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Sample records for oxford record linkage

  1. Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebekah; Roberts, Stephen E; Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2010-03-16

    There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS) to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s), low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6), male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0), low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3), maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3) and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3). In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7) and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2). Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7), age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7); high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82). Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more common in males than females (1.4; 1

  2. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL)

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Objective Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human–machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. Methods In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. Results We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Conclusions Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human–machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility. PMID:24201028

  3. Efficient Record Linkage Algorithms Using Complete Linkage Clustering.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-01-01

    Data from different agencies share data of the same individuals. Linking these datasets to identify all the records belonging to the same individuals is a crucial and challenging problem, especially given the large volumes of data. A large number of available algorithms for record linkage are prone to either time inefficiency or low-accuracy in finding matches and non-matches among the records. In this paper we propose efficient as well as reliable sequential and parallel algorithms for the record linkage problem employing hierarchical clustering methods. We employ complete linkage hierarchical clustering algorithms to address this problem. In addition to hierarchical clustering, we also use two other techniques: elimination of duplicate records and blocking. Our algorithms use sorting as a sub-routine to identify identical copies of records. We have tested our algorithms on datasets with millions of synthetic records. Experimental results show that our algorithms achieve nearly 100% accuracy. Parallel implementations achieve almost linear speedups. Time complexities of these algorithms do not exceed those of previous best-known algorithms. Our proposed algorithms outperform previous best-known algorithms in terms of accuracy consuming reasonable run times.

  4. Efficient Record Linkage Algorithms Using Complete Linkage Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-01-01

    Data from different agencies share data of the same individuals. Linking these datasets to identify all the records belonging to the same individuals is a crucial and challenging problem, especially given the large volumes of data. A large number of available algorithms for record linkage are prone to either time inefficiency or low-accuracy in finding matches and non-matches among the records. In this paper we propose efficient as well as reliable sequential and parallel algorithms for the record linkage problem employing hierarchical clustering methods. We employ complete linkage hierarchical clustering algorithms to address this problem. In addition to hierarchical clustering, we also use two other techniques: elimination of duplicate records and blocking. Our algorithms use sorting as a sub-routine to identify identical copies of records. We have tested our algorithms on datasets with millions of synthetic records. Experimental results show that our algorithms achieve nearly 100% accuracy. Parallel implementations achieve almost linear speedups. Time complexities of these algorithms do not exceed those of previous best-known algorithms. Our proposed algorithms outperform previous best-known algorithms in terms of accuracy consuming reasonable run times. PMID:27124604

  5. The Iowa Record-Linkage Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    Conducted Iowa Record-Linkage Study, reviewing records of psychiatric inpatients to 1 hospital in 10-year period and linking information with all Iowa death certificates for same period, resulting in identification of 331 deaths. Data analysis revealed that relative risk for premature death was greatest among women and the young. (NB)

  6. Some methods for blindfolded record linkage

    PubMed Central

    Churches, Tim; Christen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Background The linkage of records which refer to the same entity in separate data collections is a common requirement in public health and biomedical research. Traditionally, record linkage techniques have required that all the identifying data in which links are sought be revealed to at least one party, often a third party. This necessarily invades personal privacy and requires complete trust in the intentions of that party and their ability to maintain security and confidentiality. Dusserre, Quantin, Bouzelat and colleagues have demonstrated that it is possible to use secure one-way hash transformations to carry out follow-up epidemiological studies without any party having to reveal identifying information about any of the subjects – a technique which we refer to as "blindfolded record linkage". A limitation of their method is that only exact comparisons of values are possible, although phonetic encoding of names and other strings can be used to allow for some types of typographical variation and data errors. Methods A method is described which permits the calculation of a general similarity measure, the n-gram score, without having to reveal the data being compared, albeit at some cost in computation and data communication. This method can be combined with public key cryptography and automatic estimation of linkage model parameters to create an overall system for blindfolded record linkage. Results The system described offers good protection against misdeeds or security failures by any one party, but remains vulnerable to collusion between or simultaneous compromise of two or more parties involved in the linkage operation. In order to reduce the likelihood of this, the use of last-minute allocation of tasks to substitutable servers is proposed. Proof-of-concept computer programmes written in the Python programming language are provided to illustrate the similarity comparison protocol. Conclusion Although the protocols described in this paper are not

  7. Composite Bloom Filters for Secure Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Durham, Elizabeth Ashley; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Toth, Csaba; Kuzu, Mehmet; Malin, Bradley

    2014-12-01

    The process of record linkage seeks to integrate instances that correspond to the same entity. Record linkage has traditionally been performed through the comparison of identifying field values (e.g., Surname), however, when databases are maintained by disparate organizations, the disclosure of such information can breach the privacy of the corresponding individuals. Various private record linkage (PRL) methods have been developed to obscure such identifiers, but they vary widely in their ability to balance competing goals of accuracy, efficiency and security. The tokenization and hashing of field values into Bloom filters (BF) enables greater linkage accuracy and efficiency than other PRL methods, but the encodings may be compromised through frequency-based cryptanalysis. Our objective is to adapt a BF encoding technique to mitigate such attacks with minimal sacrifices in accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish these goals, we introduce a statistically-informed method to generate BF encodings that integrate bits from multiple fields, the frequencies of which are provably associated with a minimum number of fields. Our method enables a user-specified tradeoff between security and accuracy. We compare our encoding method with other techniques using a public dataset of voter registration records and demonstrate that the increases in security come with only minor losses to accuracy.

  8. Composite Bloom Filters for Secure Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Elizabeth Ashley; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Toth, Csaba; Kuzu, Mehmet; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The process of record linkage seeks to integrate instances that correspond to the same entity. Record linkage has traditionally been performed through the comparison of identifying field values (e.g., Surname), however, when databases are maintained by disparate organizations, the disclosure of such information can breach the privacy of the corresponding individuals. Various private record linkage (PRL) methods have been developed to obscure such identifiers, but they vary widely in their ability to balance competing goals of accuracy, efficiency and security. The tokenization and hashing of field values into Bloom filters (BF) enables greater linkage accuracy and efficiency than other PRL methods, but the encodings may be compromised through frequency-based cryptanalysis. Our objective is to adapt a BF encoding technique to mitigate such attacks with minimal sacrifices in accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish these goals, we introduce a statistically-informed method to generate BF encodings that integrate bits from multiple fields, the frequencies of which are provably associated with a minimum number of fields. Our method enables a user-specified tradeoff between security and accuracy. We compare our encoding method with other techniques using a public dataset of voter registration records and demonstrate that the increases in security come with only minor losses to accuracy. PMID:25530689

  9. Client and Birth Record Linkage: A Method, Biases, and Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holian, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes record linkage as a data-generating technique, and presents a method for linking client records to live and stillbirth records, using 32,974 births in the Cleveland (Ohio) area. Biases that can enter the linkage process and general research issues related to record linkage are discussed. (SLD)

  10. Technical challenges of providing record linkage services for research.

    PubMed

    Boyd, James H; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Brown, Adrian P; Semmens, James B

    2014-03-31

    Record linkage techniques are widely used to enable health researchers to gain event based longitudinal information for entire populations. The task of record linkage is increasingly being undertaken by specialised linkage units (SLUs). In addition to the complexity of undertaking probabilistic record linkage, these units face additional technical challenges in providing record linkage 'as a service' for research. The extent of this functionality, and approaches to solving these issues, has had little focus in the record linkage literature. Few, if any, of the record linkage packages or systems currently used by SLUs include the full range of functions required. This paper identifies and discusses some of the functions that are required or undertaken by SLUs in the provision of record linkage services. These include managing routine, on-going linkage; storing and handling changing data; handling different linkage scenarios; accommodating ever increasing datasets. Automated linkage processes are one way of ensuring consistency of results and scalability of service. Alternative solutions to some of these challenges are presented. By maintaining a full history of links, and storing pairwise information, many of the challenges around handling 'open' records, and providing automated managed extractions are solved. A number of these solutions were implemented as part of the development of the National Linkage System (NLS) by the Centre for Data Linkage (part of the Population Health Research Network) in Australia. The demand for, and complexity of, linkage services is growing. This presents as a challenge to SLUs as they seek to service the varying needs of dozens of research projects annually. Linkage units need to be both flexible and scalable to meet this demand. It is hoped the solutions presented here can help mitigate these difficulties.

  11. Record linkage in Scotland and its applications to health research.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Michael; Kirby, Brad; Penny, Kay I

    2012-10-01

      This paper will focus on the key concepts behind record linkage and describe how probability matching of Scottish health records can be used for national health research.   Record linkage can bring together two or more records relating to the same individual. This allows information from multiple sources to be joined together to produce richer data sets for research purposes and has wide applicability in public health and epidemiological research. The probability matching techniques underpinning record linkage bring together records on a patient basis using key identifying information on each record. Scotland has a strong track record for performing linkage for research purposes owing to routinely collected and well-maintained national administrative health data sets, the emergence of the Scottish record linkage system and organisations like the Information Services Division of NHS National Services Scotland who centrally hold permanently linked patient-based databases. Design.  A record linkage retrospective population cohort study is described within this paper.   The paper will describe current linkage methodology before discussing typical applications in the setting of Information Services Division and focusing on a particular linkage study investigating rates and risk factors for gastroschisis.   Conclusions from the gastroschisis study are typical of the types of important findings drawn from analysing linked health data.   Scotland's good track record for linking records for health research is evidenced by the high volume of research projects, publications and findings resulting from probability matching of national health data. Relevance to clinical practice.  Record linkage allows information relating to the same person held across different data sources to be brought together. Probabilistic record linkage can overcome data quality issues, producing accurate matches. This allows linked, analysable, patient-based databases, capable of

  12. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of a virtual EPR and automated contextual linkage to multiple sources of support information on the Oxford Clinical Intranet.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J. D.; Nurse, D.

    1999-01-01

    We have used internet-standard tools to provide access for clinicians to the components of the electronic patient record held on multiple remote disparate systems. Through the same interface we have provided access to multiple knowledgebases, some written locally and others published elsewhere. We have developed linkage between these two types of information which removes the need for the user to drill down into each knowledgebase to search for relevant information. This approach may help in the implementation of evidence-based practice. The major problems appear to be semantic rather than technological. The intranet was developed at low cost and is now in routine use. This approach appears to be transferable across systems and organisations. PMID:10566476

  14. RLT-S: A Web System for Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2015-01-01

    Background Record linkage integrates records across multiple related data sources identifying duplicates and accounting for possible errors. Real life applications require efficient algorithms to merge these voluminous data sources to find out all records belonging to same individuals. Our recently devised highly efficient record linkage algorithms provide best-known solutions to this challenging problem. Method We have developed RLT-S, a freely available web tool, which implements our single linkage clustering algorithm for record linkage. This tool requires input data sets and a small set of configuration settings about these files to work efficiently. RLT-S employs exact match clustering, blocking on a specified attribute and single linkage based hierarchical clustering among these blocks. Results RLT-S is an implementation package of our sequential record linkage algorithm. It outperforms previous best-known implementations by a large margin. The tool is at least two times faster for any dataset than the previous best-known tools. Conclusions RLT-S tool implements our record linkage algorithm that outperforms previous best-known algorithms in this area. This website also contains necessary information such as instructions, submission history, feedback, publications and some other sections to facilitate the usage of the tool. Availability RLT-S is integrated into http://www.rlatools.com, which is currently serving this tool only. The tool is freely available and can be used without login. All data files used in this paper have been stored in https://github.com/abdullah009/DataRLATools. For copies of the relevant programs please see https://github.com/abdullah009/RLATools. PMID:25942687

  15. Quantification of NSW Ambulance Record Linkages with Multiple External Datasets.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Therese; Muecke, Sandy; Simpson, Judy; Irvine, Katie; Jenkins, André

    2015-01-01

    This study has two aims: 1) to describe linkage rates between ambulance data and external datasets for "episodes of care" and "patient only" linkages in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; and 2) to detect and report any systematic issues with linkage that relate to patients, and operational or clinical variables that may introduce bias in subsequent studies if not adequately addressed. During 2010-11, the Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL) in NSW, linked the records for patients attended by NSW Ambulance paramedics for the period July 2006 to June 2009, with four external datasets: Emergency Department Data Collection; Admitted Patient Data Collection; NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages death registration data; and the Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality data. This study reports linkage rates in terms of those "expected" to link and those who were "not expected" to link with external databases within 24 hours of paramedic attendance. Following thorough data preparation processes, 2,041,728 NSW Ambulance care episodes for 1,116,509 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The overall episode-specific hospital linkage rate was 97.2%. Where a patient was not transported to hospital following paramedic care, 8.6% of these episodes resulted in an emergency department attendance within 24 hours. For all care episodes, 5.2% linked to a death record at some time within the 3-year period, with 2.4% of all death episodes occurring within 7 days of a paramedic encounter. For NSW Ambulance episodes of care that were expected to link to an external dataset but did not, nonlinkage to hospital admission records tended to decrease with age. For all other variables, issues relating to rates of linkage and nonlinkage were more indiscriminate. This quantification of the limitations of this large linked dataset will underpin the interpretation and results of ensuing studies that will inform future clinical and operational policies and practices at NSW Ambulance.

  16. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Mi, Tian; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-01

    Integrating data from multiple sources is a crucial and challenging problem. Even though there exist numerous algorithms for record linkage or deduplication, they suffer from either large time needs or restrictions on the number of datasets that they can integrate. In this paper we report efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage which handle any number of datasets and outperform previous algorithms. Our algorithms employ hierarchical clustering algorithms as the basis. A key idea that we use is radix sorting on certain attributes to eliminate identical records before any further processing. Another novel idea is to form a graph that links similar records and find the connected components. Our sequential and parallel algorithms have been tested on a real dataset of 1,083,878 records and synthetic datasets ranging in size from 50,000 to 9,000,000 records. Our sequential algorithm runs at least two times faster, for any dataset, than the previous best-known algorithm, the two-phase algorithm using faster computation of the edit distance (TPA (FCED)). The speedups obtained by our parallel algorithm are almost linear. For example, we get a speedup of 7.5 with 8 cores (residing in a single node), 14.1 with 16 cores (residing in two nodes), and 26.4 with 32 cores (residing in four nodes). We have compared the performance of our sequential algorithm with TPA (FCED) and found that our algorithm outperforms the previous one. The accuracy is the same as that of this previous best-known algorithm.

  17. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Mi, Tian; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Integrating data from multiple sources is a crucial and challenging problem. Even though there exist numerous algorithms for record linkage or deduplication, they suffer from either large time needs or restrictions on the number of datasets that they can integrate. In this paper we report efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage which handle any number of datasets and outperform previous algorithms. Methods Our algorithms employ hierarchical clustering algorithms as the basis. A key idea that we use is radix sorting on certain attributes to eliminate identical records before any further processing. Another novel idea is to form a graph that links similar records and find the connected components. Results Our sequential and parallel algorithms have been tested on a real dataset of 1 083 878 records and synthetic datasets ranging in size from 50 000 to 9 000 000 records. Our sequential algorithm runs at least two times faster, for any dataset, than the previous best-known algorithm, the two-phase algorithm using faster computation of the edit distance (TPA (FCED)). The speedups obtained by our parallel algorithm are almost linear. For example, we get a speedup of 7.5 with 8 cores (residing in a single node), 14.1 with 16 cores (residing in two nodes), and 26.4 with 32 cores (residing in four nodes). Conclusions We have compared the performance of our sequential algorithm with TPA (FCED) and found that our algorithm outperforms the previous one. The accuracy is the same as that of this previous best-known algorithm. PMID:24154837

  18. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Kho, Abel N; Cashy, John P; Jackson, Kathryn L; Pah, Adam R; Goel, Satyender; Boehnke, Jörn; Humphries, John Eric; Kominers, Scott Duke; Hota, Bala N; Sims, Shannon A; Malin, Bradley A; French, Dustin D; Walunas, Theresa L; Meltzer, David O; Kaleba, Erin O; Jones, Roderick C; Galanter, William L

    2015-09-01

    To design and implement a tool that creates a secure, privacy preserving linkage of electronic health record (EHR) data across multiple sites in a large metropolitan area in the United States (Chicago, IL), for use in clinical research. The authors developed and distributed a software application that performs standardized data cleaning, preprocessing, and hashing of patient identifiers to remove all protected health information. The application creates seeded hash code combinations of patient identifiers using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant SHA-512 algorithm that minimizes re-identification risk. The authors subsequently linked individual records using a central honest broker with an algorithm that assigns weights to hash combinations in order to generate high specificity matches. The software application successfully linked and de-duplicated 7 million records across 6 institutions, resulting in a cohort of 5 million unique records. Using a manually reconciled set of 11 292 patients as a gold standard, the software achieved a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%, with a majority of the missed matches accounted for by patients with both a missing social security number and last name change. Using 3 disease examples, it is demonstrated that the software can reduce duplication of patient records across sites by as much as 28%. Software that standardizes the assignment of a unique seeded hash identifier merged through an agreed upon third-party honest broker can enable large-scale secure linkage of EHR data for epidemiologic and public health research. The software algorithm can improve future epidemiologic research by providing more comprehensive data given that patients may make use of multiple healthcare systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A literature review of record linkage procedures focusing on infant health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Record linkage is a powerful tool in assembling information from different data sources and has been used by a number of public health researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the record linkage methodologies, focusing particularly on probabilistic record linkage. We then stress the purposes and research applications of linking records by focusing on studies of infant health outcomes based on large data sets, and provide a critical review of the studies in Brazil.

  20. Improving Integration Effectiveness of ID Mapping Based Biological Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biological objects such as genes, proteins, and pathways are represented by a convenient identifier, or ID, which is then used to cross reference, link and describe objects in biological databases. Relationships among the objects are often established using non-trivial and computationally complex ID mapping systems or converters, and are stored in authoritative databases such as UniGene, GeneCards, PIR and BioMart. Despite best efforts, such mappings are largely incomplete and riddled with false negatives. Consequently, data integration using record linkage that relies on these mappings produces poor quality of data, inadvertently leading to erroneous conclusions. In this paper, we discuss this largely ignored dimension of data integration, examine how the ubiquitous use of identifiers in biological databases is a significant barrier to knowledge fusion using distributed computational pipelines, and propose two algorithms for ad hoc and restriction free ID mapping of arbitrary types using online resources. We also propose two declarative statements for ID conversion and data integration based on ID mapping on-the-fly.

  1. Association between multiple sclerosis and epilepsy: large population-based record-linkage studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) and epilepsy are both fairly common and it follows that they may sometimes occur together in the same people by chance. We sought to determine whether hospitalisation for MS and hospitalisation for epilepsy occur together more often than expected by chance alone. Methods We analysed two datasets of linked statistical hospital admission records covering the Oxford Record Linkage Study area (ORLS, 1963–1998) and all England (1999–2011). In each, we calculated the rate of occurrence of hospital admission for epilepsy in people after admission for MS, compared with equivalent rates in a control cohort, and expressed the results as a relative risk (RR). Results The RR for hospital admission for epilepsy following an admission for MS was significantly high at 4.1 (95% confidence interval 3.1–5.3) in the ORLS and 3.3 (95% CI 3.1–3.4) in the all-England cohort. The RR for a first recorded admission for epilepsy 10 years and more after first recorded admission for MS was 4.7 (2.8–7.3) in ORLS and 3.9 (3.1–4.9) in the national cohort. The RR for the converse–MS following hospitalisation for epilepsy–was 2.5 (95% CI 1.7–3.5) in the ORLS and 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.1) in the English dataset. Conclusions MS and epilepsy occur together more commonly than by chance. One possible explanation is that an MS lesion acts as a focus of an epileptic seizure; but other possibilities are discussed. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of epilepsy in people with MS. The findings may also suggest clues for researchers in developing hypotheses about underlying mechanisms for the two conditions. PMID:24304488

  2. The Oxford clinical intranet: providing clinicians with access to patient records and multiple knowledge bases with internet technology.

    PubMed

    Kay, Jonathan D S; Nurse, Dave; Bountis, Christos; Paddon, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The Oxford Clinical Intranet provides clinicians in primary and secondary care across Oxfordshire with: Access to information about their patients held on multiple remote disparate computer systems, including admissions and episodes, Laboratory Medicine reports, Radiology reports and hospital discharge letters. The patient records are managed using CSW Case Notes. Access to support and advisory information, developed both within the organization and collected from other sites and projects, a wide range of internal handbooks, directories and guidelines and links to external resources, including evidence-based resources, the Cochrane Collaboration and the NHS National electronic Library of Health. Automated retrieval and presentation of the support information that is contextually appropriate to the task being carried out by the clinician and the information held about the patient. For example laboratory reports are linked to handbooks and other reference sources using eLABook, a web-interfaced database subsystem. Internet technology has been used throughout, thus providing a thin-client architecture with cross-platform ability. Appropriate data standards have been used across the communicating systems and the intranet is compliant with the UK eGovernment Interoperability Framework. The intranet was developed at low cost and is now in routine use. This approach appears to be transferable across systems and organisations.

  3. Quantifying the Correctness, Computational Complexity, and Security of Privacy-Preserving String Comparators for Record Linkage.

    PubMed

    Durham, Elizabeth; Xue, Yuan; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Record linkage is the task of identifying records from disparate data sources that refer to the same entity. It is an integral component of data processing in distributed settings, where the integration of information from multiple sources can prevent duplication and enrich overall data quality, thus enabling more detailed and correct analysis. Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is a variant of the task in which data owners wish to perform linkage without revealing identifiers associated with the records. This task is desirable in various domains, including healthcare, where it may not be possible to reveal patient identity due to confidentiality requirements, and in business, where it could be disadvantageous to divulge customers' identities. To perform PPRL, it is necessary to apply string comparators that function in the privacy-preserving space. A number of privacy-preserving string comparators (PPSCs) have been proposed, but little research has compared them in the context of a real record linkage application. This paper performs a principled and comprehensive evaluation of six PPSCs in terms of three key properties: 1) correctness of record linkage predictions, 2) computational complexity, and 3) security. We utilize a real publicly-available dataset, derived from the North Carolina voter registration database, to evaluate the tradeoffs between the aforementioned properties. Among our results, we find that PPSCs that partition, encode, and compare strings yield highly accurate record linkage results. However, as a tradeoff, we observe that such PPSCs are less secure than those that map and compare strings in a reduced dimensional space.

  4. Ensuring Privacy When Integrating Patient-Based Datasets: New Methods and Developments in Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Adrian P.; Ferrante, Anna M.; Randall, Sean M.; Boyd, James H.; Semmens, James B.

    2017-01-01

    In an era where the volume of structured and unstructured digital data has exploded, there has been an enormous growth in the creation of data about individuals that can be used for understanding and treating disease. Joining these records together at an individual level provides a complete picture of a patient’s interaction with health services and allows better assessment of patient outcomes and effectiveness of treatment and services. Record linkage techniques provide an efficient and cost-effective method to bring individual records together as patient profiles. These linkage procedures bring their own challenges, especially relating to the protection of privacy. The development and implementation of record linkage systems that do not require the release of personal information can reduce the risks associated with record linkage and overcome legal barriers to data sharing. Current conceptual and experimental privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) models show promise in addressing data integration challenges. Enhancing and operationalizing PPRL protocols can help address the dilemma faced by some custodians between using data to improve quality of life and dealing with the ethical, legal, and administrative issues associated with protecting an individual’s privacy. These methods can reduce the risk to privacy, as they do not require personally identifying information to be shared. PPRL methods can improve the delivery of record linkage services to the health and broader research community. PMID:28303240

  5. An empiric weight computation for record linkage using linearly combined fields' similarity scores.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Guttmann, Aline; Demongeot, Jacques; Boire, Jean-Yves; Ouchchane, Lemlih

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage is the task of identifying which records from one or more data sources refer to the same entity. Many record linkage methods were introduced and applied over the last decades. In general, the principle is to compare a range of available identifier fields in record pairs among different data sources, in order to make a linkage decision. The Fellegi-Sunter probabilistic record linkage (PRL-FS) is one of the most commonly used methods. To obtain a better performance, Winkler proposed an enhanced PRL-FS method (PRL-W) that takes into account field similarity, but its implementation requires the estimation of much more parameters which complicates the task. Consequently, we propose to develop a method that contains the best features in the PRL-FS and the PRL-W methods: simplicity of parameters estimation and consideration of fields' similarities. We hypothesize that our record linkage method outperforms the PRL-FS, and can achieve a similar performance of the PRL-W. This paper presents briefly the PRL-FS and PRL-W methods, and describes in details how to combine fields' similarity scores to create a novel record pair weight. Simulated data sets were used to assess and to compare these three methods regarding their ability to reduce the rates of false matches and false non-matches.

  6. Use of graph theory measures to identify errors in record linkage.

    PubMed

    Randall, Sean M; Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-07-01

    Ensuring high linkage quality is important in many record linkage applications. Current methods for ensuring quality are manual and resource intensive. This paper seeks to determine the effectiveness of graph theory techniques in identifying record linkage errors. A range of graph theory techniques was applied to two linked datasets, with known truth sets. The ability of graph theory techniques to identify groups containing errors was compared to a widely used threshold setting technique. This methodology shows promise; however, further investigations into graph theory techniques are required. The development of more efficient and effective methods of improving linkage quality will result in higher quality datasets that can be delivered to researchers in shorter timeframes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  8. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  9. Accuracy of probabilistic and deterministic record linkage: the case of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gisele Pinto; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza de Souza; de Camargo, Kenneth Rochel; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the accuracy of deterministic and probabilistic record linkage to identify TB duplicate records, as well as the characteristics of discordant pairs. METHODS The study analyzed all TB records from 2009 to 2011 in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A deterministic record linkage algorithm was developed using a set of 70 rules, based on the combination of fragments of the key variables with or without modification (Soundex or substring). Each rule was formed by three or more fragments. The probabilistic approach required a cutoff point for the score, above which the links would be automatically classified as belonging to the same individual. The cutoff point was obtained by linkage of the Notifiable Diseases Information System – Tuberculosis database with itself, subsequent manual review and ROC curves and precision-recall. Sensitivity and specificity for accurate analysis were calculated. RESULTS Accuracy ranged from 87.2% to 95.2% for sensitivity and 99.8% to 99.9% for specificity for probabilistic and deterministic record linkage, respectively. The occurrence of missing values for the key variables and the low percentage of similarity measure for name and date of birth were mainly responsible for the failure to identify records of the same individual with the techniques used. CONCLUSIONS The two techniques showed a high level of correlation for pair classification. Although deterministic linkage identified more duplicate records than probabilistic linkage, the latter retrieved records not identified by the former. User need and experience should be considered when choosing the best technique to be used. PMID:27556963

  10. Quantifying the Correctness, Computational Complexity, and Security of Privacy-Preserving String Comparators for Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Elizabeth; Xue, Yuan; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Record linkage is the task of identifying records from disparate data sources that refer to the same entity. It is an integral component of data processing in distributed settings, where the integration of information from multiple sources can prevent duplication and enrich overall data quality, thus enabling more detailed and correct analysis. Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is a variant of the task in which data owners wish to perform linkage without revealing identifiers associated with the records. This task is desirable in various domains, including healthcare, where it may not be possible to reveal patient identity due to confidentiality requirements, and in business, where it could be disadvantageous to divulge customers' identities. To perform PPRL, it is necessary to apply string comparators that function in the privacy-preserving space. A number of privacy-preserving string comparators (PPSCs) have been proposed, but little research has compared them in the context of a real record linkage application. This paper performs a principled and comprehensive evaluation of six PPSCs in terms of three key properties: 1) correctness of record linkage predictions, 2) computational complexity, and 3) security. We utilize a real publicly-available dataset, derived from the North Carolina voter registration database, to evaluate the tradeoffs between the aforementioned properties. Among our results, we find that PPSCs that partition, encode, and compare strings yield highly accurate record linkage results. However, as a tradeoff, we observe that such PPSCs are less secure than those that map and compare strings in a reduced dimensional space. PMID:22904698

  11. Creating a Powerful Platform to Explore Health in a Correctional Population: A Record Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Farrell MacDonald, Shanna; Chong, Nelson; Moser, Andrea; Moineddin, Rahim; Colantonio, Angela; Nathens, Avery; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    We used record linkage to create a data repository of health information of persons who were federally incarcerated in Ontario and Canada. We obtained records from 56,867 adults who were federally incarcerated between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2011 from the Correctional Service of Canada; 15,248 records belonged to individuals residing in Ontario, Canada. We linked these records to the Registered Persons Database (RPDB) which contained records from 18,116,996 individuals eligible for health care in Ontario. Out of 56,867 OMS records, 22,844 (40.2%) were linked to the RPDB. Looking only at those incarcerated in Ontario, 98%, (14 953 of 15248) records were linked to RPDB. Most records of persons in Ontario-based facilities were linked deterministically. Linkage rates were lower for women, minority groups, and substance users. In conclusion, record linkage enabled the creation of a valuable data repository: there are no electronic medical records for correctional populations in Canada, making it more difficult to profile their health. PMID:27532612

  12. Birth Outcomes and Academic Achievement in Childhood: A Population Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…

  13. The Utility of Emergency Room Data for Record Linkage in the Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.

    1989-01-01

    Employed record linkage using emergency room logs to study adolescent suicidal behavior. Compared suicidal patients to age- and sex-matched adolescents being treated for reasons unrelated to suicidal behavior. Found suicidal subjects had higher risk of contact with state Department of Social Services, organization which devotes 90 percent of…

  14. Turner syndrome and autoimmune diseases: record-linkage study.

    PubMed

    Goldacre, Michael J; Seminog, Olena O

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Turner syndrome is associated with an elevated risk of a range of autoimmune disorders. We aimed to document this in a national study. Use of a record-linked dataset of all hospital admissions in England, 1999-2011, to construct a retrospective cohort of people with Turner syndrome and a control cohort of people without it. Statistical follow-up to identify the occurrence of 29 separate autoimmune disorders in each cohort. Calculation of rate ratios, comparing the Turner and control cohorts. In the Turner syndrome cohort (2459 people), rate ratios were elevated for 16 of the 29 conditions. Examples included coeliac disease (rate ratio 14.0, 95% CI 10.2 to 18.8), Crohn's disease (5.3, 3.5 to 7.8), ulcerative colitis (3.9, 2.3 to 6.1), hypothyroidism (8.8, 7.8 to 9.9) and hyperthyroidism (4.9, 3.2 to 7.1). The increased risk of autoimmune disorders in people with Turner syndrome covers a wide range of conditions.

  15. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis: record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, M.; Wotton, C.; Seagroatt, V.; Yeates, D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain if infectious mononucleosis is a risk factor for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS); and, if it is, whether its effect is close to or remote in time from the onset of MS. Design: Analysis of database of linked abstracts of records of hospital admission and death. Setting: Health region in central southern England. Main outcome measure: Ratio of rate of MS in a cohort of people admitted to hospital with infectious mononucleosis to the rate in a comparison cohort. Results: Considering all time intervals from admission with infection to admission with MS, there was a non-significant increase of risk of MS in the infectious mononucleosis cohort (rate ratio 2.17, 95% confidence intervals 0.79 to 4.77). At the interval of 10 years or more, there was a significant increase in risk of MS (rate ratio 4.01, 1.48 to 8.93). The mean time from infectious mononucleosis to first admission with MS was 14 years. Conclusion: This study adds support to the evidence that Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of infectious mononucleosis, is associated with MS. Its role is probably as an initiator of the disease process of MS, or as a contributor to its early development, rather than as an activator of latent, existing disease. PMID:15547068

  16. Record linkage to correct under‐ascertainment of cancers in HIV cohorts: The Sinikithemba HIV clinic linkage project

    PubMed Central

    Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kielkowski, Danuta; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Cloete, Christie; Giddy, Janet; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance of HIV‐related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu‐Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods. We calculated incidence rates for all cancers, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), cervix, non‐Hodgkin's lymphoma and non‐AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) before and after inclusion of linkage‐identified cancers with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8,721 records of HIV‐positive patients were linked with 35,536 cancer records. Between 2004 and 2010, we identified 448 cancers, 82% (n = 367) were recorded in the cancer registry only, 10% (n = 43) in the HIV cohort only and 8% (n = 38) both in the HIV cohort and the cancer registry. The overall cancer incidence rate in patients starting ART increased from 134 (95% CI 91–212) to 877 (95% CI 744–1,041) per 100,000 person‐years after inclusion of linkage‐identified cancers. Incidence rates were highest for KS (432, 95% CI 341–555), followed by cervix (259, 95% CI 179–390) and NADCs (294, 95% CI 223–395) per 100,000 person‐years. Ascertainment of cancer in HIV cohorts is incomplete, PRL is both feasible and essential for cancer ascertainment. PMID:27098265

  17. Linkage of traffic crash and hospitalization records with limited identifiers for enhanced public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Conderino, Sarah; Fung, Lawrence; Sedlar, Slavenka; Norton, Jennifer M

    2017-04-01

    Motor vehicle traffic (MVT) crashes kill or seriously injure approximately 4250 people in New York City (NYC) each year. Traditionally, NYC surveillance practices use hospitalization and crash data separately to monitor trends in MVT-related injuries, but key information linking crash circumstances to health outcomes is lost when analyzing these data sources in isolation. Our objective was to match crash reports to hospitalization records to create a traffic injury surveillance dataset that can be used to describe crash circumstances and related injury outcomes. The linkage of the two systems presents a unique challenge since the system tracking crashes and the system tracking hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits lack key identifying data such as names and dates of birth. NYC Department of Transportation provided electronic records based on reports of motor vehicle crashes submitted to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles for all crashes occurring in NYC from 2009 to 2013. New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) ED and hospitalization administrative data from NYC hospitals were used to identify unintentional MVT-related injuries using external cause of injury codes. Since the two systems do not share unique individual identifiers, probabilistic record linkage was conducted using LinkSolv9.0. Sensitivity/specificity calculations and chi-square analyses of linkage rates were conducted to assess linkage results. From 2009-2013, there were 1,054,344 individuals involved in MVT crashes in NYC and 280,340 ED visits and hospitalizations from MVT-related injuries. There were 145,003 linked pairs, giving a linkage rate of 52% of the total MVT-related hospital records. This linkage had a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 93%. Linkage rates were comparable by age, sex, crash role, collision type, hospital county, injury location, hospital type, and hospital status, indicating no apparent biases in the match by

  18. Designing an Algorithm to Preserve Privacy for Medical Record Linkage With Error-Prone Data

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Doyel; Chen, Tingting; Khethavath, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Linking medical records across different medical service providers is important to the enhancement of health care quality and public health surveillance. In records linkage, protecting the patients’ privacy is a primary requirement. In real-world health care databases, records may well contain errors due to various reasons such as typos. Linking the error-prone data and preserving data privacy at the same time are very difficult. Existing privacy preserving solutions for this problem are only restricted to textual data. Objective To enable different medical service providers to link their error-prone data in a private way, our aim was to provide a holistic solution by designing and developing a medical record linkage system for medical service providers. Methods To initiate a record linkage, one provider selects one of its collaborators in the Connection Management Module, chooses some attributes of the database to be matched, and establishes the connection with the collaborator after the negotiation. In the Data Matching Module, for error-free data, our solution offered two different choices for cryptographic schemes. For error-prone numerical data, we proposed a newly designed privacy preserving linking algorithm named the Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm, that allows the error-prone data to be correctly matched if the distance between the two records is below a threshold. Results We designed and developed a comprehensive and user-friendly software system that provides privacy preserving record linkage functions for medical service providers, which meets the regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. It does not require a third party and it is secure in that neither entity can learn the records in the other’s database. Moreover, our novel Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm implemented in this software can work well with error-prone numerical data. We theoretically proved the correctness and security of our Error

  19. A machine learning approach to create blocking criteria for record linkage.

    PubMed

    Giang, Phan H

    2015-03-01

    Record linkage, a part of data cleaning, is recognized as one of most expensive steps in data warehousing. Most record linkage (RL) systems employ a strategy of using blocking filters to reduce the number of pairs to be matched. A blocking filter consists of a number of blocking criteria. Until recently, blocking criteria are selected manually by domain experts. This paper proposes a new method to automatically learn efficient blocking criteria for record linkage. Our method addresses the lack of sufficient labeled data for training. Unlike previous works, we do not consider a blocking filter in isolation but in the context of an accompanying matcher which is employed after the blocking filter. We show that given such a matcher, the labels (assigned to record pairs) that are relevant for learning are the labels assigned by the matcher (link/nonlink), not the labels assigned objectively (match/unmatch). This conclusion allows us to generate an unlimited amount of labeled data for training. We formulate the problem of learning a blocking filter as a Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF) learning problem and use the Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) learning theory to guide the development of algorithm to search for blocking filters. We test the algorithm on a real patient master file of 2.18 million records. The experimental results show that compared with filters obtained by educated guess, the optimal learned filters have comparable recall but reduce throughput (runtime) by an order-of-magnitude factor.

  20. Probabilistic record linkage and an automated procedure to minimize the undecided-matched pair problem.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Probabilistic record linkage allows the assembling of information from different data sources. We present a procedure when a one-to-one relationship between records in different files is expected but not found. Data were births and infant deaths, 1998-birth cohort, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Pairs for which a one-to-one relationship was obtained and a best-link was found with the highest weight were taken as unequivocally matched pairs and provided information to decide on the remaining pairs. For these, an expected relationship between differences in dates of death and birth registration was found; and places of birth and death registration for neonatal deaths were likely to be the same. Such evidence was used to solve for the remaining pairs. We reduced the number of non-uniquely matched records and of uncertain matches, and increased the number of uniquely matched pairs from 2,249 to 2,827. Future research using record linkage should use strategies from first record linkage runs before a full clerical review (the standard procedure under uncertainty) to efficiently retrieve matches.

  1. Risk of pneumonia and pneumococcal disease in people hospitalized with diabetes mellitus: English record-linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Seminog, O O; Goldacre, M J

    2013-12-01

    The risk of invasive pneumococcal disease is higher in people with diabetes mellitus than those without. People with diabetes should be considered for routine pneumococcal immunization. This policy has been in place in England for more than a decade. We aimed to estimate, at the population level, the current scale of excess risk of pneumococcal disease in patients with diabetes, and whether the risks have decreased in recent years with the introduction of a pneumococcal vaccine. We used two data sets of linked hospital admission and death records-the Oxford Record Linkage Study (1963-1998) and all-England linked hospital episode statistics (1999-2011). As a measure of relative risk, we calculated the rate ratio of pneumococcal disease in cohorts of people hospitalized with diabetes compared with cohorts without a record of diabetes. The risk of pneumococcal disease in patients hospitalized with diabetes mellitus has declined a little, but it is still high. The all-ages rate ratio in England declined from 1.92 (95% CI 1.89-1.94) in 1999-2002 to 1.68 (95% CI 1.65-1.71) in 2007-2011. In people aged under 60 years, rate ratios were higher and their decline was more substantial: rate ratios declined from 3.37 (95% CI 3.28-3.46) in 1999-2002 to 2.33 (95% CI 2.21-2.45) in 2007-2011. Patients admitted to hospital with diabetes mellitus remain at increased risk of pneumococcal infection despite a national immunization policy. Possible explanations for the elevated risk include low vaccine uptake or low effectiveness of available vaccine. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of pneumococcal infection in people with diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  2. Evaluation of record linkage between a large healthcare provider and the Utah Population Database

    PubMed Central

    DuVall, Scott L; Fraser, Alison M; Rowe, Kerry; Thomas, Alun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Electronically linked datasets have become an important part of clinical research. Information from multiple sources can be used to identify comorbid conditions and patient outcomes, measure use of healthcare services, and enrich demographic and clinical variables of interest. Innovative approaches for creating research infrastructure beyond a traditional data system are necessary. Materials and methods Records from a large healthcare system's enterprise data warehouse (EDW) were linked to a statewide population database, and a master subject index was created. The authors evaluate the linkage, along with the impact of missing information in EDW records and the coverage of the population database. The makeup of the EDW and population database provides a subset of cancer records that exist in both resources, which allows a cancer-specific evaluation of the linkage. Results About 3.4 million records (60.8%) in the EDW were linked to the population database with a minimum accuracy of 96.3%. It was estimated that approximately 24.8% of target records were absent from the population database, which enabled the effect of the amount and type of information missing from a record on the linkage to be estimated. However, 99% of the records from the oncology data mart linked; they had fewer missing fields and this correlated positively with the number of patient visits. Discussion and conclusion A general-purpose research infrastructure was created which allows disease-specific cohorts to be identified. The usefulness of creating an index between institutions is that it allows each institution to maintain control and confidentiality of their own information. PMID:21926112

  3. Hospitalisation of the elderly during the last year of life: an application of record linkage in Western Australia 1985-1994

    PubMed Central

    Brameld, K. J.; Holman, C. D.; Bass, A. J.; Codde, J. P.; Rouse, I. L.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To measure the trend, pattern, and cost of time spent in hospital during the last year of life in Western Australia and to identify trends in the place of death. The results were compared with those reported from the Oxford Record Linkage Study. DESIGN: Mortality records for those aged 65 years and over were linked to inpatient hospital morbidity records with a date of separation within one year before death. Comparative inpatient resource utilisation was estimated using ANDRG 3.0 cost weights for Australian public hospitals. SETTING: Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All 68,875 persons aged 65 years and over who died between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 1994. MAIN RESULTS: Increasing proportions of all age groups (65-74, 75-84, and 85+ years) were admitted to hospital at least once in the year before death during 1985-94, but the chance of admission decreased with age. There was a trend towards a greater number of shorter admissions per person. Total bed days per person showed no significant increase, except at ages 65-74 years. Total inpatient resource utilisation during the last year of life was lowest and remained constant in those aged 85 years and over, while increasing gradually (3.7% per annum) in the younger elderly. The Western Australian population spent more time in hospital in the last year of life at ages 65-74 years, but the advanced elderly spent less time in hospital, when compared with the Oxford Region. CONCLUSIONS: Recent gains in life expectancy and higher per capita health expenditure have not been accompanied by more time spent in hospital during the last year of life at ages 75+ years. International differences between Western Australia and Oxford can be explained by differences in aged care provision.   PMID:10396507

  4. Parental age and risk of pediatric cancer in the offspring: a population-based record-linkage study in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; DeWan, Andrew T; Kang, Alice; Ma, Xiaomei

    2017-05-23

    By linking birth records and cancer registry data from California, we conducted a population-based study with 23,419 cases and 87,593 matched controls born in 1978-2009 to investigate the relation of parental age to risk of pediatric cancer. Compared to children born to mothers aged 20-24 years, those born to mothers in older age groups had a 13% to 36% increased risk of pediatric cancer, the odds ratio (OR) for each 5-year maternal age increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.04,1.09). For cancer diagnosed at 0-14 and 15-19 years, the OR for each 5-year increase in maternal age was1.04 (95% CI: 1.02,1.06) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06,1.14), respectively. Having an older father also conferred an increased risk, with an OR of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02,1.05) and 1.04 (95% CI: 1.02,1.06) for each 5-year increase for cancer diagnosed at 0-19 years and 0-14 years, respectively. While advancing maternal age increased risk of leukemia and central nervous system tumors, an older paternal age was not associated with risk of either type. Both older maternal and paternal ages were associated with risk of lymphoma. In this large, population-based record-linkage study, advancing parental age, especially advancing maternal age, increased pediatric cancer risk, with variations across types of cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Michael D.; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F. B.; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2017-01-01

    Combining genotypes across datasets is central in facilitating advances in genetics. Data aggregation efforts often face the challenge of record matching—the identification of dataset entries that represent the same individual. We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. Using two datasets for the same 872 people—one with 642,563 genome-wide SNPs and the other with 13 short tandem repeats (STRs) used in forensic applications—we find that 90–98% of forensic STR records can be connected to corresponding SNP records and vice versa. Accuracy increases to 99–100% when ∼30 STRs are used. Our method expands the potential of data aggregation, but it also suggests privacy risks intrinsic in maintenance of databases containing even small numbers of markers—including databases of forensic significance. PMID:28507140

  6. Accuracy of probabilistic and deterministic record linkage: the case of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza de Souza; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de; Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino

    2016-08-22

    To analyze the accuracy of deterministic and probabilistic record linkage to identify TB duplicate records, as well as the characteristics of discordant pairs. The study analyzed all TB records from 2009 to 2011 in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A deterministic record linkage algorithm was developed using a set of 70 rules, based on the combination of fragments of the key variables with or without modification (Soundex or substring). Each rule was formed by three or more fragments. The probabilistic approach required a cutoff point for the score, above which the links would be automatically classified as belonging to the same individual. The cutoff point was obtained by linkage of the Notifiable Diseases Information System - Tuberculosis database with itself, subsequent manual review and ROC curves and precision-recall. Sensitivity and specificity for accurate analysis were calculated. Accuracy ranged from 87.2% to 95.2% for sensitivity and 99.8% to 99.9% for specificity for probabilistic and deterministic record linkage, respectively. The occurrence of missing values for the key variables and the low percentage of similarity measure for name and date of birth were mainly responsible for the failure to identify records of the same individual with the techniques used. The two techniques showed a high level of correlation for pair classification. Although deterministic linkage identified more duplicate records than probabilistic linkage, the latter retrieved records not identified by the former. User need and experience should be considered when choosing the best technique to be used. Analisar a acurácia das técnicas determinística e probabilística para identificação de registros duplicados de tuberculose, assim como as características dos pares discordantes. Foram analisados todos os registros de tuberculose no período de 2009 a 2011 do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi desenvolvido algoritmo para relacionamento determinístico, usando conjunto de 70 regras, a

  7. Increased risk of tuberculosis disease in people with diabetes mellitus: record-linkage study in a UK population.

    PubMed

    Young, F; Wotton, C J; Critchley, J A; Unwin, N C; Goldacre, M J

    2012-06-01

    The authors aimed to determine whether, and by how much, diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) and conversely whether TB increases the risk of DM. Retrospective cohort analyses using data from two Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS) datasets, containing information on hospital admissions and day-case care between 1963 and 1998 (ORLS1) and between 1999 and 2005 (ORLS2), were carried out. The rate ratio (RR) for tuberculosis after admission to hospital with diabetes and for diabetes after hospital admission with tuberculosis was calculated. In ORLS1, the RR for TB in people admitted to hospital with DM, comparing the latter with a reference cohort, was 1.83 (95% CI 1.26 to 2.60), and in ORLS2 the RR was 3.11 (1.17 to 7.03). RRs for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) within ORLS1 were similar at, respectively, 1.80 (1.16 to 2.67) and 1.98 (0.88 to 3.92). In ORLS 2 the RR for PTB was 2.63 (0.91 to 6.30). In ORLS1, there was no indication that TB was a risk factor for DM (RR 1.12, 0.76 to 1.60). The ORLS2 dataset was too small to analyse whether TB led to DM. DM was associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of TB within this predominantly white, English population. The authors found no evidence that TB increases the risk of DM. Our findings suggest that the risks of PTB and EPTB were both raised among individuals with DM. As DM prevalence rises, this association will become increasingly important for TB control and treatment.

  8. SOEMPI: A Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index Software Toolkit for Private Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Csaba; Durham, Elizabeth; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Xue, Yuan; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate bias in multi-institutional research studies, healthcare organizations need to integrate patient records. However, this process must be accomplished without disclosing the identities of the corresponding patients. Various private record linkage (PRL) techniques have been proposed, but there is a lack of translation into practice because no software suite supports the entire PRL lifecycle. This paper addresses this issue with the introduction of the Secure Open Enterprise Master Patient Index (SOEMPI). We show how SOEMPI covers the PRL lifecycle, illustrate the implementation of several PRL protocols, and provide a runtime analysis for the integration of two datasets consisting of 10,000 records. While the PRL process is slower than a non-secure setting, our analysis shows the majority of processes in a PRL protocol require several seconds or less and that SOEMPI completes the process in approximately two minutes, which is a practical amount of time for integration. PMID:25954421

  9. Development of a database of health insurance claims: standardization of disease classifications and anonymous record linkage.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shinya; Sato, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Nakayama, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Health insurance claims (ie, receipts) record patient health care treatments and expenses and, although created for the health care payment system, are potentially useful for research. Combining different types of receipts generated for the same patient would dramatically increase the utility of these receipts. However, technical problems, including standardization of disease names and classifications, and anonymous linkage of individual receipts, must be addressed. In collaboration with health insurance societies, all information from receipts (inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy) was collected. To standardize disease names and classifications, we developed a computer-aided post-entry standardization method using a disease name dictionary based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 classifications. We also developed an anonymous linkage system by using an encryption code generated from a combination of hash values and stream ciphers. Using different sets of the original data (data set 1: insurance certificate number, name, and sex; data set 2: insurance certificate number, date of birth, and relationship status), we compared the percentage of successful record matches obtained by using data set 1 to generate key codes with the percentage obtained when both data sets were used. The dictionary's automatic conversion of disease names successfully standardized 98.1% of approximately 2 million new receipts entered into the database. The percentage of anonymous matches was higher for the combined data sets (98.0%) than for data set 1 (88.5%). The use of standardized disease classifications and anonymous record linkage substantially contributed to the construction of a large, chronologically organized database of receipts. This database is expected to aid in epidemiologic and health services research using receipt information.

  10. [Performance of record linkage for cancer registry data linked with mammography screening data].

    PubMed

    Giersiepen, K; Bachteler, T; Gramlich, T; Reiher, J; Schubert, B; Novopashenny, I; Schnell, R

    2010-07-01

    The evaluation of the German Mammography Screening Program requires record linkage with data from cancer registries in order to measure the number of false-negative mammograms and interval cancers. This study aims at evaluating the performance of the established linkage method based on identifiers encrypted by the standard procedure of the German cancer registries. In addition, the results are compared with an alternative method based on plain text identifiers. A total of 16,572 records from the Bremen Mammography Screening Pilot Study were linked with data from the Bremen Cancer Registry. Based on a gold standard set of matching record pairs, homonym and synonym errors were determined. Given the customary threshold value in cancer registries, the plain text method showed a lower rate of synonym errors (2.1-5.1%) and a lower rate of homonym errors (0.01-0.15%). As 10.4 million women are invited to take part biennially in screening, the corresponding figures would be 3,237 homonym errors for the standard procedure and 294 using the plain text method provided equivalent conditions. The 11-fold increase in the homonym error rate documents the trade-off for better data protection using encrypted data.

  11. Design and implementation of a privacy preserving electronic health record linkage tool in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Cashy, John P; Jackson, Kathryn L; Pah, Adam R; Goel, Satyender; Boehnke, Jörn; Humphries, John Eric; Kominers, Scott Duke; Hota, Bala N; Sims, Shannon A; Malin, Bradley A; French, Dustin D; Walunas, Theresa L; Meltzer, David O; Kaleba, Erin O; Jones, Roderick C; Galanter, William L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design and implement a tool that creates a secure, privacy preserving linkage of electronic health record (EHR) data across multiple sites in a large metropolitan area in the United States (Chicago, IL), for use in clinical research. Methods The authors developed and distributed a software application that performs standardized data cleaning, preprocessing, and hashing of patient identifiers to remove all protected health information. The application creates seeded hash code combinations of patient identifiers using a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant SHA-512 algorithm that minimizes re-identification risk. The authors subsequently linked individual records using a central honest broker with an algorithm that assigns weights to hash combinations in order to generate high specificity matches. Results The software application successfully linked and de-duplicated 7 million records across 6 institutions, resulting in a cohort of 5 million unique records. Using a manually reconciled set of 11 292 patients as a gold standard, the software achieved a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100%, with a majority of the missed matches accounted for by patients with both a missing social security number and last name change. Using 3 disease examples, it is demonstrated that the software can reduce duplication of patient records across sites by as much as 28%. Conclusions Software that standardizes the assignment of a unique seeded hash identifier merged through an agreed upon third-party honest broker can enable large-scale secure linkage of EHR data for epidemiologic and public health research. The software algorithm can improve future epidemiologic research by providing more comprehensive data given that patients may make use of multiple healthcare systems. PMID:26104741

  12. Preparation of name and address data for record linkage using hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Churches, Tim; Christen, Peter; Lim, Kim; Zhu, Justin Xi

    2002-01-01

    Background Record linkage refers to the process of joining records that relate to the same entity or event in one or more data collections. In the absence of a shared, unique key, record linkage involves the comparison of ensembles of partially-identifying, non-unique data items between pairs of records. Data items with variable formats, such as names and addresses, need to be transformed and normalised in order to validly carry out these comparisons. Traditionally, deterministic rule-based data processing systems have been used to carry out this pre-processing, which is commonly referred to as "standardisation". This paper describes an alternative approach to standardisation, using a combination of lexicon-based tokenisation and probabilistic hidden Markov models (HMMs). Methods HMMs were trained to standardise typical Australian name and address data drawn from a range of health data collections. The accuracy of the results was compared to that produced by rule-based systems. Results Training of HMMs was found to be quick and did not require any specialised skills. For addresses, HMMs produced equal or better standardisation accuracy than a widely-used rule-based system. However, acccuracy was worse when used with simpler name data. Possible reasons for this poorer performance are discussed. Conclusion Lexicon-based tokenisation and HMMs provide a viable and effort-effective alternative to rule-based systems for pre-processing more complex variably formatted data such as addresses. Further work is required to improve the performance of this approach with simpler data such as names. Software which implements the methods described in this paper is freely available under an open source license for other researchers to use and improve. PMID:12482326

  13. Combining Different Privacy-Preserving Record Linkage Methods for Hospital Admission Data.

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Waldenburger, Andreas; Borgs, Christian; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Record linkage (RL) is the process of identifying pairs of records that correspond to the same entity, for example the same patient. The basic approach assigns to each pair of records a similarity weight, and then determines a certain threshold, above which the two records are considered to be a match. Three different RL methods were applied under privacy-preserving conditions on hospital admission data: deterministic RL (DRL), probabilistic RL (PRL), and Bloom filters. The patient characteristics like names were one-way encrypted (DRL, PRL) or transformed to a cryptographic longterm key (Bloom filters). Based on one year of hospital admissions, the data set was split randomly in 30 thousand new and 1,5 million known patients. With the combination of the three RL-methods, a positive predictive value of 83 % (95 %-confidence interval 65 %-94 %) was attained. Thus, the application of the presented combination of RL-methods seem to be suited for other applications of population-based research.

  14. The Role of Administrative Record Linkage in Creating Trajectories of Early Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a significant social determinant of health. Monitoring ECD to reveal trends and patterns of development requires high-quality information on a population from infancy through adulthood. This study linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), administered in senior kindergarten, with data from the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA), graduation status and SES to show that Vancouver schools with poor FSA results also had high proportions of children with low EDI and SES scores. Linking EDI data to data on pregnancy, birth, medical history, hospital care and success in school would enable the creation of normative EDC trajectories for all children. A person-specific, anonymized, population-based record linkage system is an indispensable prerequisite for creating and monitoring developmental trajectories. PMID:24933373

  15. The role of administrative record linkage in creating trajectories of early human development.

    PubMed

    Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) is a significant social determinant of health. Monitoring ECD to reveal trends and patterns of development requires high-quality information on a population from infancy through adulthood. This study linked data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI), administered in senior kindergarten, with data from the Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA), graduation status and SES to show that Vancouver schools with poor FSA results also had high proportions of children with low EDI and SES scores. Linking EDI data to data on pregnancy, birth, medical history, hospital care and success in school would enable the creation of normative EDC trajectories for all children. A person-specific, anonymized, population-based record linkage system is an indispensable prerequisite for creating and monitoring developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. Comparison of individual follow-up and computerized record linkage using the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

    PubMed

    Shannon, H S; Jamieson, E; Walsh, C; Julian, J A; Fair, M E; Buffet, A

    1989-01-01

    We compared two methods of ascertaining mortality in a historical prospective mortality study. Computerized Record Linkage (CRL) with the centralized historical Canadian Mortality Data Base (CMDB) was carried out on 2469 men and an attempt was also made to trace the subjects by individual follow-up (IFU). All but 88 were traced and 60 were reported to be dead. CRL was able to locate the deaths of three men who had been untraced by IFU. Contradictory information on vital status was obtained on 5 subjects--in 4 of them, the discrepancy was resolved in favour of CRL. Overall, CRL using the CMDB performed very well. We also consider factors that affect the relative costs of the two methods, which should be balanced against the accuracy of information obtained.

  17. Associations between Klinefelter's syndrome and autoimmune diseases: English national record linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Seminog, Olena O; Seminog, Alla B; Yeates, David; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    There are reports suggesting that people with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) may be at increased risk of some autoimmune diseases, but the evidence is not substantial. We wanted to add to the evidence by systematically assessing the risk of autoimmune diseases in a national cohort of people with KS. We selected records of all people with KS in a record-linked dataset of all hospital day cases and inpatient admissions in England, 1999-2011; and we followed them up by electronic record linkage to identify the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. We compared their occurrence in the KS cohort with a control cohort, studied in the same way, and expressed the results as rate ratios (RR). Of 30 autoimmune diseases studied in people with KS, there were significantly increased risks of seven-Addison's disease (RR 11.7, 95% confidence interval 2.4-34.4), diabetes mellitus type 1 (6.1, 4.4-8.3), multiple sclerosis (4.3, 1.2-11.0), acquired hypothyroidism (2.7, 1.8-4.0), rheumatoid arthritis (3.3, 2.0-5.2), Sjogren's syndrome (19.3, 4.0-57.0) and systemic lupus erythematosus (18.1, 2.2-65.6). We concluded that people with KS have increased risk of some autoimmune diseases, particularly those that are female-predominant. The increased risk of autoimmune diseases associated with the XXY karyotype may hold clues to the pathogenesis of some aspects of autoimmunity.

  18. Data resource profile: the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Grossardt, Brandon R; Yawn, Barbara P; Melton, L Joseph; Pankratz, Joshua J; Brue, Scott M; Rocca, Walter A

    2012-12-01

    The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records-linkage system was established in 1966 to capture health care information for the entire population of Olmsted County, MN, USA. The REP includes a dynamic cohort of 502 820 unique individuals who resided in Olmsted County at some point between 1966 and 2010, and received health care for any reason at a health care provider within the system. The data available electronically (electronic REP indexes) include demographic characteristics, medical diagnostic codes, surgical procedure codes and death information (including causes of death). In addition, for each resident, the system keeps a complete list of all paper records, electronic records and scanned documents that are available in full text for in-depth review and abstraction. The REP serves as the research infrastructure for studies of virtually all diseases that come to medical attention, and has supported over 2000 peer-reviewed publications since 1966. The system covers residents of all ages and both sexes, regardless of socio-economic status, ethnicity or insurance status. For further information regarding the use of the REP for a specific study, please visit our website at www.rochesterproject.org or contact us at info@rochesterproject.org. Our website also provides access to an introductory video in English and Spanish.

  19. [Occupational mortality in Italy during 1992, assessed through record-linkage between pension records and death certificates].

    PubMed

    d'Errico, A; Filippi, M; Demaria, M; Picanza, Grazia; Crialesi, Roberta; Costa, G; Campo, G; Passerini, M

    2005-01-01

    The creation of a surveillance system of occupational mortality in Italy is limited by the low quality of information on occupation in death certificates, since the information is often incomplete or lacking and because only the occupation at the time of death is registered. To evaluate the possible use of INPS (National Institute of Social Security) records for the purpose of surveillance of occupational mortality, in terms of feasibility of setting up a system and of validity of the results obtained. Death records of 218,510 subjects aged 18-74, deceased in the 12 months following the 1991 census, were obtained from ISTAT (Central Statistics Institute). These were combined through record-linkage with the INPS social security archives, which contain the employment records by economic sector going back to 1974, in order to assign these deaths the sector in which they had worked the longest. Mortality by specific causes was evaluated by industry by means of a proportional mortality analysis stratified by sex and occupational status, and adjusted for age, education, marital status, geographical area of birth, drawing a disability pension, employment status at the time of death and work instability. Record-linkage allowed attribution of the longest held job to 70% of the deaths recorded. Results are presented and discussed only on mortality in men due to asbestosis and silicosis, and causes of death with a substantial proportion attributable to occupation: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); cancers of the bladder, nasal cavity, larynx, lung and pleura; leukaemia and lymphoma; accidental causes. Among the economic sectors with a significant excess mortality, the following are well documented in the literature: mortality due to COPD in the coal and peat-bog sectors; due to leukaemia among farmers; due to sino-nasal tumours in wood-working and furniture production; due to cancer of the larynx, lung, and pleura in occupations where there was probable exposure

  20. How good is probabilistic record linkage to reconstruct reproductive histories? Results from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s study

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Morton, Susan; DeStavola, Bianca L; Clark, Heather; Leon, David A

    2006-01-01

    Background Probabilistic record linkage is widely used in epidemiology, but studies of its validity are rare. Our aim was to validate its use to identify births to a cohort of women, being drawn from a large cohort of people born in Scotland in the early 1950s. Methods The Children of the 1950s cohort includes 5868 females born in Aberdeen 1950–56 who were in primary schools in the city in 1962. In 2001 a postal questionnaire was sent to the cohort members resident in the UK requesting information on offspring. Probabilistic record linkage (based on surname, maiden name, initials, date of birth and postcode) was used to link the females in the cohort to birth records held by the Scottish Maternity Record System (SMR 2). Results We attempted to mail a total of 5540 women; 3752 (68%) returned a completed questionnaire. Of these 86% reported having had at least one birth. Linkage to SMR 2 was attempted for 5634 women, one or more maternity records were found for 3743. There were 2604 women who reported at least one birth in the questionnaire and who were linked to one or more SMR 2 records. When judged against the questionnaire information, the linkage correctly identified 4930 births and missed 601 others. These mostly occurred outside of Scotland (147) or prior to full coverage by SMR 2 (454). There were 134 births incorrectly linked to SMR 2. Conclusion Probabilistic record linkage to routine maternity records applied to population-based cohort, using name, date of birth and place of residence, can have high specificity, and as such may be reliably used in epidemiological research. PMID:16553951

  1. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  2. New South Wales Child Development Study (NSW-CDS): an Australian multiagency, multigenerational, longitudinal record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Vaughan J; Harris, Felicity; Raudino, Alessandra; Luo, Luming; Kariuki, Maina; Liu, Enwu; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Smith, Maxwell; Holbrook, Allyson; Bore, Miles; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Dix, Katherine; Dean, Kimberlie; Laurens, Kristin R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The initial aim of this multiagency, multigenerational record linkage study is to identify childhood profiles of developmental vulnerability and resilience, and to identify the determinants of these profiles. The eventual aim is to identify risk and protective factors for later childhood-onset and adolescent-onset mental health problems, and other adverse social outcomes, using subsequent waves of record linkage. The research will assist in informing the development of public policy and intervention guidelines to help prevent or mitigate adverse long-term health and social outcomes. Participants The study comprises a population cohort of 87 026 children in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW). The cohort was defined by entry into the first year of full-time schooling in NSW in 2009, at which time class teachers completed the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) on each child (with 99.7% coverage in NSW). The AEDC data have been linked to the children's birth, health, school and child protection records for the period from birth to school entry, and to the health and criminal records of their parents, as well as mortality databases. Findings to date Descriptive data summarising sex, geographic and socioeconomic distributions, and linkage rates for the various administrative databases are presented. Child data are summarised, and the mental health and criminal records data of the children's parents are provided. Future plans In 2015, at age 11 years, a self-report mental health survey was administered to the cohort in collaboration with government, independent and Catholic primary school sectors. A second record linkage, spanning birth to age 11 years, will be undertaken to link this survey data with the aforementioned administrative databases. This will enable a further identification of putative risk and protective factors for adverse mental health and other outcomes in adolescence, which can then be tested in subsequent record linkages

  3. Month of Conception and Learning Disabilities: A Record-Linkage Study of 801,592 Children.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Daniel F; Smith, Gordon C S; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Wood, Rachael; King, Albert; Clark, David N; Pell, Jill P

    2016-10-01

    Learning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is also true of other causes of learning disabilities. We undertook Scotland-wide record linkage of education (annual pupil census) and maternity (Scottish Morbidity Record 02) databases for 801,592 singleton children attending Scottish schools in 2006-2011. We modeled monthly rates using principal sine and cosine transformations of the month number and demonstrated cyclicity in the percentage of children with special educational needs. Rates were highest among children conceived in the first quarter of the year (January-March) and lowest among those conceived in the third (July-September) (8.9% vs 7.6%; P < 0.001). Seasonal variations were specific to autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disabilities, and learning difficulties (e.g., dyslexia) and were absent for sensory or motor/physical impairments and mental, physical, or communication problems. Seasonality accounted for 11.4% (95% confidence interval: 9.0, 13.7) of all cases. Some biologically plausible causes of this variation, such as infection and maternal vitamin D levels, are potentially amendable to intervention.

  4. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: half a century of medical records linkage in a US population.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Walter A; Yawn, Barbara P; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Grossardt, Brandon R; Melton, L Joseph

    2012-12-01

    The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) has maintained a comprehensive medical records linkage system for nearly half a century for almost all persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Herein, we provide a brief history of the REP before and after 1966, the year in which the REP was officially established. The key protagonists before 1966 were Henry Plummer, Mabel Root, and Joseph Berkson, who developed a medical records linkage system at Mayo Clinic. In 1966, Leonard Kurland established collaborative agreements with other local health care providers (hospitals, physician groups, and clinics [primarily Olmsted Medical Center]) to develop a medical records linkage system that covered the entire population of Olmsted County, and he obtained funding from the National Institutes of Health to support the new system. In 1997, L. Joseph Melton III addressed emerging concerns about the confidentiality of medical record information by introducing a broad patient research authorization as per Minnesota state law. We describe how the key protagonists of the REP have responded to challenges posed by evolving medical knowledge, information technology, and public expectation and policy. In addition, we provide a general description of the system; discuss issues of data quality, reliability, and validity; describe the research team structure; provide information about funding; and compare the REP with other medical information systems. The REP can serve as a model for the development of similar research infrastructures in the United States and worldwide.

  5. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project: Half a Century of Medical Records Linkage in a US Population

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Yawn, Barbara P.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Melton, L. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) has maintained a comprehensive medical records linkage system for nearly half a century for almost all persons residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Herein, we provide a brief history of the REP before and after 1966, the year in which the REP was officially established. The key protagonists before 1966 were Henry Plummer, Mabel Root, and Joseph Berkson, who developed a medical records linkage system at Mayo Clinic. In 1966, Leonard Kurland established collaborative agreements with other local health care providers (hospitals, physician groups, and clinics [primarily Olmsted Medical Center]) to develop a medical records linkage system that covered the entire population of Olmsted County, and he obtained funding from the National Institutes of Health to support the new system. In 1997, L. Joseph Melton III addressed emerging concerns about the confidentiality of medical record information by introducing a broad patient research authorization as per Minnesota state law. We describe how the key protagonists of the REP have responded to challenges posed by evolving medical knowledge, information technology, and public expectation and policy. In addition, we provide a general description of the system; discuss issues of data quality, reliability, and validity; describe the research team structure; provide information about funding; and compare the REP with other medical information systems. The REP can serve as a model for the development of similar research infrastructures in the United States and worldwide. PMID:23199802

  6. Do coxibs reduce prescription of gastroprotective agents? Results of a record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Formoso, Giulio; Menna, Angelo; Voci, Claudio; Violante, Andrea; Magrini, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Background Coxibs are claimed to be cost-effective drugs and reduced prescription of gastroprotective agents is assumed to be one of their major benefits. Real life prescription of these drugs may be substantially different than that considered in pharmacoeconomic analyses or claimed by drug companies, yet. Our objective was to evaluate whether coxibs were associated with reduced prescription of gastro-protective agents (GPAs, specifically proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers and misoprostol) compared to non selective NSAIDs. Methods A record-linkage study was performed using 2001 outpatient prescription data from the province of Modena (about 632,000 inhabitants, in Northern Italy). Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio of GPA prescription for coxib and non-selective NSAID adult users (> 14 years). Three categories of users were further investigated: "acute", "chronic and "incident or new". Main outcome measures were same-day co-prescription and 30 days prescription of GPAs in coxibs and non selective NSAIDs users. To limit selection bias, data were adjusted for age, sex, DDD of coxibs and non selective NSAIDs received during 2001, DDD of GPAs and (for non-incident users) DDD of NSAIDs received during the previous 4 years Results Same day co-prescription rates were similar considering the overall population and "acute" users. Chronic coxibs users instead showed higher co-prescription rates than chronic NSAIDs users (OR = 1.2, p < 0.05). GPA prescription within thirty days was also higher among all subgroups of coxibs users (OR ranging from 1.6 to 2.0, p < 0.001). Conclusion Assumptions made in pharmacoeconomic analyses on coxibs (lower GPA prescription associated with coxibs use) may be overly optimistic. Claims made through cost-effectiveness data should be carefully interpreted, and mechanisms for attributing drug prices revised accordingly. PMID:16553942

  7. Hospitalized prevalence and 5-year mortality for IBD: Record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Button, Lori A; Roberts, Stephen E; Goldacre, Michael J; Akbari, Ashley; Rodgers, Sarah E; Williams, John G

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish the hospitalized prevalence of severe Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Wales from 1999 to 2007; and to investigate long-term mortality after hospitalization and associations with social deprivation and other socio-demographic factors. METHODS: Record linkage of administrative inpatient and mortality data for 1467 and 1482 people hospitalised as emergencies for ≥ 3 d for CD and UC, respectively. The main outcome measures were hospitalized prevalence, mortality rates and standardized mortality ratios for up to 5 years follow-up after hospitalization. RESULTS: Hospitalized prevalence was 50.1 per 100 000 population for CD and 50.6 for UC. The hospitalized prevalence of CD was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in females (57.4) than in males (42.2), and was highest in people aged 16-29 years, but the prevalence of UC was similar in males (51.0) and females (50.1), and increased continuously with age. The hospitalized prevalence of CD was slightly higher in the most deprived areas, but there was no association between social deprivation and hospitalized prevalence of UC. Mortality was 6.8% and 14.6% after 1 and 5 years follow-up for CD, and 9.2% and 20.8% after 1 and 5 years for UC. For both CD and UC, there was little discernible association between mortality and social deprivation, distance from hospital, urban/rural residence and geography. CONCLUSION: CD and UC have distinct demographic profiles. The higher prevalence of hospitalized CD in more deprived areas may reflect higher prevalence and higher hospital dependency. PMID:20101767

  8. [Record linkage of hospital discharge data and first health certificates: a test in the Val d'Oise].

    PubMed

    Lebreton, E; Vincelet, C; Chatignoux, E; Menguy, C; Crenn Hebert, C; Février, Y-M; Zeitlin, J

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to test the feasibility of an indirect linkage of data on births from health certificates (HC) with hospital discharge (HD) data. The linkage was carried out for live births between April 1st and June 30th, 2011 in six of the nine maternity units in the district of Val d'Oise. The HC and HD had 3284 and 3550 births registered during this period, respectively. Linkage was conducted using variables available in both sources: number of fetuses, baby's birth date, gender, maternity unit of birth, maternal age, municipality of residence, gestational age and birth-weight. Two linkage methods were tested: a deterministic and a semi-deterministic method and a probabilistic approach. The latter method calculates a probability estimate for the strength of the relationship between two linked observations related to the discriminatory power and the error rate of the matched variables. For cases that were linked despite discordance on some of the matching variables, random samples of observations were checked against both HC and HD records to compute rates of false matches. The deterministic and semi-deterministic method linked 92.5% and 85.6% of observations in the HC and HD, respectively. The probabilistic method achieved a linkage rate of 99.6% for HC and 92.7% for HD. Cases only linked by the probabilistic method were more often preterm and had low birth-weight. Cases matched using the probabilistic method only had an error rate of 0.4% with 95% CI [0.2-0.6%]. Common items in the HC and HD make it possible to achieve a high rate of linkage. The probabilistic method links more births and, in particular, those at higher risk, and error rates were low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between specific autoimmune diseases and subsequent dementia: retrospective record-linkage cohort study, UK.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether hospital admission for autoimmune disease is associated with an elevated risk of future admission for dementia. Retrospective, record-linkage cohort study using national hospital care and mortality administrative data, 1999-2012. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital with a range of autoimmune diseases were constructed, along with a control cohort, and followed forward in time to see if they developed dementia. 1 833 827 people were admitted to hospital with an autoimmune disease; the number of people in cohorts for each autoimmune disease ranged from 1019 people in the Goodpasture's syndrome cohort, to 316 043 people in the rheumatoid arthritis cohort. The rate ratio for dementia after admission for an autoimmune disease, compared with the control cohort, was 1.20 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.21). Where dementia type was specified, the rate ratio was 1.06 (1.04 to 1.08) for Alzheimer's disease and 1.28 (1.26 to 1.31) for vascular dementia. Of 25 autoimmune diseases studied, 18 showed significant positive associations with dementia at p<0.05 (with 14 significant at p<0.001) including Addison's disease (1.48, 1.34 to 1.64), multiple sclerosis (1.97, 1.88 to 2.07), psoriasis (1.29, 1.25 to 1.34) and systemic lupus erythematosus (1.46, 1.32 to 1.61). The associations with vascular dementia may be one component of a broader association between autoimmune diseases and vascular damage. Though findings were significant, effect sizes were small. Clinicians should be aware of the possible coexistence of autoimmune disease and dementia in individuals. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings and to explore possible mechanisms mediating any elevation of risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Educational outcomes following breech delivery: a record-linkage study of 456 947 children

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Daniel F; Wood, Rachael; King, Albert; Clark, David N; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smith, Gordon CS; Pell, Jill P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstetric management of term breech infants changed dramatically following the Term Breech Trial which suggested increased serious neonatal morbidity following trial of labour. Short-term morbidity is a poor proxy of long-term neurological sequelae. We determined whether vaginal breech delivery was associated with educational outcomes. Methods: We linked three Scotland-wide administrative databases at an individual level: the ScotXed school census; Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) examination results; and Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR02) maternity database. The linkage provided information on singleton children, born at term, attending Scottish schools between 2006 and 2011. Results: Of the 456 947 eligible children, 1574 (0.3%) had vaginal breech deliveries, 12 489 (2.7%) planned caesarean section for breech presentation and 442 090 (96.9%) vaginal cephalic deliveries. The percentage of term breech infants delivered vaginally fell from 23% to 7% among children who started school in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of children born by vaginal breech delivery, 1.5% had a low 5-min Apgar score (≤3) compared with only 0.4% of those born by either breech caesarean section [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.44–8.54, p < 0.001] or cephalic vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.99–4.93, p < 0.001). Children born by vaginal breech delivery had lower examination attainment than those born by either planned caesarean section for breech presentation (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02–1.32, p = 0.020) or vaginal cephalic delivery (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.28, p = 0.029). Conclusions: Vaginal delivery of term breech infants was associated with lower examination attainment, as well as poorer Apgar scores, suggesting that the adverse effects are not just short-term. PMID:25613426

  11. Following Up Crack Users after Hospital Discharge Using Record Linkage Methodology: An Alternative to Find Hidden Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Veralice Maria; Pedroso, Rosemeri; dos Santos, Antônio Marcos; Diemen, Lisia Von; Pechansky, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methodology as an alternative way to find or follow up hard-to-reach population as crack users. PRL was based on secondary data from public health information systems and the strategy used from standardization; phonetic encoding and the rounds of matching data were described. A total of 293 patient records from medical database and two administrative datasets obtained from Ministry of Health Information Systems were used. Patient information from the medical database was the identifiers to the administrative datasets containing data on outpatient treatment and hospital admissions. 40% of patient records were found in the hospital database and 12% were found in the outpatient database; 95% of the patients were hospitalized up to 5 times, and only 10 out of them had outpatient information. The record linkage methodology by linking government databases may help to address research questions about the path of patients in the care network without spending time and financial resources with primary data collection. PMID:26425565

  12. Embracing the Sparse, Noisy, and Interrelated Aspects of Patient Demographics for use in Clinical Medical Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Stephen M.; Ip-Lin, King

    2015-01-01

    Duplicate patient records in health information systems have received increased attention in recent time due to regulatory incentives to integrate the healthcare enterprise. Historically, most patient record matching systems have been limited to simple applications of the Fellegi-Sunter theory of record linkage with edit distance based string similarity measurements. String similarity approaches ignore the rich semantic information present by reducing it to a simple syntactic comparison of characters. This work describes an updated approach to building clinical medical record linkage systems, which embraces the unavoidable problems present in real-world patient matching. Using a ground truth dataset of a real patient population, we demonstrate that systems built in this fashion improve recall by 76% with little reduction in precision. This result empirically demonstrates the size of the gap between sophisticated systems and naïve approaches. Additionally, it accentuates the difficulty in estimating the false negative error in this setting as previous research has reported much higher levels of recall, due, in part, to measuring from biased samples. PMID:26306279

  13. Implications of Cosmogenic Isotope Linkage for Integration of Terrestrial, Ice and Marine Records and for IntCal Curve Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Muscheler, Raimund; Rasmussen, Sune; Hughen, Konrad; Cooper, Alan; Turney, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Cosmogenic isotopes provide a basis for linking the timescales of different records on the assumption that the production rates for different isotopes share a common signal. This has been shown to be very effective in linking the Greenland GICC05 timescale to the tree-ring based radiocarbon timescale with decadal precision through the Holocene and into the Late Glacial. Muscheler et al (this meeting) report that using lower frequency components of the signal allows linkage over the full range of the radiocarbon timescale. Here we consider some of the wider implications of linking cosmogenic isotopes between different records. Alignment of 10Be and 14C have implications for the integration of environmental records generally, enabling many of the key environmental archives (terrestrial, ice and marine) to be compared on timescales with centennial precision, allowing researchers to re-evaluate assumed synchronisms and potential leads and lags. By using a combination of age-depth modelling and wiggle-matching methodologies it is possible to generate a relationship between different timescales with quantified errors. This approach has consequences for the generation and use of the IntCal calibration curves. Linkage by cosmogenic isotope signal provides an alternative method to climate tuning for generating timescales for inclusion in the calibration curve. The relationship between the ice core timescales and the IntCal timescale is also one which is of critical importance for robustly comparing radiocarbon dated samples and records into an environmental context. In addition, the relationships derived between different record-timescales can be used to assess the synchrony between the climate signals in, for example, Greenland, the Hulu speleothems, and the Cariaco basin: using the linkages and their quantified uncertainties it is possible to plot different climate-proxy data on any of the related age or depth scales. Finally, the linkages seen between different

  14. Inaccurate Ascertainment of Morbidity and Mortality due to Influenza in Administrative Databases: A Population-Based Record Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, David J.; Amin, Janaki; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Newall, Anthony T.; Rawlinson, William D.; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilmour, Robin; Thackway, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Historically, counting influenza recorded in administrative health outcome databases has been considered insufficient to estimate influenza attributable morbidity and mortality in populations. We used database record linkage to evaluate whether modern databases have similar limitations. Methods Person-level records were linked across databases of laboratory notified influenza, emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and death registrations, from the population (∼6.9 million) of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, 2005 to 2008. Results There were 2568 virologically diagnosed influenza infections notified. Among those, 25% of 40 who died, 49% of 1451 with a hospital admission and 7% of 1742 with an ED presentation had influenza recorded on the respective database record. Compared with persons aged ≥65 years and residents of regional and remote areas, respectively, children and residents of major cities were more likely to have influenza coded on their admission record. Compared with older persons and admitted patients, respectively, working age persons and non-admitted persons were more likely to have influenza coded on their ED record. On both ED and admission records, persons with influenza type A infection were more likely than those with type B infection to have influenza coded. Among death registrations, hospital admissions and ED presentations with influenza recorded as a cause of illness, 15%, 28% and 1.4%, respectively, also had laboratory notified influenza. Time trends in counts of influenza recorded on the ED, admission and death databases reflected the trend in counts of virologically diagnosed influenza. Conclusions A minority of the death, hospital admission and ED records for persons with a virologically diagnosed influenza infection identified influenza as a cause of illness. Few database records with influenza recorded as a cause had laboratory confirmation. The databases have limited value for estimating incidence

  15. Privacy preserving probabilistic record linkage (P3RL): a novel method for linking existing health-related data and maintaining participant confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-05-30

    Record linkage of existing individual health care data is an efficient way to answer important epidemiological research questions. Reuse of individual health-related data faces several problems: Either a unique personal identifier, like social security number, is not available or non-unique person identifiable information, like names, are privacy protected and cannot be accessed. A solution to protect privacy in probabilistic record linkages is to encrypt these sensitive information. Unfortunately, encrypted hash codes of two names differ completely if the plain names differ only by a single character. Therefore, standard encryption methods cannot be applied. To overcome these challenges, we developed the Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage (P3RL) method. In this Privacy Preserving Probabilistic Record Linkage method we apply a three-party protocol, with two sites collecting individual data and an independent trusted linkage center as the third partner. Our method consists of three main steps: pre-processing, encryption and probabilistic record linkage. Data pre-processing and encryption are done at the sites by local personnel. To guarantee similar quality and format of variables and identical encryption procedure at each site, the linkage center generates semi-automated pre-processing and encryption templates. To retrieve information (i.e. data structure) for the creation of templates without ever accessing plain person identifiable information, we introduced a novel method of data masking. Sensitive string variables are encrypted using Bloom filters, which enables calculation of similarity coefficients. For date variables, we developed special encryption procedures to handle the most common date errors. The linkage center performs probabilistic record linkage with encrypted person identifiable information and plain non-sensitive variables. In this paper we describe step by step how to link existing health-related data using encryption methods to

  16. Oxford dictionary of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Alan

    The dictionary is derived from the Concise Science Dictionary, first published by Oxford University Press in 1984 (third edition, 1996). It consists of all the entries relating to physics in that dictionary, together with some of those entries relating to astronomy that are required for an understanding of astrophysics and many entries that relate to physical chemistry. It also contains a selection of the words used in mathematics that are relevant to physics, as well as the key words in metal science, computing, and electronics. For this third edition a number of words from quantum field physics and statistical mechanics have been added. Cosmology and particle physics have been updated and a number of general entries have been expanded.

  17. A deep-time perspective of land-ocean linkages in the sedimentary record.

    PubMed

    Romans, Brian W; Graham, Stephan A

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand and predict how marine environments respond to changes in climate and sea level and to variability in sediment flux from rivers. The dynamics of these factors occur over several orders of temporal magnitude and, under favorable geologic conditions, contribute to long-lived sediment accumulation. Thus, stratigraphic successions along continental margins are archives of these environmental changes and can be used to reconstruct land-ocean linkages, which provide important context for shorter-term and future modifications to this critical zone. Here, we discuss an integrated approach to the analysis of deep-time sediment archives (>10(6) years) that considers the entire system, from eroding catchments where sediment is produced to subsiding basins where sediment accumulates. This holistic approach is presented within the framework of fundamental concepts about sedimentary-basin analysis and stratigraphic characterization through a combination of foundational literature and studies that represent the state of the art.

  18. Oxford exploding spires.

    PubMed

    Guest, I

    1974-05-01

    Barbara Ward in her keynote address to the Conference on Exploding Cities, held in Oxford England, made the point that the current problems of the cities can only worsen as the world's population doubles by the year 2000 and the worst hit will be the cities of the developing nations. Between 1950 and 2000 urban populations will rise from 500 million to 1000 million, but the equivalent rise in the 3rd world will be from 500 million to 2200 million. The Conference was more successful in identifying the problems and their causes than in proposing solutions. The inadequacy of urban transport was emphasized repeatedly. Crime emerges as another urban headache. Pollution was another popular theme, and shanties were thoroughly examined. Positive proposals too often took the form of self-evident truths. In all cases the message is clear: the 1st prerequisite to urban planning is central control and, if necessary, public ownership of land. A succession of speakers advocated more self-help for the communities which have emerged on the periphery of so many urban centers. Elizabeth Jelin, from Buenos Aires, argued that these communities -- and shanty towns are the most obvious manifestation -- should no longer be viewed as marginal. They perform essential services, especially in terms of employment, and cannot be moved without severe disruption. Self-help was the beacon held up to delegates, despite the warnings that it would lead to complacency on the part of authorities.

  19. Probabilistic record linkage for monitoring the safety of artemisinin-based combination therapy in the first trimester of pregnancy in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Dellicour, Stephanie; Brasseur, Philippe; Thorn, Per; Gaye, Oumar; Olliaro, Piero; Badiane, Malik; Stergachis, Andy; ter Kuile, Feiko O

    2013-07-01

    There are insufficient data on the safety in early pregnancy of the artemisinins, a new class of antimalarials. Assessment of drug teratogenicity requires large sample sizes for an adequate risk-benefit assessment. There is currently limited pharmacovigilance infrastructure in malaria-endemic countries. Monitoring drug safety in early pregnancy is especially challenging, as it requires early pregnancy detection to assess any potential increased risk of miscarriage, prospective follow-up to reduce recall and survival biases, and accurate data on gestational age assessment. Record linkage approaches for pregnancy pharmacovigilance using routinely generated health records could be a pragmatic and cost-effective approach for pharmacovigilance in early pregnancy, but has not been evaluated in resource-poor settings. Our objective was to assess the feasibility of record linkage using routinely collected healthcare data as a pragmatic means of monitoring the safety in early pregnancy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Senegal. Data (2004-2008) from paper-based registers from outpatient clinics, antenatal care services (ANC) and the delivery unit from the St Joseph dispensary in Mlomp, south-western Senegal, were entered into databases. Record linkage based on a probabilistic matching approach was used to identify pregnancies exposed to ACTs in the first trimester of pregnancy. Two record linkage software packages (Link-Plus and FRIL) were compared and output data were reviewed independently by two investigators. Information on 685 pregnancies was extracted, 536 of which were from the geographic catchment area and eligible for record linkage; 94.6 % of them resulted in live births, 2.6 % in stillbirths and 2.8 % in miscarriages. Major congenital malformations were identified in 1.6 % of births. Seventy-three and 75 true matches between pregnancy outcome and the outpatient treatment registers were identified by two different record linkage software

  20. A practical approach to achieve private medical record linkage in light of public resources

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Mehmet; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Durham, Elizabeth Ashley; Toth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Objective Integration of patients' records across resources enhances analytics. To address privacy concerns, emerging strategies such as Bloom filter encodings (BFEs), enable integration while obscuring identifiers. However, recent investigations demonstrate BFEs are, in theory, vulnerable to cryptanalysis when encoded identifiers are randomly selected from a public resource. This study investigates the extent to which cryptanalysis conditions hold for (1) real patient records and (2) a countermeasure that obscures the frequencies of the identifying values in encoded datasets. Design First, to investigate the strength of cryptanalysis for real patient records, we build BFEs from identifiers in an electronic medical record system and apply cryptanalysis using identifiers in a publicly available voter registry. Second, to investigate the countermeasure under ideal cryptanalysis conditions, we compose BFEs from the identifiers that are randomly selected from a public voter registry. Measurement We utilize precision (ie, rate of correct re-identified encodings) and computation efficiency (ie, time to complete cryptanalysis) to assess the performance of cryptanalysis in BFEs before and after application of the countermeasure. Results Cryptanalysis can achieve high precision when the encoded identifiers are composed of a random sample of a public resource (ie, a voter registry). However, we also find that the attack is less efficient and may not be practical for more realistic scenarios. By contrast, the proposed countermeasure made cryptanalysis impractical in terms of precision and efficiency. Conclusions Performance of cryptanalysis against BFEs based on patient data is significantly lower than theoretical estimates. The proposed countermeasure makes BFEs resistant to known practical attacks. PMID:22847304

  1. A practical approach to achieve private medical record linkage in light of public resources.

    PubMed

    Kuzu, Mehmet; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Durham, Elizabeth Ashley; Toth, Csaba; Malin, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Integration of patients' records across resources enhances analytics. To address privacy concerns, emerging strategies such as Bloom filter encodings (BFEs), enable integration while obscuring identifiers. However, recent investigations demonstrate BFEs are, in theory, vulnerable to cryptanalysis when encoded identifiers are randomly selected from a public resource. This study investigates the extent to which cryptanalysis conditions hold for (1) real patient records and (2) a countermeasure that obscures the frequencies of the identifying values in encoded datasets. First, to investigate the strength of cryptanalysis for real patient records, we build BFEs from identifiers in an electronic medical record system and apply cryptanalysis using identifiers in a publicly available voter registry. Second, to investigate the countermeasure under ideal cryptanalysis conditions, we compose BFEs from the identifiers that are randomly selected from a public voter registry. We utilize precision (ie, rate of correct re-identified encodings) and computation efficiency (ie, time to complete cryptanalysis) to assess the performance of cryptanalysis in BFEs before and after application of the countermeasure. Cryptanalysis can achieve high precision when the encoded identifiers are composed of a random sample of a public resource (ie, a voter registry). However, we also find that the attack is less efficient and may not be practical for more realistic scenarios. By contrast, the proposed countermeasure made cryptanalysis impractical in terms of precision and efficiency. Performance of cryptanalysis against BFEs based on patient data is significantly lower than theoretical estimates. The proposed countermeasure makes BFEs resistant to known practical attacks.

  2. The Association between Bankruptcy and Hospital-Presenting Attempted Suicide: A Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidger, Judi; Gunnell, David; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Overstreet, Karen A.; Hollingworth, William

    2011-01-01

    The associations between admissions to an emergency department following attempted suicide and personal bankruptcy in the preceding and subsequent 2 years were evaluated. Records from a level 1 trauma center (June 1993-December 2002) in Seattle, WA, were linked with case files from the local U.S. District Bankruptcy Court (June 1991 onward).…

  3. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  4. Maternal alcohol disorders and school achievement: a population cohort record linkage study in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E; O’Leary, Colleen; Lawrence, David; Cunningham, Nadia; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-01-01

    Objective Maternal alcohol use disorder is a risk factor for a range of developmental outcomes in children. This study examines school achievement in children of Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers with an alcohol-related diagnosis. Design, setting and participants This is a Western Australian population cohort study of mothers with a record of an alcohol-related diagnosis classified by the International Classification of Diseases Revisions 9/10 codes as recorded on administrative databases, and of their offspring born between 1989 and 2007 (n=18 486 exposed children), with a frequency matched comparison cohort of mothers with no record of alcohol diagnosis and their offspring (n=48 262 comparison children). Outcomes Records were linked with school achievement data for numeracy and literacy from Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 (age range: ~8–14 years) based on statewide and national testing. Mixed multivariate models with a random intercept per child were used to assess the relationship between exposure and the timing of exposure with failure to meet minimum standardised benchmarks. Results Academic achievement was lower in all testing domains (reading, writing, spelling and numeracy) among children of mothers with an alcohol diagnosis and persisted across all year groups examined. The highest ORs at Year 9 for non-Indigenous children were in reading (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) and in writing for Indigenous children (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3). Conclusion Children of mothers with alcohol use disorders are at risk of not meeting minimum educational benchmarks in numeracy and literacy, with the risk highest among Indigenous children. PMID:28490556

  5. Quaternary Charcoal Records from Western North and South America: Linkages to Fire, Climate, and Vegetation Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, C.; Marlon, J.; Bartlein, P.

    2006-12-01

    Particulate charcoal preserved in lake sediments has become an important tool for examining the long-term role of fire as an ecosystem process. The record of microscopic charcoal (100 micron diameter or less) offers information on regional burning patterns, whereas macroscopic particles travel less far and are used to infer local fire history. Reconstruction of past fire activity is based on observations of modern charcoal production, transport, and deposition; modeling; and information on current fire regimes. Approaches and statistics used to interpret charcoal records generally focus on (1) quantifying charcoal content in contiguous samples, (2) determining an appropriate age model, (3) converting raw data to charcoal accumulation rates, and (4) extracting fire signal from noise. Detection of signal in charcoal time series is based on knowledge of recent fires provided by dendrochronological and documentary data. Additional paleofire information is obtained from stratigraphic changes in charcoal composition, pollen assemblages adapted to fire, and other paleoenvironmental proxy. Fire-history studies from western North and South America provide examples of Holocene fire-history reconstructions at spatial scales ranging from watershed to regional. Individual sites show dramatic shifts from crown to surface fire regimes associated with major changes in vegetation. Networks of records reveal regional variations in fire activity and vegetation that are attributed to insolation- driven shifts in atmospheric circulation and changes in short-term climate variability. A global database of paleofire records under development offers an opportunity to consider continental-scale fire patterns and their broad consequences for vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and atmospheric chemistry.

  6. Marine and Lacustrine Turbidite Records: Testing Linkages and Estimating Ground Motions, Central Cascadia Margin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, R. B.; Goldfinger, C.; Black, B.; Collins, T.; Romsos, C. G.; Medeiros, L.; Mutschler, M.; Galer, S.; Raymond, R.; Morey, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    We are investigating a potential paleoseismic record at Bull Run Lake, 165 km inland and 280 km landward of the tip of the plate boundary thrust, at the latitude of Portland, Oregon, central Cascadia margin. Bull Run is a landslide dammed lake in a cirque basin on the western flanks of Mt. Hood. Bull Run is potentially a good paleoseismic site, with no major stream inputs and a small catchment basin. The watershed and lake are faulted, and may contain ashes and evidence of crustal faulting. The lake was investigated by Raymond (1983), who cored the lake and found an orderly stratigraphic sequence with a number of minerogenic disturbance events (turbidites) and the Mazama Ash. The bulk ages of several of the disturbance events dated in Raymond's cores overlap well-known Cascadia earthquakes, including the AD 1700 event and several prior earthquakes, suggesting potential for this site. We collected full coverage high-resolution multibeam and backscatter data, along with a high resolution grid of CHIRP sub-bottom profiles, and seven new sediment gravity cores. We find that the turbidite record in the lake is well imaged in the high-resolution chirp data, and is found throughout the lake, including at least one basin isolated from the main basin. The continuity of the turbidite record shows little or no relationship to the minor stream inlets, suggesting the disturbance beds are not likely to be storm related. Many faint laminae may contain a storm record. Subtle channels from north and south sides of the lake feed an axial channel that terminates at the eastern shore. Lake sidewall failures are evident on the north and south walls, and occur with and without imageable tabular blocky slide debris where sedimented slopes exceed ~ 22-25 deg. Smaller failures visible in backscatter data are found on slopes as low as 12 degrees. We conducted diver investigations of several of the landslide areas, collecting hand push core samples and in-situ vane shear torquemeter

  7. Reform and Resistance at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, both Harvard and Oxford Universities have been rattled by reform-minded--some say brash--leaders determined to question the status quo. At Harvard, President Lawrence H. Summers proved too controversial for his own good and is scheduled to step down this month after five contentious years in office. But at Oxford, John Hood, who…

  8. Reform and Resistance at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, both Harvard and Oxford Universities have been rattled by reform-minded--some say brash--leaders determined to question the status quo. At Harvard, President Lawrence H. Summers proved too controversial for his own good and is scheduled to step down this month after five contentious years in office. But at Oxford, John Hood, who…

  9. Differential risks of cancer types in people with Parkinson's disease: a national record-linkage study.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eugene Liat Hui; Goldacre, Raph; Goldacre, Michael

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a decreased risk of developing cancer. PD has also variably been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cancers like melanoma and breast. We investigated this relationship in a very large cohort of PD patients. We constructed two cohorts of people from an all-England record-linked hospital and mortality dataset spanning 1999-2011. One cohort comprised people with a record of PD; the other comprised people without a record of PD. We 'followed up' these two cohorts to determine observed and expected numbers of people with subsequent primary cancers in each, based on person-years at risk, and calculated standardised rate ratios (RRs). In 219,194 people with PD, the RR for all subsequent primary malignant cancers combined was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.93). Increased RRs (p<0.05) were found for six out of the 31 cancer types investigated, including breast, melanoma, uterus, kidney, and neurological malignancies. Decreased RRs were found for 11 cancer sites, including lung and colon cancer. We corroborate the findings of a reduced risk for the development of cancers in PD patients shown in smaller studies, including cancers associated and not known to be associated with smoking; and of an increased risk of melanoma and breast cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between PD and elevated rates of uterine and renal cancer. Further work is warranted to understand the mechanisms behind these findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Planned Repeat Cesarean Section at Term and Adverse Childhood Health Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Mairead; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Philip, Sam; Norman, Jane E.; McLernon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Global cesarean section (CS) rates range from 1% to 52%, with a previous CS being the commonest indication. Labour following a previous CS carries risk of scar rupture, with potential for offspring hypoxic brain injury, leading to high rates of repeat elective CS. However, the effect of delivery by CS on long-term outcomes in children is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that in avoiding exposure to maternal bowel flora during labour or vaginal birth, offspring delivered by CS may be adversely affected in terms of energy uptake from the gut and immune development, increasing obesity and asthma risks, respectively. This study aimed to address the evidence gap on long-term childhood outcomes following repeat CS by comparing adverse childhood health outcomes after (1) planned repeat CS and (2) unscheduled repeat CS with those that follow vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). Methods and Findings A data-linkage cohort study was performed. All second-born, term, singleton offspring delivered between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2007 in Scotland, UK, to women with a history of CS (n = 40,145) were followed up until 31 January 2015. Outcomes assessed included obesity at age 5 y, hospitalisation with asthma, learning disability, cerebral palsy, and death. Cox regression and binary logistic regression were used as appropriate to compare outcomes following planned repeat CS (n = 17,919) and unscheduled repeat CS (n = 8,847) with those following VBAC (n = 13,379). Risk of hospitalisation with asthma was greater following both unscheduled repeat CS (3.7% versus 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.33) and planned repeat CS (3.6% versus 3.3%, adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09–1.42) compared with VBAC. Learning disability and death were more common following unscheduled repeat CS compared with VBAC (3.7% versus 2.3%, adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.17–2.29, and 0.5% versus 0.4%, adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00–2.25, respectively). Risk of obesity

  11. Risk of individual malignant neoplasms in patients with sickle cell disease: English national record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Seminog, Olena O; Ogunlaja, Oyindamola I; Yeates, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Case reports suggest that there may be an increased risk of some cancers associated with sickle cell disease. However, population-based studies are scarce and there is no comprehensive enumeration of the risks across the whole range of site-specific cancers. Our aim was to provide this. Design We used an English national dataset of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and deaths from 1999 to 2011 to undertake a retrospective cohort study. Setting England. Participants Records of all hospital admissions in England with SCD or with conditions included in the control cohort. Main outcome measures Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates of cancer in a sickle cell disease cohort and a control cohort, confining the analyses to people whose ethnicity was recorded as Black. Results Comparing the sickle cell disease cohort with the cohort without sickle cell disease, the rate ratio for all cancers combined was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.7–2.5). There were significantly high rate ratios for haematological malignancies, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma (rate ratio 3.7, 1.5–8.4), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (2.6, 1.3–4.8), multiple myeloma (5.5, 2.8–10.1), lymphoid leukaemia (3.3, 1.3–8.0) and myeloid leukaemia (10.0, 4.6–21.5). Four solid tumours showed elevated rate ratios: colon cancer (2.8, 1.2–5.5), non-melanoma skin cancer (4.4, 1.3–12.2), kidney cancer (5.4, 2.3–11.5) and thyroid cancer (5.1, 1.3–15.4). Conclusions The risk of some malignancies may be raised in patients with sickle cell disease. However, this study was based on administrative data without the scope to validate these against patients’ full clinical records. Our findings need confirmation or refutation. If confirmed, work to elucidate, at the genetic and molecular level, why people with sickle cell disease have elevated risks of individual cancers might make contributions to the fundamental understanding of carcinogenesis. PMID:27325377

  12. Linkage methods for connecting children with parents in electronic health record and state public health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Angier, Heather; Gold, Rachel; Crawford, Courtney; P O'Malley, Jean; J Tillotson, Carrie; Marino, Miguel; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop methodologies for creating child-parent 'links' in two healthcare-related data sources. We linked children and parents who were patients in a network of Oregon clinics with a shared electronic health record (EHR), using data that reported the child's emergency contact information or the 'guarantor' for the child's visits. We also linked children and parents enrolled in the Oregon Health Plan (OHP; Oregon's public health insurance programs), using administrative data; here, we defined a 'child' as aged <19 years and identified potential 'parents' from among adults sharing the same OHP household identification (ID) number. In both data sources, parents had to be 12-55 years older than the child. We used OHP individual client ID and EHR patient ID numbers to assess the quality of our linkages through cross-validation. Of the 249,079 children in the EHR dataset, we identified 62,967 who had a 'linkable' parent with patient information in the EHR. In the OHP data, 889,452 household IDs were assigned to at least one child; 525,578 with a household ID had a 'linkable' parent (272,578 households). Cross-validation of linkages revealed 99.8 % of EHR links validated in OHP data and 97.7 % of OHP links validated in EHR data. The ability to link children and their parents in healthcare-related datasets will be useful to inform efforts to improve children's health. Thus, we developed strategies for linking children with their parents in an EHR and a public health insurance administrative dataset.

  13. Automatic spike sorting for extracellular electrophysiological recording using unsupervised single linkage clustering based on grey relational analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Lo, Yu-Chun; Tsang, Siny; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Zhao, Wan-Ting; Chao, Wen-Hung; Chang, Yao-Chuan; Wu, Robby; Shih, Yen-Yu I.; Tsai, Sheng-Tsung; Jaw, Fu-Shan

    2011-06-01

    Automatic spike sorting is a prerequisite for neuroscience research on multichannel extracellular recordings of neuronal activity. A novel spike sorting framework, combining efficient feature extraction and an unsupervised clustering method, is described here. Wavelet transform (WT) is adopted to extract features from each detected spike, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS test) is utilized to select discriminative wavelet coefficients from the extracted features. Next, an unsupervised single linkage clustering method based on grey relational analysis (GSLC) is applied for spike clustering. The GSLC uses the grey relational grade as the similarity measure, instead of the Euclidean distance for distance calculation; the number of clusters is automatically determined by the elbow criterion in the threshold-cumulative distribution. Four simulated data sets with four noise levels and electrophysiological data recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of eight patients with Parkinson's disease during deep brain stimulation surgery are used to evaluate the performance of GSLC. Feature extraction results from the use of WT with the KS test indicate a reduced number of feature coefficients, as well as good noise rejection, despite similar spike waveforms. Accordingly, the use of GSLC for spike sorting achieves high classification accuracy in all simulated data sets. Moreover, J-measure results in the electrophysiological data indicating that the quality of spike sorting is adequate with the use of GSLC.

  14. Gender identity disorders and multiple sclerosis risk: A national record-linkage study.

    PubMed

    Pakpoor, Julia; Wotton, Clare J; Schmierer, Klaus; Giovannoni, Gavin; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    An altered balance of gonadal hormones in males with gender identity disorders (GIDs) may increase multiple sclerosis (MS) risk both inherently and secondary to treatment in undergoing male-to-female conversion. We investigated any association between GIDs and MS through analysis of record-linked hospital statistics. Analysis of English Hospital Episode Statistics, 1999-2012. The adjusted rate ratio (RR) of MS following GIDs in males was 6.63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.81-17.01, p = 0.0002). The RR of MS following GIDs in females was 1.44 (95% CI = 0.47-3.37, p = 0.58). We report a strong association between GIDs and MS in male-to-females, supporting a potential role for low testosterone and/or feminising hormones on MS risk in males. © The Author(s), 2016.

  15. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer: record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Beasley, Marcus; Pang, Dong; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2014-01-06

    To investigate maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer. Case-control analysis of linked records from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank with the Scottish Cancer Registry and the General Registry of Births and Deaths in Scotland was carried out. Aberdeen, Scotland. Cases (n=176) comprised children diagnosed with cancer under 15 years or recorded as having died of cancer. Four controls per case were matched by age and gender. Maternal age, body mass index, social class, marital status and smoking as well as pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and previous miscarriage, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar scores were compared between groups to test for association with cancer. ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using conditional logistic regression in univariable and multivariable models. Of the maternal characteristics tested, mother's age at delivery (cases mean 28.9 (SD 5.6) years vs controls mean 30.2 (SD 4.6), p=0.002) and smoking status (38.6% smokers among cases, 29.7% among controls, p=0.034) were found to be different between groups. Of the perinatal factors tested, low Apgar score at 5 min (adjusted OR (AOR) 4.59, 95% CI 1.52 to 13.87) and delivery by caesarean section (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.92) showed statistically significant associations with childhood cancer in the multivariable model. Younger maternal age, maternal smoking, delivery by caesarean section and low Apgar score at 5 min were independently associated with increased risk of childhood cancer. These general findings should be interpreted with caution as this study did not have the power to detect any association with individual diagnostic categories of childhood cancer.

  16. The linkage between fluvial meander-belt morphodynamics and the depositional record improves paleoenvironmental interpretations, Western Interior Basin, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkin, P.; Hubbard, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced stratigraphic interpretations are possible when linkages between morphodynamic processes and the depositional record are resolved. Recent studies of modern and ancient meander-belt deposits have emphasized morphodynamic processes that are commonly understated in the analysis of stratigraphic products, such as intra-point bar erosion and rotation, counter-point-bar (concave bank-bench) development and meander-bend abandonment. On a larger scale, longitudinal changes in meander-belt morphology and processes such as changes in meander-bend migration rate, channel-belt width/depth ratio and sinuosity have been observed as rivers flow through the tidal backwater zone. However, few studies have attempted to recognize the impact of the backwater zone in the stratigraphic record. We consider ancient meander-belt deposits of the Cretaceous McMurray Formation and document linkages between morphodynamic processes and their stratigraphic product to resolve more detailed paleoenvironmental interpretations. The ancient meander belt was characterized by paleochannels that were 600 m wide and up to 50 m deep, resolved in a particularly high quality subsurface dataset consisting of 600 km2 of high-quality 3-D seismic data and over 1000 wellbores. A 3-D geocellular model and reconstructed paleochannel migration patterns reveal the evolutionary history of seventeen individual meander belt elements, including point bars, counter point bars and their associated abandoned channel fills. At the meander-bend scale, intra-point-bar erosion surfaces bound accretion packages characterized by unique accretion directions, internal stratigraphic architecture and lithologic properties. Erosion surfaces and punctuated bar rotation are linked to upstream changes in channel planform geometry (meander cut-offs). We provide evidence for downstream translation and development of counter-point bars that formed in response to valley-edge and intra-meander-belt confinement. At the meander

  17. Maternal alcohol use disorder and subsequent child protection contact: A record-linkage population cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hafekost, Katherine; Lawrence, David; O'Leary, Colleen; Bower, Carol; O'Donnell, Melissa; Semmens, James; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2017-08-17

    We examined the relationship between a maternal alcohol-use diagnosis, and the timing of diagnosis, and child protection outcomes in a Western Australian population cohort. This analysis made use of routinely collected linked administrative health and child protection data. Those in scope for the study were women who had a birth recorded on the Western Australian Midwives Notification System (1983-2007). Women with an alcohol related diagnosis (ICD 9/10) on relevant datasets formed the exposed group. The comparison cohort were frequency matched to the exposed cohort. Generalized linear mixed models and a proportional hazards model were used to examine the relationship between a maternal alcohol-use diagnosis and subsequent child protection contact. Children of women with an alcohol-use diagnosis were at significantly increased risk of a substantiated child protection allegation (OR=2.92, 95%CI=2.71-3.14) and entry into out-of-home care (OR: 3.78, 95% CI=3.46-4.13). The highest risk of child protection contact was associated with diagnoses received during pregnancy, and in the years immediately pre- or post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers have an alcohol-use diagnosis are at increased risk of contact with child protection services. Despite current public health recommendations, some women continue to drink heavily during pregnancy. Additional work is required to identify effective strategies to reduce heavy alcohol use in this population. Further, women who have been identified to have alcohol use issues require additional support, from multiple agencies, to reduce the potential negative impacts on their child. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Residential segregation, dividing walls and mental health: a population-based record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aideen; French, Declan; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Background Neighbourhood segregation has been described as a fundamental determinant of physical health, but literature on its effect on mental health is less clear. While most previous research has relied on conceptualised measures of segregation, Northern Ireland is unique as it contains physical manifestations of segregation in the form of segregation barriers (or ‘peacelines’) which can be used to accurately identify residential segregation. Methods We used population-wide health record data on over 1.3 million individuals, to analyse the effect of residential segregation, measured by both the formal Dissimilarity Index and by proximity to a segregation barrier, on the likelihood of poor mental health. Results Using multilevel logistic regression models, we found residential segregation measured by the Dissimilarity Index poses no additional risk to the likelihood of poor mental health after adjustment for area-level deprivation. However, residence in an area segregated by a ‘peaceline’ increases the likelihood of antidepressant medication by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.23) and anxiolytic medication by 39% (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.48), even after adjustment for gender, age, conurbation, deprivation and crime. Conclusions Living in an area segregated by a ‘peaceline’ is detrimental to mental health suggesting segregated areas characterised by a heightened sense of ‘other’ pose a greater risk to mental health. The difference in results based on segregation measure highlights the importance of choice of measure when studying segregation. PMID:26858342

  19. The linkage between marine sediment records and changes in Holocene Saharan landscape: simulating the dust cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerer, Sabine; Claussen, Martin; Reick, Christian; Stanelle, Tanja

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediment records reveal an abrupt and strong increase in dust deposition in the North Atlantic at the end of the African Humid Period about 4.9 ka to 5.5 ka ago (deMenocal et al., 2000; McGee et al., 2013). The change in dust flux has been attributed to varying Saharan land surface cover. Alternatively, the enhanced dust accumulation is linked to enhanced surface winds and a consequent intensification of coastal upwelling. We present simulation results from a recent sensitivity study, where we demonstrate for the first time the direct link between dust accumulation in marine cores and changes in Saharan land surface during the Holocene. We have simulated timeslices of he mid-Holocene (6 ka BP) and pre-industrial (1850 AD) dust cycle as a function of Saharan land surface cover and atmosphere-ocean conditions using the coupled atmosphere-aerosol model ECHAM6.1-HAM2.1. We prescribe mid-Holocene vegetation cover based on a vegetation reconstruction from pollen data (Hoelzmann et al., 1998) and mid-Holocene lake surface area is determined using a water routing and storage model (Tegen et al., 2002). In agreement with data from marine sediment cores, our simulations show that mid-Holocene dust deposition fluxes in the North Atlantic were two to three times lower compared with pre-industrial fluxes. We identify Saharan land surface characteristics to be the main control on dust transport from North Africa to the North Atlantic. We conclude that the variation in dust accumulation in marine cores is likely related to a transition of the Saharan landscape during the Holocene and not due to changes in atmospheric or ocean conditions alone. Reference: deMenocal, P., Ortiz, J., Guilderson, T., Adkins, J., Sarnthein, M., Baker, L., and Yarusinsky, M.: Abrupt onset and termination of the African Humid Period:: rapid climate responses to gradual insolation forcing, Quaternary Science Reviews, 19, 347-361, 2000. Hoelzmann, P., Jolly, D., Harrison, S. P., Laarif, F

  20. Cancer incidence among male Swedish veterinarians and other workers of the veterinary industry: a record-linkage study.

    PubMed

    Travier, Noemie; Gridley, Gloria; Blair, Aaron; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Boffetta, Paolo

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the risk of cancer among veterinarians in a large record-linkage study from Sweden. We used the nationwide, Swedish Cancer Environment Registry III, which links the Cancer Register data for 1971-1989 to the national population censuses from 1960 and 1970, to compare the incidence of cancer among male veterinarians to that of the remaining part of the active population using multivariable Poisson regression models and standardized incidence ratios. One thousand one hundred and seventy eight men classified as veterinarians or workers in the veterinary industry at either census were identified. Veterinarians in the veterinary industry experienced increased risk of esophageal (relative risk (RR) 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-10.09), colon (RR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.42-3.91), pancreatic (RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 0.94-4.68) and brain (RR: 2.51, 95% CI: 1.04-6.03) cancers as well as melanoma of the skin (RR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24-6.17). Similar excess risks were observed when veterinarians were compared with individuals of similar socioeconomic status. The increased risks of esophageal, colon, pancreatic and brain cancers as well as melanoma observed among veterinarians did not seem to be explained by the high socio-economic status of this occupational group. Therefore, it is possible that some of these results reflect the carcinogenicity of occupational exposures, including animal viruses, solar or ionizing radiations and anesthetics.

  1. Reproductive history patterns and long-term mortality rates: a Danish, population-based record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Reardon, David C; Calhoun, Byron C

    2013-08-01

    Inconsistent definitions and incomplete data have left society largely in the dark regarding mortality risks generally associated with pregnancy and with particular outcomes, immediately after resolution and over the long-term. Population-based record-linkage studies provide an accurate means for deriving maternal mortality rate data. In this Danish population-based study, records of women born between 1962 and 1993 (n = 1,001,266) were examined to identify associations between patterns of pregnancy resolution and mortality rates across 25 years. With statistical controls for number of pregnancies, birth year and age at last pregnancy, the combination of induced abortion(s) and natural loss(es) was associated with more than three times higher mortality rate than only birth(s). Moderate risks were identified with only induced abortion, only natural loss and having experienced all outcomes compared with only birth(s). Risk of death was more than six times greater among women who had never been pregnant compared with those who only had birth(s). Increased risks of death were 45%, 114% and 191% for 1, 2 and 3 abortions, respectively, compared with no abortions after controlling for other reproductive outcomes and last pregnancy age. Increased risks of death were equal to 44%, 86% and 150% for 1, 2 and 3 natural losses, respectively, compared with none after including statistical controls. Finally, decreased mortality risks were observed for women who had experienced two and three or more births compared with no births. This study offers a broad perspective on reproductive history and mortality rates, with the results indicating a need for further research on possible underlying mechanisms.

  2. Prevalence of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) in France: an estimate based on a record linkage of two national databases.

    PubMed

    Baujat, Geneviève; Choquet, Rémy; Bouée, Stéphane; Jeanbat, Viviane; Courouve, Laurène; Ruel, Amélie; Michot, Caroline; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Lapidus, David; Messiaen, Claude; Landais, Paul; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2017-06-30

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, severely disabling, and life-shortening genetic disorder that causes the formation of heterotopic bone within soft connective tissue. Previous studies found that the FOP prevalence was about one in every two million lives. The aim of this study is to estimate the FOP prevalence in France by probabilistic record-linkage of 2 national databases: 1) the PMSI (Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information), an administrative database that records all hospitalization activities in France and 2) CEMARA, a registry database developed by the French Centres of Reference for Rare Diseases. Using a capture-recapture methodology to adjust the crude number of patients identified in both data sources, 89 FOP patients were identified, which results in a prevalence of 1.36 per million inhabitants (CI95% = [1.10; 1.68]). FOP patients' mean age was 25 years, only 14.9% were above 40 years, and 53% of them were males. The first symptoms - beside toe malformations- occurred after birth for 97.3% of them. Mean age at identified symptoms was 7 years and above 18 years for only 6.9% of patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 10 years, and above 18 years for 14.9% of the patients. FOP patients were distributed across France. Despite the challenge of ascertaining patients with rare diseases, we report a much higher prevalence of FOP in France than in previous studies elsewhere. We suggest that efforts to identify patients and confirm the diagnosis of FOP should be reinforced and extended at both national and European level.

  3. Incidence of AIDS-defining and Other Cancers in HIV-positive Children in South Africa: Record Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Bohlius, Julia; Maxwell, Nicola; Spoerri, Adrian; Wainwright, Rosalind; Sawry, Shobna; Poole, Janet; Eley, Brian; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Garone, Daniela; Technau, Karl-Günter; Maskew, Mhairi; Davies, Mary-Ann; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, D Cristina; Egger, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Little is known on the risk of cancer in HIV-positive children in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined incidence and risk factors of AIDS-defining and other cancers in pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in South Africa. We linked the records of 5 ART programs in Johannesburg and Cape Town to those of pediatric oncology units, based on name and surname, date of birth, folder and civil identification numbers. We calculated incidence rates and obtained hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox regression models including ART, sex, age and degree of immunodeficiency. Missing CD4 counts and CD4% were multiply imputed. Immunodeficiency was defined according to World Health Organization 2005 criteria. Data of 11,707 HIV-positive children were included in the analysis. During 29,348 person-years of follow-up 24 cancers were diagnosed, for an incidence rate of 82 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 55-122). The most frequent cancers were Kaposi sarcoma (34 per 100,000 person-years) and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (31 per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of non AIDS-defining malignancies was 17 per 100,000. The risk of developing cancer was lower on ART (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.86), and increased with age at enrollment (>10 vs. <3 years: HR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.2-24.6) and immunodeficiency at enrollment (advanced/severe versus no/mild: HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-12.0). The HR for the effect of ART from complete case analysis was similar but ceased to be statistically significant (P = 0.078). Early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care, with start of ART before advanced immunodeficiency develops, may substantially reduce the burden of cancer in HIV-positive children in South Africa and elsewhere.

  4. Adjustment for survey non-representativeness using record-linkage: refined estimates of alcohol consumption by deprivation in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H; McCartney, Gerry; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Robinson, Mark; Gray, Linsay

    2017-01-01

    Aims Analytical approaches to addressing survey non-participation bias typically only use demographic information to improve estimates. We applied a novel methodology which utilises health information from data linkage to adjust for non-representativeness. We illustrate the method by presenting adjusted alcohol consumption estimates for Scotland. Design Data on consenting respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (SHeSs) 1995-2010 were confidentially linked to routinely-collected hospital admission and mortality records. Synthetic observations representing non-respondents were created using general population data. Multiple imputation was performed to compute adjusted alcohol estimates given a range of assumptions about the missing data. Adjusted estimates of mean weekly consumption were additionally calibrated to per-capita alcohol sales data. Setting Scotland Participants 13,936 male and 18,021 female respondents to the SHeSs 1995-2010, aged 20-64 years. Measurements Weekly alcohol consumption, non-, binge- and problem-drinking. Findings Initial adjustment for non-response resulted in estimates of overall mean weekly consumption that were elevated by up to 17.8% [26.5 units (18.6 - 34.4)] compared to corrections based solely on socio-demographic data [22.5 (17.7 - 27.3)]; other drinking behaviour estimates were little changed. Under more extreme assumptions the overall difference was up to 53% and calibrating to sales estimates resulted in up to 88% difference. Increases were especially pronounced among males in deprived areas. Conclusions Use of routinely-collected health data to reduce bias arising from survey non-response resulted in elevated alcohol consumption estimates among working age males in Scotland, with less impact for females. Our new method can be generalised to other surveys and improve estimates of alternative harmful behaviours. PMID:28276110

  5. High Hospitalization Rates in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using Medical Record Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Sieswerda, Elske; Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W.; van der Pal, Helena J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Caron, Huib N.

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalization rates over time of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) provide insight into the burden of unfavorable health conditions on CCS and health care resources. The objective of our study was to examine trends in hospitalizations of CCS and risk factors in comparison with the general population. We performed a medical record linkage study of a cohort of 1564 ≥five-year CCS with national registers. We obtained a random sample of the general population matched on year of birth, gender and calendar year per CCS retrieved. We quantified and compared hospitalization rates of CCS and reference persons from 1995 until 2005, and we analyzed risk factors for hospitalization within the CCS cohort with multivariable Poisson models. We retrieved hospitalization information from 1382 CCS and 25583 reference persons. The overall relative hospitalization rate (RHR) was 2.2 (95%CI:1.9–2.5) for CCS compared to reference persons. CCS with central nervous system and solid tumors had highest RHRs. Hospitalization rates in CCS were increased compared to reference persons up to at least 30 years after primary diagnosis, with highest rates 5–10 and 20–30 years after primary cancer. RHRs were highest for hospitalizations due to neoplasms (10.7; 95%CI:7.1–16.3) and endocrine/nutritional/metabolic disorders (7.3; 95%CI:4.6–11.7). Female gender (P<0.001), radiotherapy to head and/or neck (P<0.001) or thorax and/or abdomen (P = 0.03) and surgery (P = 0.01) were associated with higher hospitalization rates in CCS. In conclusion, CCS have increased hospitalization rates compared to the general population, up to at least 30 years after primary cancer treatment. These findings imply a high and long-term burden of unfavorable health conditions after childhood cancer on survivors and health care resources. PMID:27433937

  6. Oxford Handbook of PaediatricsOxford Handbook of Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    THIS EXCITING new edition to the Oxford Handbook Series provides a compact guide to all aspects of acute and chronic paediatrics. A team of 23 specialist contributors and medical editors has condensed many years of clinical experience into a pocket-sized compendium of clinical problems and treatment options.

  7. Population specific and up to date cardiovascular risk charts can be efficiently obtained with record linkage of routine and observational data.

    PubMed

    Faeh, David; Braun, Julia; Rufibach, Kaspar; Puhan, Milo A; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bopp, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Only few countries have cohorts enabling specific and up-to-date cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. Individual risk assessment based on study samples that differ too much from the target population could jeopardize the benefit of risk charts in general practice. Our aim was to provide up-to-date and valid CVD risk estimation for a Swiss population using a novel record linkage approach. Anonymous record linkage was used to follow-up (for mortality, until 2008) 9,853 men and women aged 25-74 years who participated in the Swiss MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CVD) study of 1983-92. The linkage success was 97.8%, loss to follow-up 1990-2000 was 4.7%. Based on the ESC SCORE methodology (Weibull regression), we used age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, and cholesterol to generate three models. We compared the 1) original SCORE model with a 2) recalibrated and a 3) new model using the Brier score (BS) and cross-validation. Based on the cross-validated BS, the new model (BS = 14107×10(-6)) was somewhat more appropriate for risk estimation than the original (BS = 14190×10(-6)) and the recalibrated (BS = 14172×10(-6)) model. Particularly at younger age, derived absolute risks were consistently lower than those from the original and the recalibrated model which was mainly due to a smaller impact of total cholesterol. Using record linkage of observational and routine data is an efficient procedure to obtain valid and up-to-date CVD risk estimates for a specific population.

  8. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  9. Improving the evidence base for promoting quality and equity of surgical care using population-based linkage of administrative health records.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sonĵa E; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Finn, Judith; Semmens, James B

    2005-10-01

    This paper highlights the uses of population-based linkage of administrative health records to improve the quality, safety, and equity of surgical care. The primary focus of the paper is on the transfer of this type of research into policy and practice. In the modern era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that not only is new evidence incorporated into clinical practice, but that the implementation and associated costs are monitored; this requires the setting of appropriate benchmarking criteria. Furthermore, it is imperative that all members of the population receive optimal health care and people are not discriminated against because of socio-economic, locational, or racial factors. The use of data linkage can assist with examining these aspects of health care and this paper provides real-life examples such as costs and adverse events from laparoscopic cholecystectomy, event monitoring for post-operative venous thrombosis, and inequalities in cancer care. The influence of these studies on clinical practice and policy is also discussed. Furthermore, this paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of data linkage research and how to avoid pitfalls. Health researchers, clinicians, and policy-makers will find the discussion of these issues useful in their everyday practice.

  10. Teaching and Learning: The Oxford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    It all started with an invitation from the Oxford Round Table. The author was summoned to participate in a lively debate at Exeter College in the Oxford University about, "Science and Faith: The Great Matter." If one has participated in an Oxford University summer experience, he/she will agree it is a once in a lifetime learning…

  11. [Estimated parameters in linkage between mortality and hospitalization databases according to quality of records on underlying cause of death].

    PubMed

    Coeli, Cláudia Medina; Barbosa, Flávia dos Santos; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Camargo, Kenneth Rochel de; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linkage parameter estimates between hospitalization and mortality databases, calculated separately for the subsets of deaths from ill-defined causes and deaths from known causes. The databases for deaths from known causes and ill-defined causes were linked to a hospital admissions database. Parameters were estimated using two strategies: (1) first name, last name, and day, month, and year of birth, (2) full name and date of birth. In the first strategy, the estimates for the first and last name were at least 97% in both sets. However, the items day, month, and year of birth produced low values in both sets. In the second strategy there was an important difference between the two groups, with much lower values for full name and especially for date of birth in the group of deaths from ill-defined causes. Our results emphasize the need for pilot studies to evaluate possible internal heterogeneity of databases during the planning stage of linkage projects.

  12. Review of the Oxford Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, G.

    The Oxford Cryocooler incorporates a linear drive compressor operating close to resonance. All dynamic seals are noncontacting clearance seals maintained by mounting the piston and displacer on mechanical suspension systems with infinite fatigue life. The displacer is pneumatically driven but controlled by a miniature linear motor. The cooler is therefore nonwearing and performance can be maintained even in adverse environments by servo control of piston and displacer strokes and relative phase. Split and integral, single- and two-stage coolers have been produced with operating temperatures between 30 K and 200 K, refrigeration powers between 50 mW and several watts and capable of operating in ambient temperatures from -40 C to 70 C. A current project aims to extend the refrigeration power to 500 watts at 80 K. Experimental optimisation techniques have been devised for rapid development of high efficiency coolers.

  13. Statistical methods to enhance reporting of Aboriginal Australians in routine hospital records using data linkage affect estimates of health disparities.

    PubMed

    Randall, Deborah A; Lujic, Sanja; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

    2013-10-01

    To investigate under-recording of Aboriginal people in hospital data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia, define algorithms for enhanced reporting, and examine the impact of these algorithms on estimated disparities in cardiovascular and injury outcomes. NSW Admitted Patient Data were linked with NSW mortality data (2001-2007). Associations with recording of Aboriginal status were investigated using multilevel logistic regression. The number of admissions reported as Aboriginal according to six algorithms was compared with the original (unenhanced) Aboriginal status variable. Age-standardised admission, and 30- and 365-day mortality ratios were estimated for cardiovascular disease and injury. Sixty per cent of the variation in recording of Aboriginal status was due to the hospital of admission, with poorer recording in private and major city hospitals. All enhancement algorithms increased the number of admissions reported as Aboriginal, from between 4.1% and 37.8%. Admission and mortality ratios varied markedly between algorithms, with less strict algorithms resulting in higher admission rate ratios, but generally lower mortality rate ratios, particularly for cardiovascular disease. The choice of enhancement algorithm has an impact on the number of people reported as Aboriginal and on estimated outcome ratios. The influence of the hospital on recording of Aboriginal status highlights the importance of continued efforts to improve data collection. Estimates of Aboriginal health disparity can change depending on how Aboriginal status is reported. Sensitivity analyses using a number of algorithms are recommended. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. Setting/participants A linked data set of women aged 20–69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999–2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997–2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995–2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20–69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. Outcome measures The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. Results There were 28 872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76 831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1 372 823 women (PSR n=1 374 401; QCR n=1955), and 5 062 118 records. Conclusions Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study

  15. Comparing routine administrative data with registry data for assessing quality of hospital care in patients with myocardial infarction using deterministic record linkage.

    PubMed

    Maier, Birga; Wagner, Katrin; Behrens, Steffen; Bruch, Leonhard; Busse, Reinhard; Schmidt, Dagmar; Schühlen, Helmut; Thieme, Roland; Theres, Heinz

    2016-10-21

    Assessment of quality of care in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) should be based on data that effectively enable determination of quality. With the need to simplify measurement techniques, the question arises whether routine data can be used for this purpose. We therefore compared data from a German sickness fund (AOK) with data from the Berlin Myocardial Infarction Registry (BMIR). We included patients hospitalised for treatment of MI in Berlin from 2009-2011. We matched 2305 patients from AOK and BMIR by using deterministic record linkage with indirect identifiers. For matched patients we compared the frequency in documentation between AOK and BMIR for quality assurance variables and calculated the kappa coefficient (KC) as a measure of agreement. There was almost perfect agreement in documentation between AOK and BMIR data for matched patients for: catheter laboratory (KC: 0.874), ST elevation MI (KC: 0.826), diabetes (KC: 0.818), percutaneous coronary intervention (KC: 0.860) and hospital mortality (KC: 0.952). The remaining variables compared showed moderate or less than moderate agreement (KC < 0.6), and were grouped in Category II with less frequent documentation in AOK for risk factors and aspects of patients' history; in Category III with more frequent documentation in AOK for comorbidities; and in Category IV for medication at and after hospital discharge. Routine data are primarily collected and defined for reimbursement purposes. Quality assurance represents merely a secondary use. This explains why only a limited number of variables showed almost perfect agreement in documentation between AOK and BMIR. If routine data are to be used for quality assessment, they must be constantly monitored and further developed for this new application. Furthermore, routine data should be complemented with registry data by well-established methods of record linkage to realistically reflect the situation - also for those quality-associated variables not

  16. Rheumatic Heart Disease-Attributable Mortality at Ages 5–69 Years in Fiji: A Five-Year, National, Population-Based Record-Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Tom; Kado, Joseph; Miller, Anne E.; Ward, Brenton; Heenan, Rachel; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Bärnighausen, Till W.; Mirabel, Mariana; Bloom, David E.; Bailey, Robin L.; Tukana, Isimeli N.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is considered a major public health problem in developing countries, although scarce data are available to substantiate this. Here we quantify mortality from RHD in Fiji during 2008–2012 in people aged 5–69 years. Methods and Findings Using 1,773,999 records derived from multiple sources of routine clinical and administrative data, we used probabilistic record-linkage to define a cohort of 2,619 persons diagnosed with RHD, observed for all-cause mortality over 11,538 person-years. Using relative survival methods, we estimated there were 378 RHD-attributable deaths, almost half of which occurred before age 40 years. Using census data as the denominator, we calculated there were 9.9 deaths (95% CI 9.8–10.0) and 331 years of life-lost (YLL, 95% CI 330.4–331.5) due to RHD per 100,000 person-years, standardised to the portion of the WHO World Standard Population aged 0–69 years. Valuing life using Fiji’s per-capita gross domestic product, we estimated these deaths cost United States Dollar $6,077,431 annually. Compared to vital registration data for 2011–2012, we calculated there were 1.6-times more RHD-attributable deaths than the number reported, and found our estimate of RHD mortality exceeded all but the five leading reported causes of premature death, based on collapsed underlying cause-of-death diagnoses. Conclusions Rheumatic heart disease is a leading cause of premature death as well as an important economic burden in this setting. Age-standardised death rates are more than twice those reported in current global estimates. Linkage of routine data provides an efficient tool to better define the epidemiology of neglected diseases. PMID:26371755

  17. Cancer-related hospitalisations and ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer: a population-based record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xue Qin; Smith, David Paul; Goldsbury, David Eamon; Cooke-Yarborough, Claire; Patel, Manish Indravadan; O'Connell, Dianne Lesley

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify reasons for prostate cancer stage being recorded as ‘unknown’ in Australia's largest population-based cancer registry. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting New South Wales (NSW) is the most populous state in Australia, with almost one third of the total national population. Participants NSW Cancer Registry (NSWCR) records for prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2001–2009 were linked to the NSW Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2010. All patients in this study had a minimum of 12 months follow-up in the hospital episode records after their date of diagnosis as recorded by the NSWCR. Main outcome measures Incidence of ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer and cancer-specific survival. Results Of 50 597 prostate cancer cases, 39.9% were recorded as having ‘unknown’ stage. Up to 4 months after diagnosis, 77.2% of cases without a hospital-reported cancer diagnosis were recorded as having ‘unknown’ stage. Among those patients with a hospital-reported cancer diagnosis, stage was ‘unknown’ for 7.6% of cases who received a radical prostatectomy (RP) and for 34.0% of cases who had procedures other than RP. In the latter group, the factors that were related to having ‘unknown’ stage were living in disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR (aOR) range: 1.13 to 1.20), attending a private hospital (aOR range: 1.25 to 2.13), having day-only admission for care (aOR=1.23, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.36), or having procedures other than multiple procedures with imaging (eg, biopsy only, aOR range: 1.11 to 1.45). Conclusions Over half of ‘unknown’ stage prostate cancer cases did not have a hospital-reported prostate cancer diagnosis within the 4 months after initial diagnosis. We identified differences in the likelihood of cases being recorded as ‘unknown’ stage based on socioeconomic status and facility type, which suggests that further investigation of reporting practices in relation to diagnostic and treatment

  18. [Underreporting of tuberculosis in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN): primary default and case detection from additional data sources using probabilistic record linkage].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Andrade, Vanusa de Lemos; Oliveira, Gisele Pinto de

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze underreporting of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the Information System on Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), based on the following data sources: Mortality Information System (SIM), Registry and Follow-up Book for TB Case Treatment (LPATB), and Laboratory Registry Book (LRLAB). Probabilistic record linkage was used between the SIM (2007-2008) and SINAN (2002-2008). A search was conducted in LPATB and LRLAB (2007-2008) for cases not recorded in SINAN. There were 125 deaths, of which 44.8% were not recorded in SINAN. In LPATB, 58 cases (5.1%) were in treatment and were not reported in SINAN. LRLAB showed 32 smear-positive cases not reported to SINAN and without treatment, representing primary default. Addition of the retrieved cases, led to a 14.6% increase in the incidence rate in 2007 and 11.6% in 2008. Underreporting of deaths from or with TB in the Mortality Information System and primary default revealed difficulties in access to adequate and timely treatment, calling for rethinking of strategies to detect cases for timely treatment.

  19. Medical Record Review to Differentiate between Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism: A Danish Record Linkage Study with 10 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wermuth, Lene; Cui, Xin; Greene, Naomi; Schernhammer, Eva; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. The electronic medical records provide new and unprecedented opportunities for large population-based and clinical studies if valid and reliable diagnoses can be obtained, to determine what information is needed to distinguish idiopathic PD from Parkinsonism in electronic medical records. Methods. Chart review of complete medical records of 2,446 patients with a hospital discharge diagnosis of PD, who, between 1996 and 2009, were registered in the Danish National Hospital Register as idiopathic PD. All patients were examined in neurology departments. Clinical features were abstracted from charts to determine Parkinsonian phenotypes and disease course, using predefined criteria for idiopathic PD. Results. Chart review verified that 2,068 (84.5%) patients met criteria for idiopathic PD. The most distinguishing features of idiopathic PD patients were asymmetric onset, and fewer atypical features at onset or follow-up compared to Parkinsonism, and the area under the curve (AUC) for these items alone is moderate (0.74–0.77) and the highest AUC (0.91) was achieved when using all clinical features recorded in addition to PD medication use and a follow-up of 5 years or more. Conclusion. To reduce disease misclassification, information extracted from medical record review with at least 5 years of follow-up after first diagnosis was key to improve diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26770868

  20. Corner Office Interviews: Oxford's Casper Grathwohl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncevic, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Casper Grathwohl, VP and publisher of reference at Oxford University Press (OUP), regarding his background of reference publishing, his role in OUP, and his plans of moving on with Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO). Over the past 12 years, Grathwohl, has led a successful transition of the venerable…

  1. Corner Office Interviews: Oxford's Casper Grathwohl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncevic, Mirela

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Casper Grathwohl, VP and publisher of reference at Oxford University Press (OUP), regarding his background of reference publishing, his role in OUP, and his plans of moving on with Oxford Bibliographies Online (OBO). Over the past 12 years, Grathwohl, has led a successful transition of the venerable…

  2. Cervical Abnormalities Are More Common among Indigenous than Other Australian Women: A Retrospective Record-Linkage Study, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Whop, Lisa J; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Lokuge, Kamalini; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Diaz, Abbey; Roder, David; Gertig, Dorota M; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous Australian women have much higher incidence of cervical cancer compared to non-Indigenous women. Despite an organised cervical screening program introduced 25 years ago, a paucity of Indigenous-identified data in Pap Smear Registers remains. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities detected among the screened Indigenous population has not previously been reported. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of population-based linked health records for 1,334,795 female Queensland residents aged 20-69 years who had one or more Pap smears during 2000-2011; from linked hospital records 23,483 were identified as Indigenous. Prevalence was calculated separately for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women, for cytology-detected low-grade (cLGA) and high-grade abnormalities (cHGA), and histologically confirmed high-grade abnormalities (hHGA). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from logistic regression analysis. In 2010-2011 the prevalence of hHGA among Indigenous women (16.6 per 1000 women screened, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14.6-18.9) was twice that of non-Indigenous women (7.5 per 1000 women screened, CI 7.3-7.7). Adjusted for age, area-level disadvantage and place of residence, Indigenous women had higher prevalence of cLGA (OR 1.4, CI 1.3-1.4), cHGA (OR 2.2, CI 2.1-2.3) and hHGA (OR 2.0, CI 1.9-2.1). Our findings show that Indigenous women recorded on the Pap Smear Register have much higher prevalence for cLGA, cHGA and hHGA compared to non-Indigenous women. The renewed cervical screening program, to be implemented in 2017, offers opportunities to reduce the burden of abnormalities and invasive cancer among Indigenous women and address long-standing data deficiencies.

  3. The accuracy of ascertaining vital status in a historical cohort study of synthetic textiles workers using computerized record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M S; Carpenter, M; Thériault, G; Fair, M

    1993-01-01

    Vital status of a cohort of 10,211 Quebec, synthetic textiles workers was ascertained through a probabilistic record linkage to the Canadian Mortality Data Base (CMDB); 5,033 of these workers were also traced using other sources. There was agreement in the vital status of all but 60 of the subjects traced jointly through the CMDB and the alternate sources. 41 subjects were declared 'deceased' from the CMDB but 'alive' from the alternate sources; it is likely that these subjects were indeed deceased. 19 subjects, declared 'deceased' with a fair degree of certainty from the alternate sources, were not identified from the computer search of the CMDB; 17 were found manually on the microfiche death records and two died outside of Canada. The probability of identifying deceased and living subjects from the CMDB was therefore estimated to be 98.2% (95% confidence interval: 97.5-98.7%) and about 100%, respectively. Estimates of cost are also presented, and it is concluded that use of the CMDB is the method of choice for tracing moderate to large cohorts.

  4. Sex-Differences in the Metabolic Health of Offspring of Parents with Diabetes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Aldhous, Marian C; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Campbell, Archie; Linksted, Pamela; Lindsay, Robert S; Smith, Blair H; Seckl, Jonathan R; Porteous, David J; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes in pregnancy affects offspring health. The impact of parental diabetes on offspring health is unclear. We investigated the impact of parental diabetes on the metabolic-health of adult-offspring who did not themselves have diabetes. Data from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a population-based family cohort, were record-linked to subjects' own diabetes medical records. From F0-parents, we identified F1-offspring of: mothers with diabetes (OMD, n = 409), fathers with diabetes (OFD, n = 468), no parent with diabetes (ONoPD, n = 2489). Metabolic syndrome, body, biochemical measurements and blood-pressures were compared between F1-offspring groups by sex. A higher proportion of female OMD had metabolic syndrome than female OFD or ONoPD (P<0.0001). In female offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: having a mother with diabetes (OR = 1.78, CI 1.03-3.07, [reference ONoPD]), body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.21, CI 1.13-1.30) and age (OR = 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06). In male offspring, predictors of metabolic syndrome were: BMI (OR = 1.18, CI 1.09-1.29) and percent body-fat (OR = 1.12, CI 1.05-1.19). In both sexes, OMD had higher blood-pressures than OFD (P<0.0001). In females, OMD had higher glucose (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with OFD or ONoPD. OMD and OFD both had increased waist-measurements (P<0.0001), BMI (P<0.0001) and percent body-fat (P<0.0001) compared with ONoPD. Female OMD and OFD had lower HDL-cholesterol levels (P<0.0001) than female ONoPD. Parental diabetes is associated with higher offspring-BMI and body-fat. In female offspring, maternal diabetes increased the odds of metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for BMI. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved.

  5. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers.

    PubMed

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed.

  6. Incidence and prognosis of ischaemic heart disease with respect to marital status and social class. A national record linkage study.

    PubMed Central

    Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J; Romo, M; Langinvainio, H

    1981-01-01

    Increased mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) has been found in previous studies among divorced, widowed, and unskilled middle-aged Finnish men. In this study all cases of IHD in men aged 40-64 during 1972 were analysed by linking death certificates and hospital records (7499 cases with 3136 deaths). Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, and survival rates of the first and third year were calculated by marital status and social class. The highest mortality rate was found among unskilled workers, the highest incidence among widowers and those in the lower professional classes, and the lowest survival rate among divorcees, single persons, and unskilled workers. The ratio of mortality by marital status (1.77) was in part due to survival (ratio 1.44) and in part due to incidence (ratio 1.32). The ratio of mortality by social class (1.44) seemed to be due more to differences in incidence (ratio 1.36) than to differences in survival (ratio 1.18). The distribution of conventional risk factors of IHD by marital status and social class seems to explain only part of the mortality differences. PMID:7328378

  7. Hospital admissions for vitamin D related conditions and subsequent immune-mediated disease: record-linkage studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be an association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases. Methods We analyzed a database of linked statistical records of hospital admissions and death registrations for the whole of England (from 1999 to 2011). Rate ratios for immune-mediated disease were determined, comparing vitamin D deficient cohorts (individuals admitted for vitamin D deficiency or markers of vitamin D deficiency) with comparison cohorts. Results After hospital admission for either vitamin D deficiency, osteomalacia or rickets, there were significantly elevated rates of Addison’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, chronic active hepatitis, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, diabetes mellitus, pemphigoid, pernicious anemia, primary biliary cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyrotoxicosis, and significantly reduced risks for asthma and myxoedema. Conclusions This study shows that patients with vitamin D deficiency may have an increased risk of developing some immune-mediated diseases, although we cannot rule out reverse causality or confounding. Further study of these associations is warranted and these data may aid further public health studies. PMID:23885887

  8. Development of prostate cancer research database with the clinical data warehouse technology for direct linkage with electronic medical record system.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Park, Seungho; Park, Bumjoon; Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of increased prostate cancer patients, little is known about the impact of treatments for prostate cancer patients and outcome of different treatments based on nationwide data. In order to obtain more comprehensive information for Korean prostate cancer patients, many professionals urged to have national system to monitor the quality of prostate cancer care. To gain its objective, the prostate cancer database system was planned and cautiously accommodated different views from various professions. This prostate cancer research database system incorporates information about a prostate cancer research including demographics, medical history, operation information, laboratory, and quality of life surveys. And, this system includes three different ways of clinical data collection to produce a comprehensive data base; direct data extraction from electronic medical record (EMR) system, manual data entry after linking EMR documents like magnetic resonance imaging findings and paper-based data collection for survey from patients. We implemented clinical data warehouse technology to test direct EMR link method with St. Mary's Hospital system. Using this method, total number of eligible patients were 2,300 from 1997 until 2012. Among them, 538 patients conducted surgery and others have different treatments. Our database system could provide the infrastructure for collecting error free data to support various retrospective and prospective studies.

  9. Development of prostate cancer research database with the clinical data warehouse technology for direct linkage with electronic medical record system

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Park, Seungho; Park, Bumjoon; Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In spite of increased prostate cancer patients, little is known about the impact of treatments for prostate cancer patients and outcome of different treatments based on nationwide data. In order to obtain more comprehensive information for Korean prostate cancer patients, many professionals urged to have national system to monitor the quality of prostate cancer care. To gain its objective, the prostate cancer database system was planned and cautiously accommodated different views from various professions. Methods: This prostate cancer research database system incorporates information about a prostate cancer research including demographics, medical history, operation information, laboratory, and quality of life surveys. And, this system includes three different ways of clinical data collection to produce a comprehensive data base; direct data extraction from electronic medical record (EMR) system, manual data entry after linking EMR documents like magnetic resonance imaging findings and paper-based data collection for survey from patients. Results: We implemented clinical data warehouse technology to test direct EMR link method with St. Mary’s Hospital system. Using this method, total number of eligible patients were 2,300 from 1997 until 2012. Among them, 538 patients conducted surgery and others have different treatments. Conclusions: Our database system could provide the infrastructure for collecting error free data to support various retrospective and prospective studies. PMID:24223403

  10. Wait times to rheumatology care for patients with rheumatic diseases: a data linkage study of primary care electronic medical records and administrative data.

    PubMed

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bernatsky, Sasha; Thorne, J Carter; Bombardier, Claire; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Wing, Laura; Paterson, J Michael; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra; Lyddiatt, Anne; Hofstetter, Catherine; Ahluwalia, Vandana; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The Wait Time Alliance recently established wait time benchmarks for rheumatology consultations in Canada. Our aim was to quantify wait times to primary and rheumatology care for patients with rheumatic diseases. We identified patients from primary care practices in the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database who had referrals to Ontario rheumatologists over the period 2000-2013. To assess the full care pathway, we identified dates of symptom onset, presentation in primary care and referral from electronic medical records. Dates of rheumatologist consultations were obtained by linking with physician service claims. We determined the duration of each phase of the care pathway (symptom onset to primary care encounter, primary care encounter to referral, and referral to rheumatologist consultation) and compared them with established benchmarks. Among 2430 referrals from 168 family physicians, 2015 patients (82.9%) were seen by 146 rheumatologists within 1 year of referral. Of the 2430 referrals, 2417 (99.5%) occurred between 2005 and 2013. The main reasons for referral were osteoarthritis (32.4%) and systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (30.6%). Wait times varied by diagnosis and geographic region. Overall, the median wait time from referral to rheumatologist consultation was 74 (interquartile range 27-101) days; it was 66 (interquartile range 18-84) days for systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Wait time benchmarks were not achieved, even for the most urgent types of referral. For systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, most of the delays occurred before referral. Rheumatology wait times exceeded established benchmarks. Targeted efforts are needed to promote more timely access to both primary and rheumatology care. Routine linkage of electronic medical records with administrative data may help fill important gaps in knowledge about waits to primary and specialty care.

  11. Wait times to rheumatology care for patients with rheumatic diseases: a data linkage study of primary care electronic medical records and administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bernatsky, Sasha; Thorne, J. Carter; Bombardier, Claire; Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Wing, Laura; Paterson, J. Michael; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra; Lyddiatt, Anne; Hofstetter, Catherine; Ahluwalia, Vandana; Tu, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Wait Time Alliance recently established wait time benchmarks for rheumatology consultations in Canada. Our aim was to quantify wait times to primary and rheumatology care for patients with rheumatic diseases. Methods: We identified patients from primary care practices in the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database who had referrals to Ontario rheumatologists over the period 2000-2013. To assess the full care pathway, we identified dates of symptom onset, presentation in primary care and referral from electronic medical records. Dates of rheumatologist consultations were obtained by linking with physician service claims. We determined the duration of each phase of the care pathway (symptom onset to primary care encounter, primary care encounter to referral, and referral to rheumatologist consultation) and compared them with established benchmarks. Results: Among 2430 referrals from 168 family physicians, 2015 patients (82.9%) were seen by 146 rheumatologists within 1 year of referral. Of the 2430 referrals, 2417 (99.5%) occurred between 2005 and 2013. The main reasons for referral were osteoarthritis (32.4%) and systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (30.6%). Wait times varied by diagnosis and geographic region. Overall, the median wait time from referral to rheumatologist consultation was 74 (interquartile range 27-101) days; it was 66 (interquartile range 18-84) days for systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Wait time benchmarks were not achieved, even for the most urgent types of referral. For systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, most of the delays occurred before referral. Interpretation: Rheumatology wait times exceeded established benchmarks. Targeted efforts are needed to promote more timely access to both primary and rheumatology care. Routine linkage of electronic medical records with administrative data may help fill important gaps in knowledge about waits to primary and specialty care. PMID:27398365

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals: use of record linkage from the Osaka Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Sengoku, Tami; Matsumura, Kaname; Usami, Masahisa; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nakayama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    Whole-body cancer screening with multimodalities including [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) detects a wide range of tumors. This program has been recognized as an option for opportunistic screening, particularly in Japan. However, reports on diagnostic accuracy have been limited. We aimed to evaluate the detectability and related properties of this screening program among asymptomatic individuals in a community setting. The study participants were 1,762 residents of Osaka Prefecture, Japan, who underwent opportunistic cancer screening at Higashitemma Clinic for the first time between November 2004 and December 2005. FDG-PET cancer screening was performed with several imaging modalities (e.g., FDG-PET, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography) and fecal occult blood test. Screening records were linked to the Osaka cancer registry within 1 year after the screening to determine sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values. After excluding 12 participants with cancer detected before the screening, 33 were identified by the cancer registry to have primary cancers. Of these, the present screening program found that 28 were positive (6 prostate, 5 lung, 5 colorectal, 5 thyroid, 3 liver and 4 others). Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were 84.8 % (28/33, 95 % confidence interval 69.1-93.3), 86.8 % (1,491/1,718, 85.1-88.3) and 10.1 % (28/277, 6.4-12.9), respectively. FDG-PET cancer screening with multimodalities reasonably and accurately detects existing asymptomatic cancer. However, the numbers of false negatives and false positives were not insignificant. Facilities that provide the screening should inform participants of relevant information, including the limitations of this program.

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England.

    PubMed

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Duyx, Bram; Thomas, Sara L; Stogiannis, Dimitris; Rahman, Anisur; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    While rheumatoid arthritis is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), our knowledge of how the pattern of risk varies for different cardiovascular phenotypes is incomplete. The association between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were examined in a contemporary population of men and women of a wide age range. CALIBER data, which links primary care, hospital and mortality data in England, was analysed. A cohort of people aged ≥18 years and without history of CVD was assembled and included all patients with prospectively recorded rheumatoid arthritis from January 1997, until March 2010, matched with up to ten people without rheumatoid arthritis by age, sex and general practice. The associations between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were estimated using multivariable random effects Poisson regression models. The analysis included 12,120 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 121,191 comparators. Of these, 2,525 patients with and 18,146 without rheumatoid arthritis developed CVDs during a median of 4.2 years of follow-up. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted incidence ratio [IRR] = 1.43, 95%CI 1.21-1.70), unheralded coronary death (IRR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.18-2.18), heart failure (IRR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.43-1.83), cardiac arrest (HR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.69-3.02) and peripheral arterial disease (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.14-1.62); and lower rates of stable angina (HR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.73-0.95). There was no evidence of association with cerebrovascular diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm or unstable angina, or of interactions with sex or age. The observed associations with some but not all types of CVDs inform both clinical practice and the selection of cardiovascular endpoints for trials and for the development of prognostic models for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. Pregnancy Outcome following Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Anomaly: A Record Linkage Study of 26,261 Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M; Pell, Jill P

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of changes in the age at which women give birth, and of developments in prenatal screening and diagnosis on the number of pregnancies diagnosed and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors. The aims of this study were to examine the association between results of prenatal tests and pregnancy termination, and the proportion of foetuses with and without chromosomal anomalies referred for invasive diagnostic tests over time. Diagnostic information of 26,261 prenatal invasive tests from all genetic service laboratories in Scotland from 2000 to 2011 was linked to Scottish Morbidity Records to obtain details on pregnancy outcome. Binary logistic regression was carried out to test the associations of year and type of diagnosis with pregnancy termination, while controlling for maternal age, neighbourhood deprivation and parity. There were 24,155 (92.0%) with no chromosomal anomalies, 1,483 (5.6%) aneuploidy diagnoses, and 623 (2.4%) diagnoses of anomaly that was not aneuploidy (including translocations and single chromosome deletions). In comparison with negative test results, pregnancies diagnosed with trisomy were most likely to be terminated (adjusted OR 437.40, 95% CI 348.19-549.46) followed by other aneuploid anomalies (adjusted OR 95.94, 95% CI 69.21-133.01). During the study period, fewer pregnancies that were diagnosed with aneuploidy were terminated, including trisomy diagnoses (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.73). Older women were less likely to terminate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28, 0.42), and parity was also an independent predictor of termination. In keeping with previous findings, while the number of invasive diagnostic tests declined, the proportion of abnormal results increased from 6.09% to 10.88%. Systematic advances in

  15. Pregnancy Outcome following Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Anomaly: A Record Linkage Study of 26,261 Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Sally-Ann; McGowan, Ruth; Nelson, Scott M.; Pell, Jill P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of changes in the age at which women give birth, and of developments in prenatal screening and diagnosis on the number of pregnancies diagnosed and terminated with chromosomal anomalies. However, we are unaware of any population studies examining pregnancy terminations after diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies that has included all aneuploidies and the influence of maternal factors. The aims of this study were to examine the association between results of prenatal tests and pregnancy termination, and the proportion of foetuses with and without chromosomal anomalies referred for invasive diagnostic tests over time. Diagnostic information of 26,261 prenatal invasive tests from all genetic service laboratories in Scotland from 2000 to 2011 was linked to Scottish Morbidity Records to obtain details on pregnancy outcome. Binary logistic regression was carried out to test the associations of year and type of diagnosis with pregnancy termination, while controlling for maternal age, neighbourhood deprivation and parity. There were 24,155 (92.0%) with no chromosomal anomalies, 1,483 (5.6%) aneuploidy diagnoses, and 623 (2.4%) diagnoses of anomaly that was not aneuploidy (including translocations and single chromosome deletions). In comparison with negative test results, pregnancies diagnosed with trisomy were most likely to be terminated (adjusted OR 437.40, 95% CI 348.19–549.46) followed by other aneuploid anomalies (adjusted OR 95.94, 95% CI 69.21–133.01). During the study period, fewer pregnancies that were diagnosed with aneuploidy were terminated, including trisomy diagnoses (adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.73). Older women were less likely to terminate (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28, 0.42), and parity was also an independent predictor of termination. In keeping with previous findings, while the number of invasive diagnostic tests declined, the proportion of abnormal results increased from 6.09% to 10.88%. Systematic

  16. Birth weight and risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: Findings from a population-based record linkage study in California.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Corey; Wang, Rong; DeWan, Andrew T; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Ma, Xiaomei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between birth weight (along with a variety of pre and perinatal characteristics) and the risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosed at age <20 years. We linked California statewide birth records from 1978-2009 and cancer diagnosis data from 1988-2011 to conduct a population-based case-control study with 1216 cases and 4485 controls (matched on birth month and year, sex, and race/ethnicity). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of paediatric HL overall and by age of diagnosis, controlling for other perinatal factors. Compared to children with a normal birth weight (2500-3999 g), those who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g) had an increased risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.48) after adjusting for birth order, maternal age at the time of delivery, and paternal age at the time of delivery. The magnitude of association appeared larger for subgroups of children whose age of diagnosis was 0-10 years (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24) or 15-19 years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.83), while no association was observed in 11-14 year olds. Compared with firstborn children, those who were third or higher in birth order had a reduced risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.95), and this association also varied by age of diagnosis. In this study with the largest number of paediatric HL cases, high birth weight was associated with an increased disease risk for most but not all ages of diagnosis. The different findings by age of diagnosis regarding both birth weight and birth order underscore the importance to stratify paediatric HL by age at diagnosis in future etiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and dementia: record linkage study of hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Tiarnan D L; Goldacre, Raph; Goldacre, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The potential association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) is uncertain and has implications for understanding disease pathogenesis, referral, and treatments. To determine whether individuals admitted to the hospital with AMD were significantly more or less likely to develop AD or dementia in the following years, as well as to assess whether people with AD or dementia were significantly more or less likely to be admitted to the hospital for AMD treatment in the years following diagnosis of dementia. An AMD cohort of 65,894 people was constructed from English National Health Service, linked hospital episode statistics from January 1, 1999, through February 28, 2011, by identifying computerized record abstracts for all people with an admission or day case care for AMD. A dementia cohort (168,092 people) and a reference cohort (>7.7 million people) were constructed in similar ways. Risk of AD or dementia following AMD and risk of AMD following AD or dementia. Rate ratios were calculated based on standardized rates of AD and dementia in the AMD cohort, as well as standardized rates of AMD in the AD and dementia cohort, relative to those in the reference cohort. RESULTS The risk of AD or dementia following AMD was not elevated. The rate ratio was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.67-1.08) for AD and 0.91 (0.79-1.04) for dementia. The likelihood of being admitted for AMD following AD or dementia was very low: the rate ratio was 0.04 (0.01-0.10) for people with AD and 0.07 (0.04-0.11) for those with dementia. These neurodegenerative conditions may share environmental risk factors and histopathologic features. However, considering AD and other dementia after AMD, their coexistence at the individual level is no different from that expected by chance. Our data also suggest that patients in England with dementia may be substantially less likely to receive AMD treatment. Further research is required to determine whether people with dementia receive

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Incidence of Twelve Initial Presentations of Cardiovascular Disease: A Population Record-Linkage Cohort Study in England

    PubMed Central

    Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Duyx, Bram; Thomas, Sara L.; Stogiannis, Dimitris; Rahman, Anisur; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While rheumatoid arthritis is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), our knowledge of how the pattern of risk varies for different cardiovascular phenotypes is incomplete. The association between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were examined in a contemporary population of men and women of a wide age range. Methods CALIBER data, which links primary care, hospital and mortality data in England, was analysed. A cohort of people aged ≥18 years and without history of CVD was assembled and included all patients with prospectively recorded rheumatoid arthritis from January 1997, until March 2010, matched with up to ten people without rheumatoid arthritis by age, sex and general practice. The associations between rheumatoid arthritis and the initial presentation of 12 types of CVDs were estimated using multivariable random effects Poisson regression models. Results The analysis included 12,120 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and 121,191 comparators. Of these, 2,525 patients with and 18,146 without rheumatoid arthritis developed CVDs during a median of 4.2 years of follow-up. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted incidence ratio [IRR] = 1.43, 95%CI 1.21–1.70), unheralded coronary death (IRR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.18–2.18), heart failure (IRR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.43–1.83), cardiac arrest (HR = 2.26, 95%CI 1.69–3.02) and peripheral arterial disease (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.14–1.62); and lower rates of stable angina (HR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.73–0.95). There was no evidence of association with cerebrovascular diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm or unstable angina, or of interactions with sex or age. Conclusions The observed associations with some but not all types of CVDs inform both clinical practice and the selection of cardiovascular endpoints for trials and for the development of prognostic models for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26978266

  19. The Making of the "Oxford English Dictionary."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes remarks made to open the Gallaudet University conference on Dictionaries and the Standardization of languages. It concerns the making of what is arguably the world's greatest dictionary, "The Oxford English Dictionary." (VWL)

  20. The Making of the "Oxford English Dictionary."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes remarks made to open the Gallaudet University conference on Dictionaries and the Standardization of languages. It concerns the making of what is arguably the world's greatest dictionary, "The Oxford English Dictionary." (VWL)

  1. Reporting errors in siblings' survival histories and their impact on adult mortality estimates: results from a record linkage study in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent's siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings' survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45 q 15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of "unconventional" demographic techniques.

  2. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey), and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA) Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System) to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased the estimated number of

  3. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Setting Health boards in Scotland (n=4). Participants We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Methods Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. Results 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30–39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. Conclusions National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. PMID:27311912

  4. Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting

    PubMed Central

    Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Design Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. Measurements An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group—including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Results Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and

  5. [Cohort study of cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes: record linkage of encrypted data from an external cohort with data from the epidemiological Cancer Registry of North Rhine-Westphalia].

    PubMed

    Kajüter, H; Geier, A S; Wellmann, I; Krieg, V; Fricke, R; Heidinger, O; Hense, H-W

    2014-01-01

    German epidemiologic cancer registries may store only encrypted personal identifiers. Thus, record linkage with secondary databases needs to be performed via procedures that are based on encrypted identifiers. In this paper, we describe the linkage of patient data from a statutory health insurance company (AOK NordWest) and from the Disease Management Program for diabetes mellitus type 2 with the database of the cancer registry. We report the cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Personal identifying variables of the patient cohort were encrypted before being sent electronically to the cancer registry and submitted to a probabilistic record linkage with registry data. The study included T2D patients who were residents of the Münster, Detmold, or Arnsberg districts and who were aged 40-79 years. Only primary cancers occurring between the date of enrolment and the censoring date (31 December 2010) were included. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated relative to the number of incident cases expected on the basis of the averaged incidence rates in the general population. The record linkage took about 3 weeks of processing time. A total of 67,447 T2D (49.2 % men) cases were included for analyses. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 2,086 men and 1,578 women. Cohort members showed an elevated risk for cancer of the liver (SIR =1.86; 95% CI =1.47-2.31), pancreas (SIR = 1.62; 95 % CI =1.36-1.91), lung (SIR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.11-1.32), and uterus (SIR = 1.34; 95 % CI 1.08-1.65), and they were less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer (SIR =0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.79). The findings of this study suggest that record linkage of secondary databases with cancer registry data for research purposes can be effectively carried out in compliance with strict data-protection regulations.

  6. Cycling safety: injury prevention in Oxford cyclists

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, L; Smith, N

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess injury prevention measures used by cyclists in Oxford and to detect any differences between wearers and non-wearers of cycling helmets. Method—A prospective observational survey of a series of cyclists passing a single point on a busy city road in reduced lighting. Two observers jointly recorded four measures of injury prevention: use of front or rear light, high visibility (reflective or fluorescent) clothing, and cycling helmet. The use of the first three interventions was analysed in relation to helmet use/non-use. Results—A total of 392 cyclists were observed over one hour. Fourteen (3.6%) were observed to use all four studied measures, while 137 (34.9%) used none of them. The frequency of measures observed was: lit front light 190 (48.5%), lit rear light 197 (50.2%), both lights on 163 (41.6%), helmet on 104 (26.5%), and high visibility clothing 39 (9.9%). Despite the helmet using group's smaller size, it contained a significantly higher proportion of cyclists with lit front light (60.6% v 44.1%), lit rear light (61.5% v 46.2%), and high visibility clothing (27.9% v 3.5%), than the non-helmet group (p≤0.01). Whereas only 22% of the helmet users had no other observed measures, 47.2% of non-users did so. Conclusion—Cycling helmet users were significantly more likely to use collision prevention measures in conditions of reduced visibility. Explanations may include higher levels of risk awareness and greater knowledge of safe cycling practices in the smaller, helmet using group. However, current measures by cyclists in a major cycling centre may be insufficient to prevent collisions and consequent serious injury or death. PMID:11144629

  7. The Oxford hip score: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Learmonth, Ian D; Cavendish, Victoria J

    2005-10-31

    In the last 25 years, assessment of orthopaedic intervention has become patient focused, with the development of self-completion patient-centred outcome measures. The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a joint specific outcome measure tool designed to assess disability in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). Although the psychometric properties of the OHS have been rigorously examined, there is little research on the patient's perspective of the OHS. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess whether the OHS is an adequate disability measure from the patient's perspective using qualitative analysis of annotations written on the OHS by patients. In total, 276 orthopaedic patients completed an OHS between April 2004 and May 2005. One hundred and fifty six pre-operative patients listed for a THR completed the OHS during a pre-admission assessment clinic, and 120 post-operative patients completed the OHS postally in the home setting. Patient's unprompted annotations in response to the questions on the OHS were recorded and grouped into thematic categories. In total, 46 (17%) patients made 52 annotations when completing the OHS. These annotations identified five main areas of difficulty that patients experienced: lack of question clarity (particularly concerning the use of aids), difficulty in reporting measurements of pain, restrictive and irrelevant questions, the influence of co-morbidities on responses, and double-barrelled questions. Although the OHS is a useful short tool for the assessment of disability in patients undergoing THR, this study identified several problem areas that are applicable to patient-centred outcome tools in general. To overcome these current limitations, further work is underway to develop a more individualised patient-centred outcome measure of disability for use in patients with osteoarthritis.

  8. Association between borderline neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations and educational and developmental outcomes: a population-based record-linkage study.

    PubMed

    Lain, Samantha J; Bentley, Jason P; Wiley, Veronica; Roberts, Christine L; Jack, Michelle; Wilcken, Bridget; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-09-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism causes intellectual delay unless identified and effectively treated soon after birth. Newborn screening has almost eliminated intellectual disability associated with congenital hypothyroidism. However, clinical uncertainty remains about infants with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations less than the newborn screening cutoffs. We assessed the association between neonatal TSH concentrations and educational and developmental outcomes. We did a population-based record-linkage study of all liveborn infants undergoing newborn screening from 1994 to 2008 in New South Wales, Australia, with assessments of childhood development or school performance. Very-low-birthweight babies (<1500 g) were excluded. Developmental and educational outcomes were obtained and these were linked to individual records by the New South Wales Centre for Health Record Linkage. The primary educational outcome was the proportion of students with National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) results lower than the national minimum standard in reading or numeracy measured at all ages, and the primary developmental outcome was the proportion of children who were classified as being developmentally high risk (vulnerable in two or more of the five developmental domains assessed by the Australian Early Development Census) at age 4-6 years. The proportions of infants with each outcome were calculated per percentile (0-100) of TSH concentration. Multivariable logistic regression was used to account for potential confounding by maternal and fetal variables known to affect neonatal TSH concentrations or neurodevelopmental outcomes. 503 706 infants had a neonatal TSH result that linked to a developmental or educational outcome. 149 569 infants born between 2002 and 2008 were linked to an Australian Early Development Census developmental outcome and 354 137 were linked to a NAPLAN educational outcome. Median follow-up for educational outcome was 10 years

  9. The Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event: Linkage of High-Resolution Terrestrial and Marine Records of a Major Climate Perturbation During Peak Greenhouse Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sageman, B. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Kenig, F.; Laurin, J.; McElwain, J. C.; Meyers, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of paleoclimate provide a critical source of information about the nature and magnitude of changes in the natural climate system, of thresholds and feedbacks in the biogeochemical cycles that modulate climate, and of the biological consequences of extreme climate transitions and states. Unfortunately, many studies of ancient climate are constrained by low temporal resolution, diminished reliability of proxy data, and a lack of information about linkages between different components of the climate system. This talk will summarize recent improvements in the temporal resolution of biogeochemical and paleobiological data across the marine record of the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE), and extension of that record into the terrestrial realm of the Western Interior of North America. The CTBE is hypothesized to represent a brief interval of global marine organic carbon burial that occurred during the peak Cretaceous greenhouse. It is thought to have caused an oscillation in pCO2 comparable to, or greater in magnitude than glacial-interglacial cycles. This is believed to have caused transient cooling followed by return to maximum Cretaceous warmth with major impacts on the ecology and evolution of terrestrial ecosystems. Efforts to quantify the pCO2 effect, to assess available paleoclimate indicators, and to evaluate changes in terrestrial ecosystems across this event have been limited by the constraints mentioned above. However, a number of recent advances are facilitating a new generation of paleoclimatic analysis of the CTBE : 1) development of an orbital time scale for the C-T stratotype in central Colorado with average temporal resolution of 8 kyrs; 2) use of this time scale to calculate burial fluxes for key paleoenvironmental proxies; 3) export of the time scale to a coeval terrestrial section containing fossil whole plant and cuticle material based on high-resolution lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic

  10. Conversion from depression to bipolar disorder in a cohort of young people in England, 1999-2011: A national record linkage study.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony; Wotton, Clare J; Duffy, Anne; Hoang, Uy; Goldacre, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To estimate the conversion rate from unipolar depression (ICD10 codes F32-F33) to bipolar disorder (BP) (ICD10 codes F31) in an English national cohort. It was hypothesised that early-onset BP (age <18 years) is a more severe form of the disorder, with a more rapid, and higher rate of conversion from depression to BP. This record linkage study used English national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) covering all NHS inpatient and day case admissions between 1999 and 2011. The overall rate of conversion from depression to BP for all ages was 5.65% (95% CI: 5.48-5.83) over a minimum 4-year follow-up period. The conversion rate from depression to BP increased in a linear manner with age from 10-14 years - 2.21% (95% C: 1.16-4.22) to 30-34 years - 7.06% (95% CI: 6.44-7.55) (F1,23=77.6, p=0.001, R(2)=0.77). The time to conversion was constant across the age range. The rate of conversion was higher in females (6.77%; 95% CI: 6.53-7.02) compared to males, (4.17%; 95% CI: 3.95-4.40) (χ(2)=194, p<0.0001), and in those with psychotic depression 8.12% (95% CI: 7.65-8.62) compared to non-psychotic depression 5.65% (95% CI: 5.48-5.83) (χ(2)=97.0, p<0.0001). The study was limited to hospital discharges and diagnoses were not standardised. Increasing conversion rate from depression to bipolar disorder with age, and constant time for conversion across the age range does not support the notion that early-onset BP is a more severe form of the disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk and associated risk factors of hospitalization for specific health problems over time in childhood cancer survivors: a medical record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Font-Gonzalez, Anna; Feijen, Elizabeth Lieke A M; Geskus, Ronald B; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van der Pal, Helena J H; Heinen, Richard C; Jaspers, Monique W; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Reitsma, J B Johannes; Caron, Hubert N; Sieswerda, Elske; Kremer, Leontien C

    2017-05-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) experience higher hospitalization rates compared to the general population for neoplasms, circulatory diseases, endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases and eye disorders. We studied trends in hospitalization rates and associated patient and treatment-specific risk factors for diagnosis subgroups among these four diseases. We performed medical record linkage of a ≥5-year CCS cohort with national registers, and obtained a random reference sample matched on age, gender and calendar year per CCS. For each diagnosis subgroup we compared hospitalization rates and trends over time in CCS and the reference population. Further, we analyzed risk factors for hospitalizations within the four CCS diagnosis groups. We used multivariate Poisson regression for all models. We retrieved hospitalization data from 1382 CCS and 26,583 reference persons. CCS had increased hospitalization rates for almost all diagnosis subgroups examined. Hospitalization rates for endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases appeared to increase with longer time since primary cancer diagnosis up to 30 years after primary cancer diagnosis. Survivors initially treated with radiotherapy had increased hospitalization rates for neoplasms (P < 0.001), those initially treated with anthracyclines (2.5 [1.1-5.5]) and radiotherapy to thorax and/or abdomen (9.3 [2.4-36.6]) had increased hospitalization rates for diseases of the circulatory system, and those initially treated with radiotherapy to head and/or neck had increased hospitalization rates for endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases (6.7 [3.5-12.7]) and diseases of the eye (3.6 [1.5-8.9]). Our study highlights that long-term health problems resulting in hospitalizations are still clinically relevant later in life of CCS. The identified treatment-related risk factors associated with hospitalizations support targeted follow-up care for these risk groups of CCS. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley

  12. Is medical perspective on clinical governance practices associated with clinical units’ performance and mortality? A cross-sectional study through a record-linkage procedure

    PubMed Central

    Sarchielli, Guido; De Plato, Giovanni; Cavalli, Mario; Albertini, Stefano; Nonni, Ilaria; Bencivenni, Lucia; Montali, Arianna; Ventura, Antonio; Montali, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of the knowledge and application as well as perceived utility by doctors of clinical governance tools in order to explore their impact on clinical units’ performance measured through mortality rates and efficiency indicators. Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study with a deterministic record-linkage procedure. The sample includes n = 1250 doctors (n = 249 chiefs of clinical units; n = 1001 physicians) working in six public hospitals located in the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy. Survey instruments include a checklist and a research-made questionnaire which were used for data collection about doctors’ knowledge and application as well as perceived utility of clinical governance tools. The analysis was based on clinical units’ performance indicators which include patients’ mortality, extra-region active mobility rate, average hospital stay, bed occupancy, rotation and turnover rates, and the comparative performance index as efficiency indicators. Results: The clinical governance tools are known and applied differently in all the considered clinical units. Significant differences emerged between roles and organizational levels at which the medical leadership is carried out. The levels of knowledge and application of clinical governance practices are correlated with the clinical units’ efficiency indicators (bed occupancy rate, bed turnover interval, and extra-region mobility). These multiple linear regression analyses highlighted that the clinical governance knowledge and application is correlated with clinical units’ mortality rates (odds ratio, −8.677; 95% confidence interval, −16.654, −0.700). Conclusion: The knowledge and application, as well as perceived utility by medical professionals of clinical governance tools, are associated with the mortality rates of their units and with some efficiency indicators. However, the medical frontline staff seems to not consider homogeneously useful the clinical

  13. Is medical perspective on clinical governance practices associated with clinical units' performance and mortality? A cross-sectional study through a record-linkage procedure.

    PubMed

    Sarchielli, Guido; De Plato, Giovanni; Cavalli, Mario; Albertini, Stefano; Nonni, Ilaria; Bencivenni, Lucia; Montali, Arianna; Ventura, Antonio; Montali, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the knowledge and application as well as perceived utility by doctors of clinical governance tools in order to explore their impact on clinical units' performance measured through mortality rates and efficiency indicators. This research is a cross-sectional study with a deterministic record-linkage procedure. The sample includes n = 1250 doctors (n = 249 chiefs of clinical units; n = 1001 physicians) working in six public hospitals located in the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy. Survey instruments include a checklist and a research-made questionnaire which were used for data collection about doctors' knowledge and application as well as perceived utility of clinical governance tools. The analysis was based on clinical units' performance indicators which include patients' mortality, extra-region active mobility rate, average hospital stay, bed occupancy, rotation and turnover rates, and the comparative performance index as efficiency indicators. The clinical governance tools are known and applied differently in all the considered clinical units. Significant differences emerged between roles and organizational levels at which the medical leadership is carried out. The levels of knowledge and application of clinical governance practices are correlated with the clinical units' efficiency indicators (bed occupancy rate, bed turnover interval, and extra-region mobility). These multiple linear regression analyses highlighted that the clinical governance knowledge and application is correlated with clinical units' mortality rates (odds ratio, -8.677; 95% confidence interval, -16.654, -0.700). The knowledge and application, as well as perceived utility by medical professionals of clinical governance tools, are associated with the mortality rates of their units and with some efficiency indicators. However, the medical frontline staff seems to not consider homogeneously useful the clinical governance tools application on its own clinical practice.

  14. The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Brown, A

    2001-09-01

    The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement is a reliable treatment for medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, provided patients with the correct indications are chosen and the appropriate surgical expertise is available. The Oxford knee has been available since fall 2000 in Canada and since the early 1980's in Europe. The latest version, Phase III, has generated interest since it uses both a minimally invasive surgical technique, as well as a free-floating, fully congruent meniscal bearing. This has the potential for faster recovery of the patient, as well as improved wear characteristics.

  15. Identifying risk factors for progression to critical care admission and death among individuals with acute pancreatitis: a record linkage analysis of Scottish healthcare databases.

    PubMed

    Mole, Damian J; Gungabissoon, Usha; Johnston, Philip; Cochrane, Lynda; Hopkins, Leanne; Wyper, Grant M A; Skouras, Christos; Dibben, Chris; Sullivan, Frank; Morris, Andrew; Ward, Hester J T; Lawton, Andrew M; Donnan, Peter T

    2016-06-15

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) can initiate systemic complications that require support in critical care (CC). Our objective was to use the unified national health record to define the epidemiology of AP in Scotland, with a specific focus on deterministic and prognostic factors for CC admission in AP. Health boards in Scotland (n=4). We included all individuals in a retrospective observational cohort with at least one episode of AP (ICD10 code K85) occurring in Scotland from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2012. 3340 individuals were coded as AP. Data from 16 sources, spanning general practice, community prescribing, Accident and Emergency attendances, hospital in-patient, CC and mortality registries, were linked by a unique patient identifier in a national safe haven. Logistic regression and gamma models were used to define independent predictive factors for severe AP (sAP) requiring CC admission or leading to death. 2053 individuals (61.5% (95% CI 59.8% to 63.2%)) met the definition for true AP (tAP). 368 patients (17.9% of tAP (95% CI 16.2% to 19.6%)) were admitted to CC. Predictors of sAP were pre-existing angina or hypertension, hypocalcaemia and age 30-39 years, if type 2 diabetes mellitus was present. The risk of sAP was lower in patients with multiple previous episodes of AP. In-hospital mortality in tAP was 5.0% (95% CI 4.1% to 5.9%) overall and 21.7% (95% CI 19.9% to 23.5%) in those with tAP necessitating CC admission. National record-linkage analysis of routinely collected data constitutes a powerful resource to model CC admission and prognosticate death during AP. Mortality in patients with AP who require CC admission remains high. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. The "New Oxford English Dictionary" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Heather

    1993-01-01

    Describes the conversion of the 22,000-page Oxford English Dictionary to an electronic version incorporating a modified Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) syntax. Explains that the database designers chose structured markup because it supports users' data searching needs, allows textual components to be extracted or modified, and allows…

  17. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  18. The Oxford English Dictionary: A Brief History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritze, Ronald H.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the development of English dictionaries in general and the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in particular. The discussion covers the decision by the Philological Society to create the dictionary, the principles that guided its development, the involvement of James Augustus Henry Murray, the magnitude and progress of the project, and the…

  19. The "New Oxford English Dictionary" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Heather

    1993-01-01

    Describes the conversion of the 22,000-page Oxford English Dictionary to an electronic version incorporating a modified Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) syntax. Explains that the database designers chose structured markup because it supports users' data searching needs, allows textual components to be extracted or modified, and allows…

  20. Not Changing English: Syllabus Reform at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a personal view of the reform of the undergraduate English syllabus which is soon to come into effect at Oxford University. The particular example is analysed in relation to two more general developments: on one hand, changing conceptions of the place and purpose of language study in the discipline of English, and on the other,…

  1. Designing for Science: Oxford School Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    Design features are described for a science building for a large boys' school in Oxford, England. General considerations of the project are discussed; and specific information is provided for each subject department (general science, biology, chemistry, and physics) and for preparation and storage facilities, a central workshop, and a library.…

  2. Mystery surrounds death of Oxford astrophysicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The circumstances around the death of a University of Oxford physicist at the home of a colleague last month still remain unclear. Astrophysicist Steve Rawlings, 50, a fellow of St Peter's College, was found dead on the evening of Wednesday 11 January.

  3. Not Changing English: Syllabus Reform at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a personal view of the reform of the undergraduate English syllabus which is soon to come into effect at Oxford University. The particular example is analysed in relation to two more general developments: on one hand, changing conceptions of the place and purpose of language study in the discipline of English, and on the other,…

  4. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  5. When to conduct probabilistic linkage vs. deterministic linkage? A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Ohashi, Yasuo; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-08-01

    When unique identifiers are unavailable, successful record linkage depends greatly on data quality and types of variables available. While probabilistic linkage theoretically captures more true matches than deterministic linkage by allowing imperfection in identifiers, studies have shown inconclusive results likely due to variations in data quality, implementation of linkage methodology and validation method. The simulation study aimed to understand data characteristics that affect the performance of probabilistic vs. deterministic linkage. We created ninety-six scenarios that represent real-life situations using non-unique identifiers. We systematically introduced a range of discriminative power, rate of missing and error, and file size to increase linkage patterns and difficulties. We assessed the performance difference of linkage methods using standard validity measures and computation time. Across scenarios, deterministic linkage showed advantage in PPV while probabilistic linkage showed advantage in sensitivity. Probabilistic linkage uniformly outperformed deterministic linkage as the former generated linkages with better trade-off between sensitivity and PPV regardless of data quality. However, with low rate of missing and error in data, deterministic linkage performed not significantly worse. The implementation of deterministic linkage in SAS took less than 1min, and probabilistic linkage took 2min to 2h depending on file size. Our simulation study demonstrated that the intrinsic rate of missing and error of linkage variables was key to choosing between linkage methods. In general, probabilistic linkage was a better choice, but for exceptionally good quality data (<5% error), deterministic linkage was a more resource efficient choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. OxfordGrid: a web interface for pairwise comparative map views.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyu; Gingle, Alan R

    2005-12-01

    OxfordGrid is a web application and database schema for storing and interactively displaying genetic map data in a comparative, dot-plot, fashion. Its display is composed of a matrix of cells, each representing a pairwise comparison of mapped probe data for two linkage groups or chromosomes. These are arranged along the axes with one forming grid columns and the other grid rows with the degree and pattern of synteny/colinearity between the two linkage groups manifested in the cell's dot density and structure. A mouse click over the selected grid cell launches an image map-based display for the selected cell. Both individual and linear groups of mapped probes can be selected and displayed. Also, configurable links can be used to access other web resources for mapped probe information. OxfordGrid is implemented in C#/ASP.NET and the package, including MySQL schema creation scripts, is available at ftp://cggc.agtec.uga.edu/OxfordGrid/.

  7. Trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa in Oxford (1968-2011) and England (1990-2011): database studies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Josephine; Hall, Nick; Yeates, David G R; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To report on long-term trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa using two English datasets. We used data on hospital day-case and inpatient care across five decades in the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS), and similar data for all England from 1990. We analysed rates of admission for anorexia nervosa in people aged 10-44 years, using hospital episodes (counting every admission) and first-recorded admissions (counting only the first record for each person). Former Oxford NHS Region; and England. None; anonymous statistical records were used. In the longstanding ORLS, the age-standardised first-recorded admission rate for women was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.6-3.8) per 100,000 female population aged 10-44 years in 1968-1971; 2.7 (2.1-3.3) in 1992-1996; and 6.3 (5.5-7.2) in 2007-2011. Male rates were zero in the 1960s; 0.07 (0.0-0.1) per 100,000 men in 1992-1996; and 0.4 (0.2-0.6) in 2007-2011. In England, female rates increased from 4.2 (4.0-4.4) in 1998-2001 to 6.9 (6.7-7.1) in 2007-2011; and the corresponding male rates were 0.2 (0.1-0.3) and 0.5 (0.4-0.6). Episode-based admission rates rose more than person-based rates. The highest rates by far were in girls and women aged 15-19 years. In recent years, anorexia nervosa has become a greater burden on secondary care: not only have admission rates increased but so too have multiple admissions per person with anorexia nervosa. The increase in admission rates might reflect an increase in prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in the general population, but other explanations, including lower clinical thresholds for admission, are possible and are discussed. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  8. Trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa in Oxford (1968–2011) and England (1990–2011): database studies

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Josephine; Hall, Nick; Yeates, David GR

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To report on long-term trends in hospital admission rates for anorexia nervosa using two English datasets. Design We used data on hospital day-case and inpatient care across five decades in the Oxford Record Linkage Study (ORLS), and similar data for all England from 1990. We analysed rates of admission for anorexia nervosa in people aged 10–44 years, using hospital episodes (counting every admission) and first-recorded admissions (counting only the first record for each person). Setting Former Oxford NHS Region; and England. Participants None; anonymous statistical records were used. Results In the longstanding ORLS, the age-standardised first-recorded admission rate for women was 2.7 (95% confidence interval 1.6–3.8) per 100,000 female population aged 10–44 years in 1968–1971; 2.7 (2.1–3.3) in 1992–1996; and 6.3 (5.5–7.2) in 2007–2011. Male rates were zero in the 1960s; 0.07 (0.0–0.1) per 100,000 men in 1992–1996; and 0.4 (0.2–0.6) in 2007–2011. In England, female rates increased from 4.2 (4.0–4.4) in 1998–2001 to 6.9 (6.7–7.1) in 2007–2011; and the corresponding male rates were 0.2 (0.1–0.3) and 0.5 (0.4–0.6). Episode-based admission rates rose more than person-based rates. The highest rates by far were in girls and women aged 15–19 years. Conclusions In recent years, anorexia nervosa has become a greater burden on secondary care: not only have admission rates increased but so too have multiple admissions per person with anorexia nervosa. The increase in admission rates might reflect an increase in prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in the general population, but other explanations, including lower clinical thresholds for admission, are possible and are discussed. PMID:26609127

  9. Roadway from western portal, looking east toward downtown New Oxford. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roadway from western portal, looking east toward downtown New Oxford. - Little Conewago Creek Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Conewago Creek at Lincoln Highway (U.S. Route 30), New Oxford, Adams County, PA

  10. The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play. First Edition. Oxford Library of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The role of play in human development has long been the subject of controversy. Despite being championed by many of the foremost scholars of the twentieth century, play has been dogged by underrepresentation and marginalization in literature across the scientific disciplines. "The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play" marks the first attempt…

  11. The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play. First Edition. Oxford Library of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The role of play in human development has long been the subject of controversy. Despite being championed by many of the foremost scholars of the twentieth century, play has been dogged by underrepresentation and marginalization in literature across the scientific disciplines. "The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Play" marks the first attempt…

  12. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  13. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  14. Stennis hosts NASA Night in Oxford

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-29

    A young visitor to the Powerhouse Community Arts and Cultural Center in Oxford, Miss., enjoys a balloon rocket transportation activity during a NASA Night in the Neighborhood on March 29. NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis visited the center with a variety of space-related displays and educational activities. Events targeted for children included moon phasers and build-your-own rocket transportation exercises, as well as an astronaut ice cream tasting station. Visitors also were able to take photos in the astronaut suit display. Displays focused on the 40th anniversaries of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 13 lunar missions, the International Space Station, and various aspects of Stennis work. The event was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis.

  15. The Oxford free electron laser project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Brau, C. A.; Brooks, C. B.; Doucas, G.; Elgin, J. N.; Gillispie, W. A.; Holmes, A. R.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Kimmitt, M. F.; Martin, P. F.; Mulvey, J. H.; Pidgeon, C. R.; Poole, M. W.

    1990-10-01

    It is proposed to use the Oxford 10 MV Van de Graaff accelerator as an electron beam source for a free electron laser (FEL) operating in the far infra red (FIR). The configuration and layout of the Van de Graaff make it very suitable for conversion, with a potentially high efficiency for electron beam recovery. Using a 2 m long wiggler of 34 mm period, the FEL would operate in the 60-300 μm wavelength band, with extension down to 30 μm on the 3rd harmonic. When constructed, the FEL will support a programme of FEL research and development, concentrating at first on investigations of behaviour in the moderately high-gain regime (˜ 100% per pass) and mechanisms for lasing on higher harmonics. It will also be the basis for a national UK user facility in the FIR.

  16. Oxford CyberSEM: remote microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Kirkland, A.; Cockayne, D.; Meyer, R.

    2008-08-01

    The Internet has enabled researchers to communicate over vast geographical distances, sharing ideas and documents. e-Science, underpinned by Grid [1] and Web Services, has enabled electronic communications to the next level where, in addition to document sharing, researchers can increasingly control high precision scientific instruments over the network. The Oxford CyberSEM project developed a simple Java applet via which samples placed in a JEOL 5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) can be manipulated and examined collaboratively over the Internet. Designed with schoolchildren in mind, CyberSEM does not require any additional hardware or software other than a generic Java-enabled web browser. This paper reflects on both the technical and social challenges in designing real-time systems for controlling scientific equipments in collaborative environments. Furthermore, it proposes potential deployment beyond the classroom setting.

  17. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    Terminations. Science 326, 248-252. Ding, Z.L., Yu, Z.W., Rutter, N.W., Liu, T.S., 1994. Towards an orbital time scale for chinese loess deposits. Quaternary Science Reviews 13, 39-70. IOCAS (Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences), 1985. Bohai Sea Geology. Science Press, Beijing, China. Liu, T., 2009. Loess and Arid Environment. Anhui Science & Techonology Press, Hefei, China. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., An, Z., Wu, J., Chen, C.-C., Dorale, J.A., 2001. A High-Resolution Absolute-Dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon Record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294, 2345-2348. Wang, Y., Cheng, H., Edwards, R.L., Kong, X., Shao, X., Chen, S., Wu, J., Jiang, X., Wang, X., An, Z., 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451, 1090-1093. Yi, L., Yu, H., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X., Chen, S., Ge, J., Hao, Q., Yao, J., Shi, X., Peng, S., 2012a. Late Quaternary linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms and the Asian monsoon, inferred from a coastal borehole in the south Bohai Sea, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 329-310, 101-117. Yi, L., Lai, Z.P., Yu, H.J., Xu, X.Y., Su, Q., Yao, J., Wang, X.L., Shi, X., 2012b. Chronologies of sedimentary changes in the south Bohai Sea, China: Constraints from luminescence and radiocarbon dating. Boreas, doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2012.00271.x. Yi, L., Yu, H.J., Ortiz, J.D., Xu, X.Y., Qiang, X.K., Huang, H.J., Shi, X., Deng, C.L., 2012c. A reconstruction of late Pleistocene relative sea level in the south Bohai Sea, China, based on sediment grain-size analysis. Sedimentary Geology 281, 88-100. Zhao, S., Yang, G., Cang, S., Zhang, H., Huang, Q., Xia, D., Wang, Y., Liu, F., Liu, C., 1978. Transgression's stratas and shoreline changes in the south coast of Bohai Bay, China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 9, 15-25.

  18. The Oxford Companion to the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Paul L.

    2001-06-01

    Here is a wealth of information on planet Earth, ranging from the heights of the ionsphere down to the red-hot molten core. Written by some 200 expert contributors, and illustrated with over 600 pictures, including 16 pages of color plates, The Oxford Companion to the Earth offers 900 alphabetically arranged entries that cover everything from deserts and wetlands to mountains, caves, glaciers, and coral reefs. There are articles on natural phenomena such as tornadoes and tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes, jet streams and weather fronts; on the history of Earth, including the origin of life, Burgess Shale fauna, dinosaurs, and the Ice Ages; on key figures, such as Agassiz, Cuvier, Darwin, and Lamarck; and on such important ecological concerns as acid rain, the ozone layer, industrial waste disposal, and the greenhouse effect. The Companion also examines the great sources of wealth to be found in the Earth, from coal and oil to gold, silver, and diamonds, and many curious land formations, from sinkholes and fiords to yardangs and quicksand. There are brief entries on rock types, from amber to travertine, and extensive essays on cutting-edge aspects of the earth sciences, such as seismology and marine geology. The Companion includes extensive cross-references, suggested further reading, an index, and many useful appendices, with a geological timescale, facts and figures about the Earth, and a table of chemical elements. The Oxford Companion to the Earth is a unique reference work, offering unrivaled coverage of our home planet. Generously illustrated and vividly written, it is a treasure house of information for all lovers of natural history, geology, and ecology, whether professional or amateur.

  19. Oxford House: deaf-affirmative support for substance abuse recovery.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M; Davidson, Michelle K; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse group of individuals in recovery. However, research has not addressed the experiences of Deaf Oxford House residents. The present study found no significant differences between Deaf and hearing men living in Oxford House in terms of sense of community and abstinence self-efficacy. However, while most of the hearing participants were employed, none of the Deaf Oxford House members were. The study's findings indicate that Oxford House may be a promising Deaf-affirmative alternative for individuals seeking recovery from substance abuse. However, since Oxford Houses are self-supporting, Oxford Houses designed for the Deaf community may face unique economic challenges.

  20. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. Methods 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. Results The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially. The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. Conclusion In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis. PMID:21981987

  1. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Mark C; Isaac, David; Wijeratna, Malin; Brink, Sean; Gibb, Paul; Skinner, Paul

    2011-10-10

    In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially.The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis.

  2. The Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Lynn, James; Freeman, David; Davies, Roger L.

    2006-06-01

    We present the design of the Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph, a dedicated I and z band instrument (0.65μm micron - 1.0μm micron at R~4000), designed to be used in conjunction with the Palomar laser guide star adaptive optics system (PALAO, and its planned upgrade PALM-3000). It builds on two recent developments (i) the improved ability of second generation adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric turbulence at wavelengths less than or equal to 1μm micron, and (ii) the availability of CCD array detectors with high quantum efficiency at very red wavelengths (close to the silicon band edge). Combining these with a state-of-the-art integral field unit design using an all-glass image slicer, SWIFT's design provides very high throughput and low scattered light. SWIFT simultaneously provides spectra of ~4000 spatial elements, arranged in a rectangular field-of-view of 44 × 89 pixels. It has three on-the-fly selectable pixel scales of 0.24", 0.16" and 0.08'. First light is expected in spring 2008.

  3. Rasch analysis of the Oxford Knee Score.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y; Lo, N-N; Yeo, S-J; Yang, K-Y; Yeo, W; Chong, H-C; Thumboo, J

    2009-09-01

    Use Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric properties of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), particularly in respect to unidimensionality, and consistency of item functioning before and after total knee replacement and across age and gender groups. The 12-item OKS was administered to 1,712 patients before the surgery, and 1,322 and 855 patients were administered the instrument repeatedly at the 6-month and 2-year postoperative assessments, respectively. Data were fitted to the Rasch partial credit model with the Winsteps program. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was performed, and fit statistics in combination with principal components analysis of the residuals were used to test the unidimensionality assumption. The fit criteria were set at 1.5 and 2.0 for infit mean-square (MNSQ) and outfit MNSQ, respectively. At baseline, item difficulty ranged from -1.86 to 1.78 logits, and person measures had a mean+/-SD of -0.01+/-0.89. Misfit items were "limping" and "night pain" in preoperative data and "limping" and "kneeling" in postoperative data. After removing items limping and kneeling and recoding item night pain, none of the items misfit at each of the time points and there was stability of item difficulty ordering across time. In the modified OKS set, five items displayed DIF by age and three by gender. The original OKS had adequate targeting and good coverage of knee severity levels in preoperative patients. The modified 10-item OKS data fit the Rasch model and had stable item difficulty ordering over time.

  4. Oxford shoulder score in a normal population

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas David; Court-Brown, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The function of the asymptomatic normal shoulder may differ according to gender and could also deteriorate with age. This may result in a disparity in the normal Oxford shoulder score (OSS) according to these variables. If a difference were to exist an adjusted OSS, for age and gender, could be calculated from the raw score using the expected normal score. Aim: The aim of this study was to define a normal OSS in an asymptomatic population according to age and gender. Materials and Methods: During the study period 202 patients aged from 20 years to 99 years with subjectively asymptomatic shoulders completed an OSS. These patients presented to the study center during a 1 week period for management of disorders out with their shoulder girdle. Patients with a known prior shoulder pathology, injury, or polyarthropathy were excluded. Results: The mean OSS varied according age and gender. There was a significant correlation between age and the OSS, with an increasing score (worse) being associated with older age (r = 0.62, P < 0.0001). The mean OSS for females was 18.8 (12-42, SD 5.4) and for males was 16.3 (12-30, SD 4.5), this difference was significant (P = 0.0001). We propose that a normalized OSS could be calculated as a percentage by the using the expected normal for that patient's age and gender as demonstrated in this study ((raw score/normal score) × 100). Conclusion: Our study provides normal data for an urban population presenting to orthopedic services and allows for a relative OSS to be calculated from the raw score. PMID:24926158

  5. Isotopic biogeochemistry of the Oxford Clay Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kenig, F.; Hayes, J.M. . Biogeochemical Labs.); Popp, B.N. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Summons, R. )

    1992-01-01

    To better understand processes controlling production and preservation of the thermally immature organic matter in the Oxford Clay Fm. (Jurassic, U.K.), the authors measured the hydrogen index (HI), oxygen index (OI), abundance and isotopic composition of total organic carbon (TOC) and determined isotopic compositions of individual hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, pristane, and phytane). Bulk geochemical and molecular parameters vary as a function of abundance of TOC, lithology and macrofaunal biofacies. Shales dominated by epifaunal bivalve assemblages contain high abundances of TOC, high HI, low OI and high proportions of phytoplanktonic and bacterial organic matter. Conversely, shell beds and calcareous and silty clay beds have lower abundances of TOC, lower HI, and greater, but still not dominant proportions of terrestrial organic matter. [delta][sub TOC] ranges from [minus]26.5 to [minus]23.2[per thousand] vs. PDB and varies as a function of HI. In shales, abundance of C-13 increase with HI and with concentrations of TOC. This variation might be attributed to drawdown of CO[sub 2] by producers. In shell beds and in calcareous and silty clay beds, decreases in TOC and HI are correlated with enrichment of C-13, a signal that might be attributed to greater heterotrophic reworking. Isotopic compositions of pristane and phytane in each unit are equal and likely indicate that the C-13 content of algal lipids. [delta] values of TOC are as much as 8[per thousand] higher than those of pristane and phytane, indicating that the bulk of the TOC probably derives from consumer organisms. The greatest enrichment of C-13 in TOC occurs in one horizon where paleontological evidence indicates [ge]7 trophic levels in the food chain. Consideration of the overall patterns of variations allows distinction between effects of CO[sub 2] drawdown and heterotrophic reworking.

  6. Long-term Hydroclimate and Pacific Salmon Population Linkages Across a Headwater-to-Coast Continuum in Northern British Columbia, Canada: A Perspective From Multiple Tree-Ring Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, C.; Smith, D. J.; Edwards, T.; Prowse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to have lasting impacts on the runoff behaviour of rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. Of particular concern is the loss of mountain snowpack and greater rainfall totals altering hydrograph characteristics. Sustained deviations in seasonal streamflow will pose significant challenges for effective watershed management. These ongoing changes highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the long-term biophysical linkages between the storage and release of water and downstream freshwater ecosystems. Such integrated research is particularly relevant to fisheries management as fluctuations in populations of Pacific salmon represent a complex and management-relevant biophysical issue in northern Canada. Unfortunately, hydroclimate and salmon productivity records in this region are sparse and of short duration, constraining our understanding of the impact of climate-induced hydrologic changes and biological responses to the last century. Proxy records derived from tree-rings provide annually or seasonally resolved data and have played a prominent role in attempts to establish how hydroclimate has varied in the past. The objective of my doctoral research is to reconstruct the prehistoric hydroclimate and salmon population trends in the Skeena, Nass and Stikine Watersheds using multiple tree-ring proxies to investigate the long-term biophysical linkages extending across a headwater-to-coast continuum in northern British Columbia, Canada. Ring-width, wood density and stable isotope chronologies using a number of mid-to high-elevation tree species will be constructed across each basin and sub-basin area for the purposes of reconstrucing the predominent temperature and precipiation signature that influence streamflow. Preliminary tree-ring δ18O and δ13C-isotope results indicate a strong negative association with mean monthly relative humidity values, suggesting a physiological control by moisture loss. The results of

  7. Record-linkage comparison of verbal autopsy and routine civil registration death certification in rural north-east South Africa: 2006–09

    PubMed Central

    Joubert, Jané; Bradshaw, Debbie; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Rao, Chalapati; Kahn, Kathleen; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Background: South African civil registration (CR) provides a key data source for local health decision making, and informs the levels and causes of mortality in data-lacking sub-Saharan African countries. We linked mortality data from CR and the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS) to examine the quality of rural CR data. Methods: Deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to link death data from 2006 to 2009. Causes of death were aggregated into the WHO Mortality Tabulation List 1 and a locally relevant short list of 15 causes. The matching rate was compared with informant-reported death registration. Using the VA diagnoses as reference, misclassification patterns, sensitivity, positive predictive values and cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) were calculated for the short list. Results: A matching rate of 61% [95% confidence interval (CI): 59.2 to 62.3] was attained, lower than the informant-reported registration rate of 85% (CI: 83.4 to 85.8). For the 2264 matched cases, cause agreement was 15% (kappa 0.1083, CI: 0.0995 to 0.1171) for the WHO list, and 23% (kappa 0.1631, CI: 0.1511 to 0.1751) for the short list. CSMFs were significantly different for all but four (tuberculosis, cerebrovascular disease, other heart disease, and ill-defined natural) of the 15 causes evaluated. Conclusion: Despite data limitations, it is feasible to link official CR and HDSS verbal autopsy data. Data linkage proved a promising method to provide empirical evidence about the quality and utility of rural CR mortality data. Agreement of individual causes of death was low but, at the population level, careful interpretation of the CR data can assist health prioritization and planning. PMID:25146564

  8. Record linkage between hospital discharges and mortality registries for motor neuron disease case ascertainment for the Spanish National Rare Diseases Registry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Elena; Ramalle-Gómara, Enrique; Quiñones, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to analyse the coverage of hospital discharge data and the mortality registry (MR) of La Rioja to ascertain motor neuron disease (MND) cases to be included in the Spanish National Rare Diseases Registry. MND cases that occurred in La Rioja during the period 1996-2011 were selected from hospital discharge data and the MR by means of the International Classification of Diseases. Review of the medical histories was carried out to confirm the causes of death reported. Characteristics of the population with MND were analysed. A total of 133 patients with MND were detected in La Rioja during the period 1996-2011; 30.1% were only recorded in the hospital discharges data, 12.0% only in the MR, and 57.9% were recorded by both databases. Medical records revealed a miscoding of patients who had been diagnosed with progressive supranuclear palsy but were recorded in the MR with an MND code. In conclusion, the hospital discharges data and the MR appear to be complementary and are valuable databases for the Spanish National Rare Diseases Registry when MNDs are properly codified. Nevertheless, it would be advisable to corroborate the validity of the MR as data source since the miscoding of progressive supranuclear palsy has been corrected.

  9. BOOK REVIEW: The Oxford Companion to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Cosmology has a special status as a science, as it strives to combine the quantitative statistical rigour of observational astronomy with a theoretical framework emerging from rather speculative ideas about fundamental physics. It also has wider repercussions too, as the quest for an understanding of the origin of the Universe sometimes strays into territory traditionally associated with religious modes of enquiry. The Oxford Companion to Cosmology aims to provide a 'comprehensive but accessible overview' of this 'enduringly popular subject' suitable for students, teachers and others with a serious interest in cosmology. It consists of an introductory overview about the big bang cosmological model, followed by an encyclopedia-like section containing over 300 entries of varying length and technical level. One of the authors (Liddle) is a theorist and the other (Loveday) an observer, so between them they have sufficient authority to cover all aspects of the vigorous interplay between these two facets of the discipline. This is not the sort of volume that can easily be read from cover to cover. The best way to test its effectiveness is to dip into it randomly. In my sampling of the entries I found most to be well-written and informative. The first entry I looked at ('correlation function') had an incorrect formula in it, but I didn't find any further significant errors, which says something about the limitations of statistical inference! The only criticisms I have are very minor. Some of the figures are so small as to be virtually invisible to an oldie like me. I also think the book would have benefitted from more references, and am not sure the web links given in their place will prove very useful as these tend to be rather ephemeral. Overall, though, I would say that the book succeeds admirably in its aims. About ten years ago, I was involved in compiling a similar volume, which ended up as The Routledge Companion to the New Cosmology. I will refrain from trying to

  10. Oxford and the Mandarin Culture: The Past that Is Gone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanor, Vernon

    2006-01-01

    Why was Oxford the home of the mandarin and why has the era of the mandarin come to an end? The era of the mandarin was inaugurated by T. H. Green, who sought, through the gospel of citizenship, to provide a philosophy for an age of religious doubt. Green's moralism served in Oxford as a substitute for the social sciences, which came to be…

  11. The Oxford Internship Scheme: Integration + Partnership in Initial Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains essays about a specific and local reform, the Oxford Internship Scheme, which was developed and implemented by a partnership between Oxford University (England) and the local education authority in Oxfordshire. The internship program represents a commitment to the school-based training of teachers and, in some ways, is analogous…

  12. Linked versus unlinked estimates of mortality and length of life by education and marital status: evidence from the first record linkage study in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; Jasilionis, Domantas; Andreev, Evgeny M; Jdanov, Dmitri A; Stankuniene, Vladislava; Ambrozaitiene, Dalia

    2007-04-01

    Earlier studies have found large and increasing with time differences in mortality by education and marital status in post-Soviet countries. Their results are based on independent tabulations of population and deaths counts (unlinked data). The present study provides the first census-linked estimates of group-specific mortality and the first comparison between census-linked and unlinked mortality estimates for a post-Soviet country. The study is based on a data set linking 140,000 deaths occurring in 2001-2004 in Lithuania with the population census of 2001. The same socio-demographic information about the deceased is available from both the census and death records. Cross-tabulations and Poisson regressions are used to compare linked and unlinked data. Linked and unlinked estimates of life expectancies and mortality rate ratios are calculated with standard life table techniques and Poisson regressions. For the two socio-demographic variables under study, the values from the death records partly differ from those from the census records. The deviations are especially significant for education, with 72-73%, 66-67%, and 82-84% matching for higher education, secondary education, and lower education, respectively. For marital status, deviations are less frequent. For education and marital status, unlinked estimates tend to overstate mortality in disadvantaged groups and they understate mortality in advantaged groups. The differences in inter-group life expectancy and the mortality rate ratios thus are significantly overestimated in the unlinked data. Socio-demographic differences in mortality previously observed in Lithuania and possibly other post-Soviet countries are overestimated. The growth in inequalities over the 1990s is real but might be overstated. The results of this study confirm the existence of large and widening health inequalities but call for better data.

  13. The Oxford Conception Study design and recruitment experience.

    PubMed

    Pyper, Cecilia; Bromhall, Lise; Dummett, Sarah; Altman, Douglas G; Brownbill, Pat; Murphy, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The Oxford Conception Study is a randomised controlled trial that aims to determine whether or not information about potential fertility from a device that monitors urinary hormones will increase the conception rate in women wishing to conceive. Three modified versions of a fertility monitor have been developed for the study. The monitor measures the levels of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide (E3G) and luteinising hormone (LH), and the display indicates high or low fertility. The monitor requests all women to test their urine from day 6 to day 25 of the menstrual cycle inclusive. One-third of women are randomised to receive information from the fertility monitor about the early fertile time (from the first rise in E3G until the LH surge is detected), one-third receive information about the late fertile time (the onset of the LH surge and the following 2 days), and a third do not receive any information (control group). All the women are followed up for 6 months or until they are pregnant. A total of 1453 women have been recruited into the study, reaching the study recruitment goal for 80% power to detect a 10% difference in three-cycle pregnancy rate between the Late Fertile Time group (50%) and the Control group (40%), allowing for a 15% non-pregnancy drop-out rate. Follow-up of the women is currently ongoing. The primary analysis will compare the cumulative three-cycle pregnancy rate between each of the study arms. Time-specific conception probabilities will be estimated from coitus information recorded in 12-h intervals. The data from this study will also allow many additional questions to be addressed, including changes in intercourse patterns with feedback about the fertile days and other questions in relation to menstrual cycle function, sexual intercourse, stress, exposures to tobacco products, alcohol, caffeine and medications, fertility and pregnancy outcomes. In addition to presenting the study design, we review the recruitment experience for the Oxford

  14. Mobile-bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty: the Oxford experience.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jason M; Berend, Keith R

    2014-01-01

    With the recent increase in medial unicompartmental arthroplasty, this article reviews the design history, indications, results, and modern technique for the implantation of the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental arthroplasty. The article also discusses how the indications for the Oxford differ from the historical indications for medial unicompartmental arthroplasty and supports this paradigm shift with review of the recent data. A detailed series of surgical pearls is also presented to help surgeons with the surgical nuances of the Oxford partial knee. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile-bearing unicondylar knee arthroplasty: the Oxford experience.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jason M; Berend, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    With the recent increase in medial unicompartmental arthroplasty, this article reviews the design history, indications, results, and modern technique for the implantation of the Oxford mobile-bearing unicompartmental arthroplasty. The article also discusses how the indications for the Oxford differ from the historical indications for medial unicompartmental arthroplasty and supports this paradigm shift with review of the recent data. A detailed series of surgical pearls is also presented to help surgeons with the surgical nuances of the Oxford partial knee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Women leadership in Oxford House: examining their strengths and challenges.

    PubMed

    Davis, Margaret I; Dziekan, Marta M; Horin, Elizabeth V; Jason, Leonard A; Ferrari, Joseph R; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives and definition of leadership by women and mothers with children (n = 40) affiliated with Oxford Houses, a communal mutual-help recovery setting. Participants were asked questions relating to their experiences living in an Oxford House including the strengths and challenges encountered and how leadership impacted the stability in their house. Results illustrated the value of female leadership and highlighted the characteristics deemed important for women leaders in Oxford House, as well as some differences between these women's perception of leadership and the standard definition of leadership. The implications of the findings and how they may be useful to women's and mothers' with children houses are discussed.

  17. Decomposing multilocus linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Root; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2004-01-01

    We present a mathematically precise formulation of total linkage disequilibrium between multiple loci as the deviation from probabilistic independence and provide explicit formulas for all higher-order terms of linkage disequilibrium, thereby combining J. Dausset et al.'s 1978 definition of linkage disequilibrium with H. Geiringer's 1944 approach. We recursively decompose higher-order linkage disequilibrium terms into lower-order ones. Our greatest simplification comes from defining linkage disequilibrium at a single locus as allele frequency at that locus. At each level, decomposition of linkage disequilibrium is mathematically equivalent to number theoretic compositions of positive integers; i.e., we have converted a genetic decomposition into a mathematical decomposition. PMID:15082571

  18. Risk of dementia in patients hospitalised with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England, 1998-2011: a retrospective national record linkage cohort study.

    PubMed

    Smolina, Kate; Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of subsequent dementia. Our objective was to determine whether a similar risk of subsequent dementia is associated with type 1 diabetes in a large defined population. This retrospective cohort study examined national administrative record-linked statistical data on hospital care and mortality in England, 1998-2011. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital when aged 30 or over were constructed: 343,062 people with type 1 diabetes; 1,855,141 people with type 2 diabetes; and a reference cohort. Results were expressed as rate ratios (RR) comparing each diabetes cohort with the control cohort. The overall RR for dementia in people admitted to hospital with type 1 diabetes was 1.65 (95% CI 1.61, 1.68), and for people admitted to hospital with type 2 diabetes was 1.37 (1.35, 1.38). Young age at admission for diabetes appeared to confer a greater rate of subsequent dementia; the RR for dementia in people admitted to hospital with type 1 diabetes aged 30-39 years was 7.10 (4.65, 10.6), which reduced to 4.40 (3.55, 5.40) in those aged 40-49 at admission, and further reduced with increasing age to 1.16 (1.11, 1.20) in those aged 80 or over at admission. A similar pattern was seen with type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, as well as type 2 diabetes, may be associated with an elevated risk of subsequent dementia. The risk of dementia varies with age at admission to hospital with diabetes, and appears to be much greater in the young.

  19. A population-based record linkage study of mortality in hepatitis C-diagnosed persons with or without HIV coinfection in Scotland.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Scott A; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Bird, Sheila M; Mills, Peter R; Dillon, John; Bloor, Mick; Robertson, Chris; Donaghy, Martin; Hayes, Peter; Graham, Lesley; Goldberg, David J

    2009-06-01

    Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to increase the risk of death from severe liver disease and, because HCV status is strongly associated with a history of injecting drug use, the effect of a key disease progression cofactor, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is of interest. We examined all-cause, liver-related and drug-related mortality and excess risk of death from these causes in a large cohort of HCV-monoinfected and HIV-coinfected persons in Scotland. The study population consisted of 20,163 persons confirmed to be infected with hepatitis C through laboratory testing in Scotland between 1991 and 2005. Records with sufficient identifiers were linked to the General Register Office for Scotland death register to retrieve associated mortality data, and were further linked to a national database of HIV-positive individuals to determine coinfection status. A total of 1715 HCV monoinfected and 305 HIV coinfected persons died of any cause during the follow-up period (mean of 5.4 and 6.4 years, respectively). Significant excess mortality was observed in both HCV monoinfected and HIV coinfected populations from liver-related underlying causes (standardised mortality ratios of 25, 95% CI = 23-27; and 37, 95% CI = 26-52 for the two groups, respectively) and drug-related causes (25, 95% CI = 23-27; 39, 95% CI = 28-53. The risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma, alcoholic or non-alcoholic liver disease, or from a drug-related cause, was greatly increased compared with the general Scottish population, with the highest standardised mortality ratio observed for hepatocellular carcinoma in the monoinfected group (70, 95% CI = 57-85). This study has revealed considerable excess mortality from liver- and drug-related causes in the Scottish HCV-diagnosed population; these data are crucial to inform on the clinical management, and projected future public health burden, of HCV infection.

  20. Oxford School of Sexual Medicine: how are we doing?

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, Lior; Reisman, Yacov; Tripodi, Francesca; Dean, John; Shechter, Arik; Porst, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Since 2007, the European Society of Sexual Medicine has held an annual 2-week educational residential program at Oxford. The Oxford School of Sexual Medicine provides knowledge and skills learning opportunities for healthcare professionals. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of Oxford School courses on the daily practice and medical careers of fellows from different countries. All participants in the Oxford School programs were invited to anonymously complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised three sections: socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents; four Likert-scale score items inquiring about professional background; and 17 closed and two open questions to evaluate the impact of Oxford School on the respondents' practices. Differences in proportions of categorical variables between respondent subgroups were assessed using Pearson χ(2) test. The mean age of the 54 fellows who participated in the study was 44 years (range 28-63 years), 71% were men and 29% were women. Fifty (92%) were physicians, two (4%) psychologists, and two (4%) were sex therapists. Following participation in the Oxford School course, significantly more participants reported spending 50% or more of their clinical time practicing sexual medicine than prior to the course (59% [32] vs. 27% [15], P < 0.001, Figure 1); and significantly more reported spending 50% or more of their working time in clinical research (54% [29] vs. 33% [18], P < 0.001, Figure 2). Forty-six fellows (85%) reported current participation in teaching activities, compared with only 29 (54%) prior to participating in the Oxford School course. Educational activities in sexual medicine, such as the Oxford School, may contribute to the advancement of clinical practice, teaching activities, and clinical research of healthcare providers who are interested in sexual medicine. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Oxford phase III meniscal bearing fracture: case report.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Shon, Won-Yong; Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal bearing fracture is a rare complication of phase III Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). We report a case of a meniscal bearing fracture that occurred 7 years after phase III Oxford medial UKR. The meniscal bearing showed uneven delamination of the polyethylene in the thinnest articular surface and an impingement lesion. This lesion initiated a fatigue crack that propagated to cause failure of the meniscal bearing. This is the first report of a meniscal bearing fracture without a posterior marker wire.

  2. Holocene climate change evidence from high-resolution loess/paleosol records and the linkage to fire-climate change-human activities in the Horqin dunefield in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Yan; Qin, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    The combination of high-resolution sedimentary paleoclimate proxies of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility of a loess/paleosol section with black carbon (BC) records provides us with information about climate change and the linkage of fire-climate change-vegetation-human activities in the Horqin dunefield over the past 11,600 cal yr BP. We found that during 11,600-8000 cal yr BP (the early Holocene), the area was dominated by a dry climate. The vegetation coverage was low, which limited the extent of fire. The Holocene optimum can be placed between 8000 and 3200 cal yr BP, and during this period, anthropogenic fire was a key component of total fire occurrence as the intensity of human activity increased. The development of agricultural activities and the growing population during this period increased the use of fire for cooking food and burning for cultivation and land fertilization purposes. During 2800-2600 cal yr BP, a warm/moister climate prevailed and was associated with a high degree of pedogenesis and vegetation cover density, evident at 2700 cal yr BP. Fires may have contributed to human survival by enabling the cooking of food in the warm and wet climate. In the period since 2000 cal yr BP, fires linked to agriculture may have led to increased biomass burning associated with agricultural activity.

  3. High resolution sedimentary record from the Cocos Ridge: evidence of land-ocean linkages in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the last 70 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdmaa, I.; Ivanova, E.; Leduc, G.; Beaufort, L.; Peresypkin, V.; Vidal, L.; Ovsepyan, E.; Alekhina, G.; Kravtsov, V.; Vasileva, V.

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed n-alkanes spectra, TOC content, and C/N ratio in the upper 12 m of the giant IMAGES Core MD02-2529 from the Cocos Ridge (08°12.33'N; 84°07.32'W; 1619 m w.d.) to estimate terrestrial organic matter (TOM) and marine organic matter (MOM) contribution to the total organic matter budget in sediments. Multi-proxy studies of nannofossils, benthic and planktic foraminifers reveal productivity variations during the time interval of the last ~ 70 ka recovered by the upper part of the core according to the age model based on AMS-14C dates and benthic oxygen isotope record. According to the shipboard core description, the slightly calcareous hemipelagic mud recovered by Core MD02-2529 contains a considerable admixture of terrestrial plant remains. This is confirmed by optical microscopic and SEM studies which reveal a strong pyritization of the particular terrestrial organic matter. As estimated by the proportion of the mainly terrestrial long-molecular alkanes (C23 - C38) relative to mainly planktic short-molecular ones (C10 - C22), the TOM input largely controls variations in the TOC content throughout the studied core interval, possibly except for the Upper Holocene, where higher TOC values correspond to relatively increased MOM content. TOM strongly dominates over the MOM content in sediments of the beginning of Termination 1, most enriched in total organic matter (up to 3.4% TOC). High content of the TOM is also fixed by n-alkane data over the Younger Dryas and H-events. Mass accumulation rates (MAR) of TOC, as well as terrestrial and marine organic matter, generally support the data on percentages, but show that the MOM flux was considerable even during the maximum TOM input at the beginning of Termination I. We suggest that this abundant TOM flux was related to the glacioeustatic sea level lowstand at the LGM, during which the emerged shelf became a vegetated coastal plain affected by seasonally humid tropical monsoon climate. The terrestrial organic

  4. Suicide and deliberate self-harm in Oxford University students over a 30-year period.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Keith; Bergen, Helen; Mahadevan, Su; Casey, Deborah; Simkin, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether rates of suicide and self-harm in university students differ from those in other young people. We obtained information on Oxford University students who died by suicide or presented to hospital following deliberate self-harm (DSH) between 1976 and 2006 from official records and a General Hospital monitoring system in Oxford. Rates of suicide and self-harm in the students and in other young people in the general population were calculated from university, local and national population figures. Forty-eight Oxford University students (32 males and 16 females) died by suicide. Most (N = 42) were aged 18-25 years. The suicide rate did not differ from that of other people in this age group in England and Wales (SMR 105.4; 95% CI 75.2, 143.4). There was evidence of clustering of methods of suicide over time. During the same period, 602 students (383 females and 219 males) presented to the General Hospital following DSH. Most (90.7%) were aged 15-24 years, in which age group rates of DSH (per 100,000) during term-time were lower than in other young people in Oxford City (females: 206.5 vs. 285.6, z = -5.03, p < 0.001; males: 75.9 vs. 111.2, z = -4.35; p < 0.001). There was an excess of student DSH episodes in the main exam term. Contrary to earlier findings and popular belief, suicide rates in Oxford University students do not differ from those in other young people. Rates of DSH are significantly lower than in other young people. Risk of DSH may increase around the time of examinations.

  5. Linkage Maps in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, THN.; Turner, L.; Hellens, R. P.; Lee, D.; Harker, C. L.; Enard, C.; Domoney, C.; Davies, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data. PMID:1551583

  6. Human QTL linkage mapping.

    PubMed

    Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

    2009-06-01

    Human quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage mapping, although based on classical statistical genetic methods that have been around for many years, has been employed for genome-wide screening for only the last 10-15 years. In this time, there have been many success stories, ranging from QTLs that have been replicated in independent studies to those for which one or more genes underlying the linkage peak have been identified to a few with specific functional variants that have been confirmed in in vitro laboratory assays. Despite these successes, there is a general perception that linkage approaches do not work for complex traits, possibly because many human QTL linkage studies have been limited in sample size and have not employed the family configurations that maximize the power to detect linkage. We predict that human QTL linkage studies will continue to be productive for the next several years, particularly in combination with RNA expression level traits that are showing evidence of regulatory QTLs of large effect sizes and in combination with high-density genome-wide SNP panels. These SNP panels are being used to identify QTLs previously localized by linkage and linkage results are being used to place informative priors on genome-wide association studies.

  7. Hospital admission rates and emergency department use in relation to glycated hemoglobin in people with diabetes mellitus: a linkage study using electronic medical record and administrative data in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Birtwhistle, Richard; Green, Michael E; Frymire, Eliot; Dahrouge, Simone; Whitehead, Marlo; Khan, Shahriar; Greiver, Michelle; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-07-11

    The Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) collects extensive data on primary care patients but it currently does not gather reliable information on outcomes in other settings. The objectives of this study were to link electronic medical record (EMR) data from Ontario patients in the CPCSSN with administrative data from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES), to assess the representativeness of the CPCSSN population, and to identify people with diabetes in the CPCSSN data and describe their emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions over a 2-year period (2010-2012) by HbA1c level. We conducted a cross-sectional study linking 2014 Ontario CPCSSN data with ICES administrative data and a retrospective cohort study using the 2014 data extraction linked with data from the Ontario health care registry, hospital discharge abstracts and a database of emergency department visits. Demographics of CPCSSN patients were compared with those of the Ontario population. Patients with a CPCSSN diagnosis of diabetes were compared by HbA1c category for ED visits, hospital admissions and diagnosis of diabetes-related complications. The linkage rate was 99%. We identified 12 358 patients with diabetes, 2356 of whom were missing data on HbAIc, for a final sample of 10 002. Patients with diabetes had a mean age of 64 years. Those with a higher HbA1c were younger, more likely to be male, had a lower income, had more comorbidities and were more likely to live in rural or suburban areas than patients with a lower HbA1c. Over the study period 31.8% of patients had 1 or more ED visits and 13.7% had a hospital admission for a diabetes-related complication. Patients with HbA1c greater than 8 had significantly more hospital admissions, ED visits and diabetes-related complications than patients with a lower HbA1c . The linkage between EMR and administrative data was successful. In this study population, higher HbA1c values were associated with

  8. Oxford classification of immunoglobulin A nephropathy: an update.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Ian S D

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes the recommendations for reporting immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy biopsies and their evidence base, discusses the limitations of the Oxford Classification study and presents the findings of recent validation studies. The Oxford Classification identified four histological lesions as independent prognostic factors: mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary hypercellularity (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T). The MEST criteria predicted outcome in some, but not all, of 13 recent validation studies. M is of independent prognostic value in four out of 13 studies, S in four out of 13 and T in 10 out of 13. Apparently contradictory findings reflect differences in patient selection criteria, treatment and outcome measures. The Oxford Classification study provided indirect evidence that endocapillary hypercellularity is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. This is confirmed in two validation studies. One study, which included patients with rapidly progressive disease, found glomerular crescents to be a significant prognostic marker. Immunohistological findings correlate with proliferative glomerular lesions but are not of independent prognostic value. The Oxford Classification is applicable to patients who were excluded from the original cohort, including those with rapidly progressive disease, and the prognostic value of proliferative glomerular lesions is influenced by immunosuppressive therapy. The Oxford schema will be reviewed in the light of recent findings.

  9. Exploiting Secondary Sources for Unsupervised Record Linkage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    continuous at- tributes in c4.5. Journal of Artficial Intelligence Research, 4:77–90, 1996. [15] S. Sarawagi and A. Bhamidipaty. Interactive...Heckerman and R. Shachter. Decision- theoretic foundations for causal reasoning. Jour- nal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 3:405–430, 1995. [6] M...Muslea, A. Philpot, and S. Tejada. The ari- adne approach to web-based information integra- tion. International Journal on Intelligent Cooper- ative

  10. Constructing a linkage-linkage disequilibrium map using dominant-segregating markers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuli; Dong, Leiming; Jiang, Libo; Li, Huan; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Weiwu; Liu, Haokai; Dai, Wensheng; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recombination fraction can be used to infer the pattern of genetic variation and evolutionary process in humans and other systems. We described a computational framework to construct a linkage-LD map from commonly used biallelic, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for outcrossing plants by which the decline of LD is visualized with genetic distance. The framework was derived from an open-pollinated (OP) design composed of plants randomly sampled from a natural population and seeds from each sampled plant, enabling simultaneous estimation of the LD in the natural population and recombination fraction due to allelic co-segregation during meiosis. We modified the framework to infer evolutionary pasts of natural populations using those marker types that are segregating in a dominant manner, given their role in creating and maintaining population genetic diversity. A sophisticated two-level EM algorithm was implemented to estimate and retrieve the missing information of segregation characterized by dominant-segregating markers such as single methylation polymorphisms. The model was applied to study the relationship between linkage and LD for a non-model outcrossing species, a gymnosperm species, Torreya grandis, naturally distributed in mountains of the southeastern China. The linkage-LD map constructed from various types of molecular markers opens a powerful gateway for studying the history of plant evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  11. [The effectiveness of compensation system for mesotheliomas due to occupational exposure to asbestos and determinants for requests and awards: an evaluation based on record-linkage between the Veneto Mesothelioma Register and the claims and compensations recorded by the National Insurance Institute (INAIL)].

    PubMed

    Merler, Enzo; Bressan, Vittoria; Bilato, Anna Maria; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    To determine the rate of requests for compensation and of compensations awarded for mesothelioma cases due to occupational exposure to asbestos; to identify factors that may influence the outcome; to provide an appreciation of the amount of compensation. Record-linkage study at individual level between the new cases of mesothelioma occurred among the residents of the Veneto Region (Northern Italy) between 1999- 2007 and the file of the Insurance Institute, with individual data on all claims and compensations. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimated the association between submitting claims and obtaining an award and socio-demographic and other characteristics. 349 on 499 mesotheliomas considered to be due to occupational exposure to asbestos submitted a claim (70% of those of occupational origin) and 72%of claims were accepted. The welfare system covers only 35%of mesothelioma occurred. The probability of submitting and obtaining a claim was associated with gender, cancer site, age at diagnosis, vital status, and residence or local office in charge of the evaluation. A strong discrimination against women is observed. If exposure to asbestos at work was due to a direct manipulation of asbestos, claims were more easily accepted.As a consequence,mesothelioma occurred among construction workers, the occupational activity at the origin of the largest number of occurring mesotheliomas, are more frequently rejected.When submitted by a relative, the lag between a request for compensation and the decision is on average of about two years. This is the first study in Italy using a record-linkage method and was made possible thanks to a population based mesothelioma Register and the availability of memorized information of the Insurance Institute.The welfare system shown clear limitations and there is the need for more appropriate strategies.

  12. Successful salvage of a recurrently dislocating Oxford medial unicompartmental bearing.

    PubMed

    van Tienen, Tony G; Taylor, Susan J; Brink, Rodney B

    2010-04-01

    Dislocation of the bearing of the Oxford medial unicompartmental arthroplasty is a rare but serious complication. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a classic anteromedial arthritis who had 2 bearing dislocations within the first 3 months after index surgery. These were attributable to posterior bony impingement of the bearing against a small retained osteophyte. After arthroscopic resection of the osteophyte, she has retained her original components with no further dislocations or signs of impending failure 7 years later. This case report emphasizes the importance of osteophyte removal from the back of the femoral condyle during an Oxford unicompartmental arthroplasty. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Criminal Behavior and Oxford Houses.

    PubMed

    Deaner, Jeffrey; Jason, Leonard A; Aase, Darrin M; Mueller, David G

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated crime rates in areas surrounding 42 Oxford Houses and 42 control houses in a large city in the Northwestern United States. A city-run Global Information Systems' (GIS) website was used to gather crime data including assault, arson, burglary, larceny, robbery, sexual assault, homicide, and vehicle theft over a calendar year. Findings indicated that there were no significant differences between the crime rates around Oxford Houses and the control houses. These results suggest that well-managed and governed recovery homes pose minimal risks to neighbors in terms of criminal behavior.

  14. A national population-based e-cohort of people with psychosis (PsyCymru) linking prospectively ascertained phenotypically rich and genetic data to routinely collected records: overview, recruitment and linkage.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Keith; McGregor, Joanna; John, Ann; Craddock, Nick; Walters, James T; Linden, David; Jones, Ian; Bentall, Richard; Lyons, Ronan A; Ford, David V; Owen, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    PsyCymru was initially established as a proof of concept to investigate the feasibility of linking a prospectively ascertained, well-characterised (linked clinical cohort) of people with psychosis in Wales, UK with large amounts of anonymised routinely collected health record data. We are now additionally linking genetic data. PsyCymru aims to create a research platform and infrastructure for psychosis research in Wales by the establishment of two cohorts. The first is a well characterised clinically-assessed cohort of 490 individuals aged 16 and over, including genetic data. Consented individuals underwent a structured interview using a series of well-validated questionnaires and gave blood for the purpose of DNA extraction for sequencing and candidate gene identification. This data was linked to routinely collected health and social datasets with identity encryption used to protect privacy. The second is a much larger (12,097 individuals) but less well characterised population-based e-cohort of prevalent psychosis cases created using a previously validated algorithm applied to anonymised routine data. Both cohorts can be tracked prospectively and retrospectively using anonymised routinely collected electronic health and administrative data in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. This unique platform pools data together from multiple sources; linking clinical, psychological, biological, genetic and health care factors to address a wide variety of research questions. This resource will continue to expand over the coming years in size, breadth and depth of data, with continued recruitment and additional measures planned. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Classic Classroom Activities: The Oxford Picture Dictionary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma

    This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…

  16. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Scott Durow, Software Engineer, Oxford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Conducted by Paul

    1998-05-01

    Scott Durow was educated at Bootham School, York. He studied Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry to A-level and went on to Nottingham University to read Medical Physics. After graduating from Nottingham he embarked on his present career as a Software Engineer based in Oxford. He is a musician in his spare time, as a member of a band and playing the French horn.

  17. Some Results from the Oxford-Dartmouth Thirty Degree Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, G.; Hammell, M.; Dalton, G. B.; Allen, P. D.; Olding, E. J.; Moustakas, L.

    2003-05-01

    The Oxford-Dartmouth Thirty Degree Survey (ODTS) is a deep-wide multicolor imaging survey, designed to probe structure and study objects with redshifts z > 1. When completed, the ODTS will cover over 30 square degrees in U BV RI'ZK. Here we describe some of the results on extremely red objects (EROs) and blue dropout galaxies.

  18. The Oxford Ethnography Conference: A Place in History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a history of the Oxford Ethnography Conference. Over more than three decades, a regular conference of sociologists of education and ethnographers has met and produced a series of academic writings. The paper describes some of the interrelationships between developments that occurred within the conference and external changes to…

  19. The Oxford Ethnography Conference: A Place in History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a history of the Oxford Ethnography Conference. Over more than three decades, a regular conference of sociologists of education and ethnographers has met and produced a series of academic writings. The paper describes some of the interrelationships between developments that occurred within the conference and external changes to…

  20. Technology evaluation: TroVax, Oxford BioMedica.

    PubMed

    Reinis, Milan

    2004-08-01

    TroVax, a gene-based tumor vaccine that uses a poxvirus vector to deliver the tumor antigen gene 5T4, is under development by Oxford BioMedica for the potential treatment of cancer. TroVax is undergoing phase II clinical trials.

  1. Oxford House: Deaf-Affirmative Support for Substance Abuse Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M.; Davidson, Michelle K.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse…

  2. Oxford House: Deaf-Affirmative Support for Substance Abuse Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Josefina; Adebanjo, Aderonke M.; Davidson, Michelle K.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.

    2006-01-01

    Deaf individuals seeking substance abuse recovery are less likely to have access to treatment and aftercare services because of a lack of culturally and linguistically specific programs and insufficient information about existing services. Previous research indicates that Oxford House, a network of resident-run recovery homes, serves a diverse…

  3. Person-environment interactions among residents of Oxford Houses.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A; Miller, Steven A; Stevens, Ed; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    The continued struggle of addiction recovery support systems suggest that the paradigm of this field needs to continue its evolution, which has increasingly emphasized environments. Field Theory suggests that the products of individual and environmental characteristics be considered rather than a summation of the two. This study examined such interactions in Oxford Houses, a network of democratic, and self-governed addiction recovery homes. This study examined sobriety in experienced houses (average length of residency > six months) compared to less experienced houses (average length of residency ≤ six months) in relation to individual resident characteristics (age, length of residence in an Oxford House, and referral from the criminal justice system). Using multilevel modeling, findings indicated that older residents living in an experienced Oxford Houses were more likely to remain abstinent over time than those in inexperienced homes. Additionally, for inexperienced houses, residents who had been in the Oxford House for a longer period had a higher the probability of abstinence than those that had been in the house for a shorter period of time. Finally, legal referral was related to a lower probability of one-year abstinence but only for those in experienced homes. These types of person-environment interactions point to the need for more research to better understand how person variables interact with environmental variables in the processes of recovery and adaptation to settings, as well as for treatment professionals' consideration of both person and environment when making recovery home referrals.

  4. Risk factors for repetition of a deliberate self-harm episode within seven days in adolescents and young adults: A population-level record linkage study in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Nan; Glauert, Rebecca A; Li, Jianghong; Taylor, Catherine L

    2016-02-01

    The risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm peaks in the first 7 days after a deliberate self-harm episode. However, thus far no studies have examined the risk factors for repeating deliberate self-harm during this short-term period. We aimed to investigate the effects of socio-demographic factors, self-harm method and mental health factors in adolescents (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). We used data linkage of population-wide administrative records from hospital inpatients and emergency departments to identify all the deliberate self-harm-related episodes that occurred in adolescents and young adults in Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used for the analyses. The incidence of repeating deliberate self-harm within the first 7 days after an index episode was 6% (403/6,768) in adolescents and 8% (842/10,198) in young adults. Socio-demographic risk factors included female gender and socioeconomic disadvantage. Compared with non-poisoning, self-poisoning predicted increased risk of having a repeated deliberate self-harm episode in males, but not in females. Borderline personality, impulse-control and substance use disorders diagnosed within one week before and one week after an index deliberate self-harm episode conferred the highest risk, followed by depressive and anxiety disorders. Having a preceding deliberate self-harm episode up to 7 days before an index episode was a strong predictor for the future repetition of a deliberate self-harm episode. Having a repeated deliberate self-harm episode within the first 7 days was related to a wide range of factors present at an index deliberate self-harm episode including socio-demographic characteristics, deliberate self-harm method and co-existing psychiatric conditions. These factors can inform risk assessments tailored to adolescents and young adults respectively to reduce the repetition of deliberate self-harm within a short but

  5. Linkage results in Schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, M.

    1996-04-09

    In setting a model for replication studies, the collective effort by the various investigators is praiseworthy. The linkage reported is intriguing, but given the aforementioned caveats it would be premature to dub it {open_quotes}significant -- and, probably, confirmed.{close_quotes} The extent to which a real genetic effect exists on chromosome 6p24-22 remains to be seen. Compelling confirmation, which further study might proffer, would be a welcome boost to a fledgling enterprise, where other findings of promise have faltered or failed to gain unequivocal support. The caution advised in this commentary may guide the design and interpretation of other linkage studies in psychiatric disorders.

  6. Nanocall: an open source basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data.

    PubMed

    David, Matei; Dursi, L J; Yao, Delia; Boutros, Paul C; Simpson, Jared T

    2017-01-01

    The highly portable Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencer has enabled new applications of genome sequencing directly in the field. However, the MinION currently relies on a cloud computing platform, Metrichor (metrichor.com), for translating locally generated sequencing data into basecalls. To allow offline and private analysis of MinION data, we created Nanocall. Nanocall is the first freely available, open-source basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data and does not require an internet connection. Using R7.3 chemistry, on two E.coli and two human samples, with natural as well as PCR-amplified DNA, Nanocall reads have ∼68% identity, directly comparable to Metrichor '1D' data. Further, Nanocall is efficient, processing ∼2500 Kbp of sequence per core hour using the fastest settings, and fully parallelized. Using a 4 core desktop computer, Nanocall could basecall a MinION sequencing run in real time. Metrichor provides the ability to integrate the '1D' sequencing of template and complement strands of a single DNA molecule, and create a '2D' read. Nanocall does not currently integrate this technology, and addition of this capability will be an important future development. In summary, Nanocall is the first open-source, freely available, off-line basecaller for Oxford Nanopore sequencing data. Nanocall is available at github.com/mateidavid/nanocall, released under the MIT license. matei.david@oicr.on.caSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Oxford phase 3 unicompartmental knee replacement in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, H-C; Bae, J-H; Song, S-H; Kim, S-J

    2012-08-01

    Medium-term survivorship of the Oxford phase 3 unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) has not yet been established in an Asian population. We prospectively evaluated the outcome of 400 phase 3 Oxford UKRs in 320 Korean patients with a mean age at the time of operation of 69 years (48 to 82). The mean follow-up was 5.2 years (1 to 10). Clinical and radiological assessment was carried out pre- and post-operatively. At five years, the mean Knee Society knee and functional scores had increased significantly from 56.2 (30 to 91) pre-operatively to 87.2 (59 to 98) (p = 0.034) and from 59.2 (30 to 93) to 88.3 (50 to 100) (p = 0.021), respectively. The Oxford knee score increased from a mean of 25.8 (12 to 39) pre-operatively to 39.8 (25 to 58) at five years (p = 0.038). The ten-year survival rate was 94% (95% confidence interval 90.1 to 98.0). A total of 14 UKRs (3.5%) required revision. The most common reason for revision was dislocation of the bearing in 12 (3%). Conversion to a total knee replacement was required in two patients who developed osteoarthritis of the lateral compartment. This is the largest published series of UKR in Korean patients. It shows that the mid-term results after a minimally invasive Oxford phase 3 UKR can yield satisfactory clinical and functional results in this group of patients.

  8. Attempted suicide in Oxford University students, 1976-1990.

    PubMed

    Hawton, K; Haigh, R; Simkin, S; Fagg, J

    1995-01-01

    During the 14 years between the beginning of academic year 1976-7 and the end of academic year 1989-90, 216 Oxford University students (119 females and 97 males) were referred to the general hospital in Oxford because of suicide attempts (254 in all). The rate of attempted suicide during university term-time (106/100,000) was lower than in other young people of similar age in Oxford City (164/100,000). The difference was particularly marked in females (178/100,000 v. 269/100,000). The lower rate in the students may in part reflect their generally higher socio-economic status. Very few of the attempts by the students appeared to be failed suicides. The most frequent problems faced by the students at the time of their attempts were interpersonal, especially difficulties regarding partners, followed by academic problems. The latter were usually problems with ongoing course work rather than with the Finals examinations. Approximately a quarter of the students had psychiatric problems, with personality disorders and depression being most common. At least 30% had a history of previous attempts. Suggestions are made concerning measures for improving the management and prevention of attempted suicide by students.

  9. Validation of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Herzenberg, Andrew M; Fogo, Agnes B; Reich, Heather N; Troyanov, Stéphan; Bavbek, Nuket; Massat, Alfonso E; Hunley, Tracy E; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Julian, Bruce A; Fervenza, Fernando C; Cattran, Daniel C

    2011-08-01

    The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) identified four pathological elements that were of prognostic value and additive to known clinical and laboratory variables in predicting patient outcome. These features are segmental glomerulosclerosis/adhesion, mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. Here, we tested the Oxford results using an independent cohort of 187 adults and children with IgAN from 4 centers in North America by comparing the performance of the logistic regression model and the predictive value of each of the four lesions in both data sets. The cohorts had similar clinical and histological findings, presentations, and clinicopathological correlations. During follow-up, however, the North American cohort received more immunosuppressive and antihypertensive therapies. Identifying patients with a rapid decline in the rate of renal function using the logistic model from the original study in the validation data set was good (c-statistic 0.75), although less precise than in the original study (0.82). Individually, each pathological variable offered the same predictive value in both cohorts except mesangial hypercellularity, which was a weaker predictor. Thus, this North American cohort validated the Oxford IgAN classification and supports its utilization. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship to the impact of treatment and to define the value of the mesangial hypercellularity score.

  10. Reducing Economic Disparities for Female Offenders: The Oxford House Model.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Sarah; Jason, Leonard A; Robinson, LaVome

    In the past 30 years the rate of increase in incarceration for females who abuse substances has outpaced that of men. Women have increased health and economic disparities, and face barriers to economic mobility, increasing their risk of returning to the criminal justice system. Past research suggests that there is a positive relationship between living in Oxford House and employment wages, yet the impact of having a criminal history on this relationship was unknown. This study used a nationwide sample of 136 women living in Oxford Houses in a regression analysis with length of stay in Oxford House predicting employment wages, and moderated by criminal history. There was a positive relationship between length of stay and wages. Criminal history modified the association between length of stay and wages, and length of stay had a significantly greater impact on wages for women with criminal convictions. The findings provide a contribution to alcohol and drug abuse and economic literature by identifying a setting that decreases economic disparities for formerly incarcerated women. Results can inform future policy, research, and the development of gender sensitive aftercare programs that address the needs of women, assisting transitioning women in reentering mainstream society, and increasing their chances of obtaining and retaining employment.

  11. The Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Victor E.

    The Market Linkage Project (ML) for Special Education and the Basic Skills Validation and Marketing Program are two federally sponsored marketing projects developed under contract by LINC Resources, Inc., a professional marketing organization, for the U.S. Department of Education. LINC developed the marketing programs to provide the option for the…

  12. Linkage Analysis of Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Mottl, Amy K.; Vupputuri, Suma; Cole, Shelley A.; Almasy, Laura; Göring, Harald H.H.; Diego, Vincent P.; Laston, Sandra; Shara, Nawar; Lee, Elisa T.; Best, Lyle G.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Umans, Jason G.; North, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indians have a higher prevalence of albuminuria than the general population, likely resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors. To localize gene regions influencing variation in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, we performed a linkage analysis and explored gene-by-diabetes, -hypertension, and -obesity interactions in a large cohort of American Indian families. We recruited >3600 individuals from 13 American Indian tribes from three centers (Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma). We performed multipoint variance component linkage analysis in each center as well as in the entire cohort after controlling for center effects. We used two modeling strategies: Model 1 incorporated age, gender, and interaction terms; model 2 also controlled for diabetes, BP, body mass index, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and smoking status. We evaluated interactions with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity using additive, interaction-specific linkage and stratified analyses. Loci suggestive for linkage to urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio included 1q, 6p, 9q, 18q, and 20p. Gene-by-diabetes interaction was present with a quantitative trait locus specific to the diabetic stratum in the Dakotas isolated on 18q21.2 to 21.3 using model 1 (logarithm of odds = 3.3). Gene-by-hypertension interaction was present with quantitative trait loci specific to the hypertensive stratum in the Dakotas on 7q21.11 using model 1 (logarithm of odds = 3.4) and 10q25.1 using model 2 (logarithm of odds = 3.3). These loci replicate findings from multiple other genome scans of kidney disease phenotypes with distinct populations and are worthy of further study. PMID:19369405

  13. Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Few previous prospective studies have examined differences in incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) risk between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The objective was to examine the association of a vegetarian diet with risk of incident (nonfatal and fatal) IHD. A total of 44,561 men and women living in England and Scotland who were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, of whom 34% consumed a vegetarian diet at baseline, were part of the analysis. Incident cases of IHD were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Serum lipids and blood pressure measurements were available for 1519 non cases, who were matched to IHD cases by sex and age. IHD risk by vegetarian status was estimated by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. After an average follow-up of 11.6 y, there were 1235 IHD cases (1066 hospital admissions and 169 deaths). Compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarians had a lower mean BMI [in kg/m(2); -1.2 (95% CI: -1.3, -1.1)], non-HDL-cholesterol concentration [-0.45 (95% CI: -0.60, -0.30) mmol/L], and systolic blood pressure [-3.3 (95% CI: -5.9, -0.7) mm Hg]. Vegetarians had a 32% lower risk (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.81) of IHD than did nonvegetarians, which was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for BMI and did not differ materially by sex, age, BMI, smoking, or the presence of IHD risk factors. Consuming a vegetarian diet was associated with lower IHD risk, a finding that is probably mediated by differences in non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure.

  14. The Oxford Guide to the History of Physics and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbron, John L.

    2005-06-01

    With over 150 alphabetically arranged entries about key scientists, concepts, discoveries, technological innovations, and learned institutions, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy traces the history of physics and astronomy from the Renaissance to the present. For students, teachers, historians, scientists, and readers of popular science books such as Galileo's Daughter , this guide deciphers the methods and philosophies of physics and astronomy as well as the historical periods from which they emerged. Meant to serve the lay reader and the professional alike, this book can be turned to for the answer to how scientists learned to measure the speed of light, or consulted for neat, careful summaries of topics as complicated as quantum field theory and as vast as the universe. The entries, each written by a noted scholar and edited by J. L. Heilbron, Professor of History and Vice Chancellor, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, reflect the most up-to-date research and discuss the applications of the scientific disciplines to the wider world of religion, law, war, art and literature. No other source on these two branches of science is as informative or as inviting. Thoroughly cross-referenced and accented by dozens of black and white illustrations, the Oxford Guide to Physics and Astronomy is the source to turn to for anyone looking for a quick explanation of alchemy, x-rays and any type of matter or energy in between.

  15. Promising short-term clinical results of the cementless Oxford phase III medial unicondylar knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Karin B; Breugem, Stefan Jm; Bruijn, Daniël J; Driessen, Marcel Jm

    2016-04-18

    To investigate the short-term clinical results of the Oxford phase III cementless medial unicondylar knee prosthesis (UKP) compared to the cemented medial UKP. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a tertairy orthopedic centre between the period of May 2010 and September 2012. We included 99 medial UKP in 97 patients and of these UKP, 53 were cemented and 46 were cementless. Clinical outcome was measured using a questionnaire, containing a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Oxford Knee score, Kujala score and SF-12 score. Knee function was tested using the American Knee Society score. Complications, reoperations and revisions were recorded. Statistical significance was defined as a P value < 0.05. In a mean follow-up time of 19.5 mo, three cemented medial UKP were revised to a total knee prosthesis. Reasons for revision were malrotation of the tibial component, aseptic loosening of the tibial component and progression of osteoarthritis in the lateral- and patellofemoral compartment. In five patients a successful reoperation was performed, because of impingement or (sub)luxation of the polyethylene bearing. Patients with a reoperation were significant younger than patients in the primary group (56.7 vs 64.0, P = 0.01) and were more likely to be male (85.7% vs 38.8%, P = 0.015). Overall the cementless medial UKP seems to perform better, but the differences in clinical outcome are not significant; a VAS pain score of 7.4 vs 11.7 (P = 0.22), an Oxford Knee score of 43.3 vs 41.7 (P = 0.27) and a Kujala score of 79.6 vs 78.0 (P = 0.63). The American Knee Society scores were slightly better in the cementless group with 94.5 vs 90.2 (P = 0.055) for the objective score and 91.2 vs 87.8 (P = 0.25) for the subjective score. The cementless Oxford phase III medial UKP shows good short-term clinical results, when used in a specialist clinic by an experienced surgeon.

  16. The five-year radiological results of the uncemented Oxford medial compartment knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hooper, N; Snell, D; Hooper, G; Maxwell, R; Frampton, C

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on the first 150 consecutive Oxford cementless unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA) performed in an independent centre (126 patients). All eligible patients had functional scores (Oxford knee score and high activity arthroplasty score) recorded pre-operatively and at two- and five-years of follow-up. Fluoroscopically aligned radiographs were taken at five years and analysed for any evidence of radiolucent lines (RLLs), subsidence or loosening. The mean age of the cohort was 63.6 years (39 to 86) with 81 (53.1%) males. Excellent functional scores were maintained at five years and there were no progressive RLLs demonstrated on radiographs. Two patients underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty giving a revision rate of 0.23/100 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.84) component years with overall component survivorship of 98.7% at five years. There were a further four patients who underwent further surgery on the same knee, two underwent bearing exchanges for dislocation and two underwent lateral UKAs for disease progression. This was a marked improvement from other UKAs reported in New Zealand Joint Registry data and supports the designing centre's early results. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Trends in acoustic neuroma management: a 20-year review of the oxford skull base clinic.

    PubMed

    Mackeith, Samuel A C; Kerr, Richard S; Milford, Chris A

    2013-08-01

    Objective To describe the change in the management of acoustic neuromas at one United Kingdom center over a 20-year period and to compare this with what is known regarding trends in practice on a national and international scale. Design, Setting, and Participants Data was collected prospectively on all patients attending the Oxford Skull Base Clinic between 1990 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients managed initially by observation versus radiotherapy versus surgery was recorded for each year. Results Significantly more patients received radiation treatment (instead of surgery) between 2000 and 2009 when compared with 1990 to 1999. Compared with national audit data, the Oxford Skull Base Clinic treats a higher proportion of patients with radiotherapy and significantly lower proportion with surgery, though the trend nationally is toward more observation and radiotherapy and less surgery. Conclusion Surgery will remain crucial in the management of some patients with acoustic neuromas (usually those with the larger tumors where radiosurgery is recognized to be less appropriate), but using current trends to predict future practice would suggest that alternative nonmicrosurgical treatment may play an increasingly important role in the future.

  18. 76 FR 9967 - Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford, CT... upward from 700 feet at Oxford, CT. Decommissioning of the Waterbury Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) at the Waterbury-Oxford airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  19. 75 FR 52484 - Proposed Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford, CT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Removal and Amendment of Class E Airspace, Oxford... amend Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet at Oxford, CT. Decommissioning of the Waterbury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at the Waterbury-Oxford airport has made this action necessary for...

  20. Minimally invasive Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in young patients.

    PubMed

    Streit, Marcus R; Streit, Julia; Walker, Tilman; Bruckner, Thomas; Philippe Kretzer, J; Ewerbeck, Volker; Merle, Christian; Aldinger, Peter R; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Advanced knee arthritis in young patients is a challenging problem that may necessitate surgical treatment. There are few published studies of mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in young patients, while indications have expanded to its use in this demanding patient group. The clinical and radiographic results of the first 118 consecutive Oxford medial UKAs (OUKA) using a minimally invasive technique (phase 3) in 101 patients 60 years of age or younger at the time of surgery were evaluated. Median age at surgery was 57 (25-60) years. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was used to estimate implant survival. Mean time of follow-up evaluation was five (SD 1.6) years. At final follow-up, three patients (three knees) had died, and two patients (three knees) were lost to follow-up. Five knees were revised: three for unexplained pain, one for early infection and one for bearing fracture. There was one impending revision for progression of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment. The radiographic review demonstrated that 5 % of the knees had progressive arthritis in the lateral knee compartment, of those 2 % with full joint space loss and pain. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, using revision for any reason as the endpoint, estimated the five-year survival rate at 97 % (95 % CI 91-99). Ninety-six per cent of the non-revised patients were satisfied with the outcome, and 4 % were dissatisfied. The mean Oxford knee score was 41 (SD 7), with 6 % of the knees having a poor result. The mean AKSS was 89 (SD 14), mean flexion was 129° (SD 13) and the mean UCLA score was 6.8 (SD 1.5). Minimally invasive Oxford medial UKA was reliable and effective in this young and active patient cohort providing high patient satisfaction at mid-term follow-up. Progressive arthritis in the lateral knee compartment was a relevant failure mode in this age group. Most revisions were performed for unexplained pain, while we did not find loosening or wear in any patient

  1. Data Linkage: A powerful research tool with potential problems

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. Methods A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. Results The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8%) met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies), sex (50% of studies), race (64% of studies), geographical/hospital site (93% of studies), socio-economic status (82% of studies) and health status (72% of studies). Conclusion A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies. PMID:21176171

  2. Data linkage: a powerful research tool with potential problems.

    PubMed

    Bohensky, Megan A; Jolley, Damien; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Evans, Sue; Pilcher, David V; Scott, Ian; Brand, Caroline A

    2010-12-22

    Policy makers, clinicians and researchers are demonstrating increasing interest in using data linked from multiple sources to support measurement of clinical performance and patient health outcomes. However, the utility of data linkage may be compromised by sub-optimal or incomplete linkage, leading to systematic bias. In this study, we synthesize the evidence identifying participant or population characteristics that can influence the validity and completeness of data linkage and may be associated with systematic bias in reported outcomes. A narrative review, using structured search methods was undertaken. Key words "data linkage" and Mesh term "medical record linkage" were applied to Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases between 1991 and 2007. Abstract inclusion criteria were; the article attempted an empirical evaluation of methodological issues relating to data linkage and reported on patient characteristics, the study design included analysis of matched versus unmatched records, and the report was in English. Included articles were grouped thematically according to patient characteristics that were compared between matched and unmatched records. The search identified 1810 articles of which 33 (1.8%) met inclusion criteria. There was marked heterogeneity in study methods and factors investigated. Characteristics that were unevenly distributed among matched and unmatched records were; age (72% of studies), sex (50% of studies), race (64% of studies), geographical/hospital site (93% of studies), socio-economic status (82% of studies) and health status (72% of studies). A number of relevant patient or population factors may be associated with incomplete data linkage resulting in systematic bias in reported clinical outcomes. Readers should consider these factors in interpreting the reported results of data linkage studies.

  3. The Oxford scanning proton microprobe: A medical diagnostic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, F.; Grime, G. W.; Takacs, J.; Vaux, D. J. T.

    1984-04-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a disease characterised by progressive destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, cholestasis, and high levels of copper within the liver. The Oxford 1 μm scanning proton microprobe (SPM) has been used to construct elemental maps of a 7 μm section of diseased liver at several different magnifications. The results of these investigations have shown that the copper is distributed in small deposits ( < 5 μm) at specific locations in the liver. Further there appears to be a 1:1 atomic correlation between copper and sulphur, indicating the presence of an inorganic salt or a protein with approximately equal numbers of copper and sulphur atoms.

  4. An Independent Derivation of the Oxford Jet Kinetic Luminosity Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian

    2005-04-01

    This Letter presents a theoretical derivation of an estimate for a radio source jet kinetic luminosity. The expression yields jet powers that are quantitatively similar to a more sophisticated empirical relation published by C. Willott, K. Blundell, and S. Rawlings at Oxford. The formula allows one to estimate the jet kinetic luminosity from the measurement of the optically thin radio lobe emission in quasars and radio galaxies. Motivated by recent X-ray observations, the derivation assumes that most of the energy in the lobes is in plasma thermal energy with a negligible contribution from magnetic energy (not equipartition). The close agreement of the two independent expressions makes the veracity of these estimates seem very plausible.

  5. Technology evaluation: MetXia-P450, Oxford Biomedica.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S

    2001-12-01

    Oxford BioMedica is developing gene therapies for treating various forms of cancer. The therapies comprise the transfer of several anticancer genes at a time using a recombinant retrovirus approach based on the company's proprietary LTR Deleted Vector and Accelerated Vector Evolution technologies [238147]. MetXia-P450 is a gene therapy construct containing the cytochrome P450 gene CYP2B6, and is designed to be injected directly into tumors to convert them into 'drug factories'. This is achieved because CYP2B6 converts the inactive produg form cyclophosphamide into the active cytotoxic drug. MetXia-P450 is in phase I/II trials for breast cancer [339582].

  6. Economic costs of Oxford House inpatient treatment and incarceration: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Olson, Bradley D; Viola, Judah; Jason, Leonard A; Davis, Margaret I; Ferrari, Joseph R; Rabin-Belyaev, Olga

    2006-01-01

    The Oxford House model for substance abuse recovery has potential economic advantages associated with the low cost of opening up and maintaining the settings. In the present study, annual program costs per person were estimated for Oxford House based on federal loan information and data collected from Oxford House Inc. In addition, annual treatment and incarceration costs were approximated based on participant data prior to Oxford House residence in conjunction with normative costs for these settings. Societal costs associated with the Oxford House program were relatively low, whereas estimated costs associated with inpatient and incarceration history were high. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Five-year experience of cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H G; Campi, S; Hamilton, T W; Dada, O D; Pollalis, S; Jenkins, C; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W

    2017-03-01

    Cementless unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) was introduced to address some of the problems that can occur following cemented UKR. The aim of this study was to report the 5-year experience of the first 512 medial cementless Oxford UKR implanted by two surgeons for the recommended indications. The first consecutive 512 cementless Phase 3 Oxford UKRs implanted by two surgeons for the recommended indications between June 2004 and October 2013 were prospectively identified and followed up independently. All the procedures were carried out through a minimally invasive approach without eversion or dislocation of the patella. Patients were assessed clinically pre-operatively and at 1, 2, 5, 7 and 10 years after surgery with functional outcome scores and radiographs. There were eight reoperations of which six were revisions giving a 5-year survival of 98 % (95 % CI 94-100 %). At a mean follow-up of 3.4 years (1.0-10.2), the mean OKS was 43 (SD 7), AKSS (objective) was 81 (SD 13), and AKSS (functional) was 86 (SD 17). The first 120 cases had a minimum follow-up of 5 years (mean 5.9; range 5-10.2). In these patients, the mean OKS was 41 (SD 8), AKSS (objective) was 81 (SD 14), and AKSS (functional) was 82 (SD 18). There were no femoral radiolucencies and no complete tibial radiolucencies. 11 % of tibial components had partial radiolucent lines; the remaining 89 % had no radiolucencies. The clinical results are as good as or better than those previously reported for cemented fixation. The radiographic results are better with secure bony attachment to the implants in every case. IV.

  8. From Classicism and Idealism to Scientific Naturalism: Titchener's Oxford Years and Their Impact Upon His Early Intellectual Development.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Marcellos, Cintia Fernandes

    2017-02-23

    Edward Titchener (1867-1927) is one of the most prominent figures in the history of American psychology from the early 20th century. Accordingly, his psychological system-structuralism-has received due attention in the secondary literature. However, a closer look at traditional interpretations of the development of Titchener's ideas reveals a series of missing elements, such as his early studies before going to Leipzig. The central goal of this article is to present the main elements of Titchener's intellectual education in Oxford, thereby showing the influence of the British tradition of the 19th century upon his early intellectual development. On the basis of hitherto unexplored primary sources, we discuss Titchener's relationship with British idealism and scientific naturalism, 2 movements that shaped a significant part of British psychological thinking in the 19th century. We conclude that Titchener's Oxford years are much more relevant to understanding his intellectual development than the literature has so far assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Repeatability of the modified Oxford foot model during gait in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia J; Arnold, Brent L; Coffey, Timothy G; Pidcoe, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford foot model (OFM) is a multi-segment model for calculating hindfoot and forefoot motion. Limited information is available regarding the repeatability and error of this model in adults. Therefore the purpose of this study was to assess the intra-tester reliability of OFM hindfoot and forefoot gait kinematics in adults at initial contact (IC) and toe-off (TO). Seventeen healthy adults (age=25.1±4.8 years, height=1.75±0.10m, weight=74.0±12.4kg) were tested on a single visit, during which 1 examiner recorded 2 sessions. For each session, 10 walking trials were recorded using a 12-camera motion analysis system (Vicon, Oxford, UK). Markers were removed and re-applied between sessions. Dynamic hindfoot and forefoot angles were calculated both with and without referencing to neutral stance (assuming neutral stance angles are zero in all planes). Using the 10 trial average, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,k)) and standard errors of the measurement were calculated for each reference condition, anatomical plane, and joint (hindfoot, forefoot). Referencing to neutral stance resulted in good reliability (ICC≥0.83) and small error (≤2.45°) for hindfoot and forefoot angle in all planes. Without referencing to neutral stance, sagittal and transverse plane reliability were also good (ICC≥0.90) and error small (≤3.14°); however, frontal plane reliability was poor (ICC≤0.77), with large error (≥4.86°). Our results show that overall the OFM is reliable during adult gait. Reliability for adults is higher than previously reported in children. Referencing joint angles to neutral stance decreased error by up to 2° from previous reports. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Securizing data linkage in french public statistics.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, Maxence; Benzenine, Eric; Gadouche, Kamel; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-10-06

    Administrative records in France, especially medical and social records, have huge potential for statistical studies. The NIR (a national identifier) is widely used in medico-social administrations, and this would theoretically provide considerable scope for data matching, on condition that the legislation on such matters was respected.The law, however, forbids the processing of non-anonymized medical data, thus making it difficult to carry out studies that require several sources of social and medical data.We would like to benefit from computer techniques introduced since the 70 s to provide safe linkage of anonymized files, to release the current constraints of such procedures.We propose an organization and a data workflow, based on hashing and cyrptographic techniques, to strongly compartmentalize identifying and not-identifying data.The proposed method offers a strong control over who is in possession of which information, using different hashing keys for each linkage. This allows to prevent unauthorized linkage of data, to protect anonymity, by preventing cumulation of not-identifying data which can become identifying data when linked.Our proposal would make it possible to conduct such studies more easily, more regularly and more precisely while preserving a high enough level of anonymity.The main obstacle to setting up such a system, in our opinion, is not technical, but rather organizational in that it is based on the existence of a Key-Management Authority.

  11. From Oxford to Hawaii Ecophysiological Barriers Limit Human Progression in Ten Sport Monuments

    PubMed Central

    Desgorces, François-Denis; Berthelot, Geoffroy; El Helou, Nour; Thibault, Valérie; Guillaume, Marion; Tafflet, Muriel; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants and trends of human performance evolution, we analyzed ten outdoor events among the oldest and most popular in sports history. Best performances of the Oxford-Cambridge boat race (since 1836), the channel crossing in swimming (1875), the hour cycling record (1893), the Elfstedentocht speed skating race (1909), the cross country ski Vasaloppet (1922), the speed ski record (1930), the Streif down-hill in Kitzbühel (1947), the eastward and westward sailing transatlantic records (1960) and the triathlon Hawaii ironman (1978) all follow a similar evolutive pattern, best described through a piecewise exponential decaying model (r2 = 0.95±0.07). The oldest events present highest progression curvature during their early phase. Performance asymptotic limits predicted from the model may be achieved in fourty years (2049±32 y). Prolonged progression may be anticipated in disciplines which further rely on technology such as sailing and cycling. Human progression in outdoor sports tends to asymptotic limits depending on physiological and environmental parameters and may temporarily benefit from further technological progresses. PMID:18985149

  12. Apprenticeship - School Linkage Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sharon T.; And Others

    Developed to assist interested sponsors in implementing apprenticeship-school linkage projects, this guide is intended to organize the collective experiences of those who have implemented the demonstration projects to highlight the day-to-day mechanics involved. Section 1 overviews apprenticeship-school linkage. In section 2 factors are described…

  13. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific. PMID:27784755

  14. Assortative Mating and Linkage Disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-01-05

    Assortative mating has been suggested to result in an increase in heritability and additive genetic variance through an increase in linkage disequilibrium. The impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium was explicitly examined for the two-locus model of Wright (1921) and two selective assortative mating models. For the Wright (1921) model, when the proportion of assortative mating was high, positive linkage disequilibrium was generated. However, when the proportion of assortative mating was similar to that found in some studies, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was quite low. In addition, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was independent of the level of recombination. For two selective assortative models, the amount of linkage disequilibrium was a function of the amount of recombination. For these models, the linkage disequilibrium generated was negative mainly because repulsion heterozygotes were favored over coupling heterozygotes. From these findings, the impact of assortative mating on linkage disequilibrium, and consequently heritability and additive genetic variance, appears to be small and model-specific. Copyright © 2017 Hedrick.

  15. Estimating parameters for probabilistic linkage of privacy-preserved datasets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Semmens, James B; Boyd, James H

    2017-07-10

    Probabilistic record linkage is a process used to bring together person-based records from within the same dataset (de-duplication) or from disparate datasets using pairwise comparisons and matching probabilities. The linkage strategy and associated match probabilities are often estimated through investigations into data quality and manual inspection. However, as privacy-preserved datasets comprise encrypted data, such methods are not possible. In this paper, we present a method for estimating the probabilities and threshold values for probabilistic privacy-preserved record linkage using Bloom filters. Our method was tested through a simulation study using synthetic data, followed by an application using real-world administrative data. Synthetic datasets were generated with error rates from zero to 20% error. Our method was used to estimate parameters (probabilities and thresholds) for de-duplication linkages. Linkage quality was determined by F-measure. Each dataset was privacy-preserved using separate Bloom filters for each field. Match probabilities were estimated using the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm on the privacy-preserved data. Threshold cut-off values were determined by an extension to the EM algorithm allowing linkage quality to be estimated for each possible threshold. De-duplication linkages of each privacy-preserved dataset were performed using both estimated and calculated probabilities. Linkage quality using the F-measure at the estimated threshold values was also compared to the highest F-measure. Three large administrative datasets were used to demonstrate the applicability of the probability and threshold estimation technique on real-world data. Linkage of the synthetic datasets using the estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was comparable to the F-measure using calculated probabilities, even with up to 20% error. Linkage of the administrative datasets using estimated probabilities produced an F-measure that was higher

  16. The Oxford hip and knee outcome questionnaires for arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pynsent, P B; Adams, D J; Disney, S P

    2005-02-01

    The Oxford hip and knee scores are used to measure the outcome after primary total hip and knee replacement. We propose a new layout for the instrument in which patients are always asked about both limbs. In addition, we have defined an alternative scoring method which accounts for missing data. Over a period of 4.5 years, 4086 (1423 patients) and 5708 (1458 patients) questionnaires were completed for hips and knees, respectively. The hip score had a pre-operative median of 70.8 (interquartile range (IQR) 58.3 to 81.2) decreasing to 20.8 (IQR 10.4 to 35.4) after one year. The knee score had a pre-operative median of 68.8 (IQR 56.2 to 79.2) decreasing to 29.2 (IQR 14.6 to 45.8). There was no further significant change in either score after one year. As a result of the data analysis, we suggest that the score percentiles can be used as a standard for auditing patients before and after operation.

  17. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hengyun; Giordano, Francesca; Ning, Zemin

    2016-10-01

    The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS) technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS) technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that promises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the genomics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assembly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in genome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. A gift from Oxford: the Osler-Thomas connection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In June 1926, Dr. Henry M. Thomas Jr. (“Hal”) received as a gift from Grace Osler in Oxford an Einhorn Duodenal Bucket Set that had belonged to Sir William Osler. The Thomases were a distinguished multigenerational physician family of Baltimore with high educational standards and major accomplishments in medicine and medical education. An extraordinary number of the Thomas women earned doctorates and made significant contributions in an era when this was a pioneering achievement. This is exemplified by Martha Carey Thomas, who earned a PhD in 1882 and served as dean and president of Bryn Mawr College for women. As a leading feminist and member of the Women's Fund Committee, she was a major force in providing the endowment that permitted the opening of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine under the strict stipulations that admission requirements include an undergraduate degree and that women be admitted on the basis of total equality with men. Osler established relationships that extended over three generations of the Thomas family during his Baltimore tenure, an influence that proved mutually beneficial. PMID:23077379

  19. 2nd BASHH Oxford Diagnostics Course, November 2015.

    PubMed

    Patel, R R; White, J A; Menon-Johansson, A S; Sadiq, S T; Ross, J D

    2016-01-18

    The second British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Oxford Diagnostics Course of 2015 focussed on recent challenges and emerging concepts within diagnostics and service design. In response to increasing sexually transmitted infection rates and subsequent demand on UK sexual health services, multiple approaches to improving patient flow and reducing waiting times were presented. The value of novel remote sexually transmitted infection testing was explored, with a description of the patient journey, emerging demographics and rates of testing uptake for the UK's leading National Health Service provider. A cost-benefit evaluation was made for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests versus traditional microscopy and culture for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis, with practical consideration of application to higher risk groups. Two speakers stressed the importance of vigilance against growing antimicrobial resistance. The significance of testing for genotypic markers for antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of point-of-care tests for resistance were also presented. The meeting closed with a first-hand account of tendering, and practical advice on rebuilding professional relationships and services after a competitive process.

  20. The Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M P; Lawless, M

    1984-12-01

    The Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study involves over 17 000 women who were recruited at 17 clinics in England and Scotland during the interval 1968-74 and have been followed up ever since. This paper describes the survey methods, the characteristics of the participants, the progress of the study, the main results and publications to date, and the proposals for future work. Although the study was originally mainly concerned with the benefits and risks of oral contraceptives it has, in fact, contributed to knowledge about a wide variety of birth control methods. The data on efficacy are of special value in that they cover all methods of contraception in common use and have been derived from a homogeneous and closely observed population. The mortality figures, while limited in extent, have supplemented the findings in the Royal College of General Practitioners study. Reports on morbidity from many different diseases have been published; these have documented both beneficial and harmful effects of various contraceptive methods. The study data on return of fertility after discontinuation of contraception are unique, while contributions have also been made to knowledge about outcome of pregnancy in those stopping contraception to have a planned baby or becoming accidentally pregnant while using a birth control method. The study, which is supported by the Medical Research Council, is currently funded until mid-1989.

  1. Some aspects of management and outcome of acute coronary heart disease in Oxford region.

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, R M; Sanderson, C

    1977-01-01

    (1) Over 15 months, 532 consecutive admissions to the CCU at the Radcliffe Oxford were studied; of these 333 were cases of myocardial infarction, and 319 were first admissions for this condition. Information about survival and return to work was collected for 300. A further 30 had artificial pacemakers inserted; there were 141 (26%) of the 532 cases which did not require the special care offered by the CCU. (2) Of 300 patients for whom data were available, 27 were recorded as having received DC shock. In hospital, case fatality was significantly higher among those requiring DC shock than among the remainder. Overall the 3-year survival rates were 47 per cent among those receiving shock, and 62 per cent among the remainder, compared with an expected 91 per cent for a population of the same age and sex. (3) Among men aged under 65 years, 6 of 11 who received shock, compared with 117 (77%) who did not receive shock, returned to work after leaving hospital. (4) Rates of admission to the CCU of cases of myocardial infarction per 1000 standardised population among people living in the areas around Oxford City were estimated as being 58 per cent of admission rates of cases among residents of the city. (5) The case incidence of ventricular fibrillation and the case fatality rate were both higher among those living in the environs than among those living in the city, but these differences were not statistically significant. (6) It is also concluded that insufficient is known about the factors underlying the general practitioner's decision to commit a case of myocardial infarction to other than short ambulance journeys or about the effects of such journeys on prognosis. PMID:831741

  2. Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering Held in Oxford, United Kingdom on 5-8 April 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-27

    f-M112 023 BIOTECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE: PROTEIN ENOINEERING HELD IN / OXFORD UNITE KINGDOM ON 5-9 APRIL IM?(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON ( ENGLAND ...Report 7-019-C N DTIC ELECTEK AUG 2 419W7f Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering 󈨛 University of Oxford, UK Claire E. Zomzely-Neurath 27 July... UNIT . ELEMENT NO. NO, NO CESSION NO.10 11. TITLE (biclude secuily Cclslation) Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering 󈨛, University of Oxford

  3. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L. Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach's α: 0.81-0.96), as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83-0.92). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ- 5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in a range of further conditions, and additional properties, such as responsiveness, will also be assessed in the next phase of the instrument's development.

  4. Delayed discharges from Oxford city hospitals: who and why?

    PubMed

    Carter, Nicholas D; Wade, Derick T

    2002-05-01

    To determine the extent and characteristics of discharge delays of younger patients from acute hospital beds in Oxford, England. Three-month prospective analysis of patients deemed to have delayed discharge. The primary measure was the number of days from the patient being no longer in need of acute medical inpatient care to eventual discharge. Additional assessments included demographic data, primary diagnosis, Motricity Index, Short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (SOMC), Barthel Index and contextual data. The major acute hospitals serving the county of Oxfordshire (560,000 people). Fifty patients aged 18-70 years identified by referrals, delayed discharge lists and ward visits whose discharge from hospital had been delayed. The mean (standard deviation, SD) delay period was 36.1 (26.8) days. The mean prevalence and incidence of discharge delays for each three-day period was 19.7 (SD 1.7) and one (SD 1.7) respectively. Most (88%, n = 44) had a primary neurological diagnosis. Twenty-four (48%) patients had Motricity Index scores of less than 50% in one or more limbs and 16 (32%) in two or more limbs. Twenty-six (52%) patients had cognitive impairment (SOMC <18/28). Thirty-nine (78%) patients had a Barthel Index score of less than 15/20 and 24 (48%) of less than 10/20. The period of discharge delay did not correlate with SOMC, Motricity or Barthel Index scores. Only nine had appropriate accommodation available. Patients whose discharge is delayed were common; most had a neurological disability and cognitive impairment; and accommodation was unsuitable or absent for most. Reorganizing services to give patients access to specialized disability services might both improve the care of these patients and increase the efficiency of the health service.

  5. Validation of the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines. Methods Questionnaire items generated from patient interviews and based on the nine chapters of the ICF were administered by postal survey to 386 people with three neurological conditions: motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Participants also completed the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EQ-5D-5L. Results Thus, 334 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 86.5%. Factor analysis techniques identified three Ox-PAQ domains, consisting of 23 items, accounting for 72.8% of variance. Internal reliability for the three domains was high (Cronbach’s α: 0.81–0.96), as was test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation: 0.83–0.92). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through highly significant relationships with relevant domains of the MOS SF-36 and the EQ- 5D-5L. Assessment of known-groups validity identified significant differences in Ox-PAQ scores among the three conditions included in the survey. Conclusion Results suggest that the Ox-PAQ is a valid and reliable measure of participation and activity. The measure will now be validated in a range of further conditions, and additional properties, such as responsiveness, will also be assessed in the next phase of the instrument’s development. PMID:27366108

  6. Faster sequential genetic linkage computations.

    PubMed Central

    Cottingham, R W; Idury, R M; Schäffer, A A

    1993-01-01

    Linkage analysis using maximum-likelihood estimation is a powerful tool for locating genes. As available data sets have grown, the computation required for analysis has grown exponentially and become a significant impediment. Others have previously shown that parallel computation is applicable to linkage analysis and can yield order-of-magnitude improvements in speed. In this paper, we demonstrate that algorithmic modifications can also yield order-of-magnitude improvements, and sometimes much more. Using the software package LINKAGE, we describe a variety of algorithmic improvements that we have implemented, demonstrating both how these techniques are applied and their power. Experiments show that these improvements speed up the programs by an order of magnitude, on problems of moderate and large size. All improvements were made only in the combinatorial part of the code, without restoring to parallel computers. These improvements synthesize biological principles with computer science techniques, to effectively restructure the time-consuming computations in genetic linkage analysis. PMID:8317490

  7. [The "Oxford" unicondylar knee prostesis (UCP): 21 reviewed cases].

    PubMed

    Kehr, P; Nonn, P; Graftiaux, A; Bogorin, I; Leculée, F; Lang, G

    1995-12-01

    The unicompartimental knee prosthesis known as "Oxford" is a non constraint prosthesis, entrusting the whole of its stability to an intact ligamentary apparatus. Where the support surfaces of most prostheses remain limited, even punctiform, the originality of the Goodfellow prosthesis lies in the fact that the prosthetic condyle, whatever the flexion angle is, leans against a mobile prosthetic meniscus with spheric superior concavity of the same radius as the condylian radius, which increases considerably the prosthetic leaning surfaces and therefore lessens the pressure constraints. The superior surface, concave, of this prosthetic meniscus takes charge of the rolling, where the inferior plane surface realizes the gliding on the metallic tibial plate. The total conformity of the components minimizes the forces of friction.Between July 1988 and March 1993, 24 patients underwent the placing of UCP. Three patients died and 2 were lost of sight. 19 patients could be seen again or checked, corresponding of 21 operated knees. Two knees benefited from the start from UCP (medial and lateral) and 2 knees had a UCP in the first instance and then a second UCP in the compartment left safe primarily. For the 21 UCP, there are 16 medial and 3 lateral. Our mean drawback is of 3 years and 3 months, all the drawbacks being superior to 1 year and 4 months. The mean age is of 64 years. There were 17 female and 2 male patients. The mean weight is of nearly 80 kg (79,8) and nearly 52% of the operated patients have an important overweight (Body Mass Index superior to 30). Preoperative clinical analysis. It is based on a retrospective study of files using the quotation described by AUBRIOT for the «GUEPAR» group. This one establishes a gradation of four levels for each of the three criteria retained (Pain, Mobility, Instability), thus determining a global result imposed by the lowest level retained.For walking, other factors than just the state of the operated knee may intervene, this

  8. The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Morley, David; Dummett, Sarah; Kelly, Laura; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Jenkinson, Crispin

    2014-01-01

    Background With an ageing population and increasing demands on health and social care services, there is growing importance attached to the management of long-term conditions, including maximizing the cost-effectiveness of treatments. In line with this, there is increasing emphasis on the need to keep people both active and participating in daily life. Consequently, it is essential that well developed and validated instruments that can meaningfully assess levels of participation and activity are widely available. Current measures, however, are largely focused on disability and rehabilitation, and there is no measure of activity or participation for generic use that fully meets the standards set by regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration. Here we detail a protocol for the development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessment of participation and activity in people experiencing a variety of health conditions, ie, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ). The stages incorporated in its development are entirely in line with current regulations and represent best practice in the development of PROMs. Methods Development of the Ox-PAQ is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The project incorporates a new strategy of engaging with stakeholders from the outset in an attempt to identify those characteristics of PROMs considered most important to a range of potential users. Items will be generated through interviews with patients from a range of conditions. Pretesting of the instrument will be via cognitive interviews and focus groups. A postal survey will be conducted, with data subject to factor and Rasch analysis in order to identify appropriate dimensions and redundant items. Reliability will be assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations. A second, large-scale postal survey will follow

  9. Lessons of Cross-National Comparison in Education. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David, Ed.

    The papers which make up this volume were for the most part presented at a program of seminars given in Oxford, England, in the autumn of 1990. The seminars represented the first activity of the new Centre for Comparative Studies in Education installed at the Department of Educational Studies of the University of Oxford in January 1990. The…

  10. Comparison between Oxford Cobbmeter and digital Cobbmeter for measurement of Cobb angle in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Allam, Yasser; El-Fiky, Tarek; Farghally, Mahmoud Yasser; Al-Sabagh, Sameh; Siam, Ahmed Ezzat

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Cobb angle measurements performed using an Oxford Cobbmeter and digital Cobbmeter in a series of 20 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Four observers measured major Cobb angles on 20 standing postero-anterior radiographs of AIS patients with both Oxford Cobbmeter and digital Cobbmeter (iPhone Cobbmeter Application). The measurements were repeated a week after the original measurements. The mean Cobb angle in this study was 43.6° ± 23.62°. The mean measurement time for an observer to measure the 20 Cobb angles was 24.9 min for the smart phone compared with 25.6 min for the Oxford Cobbmeter. The 95 % confidence interval for differences between smart phone and Oxford Cobbmeter measurements on the same radiograph was ±3.68°. The intra-observer variability of the smart phone is equivalent to the Oxford Cobbmeter. The 95 % confidence intervals for inter-observer error were ±5° and ±5.8° for the smart phone and Oxford Cobbmeter, respectively. We conclude that the smart phone with integrated Tiltmeter and Cobbmeter application is an equivalent Cobb measurement tool to the Oxford Cobbmeter. The advantages of smart phone are the accuracy of determining the most inclined vertebrae and accordingly more precise Cobb angle measurement. The new smart phones with these integrated applications may be really helpful to the spine surgeons, especially in hospitals where PACS or Oxford Cobbmeter is not available.

  11. The prescribing physicians and sick scholars of Oxford: Jeremiah Webbe's apothecarial notebook, 1653-54.

    PubMed

    Churchill, W D; Alsop, J D

    2001-12-01

    The prescription book of Jeremaih Webbe, apothecary, illuminates the medical practices of a number of Oxford physicians, including those of Thomas Willis, Francis Barkesdale, and William Conyers. It provides an indication of the nature of the illness present in Oxford, especially among the students of the University, in the years 1653 and 1654.

  12. An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Majer, John M; Beers, Kim; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model's total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents' response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK.

  13. An Examination of the First Oxford House in the UK: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Majer, John M.; Beers, Kim; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model’s total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents’ response to Oxford House living. Findings suggest that the Oxford House model is a post-treatment intervention that meets the needs of individuals seeking an abstinence-based recovery from alcohol and/or drug dependence in the UK. PMID:25368450

  14. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids was studied. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins.

  15. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids has been studied further. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins

  16. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom. Participants 47 033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15 459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; P<0.001 trend) compared with those in the lowest fifth (<14 g/day for both women and men). After mutual adjustment, both a vegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease. Conclusions Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease. PMID:21771850

  17. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2011-07-19

    To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Prospective cohort study. The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recruited from around the United Kingdom. 47,033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15,459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was estimated from a 130 item validated food frequency questionnaire. Cases of diverticular disease were identified through linkage with hospital records and death certificates. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of diverticular disease by diet group and fifths of intake of dietary fibre were estimated with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, there were 812 cases of diverticular disease (806 admissions to hospital and six deaths). After adjustment for confounding variables, vegetarians had a 31% lower risk (relative risk 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.86) of diverticular disease compared with meat eaters. The cumulative probability of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease between the ages of 50 and 70 for meat eaters was 4.4% compared with 3.0% for vegetarians. There was also an inverse association with dietary fibre intake; participants in the highest fifth (≥25.5 g/day for women and ≥26.1 g/day for men) had a 41% lower risk (0.59, 0.46 to 0.78; P<0.001 trend) compared with those in the lowest fifth (<14 g/day for both women and men). After mutual adjustment, both a vegetarian diet and a higher intake of fibre were significantly associated with a lower risk of diverticular disease. Consuming a vegetarian diet and a high intake of dietary fibre were both associated with a lower risk of admission to hospital or death from diverticular disease.

  18. Five-year clinical and radiological outcomes in 257 consecutive cementless Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Blaney, J; Harty, H; Doran, E; O'Brien, S; Hill, J; Dobie, I; Beverland, D

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the clinical and radiographic outcomes in 257 consecutive Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (OUKAs) (238 patients), five years post-operatively. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken of patients treated between April 2008 and October 2010 in a regional centre by two non-designing surgeons with no previous experience of UKAs. The Oxford Knee Scores (OKSs) were recorded and fluoroscopically aligned radiographs were assessed post-operatively at one and five years. The median age of the 238 patients was 65.0 years (interquartile range (IQR) 59.0 to 73.0), the median body mas index was 30.0 (IQR 27.5 to 33.0) and 51.7% were male. There were no intra-operative complications. There was a significant improvement in the median OKS at six weeks (34, IQR 31.0 to 37.0), one year (38, IQR 29.0 to 43.0) and five years (37, IQR 27.0 to 42.0) when compared with the pre-operative scores (16, IQR 13.0 to 19.0) (all p = < 0.01). No patient had progressive radiolucent lines or loosening. A total of 16 patients had died by five years. The cumulative survival at five years was 98.8% and the mean survival time was 5.8 years (95% confidence interval 5.6 to 5.9). A total of seven OUKAs (2.7%) were revised; three within five years and four thereafter, between 5.1 and 5.7 years post-operatively. Five (1.9%) had re-operations within five years. The proportion of patients requiring revision at five years is lower than that generally reported for UKA. These findings add support for the use of the cementless OUKA outside the design centre. Longer follow-up is required. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:623-31. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. Linkage analysis without defined pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Day-Williams, Aaron G; Blangero, John; Dyer, Thomas D; Lange, Kenneth; Sobel, Eric M

    2011-07-01

    The need to collect accurate and complete pedigree information has been a drawback of family-based linkage and association studies. Even in case-control studies, investigators should be aware of, and condition on, familial relationships. In single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome scans, relatedness can be directly inferred from the genetic data rather than determined through interviews. Various methods of estimating relatedness have previously been implemented, most notably in PLINK. We present new fast and accurate algorithms for estimating global and local kinship coefficients from dense SNP genotypes. These algorithms require only a single pass through the SNP genotype data. We also show that these estimates can be used to cluster individuals into pedigrees. With these estimates in hand, quantitative trait locus linkage analysis proceeds via traditional variance components methods without any prior relationship information. We demonstrate the success of our algorithms on simulated and real data sets. Our procedures make linkage analysis as easy as a typical genomewide association study.

  20. Data linkage infrastructure for cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Centre for Data Linkage (CDL) has been established to enable national and cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia. It has been funded through the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), a national initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). This paper describes the development of the processes and methodology required to create cross-jurisdictional research infrastructure and enable aggregation of State and Territory linkages into a single linkage “map”. Methods The CDL has implemented a linkage model which incorporates best practice in data linkage and adheres to data integration principles set down by the Australian Government. Working closely with data custodians and State-based data linkage facilities, the CDL has designed and implemented a linkage system to enable research at national or cross-jurisdictional level. A secure operational environment has also been established with strong governance arrangements to maximise privacy and the confidentiality of data. Results The development and implementation of a cross-jurisdictional linkage model overcomes a number of challenges associated with the federated nature of health data collections in Australia. The infrastructure expands Australia’s data linkage capability and provides opportunities for population-level research. The CDL linkage model, infrastructure architecture and governance arrangements are presented. The quality and capability of the new infrastructure is demonstrated through the conduct of data linkage for the first PHRN Proof of Concept Collaboration project, where more than 25 million records were successfully linked to a very high quality. Conclusions This infrastructure provides researchers and policy-makers with the ability to undertake linkage-based research that extends across jurisdictional boundaries. It represents an advance in Australia’s national data linkage capabilities and sets the scene

  1. Data linkage infrastructure for cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, James H; Ferrante, Anna M; O'Keefe, Christine M; Bass, Alfred J; Randall, Sean M; Semmens, James B

    2012-12-29

    The Centre for Data Linkage (CDL) has been established to enable national and cross-jurisdictional health-related research in Australia. It has been funded through the Population Health Research Network (PHRN), a national initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). This paper describes the development of the processes and methodology required to create cross-jurisdictional research infrastructure and enable aggregation of State and Territory linkages into a single linkage "map". The CDL has implemented a linkage model which incorporates best practice in data linkage and adheres to data integration principles set down by the Australian Government. Working closely with data custodians and State-based data linkage facilities, the CDL has designed and implemented a linkage system to enable research at national or cross-jurisdictional level. A secure operational environment has also been established with strong governance arrangements to maximise privacy and the confidentiality of data. The development and implementation of a cross-jurisdictional linkage model overcomes a number of challenges associated with the federated nature of health data collections in Australia. The infrastructure expands Australia's data linkage capability and provides opportunities for population-level research. The CDL linkage model, infrastructure architecture and governance arrangements are presented. The quality and capability of the new infrastructure is demonstrated through the conduct of data linkage for the first PHRN Proof of Concept Collaboration project, where more than 25 million records were successfully linked to a very high quality. This infrastructure provides researchers and policy-makers with the ability to undertake linkage-based research that extends across jurisdictional boundaries. It represents an advance in Australia's national data linkage capabilities and sets the scene for stronger government-research collaboration.

  2. [Influence of tibial component slope on short-term clinical outcome for Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Ma, L Y; Guo, W S; Zhang, Q D

    2017-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of tibial component slope change after microplasty (MP) Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) on short-term clinical outcome. Methods: A total of 116 patients(128 UKAs)underwent UKA in Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of China-Japan Friendship Hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Totally 100 patients (108 UKAs) were finally included in the study. There were 31 males and 69 females, aging from 47 to 90 years (mean 67.2 years). The mean height was (161.9±8.4) cm and the mean body mass index (BMI) was (26.2±3.3) kg/m(2). The posterior tibial slope (PTS) at preoperative and postoperative were measured on the lateral radiograph. The postoperative PTS were divided into five groups (<3°, 3° to 5°, 5° to 7°, 7° to 9° and>9°). The Oxford Knee Score (OKS) was recorded. Pearson correlation analysis, ANOVA and t test were used to analyze data. Results: All operations were successfully accomplished and there were no transfusion, infection, thrombus and other complications. There was 1 patient accepted revision because of bearing dislocation. Compared to preoperative, the PTS decreased (6.5°±2.2° vs.9.6°±3.4°) postoperative, there was statistical difference (t=9.053, P<0.01). Only 3 patients were beyond the recommended range (2° to 12°). A total of 82 patients (86 UKAs) were followed up. The follow-up time was 1 to 2.9 years (mean 2 years). The OKS was 43.0±4.1 (mean 31 to 48). The PTS increased in 12 patients (12 UKAs) postoperative, the mean OKS was 40.5±5.2. The PTS decreased in 70 patients (74 UKAs), the mean OKS was 43.4±3.8. There were significant difference in OKS (t=2.347, P=0.021). There were no significant difference in OKS between the five groups. There were positive correlation between postoperative PTS and preoperative PTS (r=0.201, 95%CI: 0.001 to 0.396, P=0.037), there were no correlations between postoperative PTS and hight and BMI. There were negative

  3. The influence of different sets of surgical instrumentation in Oxford UKA on bearing size and component position.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tilman; Heinemann, Pascal; Bruckner, Thomas; Streit, Marcus R; Kinkel, Stefan; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (OUKA) has been proven to be an effective treatment for anteromedial osteoarthritis of the knee joint. New instrumentation has been introduced to improve the reproducibility of implant positioning and to minimize bone loss during tibial resection (Oxford Microplasty; Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana, USA). To assess the effect of the new instrumentation, we retrospectively evaluated the postoperative radiographs and surgical records of 300 OUKAs in three consecutive cohorts of patients. The first cohort consists of the first 100 minimal invasive implantations of the OUKA using the conventional phase III instrumentation, the second cohort consists of the 100 most recent minimal invasive OUKA with the conventional phase III instrumentation and the third cohort consists of the first 100 minimal invasive OUKA using the new Oxford Microplasty instrumentation. Mean bearing thickness was statistically significant and lower in OUKA with use of the updated instrumentation than with the conventional instrumentation (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04). Additionally, statistically significant and more femoral components were aligned within the accepted range of tolerance in both the coronal and the sagittal plane with use of the updated instrumentation compared to the conventional phase III instrumentation in group A (p = 0.029 and p = 0.038) and in the sagittal plane with use of the updated instrumentation compared to the conventional phase III instrumentation in group B (p = 0.002). The new modified instrumentation seems to be an effective tool to reduce the risk of malalignment of the femoral component in the coronal and in the sagittal plane compared to the conventional phase III instrumentation. Furthermore, the instrumentation is also effective in determining an adequate level of tibial resection and thus avoiding unnecessary bone loss.

  4. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine W.; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.

    2013-09-01

    We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-scale paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115-15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one core locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age-depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular core sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice cores: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2-5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of 'Dansgaard-Oeschger' climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.

  5. Increased rate of day surgery use for inguinal and femoral hernia repair in a decade of hospital admissions in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy): a record linkage study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide, there has been a marked increase in the number of inguinal and femoral hernia repairs performed as day surgery procedures. This study aimed to outline the epidemiology of the procedures for repairing unilateral inguinal and femoral hernia in the Veneto Region, and to analyze the time trends and organizational appropriateness of these procedures. Methods Drawing from the anonymous computerized database of hospital discharge records for the Veneto Region, we identified all unilateral groin hernia repair procedures completed in Veneto residents between 2000 and 2009 at both public and accredited private hospitals. Results A total 141,329 hernias were repaired in the Veneto Region during the decade considered, with an annual rate of 291.2 per 100,000 population for inguinal hernia (IH) repairs and 11.2 per 100,000 population for femoral hernia (FH) repairs. Day surgery was used more for inguinal than for femoral hernia repairs, accounting for 76% and 43% (p< 0.05), respectively, of all hernia repair procedures completed during the period. The % of other than surgery hospital ordinary admissions (day surgery or ambulatory surgery) during the decade considered rose from 61.7% to 86.7% for IH and from 33.0% to 61.8% for FH. Conclusions In the last decade, the Veneto Region has reduced the rate of ordinary hospital admissions for groin hernia repair with a view to improving the efficiency of the hospital network. PMID:24028397

  6. Increased rate of day surgery use for inguinal and femoral hernia repair in a decade of hospital admissions in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy): a record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Saia, Mario; Mantoan, Domenico; Buja, Alessandra; Bertoncello, Chiara; Baldovin, Tatjana; Zanardo, Chiara; Callegaro, Giampietro; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2013-09-12

    Worldwide, there has been a marked increase in the number of inguinal and femoral hernia repairs performed as day surgery procedures. This study aimed to outline the epidemiology of the procedures for repairing unilateral inguinal and femoral hernia in the Veneto Region, and to analyze the time trends and organizational appropriateness of these procedures. Drawing from the anonymous computerized database of hospital discharge records for the Veneto Region, we identified all unilateral groin hernia repair procedures completed in Veneto residents between 2000 and 2009 at both public and accredited private hospitals. A total 141,329 hernias were repaired in the Veneto Region during the decade considered, with an annual rate of 291.2 per 100,000 population for inguinal hernia (IH) repairs and 11.2 per 100,000 population for femoral hernia (FH) repairs. Day surgery was used more for inguinal than for femoral hernia repairs, accounting for 76% and 43% (p< 0.05), respectively, of all hernia repair procedures completed during the period. The % of other than surgery hospital ordinary admissions (day surgery or ambulatory surgery) during the decade considered rose from 61.7% to 86.7% for IH and from 33.0% to 61.8% for FH. In the last decade, the Veneto Region has reduced the rate of ordinary hospital admissions for groin hernia repair with a view to improving the efficiency of the hospital network.

  7. What are the effects of having an illness or injury whilst deployed on post deployment mental health? A population based record linkage study of UK Army personnel who have served in Iraq or Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The negative impact of sustaining an injury on a military deployment on subsequent mental health is well-documented, however, the relationship between having an illness on a military operation and subsequent mental health is unknown. Methods Population based study, linking routinely collected data of attendances at emergency departments in military hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan [Operational Emergency Department Attendance Register (OpEDAR)], with data on 3896 UK Army personnel who participated in a military health study between 2007 and 2009 and deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan between 2003 to 2009. Results In total, 13.8% (531/3896) of participants had an event recorded on OpEDAR during deployment; 2.3% (89/3884) were medically evacuated. As expected, those medically evacuated for an injury were at increased risk of post deployment probable PTSD (odds ratio 4.27, 95% confidence interval 1.80-10.12). Less expected was that being medically evacuated for an illness was also associated with a similarly increased risk of probable PTSD (4.39, 1.60-12.07) and common mental disorders (2.79, 1.41-5.51). There was no association between having an OpEDAR event and alcohol misuse. Having an injury caused by hostile action was associated with increased risk of probable PTSD compared to those with a non-hostile injury (3.88, 1.15 to 13.06). Conclusions Personnel sustaining illnesses on deployment are just as, if not more, at risk of having subsequent mental health problems as personnel who have sustained an injury. Monitoring of mental health problems should consider those with illnesses as well as physical injuries. PMID:23095133

  8. METHODOLOGICAL PLURALISM AND MIXED METHODOLOGY TO STRENGTHEN COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH: AN EXAMPLE FROM OXFORD HOUSE.

    PubMed

    May, Emily M; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    This article evaluates how a plurality of research methods has served a research program that has functioned in a much-needed area of research: the role of housing and recovery residences in addiction recovery. The review focuses on one mutually supportive recovery residence model, called Oxford House, which represents more than 1,700 democratic, self-governing residences. To date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the research methods used with Oxford House or any other recovery residence. In this article, research methods, including study designs and data analyses, are summarized for 114 peer-reviewed empirical studies that included data on Oxford Houses or Oxford House residents. This review of a pluralistic research program can inform community researchers about the value of recovery residences, the many ways in which recovery residences may be assessed, and the benefits of using multiple methods. Implications for future recovery residence research are discussed.

  9. Education: Linkages with Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouser, Rodney L.

    A review of the literature of research in education and economics revealed very limited linkages between education (human capital) and economic development. Much of the economic development research has been carried out in developing nations and is case-study based. Many case studies concentrate on identifying factors that influence location or…

  10. Dubin's Minimal Linkage Construct Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Donald P.

    This paper contains a theoretical analysis and empirical study that support the major premise of Robert Dubin's minimal-linkage construct-that restricting communication links increases organizational stability. The theoretical analysis shows that fewer communication links are associated with less uncertainty, more redundancy, and greater…

  11. Prediction of contralateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis using the modified Oxford bone age score.

    PubMed

    Popejoy, Debra; Emara, Khaled; Birch, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the modified Oxford bone score can be used as a predictor for the risk of developing contralateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in children who present with a unilateral slip. We identified 260 patients treated for unilateral SCFE between 1980 and 2002 and followed them up to skeletal maturity or until development of contralateral slip. Exclusion criteria included patients with endocrine or metabolic disorder, Down syndrome, and those with radiographs inadequate to determine the modified Oxford bone score. The initial radiographs were given a score ranging from 16 to 26. Statistical analysis was used to determine whether the modified Oxford bone score was predictive of future development of contralateral slip. A linear regression model was used to estimate the probability of future development of a contralateral slip as related to the modified Oxford bone score. Of the 260 patients, 64 (24%) developed a contralateral slip, at an average of 10 months after initial presentation. Race, sex, age, and weight at initial presentation were not predictive of the development of contralateral slip. The modified Oxford score and a triradiate score of 1 were found to be significant (P<0.0001) predictors, with the modified Oxford score a better overall predictor. The modified Oxford bone age score is the best predictor of the risk of development of a contralateral SCFE in patients presenting with a unilateral slip. Controversy exists regarding prophylactic pinning of a normal hip in patients presenting with unilateral SCFE. The benefits of prophylactic pinning must outweigh risk. This study provides probability data for predicting a contralateral slip based on the modified Oxford bone maturity score that can be shared with families and allows physicians to decide their threshold for prophylactically pinning the contralateral hip in patients presenting with a unilateral slip. Therapeutic level IV, Case series.

  12. Oxford NOTECHS II: a modified theatre team non-technical skills scoring system.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Eleanor R; Hadi, Mohammed; Morgan, Lauren J; Pickering, Sharon P; Collins, Gary; New, Steve; Griffin, Damian; Griffin, Damien; McCulloch, Peter; Catchpole, Ken C

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed and validated the Oxford NOTECHS rating system for evaluating the non-technical skills of an entire operating theatre team. Experience with the scale identified the need for greater discrimination between levels of performance within the normal range. We report here the development of a modified scale (Oxford NOTECHS II) to facilitate this. The new measure uses an eight-point instead of a four point scale to measure each dimension of non-technical skills, and begins with a default rating of 6 for each element. We evaluated this new scale in 297 operations at five NHS sites in four surgical specialities. Measures of theatre process reliability (glitch count) and compliance with the WHO surgical safety checklist were scored contemporaneously, and relationships with NOTECHS II scores explored. Mean team Oxford NOTECHS II scores was 73.39 (range 37-92). The means for surgical, anaesthetic and nursing sub-teams were 24.61 (IQR 23, 27); 24.22 (IQR 23, 26) and 24.55 (IQR 23, 26). Oxford NOTECHS II showed good inter-rater reliability between human factors and clinical observers in each of the four domains. Teams with high WHO compliance had higher mean Oxford NOTECHS II scores (74.5) than those with low compliance (71.1) (p = 0.010). We observed only a weak correlation between Oxford NOTECHS II scores and glitch count; r = -0.26 (95% CI -0.36 to -0.15). Oxford NOTECHS II scores did not vary significantly between 5 different hospital sites, but a significant difference was seen between specialities (p = 0.001). Oxford NOTECHS II provides good discrimination between teams while retaining reliability and correlation with other measures of teamwork performance, and is not confounded by technical performance. It is therefore suitable for combined use with a technical performance scale to provide a global description of operating theatre team performance.

  13. Clinical usefulness of the Oxford classification in determining immunosuppressive treatment in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang-Yun; Chang, Tae Ik; Kang, Ea Wha; Lim, Beom Jin; Kie, Jeong Hae; Kee, Youn Kyung; Kim, Hyoungnae; Park, Seohyun; Yun, Hae-Ryong; Jung, Su-Young; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Kwon, Young Eun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2017-05-01

    The Oxford classification has been widely used in IgA nephropathy. However, its clinical usefulness of determining immunosuppression is unknown. Whether the Oxford classification could predict the development of proteinuria ≥1 g/g Cr and worsening kidney function, as well as the clinical efficacy of corticosteroid treatment according to each histologic variable of the Oxford-MEST. We included 377 patients with early-stage IgA nephropathy. The study endpoints were the development of a heavy proteinuria and a decline renal function. The results showed that among the Oxford-MEST lesions, only M1 predicted the risk of the development of proteinuria ≥1.0 g/g Cr compared to other lesions in a time-varying Cox model adjusted for multiple confounding factors. In addition, the risk of reaching a 30% decline in eGFR was significantly higher in patients with M1 than in those with M0. Furthermore, patients with M1 had a greater decline of eGFR than patients with M0. However, steroid treatment in M1 lesion was not associated with improving clinical outcomes in the unmatched and propensity score matched cohort. This finding may provide a rationale for using the Oxford classification as a guidance to initiate immunosuppression in the early stages of IgA nephropathy. KEY MESSAGES M1 has independently predictive role among the Oxford lesions in IgA nephropathy. Oxford classification should be defined during pathologic approach. Decision of starting immunosuppression according to the Oxford lesions.

  14. The Oxford electron-beam ion trap: A device for spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, J. D.; Varney, A. J.; Margolis, H. S.; Baird, P. E. G.; Grant, I. P.; Groves, P. D.; Hallett, W. A.; Handford, A. T.; Hirst, P. J.; Holmes, A. R.; Howie, D. J. H.; Hunt, R. A.; Nobbs, K. A.; Roberts, M.; Studholme, W.; Wark, J. S.; Williams, M. T.; Levine, M. A.; Dietrich, D. D.; Graham, W. G.; Williams, I. D.; O'Neil, R.; Rose, S. J.

    1994-04-01

    An electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) has just been completed in the Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford. The design is similar to the devices installed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It is intended that the Oxford EBIT will be used for x-ray and UV spectroscopy of hydrogenic and helium-like ions, laser resonance spectroscopy of hydrogenic ions and measurements of dielectronic recombination cross sections, in order to test current understanding of simple highly charged ions.

  15. Validation of Oxford Classification of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy: an Iranian Experience.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Hendi, Alireza; Asgari, Mojgan; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Parvin, Mahmoud; Filip, Irina; Radfar, Amir; Babaheidarian, Pegah

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Oxford classification of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy was proposed by the working group of the International IgA Nephropathy Network and Renal Pathology Society. It established specific pathologic features that predict the risk of progression of disease. This study aimed to evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy between Iranian nephropathologists. We included 100 patients with primary IgA nephropathy diagnosed between 2001 and 2011. Histologic slides were circulated among 4 pathologists. A score sheet was answered by each individual pathologist for each biopsy, according to the instruction of the Oxford classification. Reproducibility was determined for each variable, using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICC values calculated for each major category of the Oxford classification were as follows: the highest score of 0.94 for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis; 0.8 for glomerular basement membrane duplication, extracapillary proliferation, and segmental endocapillary proliferation; and 0.1 to 0.3 for arterial lesions, especially for hyalinosis of arterioles and intimal thickening of arcuate vessels and interlobar arteries. The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy is a useful tool and evidenced-based method with high interobserver reproducibility in pathology reporting. Our data suggest that Oxford classification may be used as a model for classification of other renal pathologies in the future.

  16. Mid-term results of Oxford Phase 3 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Cepni, Serdar Kamil; Arslan, Armağan; Polat, Halil; Yalçin, Atilla; Parmaksizoğlu, Atilla Sancar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term outcomes of Oxford Phase 3 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in obese patients in terms of prosthesis survival, progression of lateral compartment arthrosis and functional outcomes. The study included 67 patients, with a body mass index over 30, treated with mobile bearing Oxford Phase 3 UKA for isolated medial osteoarthritis between January 2005 and December 2010. Preoperative and postoperative knee range of motion (ROM) and knee scores (Hospital for Special Surgery, HSS and Oxford knee scores) were compared. Additionally, prostheses were evaluated using Oxford radiographic evaluation criteria at the final follow-up. Mean age was 61 years and mean follow-up was 67.5 months. Insert dislocation occurred in 3 patients (4.5%). Postoperative knee ROM, HSS and Oxford knee scores were significantly improved (p<0.05). There was no sign of prosthesis failure or lateral compartment arthrosis in radiographic evaluation at the final follow-up. Oxford Phase 3 UKA with mobile bearing has good mid-term results in obese patients over 60 years of age.

  17. 76 FR 2713 - Croscill Acquisition, LLC, Currently Known as Croscill Home, LLC, Plant No. 8, Oxford, NC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ..., Plant No. 8, Oxford, NC; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Fashions, a subsidiary of Croscill, Inc., Plant No. 8, Oxford, North Carolina. The notice was published in... Acquisition, LLC, currently known as Croscill Home, LLC, Plant No. 8, Oxford, North Carolina, engaged in...

  18. Methodology used for "software for automated linkage in Italy" (SALI).

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, L; Braga, C; Franceschi, S

    2001-12-01

    Linkage of epidemiological registries can provide cost-effective information on the associations between different diseases or exposures in the population under study and on completeness of surveillance system databases. We describe the program SALI (software for automated linkage in Italy) aimed at matching individual records from medium-sized registries (in the order of 100,000 records), where the desired outcome is to miss as few links as possible and, because of low link-likelihood (< 1%), a manual revision of matched pairs is feasible. SALI, developed in CA-Clipper language, uses registry files in dBase format. It requires only name, surname, and date of birth as key fields, and it allows for spelling errors in Italian or other Latin languages through a specific algorithm. Furthermore, a double-blind procedure ensures data confidentiality. The main linkage procedure is based on four stages, two automatic ones, and two where the operator can decide through specific windows whether to accept stage-selected matches. SALI takes into account possible errors in key fields thus reducing false negatives. It was used to solve the problem of linkage between AIDS and cancer registries in Italy. It can be used with every IBM-compatible computer system, assuring uniquely high portability.

  19. Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Travis, Ruth C

    2003-09-01

    Three prospective studies have examined the mortality of vegetarians in Britain. We describe these 3 studies and present preliminary results on mortality from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford (EPIC-Oxford). The Health Food Shoppers Study and the Oxford Vegetarian Study were established in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively; each included about 11 000 subjects and used a short questionnaire on diet and lifestyle. EPIC-Oxford was established in the 1990s and includes about 56 000 subjects who completed detailed food frequency questionnaires. Mortality in all 3 studies was followed though the National Health Service Central Register. Overall, the death rates of all the subjects in all 3 studies are much lower than average for the United Kingdom. Standardized mortality ratios (95% CIs) for all subjects were 59% (57%, 61%) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 52% (49%, 56%) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 39% (37%, 42%) in EPIC-Oxford. Comparing vegetarians with nonvegetarians within each cohort, the death rate ratios (DRRs), adjusted for age, sex and smoking, were 1.03 (0.95, 1.13) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 1.01 (0.89, 1.14) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 1.05 (0.86, 1.27) in EPIC-Oxford. DRRs for ischemic heart disease in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians were 0.85 (0.71, 1.01) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 0.86 (0.67, 1.12) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 0.75 (0.41, 1.37) in EPIC-Oxford. The mortality of both the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians in these studies is low compared with national rates. Within the studies, mortality for major causes of death was not significantly different between vegetarians and nonvegetarians, but the nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was compatible with the significant reduction previously reported in a pooled analysis of mortality in Western vegetarians.

  20. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  1. Antecedents of neonatal encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Karin B; Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Kenny, Michael J; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥ 36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤ 3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥ 37.5 °C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained.

  2. A Yankee at Oxford: John William Draper at the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford, 30 June 1860

    PubMed Central

    Ungureanu, James C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the revisionist historiography on the legendary encounter between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at the 1860 meeting in Oxford of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It discusses the contents of a series of letters written by John William Draper and his family reflecting on his experience at that meeting. The letters have recently been rediscovered and have been neither published nor examined at full length. After a preliminary discussion on the historiography of the Oxford debate, the paper discloses the contents of the letters and then assesses them in the light of other contemporary accounts. The letters offer a nuanced reinterpretation of the event that supports the growing move towards a revisionist account. PMID:27386714

  3. A YANKEE AT OXFORD: JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AT OXFORD, 30 JUNE 1860.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, James C

    2016-06-20

    This paper contributes to the revisionist historiography on the legendary encounter between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at the 1860 meeting in Oxford of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It discusses the contents of a series of letters written by John William Draper and his family reflecting on his experience at that meeting. The letters have recently been rediscovered and have been neither published nor examined at full length. After a preliminary discussion on the historiography of the Oxford debate, the paper discloses the contents of the letters and then assesses them in the light of other contemporary accounts. The letters offer a nuanced reinterpretation of the event that supports the growing move towards a revisionist account.

  4. Cementless versus cemented Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: early results of a non-designer user group.

    PubMed

    Kerens, B; Schotanus, M G M; Boonen, B; Boog, P; Emans, P J; Lacroix, H; Kort, N P

    2017-03-01

    Although fewer tibial radiolucent lines are observed in cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) compared with cemented Oxford UKA, an independent comparative study on this topic is lacking. In this multicentre retrospective study, a cohort of 60 consecutive cases of cementless Oxford UKA is compared with a cohort of 60 consecutive cases of cemented Oxford UKA. Radiolucent lines, survival, perioperative data and clinical results were compared. No complete tibial radiolucent lines were observed in either group. Seventeen per cent of partial tibial radiolucent lines were observed in the cementless group versus 21 % in the cemented group (n.s.). The percentage of tibial radiolucent zones was 4 versus 9 %, respectively (p = 0.036). Survival rates were 90 % at 34 months for the cementless group and 84 % at 54 months for the cemented group (n.s.). Mean operation time was 10 min shorter in the cementless group (p < 0.001), and clinical results were not significantly different. Although no significant differences in radiolucent lines were found between both groups, they appear to be more common in the cemented group. This confirms previous results from reports by prosthesis designers. The presence of radiolucent lines after cemented Oxford UKA does not correlate with clinical outcome or survival. III.

  5. The Oxford medial unicompartmental knee replacement: survival and the affect of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Gulraj; Robb, Curtis; Baloch, Khalid; Pynsent, Paul

    2012-12-01

    To determine the survival and functional outcome for the phase 3 Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) performed at a single independent centre and to assess whether age and gender affect survival. Between 2000 and 2008, 459 consecutive Oxford UKRs were implanted in 392 patients using a minimally invasive technique. Mean age of patients was 63.0 years and 53% were female. Mean follow-up was 4.4 years (range 0.5-11.2 years). No patient was lost to follow-up and 411 (90%) knees had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Twenty knees (4.4%) have undergone revision to total knee replacement at a mean time of 3.2 years. Aseptic component loosening (n=11) accounted for most failures. Cumulative survival was 94.4% at 5 years (95% confidence interval 90.9-97.0) and 93.0% at 8 years (95% confidence interval 84.8-96.2). The median postoperative Oxford knee score was 31.2% (interquartile range 12.2%-52.1%) at latest follow-up. Age and gender had no statistically significant affect on UKR survival. This large independent series demonstrates good medium-term survival and functional outcome can be achieved with the phase 3 Oxford UKR in appropriately selected patients. Age and gender should not be considered contraindications for performing Oxford UKR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Revision of medial Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement to a total knee replacement: similar to a primary?

    PubMed

    Wynn Jones, Henry; Chan, Warwick; Harrison, Timothy; Smith, Toby O; Masonda, Patrick; Walton, Neil P

    2012-08-01

    Unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is an option for the treatment of isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis. A commonly perceived potential advantage is that revision of a UKR is straightforward. The purpose of this study was to determine the early outcomes and the level of complexity of revisions of Oxford UKRs performed at our hospital. A retrospective review of a prospective database of all phase III Oxford UKRs was undertaken. This identified 89 Oxford UKRs which were revised at our institution between 2002 and 2008. The median time from the primary procedure to revision was 19 months (interquartile range 2-73 months). Nine were revised to another UKR. Eighty were revised to a total knee replacement (TKR). Fifty-three were revised with primary TKR components. Twenty-seven were revised using stems and/or augments. The median overall tibial component thickness (including augments) was 15 mm. Forty-five knees had an overall tibial component thickness greater than 15 mm. A primary Oxford UKR bearing thickness of greater than 6mm was associated with an increased likelihood of requiring revision components. On the basis of this review, tibial bone defects were commonly encountered when revising UKRs. Reconstruction with either an augment and a stem, or thick polyethylene component was often required. We recommend that the potential complexity of revision for UKR failure should be borne in mind when considering a primary Oxford UKR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physics in Oxford, 1839-1939 - Laboratories, Learning, and College Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Robert; Gooday, Graeme

    2005-08-01

    Physics in Oxford 1839-1939 offers a challenging new interpretation of pre-war physics at the University of Oxford, which was far more dynamic than most historians and physicists have been prepared to believe. It explains, on the one hand, how attempts to develop the University's Clarendon Laboratory by Robert Clifton, Professor of Experimental Philosophy from 1865 to 1915, were thwarted by academic politics and funding problems, and latterly by Clifton's idiosyncratic concern with precision instrumentation. Conversely, by examining in detail the work of college fellows and their laboratories, the book reconstructs the decentralized environment that allowed physics to enter on a period of conspicuous vigor in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially at the characteristically Oxonian intersections between physics, physical chemistry, mechanics, and mathematics. Whereas histories of Cambridge physics have tended to focus on the self-sustaining culture of the Cavendish Laboratory, it was Oxford's college-trained physicists who enabled the discipline to flourish in due course in university as well as college facilities, notably under the newly appointed professors, J. S. E. Townsend from 1900 and F. A. Lindemann from 1919. This broader perspective allows us to understand better the vitality with which physicists in Oxford responded to the demands of wartime research on radar and techniques relevant to atomic weapons and laid the foundations for the dramatic post-war expansion in teaching and research that has endowed Oxford with one of the largest and most dynamic schools of physics in the world.

  8. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  9. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  10. Personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, H.

    1981-11-01

    The use of a personal miniature electrophysiological tape recorder to measure the physiological reactions of space flight personnel to space flight stress and weightlessness is described. The Oxford Instruments Medilog recorder, a battery-powered, four-channel cassette tape recorder with 24 hour endurance is carried on the person and will record EKG, EOG, EEG, and timing and event markers. The data will give information about heart rate and morphology changes, and document adaptation to zero gravity on the part of subjects who, unlike highly trained astronauts, are more representative of the normal population than were the subjects of previous space flight studies.

  11. Validation study of oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: the significance of extracapillary proliferation.

    PubMed

    Katafuchi, Ritsuko; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nagata, Masaharu; Mitsuiki, Koji; Hirakata, Hideki

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) includes mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary hypercellularity, segmental glomerulosclerosis (S), and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (T) as prognosticators. The value of extracapillary proliferation (Ex) was not addressed. Because the Oxford classification excludes patients with urinary protein <0.5 g/d and eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at biopsy, the significance of Ex should be confirmed by validation cohorts that include more rapidly progressive cases. We present such a study. The significance of pathologic features for development end-stage renal failure (ESRF) was examined by multivariate analysis in 702 patients with IgAN. The association of Ex with kidney survival was examined by univariate analysis in 416 patients who met the Oxford criteria and 286 who did not, separately. In a multivariate model, S and T were significantly associated with ESRF. With addition of Ex, not S but Ex was significant for ESRF. In univariate analysis, kidney survival was significantly lower in patients with Ex than in those without, in patients who did not meet the Oxford criteria, but such a difference was not found in patients who met it. The prognostic significance of Ex was evident in our cohort. It seems that Ex did not emerge from the Oxford classification as a prognosticator because of exclusion of severe cases (eGFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). We suggest that extracapillary proliferation be included in the next version of the Oxford classification of IgAN to widen the scope of the classification.

  12. Oxford NOTECHS II: A Modified Theatre Team Non-Technical Skills Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Eleanor R.; Hadi, Mohammed; Morgan, Lauren J.; Pickering, Sharon P.; Collins, Gary; New, Steve; Griffin, Damien; McCulloch, Peter; Catchpole, Ken C.

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously developed and validated the Oxford NOTECHS rating system for evaluating the non-technical skills of an entire operating theatre team. Experience with the scale identified the need for greater discrimination between levels of performance within the normal range. We report here the development of a modified scale (Oxford NOTECHS II) to facilitate this. The new measure uses an eight-point instead of a four point scale to measure each dimension of non-technical skills, and begins with a default rating of 6 for each element. We evaluated this new scale in 297 operations at five NHS sites in four surgical specialities. Measures of theatre process reliability (glitch count) and compliance with the WHO surgical safety checklist were scored contemporaneously, and relationships with NOTECHS II scores explored. Results Mean team Oxford NOTECHS II scores was 73.39 (range 37–92). The means for surgical, anaesthetic and nursing sub-teams were 24.61 (IQR 23, 27); 24.22 (IQR 23, 26) and 24.55 (IQR 23, 26). Oxford NOTECHS II showed good inter-rater reliability between human factors and clinical observers in each of the four domains. Teams with high WHO compliance had higher mean Oxford NOTECHS II scores (74.5) than those with low compliance (71.1) (p = 0.010). We observed only a weak correlation between Oxford NOTECHS II scores and glitch count; r = −0.26 (95% CI −0.36 to −0.15). Oxford NOTECHS II scores did not vary significantly between 5 different hospital sites, but a significant difference was seen between specialities (p = 0.001). Conclusions Oxford NOTECHS II provides good discrimination between teams while retaining reliability and correlation with other measures of teamwork performance, and is not confounded by technical performance. It is therefore suitable for combined use with a technical performance scale to provide a global description of operating theatre team performance. PMID:24594911

  13. The Oxford classification as a predictor of prognosis in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hui; Choi, Sun Ryoung; Park, Hoon Suk; Lee, Ja Young; Sun, In O; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Byung Ha; Park, Cheol Whee; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Yeong Jin; Choi, Bum Soon

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Oxford classification was developed as a pathological classification system for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) to predict the risk of disease progression. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic relevance of the Oxford classification in Korean patients with a pathologic diagnosis of IgAN. We reviewed the renal pathology archives from January 2000 to December 2006 at Seoul St Mary's Hospital in Korea and identified 273 patients, who were diagnosed as having IgAN. We enrolled 197 patients who were available for further clinicopathologic analysis. All cases of IgAN were categorized according to the WHO classification, the semiquantitative classification and the Oxford classification. These pathologic classifications were compared. The clinical and laboratory findings at the time of biopsy were compared with those at the end of the follow-up according to the Oxford classification. When three pathologic classifications were compared, M1, S1, E1, T1 or T2 were associated with a higher score in the activity index. S1, T1 or T2 were associated with a higher score in the chronicity index and a higher grade in the WHO classification. The clinical and laboratory findings were compared according to the Oxford classification. At the time of biopsy, the proteinuria in patients with M1 was more than that of M0 (P = 0.035). At the end of follow-up, the number of antihypertensive drugs taken among patients with M1 was greater than that of patients with M0 (P = 0.001). At the time of biopsy, the proteinuria of patients with S1 was greater than that of S0 patients (P = 0.009). At the end of follow-up, the number of patients who received immunosuppressants was increased as the grade of T increased (P = 0.000). At the end point of the follow-up, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased as the grade of T increased (P = 0.008). The time-average proteinuria after adjusting the initial proteinuria increased

  14. Testing Linkage Disequilibrium in Sibships

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Langholz, Bryan; Kraft, Peter; Thomas, Duncan C.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the use of multivariate regression for testing allelic association in the presence of linkage, using marker genotype data from sibships. The test is valid, provided that the correct mean structure is modeled but does not require the correlation structure within families to be specified. The test can be implemented using standard statistical software such as the SAS programming language. In a simulation study, we evaluated this new test in comparison with one from a standard, matched–case-control analysis. First, we noted that the genetic effect needed to be quite extreme before residual familial correlation due to linkage led to false inference using the standard, matched-pair analysis. Second, we showed that under examples of extreme residual familial correlation, the new test had the correct test size. Third, we found that the test was more powerful than the sibship disequilibrium test of Horvath and Laird. Finally, we concluded that although the standard analysis may lead to correct inference for practical purposes, the new test is valid, even under extreme residual familial correlation and with no cost in power at the causal locus. PMID:10831398

  15. Confirmatory linkage study of hypochondroplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, J.T.; Herrera, C.; Greenhaw, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Hypochondroplasia is an autosomal dominant form of disproportionate short stature disorder that has clinical and radiographic findings similar to but milder than achondroplasia. Based on these findings it has been suggested that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are allelic conditions. We and others have mapped the achondroplasia locus to telomeric region of chromosome 4. Tested linkage to 4p markers in 6 hypochondroplasia families and a maximum LOD score of 1.7 at {theta} = 0 was found for IUDA. Here we report the results of a linkage study in 4 multigenerational families with hypochondroplasia using 7 short tandem repeat markers (D4S127, D4S412, D4S43, D4S115, IUDA, D4S227, D4S169) from the short arm of chromosome 4. These families have been well characterized and show the typical clinical and radiographic features of hypochondroplasia. One family was Afro-American, one Hispanic and two were Caucasian. We found a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.9 at D4S115. The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia map to the same chromosomal location and suggests that they are indeed allelic conditions.

  16. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.; Killian, M.A.

    1993-03-02

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  17. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L.; Killian, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  18. Superior femoral component alignment can be achieved with Oxford microplasty instrumentation after minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Ma, Tong; Wen, Tao; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Cai, Minwei

    2017-03-01

    Oxford microplasty (MP) instrumentation has been developed to facilitate the reproducible and consistent performance of minimally invasive unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (MI-UKA) operation. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results of two groups of patients implanted using either a conventional instrumentation technique or an MP technique. A prospective cohort study of 108 knees in 108 patients who underwent an MI-UKA procedure using either conventionally instrumented UKA (CI-UKA) (52 knees of 52 patients) or MP-assisted UKA (MP-UKA) (56 knees of 56 patients). The clinical assessment included the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Knee Society Score (KSS), a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and range of motion (ROM). Complications were also recorded. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding OKS, KSS, VAS, and ROM. There were also no significant differences in terms of mechanical limb alignment and tibia implant alignment. However, the MP-UKA group showed significantly more accurate positioning of the femoral component than the CI-UKA group. Additionally, the MP-UKA group had more femoral prostheses implanted in the "satisfactory" range and fewer "outliers" than the CI-UKA group. No significant difference in complications was noted between the two groups. This study suggested that compared with CI-UKA, MP-UKA provides significant improvements in increasing the accuracy of sagittal and coronal implantation of the femoral component and in reducing the numbers of outliers for femoral prosthetic alignment. It is advocated that the MP system should be considered when MI-UKA is performed. Therapeutic study, Level IV.

  19. Preoperative pain location is a poor predictor of outcome after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty at 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Liddle, A D; Pandit, H; Jenkins, C; Price, A J; Dodd, C A F; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2013-11-01

    Indications for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) vary between units. Some authors have suggested, and many surgeons believe, that medial UKA should only be performed in patients who localise their pain to the medial joint line. This is despite research showing a poor correlation between patient-reported location of pain and radiological or operative findings in osteoarthritis. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of patient-reported preoperative pain location and functional outcome of UKA at 1 and 5 years. Preoperative pain location data were collected for 406 knees (380 patients) undergoing Oxford medial UKA. Oxford Knee Score, American Knee Society Scores and Tegner activity scale were recorded preoperatively and at follow-up; 272/406 (67 %) had pure medial pain, 25/406 (6 %) had pure anterior knee pain, and 109/406 (27 %) had mixed or generalised pain. None had pure lateral pain. The primary outcome interval is 1 year; 132/406 patients had attained 5 years by the time of analysis, and their 5-year data are presented. At 1 and 5 years, each group had improved significantly by each measure [mean ΔOKS 15.6 (SD 8.9) at year 1, 16.3 (9.3) at year 5]. There was no difference between the groups, nor between patients with and without anterior knee pain or isolated medial pain. No correlation is demonstrated between preoperative pain location and outcome. We conclude that localised medial pain should not be a prerequisite to UKA and that it may be performed in patients with generalised or anterior knee pain.

  20. Dynamic RSA for the evaluation of inducible micromotion of Oxford UKA during step-up and step-down motion.

    PubMed

    Horsager, Kristian; Kaptein, Bart L; Rømer, Lone; Jørgensen, Peter B; Stilling, Maiken

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose - Implant inducible micromotions have been suggested to reflect the quality of the fixation interface. We investigated the usability of dynamic RSA for evaluation of inducible micromotions of the Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) tibial component, and evaluated factors that have been suggested to compromise the fixation, such as fixation method, component alignment, and radiolucent lines (RLLs). Patients and methods - 15 patients (12 men) with a mean age of 69 (55-86) years, with an Oxford UKA (7 cemented), were studied after a mean time in situ of 4.4 (3.6-5.1) years. 4 had tibial RLLs. Each patient was recorded with dynamic RSA (10 frames/second) during a step-up/step-down motion. Inducible micromotions were calculated for the tibial component with respect to the tibia bone. Postoperative component alignment was measured with model-based RSA and RLLs were measured on screened radiographs. Results - All tibial components showed inducible micromotions as a function of the step-cycle motion with a mean subsidence of up to -0.06 mm (95% CI: -0.10 to -0.03). Tibial component inducible micromotions were similar for cemented fixation and cementless fixation. Patients with tibial RLLs had 0.5° (95% CI: 0.18-0.81) greater inducible medio-lateral tilt of the tibial component. There was a correlation between postoperative posterior slope of the tibial plateau and inducible anterior-posterior tilt. Interpretation - All patients had inducible micromotions of the tibial component during step-cycle motion. RLLs and a high posterior slope increased the magnitude of inducible micromotions. This suggests that dynamic RSA is a valuable clinical tool for the evaluation of functional implant fixation.

  1. The Oxford Implementation Index: A new tool for incorporating implementation data into systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, P; Underhill, K; Gardner, F; Operario, D; Mayo-Wilson, E

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article presents a new tool that helps systematic reviewers extract and compare implementation data across primary trials. Currently, systematic review guidance does not provide guidelines for the identification and extraction of data related to the implementation of underlying interventions. Study Design and Setting A team of systematic reviewers used a multi-staged consensus development approach to develop this tool. First, a systematic literature search on the implementation and synthesis of clinical trial evidence was performed. The team then met in a series of subcommittees to develop an initial draft index. Drafts were presented at several research conferences and circulated to methodological experts in various health-related disciplines for feedback. The team systematically recorded, discussed, and incorporated all feedback into further revisions. A penultimate draft was discussed at the 2010 Cochrane-Campbell Collaboration Colloquium to finalise its content. Results The Oxford Implementation Index provides a checklist of implementation data to extract from primary trials. Checklist items are organised into four domains: intervention design, actual delivery by trial practitioners, uptake of the intervention by participants, and contextual factors. Systematic reviewers piloting the index at the Cochrane-Campbell Colloquium reported that the index was helpful for the identification of implementation data. Conclusion The Oxford Implementation Index provides a framework to help reviewers assess implementation data across trials. Reviewers can use this tool to identify implementation data, extract relevant information, and compare features of implementation across primary trials in a systematic review. The index is a work in progress, and future efforts will focus on refining the index, improving usability, and integrating the index with other guidance on systematic reviewing. PMID:23810026

  2. Grammar Coding in the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekker, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the revised system of grammar coding for verbs in the fourth edition of the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English" (OALD4), comparing it with two other similar dictionaries. It is shown that the OALD4 is found to be more favorable on many criteria than the other comparable dictionaries. (16 references) (VWL)

  3. Making Academic OER Easy: Reflections on Technology and Openness at Oxford University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highton, Melissa; Fresen, Jill; Wild, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Due to its stringent entry requirements, academic reputation and world ranking, Oxford University in the United Kingdom is perceived by some as being a closed, exclusive, and elitist institution. As learning technologists working in the institution, we have experienced an enthusiasm amongst academic colleagues for openness in publication and…

  4. Validity of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy in children.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yuko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Hama, Taketsugu; Mukaiyama, Hironobu; Togawa, Hiroko; Hashimura, Yuya; Kaito, Hiroshi; Sako, Mayumi; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yoshikawa, Norishige

    2012-05-01

    In 2009, the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy was published. However, its validity has not been fully examined in children. This study aimed to assess this system in an independent large-scale cohort of children. We analyzed 161 consecutive children with newly diagnosed IgA nephropathy from 1977 to 1989 retrospectively. We examined the ability of each variable in the Oxford classification as a predictor of renal outcome defined as ≥ stage III chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) using Cox regression analysis. The mean mesangial score, and ratios of segmental glomerulosclerosis, endocapillary hypercellularity, tubular atrophy, and crescents were 0.49, 0.8%, 13.1%, 3.3%, and 9.2% respectively. Seven cases reached ≥ stage III CKD. In univariate analyses, mesangial hypercellularity score, endocapillary hypercellularity, tubular atrophy, and crescents were significant predictors of renal outcome. In a multivariate analysis, only mesangial hypercellularity score, tubular atrophy, and crescents were significant though, depending on models. Segmental glomerulosclerosis was not a significant predictor of renal outcome. Although the significance of crescents was not addressed in the Oxford classification, crescents were important predictors of outcome. The Oxford classification appears to be valid for predicting renal outcome in children.

  5. The use of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy to predict renal survival.

    PubMed

    Alamartine, Eric; Sauron, Catherine; Laurent, Blandine; Sury, Aurore; Seffert, Aline; Mariat, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    A new classification for IgA nephropathy was recently proposed, namely the Oxford classification. It established specific pathologic features that predict the risk of progression of renal disease. This classification needs validation in different patient populations. We propose a retrospective study to evaluate the predictive value of the Oxford classification on renal survival defined by doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease in patients with IgA nephropathy. We included 183 patients with primary IgA nephropathy diagnosed between 1994 and 2005. Mean follow-up time was 77 months. Doubling creatinine occurred in 20% of the patients, and end-stage renal disease occurred in 16%. The biopsies were revisited to apply the Oxford classification. The influence of pathologic features on renal survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. In univariate time-dependent analyses, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and endocapillary hypercellularity strongly impacted doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease. On the contrary, mesangial hypercellularity was not associated with renal outcome. In the multivariate model, only estimated GFR at baseline was a risk factor, pathologic lesions having no independent influence. We confirm the usefulness of the Oxford classification to establish the renal prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy, although renal function at baseline seems to be of a greater importance than pathologic lesions.

  6. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) into Persian language.

    PubMed

    Mousavian, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate and test the validity and reliablity of the Persian version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire in foot and ankle patients. We translated the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire to Persian language according to the accepted guidelines, then assessed the psychometric properties including the validity and reliability on 308 patients with long-standing foot and ankle problems. To test the reliability, we calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and measured Cronbach's alpha to test the internal consistency. To test the construct validity of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire we also administered the Short-Form 36 to patients. Construct validity was supported by significant correlation with SF36 subscales except for pain subscale of the persian MOXFQ with mental health of the SF36 (r=0.207). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ and ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 for the three subscales. Cronbach's alpha for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction was 0.86, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ showing good internal consistency in each domain. The Persian Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire health scoring system is a valid and reliable patient-reported instrument for foot and ankle problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Trait Anxiety and Final Degree Performance at the University of Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…

  8. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of... ``Bear Lake CCP EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Annette de Knijf, 208-847-1319. U.S...

  9. If You Build It, They Will Scan: Oxford University's Exploration of Community Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stuart D.; Lindsay, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Traditional large digitization projects demand massive resources from the central unit (library, museum, or university) that has acquired funding for them. Another model, enabled by easy access to cameras, scanners, and web tools, calls for public contributions to community collections of artifacts. In 2009, the University of Oxford ran a…

  10. Teacher Education at Oxford University: James Is Alive but Living in Karachi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The arguments at Oxford about the start of teacher education within the University have been repeated many times and in many ways, not least in the 1972 James Committee. The strong advocacy there for much greater attention to, and investment in, continuing professional development may not have won the day in England, but, through the influence of…

  11. Software for relativistic atomic structure theory: The GRASP project at Oxford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parpia, F. A.; Grant, I. P.

    1991-08-01

    GRASP is an acronym for General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The objective of the GRASP project at Oxford is to produce user-friendly state-of-the-art multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) software packages for relativistic atomic structure theory. Modules for the computation of angular coefficients (all based upon Racah techniques), the generation and manipulation of radial functions (based exclusively on finite-difference methods) and utility modules, have been assembled under an interface to produce the Oxford MCDF package. The three extant versions of the Oxford MCDF software, MCDF + MCBP/BENA, GRASP, and GRASP-2, are described. Planned improvements to GRASP-2 include extending the capabilities of the package so that systems involving continuum electrons can be modelled, and the development of a new generation of algorithms optimised for shared-memory vector processors operating in parallel. Future versions of the Oxford MCDF program are likely to make use of basis-set methods, ideally suited to the use of multi-reference many-body perturbation theory, for the improvement of MCDF estimates of atomic properties.

  12. Trait Anxiety and Final Degree Performance at the University of Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…

  13. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  14. Teacher Education at Oxford University: James Is Alive but Living in Karachi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The arguments at Oxford about the start of teacher education within the University have been repeated many times and in many ways, not least in the 1972 James Committee. The strong advocacy there for much greater attention to, and investment in, continuing professional development may not have won the day in England, but, through the influence of…

  15. Developing a Structured Teaching Plan for Psychiatry Tutors at Oxford University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Taiar, Hasanen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to examine the teaching ways I undertook in teaching medical students and to examine the use of a structured teaching plan for the academic and clinical tutors in psychiatry. The teaching plan was developed for use, initially by Oxford University Academic tutors at the Department of Psychiatry. In addition,…

  16. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents in Oxford, 1985-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Fagg, Joan; Simkin, Sue; Bale, Elizabeth; Bond, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Reviews data collected by the Oxford Monitoring System for Attempted Suicide in teenagers between 1985-1995 to determine trends in acts of deliberate self-harm. Notes substantial increase in number of episodes of deliberate self-harm for both males and females. Discusses implications for hospital and counseling professionals and well as…

  17. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  18. If You Build It, They Will Scan: Oxford University's Exploration of Community Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Stuart D.; Lindsay, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Traditional large digitization projects demand massive resources from the central unit (library, museum, or university) that has acquired funding for them. Another model, enabled by easy access to cameras, scanners, and web tools, calls for public contributions to community collections of artifacts. In 2009, the University of Oxford ran a…

  19. The forgotten survey: social services in the Oxford district: 1935-40.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes one of the lesser known social surveys of the first half of the twentieth century in Britain and looks at its origins and its outcomes. Funded by the Rockefeller grant to Oxford University to enhance social studies there, the Oxford Survey published in two volumes in 1938 and 1940 engaged Oxford academics from agricultural economics, economics, statistics, and government, as well as Barnett House members involved in voluntary organizations, adult education, settlements, citizenship, and social work. It was a far-reaching study that aimed to analyse all aspects of public services, in the context of a thorough-going description of the geography, industry, and population statistics of the local area. It was also designed to have national relevance, because of the development of the motor industry in Cowley. The Oxford Survey differed from Booth and Rowntree's exploration of the habits and circumstances of the urban poor. Instead, it had more affinity to surveys of industrial and regional planning and work coming from the Le Play school, in which the act of surveying communities was perceived as a way of enhancing citizenship.

  20. Oxford and the Decline of the Collegiate Tradition. Woburn Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapper, Ted; Palfreyman, David

    This book examines how the idea of collegiality in British higher education is being restructured in response to contemporary pressures of marketization, managerialism, and massification. The focus is on Oxford University, but implications are drawn for the future of higher education in Britain in general. The chapters are: (1) "Collegiality…

  1. The Effects of Children on the Process of Recovery in Oxford Houses.

    PubMed

    Legler, Ray; Chiaramonte, Danielle; Patterson, Meaghan; Allis, Ashley; Runion, Hilary; Jason, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The effects of children on the process of substance use recovery for adults living in Oxford Houses is explored in two qualitative studies. Oxford Houses are self-run, community-based residential homes for small groups of adults who live together and support each other's efforts to recover from drug and/or alcohol addiction. In the first study, telephone interviews were conducted with 29 adults who were living in Oxford Houses that allowed children to live in the house with their parent. Results suggest that having children in the house supported a positive living environment for the recovery of house members. In the second study, telephone interviews were conducted with an additional 15 mothers who lived in Oxford Houses. These interviews focused on the effects of the mothers' addiction and recovery on their relationships with their children. This study found that most parents acknowledged the negative effects of their addiction on their relationship with their child and the effects of their recovery on improving those relationships.

  2. The Use of the Oxford Classification of IgA Nephropathy to Predict Renal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sauron, Catherine; Laurent, Blandine; Sury, Aurore; Seffert, Aline; Mariat, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives A new classification for IgA nephropathy was recently proposed, namely the Oxford classification. It established specific pathologic features that predict the risk of progression of renal disease. This classification needs validation in different patient populations. We propose a retrospective study to evaluate the predictive value of the Oxford classification on renal survival defined by doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease in patients with IgA nephropathy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We included 183 patients with primary IgA nephropathy diagnosed between 1994 and 2005. Mean follow-up time was 77 months. Doubling creatinine occurred in 20% of the patients, and end-stage renal disease occurred in 16%. The biopsies were revisited to apply the Oxford classification. The influence of pathologic features on renal survival was analyzed in univariate and multivariate models. Results In univariate time-dependent analyses, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and endocapillary hypercellularity strongly impacted doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease. On the contrary, mesangial hypercellularity was not associated with renal outcome. In the multivariate model, only estimated GFR at baseline was a risk factor, pathologic lesions having no independent influence. Conclusions We confirm the usefulness of the Oxford classification to establish the renal prognosis of patients with IgA nephropathy, although renal function at baseline seems to be of a greater importance than pathologic lesions. PMID:21885791

  3. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C F; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2015-12-14

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5-2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. An introduction to recombination and linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mcpeek, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    With a garden as his laboratory, Mendel was able to discern basic probabilistic laws of heredity. Although it first appeared as a baffling exception to one of Mendel`s principles, the phenomenon of variable linkage between characters was soon recognized to be a powerful tool in the process of chromosome mapping and location of genes of interest. In this introduction, we first describe Mendel`s work and the subsequent discovery of linkage. Next we describe the apparent cause of variable linkage, namely recombination, and we introduce linkage analysis. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Identification of linkage phase by parental genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Aksenovich, T.I.

    1995-08-01

    The possibility of using the phenotypic characteristics of parents for identifying the linkage phase in offspring is analyzed. It is demonstrated that parents with similar phenotypes (or marker genotypes) carry no information about the gene linkage phase in diheterozygous offspring. The probability of a certain linkage phase remains the same in all informative crossings. It depends on the model of inheritance of the analyzed alternative trait and is similar for di- and polyallelic markers. The frequencies of informative crossings and the probability of the linkage phase for different models of inheritance of the analyzed and marker traits are estimated. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping of quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoun; Yang, Jie; Huang, Jiayu; Chen, Hao; Hou, Wei; Wu, Song

    2017-03-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common genetic markers in genome-wide association studies, are usually in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other within a small genomic region. Both single- and two-marker-based LD mapping methods have been developed by taking advantage of the LD structures. In this study, a more general LD mapping framework with an arbitrary number of markers has been developed to further improve LD mapping and its detection power. This method is referred as multi-marker linkage disequilibrium mapping (mmLD). For the parameter estimation, we implemented a two-phase estimation procedure: first, haplotype frequencies were estimated for known markers; then, haplotype frequencies were updated to include the unknown quantitative trait loci based on estimates from the first step. For the hypothesis testing, we proposed a novel sequential likelihood ratio test procedure, which iteratively removed haplotypes with zero frequency and subsequently determined the proper degree of freedom. To compare the proposed mmLD method with other existing mapping methods, e.g. the adjusted single-marker LD mapping and the SKAT_C, we performed extensive simulations under various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrated that the mmLD has the same or higher power than the existing methods, while maintaining the correct type I errors. We further applied the mmLD to a public data set, 'GAW17', to investigate its applicability. The result showed the good performance of mmLD. We concluded that this improved mmLD method will be useful for future genome-wide association studies and genetic association analyses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Linked Records of Children with Traumatic Brain Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, T. D.; Dean, J. M.; Keenan, H. T.; McGlincy, M. H.; Thomas, A. M.; Cook, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Record linkage may create powerful datasets with which investigators can conduct comparative effectiveness studies evaluating the impact of tests or interventions on health. All linkages of health care data files to date have used protected health information (PHI) in their linkage variables. A technique to link datasets without using PHI would be advantageous both to preserve privacy and to increase the number of potential linkages. Methods We applied probabilistic linkage to records of injured children in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB, N = 156,357) and the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS, N = 104,049) databases from 2007 to 2010. 49 match variables without PHI were used, many of them administrative variables and indicators for procedures recorded as International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes. We validated the accuracy of the linkage using identified data from a single center that submits to both databases. Results We accurately linked the PHIS and NTDB records for 69% of children with any injury, and 88% of those with severe traumatic brain injury eligible for a study of intervention effectiveness (positive predictive value of 98%, specificity of 99.99%). Accurate linkage was associated with longer lengths of stay, more severe injuries, and multiple injuries. Conclusion In populations with substantial illness or injury severity, accurate record linkage may be possible in the absence of PHI. This methodology may enable linkages and, in turn, comparative effectiveness studies that would be unlikely or impossible otherwise. PMID:26021580

  8. Implant Overhang after Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: Oxford Prosthesis versus Miller-Galante II Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Park, Bum-Yong; Bae, Tae-Yong; Song, Kwang-Yun; In, Yong

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the prevalence of implant overhang between the Oxford and the Miller-Galante II (M-G II) unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) prostheses and determine whether overhang is associated with postoperative clinical results. We retrospectively reviewed one hundred and seven UKAs which consisted of 37 Oxford UKAs and 70 M-G II. Overhang was considered present if ≥3 mm overhang was observed in any zone. The range of motion, the Knee Society scores and the Western Ontario and McMaster scores were compared after a mean follow-up duration of 48 months. Thirty three of 107 knees (30.8%) had overhang in at least one zone of the femoral or tibial component. In the tibial side, there were no significant differences between the groups in component overhang in each zone. In the femoral side, the Oxford UKA group showed a significantly higher prevalence of the posterior overhang of the femoral component (19/37, 51.4%) than did the M-G II UKA group (3/70, 4.3%; p<0.001). However, no significant differences in clinical results were observed between the two groups. There were also no significant differences in clinical results between the overhang and the non-overhang groups. Posterior overhang of the femoral component was highly prevalent in Oxford UKA patients. However, posterior overhang of the femoral component had no significant relationship with postoperative clinical results in both Oxford and M-G II UKAs at a mean of 48 months follow-up.

  9. Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy and C4d deposition; correlation and its implication.

    PubMed

    Rath, Ashutosh; Tewari, Rohit; Mendonca, Satish; Badwal, Sonia; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is well known to be the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis throughout the world. The histopathological changes are wide and varied as brought out by the various classification systems like the Haas and Oxford systems. C4d is a well-known biomarker of the complement cascade and has recently been implicated in certain native renal diseases. We attempted to characterize C4d deposition in IgAN and correlate this with histopathology by the Oxford classification system. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study included renal biopsies of 15 cases of IgAN diagnosed on histopathology and immunofluorescence over a period of 2 years. Demographic parameters of age and sex were reviewed. The Oxford classification system was applied to score the cases and immunohistochemistry for C4d was done on all cases to characterize staining pattern and intensity and was correlated with Oxford classification. Results: On histological examination, the cases showed various combinations of lesions ranging from M0E0S0T0 to M1E1S1T1. C4d deposition was found to be occurring mainly in mesangial location (12/15 cases, 80%). Forty percent cases showed C4d deposition in the glomerular capillary walls in a segmental fashion and 26.67% showed global pattern. Other patterns of deposition were arteriolar (53.33%), in peritubular capillaries (26.67%) and in tubular epithelium (20%). Conclusion: On comparing the various patterns of deposition of C4d with the four variables of the Oxford classification system, we found that segmental and global deposition of C4d correlated best with endocapillary proliferation.

  10. Linkage rate between data from health checks and health insurance claims in the Japan National Database.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2014-01-01

    Japan's National Database (NDB) includes data on health checks and health insurance claims, is linkable using hash functions, and is available for research use. However, the linkage rate between health check and health insurance claims data has not been investigated. Linkage rate was evaluated by comparing observed medical and pharmaceutical charges among health check recipients in fiscal year (FY) 2009 (N = 21 588 883) with expected charges from the same population when record linkage was complete. Using the NDB, observed charges were estimated from the first published result of linking health check recipients in FY2009 and their health insurance claims in FY2010. Expected charges were estimated by combining 3 publicly available datasets, including data from the Medical Care Benefit Survey and an ad-hoc report by the Japan Health Insurance Association. Only 14.9% of expected charges were linked by the NDB. The linkage rate was higher for women than for men (18.2% vs 12.4%) and for elderly adults as compared with younger adults (>25% vs <10%). The linkage rate in the NDB was so low that any research linking health check and health insurance claims will not be reliable. Causes for the low linkage rate include differences between health check and health insurance claims data in name format (eg, insertion of a space between family and given names) and date of birth (Japanese vs Gregorian calendar). Investigation of the causes for the low linkage rate and measures for improvement are urgently needed.

  11. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  12. A model for linkage analysis with apomixis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Lin, Shen; Li, Yao; Pang, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yanru; Wu, Rongling

    2011-09-01

    Apomixis, or asexual reproduction through seeds, occurs in over 400 species of angiosperms. Although apomixis can favorably perpetuate desired genotypes through successive seed generation, it may also bring about some difficulty for linkage analysis and quantitative trait locus mapping. In this article, we explore the issue of how apomixis affects the precision and power of linkage analysis with molecular markers. We derive a statistical model for estimating the linkage between different markers when some progeny are derived from apomixis. The model was constructed within the maximum likelihood framework and implemented with the EM algorithm. A series of procedures are formulated to test the linkage of markers, the rate of apomixis, and the degree of genetic interference during meiosis. The model was examined and validated through simulation studies. The model will provide a tool for linkage mapping and evolutionary studies for plant species that undergo apomixis.

  13. 77 FR 59639 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Bear Lake County, ID and Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ..., Montpelier, ID 83254. Web site: http://www.fws.gov/bearlake/refuge_planning.html ; select ``Contact Us.'' In-Person Drop-off, Viewing or Pickup: You may drop off comments during regular business hours at Refuge.... Oxford Slough is the drainage for Oxford and Deep Creeks, as well as other streams and creeks in...

  14. Portrait of the Oxford Design Studio: An Ethnography of Design Pedagogy. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study explores the underlying structure of the design practices in the Oxford Studio, a design studio course taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Architecture. The study describes elements of the practices in the Oxford Studio and then analyzes the connections among these elements at three levels: (a)…

  15. Real-Time DNA Sequencing in the Antarctic Dry Valleys Using the Oxford Nanopore Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah S.; Zaikova, Elena; Goerlitz, David S.; Bai, Yu; Tighe, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to sequence DNA outside of the laboratory setting has enabled novel research questions to be addressed in the field in diverse areas, ranging from environmental microbiology to viral epidemics. Here, we demonstrate the application of offline DNA sequencing of environmental samples using a hand-held nanopore sequencer in a remote field location: the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Sequencing was performed using a MK1B MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT; Oxford, United Kingdom) that was equipped with software to operate without internet connectivity. One-direction (1D) genomic libraries were prepared using portable field techniques on DNA isolated from desiccated microbial mats. By adequately insulating the sequencer and laptop, it was possible to run the sequencing protocol for up to 2½ h under arduous conditions. PMID:28337073

  16. Mail versus telephone administration of the Oxford Knee and Hip Scores.

    PubMed

    Abdel Messih, Marena; Naylor, J M; Descallar, J; Manickam, A; Mittal, R; Harris, I A

    2014-03-01

    Telephone and postal methods of administration of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) were compared on 85 and 61 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA), respectively. The test for equivalence was significant for both the knee (P<0.001) and hip participants (P<0.001) indicating that the modes of administration yielded similar results. The ICCs of the OKS and OHS were 0.79 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.70, 0.86) and 0.87 (0.79, 0.92) respectively. The 95% limits of agreement were wide for both scores (OKS LOA, -8.6, 8.2; OHS LOA, -7.7, 5.3). The two modes of administration of the OKS and OHS produce equivalent survey responses at a group level but the same method of administration should be constant for individual monitoring in a clinical setting.

  17. Real-Time DNA Sequencing in the Antarctic Dry Valleys Using the Oxford Nanopore Sequencer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah S; Zaikova, Elena; Goerlitz, David S; Bai, Yu; Tighe, Scott W

    2017-04-01

    The ability to sequence DNA outside of the laboratory setting has enabled novel research questions to be addressed in the field in diverse areas, ranging from environmental microbiology to viral epidemics. Here, we demonstrate the application of offline DNA sequencing of environmental samples using a hand-held nanopore sequencer in a remote field location: the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Sequencing was performed using a MK1B MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT; Oxford, United Kingdom) that was equipped with software to operate without internet connectivity. One-direction (1D) genomic libraries were prepared using portable field techniques on DNA isolated from desiccated microbial mats. By adequately insulating the sequencer and laptop, it was possible to run the sequencing protocol for up to 2½ h under arduous conditions.

  18. The Oxford Classification predictors of chronic kidney disease in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Rafaela C G; Araújo, Stanley A; Bambirra, Eduardo A; Oliveira, Eduardo A; Simões E Silva, Ana Cristina; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B

    The Oxford Classification for Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) identifies pathological variables that may predict the decline of renal function. This study aimed to evaluate the Oxford Classification variables as predictors of renal dysfunction in a cohort of Brazilian children and adolescents with IgAN. A total of 54 patients with IgAN biopsied from 1982 to 2010 were assessed. Biopsies were re-evaluated and classified according to the Oxford Classification. Multivariate analysis of laboratory and pathological data was performed. The primary outcomes were decline of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) greater than or equal to 50%. Mean follow-up was 7.6±5.0 years. Mean renal survival was 13.5±0.8 years and probability of decline ≥50% in baseline eGFR was 8% at five years of follow-up and 15% at ten years. Ten children (18.5%) had a decline of baseline eGFR≥50% and five (9.3%) evolved to end-stage renal disease. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that baseline proteinuria, proteinuria during follow-up, endocapillary proliferation, and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis were associated with the primary outcome. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that only baseline proteinuria (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.20-2.50, p=0.003) and endocapillary hypercellularity (HR, 37.18; 95% CI, 3.85-358.94, p=0.002) were independent predictors of renal dysfunction. No other pathological variable was associated with eGFR decline in the multivariate analysis. This is the first cohort study that evaluated the predictive role of the Oxford Classification in pediatric patients with IgAN from South America. Endocapillary proliferation was the unique pathological feature that independently predicted renal outcome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. The Oxford unicompartmental knee fails at a high rate in a high-volume knee practice.

    PubMed

    Schroer, William C; Barnes, C Lowry; Diesfeld, Paul; LeMarr, Angela; Ingrassia, Rachel; Morton, Diane J; Reedy, Mary

    2013-11-01

    The Oxford knee is a unicompartmental implant featuring a mobile-bearing polyethylene component with excellent long-term survivorship results reported by the implant developers and early adopters. By contrast, other studies have reported higher revision rates in large academic practices and in national registries. Registry data have shown increased failure with this implant especially by lower-volume surgeons and institutions. In the setting of a high-volume knee arthroplasty practice, we sought to determine (1) the failure rate of the Oxford unicompartmental knee implant using a failure definition for aseptic loosening that combined clinical features, plain radiographs, and scintigraphy, and (2) whether increased experience with this implant would decrease failure rate, if there is a learning curve effect. Eighty-three Oxford knee prostheses were implanted between September 2005 and July 2008 by the principal investigator. Radiographic and clinical data were available for review for all cases. A failed knee was defined as having recurrent pain after an earlier period of recovery from surgery, progressive radiolucent lines compared with initial postoperative radiographs, and a bone scan showing an isolated area of uptake limited to the area of the replaced compartment. Eleven knees in this series failed (13%); Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 86.5% (95% CI, 78.0%-95.0%) at 5 years. Failure occurrences were distributed evenly over the course of the study period. No learning curve effect was identified. Based on these findings, including a high failure rate of the Oxford knee implant and the absence of any discernible learning curve effect, the principal investigator no longer uses this implant.

  20. Does activity affect the outcome of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement?

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam M; Pandit, Hemant; Liddle, Alexander D; Jenkins, Cathy; Mellon, Stephen; Dodd, Christopher A F; Murray, David W

    2016-03-01

    High levels of activity are considered to be a contraindication to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) and are not recommended after UKR. To determine if these recommendations should apply to the mobile-bearing Oxford UKR, this study assessed the effect of post-operative activity level on the outcome of this device. The outcome of the first 1000 Phase 3 cemented Oxford UKRs implanted between 1998 and 2010 was assessed using survival analysis, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the American Knee Society Objective (KSS-O) and Functional (KSS-F) Scores. Patients were grouped according to the maximum post-operative Tegner Activity Score. The mean follow-up was 6.1 years (range 1 to 14). Overall, increasing activity was associated with superior survival (p=0.025). In the high activity group, with Tegner≥5 (n=115) 2.6% were revised and the 12-year survival was 97.3% (confidence interval (CI): 92.0% to 99.1%). In the low activity group, with Tegner≤4, (n=885) 4.3% were revised and the 12-year survival was 94.0% (CI: 91.4 to 95.8). The difference between the two groups was not significant (p=0.44). Although the final OKS and KSS-F were significantly better in the high activity group compared to the low activity group (OKS 45v40, KSS-F 95v78), there was no difference in the change in OKS or KSS-O. High activity does not compromise the outcome of the Oxford UKR and may improve it. Activity should not be restricted nor considered to be a contraindication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Residual linkage: why do linkage peaks not disappear after an association study?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Scott; Visscher, Peter M

    2007-03-01

    Family-based candidate gene and genome-wide association studies are a logical progression from linkage studies for the identification of gene and polymorphisms underlying complex traits. An efficient way to analyse phenotypic and genotypic data is to model linkage and association simultaneously. An important result from such an analysis is whether any evidence for linkage remains after fitting polymorphisms at candidate genes (residual linkage), because this may indicate locus and allelic heterogeneity in the population and will influence subsequent molecular strategies. Here we report that substantial residual linkage is to be expected, even under genetic homogeneity and when the underlying causal polymorphisms are genotyped and fitted in the model. We simulated a powerful design to detect linkage to quantitative trait loci, with 5, 10 or 20 causal SNPs spread throughout the genome. These SNPs were responsible for all genetic variation, and hence for both linkage and association. Residual linkage at the largest linkage peak from a genome-wide scan was substantial, with mean LOD scores of 0.4, 0.7, and 1.4 for the case of 5, 10 and 20 underlying causal SNPs, respectively. For less powerful designs, the proportion of the original LOD scores that remains after association will be even larger. All cases of 'significant' residual linkage are false positives. The reason for the apparent paradox of detecting residual linkage after fitting causal polymorphisms is that the linkage signals at the largest peaks in a genome-scan are severely inflated, even if all peaks correspond to true linkage. Our findings are general and apply to linkage mapping of any phenotype and to any pedigree structure.

  2. [Application of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy to predict renal outcome].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-hua; Su, Ying; Zhao, Ya-juan; Lin, Chun-ni; Sun, Gui-fang; Li, Hang; Yu, Yang; Huang, Qing-yuan; Ye, Wei; Li, Xue-mei; Li, Xue-wang

    2013-02-01

    To validate the value of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy in predicting the renal outcome in Chinese population. Retrospective study was done in patients with IgA nephropathy. All slides were re-assessed according to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. The primary end point is doubling serum creatinine, or a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), or end-stage renal disease. Pathologic predictors for the progression to the end point were determined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Totally 533 patients were enrolled in the study. During the follow-up (median: 39 months; range: 12-263 months), 5.07% of the patients reached the end point. While tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis and arterial/ arteriolar lesion were associated with the endpoint in univariate analysis, only the T score was predictive of the renal outcome in multivariate Cox regression. Combination of the patho- logic lesions had no impact on renal outcome. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy, the degree of tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the only feature independently predictive of renal outcome.

  3. Analysis on the risk of contralateral proximal femoral epiphyseal slippage using the modified Oxford score.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Valenza, Weverley Rubele; Ueda, Wellington Keity; Schelle, Gisele Cristine; Costa, Anna Carolina Pavelec; Ferraz Faria, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To determine the application of the modified Oxford score among patients with proximal femoral epiphyseal slippage (PFES) as an aid to indicating prophylactic surgical treatment on the contralateral hip. Retrospective analysis on the medical files of patients attended at the institution where the authors work. From these, patients attended between 2008 and 2011 who presented unilateral PFES and were followed up for a minimum of two years were selected. Patients were excluded if they presented endocrine disease, metabolic disease, Down syndrome or radiographs that were inadequate for determining the modified Oxford score. The initial radiographs received scores ranging from 16 to 26. Statistical analysis was used to determine whether the scoring was predictive of future development of contralateral slippage. Among the 15 patients with unilateral PFES that were selected, five (33.3%) evolved with contralateral slippage. The patients were divided into two groups. Four patients were considered to present risk and three of them developed contralateral slippage. In the group that was considered not to present risk, there were 11 patients and two of these evolved with contralateral slippage. Thus, there was a tendency for the patients in the group that developed the disease to differ from the group that did not develop it, in relation to the risk classification. Although application of the modified Oxford score was not statistically significant in our sample, we noted a tendency toward contralateral slippage among hips with low scores.

  4. Characterization, correction and de novo assembly of an Oxford Nanopore genomic dataset from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Stéphane; Mudge, Joann; Cameron, Connor; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Anand, Ajith; Fengler, Kevin; Hayes, Kevin; Llaca, Victor; Jones, Todd J; May, Gregory

    2016-06-28

    The MinION is a portable single-molecule DNA sequencing instrument that was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies in 2014, producing long sequencing reads by measuring changes in ionic flow when single-stranded DNA molecules translocate through the pores. While MinION long reads have an error rate substantially higher than the ones produced by short-read sequencing technologies, they can generate de novo assemblies of microbial genomes, after an initial correction step that includes alignment of Illumina sequencing data or detection of overlaps between Oxford Nanopore reads to improve accuracy. In this study, MinION reads were generated from the multi-chromosome genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Errors in the consensus two-directional (sense and antisense) "2D" sequences were first characterized by way of comparison with an internal reference assembly. Both Illumina-based correction and self-correction were performed and the resulting corrected reads assembled into high-quality hybrid and non-hybrid assemblies. Corrected read datasets and assemblies were subsequently compared. The results shown here indicate that both hybrid and non-hybrid methods can be used to assemble Oxford Nanopore reads into informative multi-chromosome assemblies, each with slightly different outcomes in terms of contiguity and accuracy.

  5. Oxford Grading Scale vs manometer for assessment of pelvic floor strength in nulliparous sports students.

    PubMed

    Da Roza, T; Mascarenhas, T; Araujo, M; Trindade, V; Jorge, R Natal

    2013-09-01

    To compare pelvic floor muscle strength in nulliparous sports students measured using the modified Oxford Grading Scale and a Peritron manometer; and to compare the manometric measurements between continent and incontinent subjects. Cross-sectional study. All subjects were evaluated twice on the same day; first by vaginal digital examination and subsequently by vaginal pressure using a Peritron manometer. Forty-three nulliparous female sports students [mean age 21 (standard deviation 4) years] from the Sports Faculty of the University of Porto. This study found a significant moderate correlation between the Oxford Grading Scale score and peak pressure on manometry (r=0.646, P=0.002). Mean maximal strength for the entire group was 70.4cmH2O (range 21 to 115cmH2O). Out of 43 subjects, 37% (n=16) demonstrated signs of incontinence. On manometry, no significant differences were found in vaginal resting pressure or peak pressure between the continent and incontinent groups. There was moderate correlation between peak pressure on manometry and the Oxford Grading Scale score. Peritron manometer measurements of pelvic floor muscle contractions showed no significant differences in vaginal resting pressure and peak pressure in continent and incontinent subjects. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of hepatitis C prevalence amongst the homeless community of Oxford.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Luke C H; Mayon-White, R T

    2003-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) is an emerging health concern across the world, with 170 million people chronically infected and at risk of liver cancer, cirrhosis or liver failure. There is no vaccination and so it is important to learn as much as possible about how to prevent future infection. Modes of transmission include intravenous drug use (IDU), blood products, tattooing and, to a lesser extent, sexual intercourse. Homelessness is a risk factor of HCV because of the environments and behaviours associated with homeless communities such as poor hygiene, poor nutrition and high levels of IDU. The aim of this project was to determine the prevalence of HCV and its risk factors amongst the homeless community of Oxford, which is the second largest in the country. Ninety-eight individuals of the Oxford homeless community were interviewed and tested for HCV. The results gave an estimated HCV prevalence of 26.5 percent. The major risk factors in this population were IDU (past and present), age (over 20 years old) and sharing the paraphernalia used by i.v. drug users (e.g. spoons, foil and filters). With the exception of age, these risk factors could all be targeted in an attempt to reduce this prevalence and combat the major public health concern that HCV poses to the homeless community of Oxford.

  7. Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race: Performance, Pacing and Tactics Between 1890 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Andrew M; Guy, Joshua H; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-10-01

    Currently no studies have examined the historical performances of Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race crews in the context of performance, pacing and tactics which is surprising as the event has routinely taken place annually for over 150 years on the same course. The purpose of this study was twofold, to firstly examine the historical development of performances and physical characteristics of crews over 124 years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race between 1890 and 2014 and secondly to investigate the pacing and tactics employed by crews over that period. Linear regression modelling was applied to investigate the development of performance and body size for crews of eight male individuals over time from Boat Race archive data. Performance change over time was further assessed in 10-year clusters while four intra-race checkpoints were used to examine pacing and tactics. Significant correlations were observed between performance and time (1890-2014) for both Oxford (r = -0.67; p < 0.01) and Cambridge (r = -0.64; p < 0.01). There was no difference in mean performance times for Oxford (1170 ± 88 s) and Cambridge (1168 ± 89.8 s) during 1890-2014. Crew performance times improved over time with significant gains from baseline achieved in the 1950s (Cambridge) and the 1960s (Oxford), which coincided with significant change in the physicality of the competing crews (p < 0.01). There was no tactical advantage from commencing on either the Surrey or Middlesex station beyond chance alone; however, all crews (n = 228) adopted a fast-start strategy, with 81 % of victories achieved by the crew leading the race at the first intra-race checkpoint (24 % of total distance). Crews leading the race at the final checkpoint (83 % of total distance; 1143 m) achieved victory on 94 % of occasions. Performances and physical characteristics of the crews have changed markedly since 1890, with faster heavier crews now common. Tactically, gaining the early lead position

  8. The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Yau, Timothy; Korbet, Stephen M; Schwartz, Melvin M; Cimbaluk, David J

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) assesses the presence of mesangial hypercellularity ≥50% (M1 vs. 0), endocapillary proliferation (E1 vs. 0), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S1 vs. 0), tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis >25 or 50% (T1 or 2 vs. 0), and has been reported as having prognostic value. We studied the clinical significance of the classification in our adult patients with IgAN. Retrospective study of 54 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN seen from 1983 to 2009. The correlation between the Oxford classification and baseline renal function was assessed. The primary endpoint was a 50% reduction in eGFR or end-stage renal disease. Predictors for progression to the endpoint were determined by multivariate analyses. Patients were 41 ± 15 years of age with a serum creatinine of 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dl, eGFR of 61 ± 24 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and proteinuria of 2.0 ± 1.6 g/day. Oxford classifications were as follows: M1 = 72%, E1 = 20%, S1 = 81%, and T1 = 13%/T2 = 22%. During the follow-up of 5.8 ± 4.8 years, 19% of patients reached the primary endpoint. While the Oxford classification was associated with progressive renal disease, only the T score (T0, T1, T2) was predictive of outcome with 6, 29, and 50% of patients (p = 0.002) reaching the primary endpoint. The 10-year renal survival for T0, T1, and T2 was 100, 50, and 17%, respectively (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for reaching the primary endpoint was 32 for patients with T ≥1 versus T0 (p = 0.01). In our experience, the Oxford classification predicts progressive renal disease, but the degree of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was the only feature independently predictive of outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The REBUS-MCNP linkage.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J. G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-04-24

    The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program uses the REBUS-PC computer code to provide reactor physics and core design information such as neutron flux distributions in space, energy, and time, and to track isotopic changes in fuel and neutron absorbers with burnup. REBUS-PC models the complete fuel cycle including shuffling capability. REBUS-PC evolved using the neutronic capabilities of multi-group diffusion theory code DIF3D 9.0, but was extended to apply the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP for one-group fluxes and cross-sections. The linkage between REBUS-PC and MCNP has recently been modernized and extended, as described in this manual. REBUS-PC now calls MCNP via a system call so that the user can apply any valid MCNP executable. The interface between REBUS-PC and MCNP requires minimal changes to an existing MCNP model, and little additional input. The REBUS-MCNP interface can also be used in conjunction with DIF3D neutronics to update an MCNP model with fuel compositions predicted using a DIF3D based depletion.

  10. Remaking the medico-legal scene: a social history of the late-Victorian coroner in Oxford.

    PubMed

    Hurren, Elizabeth T

    2010-04-01

    There have been wide-ranging debates about medicine and the law encapsulated in the figure of the coroner in Victorian England. Recently the historical literature on coroners has been enriched by macro-studies. Despite this important research, the social lives of coroners and their daily interactions remain relatively neglected in standard historical accounts. This article redresses that issue by examining the working life of the coroner for Oxford during the late-Victorian era. Edward Law Hussey kept very detailed records of his time in office as coroner. New research material makes it feasible to trace his professional background, from doctor of the sick poor, to hospital house surgeon and then busy coroner. His career trajectory, personal interactions, and professional disputes, provide an important historical prism illuminating contemporary debates that occupied coroners in their working lives. Hussey tried to improve his medico-legal reach and the public image of his coroner's office by reducing infanticide rates, converting a public mortuary, and acquiring a proper coroner's court. His campaigns had limited success because the social scene in which he worked was complicated by the dominance of health and welfare agencies that resented his role as an expanding arm of the Victorian information state.

  11. The Oxford Renal (OxRen) cross-sectional study of chronic kidney disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nathan R; Lasserson, Daniel; Fatoba, Samuel; O'Callaghan, Chris A; Pugh, Chris; Perera-Salazar, Rafael; Shine, Brian; Thompson, Ben; Wolstenholme, Jane; McManus, Richard; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2013-12-17

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosed with objective measures of kidney damage and function has been recognised as a major public health burden. Independent of age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidity, strong associations exist between cardiovascular disease, mortality, morbidity and CKD, defined by reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased urinary albumin excretion. Detection of CKD within the population is therefore a priority for health systems. 15 000 patients aged 60 years or over meeting the inclusion criteria will be invited to the study. Recruitment will be stratified to represent the distribution of socioeconomic position in the UK general population. Patients will be excluded if terminally ill (expected survival <1 year), or if they have received a solid organ transplant. Patients will attend up to two screening visits, to determine if they have CKD, followed by an assessment visit where demographic and physiological parameters will be recorded alongside questionnaires on exercise, diet, cognitive assessment and quality of life. Blood and urine specimens will be taken for immediate routine assays as well as for freezing pending peptide and genetic studies. Patients will have office and home blood pressure measurements as well as pulse wave velocity assessment. Healthcare costs of screening and subsequent monitoring will be calculated. The protocol and related documents have been approved by NRES Committee South Central-Oxford B-Reference 13/SC/0020.

  12. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    SciTech Connect

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M.; Kitsos, G.

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals. Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.

  13. Investigations of Three-Point Linkage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Thomas R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes sequence of activities for teaching three-point linkage concept and gene-mapping to high school biology students. Includes laboratory experiments and hypothetical examples for classroom discussion. (PS)

  14. Linkage: from particulate to interactive genetics.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Genetics was established on a strict particulate conception of heredity. Genetic linkage, the deviation from independent segregation of Mendelian factors, was conceived as a function of the material allocation of the factors to the chromosomes, rather than to the multiple effects (pleiotropy) of discrete factors. Although linkage maps were abstractions they provided strong support for the chromosomal theory of inheritance. Direct Cytogenetic evidence was scarce until X-ray induced major chromosomal rearrangements allowed direct correlation of genetic and cytological rearrangements. Only with the discovery of the polytenic giant chromosomes in Drosophila larvae in the 1930s were the virtual maps backed up by physical maps of the genetic loci. Genetic linkage became a pivotal experimental tool for the examination of the integration of genetic functions in development and in evolution. Genetic mapping has remained a hallmark of genetic analysis. The location of genes in DNA is a modern extension of the notion of genetic linkage.

  15. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anouti, Yahya

    Historically, fossil fuel consumers in most developing hydrocarbon-rich countries have enjoyed retail prices at a discount from international benchmarks. Governments of these countries consider the subsidy transfer to be a means for sharing the wealth from their resource endowment. These subsidies create negative economic, environmental, and social distortions, which can only increase over time with a fast growing, young, and rich population. The pressure to phase out these subsidies has been mounting over the last years. At the same time, policy makers in resource-rich developing countries are keen to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of their exhaustible resources. To this end, they are deploying local content policies with the aim of increasing the economic linkages from extracting their resources. Against this background, this dissertation's three essays evaluate (1) the global impact of rationalizing transport fuel prices, (2) how resource-rich countries can achieve the objectives behind fuel subsidies more efficiently through direct cash transfers, and (3) the economic tradeoffs from deploying local content policies and the presence of an optimal path. We begin by reviewing the literature and building the case for rationalizing transport fuel prices to reflect their direct costs (production), indirect costs (road maintenance) and negative externalities (climate change, local pollutants, traffic accidents and congestion). To do so, we increase the scope of the economic literature by presenting an algorithm to evaluate the rationalized prices in different countries. Then, we apply this algorithm to quantify the rationalized prices across 123 countries in a partial equilibrium setting. Finally, we present the first comprehensive measure of the impact of rationalizing fuel prices on the global demand for gasoline and diesel, environmental emissions, government revenues, and consumers' welfare. By rationalizing transport fuel

  16. Pairwise Linkage for Point Cloud Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaohu; Yao, Jian; Tu, Jinge; Li, Kai; Li, Li; Liu, Yahui

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we first present a novel hierarchical clustering algorithm named Pairwise Linkage (P-Linkage), which can be used for clustering any dimensional data, and then effectively apply it on 3D unstructured point cloud segmentation. The P-Linkage clustering algorithm first calculates a feature value for each data point, for example, the density for 2D data points and the flatness for 3D point clouds. Then for each data point a pairwise linkage is created between itself and its closest neighboring point with a greater feature value than its own. The initial clusters can further be discovered by searching along the linkages in a simple way. After that, a cluster merging procedure is applied to obtain the finally refined clustering result, which can be designed for specialized applications. Based on the P-Linkage clustering, we develop an efficient segmentation algorithm for 3D unstructured point clouds, in which the flatness of the estimated surface of a 3D point is used as its feature value. For each initial cluster a slice is created, then a novel and robust slicemerging method is proposed to get the final segmentation result. The proposed P-Linkage clustering and 3D point cloud segmentation algorithms require only one input parameter in advance. Experimental results on different dimensional synthetic data from 2D to 4D sufficiently demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed P-Linkage clustering algorithm and a large amount of experimental results on the Vehicle-Mounted, Aerial and Stationary Laser Scanner point clouds illustrate the robustness and efficiency of our proposed 3D point cloud segmentation algorithm.

  17. Impact of the Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) Initiative on Linkage to Care for Minnesota Refugees with Hepatitis B, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Linde, Ann C; Sweet, Kristin A; Nelson, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Chute, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    The Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) initiative promoted viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C screening, posttest counseling, and linkage to care at 34 U.S. sites from 2012 to 2014. Through the HepTLC initiative, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) and clinic partners began conducting linkage-to-care activities with hepatitis B-positive refugees in October 2012. This intervention provided culturally appropriate support to link refugees to follow-up care for hepatitis B. MDH refugee health and viral hepatitis surveillance programs, along with clinics that screened newly arrived refugees in Hennepin and Ramsey counties in Minnesota, collaborated on the project, which took place from October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2014. Bilingual care navigators contacted refugees to provide education, make appointments, and arrange transportation. We compared the linkage-to-care rate for participants with the rates for refugees screened the year before project launch using a two-sample test of proportions. In the year preceding the project (October 2011 through September 2012), 87 newly arrived refugees had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test. Fifty-six (64%) refugees received follow-up care, 12 (14%) refugees did not receive follow-up care, and 19 (22%) refugees could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. During the project, 174 HBsAg-positive, newly arrived refugees were screened. Of those 174 refugees, 162 (93%) received follow-up care, seven (4%) did not receive follow-up care, and five (3%) could not be located and had no record of follow-up care. The one-year linkage-to-care rate for project participants (93%) was significantly higher than the rate for refugees screened the previous year (64%) (p<0.001). In the context of a strong screening and surveillance infrastructure, a simple intervention improved the linkage-to-care rate for HBsAg-positive refugees.

  18. Meaningful changes for the Oxford hip and knee scores after joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Beard, David J; Harris, Kristina; Dawson, Jill; Doll, Helen; Murray, David W; Carr, Andrew J; Price, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    To present estimates of clinically meaningful or minimal important changes for the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) after joint replacement surgery. Secondary data analysis of the NHS patient-reported outcome measures data set that included 82,415 patients listed for hip replacement surgery and 94,015 patients listed for knee replacement surgery was performed. Anchor-based methods revealed that meaningful change indices at the group level [minimal important change (MIC)], for example in cohort studies, were ∼ 11 points for the OHS and ∼ 9 points for the OKS. For assessment of individual patients, receiver operating characteristic analysis produced MICs of 8 and 7 points for OHS and OKS, respectively. Additionally, the between group minimal important difference (MID), which allows the estimation of a clinically relevant difference in change scores from baseline when comparing two groups, that is, for clinical trials, was estimated to be ∼ 5 points for both the OKS and the OHS. The distribution-based minimal detectable change (MDC90) estimates for the OKS and OHS were 4 and 5 points, respectively. This study has produced and discussed estimates of minimal important change/difference for the OKS/OHS. These estimates should be used in the power calculations and the interpretation of studies using the OKS and OHS. The MDC90 (∼ 4 points OKS and ∼ 5 points OHS) represents the smallest possible detectable change for each of these instruments, thus indicating that any lower value would fall within measurement error. Copyright © 2015 University of Oxford. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does new instrumentation improve radiologic alignment of the Oxford® medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lim, Hong Chul; Han, Seung-Beom; Jeong, Chandong; Kim, Seul-Gi; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    A new instrument system has been introduced to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of implant positioning in Oxford® unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). This study aimed to determine if the new instrumentation could improve postoperative implant positioning and limb alignment, and reduce the occurrence of outliers in Oxford® UKA. A total of 77 cases of Oxford® UKA with the new instrumentation were included. Individual matching for the conventional instrument group was performed according to age, sex, and body mass index. Postoperative radiological variables, including the hip-knee-ankle angle and the varus/valgus and flexion/extension angles of the femoral and tibial implants, were measured and compared between the new instrumentation group and the conventional group. The outliers in implant positions and postoperative complications were also compared. No significant between-group differences were observed in terms of lower limb alignment and tibial implant alignment. However, statistically significant differences were identified in the varus/valgus and flexion/extension angles of the femoral implant (P=0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). More outliers were observed in the flexion/extension angles of the femoral and tibial implants in the new instrumentation group. Eight meniscal bearing dislocations and three lateral compartmental degenerative changes were found in the conventional group, while there were two meniscal bearing dislocations in the new instrumentation group during the study period. The present study did not confirm any benefit of the new instrument system in terms of postoperative limb alignment, positioning of the implant, or reducing outliers beyond the use of the conventional instruments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The cemented twin-peg Oxford partial knee replacement survivorship: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    White, Stephen H; Roberts, Sharon; Kuiper, Jan Herman

    2015-09-01

    A new twin-peg version of the Oxford knee was introduced in 2003. However, until now there has been no information about its survivorship. The aim of this study was to determine the survivorship, and the patients' perception of outcome over time. A cohort of all patients treated from 2003 until 2009 using the twin-peg Oxford partial knee was contacted. The main indication for treatment was anteromedial osteoarthritis (AMOA). The Oxford Knee Score (OKS), American Knee Society Functional (AKS-F) score and satisfaction rate were obtained, and the time-to-failure was used to perform a survival analysis. There were 249 patients treated, with 288 medial cemented implants. Of these, 248 patients with 287 implants could be contacted and implant survival or failure was verified. Their mean age was 67years (range: 34-94). The mean follow-up time was 5.1years (maximum: 9.2). The nine years cumulative implant survival rate for all cases using revision for any reason to define failure was 98% (95% CI, 84 to 100). There were no cases of femoral loosening. The mean OKS was 22 pre-operatively, 41 at two years, and 41 at final review, at which point 96% of patients were very or fairly pleased with the result. The survivorship of the twin-peg knee was better than that of the single peg knee at our centre, and appeared no worse than the results of the single peg knee at the originating centre. It can offer secure femoral fixation, sustained clinical benefit and patient satisfaction. Level IV case-series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A modified technique to reduce tibial keel cutting errors during an Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hiroshi; Taketomi, Shuji; Tahara, Keitarou; Yamagami, Ryota; Sanada, Takaki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Bone cutting errors can cause malalignment of unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA). Although the extent of tibial malalignment due to horizontal cutting errors has been well reported, there is a lack of studies evaluating malalignment as a consequence of keel cutting errors, particularly in the Oxford UKA. The purpose of this study was to examine keel cutting errors during Oxford UKA placement using a navigation system and to clarify whether two different tibial keel cutting techniques would have different error rates. The alignment of the tibial cut surface after a horizontal osteotomy and the surface of the tibial trial component was measured with a navigation system. Cutting error was defined as the angular difference between these measurements. The following two techniques were used: the standard "pushing" technique in 83 patients (group P) and a modified "dolphin" technique in 41 patients (group D). In all 123 patients studied, the mean absolute keel cutting error was 1.7° and 1.4° in the coronal and sagittal planes, respectively. In group P, there were 22 outlier patients (27 %) in the coronal plane and 13 (16 %) in the sagittal plane. Group D had three outlier patients (8 %) in the coronal plane and none (0 %) in the sagittal plane. Significant differences were observed in the outlier ratio of these techniques in both the sagittal (P = 0.014) and coronal (P = 0.008) planes. Our study demonstrated overall keel cutting errors of 1.7° in the coronal plane and 1.4° in the sagittal plane. The "dolphin" technique was found to significantly reduce keel cutting errors on the tibial side. This technique will be useful for accurate component positioning and therefore improve the longevity of Oxford UKAs. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  2. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.

    PubMed

    Appleby, P; Roddam, A; Allen, N; Key, T

    2007-12-01

    To compare fracture rates in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Prospective cohort study of self-reported fracture risk at follow-up. The United Kingdom. A total of 7947 men and 26,749 women aged 20-89 years, including 19,249 meat eaters, 4901 fish eaters, 9420 vegetarians and 1126 vegans, recruited by postal methods and through general practice surgeries. Cox regression. Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88-1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89-1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89-1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90-1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90-1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69-1.44) for vegans. In this population, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. The higher fracture risk in the vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. An adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health, irrespective of dietary preferences. The EPIC-Oxford study is supported by The Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

  3. Biopsy timing and Oxford classification variables in childhood/adolescent IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yuko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Hama, Taketsugu; Sato, Masashi; Mukaiyama, Hironobu; Togawa, Hiroko; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto; Yoshikawa, Norishige

    2015-02-01

    Although the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy appears valid, we found crescents were significantly related to renal outcome in our cohort, whereas segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) was not. The timing of renal biopsy may significantly affect the variables in the Oxford classification. The relationship between biopsy timing and pathological variables (mesangial hypercellularity score [M], endocapillary hypercellularity [E], S, tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis [T], crescents, and global glomerulosclerosis [G]) was analyzed retrospectively in 250 children with IgA nephropathy. The median time from disease onset to renal biopsy was 5.1 months (interquartile range, 2.7-15.4). M (ρ = -0.26, P < 0.0001), E (ρ = -0.34, P < 0.0001), and crescents (ρ = -0.14, P = 0.023) showed significant negative correlations, and S (ρ = 0.15, P = 0.018) and G (ρ = 0.25, P < 0.0001) showed significant positive correlations with time to biopsy (Spearman test). M, E, and crescents differed significantly in renal biopsies obtained before and after 3 years from onset (Wilcoxon test). Most crescents (92.9 %) were cellular/fibrocellular and were acute lesions. As crescents formed early after disease onset and decreased over time, they may be prognostic for acute phase, but not for chronic phase disease. Renal biopsy timing may alter the significance of variables used in the Oxford classification.

  4. Some minor female reproductive system disorders: findings in the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Martin; Yeates, David

    2009-04-01

    The Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study has provided information on many serious diseases of the female reproductive tract. No information has been published about a number of common minor conditions. This report fills the gap with regard to uterine polyp, cervicitis, cervical erosion, and vaginitis and vulvitis. The Oxford-FPA study includes 17 032 married women recruited at ages 25-39 years between 1968 and 1974 from clinics in England and Scotland. These women were followed up until mid-1994. Information collected during follow-up included details of contraceptive use, cervical smears taken at the clinic, pregnancies and hospital referrals. Oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with a reduction in first hospital referral for uterine polyp and for vaginitis and vulvitis, which became more marked with increasing duration of use. There was a slightly increased rate of hospital referral for cervicitis in OC users. Referral for cervical erosion was markedly increased in current and recent OC users (rate ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.4). This increase in risk steadily declined after OC use was discontinued. First hospital referral for both uterine polyp and cervical erosion showed a highly significant negative association with numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The explanation for these observations is unknown. It should be remembered that the OCs studied were mainly those used in the 1970s and 1980s and mostly contained 50 microg estrogen. On balance, the overall effect of OC use on the conditions considered was neutral or beneficial. The apparent protective effect of cigarette smoking against uterine polyp and cervical erosion, even if valid, counts as nothing against the overwhelming adverse effects of smoking on health.

  5. Geophysical logging at the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antolino, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina, during January through March 2016. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 150 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 3 open borehole wells.

  6. Measuring pressure under burns pressure garments using the Oxford Pressure Monitor.

    PubMed

    Harries, C A; Pegg, S P

    1989-06-01

    Pressure garments are used extensively in the treatment of hypertrophic scarring following burn injuries. The Oxford Pressure Monitor was used to measure garment-scar interface pressure (mmHg) using a number of fabric types over various body parts. The results indicate a wide range of pressure values between different garments and body parts with the greatest pressures found over the dorsum of hands and feet. The problems of achieving 'optimal pressure' over hypertrophic scarring are discussed with emphasis on the need for more accurate measuring equipment.

  7. Positional cloning by linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E

    2004-05-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald's likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to efficient

  8. Fault linkage and continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  9. Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species

    PubMed Central

    Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID

  10. Oxford Nanopore sequencing, hybrid error correction, and de novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Sara; Gurtowski, James; Ethe-Sayers, Scott; Deshpande, Panchajanya; Schatz, Michael C; McCombie, W Richard

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring the progress of DNA molecules through a membrane pore has been postulated as a method for sequencing DNA for several decades. Recently, a nanopore-based sequencing instrument, the Oxford Nanopore MinION, has become available, and we used this for sequencing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. To make use of these data, we developed a novel open-source hybrid error correction algorithm Nanocorr specifically for Oxford Nanopore reads, because existing packages were incapable of assembling the long read lengths (5-50 kbp) at such high error rates (between ∼5% and 40% error). With this new method, we were able to perform a hybrid error correction of the nanopore reads using complementary MiSeq data and produce a de novo assembly that is highly contiguous and accurate: The contig N50 length is more than ten times greater than an Illumina-only assembly (678 kb versus 59.9 kbp) and has >99.88% consensus identity when compared to the reference. Furthermore, the assembly with the long nanopore reads presents a much more complete representation of the features of the genome and correctly assembles gene cassettes, rRNAs, transposable elements, and other genomic features that were almost entirely absent in the Illumina-only assembly.

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Cross-Culturally Adapted German Oxford Hip Score

    PubMed Central

    Sieverding, Marc; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; von Knoch, Fabian; Mannion, Anne F.; Leunig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is currently no German version of the Oxford hip score. Therefore we sought to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Oxford hip score for use with German-speaking patients (OHS-D) with osteoarthritis of the hip using a forward-backward translation procedure. We then assessed the new score in 105 consecutive patients (mean age, 63.4 years; 48 women) undergoing THA. We specifically determined: the number of fully completed questionnaires, reliability, concurrent validity by correlation with the WOMAC, Harris hip score, and SF-12, and distribution of floor and ceiling effects. We received 96.6% fully completed questionnaires. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90 and Cronbach’s alpha of 0.87 suggested the OHS-D was reliable. Correlation coefficients between the OHS-D and the WOMAC total score, pain subscale, stiffness subscale, and physical function subscale were 0.82, 0.70, 0.68, and 0.82, respectively. OHS-D correlated with the Harris hip score (r = 0.63) and the physical component scale of the SF-12 (r = 0.58). We observed no ceiling or floor effects. The OHS-D appeared a reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing pain and disability with German-speaking patients with hip osteoarthritis. Level of Evidence: Level I, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18726655

  12. 1D Genome Sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Sara; Wappel, Robert; McCombie, W Richard

    2017-07-11

    Today's short-read sequencing instruments can generate read lengths between 50 bp and 700 bp depending on the specific instrument. These high-throughput sequencing approaches have revolutionized genomic science, allowing hundreds of thousands of full genomes to be sequenced, and have become indispensable tools for many researchers. With greater insight has come the revelation that many genomes are much more complicated than originally thought and include many rearrangements and copy-number variations. Unfortunately, short-read sequencing technologies are not well suited for identifying many of these types of events. Long-read sequencing technologies can read contiguous fragments of DNA in excess of 10 kb and are much better suited for detecting large structural events. The newest long-read sequencing instrument is the MinION device from Oxford Nanopore. The rapid sequencing speed and low upfront instrument cost are features drawing interest in this device from the genomics community. This unit provides a representative protocol for carrying out human genome sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Oxford Nanopore sequencing, hybrid error correction, and de novo assembly of a eukaryotic genome

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Sara; Gurtowski, James; Ethe-Sayers, Scott; Deshpande, Panchajanya; Schatz, Michael C.; McCombie, W. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the progress of DNA molecules through a membrane pore has been postulated as a method for sequencing DNA for several decades. Recently, a nanopore-based sequencing instrument, the Oxford Nanopore MinION, has become available, and we used this for sequencing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. To make use of these data, we developed a novel open-source hybrid error correction algorithm Nanocorr specifically for Oxford Nanopore reads, because existing packages were incapable of assembling the long read lengths (5–50 kbp) at such high error rates (between ∼5% and 40% error). With this new method, we were able to perform a hybrid error correction of the nanopore reads using complementary MiSeq data and produce a de novo assembly that is highly contiguous and accurate: The contig N50 length is more than ten times greater than an Illumina-only assembly (678 kb versus 59.9 kbp) and has >99.88% consensus identity when compared to the reference. Furthermore, the assembly with the long nanopore reads presents a much more complete representation of the features of the genome and correctly assembles gene cassettes, rRNAs, transposable elements, and other genomic features that were almost entirely absent in the Illumina-only assembly. PMID:26447147

  14. Proteinases, their receptors and inflammatory signalling: the Oxford South Parks Road connection*

    PubMed Central

    Hollenberg, M D

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the aim of the Paton Memorial Lecture to ‘facilitate the historical study of pharmacology’, this overview, which is my distinct honour to write, represents a ‘Janus-like’ personal perspective looking both backwards and forwards at the birth and growth of ‘receptor molecular pharmacology’ with special relevance to inflammatory diseases. The overview begins in the Oxford Department of Pharmacology in the mid-1960s and then goes on to provide a current perspective of signalling by proteinases. Looking backwards, the synopsis describes the fruitful Oxford Pharmacology Department infrastructure that Bill Paton generated in keeping with the blueprint begun by his predecessor, J H Burn. Looking forwards, the overview illustrates the legacy of that environment in generating some of the first receptor ligand-binding data and providing the inspiration and vision for those like me who were training in the department at the same time. With apologies, I mention only in passing a number of individuals who benefitted from the ‘South Parks Road connection’ using myself as one of the ‘outcome study’ examples. It is also by looking forward that I can meet the complementary aim of summarizing the lecture presented at a ‘BPS 2014 Focused Meeting on Cell Signalling’ to provide an overview of the role of proteinases and their signalling mechanisms in the setting of inflammation. PMID:25521749

  15. Association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fracture risk: the EPIC-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Roddam, Andrew W; Neale, Rachel; Appleby, Paul; Allen, Naomi E; Tipper, Sarah; Key, Timothy J

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vitamin D for bone health is well established, but few data exist on the relation between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of fracture. The authors examined this association within the EPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort) study of men and women in the United Kingdom (1993-1999). Five years after recruitment, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire where fracture incidence was self-reported. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 730 incident fracture cases and 1,445 matched controls. There was a clear association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and month of blood draw, the highest values being during the summer months. Among women, there were significant relations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and age, body mass index, marital status, use of hormone therapy, physical activity, diet group, dietary intake of vitamin D, and alcohol. Similar relations were seen among men, although often they were nonsignificant because of smaller numbers. There was no evidence of an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fracture risk for men or women; the relative risks associated with a doubling of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 1.61) and 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.13), respectively. These results were not affected by adjustment for potential confounders and were consistent across a number of subgroups.

  16. Emissivity Measurements and Laboratory Intercalibration at PSF of Oxford University and PEL of DLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Bowles, N. E.; Thomas, I. R.; Helbert, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emissivity spectra of analogue materials are needed for the analysis of remote sensing emission spectra of airless surfaces. The increasing number of planetary missions to the Moon, Mercury, asteroids, and other minor bodies require appropriate laboratory set-ups to fulfill those requirements. Two independent groups, one at Oxford University and the other at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin provide suitable chambers for emissivity measurements in vacuum. The Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) of the Oxford University favored a high vacuum, low to average sample temperatures, and a limited spectral range for measurements, mostly inspired from lunar and asteroids environment. At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) of DLR, the set-up allows measuring in low-moderate vacuum, for sample temperatures from low to very high (> 1000 K) and in an extended spectral range (1 to over 100μm), with Mercury being the principal driver of chamber design. To understand the influence of environment parameters on emissivity spectra, we measured a fine (0-25 μm) sample of volcanic dust from Iceland (PEL ID 00000240) under several environmental conditions at PSF, and for comparison under standard conditions at PEL.

  17. Recent changes in the treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease by the Oxford Regional Vascular Service.

    PubMed

    Davies, A H; Ramarakha, P; Collin, J; Morris, P J

    1990-10-01

    Over the four years from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1988, 192 patients were treated for aortoiliac occlusive disease by the Oxford Regional Vascular Service. The number of patients treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty increased from two in the first year of the study to 34 in the third year of the study. This increase was accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of patients treated by aortobifemoral bypass but the proportion of patients treated by extra-anatomic bypass remained constant at around 30 per cent. Twice as many patients were treated in the fourth year as in the first year of the study so that the number of surgical operations increased despite many patients being treated exclusively by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The number of patients requiring mandatory treatment for limb salvage increased by 109 per cent and optional treatment for intermittent claudication by 85 per cent. The introduction of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in Oxford has coincided with an increase in the number of patients presenting with symptomatic aortoiliac occlusive disease and has allowed twice as many people to be treated while the number of aortobifemoral bypass operations has remained unchanged. It is concluded that the introduction of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has not only generated its own workload but has also led to an increased demand for surgical reconstruction for aortoiliac occlusive disease.

  18. Variable Lieb-Oxford bound satisfaction in a generalized gradient exchange-correlation functional.

    PubMed

    Vela, A; Medel, V; Trickey, S B

    2009-06-28

    We propose a different way to satisfy both gradient expansion limiting behavior and the Lieb-Oxford bound in a generalized gradient approximation exchange functional by extension of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form. Motivation includes early and recent exploration of modified values for the gradient expansion coefficient in the PBE exchange-correlation functional (cf. the PBEsol functional) and earlier experience with a numerical cutoff for large-s (s proportional to absolute value(vector differential n)/n(4/3)) in a version of the deMon molecular code. For either the original PBE or the PBEsol choice of the gradient coefficient, we find improved performance from using an s-dependent (spatially varying) satisfaction of the Lieb-Oxford bound which quenches to uniform electron gas behavior at large s. The mean absolute deviations (MADs) in atomization energies for a widely used test set of 20 small molecules are reduced by about 22% relative to PBE and PBEsol. For these small molecules, the bond length MADs are essentially unchanged.

  19. Ten- to 15-year results of the Oxford Phase III mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a prospective study from a non-designer group.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, L A; Meijer, L I; Bekerom, M P J van den; Pilot, P; Lisowski, A E

    2016-10-01

    The interest in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) for medial osteoarthritis has increased rapidly but the long-term follow-up of the Oxford UKAs has yet to be analysed in non-designer centres. We have examined our ten- to 15-year clinical and radiological follow-up data for the Oxford Phase III UKAs. Between January 1999 and January 2005 a total of 138 consecutive Oxford Phase III arthroplasties were performed by a single surgeon in 129 patients for medial compartment osteoarthritis (71 right and 67 left knees, mean age 72.0 years (47 to 91), mean body mass index 28.2 (20.7 to 52.2)). Both clinical data and radiographs were prospectively recorded and obtained at intervals. Of the 129 patients, 32 patients (32 knees) died, ten patients (12 knees) were not able to take part in the final clinical and radiological assessment due to physical and mental conditions, but via telephone interview it was confirmed that none of these ten patients (12 knees) had a revision of the knee arthroplasty. One patient (two knees) was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up was 11.7 years (10 to 15). A total of 11 knees (8%) were revised. The survival at 15 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint was 90.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.2 to 96.0) and revision related to the prosthesis was 99.3% (95% CI 97.9 to 100). The mean total Knee Society Score was 47 (0 to 80) pre-operatively and 81 (30 to 100) at latest follow-up. The mean Oxford Knee Score was 19 (12 to 40) pre-operatively and 42 (28 to 55) at final follow-up. Radiolucency beneath the tibial component occurred in 22 of 81 prostheses (27.2%) without evidence of loosening. This study supports the use of UKA in medial compartment osteoarthritis with excellent long-term functional and radiological outcomes with an excellent 15-year survival rate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):41-7. ©2016 Lisowski et al.

  20. Are the Oxford(®) medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty new instruments reducing the bearing dislocation risk while improving components relationships? A case control study.

    PubMed

    Koh, I J; Kim, J H; Jang, S W; Kim, M S; Kim, C; In, Y

    2016-04-01

    The recently introduced Microplasty(®) system is an upgrade of conventional phase III instrumentation. However, little is known of its impact on the position of the implant following the Oxford(®) mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). This study investigated whether the Microplasty(®) instrumentation system can improve the positioning of the implant and reduce the rate of early failure. Microplasty(®) provides a better positioning and decreases the rate of dislocation. The medical records and radiographs of 82 consecutive Oxford(®) UKAs were reviewed retrospectively. The radiographic parameters and prevalence of early failure of 41 UKAs performed with the Microplasty(®) system and 41 UKAs using the conventional instrumentation system were compared. Both groups were comparable in terms of demographics and preoperative status. The femoral components in the Microplasty(®) group were more contiguously placed and more convergent in relation to the tibial components compared to the conventional instrumentation system (P<0.01). The frequency of bearing dislocation was lower in the Microplasty(®) group (P=0.04). A wide gap and the angle between components were associated with an increased risk of bearing dislocation. The Microplasty(®) instrumentation system consistently placed the femoral and tibial components in more contiguous and convergent positions. Such changes in position decreased the risk of bearing dislocations by reducing the space available for bearing rotation. Level III, case control study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Likelihood ratio tests for linkage and linkage disequilibrium: Asymptotic distribution and power

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Terwilliger proposes an interesting likelihood ratio test for linkage disequilibrium that appears conservative under the null hypothesis and powerful when one of several alleles is positively associated with the disease. We discuss in detail the aspects of linkage disequilibrium with a simpler asymptotic distribution. 3 refs.

  2. [Analysis of linkage disequilibrium and linkage for 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X].

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiansu; Tang, Jianpin; Chen, Zucong; Li, Fagui; Yu, Xin; Wang, Ping; Lin, Hanguang; Shi, Meisen

    2014-12-01

    To analyze linkage disequilibrium of 12 short tandem repeat loci on chromosome X (X-STR) among an ethnic Han population from Guilin, Guangxi, and to study the genetic linkage and haplotype distributions of such loci in 2 linkage groups. 12 X-STR loci including DXS8378, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS981, DXS6789, DXS7424, DXS101, DXS7133, GATA165B12, GATA31E08 and DXS7423 were genotyped using an AGCU X12 STR PCR Amplification kit. A total of 119 pedigrees were analyzed for linkage and linkage disequilibrium. Two mutations were found at DXS7424, and 1 mutation was found at DXS10164. A total of 93 haplotypes of DXS10159-DXS10162-DXS10164 were constructed for 261 unrelated males and females, in addition with 167 haplotypes of DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101-DXS7133. The values of recombination fraction between DXS10159 and DXS10162, DXS10162 and DXS10164, DXS6789 and DXS7424, and DXS7424 and DXS101 were 0.0269, 0.0236, 0.0505 and 0.0438, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium of X-STR does not only depend on physical and genetic distances. There was incomplete linkage relationship between loci on DXS10159-DXS1016-DXS10164 and DXS6789-DXS7424-DXS101 linkage groups.

  3. Genome scan for linkage to asthma using a linkage disequilibrium-lod score test.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Slager, S L; Huang, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a genome-wide linkage study of asthma on the German and Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) data. Using a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium test and the nonparametric linkage score, we identified 13 markers from the German data, 1 marker from the African American (CSGA) data, and 7 markers from the Caucasian (CSGA) data in which the p-values ranged between 0.0001 and 0.0100. From our analysis and taking into account previous published linkage studies of asthma, we suggest that three regions in chromosome 5 (around D5S418, D5S644, and D5S422), one region in chromosome 6 (around three neighboring markers D6S1281, D6S291, and D6S1019), one region in chromosome 11 (around D11S2362), and two regions in chromosome 12 (around D12S351 and D12S324) especially merit further investigation.

  4. Disulphide linkage in mouse ST6Gal-I: determination of linkage positions and mutant analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Ishihara, Yoshimi; Takaki, Yoshie; Kono, Mari; Dohmae, Naoshi; Tsuji, Shuichi

    2012-02-01

    All cloned sialyltransferases from vertebrates are classified into four subfamilies and are characterized as having type II transmembrane topology. The catalytic domain has highly conserved motifs known as sialylmotifs. Besides sialylmotifs, each family has several unique conserved cysteine (Cys) residues mainly in the catalytic domain. The number and loci of conserved amino acids, however, differ with each subfamily, suggesting that the conserved Cys-residues and/or disulphide linkages they make may contribute to linkage specificity. Using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry, the present study performed disulphide linkage analysis on soluble mouse ST6Gal-I, which has six Cys-residues. Results confirmed that there were no free Cys-residues, and all six residues contributed to disulphide linkage formation, C(139)-C(403), C(181)-C(332) and C(350)-C(361). Study of single amino acid-substituted mutants revealed that the disulphide linkage C(181)-C(332) was necessary for molecular expression of the enzyme, and that the disulphide linkage C(350)-C(361) was necessary for enzyme activity. The remaining disulphide linkage C(139)-C(403) was not necessary for enzyme expression or for activity, including substrate specificity. Crystallographic study of pig ST3Gal I has recently been reported. Interestingly, the loci of disulphide linkages in ST6Gal-I differ from those in ST3Gal I, suggesting that the linkage specificity of sialyltransferase may results from significant structural differences, including the loci of disulphide linkages.

  5. Disulphide linkage in mouse ST6Gal-I: determination of linkage positions and mutant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Takumi; Ishihara, Yoshimi; Takaki, Yoshie; Kono, Mari; Dohmae, Naoshi; Tsuji, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    All cloned sialyltransferases from vertebrates are classified into four subfamilies and are characterized as having type II transmembrane topology. The catalytic domain has highly conserved motifs known as sialylmotifs. Besides sialylmotifs, each family has several unique conserved cysteine (Cys) residues mainly in the catalytic domain. The number and loci of conserved amino acids, however, differ with each subfamily, suggesting that the conserved Cys-residues and/or disulphide linkages they make may contribute to linkage specificity. Using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)-mass spectrometry, the present study performed disulphide linkage analysis on soluble mouse ST6Gal-I, which has six Cys-residues. Results confirmed that there were no free Cys-residues, and all six residues contributed to disulphide linkage formation, C139–C403, C181–C332 and C350–C361. Study of single amino acid-substituted mutants revealed that the disulphide linkage C181–C332 was necessary for molecular expression of the enzyme, and that the disulphide linkage C350–C361 was necessary for enzyme activity. The remaining disulphide linkage C139–C403 was not necessary for enzyme expression or for activity, including substrate specificity. Crystallographic study of pig ST3Gal I has recently been reported. Interestingly, the loci of disulphide linkages in ST6Gal-I differ from those in ST3Gal I, suggesting that the linkage specificity of sialyltransferase may results from significant structural differences, including the loci of disulphide linkages. PMID:22039275

  6. Development of a valid simplified Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score in patients with hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Jia; Zhao, Jinzhu; Liu, Denghui; Xu, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    Although the Oxford Hip Score has been translated and validated in several languages, there is currently no Chinese version of the outcomes measurement. Our study aims to crossculturally adapt and validate the Oxford Hip Score into a simplified Chinese version. We tested the (1) reliability; (2) validity; and (3) responsiveness of the Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score. First we translated the Oxford Hip Score into simplified Chinese, then back into English, then held a consensus meeting to achieve the final simplified Chinese version. Then we evaluated the psychometric properties of Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). All patients undergoing THA between July and December 2012 were invited to participate in this study; a total of 108 (79% of 136 invited) did so. To assess the test-retest validity, all participants completed the Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score again with a 2-week interval. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the construct validity between the Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score and visual analog scale (VAS), Harris hip score, and eight individual domains of the SF-36. Responsiveness was demonstrated by comparing the pre- and postoperative scores of the Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score. The test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (0.937) and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha (0.91) were excellent. The Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score correlated with the Harris hip score (0.89, p < 0.01), VAS (-0.79, p < 0.01), and Physical Functioning (0.79, p < 0.01) and Bodily Pain (0.70, p < 0.01) domains of SF-36, which suggested construct validity. No floor or ceiling effects were found. The effect size and standardized response mean values were 3.52 and 3.31, respectively, indicating good responsiveness. The Chinese version of the Oxford Hip Score showed good reliability, validity, and responsiveness in evaluating standard

  7. Does location of patellofemoral chondral lesion influence outcome after Oxford medial compartmental knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Konan, S; Haddad, F S

    2016-10-01

    Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is associated with successful outcomes in carefully selected patient cohorts. We hypothesised that severity and location of patellofemoral cartilage lesions significantly influences functional outcome after Oxford medial compartmental knee arthroplasty. We reviewed 100 consecutive UKAs at minimum eight-year follow-up (96 to 132). A single surgeon performed all procedures. Patients were selected based on clinical and plain radiographic assessment. All patients had end-stage medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) with sparing of the lateral compartment and intact anterior cruciate ligaments. None of the patients had end-stage patellofemoral OA, but patients with anterior knee pain or partial thickness chondral loss were not excluded. There were 57 male and 43 female patients. The mean age at surgery was 69 years (41 to 82). At surgery the joint was carefully inspected for patellofemoral chondral loss and this was documented based on severity of cartilage loss (0 to 4 Outerbridge grading) and topographic location (medial, lateral, central, and superior or inferior). Functional scores collected included Oxford Knee Score (OKS), patient satisfaction scale and University College Hospital (UCH) knee score. Intraclass correlation was used to compare chondral damage to outcomes. All patients documented significant improvement in pain and improved functional scores at mid-term follow-up. There were four revisions (mean 2.9 years, 2 to 4; standard deviation (sd) 0.9) in this cohort, three for tibial loosening and one for femoral loosening. There was one infection that was treated with debridement and insert exchange. The mean OKS improved from 23.2 (sd 7.1) to 39.1 (sd 6.9); p < 0.001. The cohort with central and lateral grade 3 patellofemoral OA documented lower mean satisfaction with pain (90, sd 11.8) and function (87.5, sd 10.3) on the patient satisfaction scale. On the UCH scale, patients reported significantly decreased

  8. Oral contraceptive use and cancer: final report from the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study.

    PubMed

    Vessey, Martin; Yeates, David

    2013-12-01

    This analysis provides the final results on cancer incidence in relation to oral contraceptive (OC) use from the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) contraceptive study, which closed at the end of 2010. An additional 6 years of observation have been added since our last report and there has been an increase in the numbers of cancers of over 50% at seven of the sites considered. The Oxford-FPA study includes 17032 women aged 25-39 years recruited from 1968 to 1974 at contraceptive clinics in England and Scotland. These women were using OCs, a diaphragm or an intrauterine device. Information about cancer incidence among them has been collected from recruitment until closure of the study. OC use was not related to nonreproductive cancer. Breast cancer findings (1087 cases) were entirely negative; the rate ratio (RR) comparing ever users of OCs with never users was 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-1.1]. Only two cases of cervical cancer have been added since our last report (total: 61 cases); the RR comparing ever use with never use is now 3.4 (95% CI: 1.6-8.9). The risk of this disease increases sharply with duration of OC use and declines steadily with interval since last OC use. OC use protects against both uterine body cancer (124 cases) and ovarian cancer (143 cases). The RRs comparing ever use with never use were 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7), respectively. Protection against both these cancers increased with duration of OC use and waned with interval since last use, but an effect was still present 28 or more years after discontinuation. In our study, OC use had no effect on nonreproductive cancers or on breast cancer. The risk of cervical cancer was increased and that of uterine body cancer and ovarian cancer was decreased by OC use. All these effects increased with duration of use and declined with interval since last use. The beneficial effects of OC use on cancer outweighed the adverse effects. These findings should

  9. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    PubMed Central

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  10. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion-communicative expression and physiological state-to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  11. A Genetic Linkage Map for Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, M. D.; Kappes, S. M.; Keele, J. W.; Stone, R. T.; Sunden, SLF.; Hawkins, G. A.; Toldo, S. S.; Fries, R.; Grosz, M. D.; Yoo, J.; Beattie, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    We report the most extensive physically anchored linkage map for cattle produced to date. Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. The map also assigns 19 type I loci to specific chromosomes and/or syntenic groups and four cosmid clones containing informative microsatellites to chromosomes 13, 25 and 29 anchoring syntenic groups U11, U7 and U8, respectively. This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). PMID:7908653

  12. A reference linkage map for Eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic linkage maps are invaluable resources in plant research. They provide a key tool for many genetic applications including: mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL); comparative mapping; identifying unlinked (i.e. independent) DNA markers for fingerprinting, population genetics and phylogenetics; assisting genome sequence assembly; relating physical and recombination distances along the genome and map-based cloning of genes. Eucalypts are the dominant tree species in most Australian ecosystems and of economic importance globally as plantation trees. The genome sequence of E. grandis has recently been released providing unprecedented opportunities for genetic and genomic research in the genus. A robust reference linkage map containing sequence-based molecular markers is needed to capitalise on this resource. Several high density linkage maps have recently been constructed for the main commercial forestry species in the genus (E. grandis, E. urophylla and E. globulus) using sequenced Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and microsatellite markers. To provide a single reference linkage map for eucalypts a composite map was produced through the integration of data from seven independent mapping experiments (1950 individuals) using a marker-merging method. Results The composite map totalled 1107 cM and contained 4101 markers; comprising 3880 DArT, 213 microsatellite and eight candidate genes. Eighty-one DArT markers were mapped to two or more linkage groups, resulting in the 4101 markers being mapped to 4191 map positions. Approximately 13% of DArT markers mapped to identical map positions, thus the composite map contained 3634 unique loci at an average interval of 0.31 cM. Conclusion The composite map represents the most saturated linkage map yet produced in Eucalyptus. As the majority of DArT markers contained on the map have been sequenced, the map provides a direct link to the E. grandis genome sequence and will serve as an important reference for

  13. Comparison of the Haas and the Oxford classifications for prediction of renal outcome in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Sook; Han, Seung Hyeok; Kie, Jeong Hae; Nam, Ki Heon; Lee, Mi Jung; Lim, Beom Jin; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Yung Ly; An, Seong Yeong; Kim, Chan Ho; Doh, Fa Mee; Koo, Hyang Mo; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Pathologic features can provide valuable information for determining prognosis in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, it is uncertain whether the Oxford classification, a new classification of IgAN, can predict renal outcome better than previous ones. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 500 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN between January 2002 and December 2010 to compare the ability of the Haas and the Oxford classifications to predict renal outcome. Primary outcome was a doubling of the baseline serum creatinine concentration (D-SCr). During a mean follow-up of 68 months, 52 (10.4%) and 35 (7.0%) developed D-SCr and end-stage renal disease, respectively. There were graded increases in the development of D-SCr in the higher Haas classes. In addition, the primary endpoint of D-SCr occurred more in patients with the Oxford M and T lesions than those without such lesions. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, the Haas class V (HR, 12.19; P=.002) and the Oxford T1 (hazard ratio [HR], 6.68; P<.001) and T2 (HR, 12.16; P<.001) lesions were independently associated with an increased risk of reaching D-SCr. Harrell's C index of each multivariate model with the Haas and the Oxford classification was 0.867 (P=.015) and 0.881 (P=.004), respectively. This was significantly higher than that of model with clinical factors only (C=0.819). However, there was no difference in C-statistics between the 2 models with the Haas and the Oxford classifications (P=.348). This study suggests that the Haas and the Oxford classifications are comparable in predicting progression of IgAN. © 2014.

  14. Linkage map of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAT.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J M; Holloway, B W

    1978-01-01

    The locations of new markers relative to markers previously mapped on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAT were defined by generalized transduction with phage F116L and F1083. Although the marker orders of the various marker groups were deduced mainly from the results of two-factor crosses, the locations of a number of markers were confirmed by three-factor crosses. A linkage map of the chromosome of P. aeruginosa PAT was constructed which shows the relative locations of 50 genes. From the available data, the linkage maps of P. aeruginosa strains PAO and PAT appear to be similar. PMID:101525

  15. Identifying Candidate Chemical-Disease Linkages ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation at meeting on Environmental and Epigenetic Determinants of IBD in New York, NY on identifying candidate chemical-disease linkages by using AOPs to identify molecular initiating events and using relevant high throughput assays to screen for candidate chemicals. This hazard information is combined with exposure models to inform risk assessment. Presentation at meeting on Environmental and Epigenetic Determinants of IBD in New York, NY on identifying candidate chemical-disease linkages by using AOPs to identify molecular initiating events and using relevant high throughput assays to screen for candidate chemicals. This hazard information is combined with exposure models to inform risk assessment.

  16. Validation of an Italian version of the Oxford happiness inventory in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Meleddu, Mauro; Guicciardi, Marco; Scalas, L Francesca; Fadda, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    An Italian adaptation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory was administered to 782 adolescents. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to examine the first- and second-order factorial structure of the scale and its invariance across gender; internal consistency and construct validity were also investigated. ESEM underlined a 5-factor structure (mastery and self-fulfillment, satisfaction with life, vigor, social interest, and social cheerfulness) that measures positive psychological functioning. These dimensions form a single latent construct of general psychological well-being. The scale showed adequate internal consistency values and strong measurement invariance across gender. Finally, regarding convergent validity, both total scale and subscales were positively correlated with extraversion and self-esteem, were negatively correlated with neuroticism, and displayed no correlation with psychoticism.

  17. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    PubMed

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  18. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  19. Does the Oxford Knee Score complement, concur, or contradict the American Knee Society Score?

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna I A; Johnston, Linda R; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-08-01

    The American Knee Society Score (AKSS) and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) are commonly used outcome assessment tools following total knee arthroplasty. The literature is sparse with regard to direct correlation between the AKSS and the OKS. The present study aimed to elucidate any direct correlation between these two scoring systems. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative AKSS and OKS from 379 patients were analyzed statistically. Regression equations were developed based on curve fit models. The study found a good correlation between the two scoring systems. The OKS can be used as a screening tool to identify which patients need to be assessed clinically in the short term (<2 years) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This will have significant cost-benefit implications. It is also possible to predict the AKSS from OKS using mathematical equations developed for this study. This method of predicting the AKSS from the OKS has not previously been described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design.

  1. Delivering proportionate governance in the era of eHealth: Making linkage and privacy work together.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Nayha; Laurie, Graeme T

    2013-06-01

    This article advances a principled proportionate governance model (PPGM) that overcomes key impediments to using health records for research. Despite increasing initiatives for maximising benefits of data linkage, significant challenges remain, including a culture of caution around data sharing and linkage, failure to make use of flexibilities within the law and failure to incorporate intelligent iterative design. The article identifies key issues for consideration and posits a flexible and accessible governance model that provides a robust and efficient means of paying due regard to both privacy and the public interests in research. We argue that proportionate governance based on clear guiding principles accurately gauges risks associated with data uses and assigns safeguards accordingly. This requires a clear articulation of roles and responsibilities at all levels of decision-making and effective training for researchers and data custodians. Accordingly, the PPGM encourages and supports defensible judgements about data linkage in the public interest.

  2. A survival analysis of 1084 knees of the Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, N.; Jones, L. D.; Rout, R.; Alvand, A.; Rombach, I.; Evans, T.; Jackson, W. F. M.; Beard, D. J.; Price, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of this to study was to compare the previously unreported long-term survival outcome of the Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed by trainee surgeons and consultants. Patients and Methods We therefore identified a previously unreported cohort of 1084 knees in 947 patients who had a UKA inserted for anteromedial knee arthritis by consultants and surgeons in training, at a tertiary arthroplasty centre and performed survival analysis on the group with revision as the endpoint. Results The ten-year cumulative survival rate for revision or exchange of any part of the prosthetic components was 93.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 86.1 to 100, number at risk 45). Consultant surgeons had a nine-year cumulative survival rate of 93.9% (95% CI 90.2 to 97.6, number at risk 16). Trainee surgeons had a cumulative nine-year survival rate of 93.0% (95% CI 90.3 to 95.7, number at risk 35). Although there was no differences in implant survival between consultants and trainees (p = 0.30), there was a difference in failure pattern whereby all re-operations performed for bearing dislocation (n = 7), occurred in the trainee group. This accounted for 0.6% of the entire cohort and 15% of the re-operations. Conclusion This is the largest single series of the Oxford UKA ever reported and demonstrates that good results can be achieved by a heterogeneous group of surgeons, including trainees, if performed within a high-volume centre with considerable experience with the procedure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;(10 Suppl B):22–7. PMID:27694512

  3. Validation of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy for pediatric patients from China.

    PubMed

    Le, Weibo; Zeng, Cai-Hong; Liu, Zhangsuo; Liu, Dong; Yang, Qing; Lin, Rui-Xia; Xia, Zheng-Kun; Fan, Zhong-Min; Zhu, Guanghua; Wu, Ying; Xu, Hong; Zhai, Yihui; Ding, Ying; Yang, Xiaoqing; Liang, Shaoshan; Chen, Hao; Xu, Feng; Huang, Qian; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming; Fogo, Agnes B; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2012-11-27

    The Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) provides a useful tool for prediction of renal prognosis. However, the application of this classification in children with IgAN needs validation in different patient populations. A total of 218 children with IgAN from 7 renal centers in China were enrolled. The inclusion criteria was similar to the original Oxford study. There were 98 patients (45%) with mesangial proliferation (M1), 51 patients (23%) with endocapillary proliferation (E1), 136 patients (62%) with segmental sclerosis/adhesion lesion (S1), 13 patients (6%) with moderate tubulointerstitial fibrosis (T1 26-50% of cortex scarred), and only 2 patients (1%) with severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis (T2, >50% of cortex scarred). During a median follow-up duration of 56 months, 24 children (12.4%) developed ESRD or 50% decline in renal function. In univariate COX analysis, we found that tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (HR 4.3, 95%CI 1.8-10.5, P < 0.001) and segmental glomerulosclerosis (HR 9.2 1.2-68.6, P = 0.03) were significant predictors of renal outcome. However, mesangial hypercellularity, endocapillary proliferation, crescents, and necrosis were not associated with renal prognosis. In the multivariate COX regression model, none of these pathologic lesions were shown to be independent risk factors of unfavorable renal outcome except for tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (HR 2.9, 95%CI 1.0-7.9 P = 0.04). We confirmed tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis was the only feature independently associated with renal outcomes in Chinese children with IgAN.

  4. Meaningful changes for the Oxford hip and knee scores after joint replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Beard, David J.; Harris, Kristina; Dawson, Jill; Doll, Helen; Murray, David W.; Carr, Andrew J.; Price, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present estimates of clinically meaningful or minimal important changes for the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) after joint replacement surgery. Study Design and Setting Secondary data analysis of the NHS patient-reported outcome measures data set that included 82,415 patients listed for hip replacement surgery and 94,015 patients listed for knee replacement surgery was performed. Results Anchor-based methods revealed that meaningful change indices at the group level [minimal important change (MIC)], for example in cohort studies, were ∼11 points for the OHS and ∼9 points for the OKS. For assessment of individual patients, receiver operating characteristic analysis produced MICs of 8 and 7 points for OHS and OKS, respectively. Additionally, the between group minimal important difference (MID), which allows the estimation of a clinically relevant difference in change scores from baseline when comparing two groups, that is, for clinical trials, was estimated to be ∼5 points for both the OKS and the OHS. The distribution-based minimal detectable change (MDC90) estimates for the OKS and OHS were 4 and 5 points, respectively. Conclusion This study has produced and discussed estimates of minimal important change/difference for the OKS/OHS. These estimates should be used in the power calculations and the interpretation of studies using the OKS and OHS. The MDC90 (∼4 points OKS and ∼5 points OHS) represents the smallest possible detectable change for each of these instruments, thus indicating that any lower value would fall within measurement error. PMID:25441700

  5. The Oxford Medial Partial Knee Replacement. The rationale for a femur first technique.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David; Waite, Jon

    2012-12-01

    The Oxford Medial Partial Knee Replacement (PKR) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. The current surgical technique requires a number of judgements to be made, and even in the most experienced hands surgery can be challenging. We present an alternative surgical technique, which we believe addresses the unpredictability of the current method. The technique is based on precise femoral positioning prior to tibial resection. A prospective series of 125 Oxford Medial PKRs was performed using this new technique and a radiographical analysis was performed. We used meniscal thickness, meniscal position and femoral position as measures of reproducibility of the procedure. Variability in meniscal thickness has been minimised with a 3mm meniscal bearing used in 21 knees (15%), 4mm (the target thickness) in 73 knees (59%) and 5mm in 30 knees (24%). The mean meniscal position relative to the tibial tray upright was 2mm (SD 1mm). Femoral component position relative to the tibial tray, which defines the excursion of the meniscus was also assessed. Mean coronal plane alignment was 2° of valgus (SD 2.8). Mean flexion/extension was 3.8° (SD 3.1). The mean rotation was 10° internal (SD 5°). We believe this new technique makes this procedure more reproducible, and should be considered as a viable alternative to the current recommended technique. It may be a better technique for those surgeons who are relatively inexperienced with this prosthesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

    2008-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

  7. Records Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be found when needed, the identification and retention of permanent records are facilitated, and permanent and temporary records are physically segregated, or for electronic records, segregable.

  8. Linkage Rate Between Data From Health Checks and Health Insurance Claims in the Japan National Database

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Etsuji

    2014-01-01

    Background Japan’s National Database (NDB) includes data on health checks and health insurance claims, is linkable using hash functions, and is available for research use. However, the linkage rate between health check and health insurance claims data has not been investigated. Methods Linkage rate was evaluated by comparing observed medical and pharmaceutical charges among health check recipients in fiscal year (FY) 2009 (N = 21 588 883) with expected charges from the same population when record linkage was complete. Using the NDB, observed charges were estimated from the first published result of linking health check recipients in FY2009 and their health insurance claims in FY2010. Expected charges were estimated by combining 3 publicly available datasets, including data from the Medical Care Benefit Survey and an ad-hoc report by the Japan Health Insurance Association. Results Only 14.9% of expected charges were linked by the NDB. The linkage rate was higher for women than for men (18.2% vs 12.4%) and for elderly adults as compared with younger adults (>25% vs <10%). Conclusions The linkage rate in the NDB was so low that any research linking health check and health insurance claims will not be reliable. Causes for the low linkage rate include differences between health check and health insurance claims data in name format (eg, insertion of a space between family and given names) and date of birth (Japanese vs Gregorian calendar). Investigation of the causes for the low linkage rate and measures for improvement are urgently needed. PMID:24317344

  9. Posterior probability of linkage analysis of autism dataset identifies linkage to chromosome 16

    PubMed Central

    Wassink, Thomas H.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Sheffield, Val C.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Goedken, Rhinda; Childress, Deborah; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Objective To apply phenotypic and statistical methods designed to account for heterogeneity to linkage analyses of the autism Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism (CLSA) affected sibling pair families. Method The CLSA contains two sets of 57 families each; Set 1 has been analyzed previously, whereas this study presents the first analyses of Set 2. The two sets were analyzed independently, and were further split based on the degree of phrase speech delay in the siblings. Linkage analysis was carried out using the posterior probability of linkage (PPL), a Bayesian statistic that provides a mathematically rigorous mechanism for combining linkage evidence across multiple samples. Results Two-point PPLs from Set 1 led to the follow-up genotyping of 18 markers around linkage peaks on 1q, 13p, 13q, 16q, and 17q in both sets of families. Multipoint PPLs were then calculated for the entire CLSA sample. These analyses identified four regions with at least modest evidence in support of linkage: 1q at 173 cM, PPL = 0.12; 13p at 21 cM, PPL = 0.16; 16q at 63 cM, PPL= 0.36; Xq at 40 cM, PPL = 0.11. Conclusion We find strengthened evidence for linkage of autism to chromosomes 1q, 13p, 16q, and Xq, and diminished evidence for linkage to 7q and 13q. The verity of these findings will be tested by continuing to update our PPL analyses with data from additional autism datasets. PMID:18349700

  10. Oxford knee score and SF-36: translation & reliability for use with total knee arthroscopy patients in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Pongcharoen, Boonchana

    2005-09-01

    Evaluation of health-related quality of life is an established criterion for the evaluation of therapeutic outcome. Specifically, while there are a great number of different questionnaires, in English, for this purpose, there is a lack of comparable questionnaires in Thai. The objectives of the present study were two-fold: (1) to translate the original, English-language, 12-item Oxford (Oxford-12) outcome questionnaire and Short Form 36 (SF-36) general health questionnaire into a standard Thai version, and (2) to assess reliability of these two questionnaires and correlation between them among 100 patients having total knee replacement (TKR). Patients' mean age was 63 years and 86% were female. Oxford-12 revealed that patients had mild problems in terms of function and pain with the average function and pain score of 15.0 and 8.8 compared to maximum possible score of 35 and 25 respectively Oxford-12 was very reliable with Cronbach's alpha for function, pain and total score of 0.819, 0.874 and 0.918 respectively. For 8 health domains of SF-36 including physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), role emotional (RE), and mental health (MH), patients had the highest score (i.e., good health)for VT followed by MH, but lowest for PF. This resulted in a higher score for mental component summary (MCS) than physical component summary (PCS). Cronbach's alpha for 8 health domains varied from 0.651 (VT) to 0.996 (RP). Since a low score of Oxford-12 indicates a better state of health compared to high score for SF-36, negative correlation between them was expected PF of SF-36 had the highest negative correlation with both Oxford function and pain with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of -0.69 and -0.72 respectively. PCS was correlated well with both Oxford function and pain with r of -0.73 and -0.76 respectively whereas correlation between MCS and Oxford function and pain were only -0.60 and

  11. Irish study of high-density Schizophrenia families: Field methods and power to detect linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Kendler, K.S.; Straub, R.E.; MacLean, C.J.

    1996-04-09

    Large samples of multiplex pedigrees will probably be needed to detect susceptibility loci for schizophrenia by linkage analysis. Standardized ascertainment of such pedigrees from culturally and ethnically homogeneous populations may improve the probability of detection and replication of linkage. The Irish Study of High-Density Schizophrenia Families (ISHDSF) was formed from standardized ascertainment of multiplex schizophrenia families in 39 psychiatric facilities covering over 90% of the population in Ireland and Northern Ireland. We here describe a phenotypic sample and a subset thereof, the linkage sample. Individuals were included in the phenotypic sample if adequate diagnostic information, based on personal interview and/or hospital record, was available. Only individuals with available DNA were included in the linkage sample. Inclusion of a pedigree into the phenotypic sample required at least two first, second, or third degree relatives with non-affective psychosis (NAP), one of whom had schizophrenia (S) or poor-outcome schizoaffective disorder (PO-SAD). Entry into the linkage sample required DNA samples on at least two individuals with NAP, of whom at least one had S or PO-SAD. Affection was defined by narrow, intermediate, and broad criteria. 75 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Dialogic Linkage and Resonance in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Hobson, Jessica A.; Garcia-Perez, Rosa; Du Bois, John

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how children with autism make linguistic adjustments when talking with someone else. We devised two novel measures to assess (a) overall conversational linkage and (b) utterance-by-utterance resonance within dialogue between an adult and matched participants with and without autism (n = 12 per group). Participants with autism were…

  13. Linkage Drag: Implication for Plant Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linkage drag is commonly observed in plant breeding, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling this is unclear. The Pi-ta gene, a single copy gene near the centromere region of chromosome 12, confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene in Tetep has been su...

  14. Regional Workshops on CETA/Educational Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert; And Others

    This document presents a summary of the proceedings of five regional workshops in Virginia which focused on planning for future involvement and linkages, as well as giving an orientation to the capabilities and operational philosophies of both Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) programs and educational organizations. Following…

  15. Past CETA Linkages: Models for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapin, Joel D.

    1982-01-01

    Examines lessons learned from successful linkages between community colleges and Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) sponsors as the basis for future occupational training and employment programs. Reviews research examining CETA funding patterns in California and exemplary arrangements between community colleges and CETA nationwide.…

  16. Permethylation Linkage Analysis Techniques for Residual Carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Permethylation analysis is the classic approach to establishing the position of glycosidic linkages between sugar residues. Typically, the carbohydrate is derivatized to form acid-stable methyl ethers, hydrolyzed, peracetylated, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The pos...

  17. ARE COASTAL WETLAND-LAKE LINKAGES IMPORTANT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because coastal werlands typically comprise only a small percentage of the overall surface area in large lakes, an assumption has often been made that functional links between wetlands and the lake proper are of little significance. Recent investigations of functional linkages be...

  18. ARE COASTAL WETLAND-LAKE LINKAGES IMPORTANT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because coastal werlands typically comprise only a small percentage of the overall surface area in large lakes, an assumption has often been made that functional links between wetlands and the lake proper are of little significance. Recent investigations of functional linkages be...

  19. Developing Industry Linkages: Learning from Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misko, Josie

    Linkages between Australia's vocational education and training (VET) and technical and further education (TAFE) sectors and industry were examined through 13 case studies involving a variety of industrial sectors in South Australia, New South Wales, and Victoria. Special attention was paid to the processes established by school clusters to develop…

  20. Chain Linkage in American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Hoyt

    1982-01-01

    Describes how American foreign policy is affected by the complexity of global interrelatedness. It is no longer possible for American foreign policy decisions to be made unilaterally. Examples of how international linkages have influenced American relations with the U.S.S.R., the Middle East, China, and other areas are included. (AM)

  1. Dialogic Linkage and Resonance in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. Peter; Hobson, Jessica A.; Garcia-Perez, Rosa; Du Bois, John

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated how children with autism make linguistic adjustments when talking with someone else. We devised two novel measures to assess (a) overall conversational linkage and (b) utterance-by-utterance resonance within dialogue between an adult and matched participants with and without autism (n = 12 per group). Participants with autism were…

  2. Alocomotino Control Algorithm for Robotic Linkage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-10-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a control algorithm that transitions a robotic linkage system between stabilized states producing responsive locomotion. The developed algorithm is demonstrated using a simple robotic construction consisting of a few links with actuation and sensing at each joint. Numerical and experimental validation is presented.

  3. Automated linkage analysis in psychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    He, L.; Mansfield, D.C.; Brown, A.F.; Green, D.K.

    1995-06-19

    A genome-wide search for linkage of microsatellite markers to chromosomal loci containing genes responsible for the major psychoses is a laborious task which can be carried out with greater speed and economy by introducing automation to several steps in the procedure. We describe the use of the Automated Linkage Preprocessor (ALP) program for the computer analysis of the waveform generated by fluorescein-labelled markers after electrophoretic separation. (To obtain a copy send a request to A.F. Brown at the below MRC address or use Anonymous FTP to ftp.hgu.mrc.ac.uk. Software is in directory pub/ALP.) The program runs on a PC in the Microsoft Windows environment, and is used in conjunction with an automated laser fluorescence (ALF) sequencer (Pharmacia) and its Fragment Manager{trademark} software to detect and size the PCR products, filter out peaks of fluorescence due to nonallele fragments, and generate genotypes in a format suitable for direct input to standard linkage analysis programs. The method should offer the advantages of speed, accuracy, and reduced cost. Its use in linkage studies in a large family with manic-depressive illness is discussed. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Linkage disequilibrium in Theobroma cacao L. populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although the potential of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) mapping to associate markers to agronomic and horticultural traits has been already recognized in cacao, its real efficiency depends on the nature and structure of the LD in the genome of the populations under study. LD is dependent on several fa...

  5. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  6. Three Degree of Freedom Parallel Mechanical Linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A three degree of freedom parallel mechanism or linkage that couples three degree of freedom translational displacements at an endpoint, such as a handle, a hand grip, or a robot tool, to link rotations about three axes that are fixed with respect to a common base or ground link. The mechanism includes a three degree of freedom spherical linkage formed of two closed loops, and a planar linkage connected to the endpoint. The closed loops are rotatably interconnected, and made of eight rigid links connected by a plurality of single degree of freedom revolute joints. Three of these revolute joints are base joints and are connected to a common ground. such that the axis lines passing through the revolute joints intersect at a common fixed center point K forming the center of a spherical work volume in which the endpoint is capable of moving. 'Me three degrees of freedom correspond to the spatial displacement of the endpoint, for instance. The mechanism provides a new overall spatial kinematic linkage composed of a minimal number of rigid links and rotary joints. The mechanism has improved mechanical stiffness, and conveys mechanical power bidirectionally between the human operator and the electromechanical actuators. It does not require gears, belts. cable, screw or other types of transmission elements, and is useful in applications requiring full backdrivability. Thus, this invention can serve as the mechanical linkage for actively powered devices such as compliant robotic manipulators and force-reflecting hand controllers, and passive devices such as manual input devices for computers and other systems.

  7. Model-free linkage analysis using likelihoods

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.; Sham, P.C.

    1995-09-01

    Misspecification of transmission model parameters can produce artifactually lod scores at small recombination fractions and in multipoint analysis. To avoid this problem, we have tried to devise a test that aims to detect a genetic effect at a particular locus, rather than attempting to estimate the map position of a locus with specified effect. Maximizing likelihoods over transmission model parameters, as well as linkage parameters, can produce seriously biased parameter estimates and so yield tests that lack power for the detection of linkage. However, constraining the transmission model parameters to produce the correct population prevalence largely avoids this problem. For computational convenience, we recommend that the likelihoods under linkage and nonlinkage are independently maximized over a limited set of transmission models, ranging from Mendelian dominant to null effect and from null effect to Mendelian recessive. In order to test for a genetic effect at a given map position, the likelihood under linkage is maximized over admixture, the proportion of families linked. Application to simulated data for a wide range of transmission models in both affected sib pairs and pedigrees demonstrates that the new method is well behaved under the null hypothesis and provides a powerful test for linkage when it is present. This test requires no specification of transmission model parameters, apart from an approximate estimate of the population prevalence. It can be applied equally to sib pairs and pedigrees, and, since it does not diminish the lod score at test positions very close to a marker, it is suitable for application to multipoint data. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Identifying core NANDA-I nursing diagnoses, NIC interventions, NOC outcomes, and NNN linkages for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyejin

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the core nursing diagnoses, interventions, outcomes, and linkages using standardized nursing terminologies for patients with heart failure (HF). For this study a retrospective descriptive design was used. The frequently used NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages were identified through 272 inpatient records of patients discharged with HF in a midwestern community. The findings indicate that the top 10 NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC accounted for more than 50% of nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes. The most frequently used top 10 NNN linkages were identified for patients with HF. The identified core NANDA-I, NIC, NOC, and NNN linkages for HF from this study provide scope of practice of nurses working in HF clinics. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  9. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Muhammed

    2013-07-01

    Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education: Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has been validated as clinically useful tool for prognostication of individual patients with IgAN. The original classification did not address the significance of immunostaining pattern in IgAN. A subsequent study by the same authors found immunostaining data to be potentially useful in predicting some of the morphological variables of Oxford classification. The study under discussion also addresses the potential significance of these ancillary data in refining the individual prognostication in this disease. Please cite this paper as: Mubarak M. Significance of immunohistochemical findings in Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy: The need for more validation studies. J Nephropathology. 2013; 2(3): 210-213. DOI: 10.5812/nephropathol.11089.

  10. Oxford phase 3 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in Japan--clinical results in greater than one thousand cases over ten years.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenjiro; Tada, Masahiro; Yoshida, Hirokazu; Takei, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Shinichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    There are few reports of the Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) survival rate in Asia. This study describes outcomes of 1279 Oxford UKAs for Japanese patients. The mean follow-up was 5.2 years. We divided patients into two groups based on preoperative indications (extended indications group and strict indications group). The Oxford knee score improved from 22.3 to 40.8 (P=0.041). The 10-year survival rate using revision was 95%. A total of 25 UKAs (2.0%) required revision. The most common reason was subsidence of tibial component. The 5-year cumulative survival rate of the strict indications group was significantly higher than that of the extended indications group (99.1% vs. 93.8%, P<0.001). When we followed inclusion criteria strictly, good clinical results were achieved in Asia.

  11. Nonparametric linkage regression. II: Identification of influential pedigrees in tests for linkage.

    PubMed

    Davis, C C; Brown, W M; Lange, E M; Rich, S S; Langefeld, C D

    2001-01-01

    We applied case-deletion-based diagnostics to the combined Caucasian genome scan data for asthma and IgE from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) and German family studies in order to identify influential pedigrees in tests for linkage. These methods identified 12 pedigrees whose data appear not to fit the asthma linkage model and for whom alternative genetic and nongenetic explanations can be explored. The methods also identified four pedigrees for chromosome 1 and two pedigrees for chromosome 2 that provide strong evidence for linkage at their respective loci. Similarly, these methods helped identify four pedigrees that strongly influenced the linkage tests for IgE. From these data, we can construct an enriched subset of pedigrees to be used in further analysis for mapping region-specific putative trait predisposing loci.

  12. Linkage Analysis of Urine Arsenic Species Patterns in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Matthew O; Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Laston, Sandra L; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Umans, Jason G; Thomas, Duncan C; Gilliland, Frank; North, Kari E; Franceschini, Nora; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic toxicokinetics are important for disease risks in exposed populations, but genetic determinants are not fully understood. We examined urine arsenic species patterns measured by HPLC-ICPMS among 2189 Strong Heart Study participants 18 years of age and older with data on ~400 genome-wide microsatellite markers spaced ~10 cM and arsenic speciation (683 participants from Arizona, 684 from Oklahoma, and 822 from North and South Dakota). We logit-transformed % arsenic species (% inorganic arsenic, %MMA, and %DMA) and also conducted principal component analyses of the logit % arsenic species. We used inverse-normalized residuals from multivariable-adjusted polygenic heritability analysis for multipoint variance components linkage analysis. We also examined the contribution of polymorphisms in the arsenic metabolism gene AS3MT via conditional linkage analysis. We localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 10 (LOD 4.12 for %MMA, 4.65 for %DMA, and 4.84 for the first principal component of logit % arsenic species). This peak was partially but not fully explained by measured AS3MT variants. We also localized a QTL for the second principal component of logit % arsenic species on chromosome 5 (LOD 4.21) that was not evident from considering % arsenic species individually. Some other loci were suggestive or significant for 1 geographical area but not overall across all areas, indicating possible locus heterogeneity. This genome-wide linkage scan suggests genetic determinants of arsenic toxicokinetics to be identified by future fine-mapping, and illustrates the utility of principal component analysis as a novel approach that considers % arsenic species jointly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Correlation of immunostaining findings with demographic data and variables of Oxford classification in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Hamid; Sajjadieh, Shahram; Mardani, Saeed; Momeni, Ali; Merikhi, Alireza; Madihi, Yahya; Ghiessari, Alaleh; Emami Naieni, Afsoon

    2013-07-01

    Oxford classification for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) did not include pattern of immunostaining in the analysis. The aim of this study is to determine the potential correlation between the immunostaining data and morphologic variables of Oxford classification (MEST) and various clinical and demographic data of patients with IgAN. The pathologic diagnosis of IgAN requires the demonstration of IgA-dominant mesangial or mesangio-capillary immune deposits through immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. The immune deposits were semiquantitatively assessed as 0 to 3+ positive bright. These were correlated with various clinical, demographic and histological variables of Oxford classification. A total of 114 biopsies were enrolled to the study (70.2% were male).  Mean age of the patients was 37.7 ± 13.6 years. This study showed that, only C3 deposits had a significant correlation with serum creatinine. Other antibodies (IgA, IgM and IgG) had no significant association with serum creatinine. This study also showed that IgA deposition score had significant positive association with endocapillary proliferation (E) and segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) variables of Oxford classification. Moreover, IgM deposition score had positive association with S variable. There was no significant association of IgG deposition score with four morphologic variables of Oxford classification. There was significant association of C3 deposition score with S and E variables too. The significant relationships of IgA and C3 deposits with some of the Oxford variables need more attention. We propose to further investigate this aspect of IgAN disease.

  14. Validity and responsiveness of the Oxford hip score in a prospective study with Japanese total hip arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Yuko; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Fujita, Kimie; Nishii, Takashi; Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing need for disease-specific health outcome measurements, the Oxford hip score was developed to measure health-related quality of life of total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients in the United Kingdom. The Oxford hip score comprises 12 items pertaining to pain and physical function, which are increasingly used to measure health outcomes of patients who have undergone THA. The purpose of this study was to establish the validity and responsiveness of the Oxford hip score in a prospective study of Japanese patients. The study was conducted at two hospitals. The eligibility criterion for the study was consenting adult patients who underwent primary unilateral THA between April 2005 and October 2007. Three scales were self-administered at the preoperative stage and 6 months after THA. These scales were the Oxford hip score, the Short Form-36 (SF-36) version 2, and three activities requiring deep flexion of the hip (i.e., clipping one's toenails; use of a Japanese squat toilet; "seiza"--sitting on one's legs on the floor, a common posture while eating in Japan. A total of 224 consenting adult patients were recruited. Among them, 125 (61.9%) participated in pre- and postoperative surveys. Altogether, 108 (22 men, 86 women; mean age, 58.4 +/- 12.5 years) of the 125 patients answered all the items. A significant improvement in the mean scores was observed in all scales. Correlation coefficients between the Oxford hip score and the SF-36 version 2 (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain) ranged from 0.60 to 0.76 preoperatively and postoperatively. Effect size was 1.7 for pain and 1.3 for physical function. The effect size for seiza was small (0.3). This study demonstrated the validity and responsiveness of the Oxford hip score in a prospective study. However, it does not measure activities requiring deep flexion of the hip joint, and the use of additional items is suggested.

  15. External linkage tie permits reduction in ducting system flange thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfleger, R. O.

    1966-01-01

    External linkage tie reduces flange thickness and increases seal efficiency in high pressure ducting and piping systems. The linkage transmits the pressure separating load to the tube wall behind the flange allowing the flange to support only the seal.

  16. Weak linkage between the heaviest rainfall and tallest storms

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N.; Liu, Chuntao; Zipser, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, the heaviest rainfall has been linked to the tallest, most intense convective storms. However, the global picture of the linkage between extreme rainfall and convection remains unclear. Here we analyse an 11-year record of spaceborne precipitation radar observations and establish that a relatively small fraction of extreme convective events produces extreme rainfall rates in any region of the tropics and subtropics. Robust differences between extreme rainfall and convective events are found in the rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions, irrespective of region; most extreme rainfall events are characterized by less intense convection with intense radar echoes not extending to extremely high altitudes. Rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions both indicate the importance of warm-rain processes in producing extreme rainfall rates. Our results demonstrate that, even in regions where severe convective storms are representative extreme weather events, the heaviest rainfall events are mostly associated with less intense convection. PMID:25708295

  17. Weak linkage between the heaviest rainfall and tallest storms.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N; Liu, Chuntao; Zipser, Edward J

    2015-02-24

    Conventionally, the heaviest rainfall has been linked to the tallest, most intense convective storms. However, the global picture of the linkage between extreme rainfall and convection remains unclear. Here we analyse an 11-year record of spaceborne precipitation radar observations and establish that a relatively small fraction of extreme convective events produces extreme rainfall rates in any region of the tropics and subtropics. Robust differences between extreme rainfall and convective events are found in the rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions, irrespective of region; most extreme rainfall events are characterized by less intense convection with intense radar echoes not extending to extremely high altitudes. Rainfall characteristics and environmental conditions both indicate the importance of warm-rain processes in producing extreme rainfall rates. Our results demonstrate that, even in regions where severe convective storms are representative extreme weather events, the heaviest rainfall events are mostly associated with less intense convection.

  18. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia; Linkage analysis and evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p

    SciTech Connect

    Figlewicz, D.A.; Dube, M.P.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a degenerative disorder of the motor system characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Little is known about the pathophysiology of this disorder. FSP can be inherited as an autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive, or X-linked trait. We have undertaken linkage analysis for a group of 36 AD FSP families from which we have collected blood samples from 427 individuals, including 148 affected individuals. Typing of polymorphic markers has allowed us to exclude more than 50% of the genome. Recently, linkage for AD FSP to a locus on chromosome 14q was reported. Our AD FSP kindreds were tested for linkage to markers spanning the 20 cM region between D14S69 and D14S66; however, we were not able to establish linkage for any of our families to chromosome 14. Lod scores suggestive of linkage for some AD FSP kindreds have been obtained for markers on chromosome 2p. We have tested seven polymorphic markers spanning the region between D2S405 and D2S177. Our highest aggregate lod score, including all families tested, was obtained at the locus D2S352: 2.4 at 20 cM. Results from HOMOG analysis for linkage heterogeneity will be reported.

  19. Calcaneal Scoring as an Adjunct to Modified Oxford Hip Scores: Prediction of Contralateral Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Allen D; Huez, Coridon M; Sanders, James O; Liu, Raymond W; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    In 2 recent studies, modified Oxford hip scores of 16 through 18 have been shown to predict an extremely high risk of contralateral slipping in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). However, the modified Oxford system is not widely used. This may be due, in part, to the complexity of the scoring system, difficulty in viewing all 5 radiographic features on a single x-ray and phenotypic variation in the features. Ossification of the calcaneal apophysis provides an osteologic marker of skeletal maturation in relation to peak height velocity and has been described previously. We examine the value of the calcaneal apophyseal ossification sequence for predicting modified Oxford hip scores. We examined 279 pelvis and matching foot x-rays that were taken at the same session from 94 healthy children aged 3 to 18 years. A fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedist determined the modified Oxford hip score for each hip radiograph. The calcaneal x-rays had been previously graded. Modified Oxford hip scores were compared with calcaneal scores for each set of matched hip and calcaneal x-rays. Stage 0 to 2 calcanei had 94% of corresponding hip radiographs rated as modified Oxford scores of 16 to 18. Stage 3 calcanei had 54% rated as 16 to 18 and 31% rated as scores 19 to 21. Stage 4 calcanei had 31% rated as scores 19 to 21, and 68% rated as scores 22 to 26. Stage 5 calcanei had 100% rated as 22 to 26. Using data from Popejoy and colleagues' study, the weighted risk of contralateral SCFE was 94% for calcaneal stage 0, 86.5% for calcaneal stage 1, 90.3% for calcaneal stage 2, 55.8% for calcaneal stage 3, 6.1% for calcaneal stage 4, and 0 for calcaneal stage 5. Calcaneal stages 0 to 3 correspond entirely to modified Oxford scores indicating elevated risk of contralateral SCFE. The calcaneal scoring system has potential for adjunctive use with the modified Oxford score for prediction of contralateral SCFE.

  20. Electronic recording of transfusion-related patient observations: a comparison of two bedside systems.

    PubMed

    Staples, S; Noel, S; Watkinson, P; Murphy, M F

    2017-09-27

    Vital sign observations should be monitored before, during and after transfusion to enable adverse events to be identified, but surveys in the UK show poor compliance with good practice. At the Oxford University Hospitals, there are two electronic bedside processes for recording observations; BloodTrack Tx (Haemonetics Corp.), the routine electronic transfusion process and a locally developed process, the System for Electronic Nursing Documentation (SEND) with integrated 'track and trigger' calculation for monitoring vital signs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the conduct of patient observation monitoring for blood transfusion using two electronic bedside processes. This study examined the observations recorded during 200 single red cell unit transfusions. 186/200 (93%) transfusions had pretransfusion observations recorded using BloodTrack Tx. Mid-transfusion checks were performed during 133/200 (67%) of transfusions, of these checks most (87/200 (44%)) were documented as 'no apparent change' in observations. End transfusion observations were performed using BloodTrack Tx in 178/200 (89%). Both systems were frequently used, and staff had a preference for using SEND first for documenting the pretransfusion observations (102/116 (88%)) and at the end of a transfusion (75/115 (65%)). Electronic bedside systems result in improved monitoring of transfusion-related observations compared to manual processes based on data from UK surveys. There is increasing use of electronic systems in clinical practice; linkage between these two systems would prevent wasteful duplication of observations and could provide improved early warning of adverse events to transfusion compared to manual processes. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. A new US-UK diagnostic project: mood elevation and depression in first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities.

    PubMed

    Chandler, R A; Wang, P W; Ketter, T A; Goodwin, G M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate differences in prevalence of mood elevation, distress and depression among first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities. An online survey was sent to Oxford and Stanford first-year undergraduate students for two consecutive years in the winter of 2005 and 2006. Students completed a survey that assessed mood symptoms and medication use. Both universities had similar rates of distress by General Health Questionnaire (Oxford - 42.4%; Stanford - 38.3%), depression by Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Oxford - 6.2%; Stanford - 6.6%), and psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication usage (psychotropic: Oxford - 1.5%; Stanford 3.5%; nonpsychotropic: Oxford - 13.3%; Stanford - 18%). Oxford had higher rates of mood elevation by Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) (Oxford - 4%; Stanford - 1.7%). Oxford and Stanford students have similar rates of mood distress, depression and general medication usage. Students at Oxford have a higher prevalence of MDQ scores that possibly indicate a bipolar disorder, while Stanford students are prescribed more psychotropics.

  2. Sex-linked genes and linkage maps in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Sumida, M; Nishioka1, M

    2000-06-01

    This paper reviews sex-linked genes and linkage maps in amphibians. It appears that there is no common ancestral or conserved sex-linkage group in amphibians, whereas an important proportion of other linkage groups has been conserved in amphibians. Comparisons of amphibian linkage maps with those of fishes and mammals reveal several syntenic associations apparently conserved over a very long period of vertebrate divergence.

  3. 20 CFR 628.545 - Linkages and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Linkages and coordination. 628.545 Section... the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.545 Linkages and coordination. (a) General requirements. (1) To..., shall establish appropriate linkages and coordination procedures with other Federal programs...

  4. 20 CFR 628.545 - Linkages and coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Linkages and coordination. 628.545 Section... the Job Training Partnership Act § 628.545 Linkages and coordination. (a) General requirements. (1) To..., shall establish appropriate linkages and coordination procedures with other Federal programs...

  5. Standard nomenclature for common bean chromosomes and linkage groups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several DNA-based linkage maps have been developed for common bean including the core common bean linkage map using the BAT93 x Jalo EEP558 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Correlation of common bean chromosomes to the genetic linkage groups was completed using RFLP markers to assign each l...

  6. The Bologna-Oxford total ankle replacement: a mid-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Martinelli, N; Sartorelli, E; Malerba, F

    2012-06-01

    The Bologna-Oxford (BOX) total ankle replacement (TAR) was developed with the aim of achieving satisfactory pain-free movement of the ankle. To date, only one single multicentre study has reported its clinical results. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent review of its mid-term results. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 60 prospectively followed patients in whom 62 BOX TARs had been implanted between 2004 and 2008. We used the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score to assess the clinical results. Standardised radiographs taken at the time of final follow-up were analysed by two observers. The overall survival was 91.9% at a mean follow-up of 42.5 months (24 to 71). The mean AOFAS score had improved from 35.1 points (sd 16.6; 4 to 73) pre-operatively to 78.0 (sd 10.7; 57 to 100) at final follow-up (p < 0.01). Tibial radiolucencies < 2 mm in width were seen around 16 TARs. Talar radiolucencies < 2 mm were seen around four TARs. A total of 47 patients (78.3%) were very satisfied or satisfied with the outcome. Five patients required revision for functional limitation or continuing pain.

  7. Substance Abuse Relapse in Oxford House Recovery Homes: A Survival Analysis Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Ronald; Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study used survival analysis to examine risk factors for substance abuse relapse among residents in Oxford Houses (OH) a national network of self-run, self-financed aftercare homes for individuals recovering from substance use disorders. Methods Participants who entered OH within 60 days of a one-year longitudinal study (N=268) were selected from of a nationally representative U.S. sample. Discrete-time survival analysis compared baseline risk of relapse to four hypothesized survival models that included time-invariant and time-varying factors across three subsequent time periods. Results The model predicting higher risk for more severe substance use disorders and psychiatric problems was supported. The hypothesized model that predicted time-varying increases in alcohol (but not drug) abstinence self-efficacy significantly affected risk of relapse. Hypothesized demographic and employment variables did not significantly predict relapse risk. Conclusions Results suggested that OH recovery homes may reduce relapse by providing closer monitoring and referring additional services to new residents with more severe prior addiction severity. Risk for relapse may also be reduced by enhancing abstinence self-efficacy for alcohol regardless of drug of choice. PMID:26308507

  8. Comprehensive comparison of Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore Technologies and their applications to transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Wang, Yunhao; Piazza, Paolo; Sebastiano, Vittorio; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Buck, David; Au, Kin Fai

    2017-01-01

    Background: Given the demonstrated utility of Third Generation Sequencing [Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT)] long reads in many studies, a comprehensive analysis and comparison of their data quality and applications is in high demand. Methods: Based on the transcriptome sequencing data from human embryonic stem cells, we analyzed multiple data features of PacBio and ONT, including error pattern, length, mappability and technical improvements over previous platforms. We also evaluated their application to transcriptome analyses, such as isoform identification and quantification and characterization of transcriptome complexity, by comparing the performance of size-selected PacBio, non-size-selected ONT and their corresponding Hybrid-Seq strategies (PacBio+Illumina and ONT+Illumina). Results: PacBio shows overall better data quality, while ONT provides a higher yield. As with data quality, PacBio performs marginally better than ONT in most aspects for both long reads only and Hybrid-Seq strategies in transcriptome analysis. In addition, Hybrid-Seq shows superior performance over long reads only in most transcriptome analyses. Conclusions: Both PacBio and ONT sequencing are suitable for full-length single-molecule transcriptome analysis. As this first use of ONT reads in a Hybrid-Seq analysis has shown, both PacBio and ONT can benefit from a combined Illumina strategy. The tools and analytical methods developed here provide a resource for future applications and evaluations of these rapidly-changing technologies.

  9. Validity and cross-cultural adaptation of the persian version of the oxford elbow score.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population.

  10. Galaxy Clusters to z <= 1 from the Oxford Dartmouth Thirty Degree Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammell, Molly; Wegner, Gary; Moustakas, Leonidas; Allen, Paul; Dalton, Gavin; Olding, Edward

    2003-05-01

    The properties of galaxy clusters in the local universe have been fairly well determined in the past few decades, and wide field surveys in the near infrared are converging on a statistically significant sample of high redshift clusters. These catalogs may soon allow discrimination between the competing models of galaxy formation and evolution [1]. The Oxford-Dartmouth Thirty Degree Survey (ODT) will span four widely separated 3° × 3° fields, to B < 26 in UBVRi'Z with an extension in the near-infrared to K < 19. With more than half of the survey completed, this deep, wide-area, multi-color dataset has yielded a large sample of K-selected clusters to probe the formation and evolution history of galaxies in dense environments. An exploration of cluster color-magnitude slopes and intercepts [2], luminosity functions [3], and morphological distributions [4, 5] should constrain the relative dominance of star formation rates and merger events on cluster galaxy evolution. Here, we present our cluster-finding method and preliminary results.

  11. [Validation of the German version of the Oxford Elbow Score : A cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Marquardt, J; Schöttker-Königer, T; Schäfer, A

    2016-08-01

    Elbow complaints are complex problems leading to severe consequences for affected people and the healthcare system. The German version of the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is the first German-speaking instrument that specifically measures elbow complaints from the patient's perspective and changes of their health status. The aim of this study is the validation of the German version of the OES. In this context the internal consistency and the construct validity were investigated. 59 patients with elbow complaints completed the German version of the OES, the DASH and the SF-36 in a cross-sectional study. The internal consistency was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to confirm construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for pain, function and psychological subscales was 0.88, 0.81 and 0.90, respectively. The whole questionnaire presents a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.93. Convergent construct validity was confirmed with correlation coefficients containing values of -0.84, -0.77 and -0.82 compared to DASH and values ranging from 0.41 to 0.80 compared with the physical domains of the SF-36. The divergent construct validity presented values ranging from 0.07 to 0.20 with the SF-36 domains of "general health perception" and "mental health". The German OES is an internal consistent instrument with good convergent and divergent construct validity. Other aspects of the validity, the reliability and the responsiveness should be confirmed through further studies.

  12. Radiological characterization survey results for Gaskill Hall, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (OXO015)

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinhans, K.R.; Murray, M.E.; Carrier, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    Between October 1952 and February 1957, National Lead of Ohio (NLO), a primary contractor for the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), subcontracted certain uranium machining operations to Alba Craft Laboratory, Incorporated, located at 10-14 West Rose Avenue, Oxford, Ohio. In 1992, personnel from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) confirmed the presence of residual radioactive materials from the AEC-related operations in and around the facility in amounts exceeding the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines. Although the amount of uranium found on the property posed little health hazard if left undisturbed, the levels were sufficient to require remediation to bring radiological conditions into compliance with current guidelines, thus ensuring that the public and the environment are protected. Because it was suspected that uranium may have been used in the past in the immediate vicinity of Alba Craft in a Miami University building a team from ORNL, performed a radiological characterization survey of that structure in January 1994. The survey was conducted at the request of DOE as a precautionary measure to ensure that no radioactive residuals were present at levels exceeding guidelines. The survey included the determination of directly measured radiation levels and the collection of smear samples to detect possible removable alpha and beta-gamma activity levels, and comparison of these data to the guidelines. Results of the survey showed that all measurements were below the applicable guideline limits set by DOE.

  13. Dutch Translation of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire: Reassessment of Reliability and Validity.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Sharmila; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Hendrickx, Roel P M

    The Manchester-Oxford Foot questionnaire (MOxFQ) is a 16-item patient reported outcome measure developed and validated for use in clinical trials involving foot surgery. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the MOxFQ in patients who had undergone a hallux valgus correction. A total of 79 patients who had undergone hallux valgus correction completed the Medical Outcomes Study short-form 36-item questionnaire (SF-36) and MOxFQ before and after surgery. We evaluated the construct validity of the SF-36 versus the MOxFQ and the test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was excellent. The internal consistency of the Dutch MOxFQ was high (Cronbach's α of 0.74 to 0.86). The construct validity can be regarded as good, with moderate to high correlations between the Dutch MOxFQ and Dutch SF-36 subscales. In conclusion, the Dutch version of the MOxFQ demonstrated good reliability and validity compared with the SF-36 for use in patient groups that have undergone hallux valgus correction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Data for the Oxford Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Study international survey of vascular surgery professionals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Regent; Jones, Amy; Woodgate, Felicity; Killough, Nicholas; Bellamkonda, Kirthi; Williams, Matthew; Hurst, Katherine; Fulford-Smith, Lucy; Cassimjee, Ismail; Handa, Ashok

    2017-10-01

    As part of the Oxford Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (OxAAA) Study, we conducted an international survey of vascular surgery professionals. One aspect of the survey is as published in the International Journal of Cardiology: "International Opinion on Priorities in Research for Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and the Potential Path for Research to Impact Clinical Management". This Data-in-Brief article contains a detailed method for the conduct of this survey and additional original data. In this survey, we also provided vascular surgery colleagues with contemporary epidemiologic and surgical outcome data. This was followed by a hypothetical scenario whereby a patient had just been diagnosed with a small (40 mm) AAA and a novel biomarker predicted it to be fast growing in the coming years. We assessed the vascular professionals' perception of the patient's preference for management in this scenario, and their willingness to refer patients for a surgical trial that investigates the outcome of early versus late surgery in this setting. The survey then asked the vascular professionals to assume the role of the patient, and provided their own preferences in such a scenario.

  15. Report of the 14th Genomic Standards Consortium Meeting, Oxford, UK, September 17-21, 2012.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Barker, Katharine; Bicak, Mesude; Bourlat, Sarah; Coddington, Jonathan; Deck, John; Drummond, Alexei; Gilbert, Jack A.; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo; Meyer, Chris; Morrison, Norman; Obst, Matthias; Robbins, Robert; Schriml, Lynn; Sterk, Peter; Stones-Havas, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the 14th workshop of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) held at the University of Oxford in September 2012. The primary goal of the workshop was to work towards the launch of the Genomic Observatories (GOs) Network under the GSC. For the first time, it brought together potential GOs sites, GSC members, and a range of interested partner organizations. It thus represented the first meeting of the GOs Network (GOs1). Key outcomes include the formation of a core group of “champions” ready to take the GOs Network forward, as well as the formation of working groups. The workshop also served as the first meeting of a wide range of participants in the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) initiative, a first GOs action. Three projects with complementary interests – COST Action ES1103, MG4U and Micro B3 – organized joint sessions at the workshop. A two-day GSC Hackathon followed the main three days of meetings.

  16. Efficacy of an accelerated recovery protocol for Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reilly, K A; Beard, D J; Barker, K L; Dodd, C A F; Price, A J; Murray, D W

    2005-10-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is appropriate for one in four patients with osteoarthritic knees. This study was performed to compare the safety, effectiveness and economic viability of a new accelerated protocol with current standard care in a state healthcare system. A single blind RCT design was used. Eligible patients were screened for NSAID tolerance, social circumstances and geographical location before allocation to an accelerated recovery group (A) or standard care group (S). Primary outcome was the Oxford Knee Assessment at 6 months post operation, compared using independent Mann-Whitney U-tests. A simple difference in costs incurred was calculated. The study power was sufficient to avoid type 2 errors. Forty-one patients were included. The average stay for Group A was 1.5 days. Group S averaged 4.3 days. No significant difference in outcomes was found between groups. The new protocol achieved cost savings of 27% and significantly reduced hospital bed occupancy. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed as greater with the accelerated discharge than with the routine discharge time. The strict inclusion criteria meant that 75% of eligible patients were excluded. However, a large percentage of these were due to the distances patients lived from the hospital.

  17. Inside Solomon's house: an archaeological study of the Old Ashmolean chymical laboratory in Oxford.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2012-03-01

    This paper is based on the archaeological and analytical study of the laboratory remains from the Officina Chimica of the Old Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. Following a contextualisation of this laboratory, founded in the wake of Bacon's utopian idea of Solomon's Temple, it is argued that the assemblage is likely to date from the late seventeenth century and thus be connected to the work of Robert Plot, Christopher White, and, indirectly, Robert Boyle. The analytical study of the equipment reveals that the chymists at the Old Ashmolean obtained crucibles from the best manufacturers in Europe, and that they used these and other utensils for experiments involving mercury, sulphur, zinc, lead glass, manganese, and antimony. The importance of these elements for early modern chymistry is discussed in the light of relevant historical sources, including some of Boyle's chymical texts. Altogether, these finds illustrate some of the rich diversity of experiments that took place in one of the most prominent laboratories of the period, showing strong connections with longstanding alchemical concerns as well as with cutting-edge research and development ventures.

  18. Neural control of the circulation during exercise: insights from the 1970-1971 Oxford studies.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2012-01-01

    During exercise the magnitude of the cardiovascular response is closely matched to the intensity of the exercise. In achieving this appropriate matching, an important role is played by the autonomic nervous system. Two mechanisms have been postulated to regulate this response. In one mechanism the changes in autonomic nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels are caused by signals arising in a central area of the brain and in the other mechanism the changes are caused by signals arising in the contracting skeletal muscle. In 1970-71 two studies were performed in Oxford which furthered our understanding of these two mechanisms. In one of these studies it was shown in cats that a reflex arising in the contracting skeletal muscle reflexly increased blood pressure and heart rate and that the thinly myelinated (Group III or A ) and the unmyelinated (Group IV or C) afferent nerve fibers were responsible. In the second of these studies it was shown in humans that a central mechanism could also increase the blood pressure and heart rate during static contraction at a fixed force. Tendon vibration of a skeletal muscle induces an involuntary reflex contraction. Utilizing this effect the central command needed to produce the same tension development was reduced or increased. When the same force was achieved with less central command the cardiovascular response was reduced and with more central command was increased. This demonstrated that descending motor commands from higher brain centers have an effect on the cardiovascular response to exercise.

  19. Young people's views about consenting to data linkage: findings from the PEARL qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Audrey, Suzanne; Brown, Lindsey; Campbell, Rona; Boyd, Andy; Macleod, John

    2016-03-21

    Electronic administrative data exist in several domains which, if linked, are potentially useful for research. However, benefits from data linkage should be considered alongside risks such as the threat to privacy. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a birth cohort study. The Project to Enhance ALSPAC through Record Linkage (PEARL) was established to enrich the ALSPAC resource through linkage between ALSPAC participants and routine sources of health and social data. Qualitative research was incorporated in the PEARL study to examine participants' views about data linkage and inform approaches to information sharing. This paper focusses on issues of consent. Digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 55 participants aged 17-19 years. Terms and processes relating to consent, anonymization and data linkage were explained to interviewees. Scenarios were used to prompt consideration of linking different sources of data, and whether consent should be requested. Interview recordings were fully transcribed. Thematic analysis was undertaken using the Framework approach. Participant views on data linkage appeared to be most influenced by: considerations around the social sensitivity of the research question, and; the possibility of tangible health benefits in the public interest. Some participants appeared unsure about the effectiveness of anonymization, or did not always view effective anonymization as making consent unnecessary. This was related to notions of ownership of personal information and etiquette around asking permission for secondary use. Despite different consent procedures being explained, participants tended to equate consent with 'opt-in' consent through which participants are 'asked' if their data can be used for a specific study. Participants raising similar concerns came to differing conclusions about whether consent was needed. Views changed when presented with different scenarios, and were sometimes inconsistent. Findings

  20. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  1. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  2. Anxiety and Depression: Linkages with Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders are common in the general population in countries around the world. This article provides a review of the recent literature on anxiety and depressive disorders with a focus on linkages with several important viral diseases. Although the majority of studies have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States and Great Britain, some studies have been carried out in less developed nations where only a small percentage of persons with mental illness receive treatment for their condition. The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between anxiety and depression and viral diseases such as influenza A (H1N1) and other influenza viruses, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C. Additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms for interactions between mental health and communicable diseases, in order to assist patients and further prevention and control efforts. PMID:25264396

  3. Linkage of typical pseudoachondroplasia to chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, J.T.; Deere, M.; Conner, B.; Horton, W.A. ); Francomano, C.A. ); Briggs, M.D.; Cohn, D.H. ); Warman, M. ); Blanton, S.H. )

    1993-12-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is an autosomal dominant dwarfing condition associated with disproportionate short stature, marked joint deformities, and early onset osteoarthritis. Previous linkage studies have excluded linkage to cartilage and noncartilagenous extracellular matrix candidate genes. Here, the authors report mapping the pseudoachondroplasia gene to chromosome 19. Maximum lod scores of 4.70, 4.15, and 4.86 at [theta] = 0.00 were found for D19S212, D19S215, and D19S49, respectively. Multipoint analysis suggests the following order: D19S253-D19S199-(D19S212/PSACH/D19S215)-D19S222-D19S49. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.