2 DNA copies from a sheep experiencing an intensive viral-shedding episode. Ovine herpesvirus-2 DNA became detectable by polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood leukocytes of all 3 sheep within 3 days, and all 3 seroconverted between 6 and 8 days postinfection (PI). The sheep developed clinical signs, with copious mucopurulent nasal discharge and fever around 14 days PI. One of the 3 clinically affected sheep was euthanized at 18 days PI. Major lesions at necropsy were multifocal linear erosions and ulcers in mucosa of the cheeks, tongue, pharynx, and proximal esophagus and mild disseminated pneumonia. Microscopically, there was extensive moderate superficial histiocytic-lymphocytic rhinitis with epithelial dissociation and degeneration. Moderate multifocal histiocytic bronchointerstitial pneumonia was associated with loss of terminal bronchiolar epithelium. Lymphocytic vasculitis was present only in the lung. The remaining 2 sheep recovered clinically, approximately 25 days PI. The study revealed that clinical signs and lesions resembling MCF can develop when uninfected sheep are exposed to a high dose of aerosolized OvHV-2. PMID:15825499

  8. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus Genotypes Recovered from Cases of Bovine, Ovine, and Caprine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Mørk, T.; Tollersrud, T.; Kvitle, B.; Jørgensen, H. J.; Waage, S.

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants. The main objective of this study was to determine the similarity of epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from bovine, ovine, and caprine mastitis. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 160 different pulsotypes (PTs) were identified among 905 isolates recovered from 588 herds in 12 counties in Norway. Based on estimates of similarity, using an 80% cluster cutoff, the isolates were assigned to 47 clusters. One cluster included 62% of all the isolates and more than 45% of the isolates from each host species. Twenty-three PTs included isolates from more than one host species; these 23 PTs represented 72% of all the isolates. The six most prevalent PTs included isolates from all host species and contained 45% of the bovine isolates, 54% of the ovine isolates, and 37% of the caprine isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 373 of the isolates revealed resistance to penicillin in 2.9% and to streptomycin in 2.4%; only 1.9% were resistant to 1 of the other 11 antimicrobials tested. The results of this study suggest that a small number of closely related genotypes are responsible for a great proportion of S. aureus mastitis cases in cows, ewes, and goats in Norway and that these genotypes exhibit little or no host preference among these species. Selection due to antimicrobial resistance appears not to have contributed to the predominance of these genotypes. PMID:16081939

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by ovine pulmonary macrophages.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, L; Núñez, A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Fernández de Marco, M; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the expression of three proinflammatory cytokines by pulmonary macrophages of sheep in paraffin wax-embedded tissue. Samples of lung from seven healthy sheep were fixed by immersion in either 10% neutral buffered formalin, acetic formalin, paraformaldehyde-lysine-periodate or Bouin's solution and processed for structural and immunohistochemical studies. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) was detected by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase (ABC) technique. Bouin's solution proved to be the most suitable fixative and Tween 20 the most effective pretreatment for increasing permeability. Constitutive expression of IL-1alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by both macrophage populations was detected. The number of PIMs expressing IL-1alpha (the predominant cytokine in ovine lung) was higher than that of AMs, while the expression of IL-6 was greater in AMs. No differences between PIMS and AMs were found in respect of TNF-alpha expression. The evaluation of cytokine expression represents a valuable tool for studying the pathogenesis of disease in the ovine lung.

  10. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  11. Seasonal changes in protein composition of whey from commercial manufacture of caprine and ovine specialty cheeses.

    PubMed

    Casper, J L; Wendorff, W L; Thomas, D L

    1998-12-01

    Pooled whey from the production of one variety of ovine cheese and two varieties of caprine cheeses was studied for gross composition and individual whey protein composition over one production season. Individual proteins were quantified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and digital imaging technology. The mean proportion of alpha-lactalbumin (LA) from caprine wheys from the manufacture of Chevre and Cheddar-type cheeses was higher than values previously reported for bovine whey from Cheddar cheese; proportions of serum albumin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, and beta-lactoglobulin (LG) were lower. Ovine whey from Manchego-type cheese showed a higher proportion of beta-LG, about the same proportion of alpha-LA, and lower proportions of serum albumin and IgG than did the bovine whey. Relative amounts of alpha-LA decreased throughout the season, but beta-LG rose in midlactation and then gradually decreased toward the end of lactation. Relative proportions of serum albumin remained fairly stable throughout the year, and IgG decreased. PMID:9891259

  12. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  13. Effect of "ice blockers" in solutions for vitrification of in vitro matured ovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jimenez, F; Berlinguer, F; Leoni, G G; Succu, S; Naitana, S

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have been used as a substitute for serum in vitrification solutions for embryos and oocytes. This study was designed to replace serum with defined commercial macromolecules in vitrification solution for in vitro matured ovine oocytes. Oocytes were cryopreserved in two vitrification solutions (16.5 percent ethylene glycol + 16.5 percent dimethyl sulphoxide) supplemented with 1 percent of SuperCool X-1000 and 1 percent SuperCool Z-1000 (Ice Blockers) or 20 percent foetal calf serum (FCS). After warming, oocytes viability and developmental potential after processing for in vitro embryo production were assessed. The number of viable oocytes (87.4 percent and 85.9 percent), cleaveage rates (21.4 percent and 19.6 percent) and blastocyst development rates (4.8 percent and 4.5 percent) were similar for Ice Blockers and FCS, respectively. On the basis of these findings, it may be concluded that combined use of Ice Blockers (SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000) as supplementation in vitrification solution offers similar results to serum for vitrification of in vitro matured ovine oocytes.

  14. Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

  15. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoprotein antibodies decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a generally fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vi...

  16. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  17. Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z; Muller, Robert J; Huala, Eva

    2012-01-01

    TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:23221298

  18. Associated brain abnormalities in patients with corpus callosum anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tekgül, H; Dizdarer, G; Yalman, O; Sener, N; Yünten, N; Tütüncüoğlu, S

    1999-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies.

  19. The Emergence of Texture: An Analysis of the Functions of the Nominal Demonstratives in English Interlanguage Corpus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Uses the concept of "emergent texture" to analyze the corpus behavior of the four nominal demonstratives--"this,""that,""these," an "those"--in an interlanguage corpus created at Yonsei University in Korea in 1999. Investigates a corpus of 109 single paragraphs. The concept of markedness is emphasized as a way of mediating the debate over the…

  20. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of…

  1. A rapid real-time qRT-PCR assay for ovine beta-actin mRNA.

    PubMed

    Bjarnadottir, Helga; Jonsson, Jon J

    2005-05-01

    Beta-Actin mRNA is often used for normalization in gene expression experiments. We describe a sensitive, rapid and specific quantitative assay for the cytoplasmic ovine beta-actin mRNA. The assay was based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA. A part of the ovine beta-actin sequence was amplified from cDNA from fetal ovine synovial (FOS) cells with mRNA-specific primers and cloned into a plasmid clone. The assay standard curve was constructed with dilutions of this plasmid. The assay was linear over five orders of magnitude and detected down to 600 copies per reaction of target DNA. Intraassay coefficient of variation was 12%. Detection of the beta-actin gene was eliminated by designing FRET probes at splice junctions and detection of putative processed pseudogenes was minimized by using FRET assay design with four oligonucleotides. We measured 0.2 copies per cell in RNA preparations without reverse transcription and DNase digestion. This might represent processed pseudogenes. In constrast, we measured 1400 beta-actin mRNA copies per cell in RNA preparations after the RT and DNase steps. The assay should, therefore, be sensitive enough to measure beta-actin from a single individual cell. Dilution of target DNA in murine RNA or ovine cDNA preparations did not effect efficiency of PCR or linearity of the assay. The quantitative assay described in this work can be used to correct for variations in various real-time qRT-PCR experiments in ovine cells with diverse goals, including gene expression studies, quantitation of viral load in infected cells and in various gene therapy experiments measuring vector load and expression in transduced cells. PMID:15823406

  2. Expression of Endogenous Betaretroviruses in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Neonatal Age, Estrous Cycle, Pregnancy, and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Palmarini, Massimo; Gray, C. Allison; Carpenter, Karen; Fan, Hung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    The ovine genome contains 15 to 20 copies of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) highly related to the oncogenic jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus. enJSRVs are highly expressed in the endometrial lumenal epithelia (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE) of the ovine uterus. The effects of neonatal age, estrous cycle, pregnancy, and progesterone on expression of enJSRVs in the ovine uterus were determined. Expression of enJSRV RNAs was absent from the uterus of ewes at birth, but enJSRV RNAs were expressed specifically in the LE and developing GE from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 56. In adult ewes, enJSRV RNAs were detected only in the epithelia of the uterine endometrium, as well as epithelia of the oviduct, cervix, and vagina. In cyclic ewes, endometrial enJSRV RNA abundance was lowest on day 1, increased 12-fold between days 1 and 13, and then decreased to day 15. In pregnant ewes, levels of endometrial enJSRV RNAs were high on day 11, increased to day 13, and then decreased to day 19. In day 17 and 19 conceptuses, enJSRV RNAs were also detected in binucleate cells of the trophectoderm. Immunoreactive JSRV capsid and envelope proteins were detected in the endometrial LE and GE, as well as in the binucleate cells of the conceptus. In transfection assays utilizing ovine endometrial LE cells, progesterone increased transcriptional activity of several enJSRV long terminal repeats. Collectively, these results indicate that transcription of enJSRVs in the endometrial epithelia of the ovine uterus is increased by progesterone and might support a role for enJSRVs in conceptus-endometrium interactions during the peri-implantation period and early placental morphogenesis. PMID:11689612

  3. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard.

  4. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield.

  5. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. PMID:24856986

  6. The catalogue of the Ripley Corpus: alchemical writings attributed to George Ripley (d. ca. 1490).

    PubMed

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2010-07-01

    The period 1471 to 1700 saw the accretion of a large corpus of alchemical works associated with the famous English alchemist George Ripley, Canon of Bridlington (d. ca. 1490). Evaluation of Ripley's alchemy is hampered by uncertainty over the composition of the corpus, the dating and provenance of individual texts, and the difficulty of separating genuine from spurious attributions. The Catalogue of the Ripley Corpus (CRC) provides a first step in ordering these diverse materials: a descriptive catalogue of approximately forty-five alchemical treatises, recipes and poems attributed to Ripley, with an index of all known manuscript copies. PMID:20973441

  7. Corpus cavernosum abscess from a blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Yamamoto, Yu; Kajii, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Corpus cavernosum abscesses are rarely seen in the clinical setting. We report the case of an early diagnosis of corpus cavernosum abscess due to a blind-ending urethra in a 60-year-old man without known risk factors and who was successfully treated by antibiotic therapy alone. In this case, the blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery was considered a risk factor of the abscess formation. If the physician notes that the patient has fever of uncertain cause after urinary diversion surgery, he/she should examine the penis and perineum in consideration of the possibility of corpus cavernosum abscess. PMID:23616331

  8. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  9. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  10. The detection of Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum from ovine footrot in Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shaheen; Wani, Shakil A; Hassan, Mir Nadeem; Nazir, Nazima; Nyrah, Qazi Javed

    2015-10-01

    In a study conducted, a total of 450 swab samples from footrot lesions of naturally infected sheep were collected in all the ten districts of the Kashmir valley and were examined for the presence of Dichelobacter nodosus (D. nodosus) and Fusobacterium necrophorum (F. necrophorum), in order to determine if F. necrophorum was associated with ovine footrot. The detection of F. necrophorum and D. nodosus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction targeting the leukotoxin (lktA) and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. In this study, only less than 50% of positive samples contained both the bacteria, so it is not possible to conclude with certainty that both bacteria are together required for the disease manifestation.

  11. Electrically evoked potentials in an ovine model for the evaluation of visual prosthesis efficacy.

    PubMed

    Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Eiber, Calvin D; Dodds, Christopher W D; Fung, Adrian T; Tatarinoff, Veronica; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2015-01-01

    Visual prostheses are becoming a reality as a therapy to restore functional vision to the blind. New stimulation strategies and novel electrode designs are contributing to accelerate the development of such devices triggering the interest of scientists, clinicians and the blind community worldwide. In this scenario, there is a need for large animal models that are suitable for preclinical testing of retinal neuroprostheses. This study presents an electrophysiology assessment of an ovine model for single and simultaneous electrode stimulation from the suprachoroidal space, using symmetric biphasic current pulses with a monopolar return configuration. Visually and electrically evoked potentials were recorded using supradural surface electrodes, showing charge thresholds comparable to those in humans. This model represents an alternative to feline or canine models with analogous activation levels and an eye anatomy similar to that of humans.

  12. Some factors influencing the syneresis of bovine, ovine, and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M M; Balcones, E

    2000-08-01

    The influence of the species, fat, curd incubation temperature (25, 30, and 35 degrees C), heat treatment of milk (70 degrees C for 5 or 30 min), and milk pH on the initial volume drained, syneresis rate, and the loss of proteins in drainage was studied. The volume drained as a function of the curd incubation time (up to 60 min) was adjusted to a first-order kinetic reaction. The k values (drained rate) and the initial volume obtained applying the equation were compared to establish the possible influence of the studied factors. In general, for all the factors studied, the syneresis rate of curd from caprine and ovine milk did not differ from those described previously in the literature for the curds from bovine milk. However, for each studied factor the pattern of syneresis rate was significantly different among the species in most of the experiments.

  13. Ontogeny of hormonal and excretory function of the meso- and metanephros in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Wintour, E M; Alcorn, D; Butkus, A; Congiu, M; Earnest, L; Pompolo, S; Potocnik, S J

    1996-11-01

    Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry we investigated the ontogeny of renin, angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the mesonephros at 27 and 41 days of gestation, and the metanephros at 41 and 64 days of gestation in ovine fetuses (term is 145 to 150 days). The volume and composition of fetal urine, stored as allantoic fluid were measured in 12 fetuses at 27 days, and 13 fetuses at 41 days. Renin, angiotensinogen and ACE were identified in both meso- and metanephroi at 41 days but not in the mesonephros at 27 to 30 days. Allantoic fluid volumes were 21 +/- 3 and 45 +/- 5 ml at 27 to 30 days and 41 days, respectively. This fluid was significantly different in composition to that of amniotic fluid or maternal plasma. The results suggest that the mesonephros can substantially modify its glomerular filtrate by 27 days of gestation, and can produce local angiotensin II by 41 days.

  14. Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results.

  15. Indentation experiments and simulation of ovine bone using a viscoelastic-plastic damage model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Wu, Ziheng; Turner, Simon; MacLeay, Jennifer; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Indentation methods have been widely used to study bone at the micro- and nanoscales. It has been shown that bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior with permanent deformation during indentation. At the same time, damage due to microcracks is induced due to the stresses beneath the indenter tip. In this work, a simplified viscoelastic-plastic damage model was developed to more closely simulate indentation creep data, and the effect of the model parameters on the indentation curve was investigated. Experimentally, baseline and 2-year postovariectomized (OVX-2) ovine (sheep) bone samples were prepared and indented. The damage model was then applied via finite element analysis to simulate the bone indentation data. The mechanical properties of yielding, viscosity, and damage parameter were obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that damage develops more quickly for OVX-2 samples under the same indentation load conditions as the baseline data. PMID:26136623

  16. Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1996-03-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

  17. Fracture properties of growth plate cartilage compared to cortical and trabecular bone in ovine femora.

    PubMed

    Tschegg, E K; Celarek, A; Fischerauer, S F; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Weinberg, A M

    2012-10-01

    Fracture mechanical parameters (notch tensile strength, specific fracture energy/crack resistance and specific crack initiation energy) of epiphyseal plate cartilage, trabecular bone (metaphysis) and cortical bone (diaphysis) were determined on ovine femur specimens. The fracture behaviour before and after crack initiation was recorded in force-displacement diagrams from wedge splitting tests. Crack propagation was stable both during and after the formation of a principal crack. This is the main advantage of the wedge-splitting method by Tschegg in comparison with tensile tests. Microscopy of the epiphyseal plate during fracture showed fibre elongation and tearing in the crack tip region. The results of this study can help to understand the mechanics of epiphyseal plate injuries and the obtained values can be used for computational simulations and models. PMID:23022566

  18. Biomechanical performance of an ovine model of intradural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Safayi, S; Jeffery, N D; Fredericks, D C; Viljoen, S; Dalm, B D; Reddy, C G; Wilson, S; Gillies, G T; Howard, M A

    2014-07-01

    The authors are developing a novel type of spinal cord stimulator, designed to be placed directly on the pial surface of the spinal cord, for more selective activation of target tissues within the dorsal columns. For pre-clinical testing of the device components, an ovine model has been implemented which utilizes the agility and flexibility of a sheep's cervical and upper thoracic regions, thus providing an optimal environment of accelerated stress-cycling on small gauge lead wires implanted along the dorsal spinal columns. The results are presented of representative biomechanical measurements of the angles of rotation and the angular velocities and accelerations associated with the relevant head, neck and upper back motions, and these findings are interpreted in terms of their impact on assessing the robustness of the stimulator implant systems. PMID:24841845

  19. Changes in meat quality of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle in response to repeated freeze and thaw.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Li, Chunbao; Chen, Yinji; Gao, Feifei; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2012-12-01

    Changes in eating and technological quality attributes of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle during repeated freeze and thaw were investigated. Shear force value, L* value, a* value and fiber diameter decreased (P<0.05) but lipid oxidation increased (P<0.05) with repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Sarcomere length and pH decreased (P<0.05) within the first 10 freeze-thaw cycles but increased (P<0.05) after 5 further cycles. Total and myofibrillar protein solubility, and intramuscular free fatty acids concentration decreased (P<0.05) after 1 cycle of freeze and thaw but then increased (P<0.05) gradually with further cycles. Hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and resilience of comminuted lamb products decreased (P<0.05) with increased freeze-thaw cycles. And therefore, repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of meat color for commercial value and water holding capacity for further processing. PMID:22749539

  20. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX....

  1. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV.

  2. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  3. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  4. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed.

  5. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  6. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV. PMID:27440743

  7. Evaluation of ABM/P-15 versus autogenous bone in an ovine lumbar interbody fusion model.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Blake P; Lindley, Emily M; Turner, A Simon; Seim, Howard B; Benedict, James; Burger, Evalina L; Patel, Vikas V

    2010-12-01

    A prospective, randomized study was performed in an ovine model to compare the efficacy of an anorganic bovine-derived hydroxyapatite matrix combined with a synthetic 15 amino acid residue (ABM/P-15) in facilitating lumbar interbody fusion when compared with autogenous bone harvested from the iliac crest. P-15 is a biomimetic to the cell-binding site of Type-I collagen for bone-forming cells. When combined with ABM, it creates the necessary scaffold to initiate cell invasion, binding, and subsequent osteogenesis. In this study, six adult ewes underwent anterior-lateral interbody fusion at L3/L4 and L4/L5 using PEEK interbody rings filled with autogenous bone at one level and ABM/P-15 at the other level and no additional instrumentation. Clinical CT scans were obtained at 3 and 6 months; micro-CT scans and histomorphometry analyses were performed after euthanization at 6 months. Clinical CT scan analysis showed that all autograft and ABM/P-15 treated levels had radiographically fused outside of the rings at the 3-month study time point. Although the clinical CT scans of the autograft treatment group showed significantly better fusion within the PEEK rings than ABM/P-15 at 3 months, micro-CT scans, clinical CT scans, and histomorphometric analyses showed there were no statistical differences between the two treatment groups at 6 months. Thus, ABM/P-15 was as successful as autogenous bone graft in producing lumbar spinal fusion in an ovine model, and it should be further evaluated in clinical studies.

  8. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6–8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  9. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  10. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship. PMID:27605798

  11. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)--which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)--which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498 mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332 mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24 min at a gas supersaturation of 620 kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24 min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration.

  12. Lower apoptosis rate in ovine preantral follicles from ovaries stored in supplemented preservation media.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R J S; Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Lins, T L B; Barberino, R S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Macedo, T J S; Figueiredo, J R; Matos, M H T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian tissue transportation conditions (medium and period of time) on the morphology, apoptosis and development of ovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. Each ovarian pair was cut into nine slices, with one fragment being fixed immediately (fresh control). The remaining fragments were placed individually in cryotubes containing conservation medium (minimal essential medium (MEM) without supplementation or MEM+ - with supplementation) and stored at 35ºC for 6 or 12 h without (non-cultured) or with subsequent culture for 5 days. Then, the fragments were processed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) examination. Preservation of ovarian slices in MEM or MEM+ (non-cultured) resulted in similar percentages of normal follicles when compared with the fresh control. Nevertheless, compared with the fresh control, a decrease in the percentage of normal follicles was observed in tissues cultured for 5 days. Only for tissues preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) for 6 h, the percentage of TUNEL positive cells was similar between non-cultured tissues and tissues cultured for 5 days. Follicular activation and growth (follicular and oocyte diameter) were higher in cultured tissues than in fresh control or non-cultured tissues, except those from fragments preserved for 6 h in MEM and then cultured for 5 days in which no growth was observed. In conclusion, ovine ovarian tissue was successfully preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) at a temperature close to physiological values (35°C) for up to 6 h without affecting apoptosis in the ovarian follicles and their ability to develop in vitro.

  13. Effects of growth hormone on nuclear maturation of ovine oocytes and subsequent embryo development.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, A; Shams-Esfandabadi, N; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the presence of recombinant ovine growth hormone either alone or together with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during ovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryo development. Moreover, the effect of growth hormine (GH) on embryo development whether influenced by the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS) was assessed. The abattoir-derived oocytes were randomly divided into four treatment groups and cultured in maturation medium supplemented with: (i) 0.05 IU/ml FSH; (ii) 300 ng/ml roGH; (iii) FSH + roGH; and (iv) no FSH and GH (control). The percentages of germinal vesicle-stage oocytes in GH-treated group after 8 h of culture was significantly higher than the FSH and FSH + GH groups and lower than control (22.4%, 8.7%, 9.1%, and 32% respectively). The percentage of MII-stage oocytes was significantly increased in the presence of GH after 16 and 24 h of culture compared to the control (44.7% and 83.1% vs 32.6% and 73.6% respectively). There was no significant synergism between GH and FSH in terms of nuclear maturation. The blastocyst rates in serum-supplemented groups were enhanced by the presence of FSH and GH compared to the control (35.4% and 31.3 vs 11.4% respectively). Compared with either GH or FSH alone, the subsequent embryo development (blastocyst rate), however, was negatively influenced by co-presence of both hormones (22.8%). In contrast, the corresponding values were not affected in the absence of serum. In conclusion, GH had positive effect on nuclear maturation of sheep oocytes. Moreover, the pattern of the effect of GH on embryo development was influenced by the presence of FBS during IVM.

  14. Different influence of ovine estrus synchronization treatments on caruncular early angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, I; Sánchez, M A; García-Fernández, R A; García-Palencia, P; Sánchez, B; González-Bulnes, A; Flores, J M

    2013-03-01

    The present study compares two protocols for ovine estrus synchronization by assessing the caruncular angiogenic response to the establishment of pregnancy. The analysis consisted of the immunohistochemical evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) and Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in ovine caruncular stroma. A flock of thirty-eight adult ewes was divided in two groups and synchronized with either progestagens (Group P) or prostaglandin analogues (Group PG). Immunohistochemistry was performed in uterine samples obtained from pregnant ewes (P, n=15; PG, n=13) on days 15 post coitus (pc), 17pc and 21pc (day 0 =day of estrus). Each factor was assessed by total vascular density (TVD, total positive blood vessels/mm2), capillary vascular density (CVD, positive blood capillaries/mm2) and arteriolar vascular density (AVD, positive arterioles/mm2). Group P demonstrated higher VEGF-CVD (P=0.045) when compared to prostaglandin treated animals. Vascular CD31-expression decreased on days 15pc and 21pc (TVD, P=0.007 and CVD, P=0.014) in both groups. vWF analysis did not show significant differences between groups or days of study. These results demonstrate a different influence of progestagen-based and prostaglandin analogues-based synchronization treatments over VEGF vascular expression during caruncular development taking place in response to pregnancy establishment. In addition, observations pointed out in this study support the involvement of CD31 in the angiogenic stimulus that occurs during early maternal placentation in the ewe.

  15. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  16. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  17. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions.

  18. Effect of avanafil on rat and human corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Gur, S; Sikka, S C; Pankey, E A; Lasker, G F; Chandra, S; Kadowitz, P J; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-10-01

    We compared the activity of a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) avanafil with sildenafil and tadalafil in human and rat corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues. The effect of avanafil with several inhibitors and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was evaluated on CC after pre-contraction with phenylephrine. With the PDE5i, sildenafil and tadalafil, concentration-response curves were obtained and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in tissues. Avanafil induced relaxation with maximum response of 74 ± 5% in human CC. This response was attenuated by NOS inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Avanafil potentiated relaxation responses to acetylcholine and EFS in human CC and enhanced SNP-induced relaxation and showed 3-fold increase in cGMP levels. When compared with sildenafil, avanafil and tadalafil were effective at lower concentrations in human CC. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent in vivo intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Avanafil increased ICP/MAP that was enhanced by SNP and cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in rat CC tissues. Also avanafil showed maximum relaxation response of 83 ± 7% in rat CC with 3-fold increase in cGMP concentration. Taken together, these results of our in vivo and in vitro studies in human and rat suggest that avanafil promotes the CC relaxation and penile erection via NO-cGMP pathway.

  19. Clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with corpus callosum abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Palumbi, Roberto; Campa, Maria Gloria; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Buttiglione, Maura; Craig, Francesco; Matricardi, Sara; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Corpus callosum abnormality (CCA) outcomes are quite unpredictable and variable, from asymptomatic forms to mild or severe neurodevelopment disorders. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes in CCA patients. The study included 61 children and adolescents in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed CCA, isolated or associated to other central nervous system lesions. All patients underwent anamnesis, physical and neurological examination, routine laboratory tests, electroencephalogram (EEG), and MRI scans. In all participants, the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined. We divided the participants into two subgroups: the first subgroup included patients with an isolated CCA, and the second subgroup included patients with CCA associated with extra-callosal brain lesions (complex CCA). We found that CCA were associated with elevated frequency to intellectual disability (ID), other neurodevelopment disorders, epilepsy, and isolated EEG anomalies. Mild ID (p = 0.003) was more frequent in the isolated subgroup, while epilepsy (p = 0.036) and pre-perinatal risk factors (p = 0.023) were more frequent in the complex CCA subgroup. Although the role of the CC in the interhemispheric communication is known, neurological and neurodevelopment outcomes of CCA are extremely variable and unpredictable. The presence of extra-callosal brain anomalies is one of the major prognostic factor, and probably, they have an important impact on the clinical outcome.

  20. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  1. Division of Labor in Vocabulary Structure: Insights From Corpus Analyses.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-07-01

    Psychologists have used experimental methods to study language for more than a century. However, only with the recent availability of large-scale linguistic databases has a more complete picture begun to emerge of how language is actually used, and what information is available as input to language acquisition. Analyses of such "big data" have resulted in reappraisals of key assumptions about the nature of language. As an example, we focus on corpus-based research that has shed new light on the arbitrariness of the sign: the longstanding assumption that the relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning is arbitrary. The results reveal a systematic relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning, which is stronger for early acquired words. Moreover, the analyses further uncover a systematic relationship between words and their lexical categories-nouns and verbs sound differently from each other-affecting how we learn new words and use them in sentences. Together, these results point to a division of labor between arbitrariness and systematicity in sound-meaning mappings. We conclude by arguing in favor of including "big data" analyses into the language scientist's methodological toolbox. PMID:26399384

  2. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.

    PubMed

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  3. 5-HT4 receptors in isolated human corpus cavernosum?

    PubMed

    Hayes, E S; Adaikan, P G; Ratnam, S S; Ng, S C

    1999-08-01

    The novel serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, SC53116 (SC), produced a limited relaxation of noradrenaline (NA) pre-contracted human corpus cavernosum (CC) smooth muscle in vitro. This effect was not significantly attenuated by the 5-HT4 antagonist SDZ250557 (SDZ). In the presence of (+/-) pindolol (1 microM) and methysergide (1 microM), employed to mask 5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic, and 5-HT2 receptors respectively, SC failed to relax NA pre-contracted CC strips to a greater extent than saline. Functional cAMP dependent relaxation pathways were demonstrated by a significant reduction in NA induced tone by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and isopropylnoradrenaline (IPNA), the action of the latter compound was effectively eliminated in the presence of (+/-) pindolol. Relaxation of NA induced tone caused by the nitric oxide donor nitro-glycerine (NTG) was significant and similar in the absence and presence of the 5-HT and beta-adrenergic antagonists. The results of this present study indicate that human corporal smooth muscle does not contain 5-HT4 receptors and that, although compounds like SC act to relax non-vascular smooth muscle via cAMP dependent mechanisms, 5-HT4 receptor agonists may be expected to be of limited utility in triggering cAMP dependent relaxation responses in human CC.

  4. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury. PMID:27375144

  5. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury.

  6. MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

    2013-10-01

    The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them.

  7. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  8. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients.

  9. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/.

  10. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/ PMID:25810773

  11. Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, *Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

  12. Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus.

    PubMed

    Daegling, D J

    1989-09-01

    Mandibular cross sections of Pan, Pongo, Gorilla, Homo, and two fossil specimens of Paranthropus were examined by computed tomography (CT) to determine the biomechanical properties of the hominoid mandibular corpus. Images obtained by CT reveal that while the fossil hominids do not differ significantly from extant hominoids in the relative contribution of compact bone to total subperiosteal area, the shape of the Paranthropus corpora indicates that the mechanical design of the robust australopithecine mandible is fundamentally distinct from that of modern hominoids in terms of its ability to resist transverse bending and torsion. It is also apparent that, among the modern hominoids, interspecific and sexual differences in corpus shape are not significant from a biomechanical perspective. While ellipse models have been used previously to describe the size, shape, and subsequent biomechanical properties of the corpus, the present study shows that such models do not predict the biomechanical properties of corpus cross-sectional geometry in an accurate or reliable manner. The traditional "robusticity" index of the mandibular corpus is of limited utility for biomechanical interpretations. The relationship of compact bone distribution in the corpus to dimensions such as mandibular length and arch width may provide a more functionally meaningful definition of mandibular robusticity. PMID:2508480

  13. Leather structure determination by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): cross sections of ovine and bovine leather.

    PubMed

    Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Allsop, Timothy F; Cooper, Sue M; Holmes, Geoff; Norris, Gillian E; Cookson, David J; Kirby, Nigel; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2010-05-12

    SAXS has been applied to structural determination in leather. The SAXS beamline at the Australian Synchrotron provides 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range, enabling a rich source of structural information from scattering patterns of leather sections. SAXS patterns were recorded for q from 0.004 to 0.223 A(-1). Collagen d spacing varied across ovine leather sections from 63.8 nm in parts of the corium up to 64.6 nm in parts of the grain. The intensity of the collagen peak at q = 0.06 A(-1) varied by 1 order of magnitude across ovine leather sections with the high-intensity region in the corium and the low intensity in the grain. The degree of fiber orientation and the dispersion of the orientation has been quantified in leather. It is shown how the technique provides a wealth of useful information that may be used to characterize and compare leathers, skin, and connective tissue.

  14. Kit ligand promotes the transition from primordial to primary follicles after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Barberino, R S; Lins, T L B G; Santos, L P; Gonçalves, R J S; Celestino, J J H; Matos, M H T

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of kit ligand (KL) on the morphology and development of ovine preantral follicles (fresh control) and after 7 days of in vitro culture in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM; control medium) or the presence of KL (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200 ng/ml). There was an increase in the percentage of primary follicles at the concentration of 100 ng/ml KL, compared with the fresh control, control medium (α-MEM) and the other KL concentrations. Follicle diameter was significantly higher than the control medium only at concentrations of 50 and 100 ng/ml KL. In conclusion, 100 ng/ml KL promoted the transition from primordial to primary follicles (follicular activation) after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue.

  15. Ex vivo bubble production from ovine large blood vessels: size on detachment and evidence of "active spots".

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2014-08-15

    Nanobubbles formed on the hydrophobic silicon wafer were shown to be the source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles evolved during decompression. Bubbles were also formed after decompression on the luminal surface of ovine blood vessels. Four ovine blood vessels: aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava, were compressed to 1013 kPa for 21 h. They were then decompressed, photographed at 1-s intervals, and bubble size was measured on detachment. There were certain spots at which bubbles appeared, either singly or in a cluster. Mean detachment diameter was between 0.7 and 1.0 mm. The finding of active spots at which bubbles nucleate is a new, hitherto unreported observation. It is possible that these are the hydrophobic spots at which bubbles nucleate, stabilise, and later transform into the gas micronuclei that grow into bubbles. The possible neurological effects of these large arterial bubbles should be further explored.

  16. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K.; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. PMID:26715676

  17. Detection and characterization of an ovine placental lactogen stable intermediate in the urea-induced unfolding process.

    PubMed Central

    Cymes, G. D.; Grosman, C.; Delfino, J. M.; Wolfenstein-Todel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The urea-induced equilibrium unfolding of ovine placental lactogen, purified from ovine placenta, was followed by size-exclusion chromatography, far-UV CD, and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The data obtained by each of these methods showed a poor fit to a two-state model involving only a native and an unfolded form. A satisfactory fit required, instead, a model that involved a stable, partially folded form in addition to the native and unfolded ones. The results obtained from the best-fitting theoretical curves for the three-state model indicated that this intermediate state, which is the predominant species in solution at 3.6 M of urea activity, is compact, largely alpha-helical, and changes considerably the native-like tertiary packing around its tryptophan residues. These findings suggest that this stable intermediate exhibits properties similar to those that characterize the molten globule state. PMID:8897607

  18. Ovis aries Papillomavirus 3: a prototype of a novel genus in the family Papillomaviridae associated with ovine squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Alberto; Pirino, Salvatore; Pintore, Francesca; Addis, Maria Filippa; Chessa, Bernardo; Cacciotto, Carla; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Anfossi, Antonio; Benenati, Gavino; Coradduzza, Elisabetta; Lecis, Roberta; Antuofermo, Elisabetta; Carcangiu, Laura; Pittau, Marco

    2010-11-25

    Papillomaviruses play an important role in human cancer development, and have been isolated from a number of animal malignancies. However, the association of papillomaviruses with tumors has been poorly investigated in sheep. In this study, a novel ovine Papillomavirus, OaPV3, was cloned from sheep squamous cell carcinoma. Unlike the already known ovine papillomaviruses, belonging to the Delta genus, OaPV3 lacks the E5 open reading frame and maintains the conserved retinoblastoma motif in the E7 gene. OaPV3 infects exclusively epithelial cells, and was found in skin of healthy sheep of geographically separated flocks located in Sardinia (Italy). This new virus is transcriptionally active in tumors and shares low homology with all the other papillomaviruses, establishing a new genus. Taken together, the co-occurrence of OaPV3 and tumors, its cell and tissue tropism, and its gene repertoire, suggests a role for this virus in development of sheep squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

  20. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK

    PubMed Central

    Manunza, A.; Cardoso, T. F.; Noce, A.; Martínez, A.; Pons, A.; Bermejo, L. A.; Landi, V.; Sànchez, A.; Jordana, J.; Delgado, J. V.; Adán, S.; Capote, J.; Vidal, O.; Ugarte, E.; Arranz, J. J.; Calvo, J. H.; Casellas, J.; Amills, M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150–154 Mb), Oar6 (4–49 Mb) and Oar13 (68–74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  1. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Cardoso, T F; Noce, A; Martínez, A; Pons, A; Bermejo, L A; Landi, V; Sànchez, A; Jordana, J; Delgado, J V; Adán, S; Capote, J; Vidal, O; Ugarte, E; Arranz, J J; Calvo, J H; Casellas, J; Amills, M

    2016-06-07

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150-154 Mb), Oar6 (4-49 Mb) and Oar13 (68-74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection.

  2. A comparison between porcine, ovine, and bovine intervertebral disc anatomy and single lamella annulus fibrosus tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Lauren A; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-02-01

    This project aimed to compare gross anatomical measures and biomechanical properties of single lamellae from the annulus fibrosus of ovine and porcine lumbar vertebrae, and bovine tail vertebrae. The morphology of the vertebrae of these species differ significantly both from each other and from human, yet how these differences alter biomechanical properties is unknown. Geometric parameters measured in this study included: 1) absolute and relative intervertebral (IVD) and vertebral body height and 2) absolute and relative intervertebral disc (IVD) anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) widths. Single lamella tensile properties included toe-region stress and stretch ratio, stiffness, and tensile strength. As expected, the bovine tail IVD revealed a more circular shape compared with both the ovine and porcine lumbar IVD. The bovine tail also had the largest IVD to vertebral body height ratio (due to having the highest absolute IVD height). Bovine tail lamellae were also found to be strongest and stiffest (in tension) while ovine lumbar lamellae were weakest and most compliant. Histological analysis revealed the greatest proportion of collagen in the bovine corroborating findings of increased strength and stiffness. The observed differences in anatomical shape, connective tissue composition, and tensile properties need to be considered when choosing an appropriate model for IVD research.

  3. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Cardoso, T F; Noce, A; Martínez, A; Pons, A; Bermejo, L A; Landi, V; Sànchez, A; Jordana, J; Delgado, J V; Adán, S; Capote, J; Vidal, O; Ugarte, E; Arranz, J J; Calvo, J H; Casellas, J; Amills, M

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150-154 Mb), Oar6 (4-49 Mb) and Oar13 (68-74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  4. Effect of human, bovine and ovine prolactin on DNA synthesis by organ cultures of benign human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, C. W.; Dombroske, S. E.; McManus, M. J.; Calaf, G.

    1979-01-01

    Ten benign breast tumours from 9 female patients (8 with fibrocystic disease and 1 with fibroadenoma) and 1 male patient (with gynaecomastia) were processed into slices and individually cultured for 2 days in serum-free Medium 199. [3H]-TdR was added to the culture medium to assess DNA synthesis. The addition of human prolactin to the culture medium (500 ng/ml) significantly (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.01) increased DNA synthesis; all 9 biopsy specimens from the 9 female patients responded positively to this hormone. Ovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) and bovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) increased the mean incorporation of [3H]-TdR into extracted DNA and increased the mean number of [3H]-TdR-labelled cells, but this increase did not reach the 5% level of probability. The sole case of male breast dysplasia analysed in this study did not respond to either human, ovine or bovine prolactin. These results provide evidence that human prolactin and, to a lesser degree, ovine and bovine prolactin are direct mitogenic stimulants to the epithelium in human (female) benign breast tumours. PMID:575047

  5. A Combined Corpus and Systemic-Functional Analysis of the Problem-Solution Pattern in a Student and Professional Corpus of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research describing similarities and differences between expert and novice writing in the problem-solution pattern, a frequent rhetorical pattern of technical academic writing. A corpus of undergraduate student writing and one containing professional writing consisted of 80 and 60 recommendation reports, respectively, with each corpus…

  6. Proverb comprehension in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rehmel, Jamie L; Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K

    2016-09-01

    Comprehension of non-literal language involves multiple neural systems likely involving callosal connections. We describe proverb comprehension impairments in individuals with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and normal-range general intelligence. Experiment 1 compared Gorham Proverb Test (Gorham, 1956) performance in 19 adults with AgCC and 33 neurotypical control participants of similar age, sex, and intelligence. Experiment 2 used the Proverbs subtest of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, 2001) to compare 19 adults with AgCC and 17 control participants with similar age, sex, and intelligence. Gorham Proverbs performance was impaired in the AgCC group for both the free-response and multiple-choice tasks. On the D-KEFS proverbs test, the AgCC group performed significantly worse on the free-response task (and all derivative scores) despite normal levels of performance on the multiple-choice task. Covarying verbal intelligence did not alter these outcomes. However, covarying a measure of non-literal language comprehension considerably reduced group differences in proverb comprehension on the Gorham test, but had little effect on the D-KEFS group differences. The difference between groups seemed to be greatest when participants had to generate their own interpretation (free response), or in the multiple choice format when the test included many proverbs that were likely to be less familiar. Taken together, the results of this study clearly show that proverb comprehension is diminished in individuals with AgCC compared to their peers. PMID:27448531

  7. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution.

  8. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  9. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800–2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  10. In vitro fabrication of autologous living tissue-engineered vascular grafts based on prenatally harvested ovine amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benedikt; Kehl, Debora; Bleul, Ulrich; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sébastien; Frese, Laura; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Achermann, Josef; Stranzinger, Gerald; Robert, Jérôme; Sanders, Bart; Sidler, Michele; Brokopp, Chad E; Proulx, Steven T; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schoenauer, Roman; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) have been proposed as a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, before clinical implementation, rigorous evaluation of this cell source in clinically relevant animal models accepted by regulatory authorities is indispensable. Today, the ovine model represents one of the most accepted preclinical animal models, in particular for cardiovascular applications. Here, we investigate the isolation and use of autologous ovine AFCs as cell source for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Fetal fluids were aspirated in vivo from pregnant ewes (n = 9) and from explanted uteri post mortem at different gestational ages (n = 91). Amniotic non-allantoic fluid nature was evaluated biochemically and in vivo samples were compared with post mortem reference samples. Isolated cells revealed an immunohistochemical phenotype similar to ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed expression of stem cell factors described for embryonic stem cells, such as NANOG and STAT-3. Isolated ovine amniotic fluid-derived MSCs were screened for numeric chromosomal aberrations and successfully differentiated into several mesodermal phenotypes. Myofibroblastic ovine AFC lineages were then successfully used for the in vitro fabrication of small- and large-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (n = 10) and cardiovascular patches (n = 34), laying the foundation for the use of this relevant pre-clinical in vivo assessment model for future amniotic fluid cell-based therapeutic applications.

  11. Microbiology and biochemistry of cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée and manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C; Malcata, F X

    2000-03-01

    To support legal protection with objective technical data and to promote enforcement of high quality standards a few European countries have created Appélation d'Origine Protegées. This paper reviews and updates fundamental and applied aspects encompassing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine, caprine, or both milks. Ovine and caprine cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée from Portugal and Spain can be divided into four distinct groups based on milk source and rennet type: 1) Azeitão, Castelo Branco, Evora, Nisa, Serpa, Serra da Estrela, and La Serena cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via plant rennet; 2) Terrincho, Idiazábal, Manchego, Roncal, and Zamorano cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; 3) Cabra Transmontano and Majorero are manufactured with raw caprine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; and 4) Amarelo da Beira Baixa, Picante da Beira Baixa, and Rabaçal are manufactured with mixtures of raw ovine and caprine milks and coagulated via animal rennet. PMID:10750117

  12. Microbiology and biochemistry of cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée and manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine and caprine milks.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C; Malcata, F X

    2000-03-01

    To support legal protection with objective technical data and to promote enforcement of high quality standards a few European countries have created Appélation d'Origine Protegées. This paper reviews and updates fundamental and applied aspects encompassing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée manufactured in the Iberian Peninsula from ovine, caprine, or both milks. Ovine and caprine cheeses with Appélation d'Origine Protegée from Portugal and Spain can be divided into four distinct groups based on milk source and rennet type: 1) Azeitão, Castelo Branco, Evora, Nisa, Serpa, Serra da Estrela, and La Serena cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via plant rennet; 2) Terrincho, Idiazábal, Manchego, Roncal, and Zamorano cheeses are manufactured with raw ovine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; 3) Cabra Transmontano and Majorero are manufactured with raw caprine milk and coagulated via animal rennet; and 4) Amarelo da Beira Baixa, Picante da Beira Baixa, and Rabaçal are manufactured with mixtures of raw ovine and caprine milks and coagulated via animal rennet.

  13. Large-scale preparation and characterization of recombinant ovine placental lactogen.

    PubMed

    Sakal, E; Bignon, C; Grosclaude, J; Kantor, A; Shapira, R; Leibovitch, H; Helman, D; Nespoulous, C; Shamay, A; Rowlinson, S W; Djiane, J; Gertler, A

    1997-02-01

    To clone ovine placental lactogen (oPL) cDNA, total RNA from sheep placental cotyledon was reverse transcribed and the single-stranded cDNA was PCR-amplified with 5' and 3' primers containing, respectively, NcoI and PstI sites. The oPL cDNA fragment amplified between these two primers extended from A(-1) to the natural stop codon. The PCR product was gel-purified and subcloned into a Puc vector and the insert was sequenced on both strands, revealing several differences relative to the published sequence: S19N, S69N, D129E and R165Q. We assume that these differences can be accounted for by the high level of individual polymorphism, which has been described in detail for PLs of different species. The insert was subcloned into NcoI/ PstI-digested pTrc99A procaryotic expression plasmid and protein expression was induced by isopropyl-1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside. Because of low expression, oPL's cDNA was further subcloned into pET8 procaryotic expression plasmid. Its expression in E. coli strain BL21 transformed with this vector yielded 30-40 mg/l. The expressed protein, found in the inclusion bodies, was refolded into a monomer and purified on a Q-Sepharose column to homogeneity. Structural analysis using circular dichroism revealed a spectrum similar to that of human GH (hGH) thereby indicating proper refolding. Gel filtration and binding experiments, including real-time kinetic measurements using the surface plasmon resonance method revealed that oPL forms transient homodimeric complexes with extracellular domains of prolactin receptors from rabbit, rat and bovine and with hGH receptor. The purified oPL was biologically active in an Nb2-11C cell proliferation bioassay, in its ability to stimulate beta-casein synthesis in explants of ovine and rabbit mammary gland and fat synthesis in explants of bovine mammary gland, and in a proliferation assay using FDC-P1 cells transfected with rabbit or hGH receptors. PMID:9071989

  14. Regulation of guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate in ovine tracheal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Range, Simon P; Holland, Elaine D; Basten, Graham P; Knox, Alan J

    1997-01-01

    Guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is an important second messenger mediating the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides. Cyclic GMP pathways regulate several aspects of lung pathophysiology in a number of airway cells. The regulation of this system has not been extensively studied in pulmonary epithelial tissue.We have studied the production of cyclic GMP by suspensions of ovine tracheal epithelial cells in response to activators of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and particulate guanylyl cyclase (atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and E. coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa)).Both 10−710−3 M and 10−710−3 M SNAP generated a concentration-dependent marked elevation in cyclic GMP production when incubated with 10−3 M 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) (both greater than 25×baseline values with highest drug concentration).The increase in production of cyclic GMP in response to 10−6 M SNP and 10−5 M SNAP was markedly inhibited by both 5×10−5 M haemoglobin (102% and 92% inhibition) and 5×10−5 M methylene blue (82% and 84% inhibition).The increase in cyclic GMP in response to 10−3 M SNP was measured following co-incubation with the phosphodiesterase inhibitors 10−710−3 M IBMX, 10−710−4 M milrinone and 10−710−4 M SKF 96231. Only 10−410−3 M IBMX significantly increased cyclic GMP levels.Cyclic GMP production was also significantly elevated from baseline by 10−5 M ANP, 10−5 M BNP, 10−5 M CNP and 200 iu ml−1 of E. coli STa toxin in the presence of 10−3 M IBMX. Increases with these natriuretic peptides and STa toxin were smaller in magnitude (24 fold) than those seen with SNP and SNAP. CNP was the most potent of the natriuretic peptides studied suggesting type B membrane bound guanylate cyclase is the predominant form expressed

  15. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  16. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach.

  17. Characterization of the corpus callosum in very preterm and full-term infants utilizing MRI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Inder, Terrie E.; Faggian, Nathan; Johnston, Leigh; Warfield, Simon K.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The corpus callosum was segmented, cross-sectional areas were calculated, and shape was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity measures were obtained from within the corpus callosum, with additional probabilistic tractography analysis. Very preterm infants had significantly reduced callosal cross sectional area compared with term infants (p=0.004), particularly for the mid-body and posterior sub-regions. Very preterm callosi were more circular (p=0.01). Fractional anisotropy was lower (p=0.007) and mean (p=0.006) and radial (p=0.001) diffusivity values were higher in very preterm infants’ callosi, particularly at the anterior and posterior ends. The volume of tracts originating from the corpus callosum was reduced in very preterm infants (p=0.001), particularly for anterior mid-body (p=0.01) and isthmus tracts (p=0.04). This study characterizes callosal size, shape and diffusion in typically developing infants at term equivalent age, and reports macro- and micro-structural abnormalities as a result of prematurity. PMID:21168519

  18. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

  19. The Vacuolar-Type H+-ATPase in Ovine Rumen Epithelium is Regulated by Metabolic Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kuzinski, Judith; Zitnan, Rudolf; Warnke-Gurgel, Christina; Schweigel, Monika

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of metabolic inhibition (MI) by glucose substitution with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) and/or application of antimycin A on ovine rumen epithelial cells (REC) vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (vH+-ATPase) activity was investigated. Using fluorescent spectroscopy, basal pHi of REC was measured to be 7.3 ± 0.1 in HCO3−-free, glucose-containing NaCl medium. MI induced a strong pHi reduction (−0.44 ± 0.04 pH units) with a more pronounced effect of 2-DOG compared to antimycin A (−0.30 ± 0.03 versus −0.21 ± 0.03 pH units). Treatment with foliomycin, a specific vH+-ATPase inhibitor, decreased REC pHi by 0.21 ± 0.05 pH units. After MI induction, this effect was nearly abolished (−0.03 ± 0.02 pH units). In addition, membrane-associated localization of vH+-ATPase B subunit disappeared. Metabolic control of vH+-ATPase involving regulation of its assembly state by elements of the glycolytic pathway could provide a means to adapt REC ATP consumption according to energy availability. PMID:20069127

  20. Linkage mapping of the locus for inherited ovine arthrogryposis (IOA) to sheep chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Angela M; MacHugh, David E; Park, Stephen D E; Scraggs, Erik; Haley, Chris S; Lynn, David J; Boland, Maurice P; Doherty, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    Arthrogryposis is a congenital malformation affecting the limbs of newborn animals and infants. Previous work has demonstrated that inherited ovine arthrogryposis (IOA) has an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Two affected homozygous recessive (art/art) Suffolk rams were used as founders for a backcross pedigree of half-sib families segregating the IOA trait. A genome scan was performed using 187 microsatellite genetic markers and all backcross animals were phenotyped at birth for the presence and severity of arthrogryposis. Pairwise LOD scores of 1.86, 1.35, and 1.32 were detected for three microsatellites, BM741, JAZ, and RM006, that are located on sheep Chr 5 (OAR5). Additional markers in the region were identified from the genetic linkage map of BTA7 and by in silico analyses of the draft bovine genome sequence, three of which were informative. Interval mapping of all autosomes produced an F value of 21.97 (p < 0.01) for a causative locus in the region of OAR5 previously flagged by pairwise linkage analysis. Inspection of the orthologous region of HSA5 highlighted a previously fine-mapped locus for human arthrogryposis multiplex congenita neurogenic type (AMCN). A survey of the HSA5 genome sequence identified plausible candidate genes for both IOA and human AMCN.

  1. Assessment of transthoracic ultrasound diagnosis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Cousens, C; Scott, P R

    2015-10-10

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), is a disease of increasing concern in the sheep industry. There is no commercial antemortem test for OPA; therefore, an early evaluation phase study was undertaken to examine the accuracy of transthoracic ultrasound examination using a 5-6.5 MHz sector ultrasound machine widely available in veterinary practice in the UK to diagnose OPA. Restraint, preparation and examination time was restricted to five minutes per sheep to represent the cost limitations of commercial sheep farming. One hundred sheep were examined. All 41 cases identified with suspect OPA lesions during transthoracic ultrasound examination had the diagnosis confirmed at postmortem examination, while sheep without ultrasonographic changes characteristic of OPA had no gross lesions of OPA at postmortem examination. This demonstrates the specificity of transthoracic ultrasound for diagnosis of OPA. The authors propose that, in the absence of any other reliable preclinical diagnostic test, the use of transthoracic ultrasound examination should be considered for a second opinion on an initial diagnosis of OPA, for screening purchased adult flock replacements for OPA, or for screening sheep in a known OPA-affected flock. However, the authors emphasise that a negative scan cannot provide a guarantee that the animal is free of JSRV infection nor early OPA.

  2. Characteristics of airflow in a CT-based ovine lung: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Kabilan, Senthil; Lin, Ching-Long; Hoffman, Eric A

    2007-04-01

    The transient airflow in a rigid, asymmetric monopodial sheep (ovine) tracheobronchial tree of up to 13 generations was investigated numerically. The lung geometry was segmented and reconstructed from computed-tomographic (CT) images. The flow characteristics in the image-based sheep airway were compared with the flow patterns produced by a Weibel-based model at prime locations. Boundary conditions were prescribed 1) a velocity profile from experimental data at the inlet and 2) zero pressure at the bronchial outlets. A mesh convergence study was carried out to establish confidence in the model predictions, and gross left-right ventilation was validated against experimental xenon wash-in-washout data. Detailed flow characteristics were investigated at three points in the breathing cycle: 1) peak inhalation, 2) peak exhalation, and 3) transition. Simulation results revealed fundamental differences between airflow in monopodial and bipodial branching airways. Compared with idealized bipodial flow, the flow in the sheep airway was asymmetric and highly vortical, especially during exhalation and transition. The streak lines during the inhalation phase suggest that the left and right upper lobes are ventilated by airflow in the peripheral region of the trachea. This work may contribute to understanding the interplay between structure and function in the lung.

  3. Vitrification devices affect structural and molecular status of in vitro matured ovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Succu, S; Leoni, G G; Bebbere, D; Berlinguer, F; Mossa, F; Bogliolo, L; Madeddu, M; Ledda, S; Naitana, S

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of three different cryodevices on membrane integrity, tubulin polymerization, maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity and developmental competence of in vitro matured (IVM) ovine oocytes. IVM oocytes were exposed during 3 min to 7.5% DMSO and 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) in TCM199 and 25 sec to 0.5 M sucrose, 16.5% DMSO and 16.5% EG, loaded in open pulled straws (OPS), cryoloops (CL) or cryotops (CT) and immersed into liquid nitrogen. Untreated (CTR) or exposed to vitrification solutions but not cryopreserved (EXP) oocytes were used as controls. After warming, double fluorescent staining evidenced a lower membrane integrity in vitrified groups compared to the controls (P < 0.01). After in vitro fertilization and culture OPS and CL groups evidenced a lower cleavage rate than CT and controls (P < 0.01) while blastocysts were obtained only in CL and EXP, at a lower rate than CTR (P < 0.01). All vitrified groups showed alterations in spindle conformation, which were partially recovered in OPS and CT groups. MPF activity was lower in treated compared to CTR and CT showed the lowest value (P < 0.01). After 2 hr culture MPF activity was restored in all groups except CT. Parthenogenetic activation was higher in treated compared to CTR and CT evidenced the highest value. Our results indicate that cryodevice influences not only the ability to survive cryopreservation but is also associated with molecular alterations which affect developmental competence.

  4. Regional pulmonary inflammation in an endotoxemic ovine acute lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Bustamante, A; Easley, R B; Fuld, M; Mulreany, D; Chon, D; Lewis, J F; Simon, B A

    2012-08-15

    The regional distribution of inflammation during acute lung injury (ALI) is not well known. In an ovine ALI model we studied regional alveolar inflammation, surfactant composition, and CT-derived regional specific volume change (sVol) and specific compliance (sC). 18 ventilated adult sheep received IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS) until severe ALI was achieved. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from apical and basal lung regions were obtained at baseline and injury time points, for analysis of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), BAL protein and surfactant composition. Whole lung CT images were obtained in 4 additional sheep. BAL protein and IL-1β were significantly higher in injured apical vs. basal regions. No significant regional surfactant composition changes were observed. Baseline sVol and sC were lower in apex vs. base; ALI enhanced this cranio-caudal difference, reaching statistical significance only for sC. This study suggests that apical lung regions show greater inflammation than basal ones during IV LPS-induced ALI which may relate to differences in regional mechanical events.

  5. The ovine nasal mucosa: an alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization.

    PubMed

    Sedgmen, Bradley J; Lofthouse, Shari A; Meeusen, Els N T

    2006-02-01

    The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by aerosol spray with KLH with and without cholera toxin (CT). Sheep immunized by injection with KLH/alum and aerosol spray with KLH/CT induced strong anti-KLH IgG and IgA serum antibody responses as well as specific T cell memory. Anti-KLH IgG1 responses were significantly higher following immunization by injection and no significant differences in anti-KLH IgG2 responses were detected between groups. Sheep immunized with KLH by aerosol spray without CT did not produce serum antibody and T cell memory responses. Antibody-secreting cells were present in the parotid lymph nodes (draining lymph nodes) of sheep immunized with KLH/alum and KLH/CT, but secreted only Ag-specific IgG1, and not IgG2 or IgA. These results suggest that aerosolization of soluble antigen formulations with CT may provide an alternative method of delivering nasal vaccines to sheep and other large animal species, and that further improvements in antigen penetration of nasal tissues may dramatically improve the strength of the immune response.

  6. Impaction grafting with morsellised allograft and tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite: incorporation within ovine metaphyseal bone defects.

    PubMed

    Pratt, J N J; Griffon, D J; Dunlop, D G; Smith, N; Howie, C R

    2002-08-01

    An ovine model was used to investigate the in vivo properties of impacted tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) aggregates, varying in chemical composition (ratio of TCP to HA) and particle size distribution (8 versus 3 particle size ranges). All pellets were impacted to a standard compactive effort. Eight sheep underwent implantation of pellets in 4 metaphyseal defects in both rear limbs. Treatment groups consisted of: (1) allograft (clinical control). (2) 50/50 allograft/80% HA/20% TCP in 8 particle size ranges, (3) 50/50 allograft/80% TCP/20% HA in 8 sizes and (4) 50/50 allograft/80% HA/20% TCP in only 3 sizes of particles. Healing of defects was evaluated at 14 weeks with computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry. The computer tomography (CT) density measured in all defects containing synthetic agents was higher than in defects filled with allograft alone (p<0.01). Defects containing 8 sizes of 80% HA/ 20% TCP granules (group 2) achieved lower histological scores and contained less bone than the clinical control (p<0.05), whereas groups 3 and 4 did not differ from the control. Although all synthetic agents were osteoconductive, our results suggest that increasing the ratio of TCP over HA and limiting the number of particle size ranges to 3 instead of 8 improve the performance of impacted aggregates as graft expanders. Evaluation under loading conditions of morsellised allograft expanded with 80% TCP/20% HA (BoneSave) in 3 particle size ranges is warranted.

  7. [Bone tissue engineering. Reconstruction of critical sized segmental bone defects in the ovine tibia].

    PubMed

    Reichert, J C; Epari, D R; Wullschleger, M E; Berner, A; Saifzadeh, S; Nöth, U; Dickinson, I C; Schuetz, M A; Hutmacher, D W

    2012-04-01

    Well-established therapies for bone defects are restricted to bone grafts which face significant disadvantages (limited availability, donor site morbidity, insufficient integration). Therefore, the objective was to develop an alternative approach investigating the regenerative potential of medical grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) and silk-hydroxyapatite (silk-HA) scaffolds.Critical sized ovine tibial defects were created and stabilized. Defects were left untreated, reconstructed with autologous bone grafts (ABG) and mPCL-TCP or silk-HA scaffolds. Animals were observed for 12 weeks. X-ray analysis, torsion testing and quantitative computed tomography (CT) analyses were performed. Radiological analysis confirmed the critical nature of the defects. Full defect bridging occurred in the autograft and partial bridging in the mPCL-TCP group. Only little bone formation was observed with silk-HA scaffolds. Biomechanical testing revealed a higher torsional moment/stiffness (p < 0.05) and CT analysis a significantly higher amount of bone formation for the ABG group when compared to the silk-HA group. No significant difference was determined between the ABG and mPCL-TCP groups. The results of this study suggest that mPCL-TCP scaffolds combined can serve as an alternative to autologous bone grafting in long bone defect regeneration. The combination of mPCL-TCP with osteogenic cells or growth factors represents an attractive means to further enhance bone formation.

  8. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  9. Quantifying the risk from ovine BSE and the impact of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Helen R; Baylis, Matthew; Sivam, Kumar; McLean, Angela R

    2007-06-22

    Although no naturally infected sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has ever been discovered, it remains possible that BSE once infected the UK sheep population, has been transmitted between sheep, and is still present today. We constructed a mathematical model to assess the current maximum theoretical exposure to consumers from BSE-infected ovine material and to estimate the risk reduction that could be achieved by abattoir-based control options if BSE-infected sheep were ever found in the national flock. We predict that, if present, the exposure to consumers from a single BSE-infected sheep would be high: one sheep, close to the end of its incubation period, is likely to contribute 10-1000 times more infectious material than a fully infectious cow. Furthermore, 30% of this exposure comes from infectivity residing in lymphatic and peripheral tissue that cannot be completely removed from a carcass. We are 95% confident that throughout Great Britain, no more than four sheep flocks currently harbour an ongoing BSE epidemic. However, since the exposure from a single infected sheep is high, the annual human exposure from four 'typical' BSE-infected flocks could be considerable. Small reductions in exposure could be achieved by strategies based on tissue testing, a 12-month age restriction or expanded definitions of high-risk tissues. A six-month age restriction is likely to be more effective and genotype-based strategies the most effective.

  10. Drug Target Identification and Prioritization for Treatment of Ovine Foot Rot: An In Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ovine foot rot is an infection of the feet of sheep, mainly caused by Dichelobacter nodosus. In its virulent form, it is highly contagious and debilitating, causing significant losses in the form of decline in wool growth and quality and poor fertility. Current methods of treatment are ineffective in complete eradication. Effective antibiotic treatment of foot rot is hence necessary to ensure better outcomes during control phases by reduction in culling count and the possibility of carriers of the infection. Using computational approaches, we have identified a set of 297 proteins that are essential to the D. nodosus and nonhomologous with sheep proteins. These proteins may be considered as potential vaccine candidates or drug targets for designing antibiotics against the bacterium. This core set of drug targets have been analyzed for pathway annotation to identify 67 proteins involved in unique bacterial pathways. Choke-point analysis on the drug targets identified 138 choke-point proteins, 29 involved in unique bacterial pathways. Subcellular localization was also predicted for each target to identify the ones that are membrane associated or secreted extracellularly. In addition, a total of 13 targets were identified that are common in at least 10 pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:27379247

  11. RNA-seq Analysis of Overexpressing Ovine AANAT Gene of Melatonin Biosynthesis in Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shan; Huang, Yanhua; Liu, Sijia; Guan, Cong; Cui, Xin; Tian, Danyang; Zhang, Yunwei; Yang, Fuyu

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin serves important functions in the promotion of growth and anti-stress regulation by efficient radical scavenging and regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in various plants. To investigate its regulatory roles and metabolism pathways, the transcriptomic profile of overexpressing the ovine arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (oAANAT) gene, encoding the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, was compared with empty vector control using RNA-seq in switchgrass, a model plant of cellulosic ethanol conversion. The 85.22 million high quality reads that were assembled into 135,684 unigenes were generated by Illumina sequencing for transgenic oAANAT switchgrass with an average sequence length of 716 bp. A total of 946 differentially expression genes in transgenic line comparing to control switchgrass, including 737 up-regulated and 209 down-regulated genes, were mainly enriched with two main functional patterns of melatonin identifying by gene ontology analysis: the growth regulator and stress tolerance. Furthermore, KEGG maps indicated that the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolite (phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, steroids, stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, and gingerol) and signaling pathways (MAPK signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway) were involved in melatonin metabolism. This study substantially expands the transcriptome information for switchgrass and provides valuable clues for identifying candidate genes involved in melatonin biosynthesis and elucidating the mechanism of melatonin metabolism. PMID:27656186

  12. In Vitro and in Vivo nucleosome positioning on the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene are related.

    PubMed

    Gencheva, Marieta; Boa, Simon; Fraser, Ross; Simmen, Martin W; A Whitelaw, C Bruce; Allan, James

    2006-08-11

    Although positioned nucleosomes are known to play a direct, localised role in regulating access to DNA sequence, they also have the potential, through their long-range distribution, to affect the detailed structure of the higher-order chromatin fibre. To investigate this possibility, we firstly mapped, in vitro, the sequence-dependent positions that the core histone octamer adopts when reconstituted onto DNA containing the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene. These positioning sites are discussed in terms of their relative affinity for the histone octamer, their locations with respect to the gene sequence and their periodic distribution throughout the gene region. Secondly, we mapped, in vivo, the sites that nucleosomes occupy on the same sequence in liver nuclei, where the gene is transcriptionally inactive. Although the sequence is largely packaged into regularly spaced nucleosomes, reflecting a fibre of uniform higher-order structure, this organisation is disrupted by a number of unusual chromatin structures in a region stretching from the second to the third introns of the gene. A comparison of the in vitro and in vivo nucleosome positioning data shows that they are qualitatively and quantitatively related, suggesting that the structure of the higher-order chromatin fibre containing the beta-lactoglobulin gene is determined, in part, by the long-range organisation of the non-coding sequences within which the gene is embedded.

  13. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  14. Ontogeny of angiotensin II receptors, types 1 and 2, in ovine mesonephros and metanephros.

    PubMed

    Butkus, A; Albiston, A; Alcorn, D; Giles, M; McCausland, J; Moritz, K; Zhuo, J; Wintour, E M

    1997-09-01

    By RNAse protection assay, hybridization histochemistry, and in vitro autoradiography it was shown that both mRNA and protein for AT1 and AT2 receptors were present in ovine fetal meso- and metanephroi at 40 days of gestation (term approximately 150 days). AT1 mRNA was localized to presumptive mesangial cells of glomeruli at 40-, 75-, 131-gestational-day-old fetuses and two-day-old lambs, in addition to being widely present in interstitial cells of the cortex and medulla, once these zones formed (60 days). By two days after birth the medullary AT1 distribution was confined to the inner stripe of the outer medulla. AT2 mRNA was present in peripheral interstitial/tissue of the mesonephros, and interstitial tissue surrounding developing glomeruli, but not the outermost nephrogenic mesenchyme in the metanephros from 40 to approximately 131 days (the period of active nephrogenesis). In addition, AT2 mRNA was localized to epithelial cells of the macula densa in metanephroi (40 to 131 gestational days) during, but not after completion, of nephrogenesis. These studies suggest that angiotensin II (Ang II) could have differentiating effects, via AT1 receptors, from very early in development. The unique epithelial site of AT2 expression in the macula densa raises the possibility that Ang II may play a role in the invariant positioning of the macula densa at the pole of its glomerulus, via this receptor.

  15. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  16. Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  17. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta

    PubMed Central

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Buck, Amy H.; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; McNeilly, Tom N.

    2016-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478

  18. Cytotoxic evaluation of biomechanically improved crosslinked ovine collagen on human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Awang, M A; Firdaus, M A B; Busra, M B; Chowdhury, S R; Fadilah, N R; Wan Hamirul, W K; Reusmaazran, M Y; Aminuddin, M Y; Ruszymah, B H I

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering.

  19. Polyceraty (multi-horns) in Damara sheep maps to ovine chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Greyvenstein, O F C; Reich, C M; van Marle-Koster, E; Riley, D G; Hayes, B J

    2016-04-01

    Polyceraty (presence of multiple horns) is rare in modern day ungulates. Although not found in wild sheep, polyceraty does occur in a small number of domestic sheep breeds covering a wide geographical region. Damara are fat-tailed hair sheep, from the south-western region of Africa, which display polyceraty, with horn number ranging from zero to four. We conducted a genome-wide association study for horn number with 43 Damara genotyped with 606 006 SNP markers. The analysis revealed a region with multiple significant SNPs on ovine chromosome 2, in a location different from the mutation for polled in sheep on chromosome 10. The causal mutation for polyceraty was not identified; however, the region associated with polyceraty spans nine HOXD genes, which are critical in embryonic development of appendages. Mutations in HOXD genes are implicated in polydactly phenotypes in mice and humans. There was no evidence for epistatic interactions contributing to polyceraty. This is the first report on the genetic mechanisms underlying polyceraty in the under-studied Damara.

  20. Acclimatization to long-term hypoxia: gene expression in ovine carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to acute high-altitude hypoxia is associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a consequence of low arterial O2 tension. However, in response to high altitude acclimatization, CBF returns to levels similar to those at sea level, and tissue blood flow is maintained by an increase in angiogenesis. Of consequence, dysregulation of the acclimatization responses and CBF can result in acute mountain sickness, acute cerebral and/or pulmonary edema. To elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in successful acclimatization to high altitude, in ovine carotid arteries, we tested the hypothesis that high altitude-associated long-term hypoxia results in changes in gene expression of critical signaling pathways. We acclimatized nonpregnant adult sheep to 3,801 m altitude for ∼110 days and conducted oligonucleotide microarray experiments on carotid arteries. Of a total of 116 regulated genes, 58 genes were significantly upregulated and 58 genes were significantly downregulated (each >2-fold, P < 0.05). Major upregulated genes included suprabasin and myelin basic protein, whereas downregulated genes included BAG2. Several of these genes are known to activate the ERK canonical signal transduction pathway and the process of angiogenesis. We conclude that among other changes, the altered signal transduction molecules involved in high-altitude acclimatization are associated ERK activation and angiogenesis.