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Sample records for oxidative stress neuronal

  1. Acetaminophen inhibits neuronal inflammation and protects neurons from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Debjani; Grammas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated a link between the inflammatory response, increased cytokine formation, and neurodegeneration in the brain. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been documented. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of acetaminophen on cultured brain neuronal survival and inflammatory factor expression when exposed to oxidative stress. Methods Cerebral cortical cultured neurons are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (5 μM). Cell survival is assessed by MTT assay and inflammatory protein (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES) release quantitated by ELISA. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is assessed by western blots. Results Acetaminophen has pro-survival effects on neurons in culture. Menadione, a superoxide releasing oxidant stressor, causes a significant (p < 0.001) increase in neuronal cell death as well as in the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES from cultured neurons. Pretreatment of neuronal cultures with acetaminophen (50 μM) increases neuronal cell survival and inhibits the expression of these cytokines and chemokines. In addition, we document, for the first time, that acetaminophen increases expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 in brain neurons and decreases the menadione-induced elevation of the proapoptotic protein, cleaved caspase 3. We show that blocking acetaminophen-induced expression of Bcl2 reduces the pro-survival effect of the drug. Conclusion These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on neurons and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for

  2. Sirt3 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Deng, Han-Xiang; Gius, David; Schumacker, Paul T; James Surmeier, D; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2017-03-24

    Age-dependent elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress is widely posited to be a major factor underlying the loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanistic links between aging and oxidative stress are not well understood. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that could mediate this connection. Indeed, genetic deletion of Sirt3 increased oxidative stress and decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria in SNc dopaminergic neurons. This change was attributable to increased acetylation and decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Site directed mutagenesis of lysine 68 to glutamine (K68Q), mimicking acetylation, decreased MnSOD activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons, whereas mutagenesis of lysine 68 to arginine (K68R), mimicking deacetylation, increased activity. Introduction of K68R MnSOD rescued mitochondrial redox status and membrane potential of SNc dopaminergic neurons from Sirt3 knockouts. Moreover, deletion of DJ-1, which helps orchestrate nuclear oxidant defenses, and Sirt3 in mice led to a clear age-related loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons. Lastly, K68 acetylation of MnSOD was significantly increased in the SNc of PD patients. Taken together, our studies suggest that an age-related decline in Sirt3 protective function is a major factor underlying increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons in PD.

  3. Oxidative stress alters physiological and morphological neuronal properties.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sonia M; Joe, Mary; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the effects of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress on the delayed-rectifier current (IK(DR)), neuronal physiological and morphological properties. Measurements were obtained from hippocampal CA1 neurons in control solution and from the same neurons after exposure to oxidative stress (short- and long-term H(2)O(2) external applications at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM). With short-term (6 min) H(2)O(2) (1 mM) treatment, IK(DR) measured in the H(2)O(2)-containing solution (778 +/- 23 pA, n=20), was smaller than that measured in the control Ca(2+)-free Hepes solution (1,112 +/- 38 pA, n=20). Coenzyme Q(10) (0.1 mM) pretreatment prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inhibition of IK(DR). With long-term (40, 80 min) H(2)O(2) (0.1, 10 mM) treatment, the neuron lost its distinctive shape (rounded up) and the neurite almost disappeared. These results suggest that oxidative stress, which inhibits IK(DR), can alter neural activity. The morphological changes caused by H(2)O(2) support the idea that oxidative stress causes intracellular damage and compromises neural function.

  4. Selective Neuronal Vulnerability to Oxidative Stress in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Elias K.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), caused by the imbalance between the generation and detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), plays an important role in brain aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and other related adverse conditions, such as ischemia. While ROS/RNS serve as signaling molecules at physiological levels, an excessive amount of these molecules leads to oxidative modification and, therefore, dysfunction of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The response of neurons to this pervasive stress, however, is not uniform in the brain. While many brain neurons can cope with a rise in OS, there are select populations of neurons in the brain that are vulnerable. Because of their selective vulnerability, these neurons are usually the first to exhibit functional decline and cell death during normal aging, or in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of selective neuronal vulnerability (SNV) to OS is important in the development of future intervention approaches to protect such vulnerable neurons from the stresses of the aging process and the pathological states that lead to neurodegeneration. In this review, the currently known molecular and cellular factors that contribute to SNV to OS are summarized. Included among the major underlying factors are high intrinsic OS, high demand for ROS/RNS-based signaling, low ATP production, mitochondrial dysfunction, and high inflammatory response in vulnerable neurons. The contribution to the selective vulnerability of neurons to OS by other intrinsic or extrinsic factors, such as deficient DNA damage repair, low calcium-buffering capacity, and glutamate excitotoxicity, are also discussed. PMID:20552050

  5. Pink1 protects cortical neurons from thapsigargin-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hu, Guo-ku

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis mediates the precise and programmed natural death of neurons and is a physiologically important process in neurogenesis during maturation of the central nervous system. However, premature apoptosis and/or an aberration in apoptosis regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Thus, it is important to identify neuronal pathways/factors controlling apoptosis. Pink1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced kinase 1] is a ubiquitously expressed gene and has been reported to have a physiological role in mitochondrial maintenance, suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress, fission and autophagy. However, how Pink1 is involved in neuronal survival against oxidative stress remains not well understood. In the present paper, we demonstrate that thapsigargin, a specific irreversible inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium-ATPase, could lead to dramatic oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis by ectopic calcium entry. Importantly, the neuronal toxicity of thapsigargin inhibits antioxidant gene Pink1 expression. Although Pink1 knockdown enhances the neuronal apoptosis by thapsigargin, its overexpression restores it. Our findings have established the neuronal protective role of Pink1 against oxidative stress and afford rationale for developing new strategy to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608948

  6. Oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide evokes changes in neuronal excitability of rat motor cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Pardillo-Díaz, R; Carrascal, L; Ayala, A; Nunez-Abades, P

    2015-03-19

    Oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen radicals play a key role in neuronal cell damage. This paper describes an in vitro study that explores the neuronal responses to oxidative stress focusing on changes in neuronal excitability and functional membrane properties. This study was carried out in pyramidal cells of the motor cortex by applying whole-cell patch-clamp techniques on brain slices from young adult rats. Oxygen-derived free radical formation was induced by bath application of 10μM cumene hydroperoxide (CH) for 30min. CH produced marked changes in the electrophysiological properties of neurons (n=30). Resting membrane potential became progressively depolarized, as well as depolarization voltage, with no variations in voltage threshold. Membrane resistance showed a biphasic behavior, increasing after 5min of drug exposure and then it started to decrease, even under control values, after 15 and 30min. At the same time, changes in membrane resistance produced compensatory variations in the rheobase. The amplitude of the action potentials diminished and the duration increased progressively over time. Some of the neurons under study also lost their ability to discharge action potentials in a repetitive way. Most of the neurons, however, kept their repetitive discharge even though their maximum frequency and gain decreased. Furthermore, cancelation of the repetitive firing discharge took place at intensities that decreased with time of exposure to CH, which resulted in a narrower working range. We can conclude that oxidative stress compromises both neuronal excitability and the capability of generating action potentials, and so this type of neuronal functional failure could precede the neuronal death characteristics of many neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Role of Gasotransmitters in Oxidative Stresses, Neuroinflammation, and Neuronal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shefa, Ulfuara; Kim, Min-Sik; Song, In Ok

    2017-01-01

    To date, three main gasotransmitters, that is, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO), have been discovered to play major bodily physiological roles. These gasotransmitters have multiple functional roles in the body including physiologic and pathologic functions with respect to the cellular or tissue quantities of these gases. Gasotransmitters were originally known to have only detrimental and noxious effects in the body but that notion has much changed with years; vast studies demonstrated that these gasotransmitters are precisely involved in the normal physiological functioning of the body. From neuromodulation, oxidative stress subjugation, and cardiovascular tone regulation to immunomodulation, these gases perform critical roles, which, should they deviate from the norm, can trigger the genesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this review is to discuss at great length physical and chemical properties and physiological actions of H2S, NO, and CO as well as shedding light on recently researched molecular targets. We particularly put emphasis on the roles in neuronal inflammation and neurodegeneration and neuronal repair. PMID:28386548

  8. Oxidative stress and energy crises in neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David G

    2008-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many forms of cell death, particularly in the central nervous system. The mitochondria are required at the same time to generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) for the cell, sequester excess cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and both produce and detoxify superoxide free radicals. The electron transport chain and proton circuit are central in keeping these three balls in the air at the same time. We have investigated the bioenergetics of the in situ mitochondria in cultured neurons exposed to pathological glutamate concentrations to model glutamate excitotoxicity and have revised the conventional view that mitochondrial calcium loading results in increased oxidative stress that damages the mitochondrion and ultimately the cell. Instead, a central role is played under these conditions by limitations in mitochondrial and cellular ATP generating capacity. Sodium and calcium entering via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor impose a large energetic load on cells and can use the entire respiratory capacity of the in situ mitochondria. As a result, even modest restrictions in mitochondrial capacity -- caused by low concentrations of electron transport chain inhibitors such as rotenone, as in models of Parkinson's disease; low concentrations of uncouplers, to test the so-called neuroprotective mild uncoupling hypothesis; or preexisting oxidative stress -- greatly potentiate glutamate excitotoxicity. Our findings may lead to a reevaluation of the potential for mild uncoupling to provide a neuroprotective role in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders because the deleterious consequences of restricting ATP generating capacity greatly outweigh the negligible effects on the levels of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in intact neurons.

  9. Genomic and biochemical approaches in the discovery of mechanisms for selective neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinkun; Zaidi, Asma; Pal, Ranu; Garrett, Alexander S; Braceras, Rogelio; Chen, Xue-wen; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress (OS) is an important factor in brain aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Certain neurons in different brain regions exhibit selective vulnerability to OS. Currently little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this selective neuronal vulnerability. The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that predispose vulnerable neurons to OS by employing genomic and biochemical approaches. Results In this report, using in vitro neuronal cultures, ex vivo organotypic brain slice cultures and acute brain slice preparations, we established that cerebellar granule (CbG) and hippocampal CA1 neurons were significantly more sensitive to OS (induced by paraquat) than cerebral cortical and hippocampal CA3 neurons. To probe for intrinsic differences between in vivo vulnerable (CA1 and CbG) and resistant (CA3 and cerebral cortex) neurons under basal conditions, these neurons were collected by laser capture microdissection from freshly excised brain sections (no OS treatment), and then subjected to oligonucleotide microarray analysis. GeneChip-based transcriptomic analyses revealed that vulnerable neurons had higher expression of genes related to stress and immune response, and lower expression of energy generation and signal transduction genes in comparison with resistant neurons. Subsequent targeted biochemical analyses confirmed the lower energy levels (in the form of ATP) in primary CbG neurons compared with cortical neurons. Conclusion Low energy reserves and high intrinsic stress levels are two underlying factors for neuronal selective vulnerability to OS. These mechanisms can be targeted in the future for the protection of vulnerable neurons. PMID:19228403

  10. Mechanism for the Protective Effect of Resveratrol against Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress can induce cytotoxicity in neurons, which plays an important role in the etiology of neuronal damage and degeneration. The present study seeks to determine the cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying resveratrol’s protective effect against oxidative neuronal death. The cultured HT22 cells, an immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line, were used as an in vitro model, and the oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in these neuronal cells were induced by exposure to high concentrations of glutamate. Resveratrol strongly protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative cell death. Resveratrol’s neuroprotective effect was independent of its direct radical-scavenging property, but instead was dependent on its ability to selectively induce the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and subsequently, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. The induction of the mitochondrial SOD2 by resveratrol was mediated through the activation of the PI3K/Akt and GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathways. Taken together, the results of this study show that up-regulation of the mitochondrial SOD2 by resveratrol represents an important mechanism for its protection of neuronal cells against oxidative cytotoxicity resulting form mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:20542495

  11. Dopaminergic Neurons Respond to Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating Lipid Acylation and Deacylation Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Campos, Sofía; Rodríguez Diez, Guadalupe; Oresti, Gerardo Martín; Salvador, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Metal-imbalance has been reported as a contributor factor for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson Disease (PD). Specifically, iron (Fe)-overload and copper (Cu) mis-compartmentalization have been reported to be involved in the injury of dopaminergic neurons in this pathology. The aim of this work was to characterize the mechanisms of membrane repair by studying lipid acylation and deacylation reactions and their role in oxidative injury in N27 dopaminergic neurons exposed to Fe-overload and Cu-supplementation. N27 dopaminergic neurons incubated with Fe (1mM) for 24 hs displayed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and elevated plasma membrane permeability. Cu-supplemented neurons (10, 50 μM) showed no evidence of oxidative stress markers. A different lipid acylation profile was observed in N27 neurons pre-labeled with [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H] oleic acid (OA). In Fe-exposed neurons, AA uptake was increased in triacylglycerols (TAG) whereas its incorporation into the phospholipid (PL) fraction was diminished. TAG content was 40% higher in Fe-exposed neurons than in controls. This increase was accompanied by the appearance of Nile red positive lipid bodies. Contrariwise, OA incorporation increased in the PL fractions and showed no changes in TAG. Lipid acylation profile in Cu-supplemented neurons showed AA accumulation into phosphatidylserine and no changes in TAG. The inhibition of deacylation/acylation reactions prompted an increase in oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in Fe-overloaded neurons. These findings provide evidence about the participation of lipid acylation mechanisms against Fe-induced oxidative injury and postulate that dopaminergic neurons cleverly preserve AA in TAG in response to oxidative stress. PMID:26076361

  12. Dual effects of curcumin on neuronal oxidative stress in the presence of Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Chang; Lin, Chang-Jun; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated copper (Cu) ions are thought to link AD pathology. Curcumin is suggested to treat AD because of its high anti-oxidative activity and coordination to transitional metal ions. In this study, the protective effect of curcumin against the Cu(II)-induced oxidative damage was investigated in primary rat cortical neurons. The neuronal damage was assessed by morphological observation, cell viability, and oxidative stress level. The results showed that curcumin at low dosage protected primary cultured neurons from the 20 μM Cu(II)-induced damage. Low dosage of curcumin depressed oxidative stress levels exacerbated by Cu(II). However, high dosage of curcumin failed to decrease the Cu(II)-induced oxidative stress. When Cu(II) was presented in primary neurons, curcumin at high dosage resulted in chromosomal aberration and cell damage. These results suggest that curcumin, in a concentration-dependent manner, plays both anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative roles in primary neurons treated with Cu(II).

  13. Time and dose dependent effects of oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide in neuronal excitability of rat motor cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Pardillo-Díaz, R; Carrascal, L; Muñoz, M F; Ayala, A; Nunez-Abades, P

    2016-03-01

    It has been claimed that oxidative stress and the production of reactive oxygen radicals can contribute to neuron degeneration and might be one factor in the development of different neurological diseases. In our study, we have attempted to clarify how oxidative damage induces dose dependent changes in functional membrane properties of neurons by means of whole cell patch clamp techniques in brain slices from young adult rats. Our research demonstrates physiological changes in membrane properties of pyramidal motor cortex neurons exposed to 3 concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide (CH; 1, 10 and 100μM) during 30min. Results show that oxidative stress induced by CH evokes important changes, in a concentration and time dependent manner, in the neuronal excitability of motor cortex neurons of the rat: (i) Low concentration of the drug (1μM) already blocks inward rectifications (sag) and decreases action potential amplitude and gain, a drug concentration which has no effects on other neuronal populations, (ii) 10μM of CH depresses the excitability of pyramidal motor cortex neurons by decreasing input resistance, amplitude of the action potential, and gain and maximum frequency of the repetitive firing discharge, and (iii) 100μM completely blocks the capability to produce repetitive discharge of action potentials in all cells. Both larger drug concentrations and/or longer times of exposure to CH narrow the current working range. This happens because of the increase in the rheobase, and the reduction of the cancelation current. The effects caused by oxidative stress, including those produced by the level of lipid peroxidation, are practically irreversible and, this, therefore, indicates that neuroprotective agents should be administered at the first symptoms of alterations to membrane properties. In fact, the pre-treatment with melatonin, acting as an antioxidant, prevented the lipid peroxidation and the physiological changes induced by CH. Larger cells (as estimated

  14. A Conserved Role for p48 Homologs in Protecting Dopaminergic Neurons from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bou Dib, Peter; Gnägi, Bettina; Daly, Fiona; Sabado, Virginie; Tas, Damla; Glauser, Dominique A.; Meister, Peter; Nagoshi, Emi

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Both environmental and genetic factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Although several genes linked to rare familial PD have been identified, endogenous risk factors for sporadic PD, which account for the majority of PD cases, remain largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with sporadic PD in neurodevelopmental genes including the transcription factor p48/ptf1a. Here we investigate whether p48 plays a role in the survival of DA neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a Drosophila p48 homolog, 48-related-2 (Fer2), is expressed in and required for the development and survival of DA neurons in the protocerebral anterior medial (PAM) cluster. Loss of Fer2 expression in adulthood causes progressive PAM neuron degeneration in aging flies along with mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to the progressive locomotor deficits. The oxidative stress challenge upregulates Fer2 expression and exacerbates the PAM neuron degeneration in Fer2 loss-of-function mutants. hlh-13, the worm homolog of p48, is also expressed in DA neurons. Unlike the fly counterpart, hlh-13 loss-of-function does not impair development or survival of DA neurons under normal growth conditions. Yet, similar to Fer2, hlh-13 expression is upregulated upon an acute oxidative challenge and is required for the survival of DA neurons under oxidative stress in adult worms. Taken together, our results indicate that p48 homologs share a role in protecting DA neurons from oxidative stress and degeneration, and suggest that loss-of-function of p48 homologs in flies and worms provides novel tools to study gene-environmental interactions affecting DA neuron survival. PMID:25340742

  15. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases.

  16. Myosin IIA-related Actomyosin Contractility Mediates Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Yingqiong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Zhen; Yin, Mingzhu; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In our study, when neuronal cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an exogenous oxidant, cell apoptosis was observed with typical morphological changes including membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and cell contraction. The actomyosin system is considered to be responsible for the morphological changes, but how exactly it regulates oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and the distinctive functions of different myosin II isoforms remain unclear. We demonstrate that myosin IIA was required for neuronal contraction, while myosin IIB was required for neuronal outgrowth in normal conditions. During H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis, myosin IIA, rather than IIB, interacted with actin filaments to generate contractile forces that lead to morphological changes. Moreover, myosin IIA knockout using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) reduced H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis and the associated morphological changes. We further demonstrate that caspase-3/Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1) dependent phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) was required for the formation of the myosin IIA-actin complex. Meanwhile, either inhibition of myosin II ATPase with blebbistatin or knockdown of myosin IIA with siRNA reversely attenuated caspase-3 activation, suggesting a positive feedback loop during oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Based on our observation, myosin IIA-actin complex contributes to actomyosin contractility and is associated with the positive feedback loop of caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway. This study unravels the biochemical and mechanistic mechanisms during oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be applicable for the development of therapies for CNS diseases. PMID:28352215

  17. Oxidative stress associated with neuronal apoptosis in experimental models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Armenta, Marisela; Nava-Ruíz, Concepción; Juárez-Rebollar, Daniel; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Gómez, Petra Yescas

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is considered one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. Oxidative stress produced by free radicals may play a role in the initiation and progression of epilepsy; the changes in the mitochondrial and the oxidative stress state can lead mechanism associated with neuronal death pathway. Bioenergetics state failure and impaired mitochondrial function include excessive free radical production with impaired synthesis of antioxidants. This review summarizes evidence that suggest what is the role of oxidative stress on induction of apoptosis in experimental models of epilepsy.

  18. Low level laser therapy reduces oxidative stress in cortical neurons in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tedford, Clark E.; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    It is accepted that the mechanisms of low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves photons that are absorbed in the mitochondria of cells and lead to increase of mitochondrial metabolism resulting in more electron transport, increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, and more ATP production. Intracellular calcium changes are seen that correlate with mitochondrial stimulation. The situation with two other intermediates is more complex however: reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Evidence exists that low levels of ROS are produced by LLLT in normal cells that can be beneficial by (for instance) activating NF-kB. However high fluences of light can produce large amounts of ROS that can damage the cells. In oxidatively stressed cells the situation may be different. We exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cobalt chloride (CoCl2) oxidative insults in the presence or absence of LLLT (810-nm laser at 0.3 or 3 J/cm2). Cell viability of cortical neurons was determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. ROS in neurons was detected using an ROS probe, MitoRox with confocal microscopy. Results showed that LLLT dose-dependently reversed ROS production and protected cortical neurons against H2O2 or CoCl2 induced oxidative injury in cultured cortical neurons. Conclusion: LLLT can protect cortical neurons against oxidative stress by reversing the levels of ROS.

  19. Carnosine protects neurons against oxidative stress and modulates the time profile of MAPK cascade signaling.

    PubMed

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Karpova, Larisa; Lakonsteva, Ekaterina; Krasavin, Mikhail; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Carnosine is a known protector of neuronal cells against oxidative injury which prevents both apoptotic and necrotic cellular death. It was shown earlier that carnosine serves as an intracellular buffer of free radicals. Using the model of ligand-dependent oxidative stress in neurons, we have shown that homocysteine (HC) initiates long-term activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase, isoforms 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) which corresponds to exitotoxic effect resulting in cellular death. L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) protects neurons from both excitotoxic effect of homocysteine and cellular death. Its analogs, β-alanyl-D-histidine (D-carnosine) and L-histidyl-β-alanine, restricted accumulation of free radicals and delayed activation of ERK1/2 and JNK in neuronal cells, but did not promote neuronal viability.

  20. Repression of neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) synthesis by MTA1 is involved in oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zi-Jun; Min, Jie; Wu, Xu-Cai; Yang, Tian; Yan, Chang-You; Dong, Bu-Huai; Zhang, Tao

    2016-10-07

    The Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) coregulator, an essential component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, potentiates neuroprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. But the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. Here, we discovered that neuronal MTA1 was a target of oxidative stress, and stimulation of neurons with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment significantly inhibited MTA1 expression. Additionally, MTA1 depletion augmented ischemic oxidative stress and thus promoted oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death by OGD. While studying the impact of MTA1 status on global neuronal gene expression, we unexpectedly discovered that MTA1 may modulate OGD-induced neuronal damage via regulation of distinct nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (namely neuronal NOS, nNOS) signaling. We provided in vitro evidence that NOS1 is a chromatin target of MTA1 in OGD-insulted neurons. Mechanistically, neuronal ischemia-mediated repression of NOS1 expression is accompanied by the enhanced recruitment of MTA1 along with histone deacetylases (HDACs) to the NOS1 promoter, which could be effectively blocked by a pharmacological inhibitor of the HDACs. These findings collectively reveal a previously unrecognized, critical homeostatic role of MTA1, both as a target and as a component of the neuronal oxidative stress, in the regulation of acute neuronal responses against brain I/R damage. Our study also provides a molecular mechanistic explanation for the previously reported neurovascular protection by selective nNOS inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from eicosapentaenoic acid in retina neurons protects photoreceptors from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Simón, María Victoria; Agnolazza, Daniela L.; German, Olga Lorena; Garelli, Andrés; Politi, Luis E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul; Anderson, Robert E.; Rotstein, Nora P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in activating photoreceptor death in several retinal degenerations. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the retina, protects cultured retina photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress and promotes photoreceptor differentiation. Here we investigated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a metabolic precursor to DHA, had similar effects and whether retinal neurons could metabolize EPA to DHA. Adding EPA to rat retina neuronal cultures increased opsin expression and protected photoreceptors from apoptosis induced by the oxidants paraquat (PQ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Palmitic, oleic, and arachidonic acids had no protective effect, showing the specificity for DHA. We found that EPA supplementation significantly increased DHA percentage in retinal neurons, but not EPA percentage. Photoreceptors and glial cells expressed Δ6 desaturase (FADS2), which introduces the last double bond in DHA biosynthetic pathway. Pre-treatment of neuronal cultures with CP-24879 hydrochloride, a Δ5/Δ6 desaturase inhibitor, prevented EPA-induced increase in DHA percentage and completely blocked EPA protection and its effect on photoreceptor differentiation. These results suggest that EPA promoted photoreceptor differentiation and rescued photoreceptors from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through its elongation and desaturation to DHA. Our data show, for the first time, that isolated retinal neurons can synthesize DHA in culture. PMID:26662863

  2. Effects of Paraquat-induced Oxidative Stress on the Neuronal Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Asma; Fernandes, Denzyl; Bean, Jennifer L.; Michaelis, Mary L.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress leads to the disruption of calcium homeostasis in brain neurons; however, the direct effects of oxidants on proteins that regulate intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i are not known. The calmodulin (CaM) -stimulated plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) plays a critical role in regulating [Ca2+]i. Our previous in vitro studies showed that PMCA present in brain synaptic membranes is readily inactivated by a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present studies were conducted to determine the vulnerability of PMCA to ROS generated in neurons as would likely occur in vivo. Primary cortical neurons were exposed to paraquat (PQ), a redox cycling agent that generates intracellular ROS. Low concentrations of PQ (5-10 μM) increased PMCA basal activity by 2-fold but abolished its sensitivity to CaM. Higher concentrations (25-100 μM) inhibited both components of PMCA activity. Immunoblots showed the formation of high molecular weight PMCA aggregates. Additionally, PMCA showed evidence of proteolytic degradation. PMCA proteolysis was prevented by a calpain inhibitor, suggesting a role for calpain. Our findings suggest that PMCA is a sensitive target of oxidative stress in primary neurons. Inactivation of this Ca2+ transporter under prolonged oxidative stress could alter neuronal Ca2+ signaling. PMID:19715754

  3. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) plays a major role in the etiology of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) which is a severe neurological disorder. TD induces selective neuronal cell death, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the brain which are commonly observed in many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The progress in this line of research is hindered due to the lack of appropriate in vitro models. The neurons derived for the human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provide a relevant and powerful tool for the research in pharmaceutical and environmental neurotoxicity. In this study, we for the first time used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived neurons (iCell neurons) to investigate the mechanisms of TD-induced neurodegeneration. We showed that TD caused a concentration- and duration-dependent death of iCell neurons. TD induced ER stress which was evident by the increase in ER stress markers, such as GRP78, XBP-1, CHOP, ATF-6, phosphorylated eIF2α, and cleaved caspase-12. TD also triggered oxidative stress which was shown by the increase in the expression 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). ER stress inhibitors (STF-083010 and salubrinal) and antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) were effective in alleviating TD-induced death of iCell neurons, supporting the involvement of ER stress and oxidative stress. It establishes that the iCell neurons are a novel tool to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Centella asiatica Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Aβ-Exposed Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zweig, Jonathan A.; Matthews, Donald G.; Caruso, Maya; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica has been used for centuries to enhance memory. We have previously shown that a water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) protects against the deleterious effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) in neuroblastoma cells and attenuates Aβ-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Yet, the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW has yet to be thoroughly explored in neurons from these animals. This study investigates the effects of CAW on neuronal metabolism and oxidative stress in isolated Aβ-expressing neurons. Hippocampal neurons from amyloid precursor protein overexpressing Tg2576 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with CAW. In both genotypes, CAW increased the expression of antioxidant response genes which attenuated the Aβ-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation in Tg2576 neurons. CAW also improved mitochondrial function in both genotypes and increased the expression of electron transport chain enzymes and mitochondrial labeling, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial content. These data show that CAW protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Aβ-exposed hippocampal neurons which could contribute to the beneficial effects of the extract observed in vivo. Since CAW also improved mitochondrial function in the absence of Aβ, these results suggest a broader utility for other conditions where neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. PMID:28883904

  5. MSM ameliorates HIV-1 Tat induced neuronal oxidative stress via rebalance of the glutathione cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seol-hee; Smith, Adam J; Tan, Jun; Shytle, R Douglas; Giunta, Brian

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is a key neuropathological element in HIV associated neurogcognitive disorders (HAND); a type of cognitive syndrome thought to be at least partially mediated by increased levels of brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound known to reduce oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of MSM attenuates HIV-1 Tat induced oxidative stress in mouse neuronal cells. MSM treatment significantly decreased neuronal cell NO and ROS secretion. Further, MSM significantly reversed HIV-1 Tat mediated reductions in reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as HIV-1 Tat mediated increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In addition, Tat reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key nuclear promoter of antioxidant activity, while MSM increased its translocation to the nucleus in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that HIV-1 Tat reduces the resiliency of neuron cells to oxidative stress which can be reversed by MSM. Given the clinical safety of MSM, future preclinical in vivo studies will be required to further confirm these results in effort to validate MSM as a neuroprotectant in patients at risk of, or who are already diagnosed with, HAND. PMID:25893035

  6. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress precedes mitochondrially mediated apoptotic death of cultured fetal cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vinitha; Watts, Lora Talley; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Chen, Juanjuan; Schenker, Steven; Henderson, George

    2003-11-15

    In utero ethanol exposure elicits apoptotic cell death in the fetal brain, and this may be mediated by oxidative stress. Our studies utilize cultured fetal rat cortical neurons and illustrate that ethanol elicits a rapid onset of oxidative stress, which culminates in mitochondrially mediated apoptotic cell death. Cells exposed to ethanol (2.5 mg/ml) remained attached to their polylysine matrix during a 24-hr exposure, but they exhibited distinct signs of oxidative stress, decreased viability, and apoptosis. Confocal microscopy of live cortical neurons pretreated with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate demonstrated an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 5 min of ethanol exposure. The levels of ROS further increased by 58% within 1 hr (P <.05) and by 82% within 2 hr (P <.05), accompanied by increases of mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). These early events were followed by decreased trypan blue exclusion of 10% to 32% (P <.05) at the 6- to 24-hr time points, respectively. This culminates in apoptotic death, with increases of Annexin V binding of 43%, 89%, 123%, and 238%, at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr of ethanol treatment, respectively, as well as DNA fragmentation increases of 50% and 65% by 12 and 24 hr, respectively. Release of cytochrome c by mitochondria increased by 53% at 6 hr of exposure (P <.05), concomitant with activation of caspase 3 (52% at 12 hr, P <.05). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine increased cellular glutathione and prevented apoptosis. These studies provide a time line illustrating that oxidative stress and formation of a proapoptotic lipid peroxidation product, HNE, precede a cascade of mitochondrially mediated events in cultured fetal cortical neurons, culminating in apoptotic death. The prevention of apoptosis by augmentation of glutathione stores also strongly supports a role for oxidative stress in ethanol-mediated apoptotic death of fetal cortical neurons.

  7. Oxidative stress-mediated down-regulation of bcl-2 promoter in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Nesterova, Albina; Jambal, Purevsuren; Audesirk, Gerald; Kern, Marcey; Cabell, Leigh; Eves, Eva; Rosner, Marsha R; Boxer, Linda M; Reusch, Jane E-B

    2003-03-01

    Generation of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the causes of neuronal apoptosis. We have examined the effects of ROS at the transcriptional level in an immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line (H19-7) and in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Treatment of H19-7 cells with hydrogen peroxide (150 micro m) resulted in a 40% decrease in Bcl-2 protein and a parallel decrease in bcl-2 mRNA levels. H19-7 cells overexpressing bcl-2 were found to be resistant to ROS-induced apoptosis. We had previously shown that bcl-2 promoter activity is positively regulated by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that ROS decreases the activity of luciferase reporter gene driven by a cyclic AMP response element site containing bcl-2 promoter. Exposure of neurons to ROS for 6 h resulted in basal and fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated phosphorylation/activation of CREB. Chronic 24 h treatment with ROS led to a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in CREB protein and CREB mRNA levels. Adenoviral overexpression of wild type CREB in H19-7 cells resulted in significant (p < 0.01) protection against ROS-induced apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression whereas dominant negative CREB exaggerated the injury. These findings demonstrate that loss of CREB function contributes to oxidative stress-induced neuronal dysfunction.

  8. Resveratrol for prenatal-stress-induced oxidative damage in growing brain and its consequences on survival of neurons.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, Sampath; Sahu, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Rao, Gayathri

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal-stress-induced neuronal damage in offspring is multifactorial, including oxidative damage in the developing brain. Resveratrol is known to exert its neuroprotective potentials by upregulating several antioxidant systems. Hence, the study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol against prenatal-stress-induced hippocampal damage and oxidative damage in neonate rat brains. Pregnant rats were subjected to restraint stress during early or late gestational period. Another set of rats received resveratrol during the entire gestational period along with early or late gestational stress. The study parameters included several antioxidant studies directly from rat brain homogenate on the 40th postnatal day and hippocampal neuronal assay on the 21st postnatal day. Early as well as late gestational stress resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and advanced oxidation protein products and decrease in total antioxidant activity and nitric oxide levels in rat brain homogenate. The neurons of the dentate gyrus were severely affected in early and late gestational stress, and only the neurons of the CA3 region were adversely affected in late gestational stress. Administration of resveratrol reversed the prenatal-stress-induced oxidative damage and neurons of dentate gyrus but not the CA3 hippocampal neurons. These results show the neuroprotective abilities of resveratrol against prenatal-stress-induced oxidative damage in neonatal rat brain.

  9. Experimental strategy to identify genes susceptible to oxidative stress in nigral dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myung S; Kawamata, Hibiki; Kim, Dae J; Chun, Hong S; Son, Jin H

    2004-06-01

    Neuropathological evidence from both human and experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD) firmly supports a significant role for oxidative stress (OS) in the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in substantia nigra. Largely unknown are the genes underlying selective susceptibility of nigral DA neuron to OS and how they effect nigral DA cell death. The major barriers to high-throughput identification of candidate genes are the paucity of nigral DA neurons as well as the dilution effect of non-DA cells both in primary cultures and brain tissues. To overcome these barriers, we have developed a DA cell line model, SN4741, appropriate for cDNA microarray analysis. Candidate genes were selected from both the microarray analysis and the molecular implication of their pathological mechanisms (i.e., decreased mitochondrial complex I activity and proteasomal dysfunction) of PD. Subsequent secondary validation tests were devised to characterize genes including clone #45 that may underlie selective vulnerability of nigral DA neuron to OS.

  10. Cabergoline, dopamine D2 receptor agonist, prevents neuronal cell death under oxidative stress via reducing excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H₂O₂ exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H₂O₂ was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H₂O₂, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca²⁺ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H₂O₂. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H₂O₂.

  11. Extracellular norepinephrine reduces neuronal uptake of norepinephrine by oxidative stress in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weike; Qin, Fuzhong; Iwai, Chikao; Vulapalli, Raju; Keng, Peter C; Liang, Chang-seng

    2004-07-01

    Cardiac norepinephrine (NE) uptake activity is reduced in congestive heart failure. Our studies in intact animals suggest that this effect on the cardiac sympathetic nerve endings is caused by oxidative stress and/or NE toxic metabolites derived from NE. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of NE on neuronal NE uptake activity and NE transporter (NET), using undifferentiated PC12 cells. Cells were incubated with NE (1-500 microM) either alone or in combination of Cu(2+) sulfate (1 microM), which promotes free radical formation by Fenton reaction for 24 h. NE uptake activity was measured using [(3)H]NE. Cell viability was determined with the use of Trypan blue exclusion and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, and cellular oxidative stress by dichlorodihydrofluorescein fluorescence and the GSH/GSSG ratio. Cell viability was reduced by NE >100 microM. At lower doses, NE produced oxidative stress and a dose-dependent reduction of NE uptake activity without affecting cell viability significantly. Cu(2+), which has no direct effect on NE uptake activity, potentiated oxidative stress and reduction of NE uptake activity produced by NE. This decrease of NE uptake activity was associated with reductions of NE uptake binding sites and NET protein expression by using the radioligand assay and Western blot analysis, but no changes in NET gene expression. In addition, the free-radical scavenger mannitol, and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, reduced oxidative stress and attenuated the reductions of NE uptake activity and NET protein produced by NE/Cu. Thus our results support a functional role of oxidative stress in mediating the neuronal NE uptake reducing effect of NE and that this effect of NE on NET is a posttranscriptional event.

  12. Measurement of Isoprostanes as Markers of Oxidative Stress in Neuronal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including neurodegenerative disease, atherosclerosis and cancer, as well as progressive and even normal aging processes. Increased generation of free radicals derived primarily from molecular oxygen has also been associated with neuronal damage induced by a variety of environmental agents. However, measuring oxidative stress in biological systems is complex and requires accurate quantification of either free radicals or damaged biomolecules. One method to quantify oxidative injury is to measure lipid peroxidation. Lipids are readily attacked by free radicals, resulting in the formation of a number of peroxidation products. F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) are one group of these compounds, which are derived by the free radical peroxidation of arachidonic acid (AA). The F2-IsoPs, prostaglandine F2-like compounds, have been shown as the most accurate measure of oxidative damage in vivo. This review summarizes current methodology used to quantify F2-IsoPs and discusses the utility of these and other prostaglandine (PG)-like compounds as in vivo biomarkers of oxidative stress in neuronal tissues. PMID:20191108

  13. Nanomolar naloxone attenuates neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress and survival motor neuron protein deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Yun; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Lin, Yu-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress and survival motor neuron (Smn) protein deficiency are the major causes of motor neuronal death. Naloxone exhibits neuroprotection against ischemic stroke and anti-inflammation. In this study, we determined whether nanomolar naloxone provides neuroprotection under oxidative stress (H(2)O(2)) and Smn deficiency in a motor neuron-like cell line, NSC34. In H(2)O(2)-treated NSC34 cells, naloxone (1-10 nM) increased cell survival and mitochondria membrane potential. In addition, naloxone decreased NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 activation, reactive oxygen species production and oxygen consumption rate. Moreover, naloxone increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, attenuated apoptotic protein (Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase) expression and decreased apoptotic death. Furthermore, naloxone also increased Smn mRNA and protein expression. In Smn knockdown NSC34 cells, Smn deficiency significantly increased H(2)O(2) cytotoxicity. Naloxone exhibited neuroprotection at higher concentrations in Smn knockdown NSC34 cells than in control cells. In conclusion, naloxone attenuated neurotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) and Smn deficiency. Our findings also revealed the involvement of Smn protein in naloxone protection and oxidative stress-related neurotoxicity.

  14. Chemically induced oxidative stress affects ASH neuronal function and behavior in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Gourgou, Eleni; Chronis, Nikos

    2016-12-06

    Oxidative stress (OS) impact on a single neuron's function in vivo remains obscure. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we report the effect of paraquat (PQ)-induced OS on wild type worms on the function of the ASH polymodal neuron. By calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging, we quantified ASH activation upon stimulus delivery. PQ-treated worms displayed higher maximum depolarization (peak of the Ca(2+) transients) compared to untreated animals. PQ had a similar effect on the ASH neuron response time (rising slope of the Ca(2+) transients), except in very young worms. OS effect on ASH was partially abolished in vitamin C-treated worms. We performed octanol and osmotic avoidance tests, to investigate the OS effect on ASH-dependent behaviors. PQ-treated worms have enhanced avoidance behavior compared to untreated ones, suggesting that elevated ASH Ca(2+) transients result in enhanced ASH-mediated behavior. The above findings suggest a possible hormetic effect of PQ, as a factor inducing mild oxidative stress. We also quantified locomotion parameters (velocity, bending amplitude), which are not mediated by ASH activation. Bending amplitude did not differ significantly between treated and untreated worms; velocity in older adults decreased. The differential effect of OS on behavioral patterns may mirror a selective impact on the organism's neurons.

  15. Tat-HSP22 inhibits oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death by regulation of the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Son, Ora; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Keun Wook; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2017-01-04

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the protective effects and mechanisms of HSP22 in hippocampal neuronal cells under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we determined whether HSP22 protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 using Tat-HSP22 fusion protein. We found that Tat-HSP22 transduced into HT-22 cells and that H2O2-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were significantly reduced by Tat-HSP22. In addition, Tat-HSP22 markedly inhibited H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax expression levels, while Bcl-2 expression levels were increased in HT-22 cells. Further, we showed that Tat-HSP22 transduced into animal brain and inhibited cleaved-caspase-3 expression levels as well as significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of animals in the ischemic animal model. In the present study, we demonstrated that transduced Tat-HSP22 attenuates oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death through the mitochondrial signaling pathway and plays a crucial role in inhibiting neuronal cell death, suggesting that Tat-HSP22 protein may be used to prevent oxidative stress-related brain diseases including ischemia.

  16. Oxidative stress-induced CREB upregulation promotes DNA damage repair prior to neuronal cell death protection.

    PubMed

    Pregi, Nicolás; Belluscio, Laura María; Berardino, Bruno Gabriel; Castillo, Daniela Susana; Cánepa, Eduardo Tomás

    2017-01-01

    cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein is a cellular transcription factor that mediates responses to different physiological and pathological signals. Using a model of human neuronal cells we demonstrate herein, that CREB is phosphorylated after oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. This phosphorylation is largely independent of PKA and of the canonical phosphoacceptor site at ser-133, and is accompanied by an upregulation of CREB expression at both mRNA and protein levels. In accordance with previous data, we show that CREB upregulation promotes cell survival and that its silencing results in an increment of apoptosis after oxidative stress. Interestingly, we also found that CREB promotes DNA repair after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Using a cDNA microarray we found that CREB is responsible for the regulation of many genes involved in DNA repair and cell survival after oxidative injury. In summary, the neuroprotective effect mediated by CREB appears to follow three essential steps following oxidative injury. First, the upregulation of CREB expression that allows sufficient level of activated and phosphorylated protein is the primordial event that promotes the induction of genes of the DNA Damage Response. Then and when the DNA repair is effective, CREB induces detoxification and survival genes. This kinetics seems to be important to completely resolve oxidative-induced neuronal damages.

  17. Down-regulation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in spinal motor neurones under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tak-Ho; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2014-06-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an intermediate enzyme in base excision repair which is important for removing damaged nucleotides under normal and pathological conditions. Accumulation of damaged bases causes genome instability and jeopardizes cell survival. Our study is to examine APE1 regulation under oxidative stress in spinal motor neurones which are vulnerable to oxidative insult. We challenged the motor neurone-like cell line NSC-34 with hydrogen peroxide and delineated APE1 function by applying various inhibitors. We also examined the expression of APE1 in spinal motor neurones after spinal root avulsion in adult rats. We showed that hydrogen peroxide induced APE1 down-regulation and cell death in a differentiated motor neurone-like cell line. Inhibiting the two functional domains of APE1, namely, DNA repair and redox domains potentiated hydrogen peroxide induced cell death. We further showed that p53 phosphorylation early after hydrogen peroxide treatment might contribute to the down-regulation of APE1. Our in vivo results similarly showed that APE1 was down-regulated after root avulsion injury in spinal motor neurones. Delay of motor neurone death suggested that APE1 might not cause immediate cell death but render motor neurones vulnerable to further oxidative insults. We conclude that spinal motor neurones down-regulate APE1 upon oxidative stress. This property renders motor neurones susceptible to continuous challenge of oxidative stress in pathological conditions. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. Neuronal death and survival under oxidative stress in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Nunomura, A; Moreira, P I; Lee, H G; Zhu, X; Castellani, R J; Smith, M A; Perry, G

    2007-12-01

    Neuronal death is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD). This occurs over years, not the minutes of classically defined apoptosis, and neurons show both responses of apoptosis and regeneration, evidenced by accumulated oxidative insult and attempts at cell cycle re-entry. There is recent evidence suggesting that several known gene mutations in causing familial AD (amyloid beta protein precursor, presenilin-1, or presenilin-2 gene) and familial PD (Parkin, PINK-1, or DJ-1 gene) are associated with increased oxidative stress. Also, several known genetic (e.g. Apolipoprotein Eepsilon4 variant) and environmental (e.g. metals or pesticides exposure) risk factors of sporadic AD and/or PD are associated with increased oxidative stress. In concord, patients at the preclinical stages of AD and PD as well as cellular and animal models of the diseases provide consistent evidence that oxidative insult is a significant early event in the pathological cascade of AD and PD. In contrast to the general aspects of the pathological hallmarks, aggregation of the disease-specific proteins such as amyloid-beta, tau, and alpha-synuclein may act as a compensatory (survival) response against the oxidative insult via the mechanism that the disease-specific structures sequester redox-active metals. Expanding knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of organism longevity indicates that pro-longevity gene products such as forkhead transcription factors and sirtuins are involved in the insulin-like signaling pathway and oxidative stress resistance against aging. An enhancement of the pro-longevity signaling (e.g. caloric restriction) may be a promising approach as anti-oxidative strategy against age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. A neuronal model of Alzheimer's disease: an insight into the mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Sompol, P; Ittarat, W; Tangpong, J; Chen, Y; Doubinskaia, I; Batinic-Haberle, I; Abdul, H M; Butterfield, D A; St Clair, D K

    2008-04-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with beta-amyloid accumulation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the effects of genetic mutation of AD on oxidative status and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) production during neuronal development are unclear. To investigate the consequences of genetic mutation of AD on oxidative damages and production of MnSOD during neuronal development, we used primary neurons from new born wild-type (WT/WT) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) (NLh/NLh) and presenilin 1 (PS1) (P264L) knock-in mice (APP/PS1) which incorporated humanized mutations in the genome. Increasing levels of oxidative damages, including protein carbonyl, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), were accompanied by a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in both developing and mature APP/PS1 neurons compared with WT/WT neurons suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction under oxidative stress. Interestingly, developing APP/PS1 neurons were significantly more resistant to beta-amyloid 1-42 treatment, whereas mature APP/PS1 neurons were more vulnerable than WT/WT neurons of the same age. Consistent with the protective function of MnSOD, developing APP/PS1 neurons have increased MnSOD protein and activity, indicating an adaptive response to oxidative stress in developing neurons. In contrast, mature APP/PS1 neurons exhibited lower MnSOD levels compared with mature WT/WT neurons indicating that mature APP/PS1 neurons lost the adaptive response. Moreover, mature APP/PS1 neurons had more co-localization of MnSOD with nitrotyrosine indicating a greater inhibition of MnSOD by nitrotyrosine. Overexpression of MnSOD or addition of MnTE-2-PyP(5+) (SOD mimetic) protected against beta-amyloid-induced neuronal death and improved mitochondrial respiratory function. Together, the results demonstrate that compensatory induction of MnSOD in response to an early increase in oxidative stress protects developing neurons against

  20. Prostaglandin receptor EP2 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-mediated low oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Emilce; Werner, Peter; Casper, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) selectively die in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but it is unclear how and why this occurs. Recent findings implicate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and two of its four receptors, namely EP1 and EP2, as mediators of degenerative and protective events in situations of acute and chronic neuronal death. EP1 activation can exacerbate excitotoxic damage in stroke models and our recent study showed that EP1 activation may explain the selective sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to oxidative stress. Conversely, EP2 activation may be neuroprotective, although toxic effects have also been demonstrated. Here we investigated if and how EP2 activation might alter the survival of dopaminergic neurons following selective low-level oxidative injury evoked by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in primary neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic rat midbrain. We found that cultured dopaminergic neurons displayed EP2 receptors. Butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist, significantly reduced 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. EP2 receptors are coupled to stimulatory G-proteins (Gs), which activate adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP synthesis, which then activates protein kinase A (PKA). Both dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin reduced dopaminergic cell loss after 6-OHDA exposure. Conversely, KT5720 and H-89, two structurally distinct high-affinity PKA inhibitors, abolished the protective effect of butaprost, implicating cAMP-dependent PKA activity in the neuroprotection by EP2 activation. Finally, we show that melanized dopaminergic neurons in the human SN express EP2. This pathway warrants consideration as a neuroprotective strategy for PD. PMID:18597941

  1. Prostaglandin receptor EP2 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-mediated low oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Emilce; Werner, Peter; Casper, Diana

    2008-08-15

    Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) selectively die in Parkinson's disease (PD), but it is unclear how and why this occurs. Recent findings implicate prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and two of its four receptors, namely EP1 and EP2, as mediators of degenerative and protective events in situations of acute and chronic neuronal death. EP1 activation can exacerbate excitotoxic damage in stroke models and our recent study showed that EP1 activation may explain the selective sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to oxidative stress. Conversely, EP2 activation may be neuroprotective, although toxic effects have also been demonstrated. Here we investigated if and how EP2 activation might alter the survival of dopaminergic neurons following selective low-level oxidative injury evoked by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in primary neuronal cultures prepared from embryonic rat midbrain. We found that cultured dopaminergic neurons displayed EP2 receptors. Butaprost, a selective EP2 agonist, significantly reduced 6-OHDA neurotoxicity. EP2 receptors are coupled to stimulatory G-proteins (Gs), which activate adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP synthesis, which then activates protein kinase A (PKA). Both dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin reduced dopaminergic cell loss after 6-OHDA exposure. Conversely, KT5720 and H-89, two structurally distinct high-affinity PKA inhibitors, abolished the protective effect of butaprost, implicating cAMP-dependent PKA activity in the neuroprotection by EP2 activation. Finally, we show that melanized dopaminergic neurons in the human SN express EP2. This pathway warrants consideration as a neuroprotective strategy for PD.

  2. Edaravone leads to proteome changes indicative of neuronal cell protection in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Ahmadinejad, Fereshteh; Hoedt, Esthelle; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Neubert, Thomas A.; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal cell death, in neurodegenerative disorders, is mediated through a spectrum of biological processes. Excessive amounts of free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), has detrimental effects on neurons leading to cell damage via peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane. Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) has been used for neurological recovery in several countries, including Japan and China, and it has been suggested that Edaravone may have cytoprotective effects in neurodegeneration. Edaravone protects nerve cells in the brain by reducing ROS and inhibiting apoptosis. To gain further insight into the cytoprotective effects of Edaravone against oxidative stress condition we have performed comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE)-based proteomic analyses on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress and in combination with Edaravone. We showed that Edaravone can reverse the cytotoxic effects of H2O2 through its specific mechanism. We observed that oxidative stress changes metabolic pathways and cytoskeletal integrity. Edaravone seems to reverse the H2O2-mediated effects at both the cellular and protein level via induction of Peroxiredoxin-2. PMID:26232623

  3. Enzymatic biomarkers can portray nanoCuO-induced oxidative and neuronal stress in freshwater shredders.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Arunava; Silva, Carla O; Silva, Carlos; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2016-11-01

    Commercial applications of nanometal oxides have increased concern about their release into natural waters and consequent risks to aquatic biota and the processes they drive. In forest streams, the invertebrate shredder Allogamus ligonifer plays a key role in detritus food webs by transferring carbon and energy from plant litter to higher trophic levels. We assessed the response profiles of oxidative and neuronal stress enzymatic biomarkers in A. ligonifer after 96h exposure to nanoCuO at concentration ranges stress, Cu(2+) released from nanoCuO was quantified and the enzymatic responses to Cu(2+) exposure at similar effective concentrations were compared. The highest activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were observed at concentrations oxidative stress at low concentrations (oxidative stress and even to animal death. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was strongly inhibited even at concentrations neuronal stress in A. ligonifer.

  4. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Chemically induced oxidative stress affects ASH neuronal function and behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gourgou, Eleni; Chronis, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impact on a single neuron’s function in vivo remains obscure. Using C. elegans as a model organism, we report the effect of paraquat (PQ)-induced OS on wild type worms on the function of the ASH polymodal neuron. By calcium (Ca2+) imaging, we quantified ASH activation upon stimulus delivery. PQ-treated worms displayed higher maximum depolarization (peak of the Ca2+ transients) compared to untreated animals. PQ had a similar effect on the ASH neuron response time (rising slope of the Ca2+ transients), except in very young worms. OS effect on ASH was partially abolished in vitamin C-treated worms. We performed octanol and osmotic avoidance tests, to investigate the OS effect on ASH-dependent behaviors. PQ-treated worms have enhanced avoidance behavior compared to untreated ones, suggesting that elevated ASH Ca2+ transients result in enhanced ASH-mediated behavior. The above findings suggest a possible hormetic effect of PQ, as a factor inducing mild oxidative stress. We also quantified locomotion parameters (velocity, bending amplitude), which are not mediated by ASH activation. Bending amplitude did not differ significantly between treated and untreated worms; velocity in older adults decreased. The differential effect of OS on behavioral patterns may mirror a selective impact on the organism’s neurons. PMID:27922032

  6. Cabergoline, Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, Prevents Neuronal Cell Death under Oxidative Stress via Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H2O2 exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H2O2 was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H2O2, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca2+ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H2O2. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H2O2. PMID:24914776

  7. Colonic motor dysfunction in human diabetes is associated with enteric neuronal loss and increased oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Bindu; Anitha, Mallappa; Blatt, Richard; Shahnavaz, Nikrad; Kooby, David; Staley, Charles; Mwangi, Simon; Jones, Dean P; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal dysfunction is very common in diabetic patients. We assessed the changes in the colonic enteric nervous system using colectomy specimens and intestinal biopsies from diabetic subjects and age-matched controls. Methods In control and diabetic colons, we determined the total ganglion area (hematoxylin-eosin staining), changes in neuronal markers-PGP 9.5, peripherin, nNOS, NPY, ChAT and VIP (by immunostaining), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 staining) and reduced glutathione levels (HPLC). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA was determined in enteric ganglia isolated by laser capture micro dissection. Isometric muscle recording was used to assess contraction and relaxation responses of colonic circular muscle strips. Apoptosis in enteric neurons under hyperglycemia in vitro was determined by cleaved caspase-3 Western blotting and protective effects of lipoic acid were evaluated. Key Results Diabetic subjects had higher incidence of lower gastrointestinal symptoms like constipation and diarrhea at baseline prior to surgery. Diabetic ganglia displayed significant decrease in ganglion size due to enhanced apoptosis and loss of peripherin, nNOS, NPY and ChAT neurons. Reduced glutathione levels in the diabetic colon (HbA1C>7%) were significantly less than the control, indicating increased oxidative stress. Colonic circular muscle strips from diabetic subjects showed impaired contraction and relaxation responses compared to the healthy controls. Hyperglycemia-induced cleaved caspase-3 in enteric neurons was reversed by lipoic acid. Conclusions Our data demonstrate loss of enteric neurons in the colon due to increased oxidative stress and apoptosis which may cause the motility disturbances seen in human diabetes. Antioxidants may be of therapeutic value for preventing motility disorders in diabetes. PMID:20939847

  8. Normoxic resuscitation after cardiac arrest protects against hippocampal oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and neuronal death

    PubMed Central

    Vereczki, Viktoria; Martin, Erica; Rosenthal, Robert E; Hof, Patrick R; Hoffman, Gloria E; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Resuscitation and prolonged ventilation using 100% oxygen after cardiac arrest is standard clinical practice despite evidence from animal models indicating that neurologic outcome is improved using normoxic compared with hyperoxic resuscitation. This study tested the hypothesis that normoxic ventilation during the first hour after cardiac arrest in dogs protects against prelethal oxidative stress to proteins, loss of the critical metabolic enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), and minimizes subsequent neuronal death in the hippocampus. Anesthetized beagles underwent 10 mins ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest, followed by defibrillation and ventilation with either 21% or 100% O2. At 1 h after resuscitation, the ventilator was adjusted to maintain normal blood gas levels in both groups. Brains were perfusion-fixed at 2 h reperfusion and used for immunohistochemical measurements of hippocampal nitrotyrosine, a product of protein oxidation, and the E1α subunit of PDHC. In hyperoxic dogs, PDHC immunostaining diminished by approximately 90% compared with sham-operated dogs, while staining in normoxic animals was not significantly different from nonischemic dogs. Protein nitration in the hippocampal neurons of hyperoxic animals was 2–3 times greater than either sham-operated or normoxic resuscitated animals at 2 h reperfusion. Stereologic quantification of neuronal death at 24 h reperfusion showed a 40% reduction using normoxic compared with hyperoxic resuscitation. These results indicate that postischemic hyperoxic ventilation promotes oxidative stress that exacerbates prelethal loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase and delayed hippocampal neuronal cell death. Moreover, these findings indicate the need for clinical trials comparing the effects of different ventilatory oxygen levels on neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. PMID:16251887

  9. Interactions of silica nanoparticles with therapeutics for oxidative stress attenuation in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White-Schenk, Desiree; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in many disease pathologies, notably in the central nervous system (CNS). For instance, after initial spinal cord injury, the injury site tends to increase during a secondary chemical injury process based on oxidative stress from necrotic cells and the inflammatory response. Prevention of this secondary chemical injury would represent a major advance in the treatment of people with spinal cord injuries. Few therapeutics are useful in combating such stress in the CNS due to side effects, low efficacy, or half-life. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles show promise for delivering therapeutics based on the formation of a porous network during synthesis. Ideally, they increase the circulation time of loaded therapeutics to increase the half-life while reducing overall concentrations to avoid side effects. The current study explored the use of silica nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery of anti-oxidants, in particular, the neutralization of acrolein which can lead to extensive tissue damage due to its ability to generate more and more copies of itself when it interacts with normal tissue. Both an FDA-approved therapeutic, hydralazine, and natural product, epigallocatechin gallate, were explored as antioxidants for acrolein with nanoparticles for increased efficacy and stability in neuronal cell cultures. Not only were the nanoparticles explored in neuronal cells, but also in a co-cultured in vitro model with microglial cells to study potential immune responses to near-infrared (NIRF)-labeled nanoparticles and uptake. Studies included nanoparticle toxicity, uptake, and therapeutic response using fluorescence-based techniques with both dormant and activated immune microglia co-cultured with neuronal cells.

  10. SIRT1 activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Reas S; Dine, Kimberly; Das Sarma, Jayasri; Shindler, Kenneth S

    2014-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies.

  11. The human coronary vasodilatory response to acute mental stress is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sitara G; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O'Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Shah, Ajay M

    2017-09-01

    Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion (P < 0.01), and this was reduced to 26 ± 7.0% in the presence of the selective nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (0.625 µmol/min, P < 0.001). Mental stress increased coronary artery diameter by 6.9 ± 3.7% (P = 0.02) and 0.5 ± 2.8% (P = 0.51) in the presence of S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline. The response to substance P did not predict the response to mental stress (r(2) = -0.22, P = 0.83). nNOS mediates the human coronary vasodilator response to mental stress, predominantly through actions at the level of coronary resistance vessels.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute mental stress induces vasodilation of the coronary microvasculature. Here, we show that this response involves neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. Copyright

  12. Ceramides in Alzheimer's Disease: Key Mediators of Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Maja; Hof, Patrick R.; Šimić, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) and intracellular deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau) protein. Ceramides, the major molecules of sphingolipid metabolism and lipid second messengers, have been associated with AD progression and pathology via Aβ generation. Enhanced levels of ceramides directly increase Aβ through stabilization of β-secretase, the key enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP). As a positive feedback loop, the generated oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ induces a further increase in ceramide levels by activating sphingomyelinases that catalyze the catabolic breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. Evidence also supports important role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis. Ceramides may initiate a cascade of biochemical alterations, which ultimately leads to neuronal death by diverse mechanisms, including depolarization and permeabilization of mitochondria, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 depletion, and caspase-3 activation, mainly by modulating intracellular signalling, particularly along the pathways related to Akt/PKB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). This review summarizes recent findings related to the role of ceramides in oxidative stress-driven neuronal apoptosis and interplay with Aβ in the cascade of events ending in neuronal degeneration. PMID:26090071

  13. Ceramides in Alzheimer's Disease: Key Mediators of Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Maja; Hof, Patrick R; Šimić, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) and intracellular deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau) protein. Ceramides, the major molecules of sphingolipid metabolism and lipid second messengers, have been associated with AD progression and pathology via Aβ generation. Enhanced levels of ceramides directly increase Aβ through stabilization of β-secretase, the key enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP). As a positive feedback loop, the generated oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ induces a further increase in ceramide levels by activating sphingomyelinases that catalyze the catabolic breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. Evidence also supports important role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis. Ceramides may initiate a cascade of biochemical alterations, which ultimately leads to neuronal death by diverse mechanisms, including depolarization and permeabilization of mitochondria, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 depletion, and caspase-3 activation, mainly by modulating intracellular signalling, particularly along the pathways related to Akt/PKB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). This review summarizes recent findings related to the role of ceramides in oxidative stress-driven neuronal apoptosis and interplay with Aβ in the cascade of events ending in neuronal degeneration.

  14. Assessment at the single-cell level identifies neuronal glutathione depletion as both a cause and effect of ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Won, Seok Joon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cittolin-Santos, Giordano Fabricio; Swanson, Raymond A

    2015-05-06

    Oxidative stress contributes to neuronal death in brain ischemia-reperfusion. Tissue levels of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) are depleted during ischemia-reperfusion, but it is unknown whether this depletion is a cause or an effect of oxidative stress, and whether it occurs in neurons or other cell types. We used immunohistochemical methods to evaluate glutathione, superoxide, and oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal neurons after transient forebrain ischemia. GSH levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons were normally high relative to surrounding neuropil, and exhibited a time-dependent decrease during the first few hours of reperfusion. Colabeling for superoxide in the neurons showed a concurrent increase in detectable superoxide over this interval. To identify cause-effect relationships between these changes, we independently manipulated superoxide production and GSH metabolism during reperfusion. Mice in which NADPH oxidase activity was blocked to prevent superoxide production showed preservation of neuronal GSH content, thus demonstrating that neuronal GSH depletion is result of oxidative stress. Conversely, mice in which neuronal GSH levels were maintained by N-acetyl cysteine treatment during reperfusion showed less neuronal superoxide signal, oxidative stress, and neuronal death. At 3 d following ischemia, GSH content in reactive astrocytes and microglia was increased in the hippocampal CA1 relative to surviving neurons. Results of these studies demonstrate that neuronal GSH depletion is both a result and a cause of neuronal oxidative stress after ischemia-reperfusion, and that postischemic restoration of neuronal GSH levels can be neuroprotective.

  15. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites Protect Mitochondrial Function in Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leirós, Marta; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alonso, Eva; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Houssen, Wael E.; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat provides a large number of structurally-diverse bioactive compounds for drug development. Marine sponges have been studied over many years and are found to be a rich source of these bioactive chemicals. This study is focused on the evaluation of the activity of six diterpene derivatives isolated from Spongionella sp. on mitochondrial function using an oxidative in vitro stress model. The test compounds include the Gracilins (A, H, K, J and L) and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1. Compounds were co-incubated with hydrogen peroxide for 12 hours to determine their protective capacities and their effect on markers of apoptosis and Nrf2/ARE pathways was evaluated. Results conclude that Gracilins preserve neurons against oxidative damage, and that in particular, tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 shows a complete neuroprotective activity. Oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and consequently to neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, Friedreich ataxia or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This neuroprotection against oxidation conditions suggest that these metabolites could be interesting lead candidates in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24473170

  16. Involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in restraint stress-induced fever in rats.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Daniela B; Steiner, Alexandre A; Branco, Luiz G S

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be an important modulator of the febrile response to pyrogens and to psychological stress. In the present study, we aimed to identify the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform (neuronal or inducible, nNOS and iNOS, respectively) involved in restraint stress fever. Colonic temperature (Tc) was measured in unanesthetized rats before and after treatment with the more selective nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole or with the selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) under unrestrained or restrained conditions. Intraperitoneal injection of AG (25 or 50 mg/kg) did not affect restraint fever, indicating that iNOS is unlikely to be involved in restraint fever. On the other hand, intraperitoneal injection of 7-nitroindazole (25 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the rise in the Tc caused by restraint stress, whereas it caused no change in Tc of euthermic animals. These data show that NO produced by nNOS plays an important role in the genesis of restraint stress-induced fever.

  17. Neuroserpin polymers cause oxidative stress in a neuronal model of the dementia FENIB.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, Noemi A; Moriconi, Claudia; Licursi, Valerio; D'Acunto, Emanuela; Nisi, Paola S; Carucci, Nicoletta; De Jaco, Antonella; Cacci, Emanuele; Negri, Rodolfo; Lupo, Giuseppe; Miranda, Elena

    2017-03-28

    The serpinopathies are human pathologies caused by mutations that promote polymerisation and intracellular deposition of proteins of the serpin superfamily, leading to a poorly understood cell toxicity. The dementia FENIB is caused by polymerisation of the neuronal serpin neuroserpin (NS) within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of neurons. With the aim of understanding the toxicity due to intracellular accumulation of neuroserpin polymers, we have generated transgenic neural progenitor cell (NPC) cultures from mouse foetal cerebral cortex, stably expressing the control protein GFP (green fluorescent protein), or human wild type, G392E or delta NS. We have characterised these cell lines in the proliferative state and after differentiation to neurons. Our results show that G392E NS formed polymers that were mostly retained within the ER, while wild type NS was correctly secreted as a monomeric protein into the culture medium. Delta NS was absent at steady state due to its rapid degradation, but it was easily detected upon proteasomal block. Looking at their intracellular distribution, wild type NS was found in partial co-localisation with ER and Golgi markers, while G392E NS was localised within the ER only. Furthermore, polymers of NS were detected by ELISA and immunofluorescence in neurons expressing the mutant but not the wild type protein. We used control GFP and G392E NPCs differentiated to neurons to investigate which cellular pathways were modulated by intracellular polymers by performing RNA sequencing. We identified 747 genes with a significant upregulation (623) or downregulation (124) in G392E NS-expressing cells, and we focused our attention on several genes involved in the defence against oxidative stress that were up-regulated in cells expressing G392E NS (Aldh1b1, Apoe, Gpx1, Gstm1, Prdx6, Scara3, Sod2). Inhibition of intracellular anti-oxidants by specific pharmacological reagents uncovered the damaging effects of NS polymers. Our results support a role

  18. Sonic hedgehog promotes neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons under oxidative stress: Involving of mitochondria and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    He, Weiliang; Cui, Lili; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Xiangjian; He, Junna; Xie, Yanzhao; Chen, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a secreted glycoprotein factor, has been implicated in promoting several aspects of brain remodeling process. Mitochondria may play an important role in controlling fundamental processes in neuroplasticity. However, little evidence is available about the effect and the potential mechanism of Shh on neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons under oxidative stress. Here, we revealed that Shh treatment significantly increased the viability of cortical neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which was damaged by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Shh alleviated the apoptosis rate of H2O2-induced neurons. Shh also increased neuritogenesis injuried by H2O2 in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, Shh reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the activities of SOD and and decreased the productions of MDA. In addition, Shh protected mitochondrial functions, elevated the cellular ATP levels and amelioratesd the impairment of mitochondrial complex II activities of cortical neurons induced by H2O2. In conclusion, all these results suggest that Shh acts as a prosurvival factor playing an essential role to neurite outgrowth of cortical neuron under H2O2 -induced oxidative stress, possibly through counteracting ROS release and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP as well as mitochondrial complex II activities against oxidative stress.

  19. SMN deficiency does not induce oxidative stress in SMA iPSC-derived astrocytes or motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Teresa N; Ebert, Allison D

    2016-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord leading to muscle atrophy and death. Although motor neurons (MNs) are the most obviously affected cells in SMA, recent evidence suggest dysfunction in multiple cell types. Astrocytes are a crucial component of the motor circuit and are intimately involved with MN health and maintenance. We have previously shown that SMA astrocytes are altered both morphologically and functionally early in disease progression, though it is unclear what causes astrocytes to become reactive. Oxidative stress is a common feature among neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress can both induce apoptosis in neurons and can cause astrocytes to become reactive, which are features observed in the SMA induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) cultures. Therefore, we asked if oxidative stress contributes to SMA astrocyte pathology. We examined mitochondrial bioenergetics, transcript and protein levels of oxidative and anti-oxidant factors, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and found little evidence of oxidative stress. We did observe a significant increase in endogenous catalase expression in SMA iPSCs. While catalase knockdown in SMA iPSCs increased ROS production above basal levels, levels of ROS remained lower than in controls, further arguing against robust oxidative stress in this system. Viral delivery of survival motor neuron (SMN) reversed astrocyte activation and restored catalase levels to normal, without changing mitochondrial respiration or expression of oxidative stress markers. Taken together, these data indicate that SMN deficiency induces astrocyte reactivity, but does not do so through an oxidative stress-mediated process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sirtuin-3 Is Expressed by Enteric Neurons but It Does not Play a Major Role in Their Regulation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bubenheimer, Rebecca K.; Brown, Isola A. M.; Fried, David E.; McClain, Jonathon L.; Gulbransen, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Gut inflammation contributes to the development of gut motility disorders in part by disrupting the function and survival of enteric neurons through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. How enteric neurons regulate oxidative stress is still poorly understood. Importantly, how neuron autonomous antioxidant mechanisms contribute to the susceptibility of enteric neurons to oxidative stress in disease is not known. Here, we discover that sirtuin-3 (Sirt3), a key regulator of oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism, is expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the mouse colon. Given the important role of Sirt3 in the regulation of neuronal oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that Sirt3 plays an important role in the cell autonomous regulation of oxidative stress by enteric neurons and that a loss of Sirt3 increases neuronal vulnerability during intestinal inflammation. We tested our hypothesis using a combination of traditional immunohistochemistry, oxidative stress measurements and in vivo and ex vivo measures of GI motility in healthy and inflamed wild-type (wt) and Sirt3 null (Sirt3−/−) mice. Our results show that Sirt3 is widely expressed by neurons throughout the myenteric plexus of the mouse colon. However, the deletion of Sirt3 had surprisingly little effect on gut function and susceptibility to inflammation. Likewise, neither the genetic ablation of Sirt3 nor the inhibition of Sirt3 with antagonists had a significant effect on neuronal oxidative stress. Therefore, we conclude that Sirt3 contributes very little to the overall regulation of neuronal oxidative stress in the ENS. The functional relevance of Sirt3 in enteric neurons is still unclear but our data show that it is an unlikely candidate to explain neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress during inflammation. PMID:27047337

  1. Sirtuin-3 Is Expressed by Enteric Neurons but It Does not Play a Major Role in Their Regulation of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bubenheimer, Rebecca K; Brown, Isola A M; Fried, David E; McClain, Jonathon L; Gulbransen, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Gut inflammation contributes to the development of gut motility disorders in part by disrupting the function and survival of enteric neurons through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. How enteric neurons regulate oxidative stress is still poorly understood. Importantly, how neuron autonomous antioxidant mechanisms contribute to the susceptibility of enteric neurons to oxidative stress in disease is not known. Here, we discover that sirtuin-3 (Sirt3), a key regulator of oxidative stress and mitochondrial metabolism, is expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the mouse colon. Given the important role of Sirt3 in the regulation of neuronal oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that Sirt3 plays an important role in the cell autonomous regulation of oxidative stress by enteric neurons and that a loss of Sirt3 increases neuronal vulnerability during intestinal inflammation. We tested our hypothesis using a combination of traditional immunohistochemistry, oxidative stress measurements and in vivo and ex vivo measures of GI motility in healthy and inflamed wild-type (wt) and Sirt3 null (Sirt3 (-/-)) mice. Our results show that Sirt3 is widely expressed by neurons throughout the myenteric plexus of the mouse colon. However, the deletion of Sirt3 had surprisingly little effect on gut function and susceptibility to inflammation. Likewise, neither the genetic ablation of Sirt3 nor the inhibition of Sirt3 with antagonists had a significant effect on neuronal oxidative stress. Therefore, we conclude that Sirt3 contributes very little to the overall regulation of neuronal oxidative stress in the ENS. The functional relevance of Sirt3 in enteric neurons is still unclear but our data show that it is an unlikely candidate to explain neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress during inflammation.

  2. Calpain activation induced by glucose deprivation is mediated by oxidative stress and contributes to neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Blanca; Montiel, Teresa; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego R; Rivera-Martínez, Marlene; Morán, Julio; Massieu, Lourdes

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to neuronal death during glucose deprivation have not been fully elucidated, but a role of oxidative stress has been suggested. In the present study we have investigated whether the production of reactive oxygen species during glucose deprivation, contributes to the activation of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease involved in neuronal injury associated with brain ischemia and cerebral trauma. We have observed a rapid activation of calpain, as monitored by the cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein α-spectrin, after glucose withdrawal, which is reduced by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase. Results suggest that phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase contribute to the early activation of calpain after glucose deprivation. In particular NOX2, a member of the NADPH oxidase family is involved, since reduced stimulation of calpain activity is observed after glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice lacking a functional NOX2. We observed an additive effect of the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and phospholipase A2 on both ROS production and calpain activity, suggesting a synergistic action of these two enzymes. The present results provide new evidence showing that reactive oxygen species stimulate calpain activation during glucose deprivation and that this mechanism is involved in neuronal death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Melatonin inhibits manganese-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss in mice: involvement of oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Jiao, Congcong; Mi, Chao; Xu, Bin; Li, Yuehui; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Zhaofa

    2015-02-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the relationship between them during Mn neurotoxicity has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the probable role of melatonin (MLT) against Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss as a result of antagonizing oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Mice were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control, MnCl2, low MLT + MnCl2, median MLT + MnCl2, and high MLT + MnCl2. Administration of MnCl2 (50 mg/kg) for 2 weeks significantly induced hypokinesis, dopaminergic neurons degeneration and loss, neuronal ultrastructural damage, and apoptosis in the substantia nigra and the striatum. These conditions were caused in part by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde accumulation, and dysfunction of the nonenzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) antioxidative defense systems. Mn-induced neuron degeneration, astrocytes, and microglia activation contribute to the changes of oxidative stress markers. Dopamine (DA) depletion and downregulation of DA transporter and receptors were also found after Mn administration, this might also trigger motor dysfunction and neurons loss. Pretreatment with MLT prevented Mn-induced oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inhibited the interaction between them. As a result, pretreatment with MLT significantly alleviated Mn-induced motor dysfunction and neuronal loss. In conclusion, Mn treatment resulted in motor dysfunction and neuronal loss, possibly involving an interaction between oxidative stress and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra and the striatum. Pretreatment with MLT attenuated Mn-induced neurotoxicity by means of its antioxidant properties and promotion of the DA system.

  4. Hippocampal neuronal metal ion imbalance related oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic aluminum exposure and neuroprotection of meloxicam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases remain a significant unresolved societal burden afflicting millions of people worldwide. Neurons in the brain are highly sensitive to oxidative stress, which can be induced by metal toxicity. In this paper, a chronic aluminum overload-induced model of neurodegeneration was used to investigate whether metal ions (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn)-related oxidative stress was involved in neurodegenerative mechanism and to identify the protective action of meloxicam against rat hippocampal neuronal injury. The metal ion contents, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected. The results showed that the spatial learning and memory (SLM) function was significantly impaired in chronic aluminum overload rats. Considerable karyopycnosis was observed in hippocampal neurons. The SOD activity was weakened and the MDA content increased both significantly. In the hippocampus, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn contents increased by 184.1%, 186.1%, 884.2%, 199.4% and 149.2%, respectively. Meloxicam administration (without Al) had no effect compared with the control group, while meloxicam treatment with aluminum exposure significantly protected rats from SLM function impairment, neuron death, lower SOD activity, higher MDA content and brain metal ion imbalance. Our findings suggest that the cerebral metal ion imbalance-related oxidative stress is involved in mechanism of cerebral injury and neurodegeneration induced by chronic Al overload in rats, and that meloxicam protects neurons by reducing metal ion imbalance-related oxidative stress. PMID:24618126

  5. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tat-NOL3 protects against hippocampal neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress through the regulation of apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Yong, Ji In; Ryu, Eun Ji; Park, Jung Hwan; Cho, Su Bin; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Im, Seung Kwon; Kweon, Hae Young; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Meeyoung; Park, Jinseu; Cho, Yong-Jun; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis is associated with neuronal cell death and ischemia. The NOL3 [nucleolar protein 3 (apoptosis repressor with CARD domain)] protein protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, the protective mechanism responsible for this effect as well as the effects of NOL3 against oxidative stress in ischemia remain unclear. Thus, we examined the protective effects of NOL3 protein on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and the mechanism responsible for these effects in hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells and in an animal model of forebrain ischemia using Tat-fused NOL3 protein (Tat-NOL3). Purified Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the H2O2-exposed HT22 cells and inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). In addition, Tat-NOL3 prevented neuronal cell death through the regulation of apoptotic signaling pathways including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-2, -3 and -8, PARP and p53. In addition, Tat-NOL3 protein transduced into the animal brains and significantly protected against neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus by regulating the activation of microglia and astrocytes. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Tat-NOL3 protein protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death by regulating oxidative stress and by acting as an anti-apoptotic protein. Thus, we suggest that Tat-NOL3 represents a potential therapeutic agent for protection against ischemic brain injury.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Cuneyt; Oran, Mustafa; Albayrak, Yakup; Aktas, Cevat; Erboga, Mustafa; Topcu, Birol; Uygur, Ramazan; Tulubas, Feti; Yanartas, Omer; Ates, Ozkan; Ozen, Oguz Aslan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in rat brain. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each: control, ICV-STZ, and ICV-STZ treated with ebselen. The ICV-STZ group rats were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3, and ebselen (10 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 days starting from 1st day of ICV-STZ injection to day 14. Rats were killed at the end of the study and brain tissues were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on Alzheimer's disease (AD) model in rats. Our present study, in ICV-STZ group, showed significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde levels and significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex tissue. The histopathological studies in the brain of rats also supported that ebselen markedly reduced the ICV-STZ-induced histopathological changes and well preserved the normal histological architecture of the frontal cortex tissue. The number of apoptotic neurons was increased in frontal cortex tissue after ICV-STZ administration. Treatment of ebselen markedly reduced the number of degenerating apoptotic neurons. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ebselen, as a powerful antioxidant, in preventing the oxidative damage and morphological changes caused by ICV-STZ in rats. Thus, ebselen may have a therapeutic value for the treatment of AD.

  8. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival during 6-OHDA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Ay, Muhammet; Jin, Huajun; Gosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD. PMID:24806360

  9. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  10. The Treadmill Exercise Protects against Dopaminergic Neuron Loss and Brain Oxidative Stress in Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Roberta Oliveira; Gadelha-Filho, Carlos Vinicius Jataí; da Costa, Ayane Edwiges Moura; Feitosa, Mariana Lima; de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; de Lucena, Jalles Dantas; de Aquino, Pedro Everson Alexandre; Lima, Francisco Arnaldo Viana; Neves, Kelly Rose Tavares; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurological pathology, presents motor and nonmotor impairments. The objectives were to support data on exercise benefits to PD. Male Wistar rats were distributed into sham-operated (SO) and 6-OHDA-lesioned, both groups without and with exercise. The animals were subjected to treadmill exercises (14 days), 24 h after the stereotaxic surgery and striatal 6-OHDA injection. Those from no-exercise groups stayed on the treadmill for the same period and, afterwards, were subjected to behavioral tests and euthanized for neurochemical and immunohistochemical assays. The data, analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test, were considered significant for p < 0.05. The results showed behavioral change improvements in the 6-OHDA group, after the treadmill exercise, evaluated by apomorphine rotational behavior, open field, and rota rod tests. The exercise reduced striatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and decreased the oxidative stress. In addition, significant increases in BDNF contents and in immunoreactive cells to TH and DAT were also observed, in striata of the 6-OHDA group with exercise, relatively to those with no exercise. We conclude that exercise improves behavior and dopaminergic neurotransmission in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. The increased oxidative stress and decreased BDNF contents were also reversed, emphasizing the importance of exercise for the PD management.

  11. Baicalein Promotes Neuronal and Behavioral Recovery After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Via Suppressing Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Wei, Yinghai; Li, Binru; Pang, Linlin

    2017-01-21

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important public health problem in neurology, which is not only associated with high mortality but also leading to disability. Yet no satisfactory treatment has been developed. The secondary injury that resulted from a number of self-destructive processes such as neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, is the key factor contributing to ICH-induced brain damage. Baicalein has been proved to improve neuronal functional recovery in rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic brain damage. To investigate the effect of baicalein on ICH and its underlying mechanism, a collagenase-induced ICH rat model was performed. Baicalein treatment significantly decreased neurological severity score at day 1 and 3 after ICH injury. Our results showed that the lesion volume, the brain water content, the expression levels of four pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-6 and TNF-α) and the numbers of apoptotic cells were reduced significantly in ICH rats receiving baicalein treatment, especially in 50 mg/kg baicalein-treated group. Moreover, baicalein increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and down-regulated MDA level of brain tissues in rats. These results suggested that the therapeutic efficacy of baicalein on repairing brain damage is probably caused by suppressing apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Baicalein could be developed into a novel drug for clinical treatment of ICH and ICH-related brain injuries.

  12. AMPA receptor activation causes preferential mitochondrial Ca²⁺ load and oxidative stress in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Tewari, Bhanu P; Singh, Mahendra; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2015-08-07

    It is well established that motor neurons are highly vulnerable to glutamate induced excitotoxicity. The selective vulnerability of these neurons has been attributed to AMPA receptor mediated excessive rise in cytosolic calcium and consequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Earlier we have reported that in motor neurons a generic rise in [Ca(2+)]i does not always lead to mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading and membrane depolarization but it occurs upon AMPA receptor activation. The mechanism of such specific mitochondrial involvement upon AMPA receptor activation is not known. The present study examines the mitochondrial Ca(2+) regulation and oxidative stress in spinal cord neurons upon AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor activation. Stimulating the spinal neurons with AMPA exhibited a sharp rise in [Ca(2+)]m in both motor and other spinal neurons that was sustained up to the end of recording time of 30min. The rise in [Ca(2+)]m was substantially higher in motor neurons than in other spinal neurons which could be due to the differential mitochondrial homeostasis in two types of neurons. To examine this possibility, we measured AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading in the presence of mitochondrial inhibitors. In both cell types the AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading was blocked by mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocker ruthenium red. In motor neurons it was also inhibited substantially by CGP37157 and cyclosporine-A, the blockers of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) respectively, whereas no effect of these agents was observed in other spinal neurons. Thus in motor neurons the Ca(2+) sequestration by mitochondria occurs through mitochondrial calcium uniporter as well as due to reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, in contrast the latter pathway does not contribute in other spinal neurons. The ROS formation was inhibited by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME in both types of neurons, however the mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor rotenone

  13. DJ-1 Interacts with and Regulates Paraoxonase-2, an Enzyme Critical for Neuronal Survival in Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parsanejad, Mohammad; Bourquard, Noam; Qu, Dianbo; Zhang, Yi; Huang, En; Rousseaux, Maxime W. C.; Aleyasin, Hossein; Irrcher, Isabella; Callaghan, Steve; Vaillant, Dominique C.; Kim, Raymond H.; Slack, Ruth S.; Mak, Tak W.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Figeys, Daniel; Park, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 (PARK7) gene account for about 1% of all familial Parkinson's disease (PD). While its physiological function(s) are not completely clear, DJ-1 protects neurons against oxidative stress in both in vitro and in vivo models of PD. The molecular mechanism(s) through which DJ-1 alleviates oxidative stress-mediated damage remains elusive. In this study, we identified Paraoxonase-2 (PON2) as an interacting target of DJ-1. PON2 activity is elevated in response to oxidative stress and DJ-1 is crucial for this response. Importantly, we showed that PON2 deficiency hypersensitizes neurons to oxidative stress induced by MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium). Conversely, over-expression of PON2 protects neurons in this death paradigm. Interestingly, PON2 effectively rescues DJ-1 deficiency-mediated hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. Taken together, our data suggest a model by which DJ-1 exerts its antioxidant activities, at least partly through regulation of PON2. PMID:25210784

  14. HDAC2 selectively regulates FOXO3a-mediated gene transcription during oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengyi; Zhao, Siqi; Yan, Feng; Cheng, Jinbo; Huang, Li; Chen, Hong; Liu, Qingsong; Ji, Xunming; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2015-01-21

    All neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) is a key transcription factor involved in neuronal apoptosis. However, how FOXO3a forms complexes and functions in oxidative stress processing remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) forms a physical complex with FOXO3a, which plays an important role in FOXO3a-dependent gene transcription and oxidative stress-induced mouse cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) apoptosis. Interestingly, we also found that HDAC2 became selectively enriched in the promoter region of the p21 gene, but not those of other target genes, and inhibited FOXO3a-mediated p21 transcription. Furthermore, we found that oxidative stress reduced the interaction between FOXO3a and HDAC2, leading to an increased histone H4K16 acetylation level in the p21 promoter region and upregulated p21 expression in a manner independent of p53 or E2F1. Phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 is important for the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction, and we found that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion reduced phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 and mitigated the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction in mouse brain tissue. Our study reveals the novel regulation of FOXO3a-mediated selective gene transcription via epigenetic modification in the process of oxidative stress-induced cell death, which could be exploited therapeutically.

  15. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity.

  16. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Lee, Johnny K; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-03-01

    This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ΔΔCT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled 'Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum' [1].

  17. Organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and lindane induce cooperative toxicity in dopaminergic neurons: role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Heera; Zhang, Ping; Barber, David S; Liu, Bin

    2010-03-01

    Elevated environmental exposure to pesticides has been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive movement disorder resulted from degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including dieldrin and lindane remain ubiquitous in the environment and food supply due to their resistance to degradation and bioaccumulation along the food chain. While prior studies have gained insight into the neurotoxic effects of individual OCPs such as dieldrin, the effect of combinations of coexisting OCPs is lacking. In this study, we determined the combined effect of dieldrin and lindane on DA neurons and potential mechanism of action. Combinations of dieldrin and lindane (5-25 microM) were more effective in causing toxicity in immortalized rat N27 DA neurons than when used alone. Mechanistically, dieldrin and lindane combination induced a rapid increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspase 3/7. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blocked the effect of dieldrin and lindane on ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential and protected against dieldrin- and lindane-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperatively to induce DA neurotoxicity through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings may advance understanding of the role of pesticides in the multi-factorial etiology of PD. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The C-ETS2-TFEB Axis Promotes Neuron Survival under Oxidative Stress by Regulating Lysosome Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zijun; Luo, Wenwen; Yang, Yunzhi; Wang, Chenyao; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Huafei; Chen, Huaiyong; Chan, Chi bun; Liu, Zhixue

    2016-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) produced as a result of ageing causes damage to macromolecules and organelles or leads to interference of cell signalling pathways, which in turn results in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease) and contributes to progressive neuronal loss. In this study, we show that cell apoptosis is induced by oxidative stress and that lysosomes play an important role in cell survival under oxidative stress. As a compensatory response to this stress, lysosomal genes were upregulated via induction of transcription factor EB (TFEB). In addition, localization of TFEB to the nucleus was increased by oxidative stress. We also confirmed that TFEB protects cells from oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we found that C-ETS2 senses oxidative stress, activates TFEB transcription, and mediates the upregulation of lysosomal genes. Our results demonstrate a mechanistic pathway for inducing lysosomal activity during ageing and neurodegeneration. PMID:27195074

  19. Effect of Polyphenols on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neuronal Death and Brain Edema in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Panickar, Kiran S.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. There are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, but edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling will be undertaken and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed. PMID:22174658

  20. The mitochondrial permeability transition, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the mechanism of copper toxicity in cultured neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pichili V B; Rao, Kakulavarapu V Rama; Norenberg, Michael D

    2008-08-01

    Copper is an essential element and an integral component of various enzymes. However, excess copper is neurotoxic and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, prion conditions, and other disorders. Although mechanisms of copper neurotoxicity are not fully understood, copper is known to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. As oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), we determined whether mPT plays a role in copper-induced neural cell injury. Cultured astrocytes and neurons were treated with 20 microM copper and mPT was measured by changes in the cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m), employing the potentiometric dye TMRE. In astrocytes, copper caused a 36% decrease in the Delta Psi m at 12 h, which decreased further to 48% by 24 h and remained at that level for at least 72 h. Cobalt quenching of calcein fluorescence as a measure of mPT similarly displayed a 45% decrease at 24 h. Pretreatment with antioxidants significantly blocked the copper-induced mPT by 48-75%. Copper (24 h) also caused a 30% reduction in ATP in astrocytes, which was completely blocked by CsA. Copper caused death (42%) in astrocytes by 48 h, which was reduced by antioxidants (35-60%) and CsA (41%). In contrast to astrocytes, copper did not induce mPT in neurons. Instead, it caused early and extensive death with a concomitant reduction (63%) in ATP by 14 h. Neuronal death was prevented by antioxidants and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors but not by CsA. Copper increased protein tyrosine nitration in both astrocytes and neurons. These studies indicate that mPT, and oxidative and nitrosative stress represent major factors in copper-induced toxicity in astrocytes, whereas oxidative and nitrosative stress appears to play a major role in neuronal injury.

  1. Neuronal changes and oxidative stress in adolescent rats after repeated exposure to mephedrone

    SciTech Connect

    López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Rodrigo, Teresa; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Mephedrone is a new designer drug of abuse. We have investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes after mephedrone administration to adolescent rats (3 × 25 mg/kg, s.c. in a day, with a 2 h interval between doses, for two days) at high ambient temperature (26 ± 2 °C), a schedule that intends to model human recreational abuse. In addition, we have studied the effect of mephedrone in spatial learning and memory. The drug caused a transient decrease in weight gain. After the first dose, animals showed hypothermia but, after the subsequent doses, temperature raised over the values of saline-treated group. We observed the development of tolerance to these thermoregulatory effects of mephedrone. Mephedrone induced a reduction of the densities of dopamine (30% in the frontal cortex) and serotonin (40% in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus and 48% in the striatum) transporters without microgliosis. These deficits were also accompanied by a parallel decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2. These changes matched with a down-regulation of D{sub 2} dopamine receptors in the striatum. Mephedrone also induced an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex, and accompanied by a rise in glutathione peroxidase levels in all studied brain areas. Drug-treated animals displayed an impairment of the reference memory in the Morris water maze one week beyond the cessation of drug exposure, while the spatial learning process seems to be preserved. These findings raise concerns about the neuronal long-term effects of mephedrone. - Highlights: • We studied the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity of mephedrone in rats. • Mephedrone induced a transient hypothermia following sustained hyperthermia. • In a weekend consumption pattern, mephedrone induced selective neurotoxicity. • Mephedrone generated oxidative stress. • Mephedrone induced an impairment in memory function.

  2. Neuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2−, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  3. From the Cover: Manganese and Rotenone-Induced Oxidative Stress Signatures Differ in iPSC-Derived Human Dopamine Neurons.

    PubMed

    Neely, M Diana; Davison, Carrie Ann; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the result of complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Two chemically distinct environmental stressors relevant to PD are the metal manganese and the pesticide rotenone. Both are thought to exert neurotoxicity at least in part via oxidative stress resulting from impaired mitochondrial activity. Identifying shared mechanism of action may reveal clues towards an understanding of the mechanisms underlying PD pathogenesis. Here we compare the effects of manganese and rotenone in human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived postmitotic mesencephalic dopamine neurons by assessing several different oxidative stress endpoints. Manganese, but not rotenone caused a concentration and time-dependent increase in intracellular reactive oxygen/nitrogen species measured by quantifying the fluorescence of oxidized chloromethyl 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF) assay. In contrast, rotenone but not manganese caused an increase in cellular isoprostane levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Manganese and rotenone both caused an initial decrease in cellular reduced glutathione; however, glutathione levels remained low in neurons treated with rotenone for 24 h but recovered in manganese-exposed cells. Neurite length, a sensitive indicator of overall neuronal health was adversely affected by rotenone, but not manganese. Thus, our observations suggest that the cellular oxidative stress evoked by these 2 agents is distinct yielding unique oxidative stress signatures across outcome measures. The protective effect of rasagiline, a compound used in the clinic for PD, had negligible impact on any of oxidative stress outcome measures except a subtle significant decrease in manganese-dependent production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species detected by the DCF assay. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Biochanin A protects dopaminergic neurons against lipopolysaccharide-induced damage and oxidative stress in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Can; Wu, Wang-Yang; Chen, Feng; Wu, Yang-Yang; Li, Wei-Zu; Chen, Han-Qing; Yin, Yan-Yan

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Accumulated evidences have suggested that oxidative stress is closely associated with the dopaminergic neurodegeneration of PD that can be protected by antioxidants. Biochanin A that is an O-methylated isoflavone in chickpea is investigated to explore its protective mechanism on dopaminergic neurons of the unilateral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injected rat. The results showed that biochanin A significantly improved the animal model's behavioral symptoms, prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons and inhibited the deleterious microglia activation in the LPS-induced rats. Moreover, biochanin A inhibited nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) activation and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the rat brain. These results suggested that biochanin A might be a natural candidate with protective properties on dopaminergic neurons against the PD.

  5. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, Gennaro; Afsharinejad, Zhara; Guizzetti, Marina; Vitalone, Annabella; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Costa, Lucio G. . E-mail: lgcosta@u.washington.edu

    2007-03-15

    Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their 'inactive' metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased their sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium.

  6. Krebs Cycle Intermediates Protective against Oxidative Stress by Modulating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neuronal HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Kenta; Uematsu, Takumi; Korenaga, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Ryuya; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Murata, Kyohei; Zhang, Jian; Gai, Xiaoqing; Sakamoto, Kazuichi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2017-03-16

    Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. In contrast, none of the KCIs-used at 1 mM-protected against cell death induced by high concentrations of glutamate-another type of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Because these protective KCIs did not have any toxic effects (at least up to 10 mM), they have potential use for therapeutic intervention against chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Krebs Cycle Intermediates Protective against Oxidative Stress by Modulating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neuronal HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Kenta; Uematsu, Takumi; Korenaga, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Ryuya; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Murata, Kyohei; Zhang, Jian; Gai, Xiaoqing; Sakamoto, Kazuichi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. In contrast, none of the KCIs—used at 1 mM—protected against cell death induced by high concentrations of glutamate—another type of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Because these protective KCIs did not have any toxic effects (at least up to 10 mM), they have potential use for therapeutic intervention against chronic neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28300753

  8. Regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by redox signaling and oxidative stress: implications for neuronal development and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carlos; González-Billault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A proper balance between chemical reduction and oxidation (known as redox balance) is essential for normal cellular physiology. Deregulation in the production of oxidative species leads to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and aberrant post-translational modification of proteins, which in most cases induces injury, cell death and disease. However, physiological concentrations of oxidative species are necessary to support important cell functions, such as chemotaxis, hormone synthesis, immune response, cytoskeletal remodeling, Ca2+ homeostasis and others. Recent evidence suggests that redox balance regulates actin and microtubule dynamics in both physiological and pathological contexts. Microtubules and actin microfilaments contain certain amino acid residues that are susceptible to oxidation, which reduces the ability of microtubules to polymerize and causes severing of actin microfilaments in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In contrast, inhibited production of reactive oxygen species (ROS; e.g., due to NOXs) leads to aberrant actin polymerization, decreases neurite outgrowth and affects the normal development and polarization of neurons. In this review, we summarize emerging evidence suggesting that both general and specific enzymatic sources of redox species exert diverse effects on cytoskeletal dynamics. Considering the intimate relationship between cytoskeletal dynamics and trafficking, we also discuss the potential effects of redox balance on intracellular transport via regulation of the components of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton as well as cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which may directly impact localization of proteins and vesicles across the soma, dendrites and axon of neurons. PMID:26483635

  9. Quercetin and sesamin protect neuronal PC12 cells from high-glucose-induced oxidation, nitrosative stress, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bournival, Julie; Francoeur, Marc-André; Renaud, Justine; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2012-06-01

    Complications of diabetes are now well-known to affect sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. Diabetes is also thought to be involved in neurodegenerative processes characteristic of several neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, it has been acknowledged recently that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress contributes to numerous cellular reactions typical of central nervous system deterioration. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the polyphenol quercetin and the lignan sesamin on high-glucose (HG)-induced oxidative damage in an in vitro model of dopaminergic neurons, neuronal PC12 cells. When incubated with HG (13.5 mg/mL), neuronal PC12 cells showed a significant increase of cellular death. Our results revealed that quercetin and sesamin defend neuronal PC12 cells from HG-induced cellular demise. An elevated level of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a consequence of improved oxidative stress after HG administration, and we demonstrated that this production diminishes with quercetin and sesamin treatment. We also found that quercetin and sesamin elicited an increment of superoxide dismutase activity. DNA fragmentation, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, as well as poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase cleavage were significantly reduced by quercetin and sesamin administration, affirming their antiapoptotic features. Also, HG treatment impacted caspase-3 cleavage, supporting caspase-3-dependent pathways as mechanisms of apoptotic death. Our results indicate a powerful role for these natural dietary compounds and emphasize preventive or complementary nutritional strategies for diabetes control.

  10. Ginsenoside Rg1 Protects against Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Apoptosis through Myosin IIA-actin Related Cytoskeletal Reorganization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Qian; Xu, Yingqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yanni; Tan, Yisha; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Guosheng; Ma, Xiaonan; Wang, Jingrong; Cao, Zhengyu; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cytoskeletal dysfunction of neurons has been implicated as a crucial cause of cell apoptosis or death in the central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The application of neuroprotectants rescuing the neurons from cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis can be a potential treatment for these CNS diseases. Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, has been reported possessing notable neuroprotective activities. However, there is rare report about its effect on cytoskeleton and its undergoing mechanism. The current study is to reveal the regulatory effects of Rg1 on cytoskeletal and morphological lesion in oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. The results demonstrated that pre-treatment with Rg1 (0.1-10 μM) attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress through reducing the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) level. The Rg1 treatment also abolished H2O2-induced morphological changes, including cell rounding, membrane blebbing, neurite retraction and nuclei condensation, which were generated by myosin IIA-actin interaction. These effects were mediated via the down-regulation of caspase-3, ROCK1 (Rho-associated kinase1) activation and myosin light chain (MLC, Ser-19) phosphorylation. Furthermore, inhibiting myosin II activity with blebbistatin partly blocked the neuroprotective effects of Rg1. The computer-aided homology modelling revealed that Rg1 preferentially positioned in the actin binding cleft of myosin IIA and might block the binding of myosin IIA to actin filaments. Accordingly, the neuroprotective mechanism of Rg1 is related to the activity that inhibits myosin IIA-actin interaction and the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC signaling pathway. These findings put some insights into the unique neuroprotective properties of Rg1 associated with the regulation of myosin IIA

  11. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  12. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER STIMULATES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) damages biological targets through oxidative stress (OS) pathways. Several reports indicate that the brain is one of those targets. Since microglia (brain macrophage) are critical to OS-mediated neurodegeneration, their response to concentrated amb...

  13. Heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion attenuates oxidative stress in neurons exposed to extracellular hemin

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Raymond F; Chen, Jing; Benvenisti-Zarom, Luna

    2004-01-01

    Background Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas and is a potent oxidant. Growing evidence suggests that it contributes to delayed injury to surrounding tissue, and that this process is affected by the heme oxygenase enzymes. In a prior study, heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion increased the vulnerability of cultured cortical astrocytes to hemin. The present study tested the effect of HO-2 gene deletion on protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell viability after mixed cortical neuron/astrocyte cultures were incubated with neurotoxic concentrations of hemin. Results Continuous exposure of wild-type cultures to 1–10 μM hemin for 14 h produced concentration-dependent neuronal death, as detected by both LDH release and fluorescence intensity after propidium iodide staining, with an EC50 of 1–2 μM; astrocytes were not injured by these low hemin concentrations. Cell death was consistently reduced by at least 60% in knockout cultures. Exposure to hemin for 4 hours, a time point that preceded cell lysis, increased protein oxidation in wild-type cultures, as detected by staining of immunoblots for protein carbonyl groups. At 10 μM hemin, carbonylation was increased 2.3-fold compared with control sister cultures subjected to medium exchanges only; this effect was reduced by about two-thirds in knockout cultures. Cellular reactive oxygen species, detected by fluorescence intensity after dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) staining, was markedly increased by hemin in wild-type cultures and was localized to neuronal cell bodies and processes. In contrast, DHR fluorescence intensity in knockout cultures did not differ from that of sham-washed controls. Neuronal death in wild-type cultures was almost completely prevented by the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline; deferoxamine had a weaker but significant effect. Conclusions These results suggest that HO-2 gene deletion protects neurons in mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures

  14. Neuronal changes and oxidative stress in adolescent rats after repeated exposure to mephedrone.

    PubMed

    López-Arnau, Raúl; Martínez-Clemente, José; Rodrigo, Teresa; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Mephedrone is a new designer drug of abuse. We have investigated the neurochemical/enzymatic changes after mephedrone administration to adolescent rats (3×25 mg/kg, s.c. in a day, with a 2 h interval between doses, for two days) at high ambient temperature (26±2 °C), a schedule that intends to model human recreational abuse. In addition, we have studied the effect of mephedrone in spatial learning and memory. The drug caused a transient decrease in weight gain. After the first dose, animals showed hypothermia but, after the subsequent doses, temperature raised over the values of saline-treated group. We observed the development of tolerance to these thermoregulatory effects of mephedrone. Mephedrone induced a reduction of the densities of dopamine (30% in the frontal cortex) and serotonin (40% in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus and 48% in the striatum) transporters without microgliosis. These deficits were also accompanied by a parallel decrease in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2. These changes matched with a down-regulation of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. Mephedrone also induced an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase of lipid peroxidation in the frontal cortex, and accompanied by a rise in glutathione peroxidase levels in all studied brain areas. Drug-treated animals displayed an impairment of the reference memory in the Morris water maze one week beyond the cessation of drug exposure, while the spatial learning process seems to be preserved. These findings raise concerns about the neuronal long-term effects of mephedrone.

  15. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  16. Protective effect of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lei; Wang, Zhenfei; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Liang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    As previous studies demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis play crucial roles in ischemic pathogenesis and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) treatment attenuates oxidative stress-induced cell death among primary neurons and astrocytes as well as significantly reduce cerebral ischemic injury in rats. We used a spinal cord ischemia injury (SCII) model in rats to verify our hypothesis that NAD(+) could ameliorate oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Adult male rats were subjected to transient spinal cord ischemia for 60min, and different doses of NAD(+) were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the start of reperfusion. Neurological function was determined by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores. The oxidative stress level was assessed by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The degree of apoptosis was analyzed by deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF (apoptosis inducing factor). The results showed that NAD(+) at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly decreased the oxidative stress level and neuronal apoptosis in the spinal cord of ischemia-reperfusion rats compared with saline, as accompanied with the decreased oxidative stress, NAD(+) administration significantly restrained the neuronal apoptosis after ischemia injury while improved the neurological and motor function. These findings suggested that NAD(+) might protect against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion via reducing oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.

  17. IL-13-induced oxidative stress via microglial NADPH oxidase contributes to death of hippocampal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun W; Baik, Hyung H; Jin, Byung K

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of IL-13, a well-known anti-inflammatory cytokine, on the thrombin-treated hippocampus in vivo. NeuN immunohistochemistry and Nissl staining revealed significant loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons upon intrahippocampal injection of thrombin. This neurotoxicity was accompanied by substantial microglial activation, as evident from OX-42 immunohistochemistry results. In parallel, Western blot analysis and hydroethidine histochemistry disclosed activation of NADPH oxidase, generation of reactive oxygen species, and oxidative damage in the hippocampal CA1 area showing hippocampal neuron degeneration. Interestingly, immunohistochemical and biochemical experiments showed that intrahippocampal injection of thrombin increased IL-13 immunoreactivity and IL-13 levels as early as 8 h after thrombin, reaching a peak at 7 days, which was maintained up to 14 days. Moreover, double-label immunohistochemistry revealed IL-13 immunoreactivity exclusively in activated microglia. IL-13-neutralizing Abs significantly rescued CA1 hippocampal neurons from thrombin neurotoxicity. In parallel, neutralization of IL-13 inhibited activation of NADPH oxidase, reactive oxygen species production, and oxidative damage. Additionally, IL-13 neutralization suppressed the expression of inducible NO synthase and several proinflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show that IL-13 triggers microglial NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress, leading to the degeneration of hippocampal neurons in vivo, as occurs in cases of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Cremades, Nunilo; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Serene; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Banushi, Blerida; Little, Daniel; Devine, Michael J.; Gissen, Paul; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant free radical production and neuronal toxicity. Results: We first demonstrate excessive free radical production in a human induced pluripotent stem-derived α-S triplication model at basal levels and on application of picomolar doses of β-sheet-rich α-S oligomers. We probed the effects of different structural species of α-S in wild-type rat neuronal cultures and show that both oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-S are capable of generating free radical production, but that only the oligomeric form results in reduction of endogenous glutathione and subsequent neuronal toxicity. We dissected the mechanism of oligomer-induced free radical production and found that it was interestingly independent of several known cellular enzymatic sources. Innovation: The oligomer-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was entirely dependent on the presence of free metal ions as addition of metal chelators was able to block oligomer-induced ROS production and prevent oligomer-induced neuronal death. Conclusion: Our findings further support the causative role of soluble amyloid oligomers in triggering neurodegeneration and shed light into the mechanisms by which these species cause neuronal damage, which, we show here, can be amenable to modulation through the use of metal chelation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. PMID:26564470

  19. Neuronal Responses to Physiological Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Physiological stress can be defined as any external or internal condition that challenges the homeostasis of a cell or an organism. It can be divided into three different aspects: environmental stress, intrinsic developmental stress, and aging. Throughout life all living organisms are challenged by changes in the environment. Fluctuations in oxygen levels, temperature, and redox state for example, trigger molecular events that enable an organism to adapt, survive, and reproduce. In addition to external stressors, organisms experience stress associated with morphogenesis and changes in inner chemistry during normal development. For example, conditions such as intrinsic hypoxia and oxidative stress, due to an increase in tissue mass, have to be confronted by developing embryos in order to complete their development. Finally, organisms face the challenge of stochastic accumulation of molecular damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level. PMID:23112806

  20. Midazolam anesthesia protects neuronal cells from oxidative stress-induced death via activation of the JNK-ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Yu; Guo, Feng; Wu, Hong-Ling; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jin-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Midazolam is an anesthetic agent commonly used during clinical and surgical procedures, which has been shown to exert ROS‑suppressing and apoptosis‑modulating pharmacological activities in various cellular systems. However, the effects of midazolam on oxidative stress in neuronal cells require elucidation. The present study investigated the effects of midazolam on buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)‑ and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neuronal cells. In addition, the effects of midazolam on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and on ethanol‑induced neuroapoptosis in the brains of neonatal mice were determined. Subsequently, cell viability was detected using the MTT assay; intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using the 2',7'‑dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method with confocal microscopy; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was conducted to detect apoptotic cells; immunohistochemistry was performed to detect activated caspase‑3; neuronal deficit and infarct volume analyses were conducted; and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to detect the expression levels of genes and proteins associated with apoptosis and cell survival pathways. The results demonstrated that BSO (10 mM) and H2O2 (1 mM) suppressed proliferation of cortical neuronal cells by inducing apoptosis. These effects were suppressed following treatment with midazolam in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, BSO and H2O2 induced ROS generation in neuronal cells; however, this was effectively suppressed by midazolam (100 µM). Beneficial synergistic effects were detected when midazolam was used in combination with the known antioxidant trolox. BSO and H2O2 also suppressed the protein expression levels of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinases (JNK), phosphorylated (p)JNK, extracellular signal‑regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, pERK1/2, AKT and

  1. Midazolam anesthesia protects neuronal cells from oxidative stress-induced death via activation of the JNK-ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing-Yu; Guo, Feng; Wu, Hong-Ling; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jin-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Midazolam is an anesthetic agent commonly used during clinical and surgical procedures, which has been shown to exert ROS-suppressing and apoptosis-modulating pharmacological activities in various cellular systems. However, the effects of midazolam on oxidative stress in neuronal cells require elucidation. The present study investigated the effects of midazolam on buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in primary cortical neuronal cells. In addition, the effects of midazolam on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and on ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis in the brains of neonatal mice were determined. Subsequently, cell viability was detected using the MTT assay; intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined using the 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method with confocal microscopy; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was conducted to detect apoptotic cells; immunohistochemistry was performed to detect activated caspase-3; neuronal deficit and infarct volume analyses were conducted; and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to detect the expression levels of genes and proteins associated with apoptosis and cell survival pathways. The results demonstrated that BSO (10 mM) and H2O2 (1 mM) suppressed proliferation of cortical neuronal cells by inducing apoptosis. These effects were suppressed following treatment with midazolam in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BSO and H2O2 induced ROS generation in neuronal cells; however, this was effectively suppressed by midazolam (100 µM). Beneficial synergistic effects were detected when midazolam was used in combination with the known antioxidant trolox. BSO and H2O2 also suppressed the protein expression levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), phosphorylated (p)JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, pERK1/2, AKT and nuclear factor

  2. The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohibbullah, Md; Hannan, Md Abdul; Choi, Ji-Young; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-09-01

    Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis.

  3. The Edible Marine Alga Gracilariopsis chorda Alleviates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Oxidative Stress in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mohibbullah, Md.; Hannan, Md. Abdul; Choi, Ji-Young; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque; Hong, Yong-Ki; Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon; Moon, Il Soo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis. PMID:26106876

  4. Increased expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in dura and pia mater after air stress.

    PubMed

    Zinck, T; Illum, R; Jansen-Olesen, I

    2006-01-01

    Stress is the leading precipitating factor for migraine attacks but the underlying mechanism is currently unknown. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in migraine pathogenesis based on the ability of NO donors to induce migraine attacks. In the present study, we investigated in Wistar rats the effect of air stress on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA and protein expression in dura and pia mater using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Endothelial (e)NOS protein expression was significantly increased in dura and pia mater after air stress. Significantly augmented neuronal (n)NOS protein expression was detected in pia mater after air stress but not in dura mater. Inducible NOS mRNA and protein expression levels in dura and pia mater were unaffected by stress. The increased expression of eNOS in dura mater and eNOS and nNOS in pia mater seen after stress could not be antagonized by treatment with the migraine drug sumatriptan. These findings point towards the involvement of increased NO concentrations in dura and pia mater in response to air stress. However, the role of these findings in relation to migraine pathophysiology remains unclear.

  5. Estradiol and raloxifene protect cultured SN4741 neurons against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Biewenga, Eric; Cabell, Leigh; Audesirk, Teresa

    2005-01-20

    A large body of research has documented neuroprotective effects of estrogen against oxidative stress. Some neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, in which oxidative stress has been implicated as a contributing factor, affect more males than females, suggesting a possible protective effect of estrogen. We used the clonal substantia nigra cell line SN4741 to compare the neuroprotective properties of estrogen and raloxifene against oxidative stress, and to determine whether raloxifene acted as an estrogen agonist or antagonist in this system. We pretreated SN4741 cultures with alpha-estradiol, beta-estradiol, and raloxifene, and exposed them to hydrogen peroxide. Low nanomolar levels of raloxifene, beta-estradiol, and alpha-estradiol all significantly reduced cell death caused by oxidative stress. The estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 failed to reverse the neuroprotection by beta-estradiol, suggesting that the effect is not mediated by a classical ER. Western blotting using an antibody to the C-terminus region of ER-alpha revealed two bands, one at approximately 67 kDa (corresponding to ER-alpha) and a more prominent band at approximately 55-56 kDa. These results suggest that, in this cell line, both raloxifene and estrogen may be acting via a non-classical estrogen receptor.

  6. Bioconjugates of curcumin display improved protection against glutathione depletion mediated oxidative stress in a dopaminergic neuronal cell line: Implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Venkateshappa, C; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Dubey, Shiv Kumar; Mishra, Krishna; Singh, Neetu; Vali, Shireen; Bharath, M M Srinivas

    2010-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Depletion of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) resulting in oxidative stress is considered as an early event in neurodegeneration. We previously showed that curcumin, a dietary polyphenol from turmeric induced GSH synthesis in experimental models and protected against oxidative stress. Here we tested the effect of three bioconjugates of curcumin (involving diesters of demethylenated piperic acid, valine and glutamic acid) against GSH depletion mediated oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells and found that the glutamic acid derivative displayed improved neuroprotection compared to curcumin.

  7. Capsaicin prevents degeneration of dopamine neurons by inhibiting glial activation and oxidative stress in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young C; Baek, Jeong Y; Kim, Sang R; Ko, Hyuk W; Bok, Eugene; Shin, Won-Ho; Won, So-Yoon; Jin, Byung K

    2017-03-03

    The effects of capsaicin (CAP), a transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) agonist, were determined on nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The results showed that TRPV1 activation by CAP rescued nigrostriatal DA neurons, enhanced striatal DA functions and improved behavioral recovery in MPTP-treated mice. CAP neuroprotection was associated with reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species from activated microglia-derived NADPH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase or reactive astrocyte-derived myeloidperoxidase. These beneficial effects of CAP were reversed by treatment with the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and iodo-resiniferatoxin, indicating TRPV1 involvement. This study demonstrates that TRPV1 activation by CAP protects nigrostriatal DA neurons via inhibition of glial activation-mediated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of PD. These results suggest that CAP and its analogs may be beneficial therapeutic agents for the treatment of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with neuroinflammation and glial activation-derived oxidative damage.

  8. Capsaicin prevents degeneration of dopamine neurons by inhibiting glial activation and oxidative stress in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young C; Baek, Jeong Y; Kim, Sang R; Ko, Hyuk W; Bok, Eugene; Shin, Won-Ho; Won, So-Yoon; Jin, Byung K

    2017-01-01

    The effects of capsaicin (CAP), a transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) agonist, were determined on nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The results showed that TRPV1 activation by CAP rescued nigrostriatal DA neurons, enhanced striatal DA functions and improved behavioral recovery in MPTP-treated mice. CAP neuroprotection was associated with reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) and reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species from activated microglia-derived NADPH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase or reactive astrocyte-derived myeloidperoxidase. These beneficial effects of CAP were reversed by treatment with the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and iodo-resiniferatoxin, indicating TRPV1 involvement. This study demonstrates that TRPV1 activation by CAP protects nigrostriatal DA neurons via inhibition of glial activation-mediated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of PD. These results suggest that CAP and its analogs may be beneficial therapeutic agents for the treatment of PD and other neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with neuroinflammation and glial activation-derived oxidative damage. PMID:28255166

  9. The neuroprotective effects of taurine against nickel by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Zhong, Min; Li, Li; Lu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-17

    Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the toxicity of nickel. Taurine is recognized as an efficient antioxidant and is essential for mitochondrial function. To investigate whether taurine could protect against the neurotoxicity of nickel, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to various concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2; 0.5mM, 1mM and 2mM) for 24h or to 1mM NiCl2 for various periods (0 h, 12h, 24h and 48 h). Our results showed that taurine efficiently reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by NiCl2. Along with this protective effect, taurine pretreatment not only significantly reversed the increase of ROS production and mitochondrial superoxide concentration, but also attenuated the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in neurons exposed to NiCl2 for 24h. Moreover, nickel exposure reduced ATP production, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mtDNA content. These types of oxidative damage in the mitochondria were efficiently ameliorated by taurine pretreatment. Taken together, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of taurine against the toxicity of nickel might largely depend on its roles in reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Taurine may have great pharmacological potential in treating the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression of functional alternative telomerase RNA component gene in mouse brain and in motor neurons cells protects from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Erez; Tamar, Admoni; Yossi, Grin; Peleg, Refael; Braiman, Alex; Priel, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein, is highly expressed and active in many tumor cells and types, therefore it is considered to be a target for anti-cancer agents. On the other hand, recent studies demonstrated that activation of telomerase is a potential therapeutic target for age related diseases. Telomerase mainly consists of a catalytic protein subunit with a reverse transcription activity (TERT) and an RNA component (TERC), a long non-coding RNA, which serves as a template for the re-elongation of telomeres by TERT. We previously showed that TERT is highly expressed in distinct neuronal cells of the mouse brain and its expression declined with age. To understand the role of telomerase in non-mitotic, fully differentiated cells such neurons we here examined the expression of the other component, TERC, in mouse brain. Surprisingly, by first using bioinformatics analysis, we identified an alternative TERC gene (alTERC) in the mouse genome. Using further experimental approaches we described the presence of a functional alTERC in the mouse brain and spleen, in cultures of motor neurons- like cells and neuroblastoma tumor cells. The alTERC is similar (87%) to mouse TERC (mTERC) with a deletion of 18 bp in the TERC conserved region 4 (CR4). This alTERC gene is expressed and its product interacts with the endogenous mTERT protein and with an exogenous human TERT protein (hTERT) to form an active enzyme. Overexpression of the alTERC and the mTERC genes, in mouse motor neurons like cells, increased the activity of TERT without affecting its protein level. Under oxidative stress conditions, alTERC significantly increased the survival of motor neurons cells without altering the level of TERT protein or its activity. The results suggest that the expression of the alTERC gene in the mouse brain provides an additional way for regulating telomerase activity under normal and stress conditions and confers protection to neuronal cells from oxidative stress. PMID:27823970

  11. Impaired neuronal nitric oxide synthase-mediated vasodilator responses to mental stress in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sitara G; Geer, Amber; Fok, Henry W; Shabeeh, Husain; Brett, Sally E; Shah, Ajay M; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) regulates blood flow in resistance vasculature at rest and during mental stress. To investigate whether nNOS signaling is dysfunctional in essential hypertension, forearm blood flow responses to mental stress were examined in 88 subjects: 48 with essential hypertension (42±14 years; blood pressure, 141±17/85±15 mm Hg; mean±SD) and 40 normotensive controls (38±14 years; 117±13/74±9 mm Hg). A subsample of 34 subjects (17 hypertensive) participated in a single blind 2-phase crossover study, in which placebo or sildenafil 50 mg PO was administered before an intrabrachial artery infusion of the selective nNOS inhibitor S-methyl-l-thiocitrulline (SMTC, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 μmol/min) at rest and during mental stress. In a further subsample (n=21) with an impaired blood flow response to mental stress, responses were measured in the presence and absence of the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The blood flow response to mental stress was impaired in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (37±7% versus 70±8% increase over baseline; P<0.001). SMTC blunted responses to mental stress in normotensive but not in hypertensive subjects (reduction of 40±11% versus 3.0±14%, respectively, P=0.01, between groups). Sildenafil reduced the blood flow response to stress in normotensive subjects from 89±14% to 43±14% (P<0.03) but had no significant effect in hypertensive subjects. Phentolamine augmented impaired blood flow responses to mental stress from 39±8% to 67±13% (P<0.02). Essential hypertension is associated with impaired mental stress-induced nNOS-mediated vasodilator responses; this may relate to increased sympathetic outflow in hypertension. nNOS dysfunction may impair vascular homeostasis in essential hypertension and contribute to stress-induced cardiovascular events. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Delivery of a protein transduction domain-mediated Prdx6 protein ameliorates oxidative stress-induced injury in human and mouse neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shatrunjai P.; Chhunchha, Bhavana; Fatma, Nigar; Kubo, Eri; Singh, Sanjay P.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress or reduced expression of naturally occurring antioxidants during aging has been identified as a major culprit in neuronal cell/tissue degeneration. Peroxiredoxin (Prdx) 6, a protective protein with GSH peroxidase and acidic calcium-independent phospholipase A2 activities, acts as a rheostat in regulating cellular physiology by clearing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby optimizing gene regulation. We found that under stress, the neuronal cells displayed reduced expression of Prdx6 protein and mRNA with increased levels of ROS, and the cells subsequently underwent apoptosis. Using Prdx6 fused to TAT transduction domain, we showed evidence that Prdx6 was internalized in human brain cortical neuronal cells, HCN-2, and mouse hippocampal cells, HT22. The cells transduced with Prdx6 conferred resistance against the oxidative stress inducers paraquat, H2O2, and glutamate. Furthermore, Prdx6 delivery ameliorated damage to neuronal cells by optimizing ROS levels and overstimulation of NF-κB. Intriguingly, transduction of Prdx6 increased the expression of endogenous Prdx6, suggesting that protection against oxidative stress was mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic Prdx6. The results demonstrate that Prdx6 expression is critical to protecting oxidative stress-evoked neuronal cell death. We propose that local or systemic application of Prdx6 can be an effective means of delaying/postponing neuronal degeneration. PMID:26447207

  13. Neuroprotective Effects of Sevoflurane against Electromagnetic Pulse-Induced Brain Injury through Inhibition of Neuronal Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Han, Li-Chun; Li, Li-Ya; Wu, Guang-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Sang, Han-Fei; Xu, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:24614080

  14. Indomethacin ameliorates trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in vivo by attenuating oxidative stress in the dentate gyrus of mice.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Quynh; Nakamura, Yukary; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Yoneyama, Masanori; Nagashima, Reiko; Shiba, Tatsuo; Yamaguchi, Taro; Hasebe, Shigeru; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2011-01-01

    The organotin trimethyltin (TMT) is well known to cause neuronal degeneration in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice. The first purpose of the present study was to examine whether the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin could ameliorate neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus of mice following TMT treatment in vivo. The systemic injection into mice of TMT at 2.8 mg/kg produced activation of endogenous caspase-3 and calpain, enhanced the gene expression of COX-1 and COX-2, activated microglial cells, and caused the formation of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the hippocampus. Given at 12-h post-TMT treatment, the systemic injection of indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) significantly decreased the TMT-induced damage to neurons having active caspase-3 and single-stranded DNA in the dentate granule cell layer of the hippocampus. The results of the α-Fodrin degradation test revealed that the post-treatment with indomethacin was effective in attenuating TMT-induced activation of endogenous caspases and calpain in the hippocampus. In TMT-treated animals, interestingly, the post-treatment with indomethacin produced not only activation of microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but also the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal in the dentate granule cell layer. Taken together, our data suggest that COX inhibition by indomethacin ameliorated TMT-induced neuronal degeneration in the dentate gyrus by attenuating intensive oxidative stress.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jin; Han, Li-Chun; Li, Li-Ya; Wu, Guang-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Sang, Han-Fei; Xu, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  16. Overexpressed neuroglobin raises threshold for nitric oxide-induced impairment of mitochondrial respiratory activities and stress signaling in primary cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shilpee; Zhuo, Ming; Gorgun, Murat; Englander, Ella W.

    2013-01-01

    Surges of nitric oxide compromise mitochondrial respiration primarily by competitive inhibition of oxygen binding to cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and are particularly injurious in neurons, which rely on oxidative phosphorylation for all their energy needs. Here, we show that transgenic overexpression of the neuronal globin protein, neuroglobin, helps diminish protein nitration, preserve mitochondrial function and sustain ATP content of primary cortical neurons challenged by extended nitric oxide exposure. Specifically, in transgenic neurons, elevated neuroglobin curtailed nitric oxide-induced alterations in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, including baseline oxygen consumption, consumption coupled with ATP synthesis, proton leak and spare respiratory capacity. Concomitantly, activation of genes involved in sensing and responding to oxidative/nitrosative stress, including the early-immediate c-Fos gene and the phase II antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1, was diminished in neuroglobin-overexpressing compared to wild-type neurons. Taken together, these differences reflect a lesser insult produced by similar concentrations of nitric oxide in neuroglobin-overexpressing compared to wild-type neurons, suggesting that abundant neuroglobin buffers nitric oxide and raises the threshold of nitric oxide-mediated injury in neurons. PMID:23587847

  17. Allicin protects spinal cord neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative stress through regulating the heat shock protein 70/inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Ren, Peng-Yu; Wang, Guo-Yu; Yao, Shu-Xin; He, Xi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many neurological disorders. Using an in vitro spinal cord injury model induced by glutamate treatment, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of allicin in primary cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly attenuated glutamate-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, loss of cell viability and apoptotic neuronal death. This protection was associated with reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced lipid peroxidation and preservation of antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of western blot analysis showed that allicin decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), but had no effects on the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) following glutamate exposure. Moreover, allicin treatment significantly increased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of HSP70 by specific targeted small interfere RNA (siRNA) not only mitigated allicin-induced protective activity, but also partially nullified its effects on the regulation of iNOS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury, and that the potential underlying mechanism involves HSP70/iNOS pathway-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress.

  18. Nitro-Oxidative Stress after Neuronal Ischemia Induces Protein Nitrotyrosination and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tajes, Marta; ILL-Raga, Gerard; Palomer, Ernest; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Guix, Francesc X.; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Guivernau, Biuse; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Ois, Angel; Pérez-Asensio, Fernando; Reyes-Navarro, Mario; Galán, Ana M.; Alameda, Francesc; Escolar, Ginés; Opazo, Carlos; Planas, Anna; Roquer, Jaume; Valverde, Miguel A.; Muñoz, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is an acute vascular event that obstructs blood supply to the brain, producing irreversible damage that affects neurons but also glial and brain vessel cells. Immediately after the stroke, the ischemic tissue produces nitric oxide (NO) to recover blood perfusion but also produces superoxide anion. These compounds interact, producing peroxynitrite, which irreversibly nitrates protein tyrosines. The present study measured NO production in a human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), a murine glial (BV2), a human endothelial cell line (HUVEC), and in primary cultures of human cerebral myocytes (HC-VSMCs) after experimental ischemia in vitro. Neuronal, endothelial, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was also studied up to 24 h after ischemia, showing a different time course depending on the NOS type and the cells studied. Finally, we carried out cell viability experiments on SH-SY5Y cells with H2O2, a prooxidant agent, and with a NO donor to mimic ischemic conditions. We found that both compounds were highly toxic when they interacted, producing peroxynitrite. We obtained similar results when all cells were challenged with peroxynitrite. Our data suggest that peroxynitrite induces cell death and is a very harmful agent in brain ischemia. PMID:23983901

  19. Mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in neuronal HT22 cells resistant to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Annika; Jaeckel, Martin; Lewerenz, Jan; Noack, Rebecca; Pouya, Alireza; Schacht, Teresa; Hoffmann, Christina; Winter, Jennifer; Schweiger, Susann; Schäfer, Michael K E; Methner, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The hippocampal cell line HT22 is an excellent model for studying the consequences of endogenous oxidative stress. Extracellular glutamate depletes cellular glutathione by blocking the glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc−. Glutathione depletion induces a well-defined programme of cell death characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Experimental Approach We compared the mitochondrial shape, the abundance of mitochondrial complexes and the mitochondrial respiration of HT22 cells, selected based on their resistance to glutamate, with those of the glutamate-sensitive parental cell line. Key Results Glutamate-resistant mitochondria were less fragmented and displayed seemingly contradictory features: mitochondrial calcium and superoxide were increased while high-resolution respirometry suggested a reduction in mitochondrial respiration. This was interpreted as a reverse activity of the ATP synthase under oxidative stress, leading to hydrolysis of ATP to maintain or even elevate the mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting these cells endure ineffective energy metabolism to protect their membrane potential. Glutamate-resistant cells were also resistant to oligomycin, an inhibitor of the ATP synthase, but sensitive to deoxyglucose, an inhibitor of hexokinases. Exchanging glucose with galactose rendered resistant cells 1000-fold more sensitive to oligomycin. These results, together with a strong increase in cytosolic hexokinase 1 and 2, a reduced lactate production and an increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggest that glutamate-resistant HT22 cells shuttle most available glucose towards the hexose monophosphate shunt to increase glutathione recovery. Conclusions and Implications These results indicate that mitochondrial and metabolic adaptations play an important role in the resistance of cells to oxidative stress. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on

  20. Joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and cadmium on the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Yuan; Wang, Pan; Sun, Ying-Jian; Yang, Lin; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2017-05-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals can be easily biomagnified in food chains and bioaccumulated in individuals, thus pose significant threat to human health. However, their joint toxicity for long-term exposure at low dose has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the oxidative damages in brain of rats exposed subchronically to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and heavy metal cadmium (Cd), and their mixtures at the environmentally relevant doses. Rats were given different doses of CPF and Cd by oral gavage for three months. After treatment, brain tissues were subjected for biochemical analysis. Mitochondrial damage and reactive oxidative species were also measured in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with CPF, Cd and their mixtures. The results showed that CPF and Cd generated protein and lipid peroxidation, disturbed the total antioxidant capability, and altered mitochondria ultrastructure in the brain. Lipids and proteins were sensitive to the oxidative damage induced by CPF and Cd. CPF and Cd decreased mitochondrial potential and induced reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the mixture did not display higher toxicity than the sum of that of the individual treatments. Thus, CPF and Cd could have a potential antagonistic interaction on the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and nigrostriatal neuronal death by chronic Coenzyme Q{sub 10} pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Binukumar, BK; Gupta, Nidhi; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-10-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of developing Parkinson's diseases. Oxidative stress generated as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we reported that chronic dichlorvos exposure causes mitochondrial impairments and nigrostriatal neuronal death in rats. The present study was designed to test whether Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) administration has any neuroprotective effect against dichlorvos mediated nigrostriatal neuronal death, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, and motor dysfunction. Male albino rats were administered dichlorvos by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight over a period of 12 weeks. Results obtained there after showed that dichlorvos exposure leads to enhanced mitochondrial ROS production, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation, decreased dopamine and its metabolite levels resulting in nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Pretreatment by Coenzyme Q{sub 10} (4.5 mg/kg ip for 12 weeks) to dichlorvos treated animals significantly attenuated the extent of nigrostriatal neuronal damage, in terms of decreased ROS production, increased dopamine and its metabolite levels, and restoration of motor dysfunction when compared to dichlorvos treated animals. Thus, the present study shows that Coenzyme Q{sub 10} administration may attenuate dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration, {alpha}-synuclein aggregation and motor dysfunction by virtue of its antioxidant action. - Highlights: > CoQ{sub 10} administration attenuates dichlorvos induced nigrostriatal neurodegenaration. > CoQ{sub 10} pre treatment leads to preservation of TH-IR neurons. > CoQ{sub 10} may decrease oxidative damage and {alpha}-synuclin aggregation. > CoQ{sub 10} treatment enhances motor function and protects rats from catalepsy.

  2. 3',4',7-Trihydroxyflavone prevents apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (THF) protection of neuronal cells from neuronal cell death induced by the oxidative stress-related neurotoxin hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment with THF significantly elevated cell viability, reduced H2O2-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) loss. Western blot data demonstrated that THF inhibited the H2O2-induced up- or down-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, and attenuated the H2O2-induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, pretreatment with THF attenuated H2O2-induced rapid and significant phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt. THF also inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation to the nucleus induced by H2O2, down-stream of H2O2-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt. These data provide the first evidence that THF protects neuronal cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, possibly through ROS reduction, mitochondria protection, and NF-κB modulation via MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways. The neuroprotective effects of THF make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Naringenin reduces oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Zhenzhen; Huang, Longjian; Meng, Bing; Zhou, Xinmei; Wen, Xiaodong; Ren, Ding

    2017-09-13

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered to be major contributing factors in the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Naringenin (NAR) is an abundant flavanone in the Citrus genus and has been found to exert antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. However, the potential underlying mechanism of its antioxidant effects remains unclear. In the present study, the authors investigated the antioxidant effect of NAR on neurons in vitro. Neurons isolated from the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, model group, NAR-L group, NAR-M group and NAR-H group. The model group received hypoxia and re-oxygenation treatment, and the NAR-L, NAR-M and NAR-H groups received 20, 40 and 80 µM NAR, respectively. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in each group were detected by chloromethyl-2',7'dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate staining, and differences in mitochondrial dysfunction were analyzed through measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm), adenine nucleotide translocase transport activity and adenine nucleotide levels. MTT and flow cytometry assays were also used to analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the effects of NAR on the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway were investigated using small interfering RNA methods. The authors detected an increased accumulation of ROS in the model group, and high-dose NAR could significantly reduce the levels of ROS. Furthermore, NAR could improve mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by increased levels of high-energy phosphates, enhanced mitochondrial ANT transport activity and increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, NAR increased cell viability and decreased the rate of cell apoptosis. NAR also increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes. These findings demonstrated that NAR could reduce oxidative

  4. Nicorandil prevents oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neurons by activating mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yasushi; Akao, Masaharu; Baumgartner, William A; Marbán, Eduardo

    2003-11-14

    Nicorandil, a clinically useful drug for the treatment of ischemic heart disease, has an anti-apoptotic effect in cardiomyocytes, and activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels underlies this effect. Recently, several studies showed that nicorandil reduced brain injury in animal models of brain ischemia. Based on these facts, we hypothesized that nicorandil may have anti-apoptotic effects in neurons mediated by mitoKATP channels. We investigated the effect of nicorandil on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress using cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Nicorandil (100 micromol/l) significantly suppressed the number of cells with TUNEL-positive nuclei and the increase in caspase-3 activity induced by 20 micromol/l H2O2. An indicator dye for mitochondrial inner membrane potential (DeltaPsim) revealed that nicorandil prevented the loss of DeltaPsim induced by H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD; 500 micromol/l), a mitoKATP channel blocker. The present results showed that nicorandil has anti-apoptotic effects in neurons, at least in part, by preserving DeltaPsim.

  5. Mutation of ATF4 mediates resistance of neuronal cell lines against oxidative stress by inducing xCT expression

    PubMed Central

    Lewerenz, J; Sato, H; Albrecht, P; Henke, N; Noack, R; Methner, A; Maher, P

    2012-01-01

    Selecting neuronal cell lines for resistance against oxidative stress might recapitulate some adaptive processes in neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress is involved like Parkinson's disease. We recently reported that in hippocampal HT22 cells selected for resistance against oxidative glutamate toxicity, the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc−, which imports cystine for synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione, and its specific subunit, xCT, are upregulated. (Lewerenz et al., J Neurochem 98(3):916–25). Here, we show that in these glutamate-resistant HT22 cells upregulation of xCT mediates glutamate resistance, and xCT expression is induced by upregulation of the transcription factor ATF4. The mechanism of ATF4 upregulation consists of a 13 bp deletion in the upstream open reading frame (uORF2) overlapping the ATF4 open reading frame. The resulting uORF2–ATF4 fusion protein is efficiently translated even at a low phosphorylation levels of the translation initiation factor eIF2α, a condition under which ATF4 translation is normally suppressed. A similar ATF4 mutation associated with prominent upregulation of xCT expression was identified in PC12 cells selected for resistance against amyloid β-peptide. Our data indicate that ATF4 has a central role in regulating xCT expression and resistance against oxidative stress. ATF4 mutations might have broader significance as upregulation of xCT is found in tumor cells and associated with anticancer drug resistance. PMID:22095285

  6. Allium cepa Extract and Quercetin Protect Neuronal Cells from Oxidative Stress via PKC-ε Inactivation/ERK1/2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various neurologic disorders. Allium cepa extract (ACE) and their main flavonoid component quercetin (QCT) possess antioxidant activities and protect neurons from oxidative stress. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms, particularly those linked to the antioxidant effects of the ACE. Primary cortical neuronal cells derived from mouse embryos were preincubated with ACE or QCT for 30 min and exposed to L-buthionine sulfoximine for 4~24 h. We found that ACE and QCT significantly decreased neuronal death and the ROS increase induced by L-buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine (BSO) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, ACE and QCT activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), leading to downregulation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) in BSO-stimulated neuronal cells. In addition, ACE and QCT decreased the phosphorylated levels of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results provide new insight into the protective mechanism of ACE and QCT against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. The results suggest that the inactivation of PKC-ε induced by phosphorylating ERK1/2 is responsible for the neuroprotective effect of ACE and QCT against BSO-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27668036

  7. Stabilization of transcription factor Nrf2 by tBHQ prevents oxidative stress-induced amyloid beta formation in NT2N neurons.

    PubMed

    Eftekharzadeh, Bahareh; Maghsoudi, Nader; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2010-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of later life, is characterized by brain deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) plaques, accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillatory tangles, synaptic loss and neuronal cell death. There is significant evidence that oxidative stress is a critical event in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present study Abeta formation was induced in NT2N neurons, one of the most appropriate cell line models in AD. Our results indicate that oxidative stress resulting from the treatment of H(2)O(2)/FeSO(4) and/or 4-hydroxy-2-noenal (HNE) can be inhibited in the presence of tBHQ, a known inducer of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in NT2N neurons and can therefore be used to elucidate the relationship between oxidative stress, Abeta formation and Nrf2. The role of Nrf2 was confirmed using retinoic acid as an inhibitor of Nrf2. It provides the first documentation that tBHQ not only protects the neurons against cell death but also decreases amyloid beta formation. Moreover, the results indicate that oxidative stress fosters Abeta formation in NT2N neurons, creating a vicious neurodegenerative loop. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) mobilization through TRPM2 channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neuron by Hypericum perforatum.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, M; Çiğ, B; Özgül, C

    2014-03-28

    A main component of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP) is hyperforin which has antioxidant properties in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, due to its ability to modulate NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C. Recent reports indicate that oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activates TRPM2 channels. HP may be a useful treatment for Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through modulation of TRPM2 channels in the DRG. We aimed to investigate the protective role of HP on Ca(2+) entry and oxidative stress through TRPM2 channels in DRG neurons of rats. The native rat DRG neurons were used in whole-cell patch-clamp, Fura-2 and antioxidant experiments. Appropriate, nontoxic concentrations and incubation times for HP were determined in the DRG neurons by assessing cell viability. The H2O2-induced TRPM2 currents were inhibited by 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) and N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA). TRPM2 current densities and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration in the neurons were also reduced by HP (2 and 24h). In Fura-2 experiments, cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization was reduced by voltage-gated calcium channel blockers (verapamil+diltiazem, V+D) and HP. Glutathione peroxidase activity and GSH values in the DRG were high in HP, 2-APB and V+D groups although lipid peroxidation level was low in the groups. In conclusion, we observed a protective role for HP on Ca(2+) entry through a TRPM2 channel in the DRG neurons. Since over-production of oxidative stress and Ca(2+) entry are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and neuronal inflammation, our findings may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of neuropathology in DRG neurons.

  9. The Neuroprotective Effect of Maltol against Oxidative Stress on Rat Retinal Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yookyung; Hong, Samin; Iizuka, Yoko; Kim, Chan Yun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone), formed by the thermal degradation of starch, is found in coffee, caramelized foods, and Korean ginseng root. This study investigated whether maltol could rescue neuroretinal cells from oxidative injury in vitro. Methods R28 cells, which are rat embryonic precursor neuroretinal cells, were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.0 to 1.5 mM) as an oxidative stress with or without maltol (0.0 to 1.0 mM). Cell viability was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase assay and apoptosis was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. To investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of maltol, the expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 were evaluated by Western immunoblot analysis. Results R28 cells exposed to H2O2 were found to have decreased viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, H2O2-induced cytotoxicity was decreased with the addition of maltol. When R28 cells were exposed to 1.0 mM H2O2 for 24 hours, the cytotoxicity was 60.69 ± 5.71%. However, the cytotoxicity was reduced in the presence of 1.0 mM maltol. This H2O2-induced cytotoxicity caused apoptosis of R28 cells, characterized by DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis of oxidatively-stressed R28 cells with 1.0 mM H2O2 was decreased with 1.0 mM maltol, as determined by the TUNEL method. Western blot analysis showed that treatment with maltol reduced phosphorylation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK, but not p38. The neuroprotective effects of maltol seemed to be related to attenuated expression of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK. Conclusions Maltol not only increased cell viability but also attenuated DNA fragmentation. The results obtained here show that maltol has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia-induced neuroretinal cell damage in R28 cells, and its effects may act

  10. Allopregnanolone and its analog BR 297 rescue neuronal cells from oxidative stress-induced death through bioenergetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Lejri, Imane; Grimm, Amandine; Miesch, Michel; Geoffroy, Philippe; Eckert, Anne; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe-Guy

    2017-03-01

    Allopregnanolone (AP) is supposed to exert beneficial actions including anxiolysis, analgesia, neurogenesis and neuroprotection. However, although mitochondrial dysfunctions are evidenced in neurodegenerative diseases, AP actions against neurodegeneration-induced mitochondrial deficits have never been investigated. Also, the therapeutic exploitation of AP is limited by its difficulty to pass the liver and its rapid clearance after sulfation or glucuronidation of its 3-hydroxyl group. Therefore, the characterization of novel potent neuroprotective analogs of AP may be of great interest. Thus, we synthesized a set of AP analogs (ANS) and investigated their ability to counteract APP-overexpression-evoked bioenergetic deficits and to protect against oxidative stress-induced death of control and APP-transfected SH-SY5Y cells known as a reliable cellular model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Especially, we examined whether ANS were more efficient than AP to reduce mitochondrial dysfunctions or bioenergetic decrease leading to neuronal cell death. Our results showed that the ANS BR 297 exhibits notable advantages over AP with regards to both protection of mitochondrial functions and reduction of oxidative stress. Indeed, under physiological conditions, BR 297 does not promote cell proliferation but efficiently ameliorates the bioenergetics by increasing cellular ATP level and mitochondrial respiration. Under oxidative stress situations, BR 297 treatment, which decreases ROS levels, improves mitochondrial respiration and cell survival, appears more potent than AP to protect control and APP-transfected cells against H2O2-induced death. Our findings lend further support to the neuroprotective effects of BR 297 emphasizing this analog as a promising therapeutic tool to counteract age- and AD-related bioenergetic deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of energy metabolic deficits and oxidative stress in excitotoxic spinal motor neuron degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Santa-Cruz, Luz Diana; Tapia, Ricardo

    2014-03-12

    MN (motor neuron) death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be mediated by glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Previously, our group showed that the microdialysis perfusion of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) in the rat lumbar spinal cord induced MN death and permanent paralysis within 12 h after the experiment. Here, we studied the involvement of energy metabolic deficiencies and of oxidative stress in this MN degeneration, by testing the neuroprotective effect of various energy metabolic substrates and antioxidants. Pyruvate, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, α-ketobutyrate and creatine reduced MN loss by 50-65%, preserved motor function and completely prevented the paralysis. Ascorbate, glutathione and glutathione ethyl ester weakly protected against motor deficits and reduced MN death by only 30-40%. Reactive oxygen species formation and 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were studied 1.5-2 h after AMPA perfusion, during the initial MN degenerating process, and no changes were observed. We conclude that mitochondrial energy deficiency plays a crucial role in this excitotoxic spinal MN degeneration, whereas oxidative stress seems a less relevant mechanism. Interestingly, we observed a clear correlation between the alterations of motor function and the number of damaged MNs, suggesting that there is a threshold of about 50% in the number of healthy MNs necessary to preserve motor function.

  12. Oxidative stress regulated genes in nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells: correlation with the known pathology in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myung S; Chun, Hong S; Son, Jessica J; DeGiorgio, Lorraine A; Kim, Dae J; Peng, Chu; Son, Jin H

    2003-01-31

    Oxidative stress (OS) is a primary pathogenic mechanism of nigral dopaminergic (DA) cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative damage, Lewy body formation and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity are the consistent pathological findings in PD. In nigral DA neurons, however, it is unknown whether any gene expressional changes induced by OS contribute to the typical PD pathology. Here, using microarray analysis, we identified several groups of genes in the nigral DA cell line, SN4741 [J. Neurosci. 19 (1999) 10; J. Neurochem. 76 (2001) 1010], that were regulated by OS. Approximately 36 significantly regulated genes that encode functional molecules of nuclear subunits of mitochondrial complex I, exocytosis and membrane trafficking proteins, markers for OS and oxidoreductases, regulatory molecules of apoptosis and unidentified EST clones were further analysed. OS modulated the expression of specific genes, of which physiological dysfunctions have been implicated in PD. For instance, the expression of the nuclear-encoded subunits of mitochondrial complex I, B8 and B17, were significantly down-regulated by OS, possibly contributing to selective defect in mitochondrial complex I activity in PD. Furthermore, syntaxin 8 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are most dramatically up-regulated by OS in DA cells. Syntaxin 8 is a SNARE protein, regulating lipid vesicle docking and fusion as well as early endosome membrane recycling. Lipid membranes are significantly oxidative-damaged in PD. HO-1 is an important cytoplasmic constituent of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of idiopathic PD. Thus, our findings provide novel molecular probes that may be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanism(s) of OS-induced pathogenesis in PD. Further functional characterization of the affected genes including ESTs can help elucidate the underlying molecular pathology as well as develop biomarkers for monitoring degenerating DA neurons in PD.

  13. α-Tocopherol at Nanomolar Concentration Protects Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Irina O.; Sokolova, Tatiana V.; Vlasova, Yulia A.; Bayunova, Liubov V.; Rychkova, Maria P.; Avrova, Natalia F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the mechanism of the α-tocopherol (α-T) protective action at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations against H2O2-induced brain cortical neuron death. The mechanism of α-T action on neurons at its nanomolar concentrations characteristic for brain extracellular space has not been practically studied yet. Preincubation with nanomolar and micromolar α-T for 18 h was found to increase the viability of cortical neurons exposed to H2O2; α-T effect was concentration-dependent in the nanomolar range. However, preincubation with nanomolar α-T for 30 min was not effective. Nanomolar and micromolar α-T decreased the reactive oxygen species accumulation induced in cortical neurons by the prooxidant. Using immunoblotting it was shown that preincubation with α-T at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations for 18 h prevented Akt inactivation and decreased PKCδ activation induced in cortical neurons by H2O2. α-T prevented the ERK1/2 sustained activation during 24 h caused by H2O2. α-T at nanomolar and micromolar concentrations prevented a great increase of the proapoptotic to antiapoptotic proteins (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio, elicited by neuron exposure to H2O2. The similar neuron protection mechanism by nanomolar and micromolar α-T suggests that a “more is better” approach to patients’ supplementation with vitamin E or α-T is not reasonable. PMID:28117722

  14. JNK inhibition of VMAT2 contributes to rotenone-induced oxidative stress and dopamine neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Xia, Zhengui

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with rotenone, both in vitro and in vivo, is widely used to model dopamine neuron death in Parkinson’s disease upon exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and pesticides. Mechanisms underlying rotenone neurotoxicity are still being defined. Our recent studies suggest that rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death involves microtubule destabilization, which leads to accumulation of cytosolic dopamine and consequently reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is required for rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death. Here we report that the neural specific JNK3 isoform of the JNKs, but not JNK1 or JNK2, is responsible for this neuron death in primary cultured dopamine neurons. Treatment with taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, attenuates rotenone-induced phosphorylation and presumably activation of JNK. This suggests that JNK is activated by microtubule destabilization upon rotenone exposure. Moreover, rotenone inhibits VMAT2 activity but not VMAT2 protein levels. Significantly, treatment with SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of JNKs, attenuates rotenone inhibition of VMAT2. Furthermore, decreased VMAT2 activity following in vitro incubation of recombinant JNK3 protein with purified mesencephalic synaptic vesicles suggests that JNK3 can inhibit VMAT2 activity. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that rotenone induces dopamine neuron death through a series of sequential events including microtubule destabilization, JNK3 activation, VMAT2 inhibition, accumulation of cytosolic dopamine, and generation of ROS. Our data identify JNK3 as a novel regulator of VMAT2 activity. PMID:25496994

  15. Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in cultured cerebellar granule neurons at different stages of development and protective effect of Rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Abolfazl; Soodi, Maliheh; Amani, Nahid

    2016-03-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a widespread metal ion in the workplace, industrial effluent, and water. The toxicity of chromium (VI) on various organs including the liver, kidneys, and lung were studied, but little is known about neurotoxicity. In this study, neurotoxic effects of Cr (VI) have been investigated by cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Immature and mature neurons were exposed to different concentrations of potassium dichromate for 24 h and cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. In addition, immature neurons were exposed for 5 days as regards cytotoxic effect in development stages. The reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the protective effect of Rosmarinic acid on mature and immature neurons exposed to potassium dichromate, were measured. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and acetylcholinesterase activity in mature neurons were assessed following exposure to potassium dichromate. The results indicate that toxicity of Cr (VI) dependent on maturation steps. Cr (VI) was less toxic for immature neurons. Also, Cr (VI) induced MMP reduction and ROS production in both immature and mature neurons. In Cr (VI) treated neurons, increased lipid peroxidation and GPx activity but not acetylcholinesterase activity was observed. Interestingly, Rosmarinic acid, as a natural antioxidant, could protect mature but not immature neurons against Cr (VI) induced toxicity. Our findings revealed vulnerability of mature neurons to Cr (VI) induced toxicity and oxidative stress.

  16. Melissa officinalis Acidic Fraction Protects Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons Against Beta Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, Maliheh; Dashti, Abolfazl; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Akbari, Shole; Ataei, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Extracellular deposition of the beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), leads to oxidative damage and apoptosis in neurons. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family that has neuroprotective activity. In the present study we have investigated the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Additionally, we investigated a possible role of the nicotinic receptor. Materials and Methods This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. CGNs were pre-incubated with different concentrations of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis for 24 hours, followed by incubation with Aβ for an additional 48 hours. CGNs were also pre-incubated with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis and mecamylamin, followed by incubation with Aβ. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to measure cell viability. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipidperoxidation, and caspase-3 activity were measured after incubation. Hochst/annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Results The acidic fraction could protect CGNs from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Mecamylamine did not abolish the protective effect of the acidic fraction. AChE activity, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity increased after Aβ incubation. Preincubation with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis ameliorated these factors and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion Our results indicated that the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis was not mediated through nicotinic receptors. This fraction could protect CGNs through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID

  17. Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Neuronal Damage, Blood-Retinal Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suk-Yee; Yang, Di; Yeung, Chung-Man; Yu, Wing-Yan; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are good for “eye health” according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 mg/kg) once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and nitrotyrosine (NT) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature. PMID:21298100

  18. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  19. Bilirubin, formed by activation of heme oxygenase-2, protects neurons against oxidative stress injury

    PubMed Central

    Doré, Sylvain; Takahashi, Masaaki; Ferris, Christopher D.; Hester, Lynda D.; Guastella, Daniel; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1999-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin, which is immediately reduced to bilirubin (BR). Two HO active isozymes exist: HO1, an inducible heat shock protein, and HO2, which is constitutive and highly concentrated in neurons. We demonstrate a neuroprotective role for BR formed from HO2. Neurotoxicity elicited by hydrogen peroxide in hippocampal and cortical neuronal cultures is prevented by the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) via stimulation of protein kinase C. We observe phosphorylation of HO2 through the protein kinase C pathway with enhancement of HO2 catalytic activity and accumulation of BR in neuronal cultures. The neuroprotective effects of PMA are prevented by the HO inhibitor tin protoporphyrin IX and in cultures from mice with deletion of HO2 gene. Moreover, BR, an antioxidant, is neuroprotective at nanomolar concentrations. PMID:10051662

  20. JNK inhibition of VMAT2 contributes to rotenone-induced oxidative stress and dopamine neuron death.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-02-03

    Treatment with rotenone, both in vitro and in vivo, is widely used to model dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease upon exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and pesticides. Mechanisms underlying rotenone neurotoxicity are still being defined. Our recent studies suggest that rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death involves microtubule destabilization, which leads to accumulation of cytosolic dopamine and consequently reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is required for rotenone-induced dopamine neuron death. Here we report that the neural specific JNK3 isoform of the JNKs, but not JNK1 or JNK2, is responsible for this neuron death in primary cultured dopamine neurons. Treatment with taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, attenuates rotenone-induced phosphorylation and presumably activation of JNK. This suggests that JNK is activated by microtubule destabilization upon rotenone exposure. Moreover, rotenone inhibits VMAT2 activity but not VMAT2 protein levels. Significantly, treatment with SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of JNKs, attenuates rotenone inhibition of VMAT2. Furthermore, decreased VMAT2 activity following in vitro incubation of recombinant JNK3 protein with purified mesencephalic synaptic vesicles suggests that JNK3 can inhibit VMAT2 activity. Together with our previous findings, these results suggest that rotenone induces dopamine neuron death through a series of sequential events including microtubule destabilization, JNK3 activation, VMAT2 inhibition, accumulation of cytosolic dopamine, and generation of ROS. Our data identify JNK3 as a novel regulator of VMAT2 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indole-3-propionic acid attenuates neuronal damage and oxidative stress in the ischemic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Li, Hua; Park, Ok Kyu; Lee, Choong Hyun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Won, Moo-Ho

    2009-07-01

    Tryptophan-derived indole compounds have been widely investigated as antioxidants and as free-radical scavengers. Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), one of these compounds, is a deamination product of tryptophan. In the present study, we used Mongolian gerbils to investigate IPA's neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage and its antioxidative effects in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after 5 min of transient forebrain ischemia. The repeated oral administration of IPA (10 mg/kg) for 15 days before ischemic surgery protected neurons from ischemic damage. In this group, the percentage of cresyl violet-positive neurons in the CA1 was 56.8% compared with that in the sham group. In the vehicle-treated group, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-, S-100-, and vimentin-immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1)- and isolectin B4 (IB4)-immunoreactive microglia were activated 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas in the IPA-treated ischemic group, GFAP, S-100, Iba-1, and IB4, but not vimentin, immunoreactivity was distinctly lower than that in the vehicle-treated ischemic groups. The administration of IPA significantly decreased the level of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a marker of lipid peroxidation, in ischemic hippocampal homogenates compared with that in the vehicle-treated ischemic groups at various times after ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, immunostaining for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine showed DNA damage in pyramidal neurons in the ischemic CA1 was significantly lower in the IPA-treated ischemic groups than in the vehicle-treated ischemic groups. These results suggest that IPA protects neurons from ischemia-induced neuronal damage by reducing DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  2. (Pro)renin receptor mediates both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua; Li, Wencheng; Seth, Dale M; Nair, Anand R; Francis, Joseph; Feng, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    The binding of renin or prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) promotes angiotensin (Ang) II formation and mediates Ang II-independent signaling pathways. In the central nervous system (CNS), Ang II regulates blood pressure via inducing oxidative stress; however, the role of PRR-mediated Ang II-independent signaling pathways in oxidative stress in the CNS remains undefined. To address this question, Neuro-2A cells were infected with control virus or an adeno-associated virus encoding the human PRR. Human PRR over-expression alone increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms 2 and 4 mRNA expression levels and these effects were not blocked by losartan. Moreover, the increase in NOX 2 and NOX 4 mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and ROS levels induced by PRR over-expression was prevented by mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) inhibition, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (IP3/Akt) inhibition, indicating that PRR regulates NOX activity and ROS formation in neuro-2A cells through Ang II-independent ERK1/2 and IP3/Akt activation. Interestingly, at a concentration of 2 nM or higher, prorenin promoted Ang II formation, and thus further increased the ROS levels in cultured Neuro-2A cells via PRR. In conclusion, human PRR over-expression induced ROS production through both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We showed that PRR-mediated angiotensin II-independent ROS formation is associated with activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3/Akt signaling pathways and up-regulation of mRNA level of NOX 2 and NOX4 isoforms in neuronal cells.

  3. Cholesterol contributes to dopamine-neuronal loss in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease: Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Giri, Anirudha; Sandhir, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a known contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease while its role in the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is only conjecture and far from conclusive. Altered antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial functions are the key mechanisms in loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain in PD. Hypercholesterolemia is reported to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in the cortex and hippocampus regions of the brain in rodents. However, the impact of hypercholesterolemia on the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia in MPTP model of PD would potentiate dopaminergic neuron loss in SN by disrupting mitochondrial functions and antioxidant homeostasis. It is evident from the present study that hypercholesterolemia in naïve animals caused dopamine neuronal loss in SN with subsequent reduction in striatal dopamine levels producing motor impairment. Moreover, in the MPTP model of PD, hypercholesterolemia exacerbated MPTP-induced reduction of striatal dopamine as well as dopaminergic neurons in SN with motor behavioral depreciation. Activity of mitochondrial complexes, mainly complex-I and III, was impaired severely in the nigrostriatal pathway of hypercholesterolemic animals treated with MPTP. Hypercholesterolemia caused oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal pathway with increased generation of hydroxyl radicals and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, which were further aggravated in the hypercholesterolemic mice with Parkinsonism. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of increased vulnerability of the midbrain dopaminergic neurons in PD with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:28170429

  4. Mitochondrial UCP4 mediates an adaptive shift in energy metabolism and increases the resistance of neurons to metabolic and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Chan, Sic L; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Slevin, John R; Wersto, Robert P; Zhan, Ming; Mustafa, Khadija; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattson, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    The high-metabolic demand of neurons and their reliance on glucose as an energy source places them at risk for dysfunction and death under conditions of metabolic and oxidative stress. Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and cellular energy metabolism. The authors cloned UCP4 cDNA from mouse and rat brain, and demonstrate that UCP4 mRNA is expressed abundantly in brain and at particularly high levels in populations of neurons believed to have high-energy requirements. Neural cells with increased levels of UCP4 exhibit decreased Deltapsim, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial calcium accumulation. UCP4 expressing cells also exhibited changes of oxygen-consumption rate, GDP sensitivity, and response of Deltapsim to oligomycin that were consistent with mitochondrial uncoupling. UCP4 modulates neuronal energy metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and shifting the mode of ATP production from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis, thereby maintaining cellular ATP levels. The UCP4-mediated shift in energy metabolism reduces ROS production and increases the resistance of neurons to oxidative and mitochondrial stress. Knockdown of UCP4 expression by RNA interference in primary hippocampal neurons results in mitochondrial calcium overload and cell death. UCP4-mRNA expression is increased in neurons exposed to cold temperatures and in brain cells of rats maintained on caloric restriction, suggesting a role for UCP4 in the previously reported antiageing and neuroprotective effects of caloric restriction. By shifting energy metabolism to reduce ROS production and cellular reliance on mitochondrial respiration, UCP4 can protect neurons against oxidative stress and calcium overload.

  5. Hsp27 binding to the 3'UTR of bim mRNA prevents neuronal death during oxidative stress-induced injury: a novel cytoprotective mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dávila, David; Jiménez-Mateos, Eva M; Mooney, Claire M; Velasco, Guillermo; Henshall, David C; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2014-11-01

    Neurons face a changeable microenvironment and therefore need mechanisms that allow rapid switch on/off of their cytoprotective and apoptosis-inducing signaling pathways. Cellular mechanisms that control apoptosis activation include the regulation of pro/antiapoptotic mRNAs through their 3'-untranslated region (UTR). This region holds binding elements for RNA-binding proteins, which can control mRNA translation. Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) prevents oxidative stress-induced cell death in cerebellar granule neurons by specific regulation of the mRNA for the proapoptotic BH3-only protein, Bim. Hsp27 depletion induced by oxidative stress using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) correlated with bim gene activation and subsequent neuronal death, whereas enhanced Hsp27 expression prevented these. This effect could not be explained by proteasomal degradation of Bim or bim promoter inhibition; however, it was associated with a specific increase in the levels of bim mRNA and with its binding to Hsp27. Finally, we determined that enhanced Hsp27 expression in neurons exposed to H2O2 or glutamate prevented the translation of a reporter plasmid where bim-3'UTR mRNA sequence was cloned downstream of a luciferase gene. These results suggest that repression of bim mRNA translation through binding to the 3'UTR constitutes a novel cytoprotective mechanism of Hsp27 during stress in neurons.

  6. Uric acid, indoxyl sulfate, and methylguanidine activate bulbospinal neurons in the RVLM via their specific transporters and by producing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oshima, N; Onimaru, H; Matsubara, H; Uchida, T; Watanabe, A; Takechi, H; Nishida, Y; Kumagai, H

    2015-09-24

    Patients with chronic renal failure often have hypertension, but the cause of hypertension, other than an excess of body fluid, is not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are stimulated by uremic toxins in patients with chronic renal failure. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are sensitive to uremic toxins, such as uric acid, indoxyl sulfate, or methylguanidine, we examined changes in the membrane potentials (MPs) of bulbospinal RVLM neurons of Wister rats using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with these toxins. A brainstem-spinal cord preparation that preserved the sympathetic nervous system was used for the experiments. During uric acid, indoxyl sulfate, or methylguanidine superfusion, almost all the RVLM neurons were depolarized. To examine the transporters for these toxins on RVLM neurons, histological examinations were performed. The uric acid-, indoxyl sulfate-, and methylguanidine-depolarized RVLM neurons showed the presence of urate transporter 1 (URAT 1), organic anion transporter (OAT)1 or OAT3, and organic cation transporter (OCT)3, respectively. Furthermore, the toxin-induced activities of the RVLM neurons were suppressed by the addition of an anti-oxidation drug (VAS2870, an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor), and a histological examination revealed the presence of NAD(P)H oxidase (nox)2 and nox4 in these RVLM neurons. The present results show that uric acid, indoxyl sulfate, and methylguanidine directly stimulate bulbospinal RVLM neurons via specific transporters on these neurons and by producing oxidative stress. These uremic toxins may cause hypertension by activating RVLM neurons.

  7. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and L-DOPA reversible motor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Masoud, ST; Vecchio, LM; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, MM; Nguyen, LT; Bermejo, MK; Kile, B; Sotnikova, TD; Siesser, WB; Gainetdinov, RR; Wightman, RM; Caron, MG; Richardson, JR; Miller, GW; Ramsey, AJ; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with L-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and LDOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25447236

  9. The Stress Protein/Chaperone Grp94 Counteracts Muscle Disuse Atrophy by Stabilizing Subsarcolemmal Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Vitadello, Maurizio; Gherardini, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Redox and growth-factor imbalance fosters muscle disuse atrophy. Since the endoplasmic-reticulum chaperone Grp94 is required for folding insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and for antioxidant cytoprotection, we investigated its involvement in muscle mass loss due to inactivity. Results: Rat soleus muscles were transfected in vivo and analyzed after 7 days of hindlimb unloading, an experimental model of muscle disuse atrophy, or standard caging. Increased muscle protein carbonylation and decreased Grp94 protein levels (p<0.05) characterized atrophic unloaded solei. Recombinant Grp94 expression significantly reduced atrophy of transfected myofibers, compared with untransfected and empty-vector transfected ones (p<0.01), and decreased the percentage of carbonylated myofibers (p=0.001). Conversely, expression of two different N-terminal deleted Grp94 species did not attenuate myofiber atrophy. No change in myofiber trophism was detected in transfected ambulatory solei. The absence of effects on atrophic untransfected myofibers excluded a major role for IGFs folded by recombinant Grp94. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy assays to investigate chaperone interaction with muscle atrophy regulators identified 160 kDa neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as a new Grp94 partner. Unloading was demonstrated to untether nNOS from myofiber subsarcolemma; here, we show that such nNOS localization, revealed by means of NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, appeared preserved in unloaded myofibers expressing recombinant Grp94, compared to those transfected with the empty vector or deleted Grp94 cDNA (p<0.02). Innovation: Grp94 interacts with nNOS and prevents its untethering from sarcolemma in unloaded myofibers. Conclusion: Maintenance of Grp94 expression is sufficient to counter unloading atrophy and oxidative stress by mechanistically stabilizing nNOS-multiprotein complex at the myofiber sarcolemma. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2479–2496. PMID:24093939

  10. Toxic Synergism Between Quinolinic Acid and Glutaric Acid in Neuronal Cells Is Mediated by Oxidative Stress: Insights to a New Toxic Model.

    PubMed

    Pierozan, Paula; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Biasibetti, Helena; da Silva, Janaina Camacho; Wyse, Angela; Wajner, Moacir; Santamaria, Abel

    2017-09-21

    It has been shown that synergistic toxic effects of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and glutaric acid (GA), both in isolated nerve endings and in vivo conditions, suggest the contribution of these metabolites to neurodegeneration. However, this synergism still requires a detailed characterization of the mechanisms involved in cell damage during its occurrence. In this study, the effects of subtoxic concentrations of QUIN and/or GA were tested in neuronal cultures, co-cultures (neuronal cells + astrocytes), and mixed cultures (neuronal cells + astrocytes + microglia) from rat cortex and striatum. The exposure of different cortical and striatal cell cultures to QUIN + GA resulted in cell death and stimulated different markers of oxidative stress, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation; changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; and depletion of endogenous antioxidants such as -SH groups and glutathione. The co-incubation of neuronal cultures with QUIN + GA plus the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 prevented cell death but not ROS formation, whereas the antioxidant melatonin reduced both parameters. Our results demonstrated that QUIN and GA can create synergistic scenarios, inducing toxic effects on some parameters of cell viability via the stimulation of oxidative damage. Therefore, it is likely that oxidative stress may play a major causative role in the synergistic actions exerted by QUIN + GA in a variety of cell culture conditions involving the interaction of different neural types.

  11. Akt attenuates apoptotic death through phosphorylation of H2A under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Although the essential role of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in cell survival signaling has been clearly established, the mechanism by which Akt mediates the cellular response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. We demonstrated that Akt attenuated neuronal apoptosis through direct association with histone 2A (H2A) and phosphorylation of H2A at threonine 17. At early time points during H2O2 exposure of PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons, when the cells can tolerate the level of DNA damage, Akt was activated and phosphorylated H2A, leading to inhibition of apoptotic death. At later time points, Akt delivered the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin 2 (Sirt 2) to the vicinity of phosphorylated H2A in response to irreversible DNA damage, thereby inducing H2A deacetylation and subsequently leading to apoptotic death. Ectopically expressed T17A-substituted H2A minimally interacted with Akt and failed to prevent apoptosis under oxidative stress. Thus Akt-mediated H2A phosphorylation has an anti-apoptotic function in conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in neurons and PC12 cells. PMID:26899247

  12. Effects of selenium and topiramate on cytosolic Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress in neuronal PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Seden; Kutluhan, Süleyman; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Yürekli, Vedat Ali; Demirci, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely suggested that selenium (Se) deficiency play an important role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. It has been reported that Se provides protection against the neuronal damage in patients and animals with epilepsy by restoring the antioxidant defense mechanism. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported in several studies but the putative mechanism of action remains elusive. We investigated effects of Se and TPM in neuronal PC12 cell by evaluating Ca(2+) mobilization, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels. PC12 cells were divided into eight groups namely control, TPM, Se, H(2)O(2), TPM + H(2)O(2), Se + H(2)O(2), Se + TPM and Se + TPM + H(2)O(2). The toxic doses and times of H(2)O(2), TPM and Se were determined by cell viability assay which is used to evaluate cell viability. Cells were incubated with 0.01 mM TPM for 5 h and 500 nM Se for 10 h. Then, the cells were exposed to 0.1 mM H(2)O(2) for 10 h before analysis. The cells in all groups except control, TPM and Se were exposed to H(2)O(2) for 15 min before analysis. Cytosolic Ca(2+) release and lipid peroxidation levels were higher in H(2)O(2) group than in control, Se and TPM combination groups although their levels were decreased by incubation of Se and TPM combination. However, there is no difference on Ca(2+) release in TPM group. Glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione and vitamin C levels in the cells were lower in H(2)O(2) group than in control, Se and TPM groups although their values were higher in the cells incubated with Se and TPM groups than in H(2)O(2) groups. In conclusion, these results indicate that Se induced protective effects on oxidative stress in PC12 cells by modulating cytosolic Ca(2+) influx and antioxidant levels. TPM modulated also lipid peroxidation and glutathione and vitamin C concentrations in the cell system.

  13. Sinomenine Protects PC12 Neuronal Cells against H2O2-induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress via a ROS-dependent Up-regulation of Endogenous Antioxidant System.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Shu, Qing; Guan, Xinlei; Zhao, Jiegang; Yan, Junqiang; Li, Xiangming; Liu, Jiangbo; Jia, Zhaohui; Shi, Jian; Li, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Sinomenine (SN), a purified alkaloid from Chinese herb Sinomenium acutum that was used preferentially in the treatment of rheumatoid diseases, has exerted neuroprotective effects and anti-inflammatory properties in many previous studies. Some studies have revealed that the antioxidant property of SN, acting mainly through inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation, was involved in the beneficial effects of SN. However, SN belongs to the family of dextrorotatory morphinan analogues, which may initiate elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Thus in the present report, we conducted studies to examine its impact and mechanism on the resistance of PC12 neuronal cells to oxidative stress. Precondition with SN (0.1-5 μM) for 12 h significantly decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and remarkably alleviated oxidative injury. However, SN exhibited little direct free radical scavenging property in vitro and induced "appropriate" production of ROS in PC12 cell. Interestingly, the SN-triggering ROS production served as a signal to activate the Nrf2 antioxidant system including Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO-1, which was inhibited by the antioxidant trolox. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown largely attenuated the beneficial effects of SN precondition on oxidative stress. In conclusion, our findings suggested that SN increased the resistance to oxidative stress in neuronal cells via a ROS-dependent up-regulation of endogenous antioxidant system, and this mechanism may be involved in the neuroprotection of SN.

  14. WISP1 (CCN4) autoregulates its expression and nuclear trafficking of β-catenin during oxidant stress with limited effects upon neuronal autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Shang, Yan Chen; Maiese, Kenneth

    2012-05-01

    Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1/CCN4) is a CCN family member more broadly identified with development and tumorigenesis. However, recent studies have shed new light and enthusiasm on WISP1 as a novel target directed against toxic cell degeneration. Here we show WISP1 prevents apoptotic degeneration in primary neurons during oxidant stress through the activation of protein kinase B (Akt1), the post-translational maintenance of β-catenin integrity that is consistent with inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and the subcellular trafficking of β- catenin to foster its translocation to the nucleus. Interestingly, WISP1 autoregulates its expression through the promotion of β-catenin activity and may employ β-catenin to have a limited control over autophagy, but neuronal injury during oxidant stress as a result of autophagy appears portioned to a small population of neurons without significant impact upon overall cell survival. New strategies that target WISP1, its autoregulation, and the pathways responsible for neuronal cell injury may bring forth new insight for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Impact of minocycline on cerebrospinal fluid markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, and inflammation in HIV-seropositive individuals with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Sacktor, Ned; Miyahara, Sachiko; Evans, Scott; Schifitto, Giovanni; Cohen, Bruce; Haughey, Norman; Drewes, Julia L; Graham, David; Zink, M Christine; Anderson, Caroline; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A; McCarthy, Sean; Hosey, Lara; Clifford, David

    2014-12-01

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, and inflammation and decreased neurotransmitter levels have been reported in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Minocycline may have a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide, a compound that induces oxygen free radical production. In A5235, "Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Minocycline in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment," minocycline was not associated with cognitive improvement, but the effect on the above CSF measures was not examined previously. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of minocycline on markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, neurotransmitter levels, and inflammation from CSF in participants in A5235. One hundred seven HIV+ individuals received either minocycline 100 mg or placebo orally every 12 h for 24 weeks. Twenty-one HIV+ individuals received the optional lumbar punctures. Lipid and protein markers of oxidative stress (e.g., ceramides and protein carbonyls), glutamate, neurotransmitter precursors, kynurenine metabolites, neurofilament heavy chain, and inflammatory cytokines were measured in the CSF before and after treatment. The 24-week change in ceramides was larger in a beneficial direction in the minocycline group compared to the placebo group. The two groups did not differ in the 24-week changes for other markers.These results suggest that minocycline may decrease lipid markers of oxidative stress (ceramides) in individuals with HAND; however, an effect of minocycline on other CSF markers was not observed. A larger sample size is needed to further validate these results.

  16. Impact of minocycline on cerebrospinal fluid markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, and inflammation in HIV seropositive individuals with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sacktor, Ned; Miyahara, Sachiko; Evans, Scott; Schifitto, Giovanni; Cohen, Bruce; Haughey, Norman; Drewes, Julia L.; Graham, David; Zink, M. Christine; Anderson, Caroline; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A.; McCarthy, Sean; Hosey, Lara; Clifford, David

    2014-01-01

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, and inflammation, and decreased neurotransmitter levels have been reported in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Minocycline may have a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide, a compound that induces oxygen free radical production. In A5235, “Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Minocycline in the Treatment of HIV-associated Cognitive Impairment”, minocycline was not associated with cognitive improvement, but the effect on the above CSF measures was not examined previously. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of minocycline on markers of oxidative stress, neuronal injury, neurotransmitter levels, and inflammation from CSF in participants in A5235. 107 HIV+ individuals received either minocycline 100 mg or placebo orally every 12 hours for 24 weeks. 21 HIV+ individuals received the optional lumbar punctures. Lipid and protein markers of oxidative stress (e.g., ceramides and protein carbonyls), glutamate, neurotransmitter precursors, kynurenine metabolites, neurofilament heavy chain and inflammatory cytokines were measured in the CSF before and after treatment. The 24-week change in ceramides was larger in a beneficial direction in the minocycline group compared to the placebo group. The two groups did not differ in the 24-week changes for other markers. These results suggest that minocycline may decrease lipid markers of oxidative stress (ceramides) in individuals with HAND; however, an effect of minocycline on other CSF markers was not observed. A larger sample size is needed to further validate these results. PMID:25377444

  17. Mutations in amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 genes increase the basal oxidative stress in murine neuronal cells and lead to increased sensitivity to oxidative stress mediated by amyloid beta-peptide (1-42), HO and kainic acid: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mohmmad Abdul, Hafiz; Sultana, Rukhsana; Keller, Jeffrey N; St Clair, Daret K; Markesbery, William R; Butterfield, D Allan

    2006-03-01

    Oxidative stress is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, including protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. One of the major pathological hallmarks of AD is the brain deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). This 42-mer peptide is derived from the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and is associated with oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Mutations in the PS-1 and APP genes, which increase production of the highly amyloidogenic amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta42), are the major causes of early onset familial AD. Several lines of evidence suggest that enhanced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play important roles in the pathogenesis of AD. In the present study, primary neuronal cultures from knock-in mice expressing mutant human PS-1 and APP were compared with those from wild-type mice, in the presence or absence of various oxidizing agents, viz, Abeta(1-42), H2O2 and kainic acid (KA). APP/PS-1 double mutant neurons displayed a significant basal increase in oxidative stress as measured by protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and 3-nitrotyrosine when compared with the wild-type neurons (p < 0.0005). Elevated levels of human APP, PS-1 and Abeta(1-42) were found in APP/PS-1 cultures compared with wild-type neurons. APP/PS-1 double mutant neuron cultures exhibited increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by Abeta(1-42), H2O2 and KA compared with wild-type neuronal cultures. The results are consonant with the hypothesis that Abeta(1-42)-associated oxidative stress and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may contribute significantly to neuronal apoptosis and death in familial early onset AD.

  18. Laser Acupuncture at HT7 Acupoint Improves Cognitive Deficit, Neuronal Loss, Oxidative Stress, and Functions of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Sutalangka, Chatchada

    2014-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic strategy against cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still not in satisfaction level and requires novel effective intervention. Based the oxidative stress reduction and cognitive enhancement induced by laser acupuncture at HT7, the beneficial effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 against cognitive impairment in PD has been focused. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of laser acupuncture at HT7 on memory impairment, oxidative stress status, and the functions of both cholinergic and dopaminergic systems in hippocampus of animal model of PD. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were induced unilateral lesion at right substantianigra by 6-OHDA and were treated with laser acupuncture continuously at a period of 14 days. The results showed that laser acupuncture at HT7 enhanced memory and neuron density in CA3 and dentate gyrus. The decreased AChE, MAO-B, and MDA together with increased GSH-Px in hippocampus of a 6-OHDA lesion rats were also observed. In conclusion, laser acupuncture at HT7 can improve neuron degeneration and memory impairment in animal model of PD partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the improved cholinergic and dopaminergic functions. More researches concerning effect of treatment duration are still required.

  19. 2,4 DNP improves motor function, preserves medium spiny neuronal identity, and reduces oxidative stress in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Jiang, Mali; Peng, Qi; Li, Gang; Hou, Zhipeng; Milne, Ginger L; Mori, Susumu; Alonso, Robert; Geisler, John G; Duan, Wenzhen

    2017-03-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the gene huntingtin. There is no treatment to prevent or delay the disease course of HD currently. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as key determinants of the disease progression in HD. Therefore, counteracting mutant huntingtin (mHtt)-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appears as a new approach to treat this devastating disease. Interestingly, mild mitochondrial uncoupling improves neuronal resistance to stress and facilitates neuronal survival. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling can be induced by the proper dose of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore that was previously used for weight loss. In this study, we evaluated the effects of chronic administration of DNP at three doses (0.5, 1, 5mg/kg/day) on mHtt-induced behavioral deficits and cellular abnormalities in the N171-82Q HD mouse model. DNP at a low dose (1mg/kg/day) significantly improved motor function and preserved medium spiny neuronal marker DARPP32 and postsynaptic protein PSD95 in the striatum of HD mice. Further mechanistic study suggests that DNP at this dose reduced oxidative stress in HD mice, which was indicated by reduced levels of F2-isoprostanes in the brain of HD mice treated with DNP. Our data indicated that DNP provided behavioral benefit and neuroprotective effect at a weight neutral dose in HD mice, suggesting that the potential value of repositioning DNP to HD treatment is warranted in well-controlled clinical trials in HD.

  20. Phospholipase A2 – nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability, and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Petra M.; Watson, Shawn N.; Wildering, Willem C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain undergoes a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (per)oxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the biology of cognitive aging we portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain. PMID:25538730

  1. Studies of benzamide- and thiol-based histone deacetylase inhibitors in models of oxidative-stress-induced neuronal death: identification of some HDAC3-selective inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yufeng; He, Rong; Chen, Yihua; D'Annibale, Melissa A; Langley, Brett; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-05-01

    We compare three structurally different classes of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that contain benzamide, hydroxamate, or thiol groups as the zinc binding group (ZBG) for their ability to protect cortical neurons in culture from cell death induced by oxidative stress. This study reveals that none of the benzamide-based HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) provides any neuroprotection whatsoever, in distinct contrast to HDACIs that contain other ZBGs. Some of the sulfur-containing HDACIs, namely the thiols, thioesters, and disulfides present modest neuroprotective activity but show toxicity at higher concentrations. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the HDAC6-selective mercaptoacetamides that were reported previously provide the best protection in the homocysteic acid model of oxidative stress, thus further supporting their study in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Tubuloside B from Cistanche salsa rescues the PC12 neuronal cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guoqing; Pu, Xiaoping; Lei, Li; Tu, Pengfei; Li, Changling

    2002-11-01

    The neuroprotective effects of tubuloside B, one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Cistanche salsa, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP +)-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 neuronal cells were investigated. PC12 cells treated with MPP + underwent apoptotic death as determined by MTT assay, flow cytometry and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis; intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by DCFH-DA staining with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Simultaneous treatment with tubuloside B markedly attenuated MPP +-induced cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation, and intracellular accumulation of ROS. These results strongly indicate that tubuloside B prevents MPP +-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Tubuloside B may be applied as an antiparkinsonian agent.

  3. Endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids prevent trimethyltin from causing neuronal degeneration of the mouse brain in vivo: involvement of oxidative stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Shuto, Makoto; Higuchi, Kei; Sugiyama, Chie; Yoneyama, Masanori; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nagashima, Reiko; Kawada, Koichi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2009-08-01

    The organotin trimethyltin (TMT) is known to cause neuronal degeneration in the murine brain. Earlier studies indicate that TMT-induced neuronal degeneration is enhanced by adrenalectomy. However, no evaluation has been attempted to determine the mechanism underlying the enhancement of TMT neurotoxicity by adrenalectomy and its implications in neuronal degeneration. To assess the implications and determine the mechanism of adrenalectomy-elicited enhancement of TMT neurotoxicity, we examined neuronal degeneration and associated signaling pathways in adrenalectomized mice. Adrenalectomy dramatically enhanced the TMT-induced neuronal damage in certain brain regions including the dentate gyrus, olfactory bulb, and anterior olfactory nucleus, in addition to exacerbating the behavioral abnormalities. TMT-induced activation of caspase-3 and calpain was also enhanced by adrenalectomy. The above events elicited by TMT were almost entirely prevented by treatment with dexamethasone. In addition to the above events, adrenalectomy clearly enhanced the activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinases and the formation of 4-hydroxynonenal in the dentate gyrus following TMT treatment. The dentate granule cell damage induced by TMT was exacerbated by mifepristone, a glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist. Taken together, our data suggest that endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids prevent neurodegeneration induced by TMT in the central nervous system by attenuating intensive oxidative stress and associated signaling pathways.

  4. Pre- and post-treatments with escitalopram protect against experimental ischemic neuronal damage via regulation of BDNF expression and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Hyun; Park, Joon Ha; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Ryu, Pan Dong; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho

    2011-06-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been widely used in treatment of major depression because of their efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Escitalopram, an SSRI, is known to decrease oxidative stress in chronic stress animal models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatments with 20 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg escitalopram in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after transient cerebral ischemia. Pre-treatment with escitalopram protected against ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Post-treatment with 30 mg/kg, not 20 mg/kg, escitalopram had a neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage. In addition, 20 mg/kg pre- and 30 mg/kg post-treatments with escitalopram increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in the ischemic CA1 compared to vehicle-treated ischemia animals. In addition, 20 mg/kg pre- and 30 mg/kg post-treatments with escitalopram reduced microglia activation and decreased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase immunoreactivity and their levels in the ischemic CA1 compared to vehicle-treated ischemia animals after transient cerebral ischemia. In conclusion, these results indicated that pre- and post-treatments with escitalopram can protect against ischemia-induced neuronal death in the CA1 induced by transient cerebral ischemic damage by increase of BDNF as well as decrease of microglia activation and oxidative stress.

  5. Oxidative stress induced by crude venom from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in neuronal-like differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Condello, Salvatore; Currò, Monica; Marino, Angela; Ientile, Riccardo; La Spada, Giuseppina

    2012-08-01

    Marine toxins are a suitable research model and their mechanism of action is intriguing and still under debate. Either a pore formation mechanism or oxidative stress phenomena may explain the damage induced by toxins. The effect of crude venom from isolated nematocysts of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca on neuronal-like cells derived from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y has been here studied. To prove the possible oxidative stress events, cell viability, assessed by MTT quantitative colorimetric assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantified by the non-fluorescent probe H2DCF-DA and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) measured by the incorporation of a cationic fluorescent dye rhodamine-123 were verified on venom-treated cells (0.05-0.5μg/ml doses). A dose- and time-dependent reduction of all parameters was observed after venom treatment. NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine), antioxidant applied before crude venom application, significantly counteracted the decrease in cell viability and ROS production, while ΔΨm was only partially restored. The disruption of mitochondrial membrane by P. noctiluca crude venom may thus induce oxidative stress by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration and uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, sensitizing mitochondria in SH-SY5H cells and facilitating membrane permeability. In sum, our findings suggest that P. noctiluca crude venom directly induces ΔΨm collapse with further generation of ROS and add novel information to the understanding of such toxins, still not completely clarified.

  6. 20-Hydroxyecdysone Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Injury by Scavenging Free Radicals and Modulating NF-κB and JNK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Wei Hua; Shan, You An; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhu, Gang; Yu, Yan Bing; Feng, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological processes of ischemic brain damage. Many antioxidants have been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E), an ecdysteroid hormone, exhibits antioxidative effects. For the work described in this paper, we used an in vitro oxidative damage model and an in vivo ischemic model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to investigate the neuroprotective effects of 20E and the mechanisms related to these effects. Treatment of cells with H2O2 led to neuronal injury, intracellular ROS/RNS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cellular antioxidant potential descent, an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and an elevation of intracellular [Ca2+], all of which were markedly attenuated by 20E. Inhibition of the activation of the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK stress signaling pathway and cleaved caspase-3 induced by oxidative stress were involved in the neuroprotection afforded by 20E. In addition, 20E reduced the expression of iNOS protein by inhibition of NF-κB activation. The neuroprotective effect of 20E was also confirmed in vivo. 20E significantly decreased infarct volume and the neurological deficit score, restored antioxidant potential and inhibited the increase in MDA and TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the cerebral cortex in MCAO rats. Together, these results support that 20E protects against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting ROS/RNS production and modulating oxidative stress-induced signal transduction pathways. PMID:23239983

  7. Anticonvulsant drugs, oxidative stress and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Vega Rasgado, L A; Ceballos Reyes, G M; Vega-Diaz, M F

    2011-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is thought to play a fundamental role in the genesis and the spreading of epileptiform hyperactivity, although its function is unclear and controversial. As a free radical, NO may cause oxidative stress, which is emerging as an important mechanism in the etiology of seizure-induced neuronal death. Here we investigated the role of NO in seizure mechanisms through oxidative stress generation by studying the effect of anticonvulsant drugs such as amino oxyacetic acid (AAOA), valproate (VALP), diazepam (DIAZ) and gabapentin (GBPTNA) on oxidative stress in the brain, estimated as free carbonyls by the method of Dalle and Rossi, and by measuring NO by the indirect method based on the Griess reaction. Results show that, except for AAOA and VALP, anticonvulsants did not significantly affect or decreased free carbonyls, but reversed the oxidative stress produced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions. Anticonvulsants except AAOA diminished NO levels and with the exception of VALP, counteracted the increase in NO generated by PTZ. Anticonvulsants decreased oxidative stress and NO especially in hippocampus (HI) and cortex (CX), and reversed PTZ effects on both parameters. PTZ diminished NO in HI, which could be explained since PTZ caused an increase on endothelial NO synthase but a decrease in neuronal NOS expression in this brain area. Since the drugs studied are modulating GABA levels, our results suggest that seizures generated by alterations in GABAergic transmission produce oxidative stress caused by NO, which can be reversed by anticonvulsants. The effects described differ among the brain regions studied and the NO synthase isoform affected.

  8. Protection by genistein on cortical neurons against oxidative stress injury via inhibition of NF-kappaB, JNK and ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yisong; Cao, Liangxun; Guan, Teng; Chen, Lan; Xin, Hongbo; Li, Yunman; Zheng, Rui; Yu, Deyue

    2015-08-01

    Genistein, one of the isoflavones derived from soybean seeds, has been reported to exert multiple bioactivities. However, the mechanism of its action on the central nervous system is not fully understood. To investigate the cytoprotection of genistein and its molecular mechanism against H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical neurons. Genistein (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μM) were added into the primary rat neurons 24 h before and co-cultured with 500 μM H2O2 for 1 h. Neuronal injury was assessed by MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and Hoechst33258 staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by H2O2 was determined. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by Bcl-2/Bax ratio as well as by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities. The protein levels and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65, IκB, JNK, and ERK were detected by western blots. Genistein pretreatment attenuated H2O2-mediated neuronal viability loss, nuclear condensation, and ROS generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Genistein exerted anti-apoptotic effects by reversing the apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bax ratio, along with the suppression of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities. In addition, genistein down-regulated the expression of NF-κB/p65, and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65 and IκB. Genistein also inhibited H2O2-induced activation of the MAPK-signaling pathway including JNK and ERK. The results indicated that genistein effectively protects cortical neurons against oxidative stress at least partly via inactivation of NF-κB as well as MAPK-signaling pathways, and suggested the possibility of this antioxidant for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  9. Neuroinflammatory pathways in binge alcohol-induced neuronal degeneration: oxidative stress cascade involving aquaporin, brain edema, and phospholipase A2 activation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    Chronic binge alcohol exposure in adult rat models causes neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampus that is not reduced by excitotoxic receptor antagonists, but is prevented by antioxidants. Neuroinflammatory (glial-neuronal) signaling pathways are believed to underlie the oxidative stress and brain damage. Based on our experimental results as well as increased knowledge about the pro-neuroinflammatory potential of glial water channels, we propose that induction of aquaporin-4 can be a critical initiating factor in alcohol's neurotoxic effects, through the instigation of cellular edema-based neuroinflammatory cascades involving increased phospholipase A2 activities, polyunsaturated fatty acid release/membrane depletion, decreased prosurvival signaling, and oxidative stress. A testable scheme for this pathway is presented that incorporates recent findings in the alcohol-brain literature indicating a role for neuroimmune activation (upregulation of NF-kappaB, proinflammatory cytokines, and toll-like receptors). We present the argument that such neuroimmune activation could be associated with or even dependent on increased aquaporin-4 and glial swelling as well.

  10. Oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Shashikant; Nikam, Padmaja; Ahaley, S K; Sontakke, Ajit V

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the cascade, leading to dopamine cell degeneration in Parkinson's disease. However, oxidative stress is intimately linked to other components of the degenerative process, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, nitric oxide toxicity and inflammation. It is therefore difficult to determine whether oxidative stress leads to or is a consequence of, these events. Oxidative stress was assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation product in the form of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitric oxide in the form of nitrite & nitrate. Enzymatic antioxidants in the form of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin and non enzymatic antioxidant vitamins e.g. vitamin E and C in either serum or plasma or erythrocyte in 40 patients of Parkinson's disease in the age group 40-80 years. Trace elements e.g. copper, zinc and selenium were also estimated. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide levels were Significantly high but superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, ceruloplasmin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, copper, zinc and selenium levels were significantly low in Parkinson's disease when compared with control subjects. Present study showed that elevated oxidative stress may be playing a role in dopaminergic neuronal loss in substentia nigra pars compacta and involved in pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease.

  11. Oxidative stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety and also on a possible causal relationship between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines the recent discoveries made on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety levels and the putative role of oxidative stress in genesis of anxiety. We discuss the different opinions and questions that exist in the field and review the methodological approaches that are being used to determine a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress. PMID:20357926

  12. Poly(GR) in C9ORF72-Related ALS/FTD Compromises Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Lu, Yubing; Gendron, Tania F; Karydas, Anna; Tran, Helene; Yang, Dejun; Petrucelli, Leonard; Miller, Bruce L; Almeida, Sandra; Gao, Fen-Biao

    2016-10-19

    GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common genetic cause of both ALS and FTD. To uncover underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we found that DNA damage was greater, in an age-dependent manner, in motor neurons differentiated from iPSCs of multiple C9ORF72 patients than control neurons. Ectopic expression of the dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein (GR)80 in iPSC-derived control neurons increased DNA damage, suggesting poly(GR) contributes to DNA damage in aged C9ORF72 neurons. Oxidative stress was also increased in C9ORF72 neurons in an age-dependent manner. Pharmacological or genetic reduction of oxidative stress partially rescued DNA damage in C9ORF72 neurons and control neurons expressing (GR)80 or (GR)80-induced cellular toxicity in flies. Moreover, interactome analysis revealed that (GR)80 preferentially bound to mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, poly(GR) in C9ORF72 neurons compromises mitochondrial function and causes DNA damage in part by increasing oxidative stress, revealing another pathogenic mechanism in C9ORF72-related ALS and FTD.

  13. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Noh, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing survival signaling, and inhibiting death signals.

  14. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, JONG HEE; NOH, MIN-YOUNG; CHOI, JAE-HYEOK; LEE, HAIWON; KIM, SEUNG HYUN

    2016-01-01

    by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing survival signaling, and inhibiting death signals. PMID:27073423

  15. Chiral mercaptoacetamides display enantioselective inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 and exhibit neuroprotection in cortical neuron models of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kalin, Jay H; Zhang, Hankun; Gaudrel-Grosay, Sophie; Vistoli, Giulio; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-03-05

    Mercaptoacetamide-based ligands have been designed as a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors for possible use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The thiol group of these compounds provides a key binding element for interaction with the catalytic zinc ion, and thus differs from the more typically employed hydroxamic acid based zinc binding groups. Herein we disclose the chemistry and biology of some substituted mercaptoacetamides with the intention of increasing HDAC6 isoform selectivity while maintaining potency similar to their hydroxamic acid analogues. The introduction of a stereocenter α to the thiol group was found to have a considerable impact on HDAC inhibitor potency. These new compounds were also profiled for their therapeutic potential in an in vitro model of stress-induced neuronal injury and were found to act as nontoxic neuroprotective agents.

  16. Over-expression of the Sirt3 sirtuin Protects neuronally differentiated PC12 Cells from degeneration induced by oxidative stress and trophic withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Shulyakova, Natalya; Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Fong, Jamie; Zhang, Guangming; Mills, Linda R; Eubanks, James H

    2014-10-31

    Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin whose deacetylase activity regulates facets of oxidative metabolic efficiency, anti-oxidative capacity, and intra-mitochondrial signaling. In this study, we tested whether the over-expression of a human Sirt3-myc transgene in differentiated PC12 cells, a model of sympathetic catecholaminergic neurons, would affect the sensitivity of these cells to oxidative stress or trophic withdrawal insults. Expression analysis revealed the Sirt3-myc product was expressed as a 45kDa pro-form, which localized primarily within the cytosol, and a 30kDa processed form that localized predominantly within mitochondria. When subjected to acute glucose deprivation or acute oxygen-glucose deprivation, differentiated PC12 cells over-expressing Sirt3-myc displayed significantly lower levels of cytotoxicity, both at the end of the insult, and at different times following media reperfusion, than cells transfected with a control plasmid. Further, Sirt3-myc over-expression also protected differentiated PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by trophic withdrawal. Collectively, these data indicate that an elevation of Sirt3 is sufficient to protect neuronal PC12 cells from cytotoxic insults, and add to the growing evidence that Sirt3 could be targeted for neuroprotective intervention.

  17. Oxidative stress and myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuko; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced highly in myocarditis. ROS, which not only act as effectors for pathogen killing but also mediate signal transduction in the stress responsive pathways, are closely related with both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, oxidative stress overwhelming the capacity of anti-oxidative system generated in severe inflammation has been suggested to damage tissues and exacerbate inflammation. Oxidative stress worsens the autoimmunological process of myocarditis, and suppression of the anti-oxidative system and long-lasting oxidative stress could be one of the pathological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling leading to inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the promising treatment targets of myocarditis. Evidences of anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis have not been fully established. Basic strategies of anti-oxidative treatments include inhibition of ROS production, activation of anti-oxidative enzymes and elimination of generated free radicals. ROS are produced by mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions and enzymes including NADPH oxidases, cyclooxygenase, and xanthine oxidase. Other systems involved in inflammation and stress response, such as NF-κB, Nrf2/Keap1, and neurohumoral factors also influence oxidative stress in myocarditis. The efficacy of anti-oxidative treatments could also depend on the etiology and the phases of myocarditis. We review in this article the pathological significance of ROS and oxidative stress, and the potential anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis.

  18. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  19. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  20. Protective effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on oxidative stress-induced neuronal injuries: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xu; Qiao, Yajun; Ouyang, Jiting; Jia, Mei; Li, Jiaxin; Yuan, Fang

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) can produce biological active species for biomedical applications. This work proves direct evidence of the protective effects of APPJ against oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells, a commonly used cell model for the study of neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, were treated with APPJ for different durations. Then, cells were exposed to 200 µM H2O2 for 24 h and cell viability was measured using a CCK-8 kit. Changes in cell apoptosis were further confirmed by calcein-AM fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Extracellular NO production was detected using the Griess method. The results showed that APPJ protected SH-SY5Y from H2O2-induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, extracellular NO production was significantly increased with the APPJ treatment. The results show in vitro that APPJ treatment could protect SH-SY5Y cells from oxidative stress by reducing cell apoptosis, which might be related to the reactive nitrogen species induced by the APPJ treatment. Our results indicate that the APPJ may have therapeutic potential as a novel ‘NO donor drug’ in neuroprotection and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Carvedilol, a third-generation β-blocker prevents oxidative stress-induced neuronal death and activates Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Ying; Chen, Ziwei; Tan, Min; Liu, Anmin; Chen, Meihui; Liu, Jun; Pi, Rongbiao; Fang, Jianpei

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •Carvedilol significantly prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. •Carvedilol significantly decreased the production of ROS. •Carvedilol activated Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Carvedilol increased the protein levels of HO-1 and NQO-1. -- Abstract: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker with pleiotropic activities has been shown to exert neuroprotective effect due to its antioxidant property. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of carvedilol is still not fully uncovered. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. Here we investigated the effect of carvedilol on oxidative stress-induced cell death (glutamate 2 mM and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} 600 μM) and the activity of Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 hippocampal cells. Carvedilol significantly increased cell viability and decreased ROS in HT22 cells exposed to glutamate or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, carvedilol activated the Nrf2/ARE pathway in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1), two downstream factors of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Collectively, our results indicate that carvedilol protects neuronal cell against glutamate- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced neurotoxicity possibly through activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  2. Piracetam ameliorated oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced injury in rat cortical neurons via inhibition of oxidative stress, excitatory amino acids release and P53/Bax.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi; Hu, Min; Zha, Yun-hong; Li, Zi-cheng; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Ling-ling; Yu, Min; Qian, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that piracetam inhibited the decrease in amino acid content induced by chronic hypoperfusion, ameliorated the dysfunction of learning and memory in a hypoperfusion rat model, down-regulated P53, and BAX protein, facilitated the synaptic plasticity, and may be helpful in the treatment of vascular dementia. To explore the precise mechanism, the present study further evaluated effects of piracetam on Oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal damage in rat primary cortical cells. The addition of piracetam to the cultured cells 12 h before OGD for 4 h significantly reduced neuronal damage as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and lactate dehydrogenase release experiments. Piracetam also lowered the levels of malondialdehyde, nitrogen monoxidum, and xanthine oxidase which was increased in the OGD cells, and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which were decreased in the OGD cells. We also demonstrated that piracetam could decrease glutamate and aspartate release when cortical cells were subjected to OGD. Furthermore, Western blot study demonstrated that piracetam attenuated the increased expression of P53 and BAX protein in OGD cells. These observations demonstrated that piracetam reduced OGD-induced neuronal damage by inhibiting the oxidative stress and decreasing excitatory amino acids release and lowering P53/Bax protein expression in OGD cells.

  3. Neuronal cells but not muscle cells are resistant to oxidative stress mediated protein misfolding and cell death: role of molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Wei, Rochelle; Hamilton, Ryan T; Chaudhuri, Asish R

    2014-04-18

    Our recent study in a mouse model of familial-Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (f-ALS) revealed that muscle proteins are equally sensitive to misfolding as spinal cord proteins despite the presence of low mutant CuZn-superoxide dismutase, which is considered to be the key toxic element for initiation and progression of f-ALS. More importantly, we observed differential level of heat shock proteins (Hsp's) between skeletal muscle and spinal cord tissues prior to the onset and during disease progression; spinal cord maintains significantly higher level of Hsp's compared to skeletal muscle. In this study, we report two important observations; (i) muscle cells (but not neuronal cells) are extremely vulnerable to protein misfolding and cell death during challenge with oxidative stress and (ii) muscle cells fail to mount Hsp's during challenge unlike neuronal cells. These two findings can possibly explain why muscle atrophy precedes the death of motor neurons in f-ALS mice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Javed, Hayate; Azimullah, Sheikh; Haque, M Emdadul

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) area. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of β-caryophyllene (BCP) against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in a rat model of PD. In the present study, BCP was administered once daily for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to a rotenone (2.5 mg/kg body weight) challenge to mimic the progressive neurodegenerative nature of PD. Rotenone administration results in oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and depletion of glutathione with a concomitant rise in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde. Rotenone also significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the midbrain region and elevated the inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the striatum. Further, immunohistochemical analysis revealed loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc area and enhanced expression of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicators of microglia activation, and astrocyte hypertrophy, respectively, as an index of inflammation. However, treatment with BCP rescued dopaminergic neurons and decreased microglia and astrocyte activation evidenced by reduced Iba-1 and GFAP expression. BCP in addition to attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 and iNOS, also restored antioxidant enzymes and inhibited lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione depletion. The findings demonstrate that BCP provides neuroprotection against rotenone-induced PD and the neuroprotective effects can be ascribed to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells to a neuronal phenotype changes cellular bioenergetics and the response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Lonnie; Giordano, Samantha; Zelickson, Blake R.; Johnson, Michelle; Benavides, Gloria; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Fineberg, Naomi; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Zhang, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Cell differentiation is associated with changes in metabolism and function. Understanding these changes during differentiation is important in the context of stem cell research, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. An early event in neurodegenerative diseases is the alteration of mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Studies using both undifferentiated and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells have shown distinct responses to cellular stressors, however the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that since the regulation of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are modulated during cellular differentiation, this would change bioenergetic function and the response to oxidative stress. To test this, we used retinoic acid (RA) to induce differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells and assessed changes in cellular bioenergetics using extracellular flux analysis. After exposure to RA, the SH-SY5Y cells had an increased mitochondrial membrane potential, without changing mitochondrial number. Differentiated cells exhibited greater stimulation of mitochondrial respiration with uncoupling and an increased bioenergetic reserve capacity. The increased reserve capacity in the differentiated cells was suppressed by the inhibitor of glycolysis, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Furthermore, we found that differentiated cells were substantially more resistant to cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by reactive lipid species 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) or the reactive oxygen species generator 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). We then analyzed the levels of selected mitochondrial proteins and found an increase in complex IV subunits which we propose contributes to the increase in reserve capacity in the differentiated cells. Furthermore, we found an increase in MnSOD that could, at least in part, account for the increased resistance to oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that profound changes in mitochondrial metabolism and antioxidant defenses occur

  6. Neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Emerit, J; Edeas, M; Bricaire, F

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is now recognized as accountable for redox regulation involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Its role is pivotal for the modulation of critical cellular functions, notably for neurons astrocytes and microglia, such as apoptosis program activation, and ion transport, calcium mobilization, involved in excitotoxicity. Excitotoxicity and apoptosis are the two main causes of neuronal death. The role of mitochondria in apoptosis is crucial. Multiple apoptotic pathways emanate from the mitochondria. The respiratory chain of mitochondria that by oxidative phosphorylation, is the fount of cellular energy, i.e. ATP synthesis, is responsible for most of ROS and notably the first produced, superoxide anion (O(2)(;-)). Mitochondrial dysfunction, i.e. cell energy impairment, apoptosis and overproduction of ROS, is a final common pathogenic mechanism in aging and in neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nitric oxide (NO(;)), an RNS, which can be produced by three isoforms of NO-synthase in brain, plays a prominent role. The research on the genetics of inherited forms notably ALS, AD, PD, has improved our understanding of the pathobiology of the sporadic forms of neurodegenerative diseases or of aging of the brain. ROS and RNS, i.e. oxidative stress, are not the origin of neuronal death. The cascade of events that leads to neurons, death is complex. In addition to mitochondrial dysfunction (apoptosis), excitotoxicity, oxidative stress (inflammation), the mechanisms from gene to disease involve also protein misfolding leading to aggregates and proteasome dysfunction on ubiquinited material.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of Citrus unshiu immature peel and nobiletin inhibiting hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Woo; Jung, Su Young; Lee, Gyeong Hwan; Cho, Jung Hee; Choi, In Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is common in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In a case study, nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peels could prevent the progression of cognitive impairment in donepezil-preadministered Alzheimer's disease patients. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of nobiletin and Citrus unshiu immature peel (CUIP) water extract, which contains nobiletin as a major compound, on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal neuronal model. Materials and Methods: HT22 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentrations of CUIP and nobiletin. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic protein levels were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Western blotting. Results: Pretreatment with CUIP and nobiletin inhibited cell death due to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-induced the expression of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) and p-p38 proteins in HT22 cells; however CUIP and nobiletin suppressed p-JNK and p-p38 without changing JNK or p38. Regarding apoptosis, caspase 3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Bax protein expression was determined. CUIP and nobiletin suppressed caspase 3 and Bax expression, but they induced Bcl-2 expression in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results show that CUIP and nobiletin can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HT22 neurons via mitogen-activated protein kinases and apoptotic pathways. PMID:26664016

  8. Evaluation of the adaptogenic potential exerted by ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in an in vitro neuronal model.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; González-Burgos, Elena; Iglesias, Irene; Lozano, Rafael; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were achieved by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. The cytoprotective activity of pre-treatments with ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against rotenone was assessed by determining biochemical markers regarding oxidative stress (ROS scavenging, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels, SOD activity and Nrf2 activation) and apoptosis-related alterations (mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium levels, aconitase activity and pro/antiapoptotic proteins). Their capacity to cross the blood brain barrier was also estimated. At their optimal doses, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 significantly ameliorated redox status within the cells; they reduced ROS and TBARS levels and improved the glutathione system, as well as they enhanced SOD activity and Nrf2 pathway activation. They protected neuronal cells against MMP loss, calcium homeostasis disruption and aconitase inhibition. Consequently, apoptotic cell death was attenuated by the pre-treatment with ginsenosides, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 and Bax, and the increase in Bcl-2 expressions; also, lower levels of cytochrome C were found in the cytosol. Poor BBB permeation was demonstrated for both ginsenosides. In conclusion, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 exhibit neuroprotective potential which is achieved, at least in part, via mitochondrial protection and the plausible involvement of Nrf2 pathway activation. Our results contribute to validate the

  9. Bushen-Yizhi formula ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stress-related neuronal apoptosis in scopolamine-induced senescence in mice

    PubMed Central

    HOU, XUE-QIN; WU, DIAN-WEI; ZHANG, CHUN-XIA; YAN, RONG; YANG, CONG; RONG, CUI-PING; ZHANG, LEI; CHANG, XIANG; SU, RU-YU; ZHANG, SHI-JIE; HE, WEN-QING; QU, ZHAO; LI, SHI; SU, ZI-REN; CHEN, YUN-BO; WANG, QI; FANG, SHU-HUAN

    2014-01-01

    Bushen-Yizhi formula (BSYZ), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbs has been reported to possess a neuroprotective effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BSYZ on learning and memory abilities, as well as oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of scopolamine (SCOP)-induced senescence in mice, in order to reveal whether BSYZ is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint was applied to provide a chemical profile of BSYZ. Extracts of BSYZ were orally administered to mice with SCOP-induced memory impairment for two weeks. The learning and memory abilities were determined by the Morris water maze test. The oxidant stress-related indices, such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice. The cell death ratio was assessed by TUNEL staining, while apoptotic-related proteins including Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis. Caspase-3 was determined by western blot analysis. Consequently, a chromatographic condition, which was conducted at 35°C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min on the Gemini C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water-phosphoric acid (100:0.1, v/v), was established to yield common fingerprint chromatography under 203 nm with a similarity index of 0.986 within 10 batches of BSYZ samples. BSYZ at a dose of 2.92 g/kg significantly improved the cognitive ability, restored the abnormal activity of SOD and increased the levels of MDA and GSH induced by SCOP. Moreover, the neural apoptosis in the hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice was reversed by BSYZ by regulating the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The results demonstrated that BSYZ had neuroprotective effects in SCOP-induced senescence in mice by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the

  10. Neolignans from Aristolochia fordiana Prevent Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Death through Maintaining the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Zi-Wei; Lin, Ting-Ting; Tan, Min; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Bao, Jing-Mei; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Gang; Yin, Sheng

    2015-08-28

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the stems of Aristolochia fordiana led to the isolation of six new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (1-3 and 7-9), three new 2-aryldihydrobenzofurans (4-6), a new 8-O-4' neolignan (10), and 14 known analogues (11-24). The structures of compounds 1-10 were established by spectroscopic methods, and their absolute configurations were determined by analyses of the specific rotation and electronic circular dichroism data. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-24 against glutamate-induced cell death were tested in hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22. Compounds 17 and 20-24 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the endogenous antioxidant defense system. In addition, the neolignans activated the Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) pathway, resulting in the increase of the expression of endogenous antioxidant protein HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1). The active compounds also preserved the levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2), which was decreased by glutamate. Collectively, these results suggested that the active neolignans protect neurons against glutamate-induced cell death through maintaining the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway as well as preserving the Bcl-2 protein and might be promising novel beneficial agents for oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  11. Vitamin E protected cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, Yumiko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yagasaki, Yuki; Kumamaru, Emi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Takahisa; Niki, Etsuo

    2006-05-01

    The role of vitamin E in the CNS has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that pre-treatment with vitamin E analogs including alphaT (alpha-tocopherol), alphaT3 (alpha -tocotrienol), gammaT, and gammaT3 for 24 h prevented the cultured cortical neurons from cell death in oxidative stress stimulated by H2O2, while Trolox, a cell-permeable analog of alphaT, did not. The preventive effect of alphaT was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, we found that alphaT exposure induced the activation of both the MAP kinase (MAPK) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathways and that the alphaT-dependent survival effect was blocked by the inhibitors, U0126 (an MAPK pathway inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K pathway inhibitor). Interestingly, the up-regulation of Bcl-2 (survival promoting molecule) was induced by alphaT application. The up-regulation of Bcl-2 did not occur in the presence of U0126 or LY294002, suggesting that alphaT-up-regulated Bcl-2 is mediated by these kinase pathways. These observations suggest that vitamin E analogs play an essential role in neuronal maintenance and survival in the CNS.

  12. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  13. Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; O, Wuliji; Li, Wei; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Ghanbari, Hossein A.

    2013-01-01

    Living cells continually generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the respiratory chain during energetic metabolism. ROS at low or moderate concentration can play important physiological roles. However, an excessive amount of ROS under oxidative stress would be extremely deleterious. The central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption, weakly antioxidative systems and the terminal-differentiation characteristic of neurons. Thus, oxidative stress elicits various neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, chemotherapy could result in severe side effects on the CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of cancer patients, and a growing body of evidence demonstrates the involvement of ROS in drug-induced neurotoxicities as well. Therefore, development of antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs is a potentially beneficial strategy for clinical therapy. In this review, we summarize the source, balance maintenance and physiologic functions of ROS, oxidative stress and its toxic mechanisms underlying a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possible involvement of ROS in chemotherapy-induced toxicity to the CNS and PNS. We ultimately assess the value for antioxidants as neuroprotective drugs and provide our comments on the unmet needs. PMID:24351827

  14. The multifunctional DNA repair/redox enzyme Ape1/Ref-1 promotes survival of neurons after oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vasko, Michael R; Guo, Chunlu; Kelley, Mark R

    2005-03-02

    Although correlative studies demonstrate a reduction in the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox effector factor (Ape1/Ref-1 or Ape1) in neural tissues after neuronal insult, the role of Ape1 in regulating neurotoxicity remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we examined the effects of reducing Ape1 expression in primary cultures of hippocampal and sensory neurons on several endpoints of neurotoxicity induced by H2O2. Ape1 is highly expressed in hippocampal and sensory neurons grown in culture as indicated by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and activity. Exposing hippocampal or sensory neuronal cultures to 25 or 50 nM small interfering RNA to Ape1 (Ape1siRNA), respectively, for 48 h, causes a reduction in immunoreactive Ape1 by approximately 65 and 54%, and an equivalent loss in endonuclease activity. The reduced expression of Ape1 is maintained for up to 5 days after the siRNA in the medium is removed, whereas exposing cultures to scrambled sequence siRNA (SCsiRNA) has no effect of Ape1 protein levels. The reduction in Ape1 significantly reduces cell viability in cultures 24 h after a 1-h exposure to 25-300 microM H2O2, compared to SCsiRNA treated controls. In cells treated with SCsiRNA, exposure to 300 microM H2O2 reduced cell viability by 40 and 30% in hippocampal and sensory neuronal cultures, respectively, whereas cultures treated with Ape1siRNA lost 93 and 80% of cells after the peroxide. Reduced Ape1 levels also increase caspase-3 activity in the cells, 2-3-fold, 60min after a 1-h exposure to 100 microM H2O2 in the cultures. Exposing neuronal cultures with reduced expression of Ape1 to 65 microM H2O2 (hippocampal) or 300 microM H2O2 (sensory) for 1h results in a 3-fold and 1.5-fold increase in the phosphorylation of histone H2A.X compared to cells exposed to SCsiRNA. Overexpressing wild-type Ape1 in hippocampal and sensory cells using adenoviral expression constructs results in significant increase in cell viability after

  15. Evaluation of the adaptogenic potential exerted by ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in an in vitro neuronal model

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Irene; Lozano, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Background Ginseng (Panax sp.) is a drug with multiple pharmacological actions that has been largely used in traditional medicines for the treatment of many health problems. In the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders, it has been employed due to its capacity to strengthen mental processes by enhancing cognitive performance and psychological function. Current work aimed at evaluating the adaptogenic potential of Rb1 and Rg1 against oxidative-stress mediated degeneration in a model of nervous cells. Methods Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were achieved by exposing SH-SY5Y cells to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. The cytoprotective activity of pre-treatments with ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 against rotenone was assessed by determining biochemical markers regarding oxidative stress (ROS scavenging, glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels, SOD activity and Nrf2 activation) and apoptosis-related alterations (mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium levels, aconitase activity and pro/antiapoptotic proteins). Their capacity to cross the blood brain barrier was also estimated. Results At their optimal doses, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 significantly ameliorated redox status within the cells; they reduced ROS and TBARS levels and improved the glutathione system, as well as they enhanced SOD activity and Nrf2 pathway activation. They protected neuronal cells against MMP loss, calcium homeostasis disruption and aconitase inhibition. Consequently, apoptotic cell death was attenuated by the pre-treatment with ginsenosides, as evidenced by the reduction in caspase-3 and Bax, and the increase in Bcl-2 expressions; also, lower levels of cytochrome C were found in the cytosol. Poor BBB permeation was demonstrated for both ginsenosides. Conclusions In conclusion, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 exhibit neuroprotective potential which is achieved, at least in part, via mitochondrial protection and the plausible involvement of Nrf2 pathway activation. Our

  16. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaupp, Rosmarie; Ledala, Nagender; Somerville, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria's interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host. PMID:22919625

  17. Erythropoietin and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2008-05-01

    Unmitigated oxidative stress can lead to diminished cellular longevity, accelerated aging, and accumulated toxic effects for an organism. Current investigations further suggest the significant disadvantages that can occur with cellular oxidative stress that can lead to clinical disability in a number of disorders, such as myocardial infarction, dementia, stroke, and diabetes. New therapeutic strategies are therefore sought that can be directed toward ameliorating the toxic effects of oxidative stress. Here we discuss the exciting potential of the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin for the treatment of diseases such as cardiac ischemia, vascular injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes through the modulation of cellular oxidative stress. Erythropoietin controls a variety of signal transduction pathways during oxidative stress that can involve Janus-tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase B, signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, Wnt proteins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, caspases, and nuclear factor kappaB. Yet, the biological effects of erythropoietin may not always be beneficial and may be poor tolerated in a number of clinical scenarios, necessitating further basic and clinical investigations that emphasize the elucidation of the signal transduction pathways controlled by erythropoietin to direct both successful and safe clinical care.

  18. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Blesa, Javier; Trigo-Damas, Ines; Quiroga-Varela, Anna; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice R.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in PD. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, pesticides, insecticides, dopamine (DA) itself, and genetic mutations in PD-associated proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process. PMID:26217195

  19. Flavonoids, flavonoid metabolites, and phenolic acids inhibit oxidative stress in the neuronal cell line HT-22 monitored by ECIS and MTT assay: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kling, Beata; Bücherl, Daniel; Palatzky, Peter; Matysik, Frank-Michael; Decker, Michael; Wegener, Joachim; Heilmann, Jörg

    2014-03-28

    A real-time and label-free in vitro assay based on electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was established, validated, and compared to an end-point MTT assay within an experimental trial addressing the cytoprotective effects of 19 different flavonoids, flavonoid metabolites, and phenolic acids and their methyl esters on the HT-22 neuronal cell line, after induction of oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Among the flavonoids under study, only those with a catechol unit and an additional 4-keto group provided cytoprotection. The presence of a 2,3-double bond was not a structural prerequisite for a neuroprotective effect. In the case of the phenolics, catechol substitution was the only structural requirement for activity. The flavonoids and other phenolics with a ferulic acid substitution or a single hydroxy group showed no activity. Electrochemical characterization of all compounds via square-wave voltammetry provided a rather specific correlation between cytoprotective activity and redox potential for the active flavonoids, but not for the active phenolics with a low molecular weight. Moreover this study was used to compare label-free ECIS recordings with results of the established MTT assay. Whereas the former provides time-resolved and thus entirely unbiased information on changes of cell morphology that are unequivocally associated with cell death, the latter requires predefined exposure times and a strict causality between metabolic activity and cell death. However, MTT assays are based on standard lab equipment and provide a more economic way to higher throughput.

  20. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 μg/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants

  1. Relationships between Stress Granules, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are critical for facilitating stress responses and for preventing the accumulation of misfolded proteins. SGs, however, have been linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, in part because SGs share many components with neuronal granules. Oxidative stress is one of the conditions that induce SG formation. SGs regulate redox levels, and SG formation in turn is differently regulated by various types of oxidative stress. These associations and other evidences suggest that SG formation contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we review the regulation of SG formation/assembly and discuss the interactions between oxidative stress and SG formation. We then discuss the links between SGs and neurodegenerative diseases and the current therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases that target SGs. PMID:28194255

  2. Chloroacetic acid induced neuronal cells death through oxidative stress-mediated p38-MAPK activation pathway regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Hung; Chen, Sz-Jie; Su, Chin-Chuan; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Tseng, To-Jung; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Tang, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Kuo-Liang; Su, Yi-Chang; Lee, kuan-I; Hung, Dong-Zong; Huang, Chun-Fa

    2013-01-07

    Chloroacetic acid (CA), a toxic chlorinated analog of acetic acid, is widely used in chemical industries as an herbicide, detergent, and disinfectant, and chemical intermediates that are formed during the synthesis of various products. In addition, CA has been found as a by-product of chlorination disinfection of drinking water. However, there is little known about neurotoxic injuries of CA on the mammalian, the toxic effects and molecular mechanisms of CA-induced neuronal cell injury are mostly unknown. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of CA on cultured Neuro-2a cells and investigated the possible mechanisms of CA-induced neurotoxicity. Treatment of Neuro-2a cells with CA significantly reduced the number of viable cells (in a dose-dependent manner with a range from 0.1 to 3mM), increased the generation of ROS, and reduced the intracellular levels of glutathione depletion. CA also increased the number of sub-G1 hypodiploid cells; increased mitochondrial dysfunction (loss of MMP, cytochrome c release, and accompanied by Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bax up-regulation), and activated the caspase cascades activations, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway. These CA-induced apoptosis-related signals were markedly prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Moreover, CA activated the JNK and p38-MAPK pathways, but did not that ERK1/2 pathway, in treated Neuro-2a cells. Pretreatment with NAC and specific p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580), but not JNK inhibitor (SP600125) effectively abrogated the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and attenuated the apoptotic signals (including: decrease in cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 activation, the cytosolic cytochrome c release, and the reversed alteration of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA) in CA-treated Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress-induced p38-MAPK activated pathway-regulated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in CA-caused neuronal cell

  3. Oxidative Stress and Psychological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms. The brain with its high oxygen consumption and a lipid-rich environment is considered highly susceptible to oxidative stress or redox imbalances. Therefore, the fact that oxidative stress is implicated in several mental disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is not surprising. Although several elegant studies have established a link between oxidative stress and psychiatric disorders, the causal relationship between oxidative stress and psychiatric diseases is not fully determined. Another critical aspect that needs much attention and effort is our understanding of the association between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines some of the recent discoveries that link oxidative status with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A discussion of published results and questions that currently exist in the field regarding a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress is also provided. PMID:24669208

  4. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  5. Agomelatine and duloxetine synergistically modulates apoptotic pathway by inhibiting oxidative stress triggered intracellular calcium entry in neuronal PC12 cells: role of TRPM2 and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Abdullah; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is one of the universal second messengers, which acts in a wide range of cellular processes. Results of recent studies indicated that ROS generated by depression leads to loss of endoplasmic reticulum-Ca(2+) homeostasis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Agomelatine and duloxetine are novel antidepressant and antioxidant drugs and may reduce oxidative stress, apoptosis, and Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 and voltage-gated calcium channels. We tested the effects of agomelatine, duloxetine, and their combination on oxidative stress, Ca(2+) influx, mitochondrial depolarization, apoptosis, and caspase values in the PC-12 neuronal cells. PC-12 neuronal cells were exposed in cell culture and exposed to appropriate non-toxic concentrations and incubation times for agomelatine were determined in the neurons by assessing cell viability. Then PC-12 cells were incubated with agomelatine and duloxetine for 24 h. Treatment of cultured PC-12 cells with agomelatine, duloxetine, and their combination results in a protection on apoptosis, caspase-3, caspase-9, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytosolic ROS production, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation, values. Ca(2+) entry through non-specific TRPM2 channel blocker (2-APB) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel blockers (verapamil and diltiazem) was modulated by agomelatine and duloxetine. However, effects of duloxetine on the Ca(2+) entry through TRPM2 channels were higher than in agomelatine. Results of current study suggest that the agomelatine and duloxetine are useful against apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in PC-12 cells, which seem to be dependent on mitochondrial damage and increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+) through activation of TRPM2 and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.

  6. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  7. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-07-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding brain parenchyma, due to failure of the local antioxidant systems. ROS/RNS cause structural membrane damage, induce inflammation, and scavenge nitric oxide (NO) to yield peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). This activates the inducible NO synthase, which further compounds ONOO(-) formation. ROS/RNS cause mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting the mitochondrial electron transport chain and uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, which ultimately leads to neuronal bioenergetic failure. Furthermore, in certain 'at risk' areas of the brain, free radicals may induce neuronal apoptosis. In the present review, we define a role for ROS/RNS-mediated neuronal bioenergetic failure and apoptosis as a primary mechanism underlying sepsis-associated encephalopathy and, in sepsis survivors, permanent cognitive deficits.

  8. Oxidative Stress in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Percário, Sandro; Moreira, Danilo R.; Gomes, Bruno A. Q.; Ferreira, Michelli E. S.; Gonçalves, Ana Carolina M.; Laurindo, Paula S. O. C.; Vilhena, Thyago C.; Dolabela, Maria F.; Green, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a significant public health problem in more than 100 countries and causes an estimated 200 million new infections every year. Despite the significant effort to eradicate this dangerous disease, lack of complete knowledge of its physiopathology compromises the success in this enterprise. In this paper we review oxidative stress mechanisms involved in the disease and discuss the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation as an adjuvant antimalarial strategy. PMID:23208374

  9. CVD and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes Gracia, Karla; Llanas-Cornejo, Daniel; Husi, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, it is known that oxidative stress plays at least two roles within the cell, the generation of cellular damage and the involvement in several signaling pathways in its balanced normal state. So far, a substantial amount of time and effort has been expended in the search for a clear link between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the effects of oxidative stress. Here, we present an overview of the different sources and types of reactive oxygen species in CVD, highlight the relationship between CVD and oxidative stress and discuss the most prominent molecules that play an important role in CVD pathophysiology. Details are given regarding common pharmacological treatments used for cardiovascular distress and how some of them are acting upon ROS-related pathways and molecules. Novel therapies, recently proposed ROS biomarkers, as well as future challenges in the field are addressed. It is apparent that the search for a better understanding of how ROS are contributing to the pathophysiology of CVD is far from over, and new approaches and more suitable biomarkers are needed for the latter to be accomplished. PMID:28230726

  10. Oxidative stress in myopia.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Bosch-Morell; Salvador, Mérida; Amparo, Navea

    2015-01-01

    Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem. PMID:25922643

  12. Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase SOD2, but not Cytosolic SOD1, Plays a Critical Role in Protection against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Death in HT22 Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masayuki; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative cell death is an important contributing factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Using HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells as a model, we sought to demonstrate that mitochondria are crucial early targets of glutamate-induced oxidative cell death. We showed that when HT22 cells were transfected with shRNA for knockdown of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), these cells became more susceptible to glutamate-induced oxidative cell death. The increased susceptibility was accompanied by increased accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide and loss of normal mitochondrial morphology and functions at early time points following glutamate exposure. However, overexpression of SOD2 in these cells reduced mitochondrial superoxide level, protected its morphology and functions, and provided resistance against glutamate-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The change in the sensitivity of these SOD2-altered HT22 cells was neurotoxicant-specific, because the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide was not altered in these cells. In addition, selective knockdown of the cytosolic SOD1 in cultured HT22 cells did not appreciably alter their susceptibility to either glutamate or hydrogen peroxide. These findings show that the mitochondrial SOD2 plays a critical role in protecting neuronal cells from glutamate-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. These data also indicate that mitochodria are important early targets of glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity. PMID:20060889

  13. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress is the resultant damage due to redox imbalances (increase in destructive free radicals [reactive oxygen species (ROS)] and reduction in antioxidant protection/pathways) and is linked to ageing in many tissues including skin. In ageing skin there are bioenergetic differences between keratinocytes and fibroblasts which provide a potential ageing biomarker. The differences in skin bioenergy are part of the mitochondrial theory of ageing which remains one of the most widely accepted ageing theories describing subsequent increasing free radical generation. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and form part of the vicious cycle theory of ageing. External and internal sources of oxidative stress include UVR/IR, pollution (environment), lifestyle (exercise and diet), alcohol and smoking all of which may potentially impact on skin although many exogenous actives and endogenous antioxidant defence systems have been described to help abrogate the increased stress. This also links to differences in skin cell types in terms of the UVR action spectrum for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage (the latter a previously described UVR biomarker in skin). Recent work associates bioenergy production and oxidative stress with pigment production thereby providing another additional potential avenue for targeted anti-ageing intervention in skin. This new data supporting the detrimental effects of the numerous wavelengths of UVR may aid in the development of cosmetic/sunscreen design to reduce the effects of photoageing. Recently, complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain appears to be more important than previously thought in the generation of free radicals (suggested predominantly by non-human studies). We investigated the relationship between complex II and ageing using human skin as a model tissue. The rate of complex II activity per unit of mitochondria was determined in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from skin covering

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of the Novel Compound ITH33/IQM9.21 Against Oxidative Stress and Na(+) and Ca(2+) Overload in Motor Neuron-like NSC-34 Cells.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Al-Achbili, Lamiaa Mouhid; Alonso, Elba; de Los Ríos, Cristóbal; García, Antonio G; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Cano-Abad, María F

    2016-10-01

    Alternatives for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are scarce and controversial. The etiology of neuronal vulnerability in ALS is being studied in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to selective loss of motor neurons. One such mechanism is associated with mitochondrial oxidative stress, Ca(2+) overload, and low expression of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins. Therefore, in order to elicit neuronal death in ALS, NSC-34 cells were exposed to the following cytotoxic agents: (1) a mixture of oligomycin 10 µM and rotenone 30 µM (O/R), or (2) phenylarsine oxide 1 µM (PAO) (to mimic excess free radical production during mitochondrial dysfunction), and (3) veratridine 100 µM (VTD) (to induce overload of Na(+) and Ca(2+) and to alter distribution of Ca(2+)-buffering proteins [parvalbumin and calbindin-D28k]). Thus, the aim of the study was to test the novel neuroprotective compound ITH33/IQM9.21 (ITH33) and to compare it with riluzole on in vitro models of neurotoxicity. Cell viability measured with MTT showed that only ITH33 protected against O/R at 3 μM and PAO at 10 μM, but not riluzole. ITH33 and riluzole were neuroprotective against VTD, blocked the maximum peak and the number of [Ca(2+)]c oscillations per cell, and restored the effect on parvalbumin. However, only riluzole reversed the effect on calbindin-D28k levels. Therefore, ITH33 was neuroprotective against oxidative stress and Na(+)/Ca(2+) overload, both of which are involved in ALS.

  15. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the "final common pathway", through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

  16. Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:20703435

  17. Microglia in neuronal plasticity: Influence of stress.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Madore, Charlotte; Nadjar, Agnes; Joffre, Corinne; Wohleb, Eric S; Layé, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has previously been regarded as an immune-privileged site with the absence of immune cell responses but this dogma was not entirely true. Microglia are the brain innate immune cells and recent findings indicate that they participate both in CNS disease and infection as well as facilitate normal CNS function. Microglia are highly plastic and play integral roles in sculpting the structure of the CNS, refining neuronal circuitry and connectivity, and contribute actively to neuronal plasticity in the healthy brain. Interestingly, psychological stress can perturb the function of microglia in association with an impaired neuronal plasticity and the development of emotional behavior alterations. As a result it seemed important to describe in this review some findings indicating that the stress-induced microglia dysfunction may underlie neuroplasticity deficits associated to many mood disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuroprotective action of N-acetyl serotonin in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the activation of both TrkB/CREB/BDNF pathway and Akt/Nrf2/Antioxidant enzyme in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Lee, Bo Dam; Sok, Dai-Eun; Ma, Jin Yuel; Kim, Mee Ree

    2017-04-01

    N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) as a melatonin precursor has neuroprotective actions. Nonetheless, it is not clarified how NAS protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that N-palmitoyl serotonins possessed properties of antioxidants and neuroprotection. Based on those, we hypothesized that NAS, a N-acyl serotonin, may have similar actions in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cells, and examined the effects of NAS based on in vitro and in vivo tests. NAS dose-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced cell death in HT-22 cells. Moreover, NAS suppressed glutamate-induced apoptosis by suppressing expression of AIF, Bax, calpain, cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3, whereas it enhanced expression of Bcl-2. Additionally, NAS improved phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) as well as expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whereas the inclusion of each inhibitor of JNK, p38 or Akt neutralized the neuroprotective effect of NAS, but not that of ERK. Meanwhile, NAS dose-dependently reduced the level of reactive oxygen species, and enhanced the level of glutathione in glutamate-treated HT-22 cells. Moreover, NAS significantly increased expression of heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit as well as nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2. Separately, NAS at 30mg/kg suppressed scopolamine-induced memory impairment and cell death in CA1 and CA3 regions in mice. In conclusion, NAS shows actions of antioxidant and anti-apoptosis by activating TrkB/CREB/BDNF pathway and expression of antioxidant enzymes in oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. Therefore, such effects of NAS may provide the information for the application of NAS against neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Thiamine Deficiency Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Bingwei; Fan, Zhiqin; Shi, Xianglin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Luo, Jia

    2007-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as GRP78, GADD153/Chop, phosphorylation of eIF2α and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage. PMID:17137721

  20. Thiamine deficiency induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wang, B; Fan, Z; Shi, X; Ke, Z-J; Luo, J

    2007-02-09

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes region selective neuronal loss in the brain; it has been used to model neurodegeneration that accompanies mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. The mechanisms for TD-induced neurodegeneration remain incompletely elucidated. Inhibition of protein glycosylation, perturbation of calcium homeostasis and reduction of disulfide bonds provoke the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and cause ER stress. Recently, ER stress has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative models. We demonstrated here that TD up-regulated several markers of ER stress, such as glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible protein or C/EBP-homologus protein (GADD153/Chop), phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and cleavage of caspase-12 in the cerebellum and the thalamus of mice. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopic study revealed an abnormality in ER structure. To establish an in vitro model of TD in neurons, we treated cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) with amprolium, a potent inhibitor of thiamine transport. Exposure to amprolium caused apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species in CGNs. Similar to the observation in vivo, TD up-regulated markers for ER stress. Treatment of a selective inhibitor of caspase-12 significantly alleviated amprolium-induced death of CGNs. Thus, ER stress may play a role in TD-induced brain damage.

  1. [Magnesium and the oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Zheltova, A A; Kharitonov, M V

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been shown to result in alterations of cellular functions and biological activity of molecules. The review discusses possible relationship between Mg2+ deficiency and development of oxidative stress. Decrease of Mg2+ concentration in tissues and blood is accompanied with elevation of the oxidative stress markers, including products of the oxidative modification of lipids, proteins and DNA. The reduction in antioxidant defenses is synchronous with oxidative stress markers elevation. Different mechanisms including systemic reactions (hyperactivation of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction) and cellular changes (mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of fatty acids) are supposed to be involved in development and maintenance of the oxidative stress due to Mg2+ deficiency. Therefore the facts consolidated into the review evidence clear relation between Mg2+ deficiency and the oxidative stress development.

  2. CHIP Is an Essential Determinant of Neuronal Mitochondrial Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Palubinsky, Amy M.; Stankowski, Jeannette N.; Kale, Alixandra C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Singer, Robert J.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Determine the mechanism by which C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) induction alters neuronal survival under conditions of mitochondrial stress induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. Results: We report that animals deficient in the E3 ubiquitin ligase, CHIP, have high baseline levels of central nervous system protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, reduced antioxidant defenses, and decreased energetic status. Stress-associated molecules typically linked to Parkinson's disease such as the mitochondrial kinase, PTEN-inducible putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and another E3 ligase, Parkin, are upregulated in brains from CHIP knockout (KO) animals. Utilizing a novel biotin–avidin capture technique, we found that the oxidation status of Parkin and the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), are altered in a CHIP-dependent manner. We also found that following oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD), the expression of CHIP, PINK1, and the autophagic marker, LC3, increase and there is activation of the redox-sensitive kinase p66shc. Under conditions of OGD, CHIP relocalizes from the cytosol to mitochondria. Mitochondria from CHIP KO mice have profound impairments in stress response induced by calcium overload, resulting in accelerated permeability transition activity. While CHIP-deficient neurons are morphologically intact, they are more susceptible to OGD consistent with a previously unknown neuroprotective role for CHIP in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Innovation: CHIP relocalization to the mitochondria is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity and neuronal survival following OGD. Conclusions: CHIP is an essential regulator of neuronal bioenergetics and redox tone. Altering the expression of this protein has profound effects on neuronal survival when cells are exposed to OGD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 535–549. PMID:25602369

  3. Transcriptional evidence for the "Reverse Warburg Effect" in human breast cancer tumor stroma and metastasis: similarities with oxidative stress, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and "Neuron-Glia Metabolic Coupling".

    PubMed

    Pavlides, Stephanos; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Vera, Iset; Flomenberg, Neal; Frank, Philippe G; Casimiro, Mathew C; Wang, Chenguang; Pestell, Richard G; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2010-04-01

    Caveolin-1 (-/-) null stromal cells are a novel genetic model for cancer-associated fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Here, we used an unbiased informatics analysis of transcriptional gene profiling to show that Cav-1 (-/-) bone-marrow derived stromal cells bear a striking resemblance to the activated tumor stroma of human breast cancers. More specifically, the transcriptional profiles of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells were most closely related to the primary tumor stroma of breast cancer patients that had undergone lymph-node (LN) metastasis. This is consistent with previous morphological data demonstrating that a loss of stromal Cav-1 protein (by immuno-histochemical staining in the fibroblast compartment) is significantly associated with increased LN-metastasis. We also provide evidence that the tumor stroma of human breast cancers shows a transcriptional shift towards oxidative stress, DNA damage/repair, inflammation, hypoxia, and aerobic glycolysis, consistent with the "Reverse Warburg Effect". Finally, the tumor stroma of "metastasis-prone" breast cancer patients was most closely related to the transcriptional profiles derived from the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This suggests that certain fundamental biological processes are common to both an activated tumor stroma and neuro-degenerative stress. These processes may include oxidative stress, NO over-production (peroxynitrite formation), inflammation, hypoxia, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which are thought to occur in Alzheimer?s disease pathology. Thus, a loss of Cav-1 expression in cancer-associated myofibroblasts may be a protein biomarker for oxidative stress, aerobic glycolysis, and inflammation, driving the "Reverse Warburg Effect" in the tumor micro-environment and cancer cell metastasis.

  4. Protective effects of curcumin on amyloid-β-induced neuronal oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Chang; Chang, Ping; Dai, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of curcumin against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuronal damage. Primary rat cortical neurons were cultured with different treatments of Aβ and curcumin. Neuronal morphologies, viability and damage were assessed. Neuronal oxidative stress was assessed, including extracellular hydrogen peroxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit Aβ aggregation and β-sheeted formation are further assessed and discussed. Curcumin preserves cell viability, which is decreased by Aβ. The results of changed morphology, released Lactate dehydrogenases and cell viability assays indicate that curcumin protects Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin depresses Aβ-induced up-regulation of neuronal oxidative stress. The treatment sequence impacts the protective effect of curcumin on Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin shows a more protective effect on neuronal oxidative damage when curcumin was added into cultured neurons not later than Aβ, especially prior to Aβ. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit the formation of β-sheeted aggregation are both beneficial to depress Aβ-induced oxidative damage. Curcumin prevents neurons from Aβ-induced oxidative damage, implying the therapeutic usage for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients.

  5. Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain. These changes in neuronal funct...

  6. Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Avital; Gozal, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Ever since it was shown for the first time that lactate can support neuronal function in vitro as a sole oxidative energy substrate, investigators in the field of neuroenergetics have been debating the role, if any, of this glycolytic product in cerebral energy metabolism. Our experiments employed the rat hippocampal slice preparation with electrophysiological and biochemical methodologies. The data generated by these experiments (a) support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis; (b) indicate that lactate plays a major and crucial role in affording neural tissue to respond adequately to glutamate excitation and to recover unscathed post-excitation; (c) suggest that neural tissue activation is accompanied by aerobic lactate and NADH production, the latter being produced when the former is converted to pyruvate by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH); (d) imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage. PMID:22275901

  7. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin; Bae, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers. PMID:24704793

  8. Oxidative Stress in Genetic Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Varçin, Mustafa; Bentea, Eduard; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive evidence in Parkinson's disease of a link between oxidative stress and some of the monogenically inherited Parkinson's disease-associated genes. This paper focuses on the importance of this link and potential impact on neuronal function. Basic mechanisms of oxidative stress, the cellular antioxidant machinery, and the main sources of cellular oxidative stress are reviewed. Moreover, attention is given to the complex interaction between oxidative stress and other prominent pathogenic pathways in Parkinson's disease, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. Furthermore, an overview of the existing genetic mouse models of Parkinson's disease is given and the evidence of oxidative stress in these models highlighted. Taken into consideration the importance of ageing and environmental factors as a risk for developing Parkinson's disease, gene-environment interactions in genetically engineered mouse models of Parkinson's disease are also discussed, highlighting the role of oxidative damage in the interplay between genetic makeup, environmental stress, and ageing in Parkinson's disease. PMID:22829959

  9. Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Nunomura, Akihiko; Castellani, Rudy J; Zhu, Xiongwei; Moreira, Paula I; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2006-07-01

    Genetic and lifestyle-related risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with an increase in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved at an early stage of the pathologic cascade. Moreover, oxidative stress is mechanistically and chronologically associated with other key features of AD, namely, metabolic, mitochondrial, metal, and cell-cycle abnormalities. Contrary to the commonly held notion that pathologic hallmarks of AD signify etiology, several lines of evidence now indicate that aggregation of amyloid-beta and tau is a compensatory response to underlying oxidative stress. Therefore, removal of proteinaceous accumulations may treat the epiphenomenon rather than the disease and may actually enhance oxidative damage. Although some antioxidants have been shown to reduce the incidence of AD, the magnitude of the effect may be modified by individual factors such as genetic predisposition (e.g. apolipoprotein E genotype) and habitual behaviors. Because caloric restriction, exercise, and intellectual activity have been experimentally shown to promote neuronal survival through enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses, a combination of dietary regimen of low total calorie and rich antioxidant nutrients and maintaining physical and intellectual activities may ultimately prove to be one of the most efficacious strategies for AD prevention.

  10. Oxidative stress and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David G; Gongora, Maria Carolina

    2009-05-01

    This review has summarized some of the data supporting a role of ROS and oxidant stress in the genesis of hypertension. There is evidence that hypertensive stimuli, such as high salt and angiotensin II, promote the production of ROS in the brain, the kidney, and the vasculature and that each of these sites contributes either to hypertension or to the untoward sequelae of this disease. Although the NADPH oxidase in these various organs is a predominant source, other enzymes likely contribute to ROS production and signaling in these tissues. A major clinical challenge is that the routinely used antioxidants are ineffective in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease and hypertension. This is likely because these drugs are either ineffective or act in a non-targeted fashion, such that they remove not only injurious ROS Fig. 5. Proposed role of T cells in the genesis of hypertension and the role of the NADPH oxidase in multiple cells/organs in modulating this effect. In this scenario, angiotensin II stimulates an NADPH oxidase in the CVOs of the brain, increasing sympathetic outflow. Sympathetic nerve terminals in lymph nodes activate T cells, and angiotensin II also directly activates T cells. These stimuli also activate expression of homing signals in the vessel and likely the kidney, which attract T cells to these organs. T cells release cytokines that stimulate the vessel and kidney NADPH oxidases, promoting vasoconstriction and sodium retention. SFO, subfornical organ. 630 Harrison & Gongora but also those involved in normal cell signaling. A potentially important and relatively new direction is the concept that inflammatory cells such as T cells contribute to hypertension. Future studies are needed to understand the interaction of T cells with the CNS, the kidney, and the vasculature and how this might be interrupted to provide therapeutic benefit.

  11. Schisandrin B Ameliorates ICV-Infused Amyloid β Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Dysfunction through Inhibiting RAGE/NF-κB/MAPK and Up-Regulating HSP/Beclin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giridharan, Vijayasree V.; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Mizuno, Makoto; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Ko, Kam M.; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch B), an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, could protect mouse brain against scopolamine- and cisplatin-induced neuronal dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of Sch B against intracerebroventricular (ICV)-infused Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction in rat cortex and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results showed that 26 days co-administration of Sch B significantly improved the behavioral performance of Aβ (1–40)-infused rats in step-through test. At the same time, Sch B attenuated Aβ-induced increases in oxidative and nitrosative stresses, inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide syntheses, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and DNA damage. Several proteins such as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and apoptosis markers were over expressed in Aβ-infused rats but were significantly inhibited by Sch B treatment. Furthermore, Sch B negatively modulated the Aβ level with simultaneous up-regulation of HSP70 and beclin, autophagy markers in Aβ-infused rats. The aforementioned effects of Sch B suggest its protective role against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through intervention in the negative cycle of RAGE-mediated Aβ accumulation during AD patho-physiology. PMID:26556721

  12. Schisandrin B Ameliorates ICV-Infused Amyloid β Induced Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Dysfunction through Inhibiting RAGE/NF-κB/MAPK and Up-Regulating HSP/Beclin Expression.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Mizuno, Makoto; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Kenji; Ko, Kam M; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that schisandrin B (Sch B), an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, could protect mouse brain against scopolamine- and cisplatin-induced neuronal dysfunction. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of Sch B against intracerebroventricular (ICV)-infused Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction in rat cortex and explored the potential mechanism of its action. Our results showed that 26 days co-administration of Sch B significantly improved the behavioral performance of Aβ (1-40)-infused rats in step-through test. At the same time, Sch B attenuated Aβ-induced increases in oxidative and nitrosative stresses, inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide syntheses, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and DNA damage. Several proteins such as receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and apoptosis markers were over expressed in Aβ-infused rats but were significantly inhibited by Sch B treatment. Furthermore, Sch B negatively modulated the Aβ level with simultaneous up-regulation of HSP70 and beclin, autophagy markers in Aβ-infused rats. The aforementioned effects of Sch B suggest its protective role against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through intervention in the negative cycle of RAGE-mediated Aβ accumulation during AD patho-physiology.

  13. The metabolomics of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Graham; Lelarge-Trouverie, Caroline; Mhamdi, Amna

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from increased availability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key component of many responses of plants to challenging environmental conditions. The consequences for plant metabolism are complex and manifold. We review data on small compounds involved in oxidative stress, including ROS themselves and antioxidants and redox buffers in the membrane and soluble phases, and we discuss the wider consequences for plant primary and secondary metabolism. While metabolomics has been exploited in many studies on stress, there have been relatively few non-targeted studies focused on how metabolite signatures respond specifically to oxidative stress. As part of the discussion, we present results and reanalyze published datasets on metabolite profiles in catalase-deficient plants, which can be considered to be model oxidative stress systems. We emphasize the roles of ROS-triggered changes in metabolites as potential oxidative signals, and discuss responses that might be useful as markers for oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to lipid-derived compounds, the status of antioxidants and antioxidant breakdown products, altered metabolism of amino acids, and the roles of phytohormone pathways.

  14. ALS and Oxidative Stress: The Neurovascular Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Keshav; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and angiogenic factors have been placed as the prime focus of scientific investigations after an establishment of link between vascular endothelial growth factor promoter (VEGF), hypoxia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. Deletion of the hypoxia-response element in the vascular endothelial growth factor promoter and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) which are characterised by atrophy and muscle weakness resulted in phenotype resembling human ALS in mice. This results in lower motor neurodegeneration thus establishing an important link between motor neuron degeneration, vasculature, and angiogenic molecules. In this review, we have presented human, animal, and in vitro studies which suggest that molecules like VEGF have a therapeutic, diagnostic, and prognostic potential in ALS. Involvement of vascular growth factors and hypoxia response elements also highlights the converging role of oxidative stress and neurovascular network for understanding and treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders like ALS. PMID:24367722

  15. Sulindac attenuates valproic acid-induced oxidative stress levels in primary cultured cortical neurons and ameliorates repetitive/stereotypic-like movement disorders in Wistar rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Cailing; Yuan, Guoyan; Wang, Zhongping; Cui, Weigang; Li, Ruixi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory agents and antioxidants have neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodevelopental disorders, such as autism. In the present study, the possible neuroprotective properties of sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were investigated in vitro using cultured cortical neurons with valproic acid (VPA)-induced neurotoxicity, as well as in vivo through the behavioral analysis of rats prenatally exposed to VPA as a model of autism. VPA induced 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased cell viability in primary cultured cortical neurons established from timed-pregnant (embryonic day 18) Wistar rat pups. However, co-incubation of the neurons with VPA and sulindac reduced oxidative stress and increased cell viability. The rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection with one of the following: VPA, sulindac, VPA and sulindac, or physiological saline, and their offspring were subjected to the open field test. During the test trials, repetitive/stereotypic-like movements for each rat were recorded and analyzed. The results revealed that treatment with both sulindac and VPA reduced the VPA-induced repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and the sulindac and VPA-treated animals responded better in the open field test compared to the VPA-treated animals. The results from the present study demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of sulindac may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of autism, suggesting that the upregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway disrupts oxidative homeostasis and facilitates susceptibility to autism.

  16. Specific combinations of ion channel inhibitors reduce excessive Ca(2+) influx as a consequence of oxidative stress and increase neuronal and glial cell viability in vitro.

    PubMed

    O'Hare Doig, Ryan L; Bartlett, Carole A; Smith, Nicole M; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Dunlop, Sarah A; Hool, Livia; Fitzgerald, Melinda

    2016-12-17

    Combinations of Ca(2+) channel inhibitors have been proposed as an effective means to prevent excess Ca(2+) flux and death of neurons and glia following neurotrauma in vivo. However, it is not yet known if beneficial outcomes such as improved viability have been due to direct effects on intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Here, the effects of combinations of Lomerizine (Lom), 2,3-dioxo-7-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-quinoxalinyl]acetic acid monohydrate (YM872), 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine (memantine (Mem)) and/or adenosine 5'-triphosphate periodate oxidized sodium salt (oxATP) to block voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+) permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, NMDA receptors and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) respectively, on Ca(2+) concentration and viability of rat primary mixed cortical (MC) cultures exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) insult, were assessed. The contribution of ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores to intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was also assessed. Live cell calcium imaging revealed that a 30min H2O2 insult induced a slow increase in intracellular Ca(2+), in part from intracellular sources, associated with loss of cell viability by 6h. Most combinations of inhibitors that included oxATP significantly decreased Ca(2+) influx and increased cell viability when administered simultaneously with H2O2. However, reductions in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were not always linked to improved cell viability. Examination of the density of specific cell subpopulations demonstrated that most combinations of inhibitors that included oxATP preserved NG2+ non-oligodendroglial cells, but preservation of astrocytes and neurons required additional inhibitors. Olig2(+) oligodendroglia and ED-1(+) activated microglia/macrophages were not preserved by any of the inhibitor combinations. These data indicate that following H2O2 insult, limiting intracellular Ca(2+) entry via P2X7R is

  17. The Rai (Shc C) adaptor protein regulates the neuronal stress response and protects against cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Troglio, Flavia; Echart, Cinara; Gobbi, Alberto; Pawson, Tony; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Pelicci, Giuliana

    2004-01-01

    Rai (Shc C or N-Shc) is a neuron-specific member of the family of Shc-like adaptor proteins. Rai functions in the cytoplasmic propagation of Ret-dependent survival signals and regulates, in vivo, the number of sympathetic neurons. We report here a function of Rai, i.e., the regulation of the neuronal adaptive response to environmental stresses. We demonstrate that (i) primary cultures of cortical neurons from Rai-/- mice are more sensitive to apoptosis induced by hypoxia or oxidative stress; (ii) in Rai-/- mice, ischemia/reperfusion injury induces severe neurological deficits, increased apoptosis and size of the infarct area, and significantly higher mortality; and (iii) Rai functions as a stress-response gene that increases phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and Akt phosphorylation after hypoxic or oxidation insults. These data suggest that Rai has a functional neuroprotective role in brain injury, with possible implications in the treatment of stroke. PMID:15494442

  18. Astrocytes require insulin-like growth factor I to protect neurons against oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Genis, Laura; Dávila, David; Fernandez, Silvia; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Torres-Aleman, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a proposed mechanism in brain aging, making the study of its regulatory processes an important aspect of current neurobiological research. In this regard, the role of the aging regulator insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in brain responses to oxidative stress remains elusive as both beneficial and detrimental actions have been ascribed to this growth factor. Because astrocytes protect neurons against oxidative injury, we explored whether IGF-I participates in astrocyte neuroprotection and found that blockade of the IGF-I receptor in astrocytes abrogated their rescuing effect on neurons. We found that IGF-I directly protects astrocytes against oxidative stress (H 2O 2). Indeed, in astrocytes but not in neurons, IGF-I decreases the pro-oxidant protein thioredoxin-interacting protein 1 and normalizes the levels of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, IGF-I cooperates with trophic signals produced by astrocytes in response to H 2O 2 such as stem cell factor (SCF) to protect neurons against oxidative insult. After stroke, a condition associated with brain aging where oxidative injury affects peri-infarcted regions, a simultaneous increase in SCF and IGF-I expression was found in the cortex, suggesting that a similar cooperative response takes place in vivo. Cell-specific modulation by IGF-I of brain responses to oxidative stress may contribute in clarifying the role of IGF-I in brain aging.

  19. Pontine cholinergic neurons depend on three neuroprotection systems to resist nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Michael; Williams, Katrina; Personett, David; Kent, Caroline; Bryan, David; Gonzalez, John; Baskerville, Karen

    2004-03-26

    Brainstem cholinergic populations survive in neurodegenerative disease, while basal forebrain cholinergic neurons degenerate. We have postulated that variable resistance to oxidative stress may in part explain this. Rat primary cultures were used to study the effects of several nitrosative/oxidative stressors on brainstem (upper pons, containing pedunculopontine and lateraldorsal tegmental nuclei; BS) cholinergic neurons, comparing them with medial septal (MS), and striatal cholinergic neurons. BS cholinergic neurons were significantly more resistant to S-nitro-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and hydrogen peroxide than were MS cholinergic neurons, which in turn were more resistant than striatal cholinergic neurons. Pharmacological analyses using specific inhibitors of neuroprotective systems also revealed differences between these three cholinergic populations with respect to their vulnerability to SNAP. Toxicity of SNAP to BS neurons was exacerbated by blocking NF-kappaB activation with SN50 or ERK1/2 activation by PD98059, or by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) activity by LY294002. In contrast, SNAP toxicity to MS neurons was augmented only by SN50, and SNAP toxicity to striatal cholinergic neurons was not increased by any of these three pharmacological agents. In neuron-enriched primary cultures, BS cholinergic neurons remained resistant to SNAP while MS cholinergic neurons remained vulnerable to this agent. Immunohistochemical experiments demonstrated nitric oxide (NO)-induced increases in nuclear levels of phospho-epitopes for ERK1/2 and Akt, and of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, within BS cholinergic neurons. These data indicate that the relative resistance of BS cholinergic neurons to toxic levels of nitric oxide involves three intrinsic neuroprotective pathways that control transcriptional and anti-apoptotic cellular functions.

  20. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  1. TRPA1 is a major oxidant sensor in murine airway sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Escalera, Jasmine; Cohn, Lauren; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-01-01

    Sensory neurons in the airways are finely tuned to respond to reactive chemicals threatening airway function and integrity. Nasal trigeminal nerve endings are particularly sensitive to oxidants formed in polluted air and during oxidative stress as well as to chlorine, which is frequently released in industrial and domestic accidents. Oxidant activation of airway neurons induces respiratory depression, nasal obstruction, sneezing, cough, and pain. While normally protective, chemosensory airway reflexes can provoke severe complications in patients affected by inflammatory airway conditions like rhinitis and asthma. Here, we showed that both hypochlorite, the oxidizing mediator of chlorine, and hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, activated Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in an oxidant-sensitive subpopulation of chemosensory neurons. These responses were absent in neurons from mice lacking TRPA1, an ion channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) gene family. TRPA1 channels were strongly activated by hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in primary sensory neurons and heterologous cells. In tests of respiratory function, Trpa1–/– mice displayed profound deficiencies in hypochlorite- and hydrogen peroxide–induced respiratory depression as well as decreased oxidant-induced pain behavior. Our results indicate that TRPA1 is an oxidant sensor in sensory neurons, initiating neuronal excitation and subsequent physiological responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18398506

  2. TRPA1 is a major oxidant sensor in murine airway sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Escalera, Jasmine; Cohn, Lauren; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-05-01

    Sensory neurons in the airways are finely tuned to respond to reactive chemicals threatening airway function and integrity. Nasal trigeminal nerve endings are particularly sensitive to oxidants formed in polluted air and during oxidative stress as well as to chlorine, which is frequently released in industrial and domestic accidents. Oxidant activation of airway neurons induces respiratory depression, nasal obstruction, sneezing, cough, and pain. While normally protective, chemosensory airway reflexes can provoke severe complications in patients affected by inflammatory airway conditions like rhinitis and asthma. Here, we showed that both hypochlorite, the oxidizing mediator of chlorine, and hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, activated Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in an oxidant-sensitive subpopulation of chemosensory neurons. These responses were absent in neurons from mice lacking TRPA1, an ion channel of the transient receptor potential (TRP) gene family. TRPA1 channels were strongly activated by hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide in primary sensory neurons and heterologous cells. In tests of respiratory function, Trpa1(-/-) mice displayed profound deficiencies in hypochlorite- and hydrogen peroxide-induced respiratory depression as well as decreased oxidant-induced pain behavior. Our results indicate that TRPA1 is an oxidant sensor in sensory neurons, initiating neuronal excitation and subsequent physiological responses in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Modulation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuronal Cells by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone via Transcriptomic Regulation of Antioxidant and Apoptotic Signaling Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. (N. sativa) and its bioactive constituent Thymoquinone (TQ) have demonstrated numerous pharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of Thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) and TQ against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced neurotoxicity in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. TQRF was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction while TQ was acquired commercially, and their effects on H2O2 were evaluated using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, morphological observation, and multiplex gene expression. Both TQRF and TQ protected the cells against H2O2 by preserving the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, reducing intracellular ROS levels, preserving morphological architecture, and modulating the expression of genes related to antioxidants (SOD1, SOD2, and catalase) and signaling genes (p53, AKT1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κβ). In conclusion, the enhanced efficacy of TQRF over TQ was likely due to the synergism of multiple constituents in TQRF. The efficacy of TQRF was better than that of TQ alone when equal concentrations of TQ in TQRF were compared. In addition, TQRF also showed comparable effects to TQ when the same concentrations were tested. These findings provide further support for the use of TQRF as an alternative to combat oxidative stress insults in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26823946

  4. Modulation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuronal Cells by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone via Transcriptomic Regulation of Antioxidant and Apoptotic Signaling Genes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. (N. sativa) and its bioactive constituent Thymoquinone (TQ) have demonstrated numerous pharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of Thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) and TQ against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced neurotoxicity in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. TQRF was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction while TQ was acquired commercially, and their effects on H2O2 were evaluated using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, morphological observation, and multiplex gene expression. Both TQRF and TQ protected the cells against H2O2 by preserving the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, reducing intracellular ROS levels, preserving morphological architecture, and modulating the expression of genes related to antioxidants (SOD1, SOD2, and catalase) and signaling genes (p53, AKT1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κβ). In conclusion, the enhanced efficacy of TQRF over TQ was likely due to the synergism of multiple constituents in TQRF. The efficacy of TQRF was better than that of TQ alone when equal concentrations of TQ in TQRF were compared. In addition, TQRF also showed comparable effects to TQ when the same concentrations were tested. These findings provide further support for the use of TQRF as an alternative to combat oxidative stress insults in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Vera; Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M. Maral

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Disruptions in the physiologic maintenance of the redox potential in neurons interfere with several biological processes, ultimately leading to cell death. Evidence has been developed for oxidative and nitrative damage to key cellular components in the PD substantia nigra. A number of sources and mechanisms for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized including the metabolism of dopamine itself, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron, neuroinflammatory cells, calcium, and aging. PD causing gene products including DJ-1, PINK1, parkin, alpha-synuclein and LRRK2 also impact in complex ways mitochondrial function leading to exacerbation of ROS generation and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Additionally, cellular homeostatic processes including the ubiquitin-proteasome system and mitophagy are impacted by oxidative stress. It is apparent that the interplay between these various mechanisms contributes to neurodegeneration in PD as a feed forward scenario where primary insults lead to oxidative stress, which damages key cellular pathogenetic proteins that in turn cause more ROS production. Animal models of PD have yielded some insights into the molecular pathways of neuronal degeneration and highlighted previously unknown mechanisms by which oxidative stress contributes to PD. However, therapeutic attempts to target the general state of oxidative stress in clinical trials have failed to demonstrate an impact on disease progression. Recent knowledge gained about the specific mechanisms related to PD gene products that modulate ROS production and the response of neurons to stress may provide targeted new approaches towards neuroprotection. PMID:24252804

  6. Prenatal stress and inhibitory neuron systems: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Rebecca; Zhang, Jie; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for several psychiatric disorders in which inhibitory neuron pathology is implicated. A growing body of research demonstrates that inhibitory circuitry in the brain is directly and persistently affected by prenatal stress. This review synthesizes research that elucidates how this early, developmental risk factor impacts inhibitory neurons and how these findings intersect with research on risk factors and inhibitory neuron pathophysiology in schizophrenia, anxiety, autism and Tourette syndrome. The specific impact of prenatal stress on inhibitory neurons, particularly developmental mechanisms, may elucidate further the pathophysiology of these disorders. PMID:24751963

  7. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  8. [Oxidative stress in Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Moret, Inés; Cerrillo, Elena; Navarro-Puche, Ana; Iborra, Marisa; Rausell, Francisco; Tortosa, Luis; Beltrán, Belén

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by transmural inflammation that is most frequently located in the region of the terminal ileum. Although the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease are not yet well defined, the unregulated immune response is associated with high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These elements are associated with complex systems known as antioxidant defenses, whose function is ROS regulation, thereby preventing the harmful effects of these elements. However, the presence of an imbalance between ROS production and ROS elimination by antioxidants has been widely described and leads to oxidative stress. In this article, we describe the most significant findings on oxidative stress in the intestinal mucosa and peripheral blood.

  9. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  10. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nianzhen

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca2+, possibly through store-operated Ca2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by

  11. Peroxisomes, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terlecky, Stanley R; Terlecky, Laura J; Giordano, Courtney R

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles mediating a wide variety of biosynthetic and biodegradative reactions. Included among these are the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive species, molecules whose levels help define the oxidative state of cells. Loss of oxidative equilibrium in cells of tissues and organs potentiates inflammatory responses which can ultimately trigger human disease. The goal of this article is to review evidence for connections between peroxisome function, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the context of human health and degenerative disease. Dysregulated points in this nexus are identified and potential remedial approaches are presented. PMID:22649571

  12. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in ammonia neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Skowrońska, Marta; Albrecht, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Increased ammonia accumulation in the brain due to liver dysfunction is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Fatal outcome of rapidly progressing (acute) HE is mainly related to cytotoxic brain edema associated with astrocytic swelling. An increase of brain ammonia in experimental animals or treatment of cultured astrocytes with ammonia generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the target tissues, leading to oxidative/nitrosative stress (ONS). In cultured astrocytes, ammonia-induced ONS is invariably associated with the increase of the astrocytic cell volume. Interrelated mechanisms underlying this response include increased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis which is partly coupled to the activation of NMDA receptors and increased generation of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidase. ONS and astrocytic swelling are further augmented by excessive synthesis of glutamine (Gln) which impairs mitochondrial function following its accumulation in there and degradation back to ammonia ("the Trojan horse" hypothesis). Ammonia also induces ONS in other cell types of the CNS: neurons, microglia and the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC). ONS in microglia contributes to the central inflammatory response, while its metabolic and pathophysiological consequences in the BCEC evolve to the vasogenic brain edema associated with HE. Ammonia-induced ONS results in the oxidation of mRNA and nitration/nitrosylation of proteins which impact intracellular metabolism and potentiate the neurotoxic effects. Simultaneously, ammonia facilitates the antioxidant response of the brain, by activating astrocytic transport and export of glutathione, in this way increasing the availability of precursors of neuronal glutathione synthesis.

  13. Oxidative stress in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Amel; Ruiz, Marion; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2009-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and potent agents that cause oxidative damage. In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, ROS are inevitably generated by photosynthetic electron transport, especially when the intensity of light-driven electron transport outpaces the rate of electron consumption during CO(2) fixation. Because cyanobacteria in their natural habitat are often exposed to changing external conditions, such as drastic fluctuations of light intensities, their ability to perceive ROS and to rapidly initiate antioxidant defences is crucial for their survival. This review summarizes recent findings and outlines important perspectives in this field.

  14. Promoting Neuronal Tolerance of Diabetic Stress: Modulating Molecular Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Emery, S M; Dobrowsky, R T

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) involves an interrelated series of metabolic and vascular insults that ultimately contribute to sensory neuron degeneration. In the quest to pharmacologically manage DPN, small-molecule inhibitors have targeted proteins and pathways regarded as "diabetes specific" as well as others whose activity are altered in numerous disease states. These efforts have not yielded any significant therapies, due in part to the complicating issue that the biochemical contribution of these targets/pathways to the progression of DPN does not occur with temporal and/or biochemical uniformity between individuals. In a complex, chronic neurodegenerative disease such as DPN, it is increasingly appreciated that effective disease management may not necessarily require targeting a pathway or protein considered to contribute to disease progression. Alternatively, it may prove sufficiently beneficial to pharmacologically enhance the activity of endogenous cytoprotective pathways to aid neuronal tolerance to and recovery from glucotoxic stress. In pursuing this paradigm shift, we have shown that modulating the activity and expression of molecular chaperones such as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) may provide translational potential for the effective medical management of insensate DPN. Considerable evidence supports that modulating Hsp70 has beneficial effects in improving inflammation, oxidative stress, and glucose sensitivity. Given the emerging potential of modulating Hsp70 to manage DPN, the current review discusses efforts to characterize the cytoprotective effects of this protein and the benefits and limitations that may arise in drug development efforts that exploit its cytoprotective activity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxidative stress in obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, Amélie; Ishola, David A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Joles, Jaap A

    2011-06-01

    Unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) is one of the most commonly applied rodent models to study the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. This model reflects important aspects of inflammation and fibrosis that are prominent in human kidney diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the factors contributing to the pathophysiology of UUO, highlighting the role of oxidative stress.

  16. Oxidative stress in obstructive nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dendooven, Amélie; Ishola, David A; Nguyen, Tri Q; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel; Joles, Jaap A

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) is one of the most commonly applied rodent models to study the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. This model reflects important aspects of inflammation and fibrosis that are prominent in human kidney diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the factors contributing to the pathophysiology of UUO, highlighting the role of oxidative stress. PMID:20804541

  17. Nitrative and Oxidative Stress in Toxicology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ruth A.; Laskin, Debra L.; Smith, Charles V.; Robertson, Fredika M.; Allen, Erin M. G.; Doorn, Jonathan A.; Slikker, William

    2009-01-01

    Persistent inflammation and the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play pivotal roles in tissue injury during disease pathogenesis and as a reaction to toxicant exposures. The associated oxidative and nitrative stress promote diverse pathologic reactions including neurodegenerative disorders, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, cancer, and premature labor and stillbirth. These effects occur via sustained inflammation, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity and via induction of a proangiogenic environment. For example, exposure to the ubiquitous air pollutant ozone leads to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in lung macrophages that play a key role in subsequent tissue damage. Similarly, studies indicate that genes involved in regulating oxidative stress are altered by anesthetic treatment resulting in brain injury, most notable during development. In addition to a role in tissue injury in the brain, inflammation, and oxidative stress are implicated in Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons. Recent data suggest a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and elevated levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a neurotoxin endogenous to dopamine neurons. These findings have significant implications for development of therapeutics and identification of novel biomarkers for Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Oxidative and nitrative stress is also thought to play a role in creating the proinflammatory microenvironment associated with the aggressive phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer. An understanding of fundamental concepts of oxidative and nitrative stress can underpin a rational plan of treatment for diseases and toxicities associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. PMID:19656995

  18. Neuronal ER Stress in Axon Injury and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaohua; Yang, Liu; Selzer, Michael E.; Hu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to CNS axons result not only in Wallerian degeneration of the axon distal to the injury, but also in death or atrophy of the axotomized neurons, depending on injury location and neuron type. No method of permanently avoiding these changes has been found, despite extensive knowledge concerning mechanisms of secondary neuronal injury. The autonomous endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in neurons has recently been implicated in retrograde neuronal degeneration. In addition to the emerging role of ER morphology in axon maintenance, we propose that ER stress is a common neuronal response to disturbances in axon integrity and a general mechanism for neurodegeneration. Thus manipulation of the ER stress pathway could have important therapeutic implications for neuroprotection. PMID:23955583

  19. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  20. Space flight and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Stein, T P

    2002-10-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  1. Space flight and oxidative stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Space flight is associated with an increase in oxidative stress after return to 1g. The effect is more pronounced after long-duration space flight. The effects lasts for several weeks after landing. In humans there is increased lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes, reduction in some blood antioxidants, and increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine. Isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) and 8-oxo-7,8 dihydro-2 deoxyguanosine are markers for oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, respectively. The changes have been attributed to a combination of the energy deficiency that occurs during flight and substrate competition for amino acids occurring between repleting muscle and other tissues during the recovery phase. The observations in humans have been complemented by rodent studies. Most rodent studies showed increased production of lipid peroxidation products postflight and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity postflight. The rodent observations were attributed to the stress associated with reentry into Earth's gravity. Decreasing the imbalance between the production of endogenous oxidant defenses and oxidant production by increasing the supply of dietary antioxidants may lessen the severity of the postflight increase in oxidative stress.

  2. Estradiol and neurodegenerative oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon

    2008-10-01

    Estradiol is a potent preventative against neurodegenerative disease, in part, by activating antioxidant defense systems scavenging reactive oxygen species, limiting mitochondrial protein damage, improving electron transport chain activity and reducing mitochondrial DNA damage. Estradiol also increases the activity of complex IV of the electron transport chain, improving mitochondrial respiration and ATP production under normal and stressful conditions. However, the high oxidative cellular environment present during neurodegeneration makes estradiol a poor agent for treatment of existing disease. Oxidative stress stimulates the production of the hydroperoxide-dependent hydroxylation of estradiol to the catecholestrogen metabolites, which can undergo reactive oxygen species producing redox cycling, setting up a self-generating toxic cascade offsetting any antioxidant/antiapoptotic effects generated by the parent estradiol. Additional disease-induced factors can further perpetuate this cycle. For example dysregulation of the catecholamine system could alter catechol-O-methyltransferase-catalyzed methylation, preventing removal of redox cycling catecholestrogens from the system enhancing pro-oxidant effects of estradiol.

  3. Haemophilus influenzae and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Alistair; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Munson, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal of the human upper respiratory tract. H. influenzae can, however, move out of its commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases. Such diseases include otitis media in young children, as well as exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchitis. During the course of colonization and infection, H. influenzae must withstand oxidative stress generated by multiple reactive oxygen species produced endogenously, by other co-pathogens and by host cells. H. influenzae has, therefore, evolved multiple mechanisms that protect the cell against oxygen-generated stresses. In this review, we will describe these systems relative to the well-described systems in Escherichia coli. Moreover, we will compare how H. influenzae combats the effect of oxidative stress as a necessary phenotype for its roles as both a successful commensal and pathogen. PMID:22919631

  4. Hemoglobin oxidative stress in cancer.

    PubMed

    Della Rovere, F; Granata, A; Broccio, M; Zirilli, A; Broccio, G

    1995-01-01

    The role played by free radicals in carcinogenesis and their relationships with antioxidant pool and cancer have already been shown. Free radicals induce increased membrane permeability through membrane lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and histamine release from mast cells. Free radicals also cause oxyhemoglobin oxidative stress which increases methemoglobin and hemichromes. For this reason, we studied the in vitro formation of methemoglobin at 0' and 90', dosed following the HPLC method, after oxidative stress of blood by means of acetylphenylhydrazine in 40 subjects with cancer and 40 healthy donors. The results showed that methemoglobin formation was highly significant in tumors as compared to controls (P < 0.0001). The statistical analyses we carried out showed that metHb formation is not affected by age, sex, smoking habit, red blood cell number, Hb, Ht or tumor staging. This makes us believe that free radicals alter erythrocyte membrane permeability and predenaturate oxyhemoglobin so that erythrocyte membrane becomes more susceptible to new oxidative stress. This caused the abnormal response we found. Our results clearly underline the role played by free radicals in tumorous disease and provide a successful and easy method to detect early, even in a pre-clinical stage, the presence of tumorous alterations in the human body.

  5. Neuronal stress following exposure to 56Fe particles and the effects of antioxidant-rich diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication in critical regions of the brain, similar to those seen in aging....

  6. Oxidation of Survival Factor MEF2D in Neuronal Death and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; She, Hua; Li, Wenming; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Jinqiu; Jones, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Dysfunction of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a key survival protein and transcription factor, underlies the pathogenic loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both genetic factors and neurotoxins associated with PD impair MEF2D function in vitro and in animal models of PD. We investigated whether distinct stress conditions target MEF2D via converging mechanisms. Results: We showed that exposure of a DA neuronal cell line to 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which causes PD in animals models, led to direct oxidative modifications of MEF2D. Oxidized MEF2D bound to heat-shock cognate protein 70 kDa, the key regulator for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), at a higher affinity. Oxidative stress also increased the level of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A), the rate-limiting receptor for CMA substrate flux, and stimulated CMA activity. These changes resulted in accelerated degradation of MEF2D. Importantly, 6-OHDA induced MEF2D oxidation and increased LAMP2A in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the mouse brain. Consistently, the levels of oxidized MEF2D were much higher in postmortem PD brains compared with the controls. Functionally, reducing the levels of either MEF2D or LAMP2A exacerbated 6-OHDA-induced death of the DA neuronal cell line. Expression of an MEF2D mutant that is resistant to oxidative modification protected cells from 6-OHDA-induced death. Innovation: This study showed that oxidization of survival protein MEF2D is one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in oxidative stress-induced DA neuronal death. Conclusion: Oxidation of survival factor MEF2D inhibits its function, underlies oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity, and may be a part of the PD pathogenic process. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2936–2948. PMID:24219011

  7. Orexins protect neuronal cell cultures against hypoxic stress: an involvement of Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Paulina; Urbańska, Anna; Biegańska, Kaja; Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech; Namiecińska, Magdalena; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2014-01-01

    Orexins A and B are peptides produced mainly by hypothalamic neurons that project to numerous brain structures. We have previously demonstrated that rat cortical neurons express both types of orexin receptors, and their activation by orexins initiates different intracellular signals. The present study aimed to determine the effect of orexins on the Akt kinase activation in the rat neuronal cultures and the significance of that response in neurons subjected to hypoxic stress. We report the first evidence that orexins A and B stimulated Akt in cortical neurons in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Orexin B more potently than orexin A increased Akt phosphorylation, but the maximal effect of both peptides on the kinase activation was very similar. Next, cultured cortical neurons were challenged with cobalt chloride, an inducer of reactive oxygen species and hypoxia-mediated signaling pathways. Under conditions of chemical hypoxia, orexins potently increased neuronal viability and protected cortical neurons against oxidative stress. Our results also indicate that Akt kinase plays an important role in the pro-survival effects of orexins in neurons, which implies a possible mechanism of the orexin-induced neuroprotection.

  8. Neural activity triggers neuronal oxidative metabolism followed by astrocytic glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Kasischke, Karl A; Vishwasrao, Harshad D; Fisher, Patricia J; Zipfel, Warren R; Webb, Watt W

    2004-07-02

    We have found that two-photon fluorescence imaging of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) provides the sensitivity and spatial three-dimensional resolution to resolve metabolic signatures in processes of astrocytes and neurons deep in highly scattering brain tissue slices. This functional imaging reveals spatiotemporal partitioning of glycolytic and oxidative metabolism between astrocytes and neurons during focal neural activity that establishes a unifying hypothesis for neurometabolic coupling in which early oxidative metabolism in neurons is eventually sustained by late activation of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. Our model integrates existing views of brain energy metabolism and is in accord with known macroscopic physiological changes in vivo.

  9. Differential Molecular Targets for Neuroprotective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and its Related Compounds Against Glutamate Induced Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rebai, Olfa; Belkhir, Manel; Sanchez-Gomez, María Victoria; Matute, Carlos; Fattouch, Sami; Amri, Mohamed

    2017-09-25

    The present study has been designed to explore the molecular mechanism and signaling pathway targets of chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its main hydrolysates, caffeic (CA) and quinic acid in the protective effect against glutamate-excitotoxicity. For this purpose 8-DIV cortical neurons in primary culture were exposed to 50 μM L-glutamic acid plus 10 µM glycine, with or without 10-100 μM tested compounds. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid via their antioxidant properties inhibited cell death induced by glutamate in dose depended manner. However, quinic acid slightly protects neurons at a higher dose. DCF, JC-1 and Ca(2+)sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2, were used to measure intracellular ROS accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential integration and intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)] i . Results indicate that similarly, CGA acts as a protective agent against glutamate-induced cortical neurons injury by suppressing the accumulation of endogenous ROS and restore the mitochondrial membrane potential, activate the enzymatic antioxidant system by the increase levels of SOD activity and modulate the rise of intracellular calcium levels by increasing the rise of intracellular concentrations of Ca(2+)caused by glutamate overstimulation. PKC signaling cascade appear to be engaged in this protective mechanism. Interseling, CGA and CA also exhibit antiapoptotic properties against glutamate-induced cleaved activation of pro-caspases; caspase 1,8 and 9 and calpain (PD 150606,Calpeptin and MDL 28170).These data suggest that neuroprotective activity of CGA ester may occurs throught its hydrolysate,the caffeic acid and its interaction with intracellular molecules suggesting that CGA exert its neuroprotection via its caffeoly acid group that might potentially be used as a therapeutic agent in neurodegeneratives disorders associated with glutamate excitotoxicity.

  10. Oxidative stress and glycemic regulation.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A

    2000-02-01

    Oxidative stress is an acknowledged pathogenetic mechanism in diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia is a widely known cause of enhanced free radical concentration, whereas oxidative stress involvement in glycemic regulation is still debated. Glucose transport is a cascade of events starting from the interaction of insulin with its own receptor at the plasma membrane and ending with intracellular glucose metabolism. In this complex series of events, each step plays an important role and can be inhibited by a negative effect of oxidative stress. Several studies show that an acute increase in the blood glucose level may impair the physiological homeostasis of many systems in living organisms. The mechanisms through which acute hyperglycemia exerts these effects may be identified in the production of free radicals. It has been suggested that insulin resistance may be accompanied by intracellular production of free radicals. In adipocytes cultured in vitro, insulin increases the production of hydrogen peroxide, which has been shown to mimic the action of insulin. These data allow us to hypothesize that a vicious circle between hyperinsulinemia and free radicals could be operating: insulin resistance might cause elevated plasma free radical concentrations, which, in turn, might be responsible for a deterioration of insulin action, with hyperglycemia being a contributory factor. Data supporting this hypothesis are available. Vitamin E improves insulin action in healthy, elderly, and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Similar results can be obtained by vitamin C administration.

  11. [Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Jarasūniene, Dalia; Simaitis, Audrius

    2003-01-01

    Growing numbers of morbidity and mortality due to the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is recognized as the more increasing challenge in the world. The initial stage of atherosclerosis, early diagnosis and treatment of CHD are the main objectives of current research. Endothelium dysfunction, the earliest expression of the atherosclerotic process is associated with subtle biochemical changes that gradually are transformed into the structural changes of the arterial wall. The theory of free radicals is the most common among the atherosclerosis explanations. Overproduction or impaired neutralization of the free radicals accounts for oxidative stress that is causing substantial damage to the low density lipoproteins, nitric oxyde (NO), endothelium cells, tissue cells and finally leads to the endothelium dysfuction. Pathophysiology of oxidative stress and its role in the endothelium dysfunction are discussed in this paper. Positive role of various medications (statins, angiotensin converting enzym inhibitors, aldosteron antagonists, estrogens, antioxidants, b-blockers with vasodilatative properties) to the oxidative stress and consequently to the endothelium dysfuction are discussed as well.

  12. Laboratory tests for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is considered a significant contributor to male infertility. A number of laboratory techniques have been developed to evaluate oxidative stress in the semen. We review these tests and their current use. A literature review was performed utilizing the PubMed search engine for articles studying OS etiology and impact on male fertility, and the laboratory tests used in its assessment. The state of OS results from exaggerated production of oxygen-derived free radicals, also known as reactive oxygen species, to an extent overwhelming the body's antioxidant defense mechanisms. Several laboratory tests have been utilized in OS measurement during male fertility evaluation. These tests are classified into direct assays which measure the degree of oxidation within a sperm cell and indirect assays which estimate the detrimental effects of OS. The chemiluminescence assay, flow cytometry, nitroblue tetrazolium assay, and cytochrome c reduction are examples of direct assays while the myeloperoxidase test and measurements of lipid peroxidation, oxidation-reduction potential, and total antioxidant capacity are examples of the indirect assays. OS measurement is an important tool that may help in understanding the pathophysiology of male infertility and provide valuable information that would guide treatment decisions and patient follow-up.

  13. Oxidative/nitrosative stress and antidepressants: targets for novel antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2013-10-01

    The brain is an organ predisposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. This is especially true in the case of aging as well as several neurodegenerative diseases. Under such circumstances, a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. Highly reactive oxygen/nitrogen species damage lipids, proteins, and mitochondrial and neuronal genes. Unless antioxidant defenses react appropriately to damage inflicted by radicals, neurons may experience microalteration, microdysfunction, and degeneration. We reviewed how oxidative and nitrosative stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and reviewed the clinical implications of various antioxidants as future targets for antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. p53, Oxidative Stress, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian aging is associated with elevated levels of oxidative damage of DNA, proteins, and lipids as a result of unbalanced prooxidant and antioxidant activities. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress is a major physiological inducer of aging. p53, the guardian of the genome that is important for cellular responses to oxidative stresses, might be a key coordinator of oxidative stress and aging. In response to low levels of oxidative stresses, p53 exhibits antioxidant activities to eliminate oxidative stress and ensure cell survival; in response to high levels of oxidative stresses, p53 exhibits prooxidative activities that further increase the levels of stresses, leading to cell death. p53 accomplishes these context-dependent roles by regulating the expression of a panel of genes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and by modulating other pathways important for oxidative stress responses. The mechanism that switches p53 function from antioxidant to prooxidant remains unclear, but could account for the findings that increased p53 activities have been linked to both accelerated aging and increased life span in mice. Therefore, a balance of p53 antioxidant and prooxidant activities in response to oxidative stresses could be important for longevity by suppressing the accumulation of oxidative stresses and DNA damage. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1669–1678. PMID:21050134

  15. Morphine as a Potential Oxidative Stress-Causing Agent.

    PubMed

    Skrabalova, Jitka; Drastichova, Zdenka; Novotny, Jiri

    2013-11-01

    Morphine exhibits important pharmacological effects for which it has been used in medical practice for quite a long time. However, it has a high addictive potential and can be abused. Long-term use of this drug can be connected with some pathological consequences including neurotoxicity and neuronal dysfunction, hepatotoxicity, kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, most studies examining the impact of morphine have been aimed at determining the effects induced by chronic morphine exposure in the brain, liver, cardiovascular system and macrophages. It appears that different tissues may respond to morphine diversely and are distinctly susceptible to oxidative stress and subsequent oxidative damage of biomolecules. Importantly, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species induced by morphine, which have been observed under different experimental conditions, can contribute to some pathological processes, degenerative diseases and organ dysfunctions occurring in morphine abusers or morphine-treated patients. This review attempts to provide insights into the possible relationship between morphine actions and oxidative stress.

  16. Hypothalamic CRH neurons orchestrate complex behaviours after stress

    PubMed Central

    Füzesi, Tamás; Daviu, Nuria; Wamsteeker Cusulin, Jaclyn I.; Bonin, Robert P.; Bains, Jaideep S.

    2016-01-01

    All organisms possess innate behavioural and physiological programmes that ensure survival. In order to have maximum adaptive benefit, these programmes must be sufficiently flexible to account for changes in the environment. Here we show that hypothalamic CRH neurons orchestrate an environmentally flexible repertoire of behaviours that emerge after acute stress in mice. Optical silencing of CRH neurons disrupts the organization of individual behaviours after acute stress. These behavioural patterns shift according to the environment after stress, but this environmental sensitivity is blunted by activation of PVN CRH neurons. These findings provide evidence that PVN CRH cells are part of a previously unexplored circuit that matches precise behavioural patterns to environmental context following stress. Overactivity in this network in the absence of stress may contribute to environmental ambivalence, resulting in context-inappropriate behavioural strategies. PMID:27306314

  17. Oxidative stress in glaucomatous neurodegeneration: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Gülgün

    2006-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. Although ROS are essential participants in cell signaling and regulation, when their cellular production overwhelms the intrinsic antioxidant capacity, damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids ensues. Such a state of "oxidative stress" is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress as a common component of glaucomatous neurodegeneration in different subcellular compartments of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Besides the evidence of direct cytotoxic consequences leading to RGC death, it also seems highly possible that ROS are involved in signaling RGC death by acting as a second messenger and/or modulating protein function by redox modifications of downstream effectors through enzymatic oxidation of specific amino acid residues. Different studies provide cumulating evidence, which supports the association of ROS with different aspects of the neurodegenerative process. Oxidative protein modifications during glaucomatous neurodegeneration increase neuronal susceptibility to damage and also lead to glial dysfunction. Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of glial cells may contribute to spreading neuronal damage by secondary degeneration. Oxidative stress also promotes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in glaucomatous tissues. In addition, oxidative stress takes part in the activation of immune response during glaucomatous neurodegeneration, as ROS stimulate the antigen presenting ability of glial cells and also function as co-stimulatory molecules during antigen presentation. By discussing current evidence, this review provides a broad perspective on cellular mechanisms and potential consequences of oxidative stress in glaucoma.

  18. Oxidative stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Love, S

    1999-01-01

    Brain ischemia initiates a complex cascade of metabolic events, several of which involve the generation of nitrogen and oxygen free radicals. These free radicals and related reactive chemical species mediate much of damage that occurs after transient brain ischemia, and in the penumbral region of infarcts caused by permanent ischemia. Nitric oxide, a water- and lipid-soluble free radical, is generated by the action of nitric oxide synthases. Ischemia causes a surge in nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS 1) activity in neurons and, possibly, glia, increased NOS 3 activity in vascular endothelium, and later an increase in NOS 2 activity in a range of cells including infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages, activated microglia and astrocytes. The effects of ischemia on the activity of NOS 1, a Ca2+-dependent enzyme, are thought to be secondary to reversal of glutamate reuptake at synapses, activation of NMDA receptors, and resulting elevation of intracellular Ca2+. The up-regulation of NOS 2 activity is mediated by transcriptional inducers. In the context of brain ischemia, the activity of NOS 1 and NOS 2 is broadly deleterious, and their inhibition or inactivation is neuroprotective. However, the production of nitric oxide in blood vessels by NOS 3, which, like NOS 1, is Ca2+-dependent, causes vasodilatation and improves blood flow in the penumbral region of brain infarcts. In addition to causing the synthesis of nitric oxide, brain ischemia leads to the generation of superoxide, through the action of nitric oxide synthases, xanthine oxidase, leakage from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and other mechanisms. Nitric oxide and superoxide are themselves highly reactive but can also combine to form a highly toxic anion, peroxynitrite. The toxicity of the free radicals and peroxynitrite results from their modification of macromolecules, especially DNA, and from the resulting induction of apoptotic and necrotic pathways. The mode of cell death that prevails probably

  19. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL)(p < 0.001) and oxidative stress (p < 0.001). At 2 months after periodontal treatment, the degree of change in the oxLDL was positively correlated with that in the oxidative stress (r = 0.593, p = 0.004). These observations indicate that periodontitis patients showed higher levels of circulating oxLDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects. In addition, improved oral hygiene and non-surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  20. Enhanced Oxidative Stress Is Responsible for TRPV4-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Yuan, Yibiao; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been reported to be responsible for neuronal injury in pathological conditions. Excessive oxidative stress can lead to neuronal damage, and activation of TRPV4 increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in many types of cells. The present study explored whether TRPV4-induced neuronal injury is mediated through enhancing oxidative stress. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A increased the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and NO in the hippocampus, which was blocked by administration of the TRPV4 specific antagonist HC-067047. The activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were decreased by GSK1016790A, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged. Moreover, the protein level and activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were increased by GSK1016790A, and the GSK1016790A-induced increase in NO content was blocked by an nNOS specific antagonist ARL-17477. The GSK1016790A-induced modulations of CAT, GSH-Px and nNOS activities and the protein level of nNOS were significantly inhibited by HC-067047. Finally, GSK1016790A-induced neuronal death and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 area were markedly attenuated by administration of a ROS scavenger Trolox or ARL-17477. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 enhances oxidative stress by inhibiting CAT and GSH-Px and increasing nNOS, which is responsible, at least in part, for TRPV4-induced neurotoxicity.

  1. Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Prie, BE; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient’s psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Abbreviations: AAG = androgenetic alopecia, MDA = malondialdehyde, SOD = superoxide dismutase

  2. Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Prie, B E; Iosif, L; Tivig, I; Stoian, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale:Androgenetic alopecia is not considered a life threatening disease but can have serious impacts on the patient's psychosocial life. Genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors are considered responsible for the presence of androgenetic alopecia. Recent literature reports have proved the presence of inflammation and also of oxidative stress at the level of dermal papilla cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia Objective:We have considered of interest to measure the oxidative stress parameters in the blood of patients with androgenetic alopecia Methods and results:27 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 25 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study. Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total thiols levels were measured on plasma samples. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) activities, and also non protein thiols levels together with TEAC activity were determined on erythrocytes samples No statistically significant changes were observed for TEAC erythrocytes, non-protein thiols, GPx and CAT activities. Significantly decreased (p<0.01) SOD activity was found in patients with androgenetic alopecia. For plasma samples decreased TEAC activity (p<0.001), increased MDA levels (p<0.001) and no change in total thiols concentration were found in patients when compared with the controls. Discussions:Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  3. Oxidative Stress in Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Genki; Cortopassi, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial diseases are the result of inherited defects in mitochondrially-expressed genes. One potential pathomechanism for mitochondrial disease is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can occur as the result of increased ROS production, or decreased ROS protection. The role of oxidative stresses in the five most common inherited mitochondrial diseases; Friedreich's ataxia (FA), LHON, MELAS, MERRF and Leigh Syndrome (LS) is discussed. Published reports for oxidative stress involvement in pathomechanism in these five mitochondrial diseases are reviewed. The strongest for oxidative stress pathomechanism among the five diseases was in Friedreich's ataxia. In addition, a meta-analysis was carried out to provide an unbiased evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in the five diseases, by searching for oxidative stress citation count frequency within each disease. Of the five most common mitochondrial diseases, the strongest support for oxidative stress is in Friedreich's ataxia (6.42%), followed by LHON (2.45%), MELAS (2.18%), MERRF (1.71%), and LS (1.03%). The increased frequency of oxidative stress citations was significant relative to the mean of the total pool of five diseases (p<0.01) and the mean of the four non-Friedreich's diseases (p<0.0001). Thus there is support for oxidative stress in all five most common mitochondrial diseases, but the strongest, significant support is for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:26073122

  4. Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Krishna, Murali C.; Mitchell, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), are components of normal cellular metabolism and are required for intracellular processes as varied as proliferation, signal transduction, and apoptosis. In the situation of chronic oxidative stress, however, ROS contribute to various pathophysiologies and are involved in multiple stages of carcinogenesis. In head and neck cancers specifically, many common risk factors contribute to carcinogenesis via ROS-based mechanisms, including tobacco, areca quid, alcohol, and viruses. Given their widespread influence on the process of carcinogenesis, ROS and their related pathways are attractive targets for intervention. The effects of radiation therapy, a central component of treatment for nearly all head and neck cancers, can also be altered via interfering with oxidative pathways. These pathways are also relevant to the development of many benign oral diseases. In this review, we outline how ROS contribute to pathophysiology with a focus toward head and neck cancers and benign oral diseases, describing potential targets and pathways for intervention that exploit the role of oxidative species in these pathologic processes. PMID:25417961

  5. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thao Phuong; Wiborg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. Objectives Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c-Fos expression have been reported as associated to stressful conditions. Methods Stress-induced modulation of neuronal activation patterns in response to the chronic mild stress paradigm was mapped using the immediate early gene expression c-Fos as a marker. Quantification of the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology. Results Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of both stress subgroups. In the the lateral and ventral orbital cortices of stress-resilient rats, the c-Fos like immunoreactivity response was also repressed by stress exposure. On the contrary the c-Fos response within the amygdala, medial habenula, and infralimbic cortex was increased selectively for the stress-susceptible rats. Conclusions The study was initiated to characterize neuronal substrates associated with stress

  6. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats.

    PubMed

    Febbraro, Fabia; Svenningsen, Katrine; Tran, Thao Phuong; Wiborg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c-Fos expression have been reported as associated to stressful conditions. Stress-induced modulation of neuronal activation patterns in response to the chronic mild stress paradigm was mapped using the immediate early gene expression c-Fos as a marker. Quantification of the c-Fos-like immunoreactivity responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology. Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular ventral lateral geniculate nucleus of both stress subgroups. In the the lateral and ventral orbital cortices of stress-resilient rats, the c-Fos like immunoreactivity response was also repressed by stress exposure. On the contrary the c-Fos response within the amygdala, medial habenula, and infralimbic cortex was increased selectively for the stress-susceptible rats. The study was initiated to characterize neuronal substrates associated with stress-coping mechanisms. Six areas, all of which represents limbic

  7. Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kashihara, N.; Haruna, Y.; Kondeti, V.K.; Kanwar, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Its morphologic characteristics include glomerular hypertrophy, basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar thickening. All of these are part and parcel of microvascular complications of diabetes. A large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress is the common denominator link for the major pathways involved in the development and progression of diabetic micro- as well as macrovascular complications of diabetes. There are a number of macromolecules that have been implicated for increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as, NAD(P)H oxidase, advanced glycation end products (AGE), defects in polyol pathway, uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and mitochondrial respiratory chain via oxidative phosphorylation. Excess amounts of ROS modulate activation of protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and various cytokines and transcription factors which eventually cause increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes with progression to fibrosis and end stage renal disease. Activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) further worsens the renal injury induced by ROS in diabetic nephropathy. Buffering the generation of ROS may sound a promising therapeutic to ameliorate renal damage from diabetic nephropathy, however, various studies have demonstrated minimal reno-protection by these agents. Interruption in the RAS has yielded much better results in terms of reno-protection and progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this review various aspects of oxidative stress coupled with the damage induced by RAS are discussed with the anticipation to yield an impetus for designing new generation of specific antioxidants that are potentially more effective to reduce reno-vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:20939814

  8. Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be

  9. Oxidative Stress in Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration: Mechanisms and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tezel, Gülgün

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as by-products of cellular metabolism, primarily in the mitochondria. Although ROS are essential participants in cell signaling and regulation, when their cellular production overwhelms the intrinsic antioxidant capacity, damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids ensues. Such a state of “oxidative stress” is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence supports the involvement of oxidative stress as a common component of glaucomatous neurodegeneration in different subcellular compartments of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Besides the evidence of direct cytotoxic consequences leading to RGC death, it also seems highly possible that ROS are involved in signaling RGC death by acting as a second messenger and/or modulating protein function by redox modifications of downstream effectors through enzymatic oxidation of specific amino acid residues. Different studies provide cumulating evidence, which supports the association of ROS with different aspects of the neurodegenerative process. Oxidative protein modifications during glaucomatous neurodegeneration increase neuronal susceptibility to damage and also lead to glial dysfunction. Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction of glial cells may contribute to spreading neuronal damage by secondary degeneration. Oxidative stress also promotes the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in glaucomatous tissues. It is also evident that oxidative stress takes part in the activation of immune response during glaucomatous neurodegeneration, as ROS stimulate the antigen presenting ability of glial cells and also function as co-stimulatory molecules during antigen presentation. By discussing current evidence, this review provides a broad perspective on cellular mechanisms and potential consequences of oxidative stress in glaucoma. PMID:16962364

  10. Effects of Mild and Severe Oxidative Stress on BACE1 Expression and APP Amyloidogenic Processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiangli; Li, Qiao-Xin; Evin, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes methods for establishing oxidative stress conditions that do not induce cell death in a neuronal cell culture model. We termed these conditions "mild oxidative stress," as opposed to "severe oxidative stress," which results in significant cell loss. Mild oxidative stress resembles more closely what happens in the aging brain than severe oxidative stress. The protocols we have delineated include the preparation and maintenance of mouse primary cortical cultures, the induction of oxidative stress by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, the assessment of cell viability by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, the measurement of free radical production by the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay, and western blot analysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site APP cleaving enzyme, BACE1, two key proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease pathology and oxidative stress.

  11. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Balachandran, B

    2002-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) are a group of illness with diverse clinical importance and etiologies. NDD include motor neuron disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar disorders, Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), cortical destructive Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies provide many risk factors such as advanced age, genetic defects, abnormalities of antioxidant enzymes, excitotoxicity, cytoskeletal abnormalities, autoimmunity, mineral deficiencies, oxidative stress, metabolic toxicity, hypertension and other vascular disorders. Growing body of evidence implicates free radical toxicity, radical induced mutations and oxidative enzyme impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction due to congenital genetic defects in clinical manifestations of NDD. Accumulation of oxidative damage in neurons either primarily or secondarily may account for the increased incidence of NDD such as AD, ALS and stroke in aged populations. The molecular mechanisms of neuronal degeneration remain largely unknown and effective therapies are not currently available. Recent interest has focused on antioxidants such as carotenoids and in particular lycopene, a potent antioxidant in tomatoes and tomato products, flavonoids and vitamins as potentially useful agents in the management of human NDD. The pathobiology of neurodegenerative disorders with emphasis on genetic origin and its correlation with oxidative stress of neurodegenerative disorders will be reviewed and the reasons as to why brain constitutes a vulnerable site of oxidative damage will be discussed. The article will also discuss the potential free radical scavenger, mechanism of antioxidant action of lycopene and the need for the use of antioxidants in the prevention of NDD.

  12. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sánchez, Alba; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Morales-González, Angel; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; Durante-Montiel, Irene; Sánchez-Rivera, Graciela; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Morales-González, José A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat. Adipose tissue is not only a triglyceride storage organ, but studies have shown the role of white adipose tissue as a producer of certain bioactive substances called adipokines. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6); other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. This is the case of leptin, which acts on the limbic system by stimulating dopamine uptake, creating a feeling of fullness. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating a process known as oxidative stress (OS). Because adipose tissue is the organ that secretes adipokines and these in turn generate ROS, adipose tissue is considered an independent factor for the generation of systemic OS. There are several mechanisms by which obesity produces OS. The first of these is the mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, which can produce ROS in oxidation reactions, while another mechanism is over-consumption of oxygen, which generates free radicals in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that is found coupled with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. Upon the increase of adipose tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was found to be significantly diminished. Finally, high ROS production and the decrease in antioxidant capacity leads to various abnormalities, among which we find endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and an increase in endothelium-derived contractile factors, favoring atherosclerotic disease.

  13. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Alba; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Bautista, Mirandeli; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Morales-González, Ángel; Esquivel-Chirino, Cesar; Durante-Montiel, Irene; Sánchez-Rivera, Graciela; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Morales-González, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease of multifactorial origin and can be defined as an increase in the accumulation of body fat. Adipose tissue is not only a triglyceride storage organ, but studies have shown the role of white adipose tissue as a producer of certain bioactive substances called adipokines. Among adipokines, we find some inflammatory functions, such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6); other adipokines entail the functions of regulating food intake, therefore exerting a direct effect on weight control. This is the case of leptin, which acts on the limbic system by stimulating dopamine uptake, creating a feeling of fullness. However, these adipokines induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating a process known as oxidative stress (OS). Because adipose tissue is the organ that secretes adipokines and these in turn generate ROS, adipose tissue is considered an independent factor for the generation of systemic OS. There are several mechanisms by which obesity produces OS. The first of these is the mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids, which can produce ROS in oxidation reactions, while another mechanism is over-consumption of oxygen, which generates free radicals in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that is found coupled with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Lipid-rich diets are also capable of generating ROS because they can alter oxygen metabolism. Upon the increase of adipose tissue, the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was found to be significantly diminished. Finally, high ROS production and the decrease in antioxidant capacity leads to various abnormalities, among which we find endothelial dysfunction, which is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and an increase in endothelium-derived contractile factors, favoring atherosclerotic disease. PMID:21686173

  14. PEP-1-GSTpi protein enhanced hippocampal neuronal cell survival after oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh Shin; Cho, Yong-Jun; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated under oxidative stress are involved in neuronal diseases, including ischemia. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a member of the GST family and is known to play important roles in cell survival. We investigated the effect of GSTpi against oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death, and its effects in an animal model of ischemic injury, using a cell-permeable PEP-1-GSTpi protein. PEP-1-GSTpi was transduced into HT-22 cells and significantly protected against H2O2-treated cell death by reducing the intracellular toxicity and regulating the signal pathways, including MAPK, Akt, Bax, and Bcl-2. PEP-1-GSTpi transduced into the hippocampus in animal brains, and markedly protected against neuronal cell death in an ischemic injury animal model. These results indicate that PEP-1-GSTpi acts as a regulator or an antioxidant to protect against oxidative stress-induced cell death. Our study suggests that PEP-1-GSTpi may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemia and a variety of oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 382-387] PMID:27049109

  15. Oxidative stress–dependent phosphorylation activates ZNRF1 to induce neuronal/axonal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Shuji; Furuno, Akiko; Ohshima, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B activation. We now demonstrate that oxidative stress serves as an activator of the ubiquitin ligase activity of ZNRF1 by inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mediated phosphorylation at the 103rd tyrosine residue and that the up-regulation of ZNRF1 activity by oxidative stress leads to neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. We also show that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced oxidase activity is required for the EGFR-dependent phosphorylation-induced activation of ZNRF1 and resultant AKT degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system to induce Wallerian degeneration. These results indicate the pathophysiological significance of the EGFR–ZNRF1 pathway induced by oxidative stress in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. A deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanism for ZNRF1 catalytic activity via phosphorylation will provide a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegeneration. PMID:26572622

  16. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Parvin; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Rahiminia, Tahereh; Akyash, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions. PMID:27351024

  17. Oxidative stress in neonatology: a review.

    PubMed

    Mutinati, M; Pantaleo, M; Roncetti, M; Piccinno, M; Rizzo, A; Sciorsci, R L

    2014-02-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive oxidizing agents containing one or more unpaired electrons. Both in human and veterinary neonathology, it is generally accepted that oxidative stress functions as an important catalysator of neonatal disease. Soon after birth, many sudden physiological and environmental conditions make the newborn vulnerable for the negative effects of oxidative stress, which potentially can impair neonatal vitality. As a clinician, it is important to have in depth knowledge about factors affecting maternal/neonatal oxidative status and the cascades of events that enrol when the neonate is subjected to oxidative stress. This report aims at providing clinicians with an up-to-date review about oxidative stress in neonates across animal species. It will be emphasized which handlings and treatments that are applied during neonatal care or resuscitation can actually impose oxidative stress upon the neonate. Views and opinions about maternal and/or neonatal antioxydative therapy will be shared.

  18. Impact of oxidative stress in fetal programming.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Loren P; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  19. Nitric oxide mediates selective degeneration of hypothalamic orexin neurons through dysfunction of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Obukuro, Kanae; Nobunaga, Mizuki; Takigawa, Moeko; Morioka, Hiroshi; Hisatsune, Akinori; Isohama, Yoichiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Tsutsui, Masato; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2013-07-31

    We addressed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in orexin neuron degeneration that has been observed under various pathological conditions. Administration of an NO donor NOC18 (50 nmol) into the third ventricle of mice resulted in a significant decrease of orexin-immunoreactive (-IR) neurons, in contrast to a modest change in melanin-concentrating hormone-IR neurons. In addition, NOC18 promoted formation of orexin-A-IR aggregates within orexin neurons. An endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer tunicamycin replicated the effect of NOC18 with regard to decrease of orexin-IR neurons and formation of aggregates. We also found that NOC18 caused an increase in S-nitrosation of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and a decrease in PDI activity in hypothalamic tissues. Moreover, PDI inhibitors, such as cystamine and securinine, caused a selective decrease of orexin neurons and promoted formation of orexin-A-IR aggregates. Aggregate formation in orexin-IR neurons was also induced by local injection of small interfering RNA targeting PDI. Interestingly, sleep deprivation for 7 consecutive days induced a selective decrease of orexin-IR neurons, which was preceded by aggregate formation in orexin-IR neurons and an increase in S-nitrosated PDI in the hypothalamus. Activity of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus as assessed by c-Fos expression was elevated in response to sleep deprivation. Finally, sleep deprivation-induced decrease of orexin-IR neurons, formation of aggregates, and S-nitrosation of PDI were not observed in nNOS knock-out mice. These results indicate that nNOS-derived NO may mediate specific pathological events in orexin neurons, including neuropeptide misfolding via S-nitrosation and inactivation of PDI.

  20. Autophagy regulates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked fused in sarcoma-positive stress granules in neurons.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Min, Kyung-Jin; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Hyong Kyu; Lee, Jin-A

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in fused in sarcoma (FUS), a DNA/RNA binding protein, have been associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), which is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive muscular weakness and has overlapping clinical and pathologic characteristics with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. However, the role of autophagy in regulation of FUS-positive stress granules (SGs) and aggregates remains unclear. We found that the ALS-linked FUS(R521C) mutation causes accumulation of FUS-positive SGs under oxidative stress, leading to a disruption in the release of FUS from SGs in cultured neurons. Autophagy controls the quality of proteins or organelles; therefore, we checked whether autophagy regulates FUS(R521C)-positive SGs. Interestingly, FUS(R521C)-positive SGs were colocalized to RFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. Furthermore, FUS-positive SGs accumulated in atg5(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in autophagy-deficient neurons. However, FUS(R521C) expression did not significantly impair autophagic degradation. Moreover, autophagy activation with rapamycin reduced the accumulation of FUS-positive SGs in an autophagy-dependent manner. Rapamycin further reduced neurite fragmentation and cell death in neurons expressing mutant FUS under oxidative stress. Overall, we provide a novel pathogenic mechanism of ALS associated with a FUS mutation under oxidative stress, as well as therapeutic insight regarding FUS pathology associated with excessive SGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xubu; Li, Maoquan; Chen, Yang; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Guangbin; Zhong, Min

    2010-01-22

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.

  2. Oxidative stress, protein modification and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Tramutola, A; Lanzillotta, C; Perluigi, M; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects the elderly population with complex etiology. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain different causes of AD, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we focus attention on the oxidative-stress hypothesis of neurodegeneration and we discuss redox proteomics approaches to analyze post-mortem human brain from AD brain. Collectively, these studies have provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved both in the pathogenesis and progression of AD, demonstrating the impairment of numerous cellular processes such as energy production, cellular structure, signal transduction, synaptic function, mitochondrial function, cell cycle progression, and degradative systems. Each of these cellular functions normally contributes to maintain healthy neuronal homeostasis, so the deregulation of one or more of these functions could contribute to the pathology and clinical presentation of AD. In particular, we discuss the evidence demonstrating the oxidation/dysfunction of a number of enzymes specifically involved in energy metabolism that support the view that reduced glucose metabolism and loss of ATP are crucial events triggering neurodegeneration and progression of AD.

  3. Do the serum oxidative stress biomarkers provide a reasonable index of the general oxidative stress status?

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; García, Sonia; Maldonado, Mariam; Machado, Alberto; Ayala, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    The oxidant status of an individual is assessed by determining a group of markers in noninvasive samples. One limitation when measuring these biomarkers is that they do not give information about tissue localization of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to establish whether the serum oxidative stress biomarkers are indicative of oxidative stress in tissues of an individual. To accomplish this, we determined a few generic markers of oxidation in serum and tissues of six groups of rats treated experimentally, to modulate their oxidative stress status. The correlation between serum and tissue levels was calculated for each marker. Also, for each tissue, the correlation between the values of these oxidative stress biomarkers was analysed. Our results show that only lipid peroxides in serum could be useful to predict the oxidative stress in tissues. No correlation was found between any of the oxidative stress markers in serum.

  4. Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Valko, M; Morris, H; Cronin, M T D

    2005-01-01

    . Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheresh, Paul; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tulasiram, Sandhya; Kamp, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as an important molecular mechanism underlying fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lungs. However, the causal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from environmental exposures and inflammatory / interstitial cells in mediating fibrosis as well as how best to target an imbalance in ROS production in patients with fibrosis are not firmly established. We focus on the role of ROS in pulmonary fibrosis and, where possible, highlight overlapping molecular pathways in other organs. The key origins of oxidative stress in pulmonary fibrosis (e.g. environmental toxins, mitochondria / NADPH oxidase of inflammatory and lung target cells, and depletion of antioxidant defenses) are reviewed. The role of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis by mitochondria- and p53-regulated death pathways are examined. We emphasize an emerging role for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pulmonary fibrosis. After briefly summarizing how ROS trigger a DNA damage response, we concentrate on recent studies implicating a role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and repair mechanisms focusing on 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) as well as crosstalk between ROS production, mtDNA damage, p53, Ogg1, and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2). Finally, the association between ROS and TGF-β1-induced fibrosis is discussed. Novel insights into the molecular basis of ROS-induced pulmonary diseases and, in particular, lung epithelial cell death may promote the development of unique therapeutic targets for managing pulmonary fibrosis as well as fibrosis in other organs and tumors, and in aging; diseases for which effective management is lacking. PMID:23219955

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Plays a Key Role in Rotenone-Induced Apoptotic Death of Neurons.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Biswas, Joyshree; Joshi, Neeraj; Swarnkar, Supriya; Nath, Chandishwar; Singh, Sarika

    2016-01-01

    Rotenone, a pesticide, causes neurotoxicity via the mitochondrial complex-I inhibition. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in rotenone-induced neuronal death. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitrite level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA damage were assessed in rotenone-treated neuro-2A cells. Protein levels of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit α (eIF2-α) were estimated to assess the ER stress. To confirm the apoptotic death of neurons, mRNA levels of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3 were estimated. Further, to confirm the involvement of ER stress, neuro-2A cells were pretreated with ER stress inhibitor salubrinal. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin was also given to assess the role of oxidative stress in rotenone-induced apoptosis. Rotenone (0.1, 0.5, and 1 μM) treatment to neurons caused significantly decreased cell viability, increased cytotoxicity, increased ROS generation, increased expression of GRP78 and GADD, DNA damage and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3 which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment of salubrinal (25 μM). Rotenone-induced dephosphorylation of eIF2α was also inhibited with salubrinal treatment. However, pretreatment of salubrinal did not affect the rotenone-induced increased nitrite levels, decreased MMP and caspase-9 activation. Co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin (1 mM) did not offer attenuation against rotenone-induced increased expression of caspase-9, caspase-12 and caspase-3. In conclusion, results indicated that ER stress plays a key role in rotenone-induced neuronal death, rather than oxidative stress. Graphical Abstract Pictorial presentation showed the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS

  7. Oxidants and antioxidants relevance in rats' pulmonary induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir, C; Eloaie Zugun, F; Cojocaru, E; Tocan, L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Even if the reactive oxygen species were discovered, described and detailed a long time ago, there is still little data about the mechanisms of oxidative stress, their tissular effects and about an efficient antioxidant strategy, involving animal experimental models. It has been shown that the lung is one of the most exposed organs to the oxidative stress. The particular effects of different types of oxidative stress on lungs were investigated in this experimental study, in order to quantify the intensity and the extent of the pulmonary damage, featuring the antioxidant enzymatic protective role. Methods: The study of lung injury was performed on four distinct groups of Wistar rats: a control group versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation versus a group exposed to nitrofurantoin versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation, to nitrofurantoin and vitamin C. Pulmonary samples were taken and treated for microscopic analysis. A qualitative immunohistochemical estimation of pulmonary superoxide dismutase 1(SOD 1) was performed. Blood tests were used in order to reveal the presence and intensity of oxidative stress. Results: Continuous light deprivation and the chronic administration of nitrofurantoin acted as oxidants with a certain involvement in lung damage– vascular and alveolar wall disturbances. Adding an antioxidant, such as vitamin C, considerably improved lung reactivity to oxidative stress. Conclusion: The chronic exposure to oxidants in the induced oxidative stress sustains the development of specific lung alterations. SOD 1 positive reaction underlines the complex enzymatic defense in oxidative stress. PMID:22567046

  8. A novel perspective on neuron study: damaging and promoting effects in different neurons induced by mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Zong; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu

    2016-10-01

    A growing volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that mechanical stress plays a significant role in growth, proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, electrophysiological properties and many other aspects of neurons. In this review, first, the mechanical microenvironment and properties of neurons under in vivo conditions are introduced and analyzed. Second, research works in recent decades on the effects of different mechanical forces, especially compression and tension, on various neurons, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, cerebral cortex neurons, hippocampus neurons, neural stem cells, and other neurons, are summarized. Previous research results demonstrate that mechanical stress can not only injure neurons by damaging their morphology, impacting their electrophysiological characteristics and gene expression, but also promote neuron self-repair. Finally, some future perspectives in neuron research are discussed.

  9. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by up-regulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12 hours or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the level of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila, nevertheless also caused significant reductions in lifespan for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. PMID:23142766

  10. Induction of Oxidative Stress in Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek, Emin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathophysiology of several kidney diseases, and many complications of these diseases are mediated by oxidative stress, oxidative stress-related mediators, and inflammation. Several systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia; infection; antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, and radiocontrast agents; and environmental toxins, occupational chemicals, radiation, smoking, as well as alcohol consumption induce oxidative stress in kidney. We searched the literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google scholar with “oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, oxygen free radicals, kidney, renal injury, nephropathy, nephrotoxicity, and induction”. The literature search included only articles written in English language. Letters or case reports were excluded. Scientific relevance, for clinical studies target populations, and study design, for basic science studies full coverage of main topics, are eligibility criteria for articles used in this paper. PMID:22577546

  11. Neuronal plasticity: a link between stress and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Francesca; Molteni, Raffaella; Racagni, Giorgio; Riva, Marco A

    2009-12-01

    Although stress represents the major environmental element of susceptibility for mood disorders, the relationship between stress and disease remains to be fully established. In the present article we review the evidence in support for a role of neuronal plasticity, and in particular of neurotrophic factors. Even though decreased levels of norepinephrine and serotonin may underlie depressive symptoms, compelling evidence now suggests that mood disorders are characterized by reduced neuronal plasticity, which can be brought about by exposure to stress at different stages of life. Indeed the expression of neurotrophic molecules, such as the neurotrophin BDNF, is reduced in depressed subjects as well as in experimental animals exposed to adverse experience at early stages of life or at adulthood. These changes show an anatomical specificity and might be sustained by epigenetic mechanisms. Pharmacological intervention may normalize such defects and improve neuronal function through the modulation of the same factors that are defective in depression. Several studies have demonstrated that chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatment increases the expression of BDNF and may enhance its localization at synaptic level. Antidepressant treatment can normalize deficits in neurotrophin expression produced by chronic stress paradigms, but may also alter the modulation of BDNF under acute stressful conditions. In summary, there is good agreement in considering neuronal plasticity, and the expression of key proteins such as the neurotrophin BDNF, as a central player for the effects of stress on brain function and its implication for psychopathology. Accordingly, effective treatments should not limit their effects to the control of neurotransmitter and hormonal dysfunctions, but should be able to normalize defective mechanisms that sustain the impairment of neuronal plasticity.

  12. Oxidative stress and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Christen, Y

    2000-02-01

    Research in the field of molecular biology has helped to provide a better understanding of both the cascade of biochemical events that occurs with Alzheimer disease (AD) and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. One hypothesis that accounts for both the heterogeneous nature of AD and the fact that aging is the most obvious risk factor is that free radicals are involved. The probability of this involvement is supported by the fact that neurons are extremely sensitive to attacks by destructive free radicals. Furthermore, lesions are present in the brains of AD patients that are typically associated with attacks by free radicals (eg, damage to DNA, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and advanced glycosylation end products), and metals (eg, iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum) are present that have catalytic activity that produce free radicals. beta-Amyloid is aggregated and produces more free radicals in the presence of free radicals; beta-amyloid toxicity is eliminated by free radical scavengers. Apolipoprotein E is subject to attacks by free radicals, and apolipoprotein E peroxidation has been correlated with AD. In contrast, apolipoprotein E can act as a free radical scavenger and this behavior is isoform dependent. AD has been linked to mitochondrial anomalies affecting cytochrome-c oxidase, and these anomalies may contribute to the abnormal production of free radicals. Finally, many free radical scavengers (eg, vitamin E, selegeline, and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761) have produced promising results in relation to AD, as has desferrioxamine-an iron-chelating agent-and antiinflammatory drugs and estrogens, which also have an antioxidant effect.

  13. Multifaceted role of nitric oxide in an in vitro mouse neuronal injury model: transcriptomic profiling defines the temporal recruitment of death signalling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhao Feng; Chen, Minghui Jessica; Manikandan, Jayapal; Melendez, Alirio J; Shui, Guanghou; Russo-Marie, Françoise; Whiteman, Matthew; Beart, Philip M; Moore, Philip K; Cheung, Nam Sang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nitric oxide is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuropathologies characterized by oxidative stress. Although nitric oxide has been reported to be involved in the exacerbation of oxidative stress observed in several neuropathologies, existent data fail to provide a holistic description of how nitrergic pathobiology elicits neuronal injury. Here we provide a comprehensive description of mechanisms contributing to nitric oxide induced neuronal injury by global transcriptomic profiling. Microarray analyses were undertaken on RNA from murine primary cortical neurons treated with the nitric oxide generator DETA-NONOate (NOC-18, 0.5 mM) for 8–24 hrs. Biological pathway analysis focused upon 3672 gene probes which demonstrated at least a ±1.5-fold expression in a minimum of one out of three time-points and passed statistical analysis (one-way anova, P < 0.05). Numerous enriched processes potentially determining nitric oxide mediated neuronal injury were identified from the transcriptomic profile: cell death, developmental growth and survival, cell cycle, calcium ion homeostasis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, mitochondrial homeostasis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and GSH and nitric oxide metabolism. Our detailed time-course study of nitric oxide induced neuronal injury allowed us to provide the first time a holistic description of the temporal sequence of cellular events contributing to nitrergic injury. These data form a foundation for the development of screening platforms and define targets for intervention in nitric oxide neuropathologies where nitric oxide mediated injury is causative. PMID:21352476

  14. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G.; Zarkovic, Neven; Davies, Sean S.; Stocker, Roland; Cheng, David; Knight, Annie R.; Taylor, Emma Louise; Oettrich, Jeannette; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Gasparovic, Ana Cipak; Cuadrado, Antonio; Weber, Daniela; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Grune, Tilman; Schmidt, Harald H.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino acids. Recent Advances: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. Critical Issues: The literature is very heterogeneous. It is often difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of oxidative stress biomarkers, as only in a limited proportion of diseases have a range of different biomarkers been used, and different biomarkers have been used to study different diseases. In addition, biomarkers are often measured using nonspecific methods, while specific methodologies are often too sophisticated or laborious for routine clinical use. Future Directions: Several markers of oxidative stress still represent a viable biomarker opportunity for clinical use. However, positive findings with currently used biomarkers still need to be validated in larger sample sizes and compared with current clinical standards to establish them as clinical diagnostics. It is important to realize that oxidative stress is a nuanced phenomenon that is difficult to characterize, and one biomarker is not necessarily better than others. The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 1144–1170. PMID:26415143

  15. Oxidative stress in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Robles, R; Palomino, N; Robles, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the oxidative state of term and preterm neonates at the moment of birth and during the first days of life, and the influence of exposure to oxygen on the premature neonates.A total of 20 neonates were selected. Group A: 10 healthy full-term neonates, and Group B: 10 preterm neonates with no other pathology associated, requiring oxygen therapy. Venous samples were taken in cord at 3 and 72 h in Group A, and in cord at 3, 24 and 72 h and 7 days in Group B.Hydroperoxides, Q10 coenzyme (Co Q10) and alpha-tocopherol were measured within the erythrocyte membrane. Levels of hydroperoxides present in erythrocyte membrane were higher than normal both in Group A and in Group B at birth. This increase was greater in the group of premature neonates. Levels of alpha-tocopherol at birth increase significantly at 72 h in term neonates. Among the premature newborns, alpha-tocopherol levels are two to three times lower at birth and do not rise to higher levels as in the term neonate group. Fall in levels of Co Q10 in erythrocyte membranes is observed, and perhaps is due to the role of Co Q10 in maintaining the pool of reduced tocopherol. At birth, the neonate presents an increase of markers of oxidative stress and a decrease of their antioxidant defenses. This difference is greater as gestational age decreases. The application of oxygen therapy resulted in these levels which remain low throughout the study period.

  16. Acerogenin A from Acer nikoense Maxim Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Cell Death through Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Woo, Je-Tae; Kim, Youn-Chul; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-07-09

    Oxidative cell damage contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and ischemia. Inducible heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts against oxidants that are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. The stem bark of Acer nikoense Maxim (Aceraceae) is indigenous to Japan; it has been used in folk medicine as a treatment of hepatic disorders and eye diseases. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Japanese folk medicine A. nikoense, showed neuroprotective effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inducing the expression of HO-1 in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Furthermore, acerogenin A caused the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that acerogenin A effectively prevents glutamate-induced oxidative damage, and HO-1 induction via PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 pathways appears to play a key role in the protection of HT22 cells. Therefore, this study implies that the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway represents a biological target and that acerogenin A might be a candidate for the prevention of neurodegeneration.

  17. GVS-111 prevents oxidative damage and apoptosis in normal and Down's syndrome human cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Pelsman, Alejandra; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Gudasheva, Tatiana A; Seredenin, Sergei B; Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Busciglio, Jorge

    2003-05-01

    The neuroprotective activity of a novel N-acylprolyl-containing dipeptide analog of the nootropic 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide (Piracetam) designated as GVS-111 (DVD-111/Noopept) was tested in two in vitro models of neuronal degeneration mediated by oxidative stress: normal human cortical neurons treated with H(2)O(2), and Down's syndrome (DS) cortical neurons. Incubation of normal cortical neurons with 50 microM H(2)O(2) for 1h resulted in morphological and structural changes consistent with neuronal apoptosis and in the degeneration of more than 60% of the neurons present in the culture. GVS-111 significantly increased neuronal survival after H(2)O(2)-treatment displaying a dose-dependent neuroprotective activity from 10nM to 100 microM, and an IC(50) value of 1.21+/-0.07 microM. GVS-111 inhibited the accumulation of intracellular free radicals and lipid peroxidation damage in neurons treated with H(2)O(2) or FeSO(4), suggesting an antioxidant mechanism of action. GVS-111 exhibited significantly higher neuroprotection compared to the standard cognition enhancer Piracetam, or to the antioxidants Vitamin E, propyl gallate and N-tert-butyl-2-sulpho-phenylnitrone (s-PBN). In DS cortical cultures, chronic treatment with GVS-111 significantly reduced the appearance of degenerative changes and enhanced neuronal survival. The results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GVS-111 against oxidative damage and its potential nootropic activity may present a valuable therapeutic combination for the treatment of mental retardation and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Oxidative Stress in Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haiping; Han, Ziping; Ji, Xunming; Luo, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of stroke rises with life expectancy. However, except for the use of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, the translation of new therapies for acute stroke from animal models into humans has been relatively unsuccessful. Oxidative DNA and protein damage following stroke is typically associated with cell death. Cause-effect relationships between reactive oxygen species and epigenetic modifications have been established in aging, cancer, acute pancreatitis, and fatty liver disease. In addition, epigenetic regulatory mechanisms during stroke recovery have been reviewed, with focuses mainly on neural apoptosis, necrosis, and neuroplasticity. However, oxidative stress-induced epigenetic regulation in vascular neural networks following stroke has not been sufficiently explored. Improved understanding of the epigenetic regulatory network upon oxidative stress may provide effective antioxidant approaches for treating stroke. In this review, we summarize the epigenetic events, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, that result from oxidative stress following experimental stroke in animal and cell models, and the ways in which epigenetic changes and their crosstalk influence the redox state in neurons, glia, and vascular endothelial cells, helping us to understand the foregone and vicious epigenetic regulation of oxidative stress in the vascular neural network following stroke. PMID:27330844

  19. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  20. Brain imaging for oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, H; Ikawa, M; Tsujikawa, T; Kiyono, Y; Yoneda, M

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress, one of the most probable molecular mechanisms for neuronal impairment, is reported to occur in the affected brain regions of various neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, many studies showed evidence of a link between oxidative stress or mitochondrial damage and neuronal degeneration. Basic in vitro experiments and postmortem studies demonstrated that biomarkers for oxidative damage can be observed in the pathogenic regions of the brain and the affected neurons. Model animal studies also showed oxidative damage associated with neuronal degeneration. The molecular imaging method with positron emission tomography (PET) is expected to delineate oxidatively stressed microenvironments to elucidate pathophysiological changes of the in vivo brain; however, only a few studies have successfully demonstrated enhanced stress in patients. Radioisotope copper labeled diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) may be the most promising candidate for this oxidative stress imaging. The tracer is usually known as a hypoxic tissue imaging PET probe, but the accumulation mechanism is based on the electron rich environment induced by mitochondrial impairment and/or microsomal over-reduction, and thus it is considered to represent the oxidative stress state correlated with the degree of disease severity. In this review, Cu-ATSM PET is introduced in detail from the basics to practical methods in clinical studies, as well as recent clinical studies on cerebrovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Several other PET probes are also introduced from the point of view of neuronal oxidative stress imaging. These molecular imaging methods should be promising tools to reveal oxidative injuries in various brain diseases.

  1. Proteostasis, oxidative stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Korovila, Ioanna; Hugo, Martín; Castro, José Pedro; Weber, Daniela; Höhn, Annika; Grune, Tilman; Jung, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    The production of reactive species is an inevitable by-product of metabolism and thus, life itself. Since reactive species are able to damage cellular structures, especially proteins, as the most abundant macromolecule of mammalian cells, systems are necessary which regulate and preserve a functional cellular protein pool, in a process termed "proteostasis". Not only the mammalian protein pool is subject of a constant turnover, organelles are also degraded and rebuild. The most important systems for these removal processes are the "ubiquitin-proteasomal system" (UPS), the central proteolytic machinery of mammalian cells, mainly responsible for proteostasis, as well as the "autophagy-lysosomal system", which mediates the turnover of organelles and large aggregates. Many age-related pathologies and the aging process itself are accompanied by a dysregulation of UPS, autophagy and the cross-talk between both systems. This review will describe the sources and effects of oxidative stress, preservation of cellular protein- and organelle-homeostasis and the effects of aging on proteostasis in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Giacco, Ferdinando; Brownlee, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both microvascular and cardiovascular. The metabolic abnormalities of diabetes cause mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in endothelial cells of both large and small vessels, and also in the myocardium. This increased superoxide production causes the activation of five major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of complications: polyol pathway flux, increased formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), increased expression of the receptor for AGEs and its activating ligands, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and overactivity of the hexosamine pathway. It also directly inactivates two critical antiatherosclerotic enzymes, eNOS and prostacyclin synthase. Through these pathways, increased intracellular ROS cause defective angiogenesis in response to ischemia, activate a number of pro-inflammatory pathways, and cause long-lasting epigenetic changes which drive persistent expression of proinflammatory genes after glycemia is normalized (‘hyperglycemic memory’). Atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 2 diabetes are caused in part by pathway-selective insulin resistance, which increases mitochondrial ROS production from free fatty acids and by inactivation of anti-atherosclerosis enzymes by ROS. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase in transgenic diabetic mice prevents diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiomyopathy. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding the role of metabolite-generated ROS in the development of diabetic complications. PMID:21030723

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  4. Downregulated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Behl, Tapan; Kotwani, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions. However, in diabetic retinopathy (a neuromicrovascular disorder involving immense neuronal degeneration), BDNF fails to provide enough neuroprotection against oxidative stress-induced retinal neuronal apoptosis. This review describes the prime reasons for the downregulation of BDNF-mediated neuroprotective actions during hyperglycemia, which renders retinal neurons vulnerable to damaging stimuli, leading to diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  6. Ageing, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, M-E; Bevilacqua, L; Hagopian, K; Weindruch, R; Ramsey, J J

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondria are a cell's single greatest source of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells is not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the effects of oxidative stress and ageing on mitochondrial function. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  7. Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Klaunig, James E. Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

    2011-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

  8. Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by noradrenergic regulation of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Isingrini, Elsa; Perret, Léa; Rainer, Quentin; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Guma, Elisa; Tanti, Arnaud; Martin, Garance; Robinson, Jennifer; Moquin, Luc; Marti, Fabio; Mechawar, Naguib; Williams, Sylvain; Gratton, Alain; Giros, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) help mediate stress susceptibility and resilience. However, upstream mechanisms controlling these neurons remain unknown. Noradrenergic (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus, implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, have direct connections within the VTA. Here we demonstrate that NE neurons regulate vulnerability to social defeat through inhibitory control of VTA DA neurons.

  9. Stress enhanced calcium kinetics in a neuron.

    PubMed

    Kant, Aayush; Bhandakkar, Tanmay K; Medhekar, Nikhil V

    2017-08-23

    Accurate modeling of the mechanobiological response of a Traumatic Brain Injury is beneficial toward its effective clinical examination, treatment and prevention. Here, we present a stress history-dependent non-spatial kinetic model to predict the microscale phenomena of secondary insults due to accumulation of excess calcium ions (Ca[Formula: see text]) induced by the macroscale primary injuries. The model is able to capture the experimentally observed increase and subsequent partial recovery of intracellular Ca[Formula: see text] concentration in response to various types of mechanical impulses. We further establish the accuracy of the model by comparing our predictions with key experimental observations.

  10. Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana B.; Kaul, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest a shared critical role of oxidative stress, compromised neuronal energy homeostasis and autophagy in promotion and prevention of neuronal dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection, cART and psychostimulant use. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work related to neuronal stress and injury induced by HIV infection, antiretrovirals (ARVs) and the highly addictive psychostimulant METH. PMID:28241493

  11. Neuronal Stress and Injury Caused by HIV-1, cART and Drug Abuse: Converging Contributions to HAND.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana B; Kaul, Marcus

    2017-02-23

    Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to neuronal stress and injury underlying HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which occur despite the successful introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can itself be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine (METH), seems to compromise antiretroviral therapy and aggravate HAND. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is still incompletely understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest a shared critical role of oxidative stress, compromised neuronal energy homeostasis and autophagy in promotion and prevention of neuronal dysfunction associated with HIV-1 infection, cART and psychostimulant use. In this review, we present a synopsis of recent work related to neuronal stress and injury induced by HIV infection, antiretrovirals (ARVs) and the highly addictive psychostimulant METH.

  12. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle

    PubMed Central

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-01-01

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis. PMID:19500376

  13. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle.

    PubMed

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-06-05

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  14. The ER stress regulator Bip mediates cadmium-induced autophagy and neuronal senescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yuan, Yan; Zou, Hui; Yang, Jinlong; Zhao, Shiwen; Ma, Yonggang; Wang, Yi; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping; Zhu, Jiaqiao

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is protective in cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to induce autophagy in a process requiring the unfolded protein response signalling pathways. Cd treatment significantly increased senescence in neuronal cells, which was aggravated by 3-MA or silencing of Atg5 and abolished by rapamycin. Cd increased expression of ER stress regulators Bip, chop, eIf2α, and ATF4, and activated autophagy as evidenced by upregulated LC3. Moreover, the ER stress inhibitor mithramycin inhibited the expression of ER stress protein chaperone Bip and blocked autophagic flux. Downregulating Bip significantly blocked the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, decreased LC3 puncta formation, and prevented the increase of senescence in PC12 cells. Interestingly, knocking down Bip regulated the expression of p-AMPK, p-AKT and p-s6k induced by Cd. BAPTA, a Bip inhibitor, decreased the expression of p-AMPK and LC3-II, but enhanced neuronal senescence. In addition, we found that siRNA for Bip enhanced GATA4 expression after 6 h Cd exposure in PC12 cells, while rapamycin treatment decreased GATA4 levels induced by 24 h Cd exposure. These results indicate that autophagy degraded GATA4 in a Bip-dependent way. Our findings suggest that autophagy regulated by Bip expression after ER stress suppressed Cd-induced neuronal senescence. PMID:27905509

  15. Oxidative stress and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    Slowing the rate of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a critical part of the management of affected dogs and cats. Renal oxidant stress is a previously unrecognized factor in the progression of canine CKD and is likely to be similarly important in feline CKD. Renin-angiotensin antagonism, calcium channel antagonism, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and antihypertensive and antiproteinuric therapy are commonly recommended for dogs and cats with CKD. These therapies would be expected to reduce renal oxidant stress by decreasing reactive oxygen species generation. Newer data indicate that dietary supplementation with specific antioxidants is an important consideration for limiting renal oxidant stress and progression of CKD.

  16. Oxidative stress and an altered methionine metabolism in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Bleich, S; Spilker, K; Kurth, C; Degner, D; Quintela-Schneider, M; Javaheripour, K; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J

    2000-11-03

    The exact mechanism of brain atrophy in patients with chronic alcoholism remains unknown. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with oxidative stress and with a derangement in sulphur amino acid metabolism (e.g. ethanol-induced hyperhomocysteinemia). Furthermore, it has been reported that homocysteine induces neuronal cell death by stimulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as well as by producing free radicals. To further evaluate this latter hypothesis we analysed serum levels of both homocysteine and markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) in alcoholic patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Homocysteine and malondialdehyde were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples of 35 patients (active drinkers). There was a significant correlation (P<0. 01) between blood alcohol concentration and elevated homocysteine (Spearman's r=0.71) and malondialdehyde (r=0.90) levels on admission. In addition, homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels were found to be significant decreased after 3 days of withdrawal treatment (Wilcoxon test: homocysteine, Z=-5.127; malondialdehyde, Z=-3.120; P<0.01). We postulate that excitatory neurotransmitters and mechanisms of oxidative stress in patients with chronic alcoholism may partly mediate excitotoxic neuronal damage and hereby cause brain shrinkage.

  17. Stress exacerbates neuron loss and microglia proliferation in a rat model of excitotoxic lower motor neuron injury

    PubMed Central

    Puga, Denise A.; Tovar, C. Amy; Guan, Zhen; C.Gensel, John; Lyman, Matthew S.; McTigue, Dana M.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2015-01-01

    All individuals experience stress and hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids/GCs) released during stressful events can affect the structure and function of neurons. These effects of stress are best characterized for brain neurons; however, the mechanisms controlling the expression and binding affinity of glucocorticoid receptors in the spinal cord are different than those in the brain. Accordingly, whether stress exerts unique effects on spinal cord neurons, especially in the context of pathology, is unknown. Using a controlled model of focal excitotoxic lower motor neuron injury in rats, we examined the effects of acute or chronic variable stress on spinal cord motor neuron survival and glial activation. New data indicate that stress exacerbates excitotoxic spinal cord motor neuron loss and associated activation of microglia. In contrast, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of astrocytes and NG2+ glia were unaffected or were modestly suppressed by stress. Although excitotoxic lesions cause significant motor neuron loss and stress exacerbates this pathology, overt functional impairment did not develop in the relevant forelimb up to one week post-lesion. These data indicate that stress is a disease-modifying factor capable of altering neuron and glial responses to pathological challenges in the spinal cord. PMID:26100488

  18. Stress exacerbates neuron loss and microglia proliferation in a rat model of excitotoxic lower motor neuron injury.

    PubMed

    Puga, Denise A; Tovar, C Amy; Guan, Zhen; Gensel, John C; Lyman, Matthew S; McTigue, Dana M; Popovich, Phillip G

    2015-10-01

    All individuals experience stress and hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids/GCs) released during stressful events can affect the structure and function of neurons. These effects of stress are best characterized for brain neurons; however, the mechanisms controlling the expression and binding affinity of glucocorticoid receptors in the spinal cord are different than those in the brain. Accordingly, whether stress exerts unique effects on spinal cord neurons, especially in the context of pathology, is unknown. Using a controlled model of focal excitotoxic lower motor neuron injury in rats, we examined the effects of acute or chronic variable stress on spinal cord motor neuron survival and glial activation. New data indicate that stress exacerbates excitotoxic spinal cord motor neuron loss and associated activation of microglia. In contrast, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of astrocytes and NG2+ glia were unaffected or were modestly suppressed by stress. Although excitotoxic lesions cause significant motor neuron loss and stress exacerbates this pathology, overt functional impairment did not develop in the relevant forelimb up to one week post-lesion. These data indicate that stress is a disease-modifying factor capable of altering neuron and glial responses to pathological challenges in the spinal cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bid mediates fission, membrane permeabilization and peri-nuclear accumulation of mitochondria as a prerequisite for oxidative neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Grohm, Julia; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Culmsee, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo permanent fusion and fission, a process that is important for mitochondrial function and cellular survival. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress disturbs mitochondrial morphology dynamics, resulting in detrimental mitochondrial fragmentation. In particular, such fatal mitochondrial fission has been detected in neurons exposed to oxidative stress, suggesting mitochondrial dynamics as a key feature in intrinsic death pathways. However, the regulation of mitochondrial fission in neurons exposed to lethal stress is largely unknown. Here, we used a model of glutamate toxicity in HT-22 cells for investigating mitochondrial fission and fusion in neurons exposed to oxidative stress. In these immortalized hippocampal neurons, glutamate induces glutathione depletion and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glutamate toxicity resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation and peri-nuclear accumulation of the organelles. Further, mitochondrial fission was associated with loss of mitochondrial outer membrane potential (MOMP). The Bid-inhibitor BI-6c9 prevented MOMP and mitochondrial fission, and protected the cells from cell death. In conclusion, oxidative stress induced by glutamate causes mitochondrial translocation of Bid thereby inducing mitochondrial fission and associated mitochondrial cell death pathways. Inhibiting regulators of pathological mitochondrial fragmentation is proposed as an efficient strategy of neuroprotection.

  20. Immune mechanisms linked to depression via oxidative stress and neuroprogression.

    PubMed

    Bakunina, Nataliia; Pariante, Carmine M; Zunszain, Patricia A

    2015-01-10

    Emerging evidence suggests the significant role of inflammation and oxidative stress as main contributors to the neuroprogression that is observed in major depressive disorder (MDD), where patients show increased inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. The process of neuroprogression includes stage-related neurodegeneration, cell death, reduced neurogenesis, reduced neuronal plasticity and increased autoimmune responses. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the biological imbalance between Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and antioxidants, leading to the alteration of biomolecules and the loss of control of the intracellular redox-related signaling pathways. ROS serve as crucial secondary messengers in signal transduction and significantly affect inflammatory pathways by activating NF-κB and MAPK family stress kinases. When present in excess, ROS inflict damage, affecting cellular constituents with the formation of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, neoepitopes and damage-associated molecular patterns promoting immune response, and ultimately leading to cell death. The failure of cells to adapt to the changes in redox homeostasis and the subsequent cell death, together with the damage caused by inflammatory mediators, have been considered as major causes of neuroprogression and hence MDD. Both an activated immune-inflammatory system and increased oxidative stress act synergistically, complicating our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression. The cascade of antioxidative and inflammatory events is orchestrated by several transcription factors, with Nrf2 and NF-κB having particular relevance to MDD. This review focuses on potential molecular mechanisms through which impaired redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation can affect the neuronal environment and contribute to depression This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune mechanisms linked to depression via oxidative stress and neuroprogression

    PubMed Central

    Bakunina, Nataliia; Pariante, Carmine M; Zunszain, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a significant role for inflammation and oxidative stress as main contributors to the neuroprogression that is observed in major depressive disorder (MDD), where patients show increased inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers. The process of neuroprogression includes stage-related neurodegeneration, cell death, reduced neurogenesis, reduced neuronal plasticity and increased autoimmune responses. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the biological imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, leading to the alteration of biomolecules and the loss of control of the intracellular redox-related signalling pathways. ROS serve as crucial secondary messengers in signal transduction and significantly affect inflammatory pathways by activating nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase family stress kinases. When present in excess, ROS inflict damage, affecting cellular constituents with the formation of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, neoepitopes and damage-associated molecular patterns promoting immune response, and ultimately leading to cell death. The failure of cells to adapt to the changes in redox homeostasis and the subsequent cell death, together with the damage caused by inflammatory mediators, have been considered as major causes of neuroprogression and hence MDD. Both an activated immune–inflammatory system and increased oxidative stress act synergistically, complicating our understanding of the pathogenesis of depression. The cascade of antioxidative and inflammatory events is orchestrated by several transcription factors, with nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and nuclear factor-κB having particular relevance to MDD. This review focuses on potential molecular mechanisms through which impaired redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation can affect the neuronal environment and contribute to depression. PMID:25580634

  2. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  3. Fipronil insecticide toxicology: oxidative stress and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Martínez, María Aránzazu; Wu, Qinghua; Ares, Irma; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    Fipronil (FIP) is widely used across the world as a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide and veterinary drug. FIP was the insecticide to act by targeting the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and has favorable selective toxicity towards insects rather than mammals. However, because of accidental exposure, incorrect use of FIP or widespread FIP use leading to the contamination of water and soil, there is increasing evidence that FIP could cause a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, reproductive, and cytotoxic effects on vertebrate and invertebrates. In the last decade, oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the various toxicities induced by FIP. To date, few reviews have addressed the toxicity of FIP in relation to oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily intended to summarize the progress in research associated with oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for FIP-induced toxicity as well as metabolism. The present review reports that studies have been conducted to reveal the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress as a result of FIP treatment and have correlated them with various types of toxicity. Furthermore, the metabolism of FIP was also reviewed, and during this process, various CYP450 enzymes were involved and oxidative stress might occur. The roles of various compounds in protecting against FIP-induced toxicity based on their anti-oxidative effects were also summarized to further understand the role of oxidative stress in FIP-induced toxicity.

  4. γ-Tocotrienol does not substantially protect DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Then, Sue-Mian; Sanfeliu, Coral; Top, Gapor M; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-05

    Down syndrome (DS) neurons are more susceptible to oxidative stress and previous studies have shown that vitamin E was able to reduce oxidative stress and improve DS neurons' viability. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the protective role of γ-tocotrienol (γT3) in DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced oxidative stress. The pro-apoptosis tendency of γT3 was compared to α-tocopherol (αT) in non-stress condition as well. Primary culture of DS and euploid neurons were divided into six groups of treatment: control, H2O2, γT3 pre-treatment with H2O2, γT3 only, αT pre-treatment with H2O2 and αT only. The treatments were assessed by MTS assay and apoptosis assay by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) apoptosis ELISA assay, Hoechst and Neu-N immunofluorescence staining. The cellular uptake of γT3 and αT was determined by HPLC while protein expressions were determined by Western blot. Comparison between groups was made by the Student's t test, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment as well as two-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons. One day incubation of γT3 was able to reduced apoptosis of DS neurons by 10%, however γT3 was cytotoxic at longer incubation period (14 days) and at concentrations ≥ 100 μM. Pre-treatment of αT and γT3 only attenuate apoptosis and increase cell viability in H2O2-treated DS and euploid neurons by 10% in which the effects were minimal to maintain most of the DS cells' morphology. γT3 act as a free radical scavenger by reducing ROS generated by H2O2. In untreated controls, DS neurons showed lower Bcl-2/Bax ratio and p53 expression compared to normal neurons, while cPKC and PKC-δ expressions were higher in DS neurons. On the other hand, pre-treatment of γT3 in H2O2-treated DS neurons have reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which was not shown in euploid neurons. This suggests that pre-treatment of γT3 did not promote DS cell survival. Meanwhile γT3 and αT treatments without H2O2 as well as pre-treatment of γT3 and

  5. Lutein Protects RGC-5 Cells Against Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suk-Yee; Lo, Amy C. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal ischemia and oxidative stress lead to neuronal death in many ocular pathologies. Recently, we found that lutein, an oxy-carotenoid, protected the inner retina from ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, it is uncertain whether lutein directly protects retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, an in vitro model of hypoxia and oxidative stress was used to further investigate the neuroprotective role of lutein in RGCs. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were added to a transformed RGC cell line, RGC-5, to induce chemical hypoxia and oxidative stress, respectively. Either lutein or vehicle was added to cultured cells. A higher cell count was observed in the lutein-treated cells compared with the vehicle-treated cells. Our data from this in vitro model revealed that lutein might protect RGC-5 cells from damage when exposed to either CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia or H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results suggest that lutein may play a role as a neuroprotectant. PMID:20559505

  6. Meningothelial cells react to elevated pressure and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiaorong; Fan, Bin; Flammer, Josef; Miller, Neil R; Jaggi, Gregor P; Killer, Hanspeter E; Meyer, Peter; Neutzner, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Meningothelial cells (MECs) are the cellular components of the meninges enveloping the brain. Although MECs are not fully understood, several functions of these cells have been described. The presence of desmosomes and tight junctions between MECs hints towards a barrier function protecting the brain. In addition, MECs perform endocytosis and, by the secretion of cytokines, are involved in immunological processes in the brain. However, little is known about the influence of pathological conditions on MEC function; e.g., during diseases associated with elevated intracranial pressure, hypoxia or increased oxidative stress. We studied the effect of elevated pressure, hypoxia, and oxidative stress on immortalized human as well as primary porcine MECs. We used MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) bioreduction assays to assess the proliferation of MECs in response to treatment and compared to untreated control cells. To assess endocytotic activity, the uptake of fluorescently labeled latex beads was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. We found that exposure of MECs to elevated pressure caused significant cellular proliferation and a dramatic decrease in endocytotic activity. In addition, mild oxidative stress severely inhibited endocytosis. Elevated pressure and oxidative stress impact MEC physiology and might therefore influence the microenvironment of the subarachnoid space and thus the cerebrospinal fluid within this compartment with potential negative impact on neuronal function.

  7. Increasing Fatty Acid Oxidation Remodels the Hypothalamic Neurometabolome to Mitigate Stress and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Joseph W.; Aja, Susan; Li, Qun; Bandaru, Veera V. R.; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Haughey, Norman J.; Kuhajda, Francis P.; Ronnett, Gabriele V.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA) metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO) from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx), exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism. PMID:25541737

  8. Oxidative stress and nerve damage: Role in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Naidu, VGM; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a severe dose limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy. Ever since it was identified, the clear pathological mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) remain sparse and considerable involvement of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation has been realized recently. Despite the empirical use of antioxidants in the therapy of CIPN, the oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage in peripheral neuropathy is still debatable. The current review focuses on nerve damage due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as key pathogenic mechanisms involved in CIPN. Oxidative stress as a central mediator of apoptosis, neuroinflammation, metabolic disturbances and bioenergetic failure in neurons has been highlighted in this review along with a summary of research on dietary antioxidants and other nutraceuticals which have undergone prospective controlled clinical trials in patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24494204

  9. Quercetin prevents chronic unpredictable stress induced behavioral dysfunction in mice by alleviating hippocampal oxidative and inflammatory stress.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Vineet; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-03-15

    It is now evident that chronic stress is associated with anxiety, depression and cognitive dysfunction and very few studies have focused on identifying possible methods to prevent these stress-induced disorders. Previously, we identified abundance of quercetin in Urtica dioica extract, which efficiently attenuated stress related complications. Therefore, current study was designed to investigate the effect of quercetin on chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) induced behavioral dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the mouse hippocampus. Animals were subjected to unpredicted stress for 21days, during which 30mg/kg quercetin was orally administered to them. Effect of CUS and quercetin treatment on animal behavior was assessed between day 22-26. Afterward, the hippocampus was processed to evaluate neuronal damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress. Results revealed that stressed animals were highly anxious (Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field), showed depressive-like behavior (sucrose preference task), performed poorly in short-term and long-term associative memory task (passive avoidance step-through task) and displayed reduced locomotion (open field). Quercetin alleviated behavioral dysfunction in chronically stressed animals. Compared to CUS, quercetin treatment significantly reduced anxiety, attenuated depression, improved cognitive dysfunction and normalized locomotor activity. Further, CUS elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers (TBARS, nitric oxide), lowered antioxidants (total thiol, catalase), enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2) in the hippocampus and damaged hippocampal neurons. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered oxidative and inflammatory stress and prevented neural damage. In conclusion, quercetin can efficiently prevent stress induced neurological complications by rescuing brain from oxidative and inflammatory stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ER stress and impaired autophagy flux in neuronal degeneration and brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan; Sun, George; Li, Eric; Kiselyov, Kirill; Sun, Dandan

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is a highly controlled lysosome-mediated function in eukaryotic cells to eliminate damaged or aged long-lived proteins and organelles. It is required for restoring cellular homeostasis in cell survival under multiple stresses. Autophagy is known to be a double-edged sword because too much activation or inhibition of autophagy can disrupt homeostatic degradation of protein and organelles within the brain and play a role in neuronal cell death. Many factors affect autophagy flux function in the brain, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, and aging. Newly emerged research indicates that altered autophagy flux functionality is involved in neurodegeneration of the aged brain, chronic neurological diseases, and after traumatic and ischemic brain injuries. In search to identify neuroprotective agents that may reduce oxidative stress and stimulate autophagy, one particular neuroprotective agent docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) presents unique functions in reducing ER and oxidative stress and modulating autophagy. This review will summarize the recent findings on changes of autophagy in aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain injury after trauma or ischemic strokes. Discussion of DHA functions is focused on modulating ER stress and autophagy in regard to its neuroprotection and anti-tumor functions.

  11. Antenatal Insults Modify Newborn Olfactory Function By Nitric Oxide Produced From Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Yu, Lei; Yang, Yirong; Khalid, Syed; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Ji, Haitao; Derrick, Matthew; Kay, Leslie; Silverman, Richard B.; Tan, Sidhartha

    2012-01-01

    Newborn feeding, maternal, bonding, growth and wellbeing depend upon intact odor recognition in the early postnatal period. Antenatal stress may affect postnatal odor recognition. We investigated the exact role of a neurotransmitter, nitric oxide (NO), in newborn olfactory function. We hypothesized that olfactory neuron activity depended on NO generated by neuronal NO synthase (NOS). Utilizing in vivo functional manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy we had shown previously that in utero hypoxia ischemia (H-I) at E22 (70% gestation) resulted in impaired postnatal response to odorants and poor feeding. With the same antenatal insult, we manipulated NO levels in the olfactory neuron in postnatal day 1 (P1) kits by administration of intranasal NO donors or a highly selective nNOS inhibitor. Olfactory function was quantitatively measured by the response to amyl acetate stimulation by MEMRI. The relevance of nNOS to normal olfactory development was confirmed by the increase of nNOS gene expression from fetal ages to P1 in olfactory epithelium and bulbs. In control kits, nNOS inhibition decreased NO production in the olfactory system and increased MEMRI slope enhancement. In H-I kits the MEMRI slope did not increase, implicating modification of endogenous NO-mediated olfactory function by the antenatal insult. NO donors as a source of exogenous NO did not significantly change function in either group. In conclusion, olfactory epithelium nNOS in newborn rabbits probably modulates olfactory signal transduction. Antenatal H-I injury remote from delivery may affect early functional development of the olfactory system by decreasing NO-dependent signal transduction. PMID:22836143

  12. Mitochondrial biology and oxidative stress in Parkinson disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Henchcliffe, Claire; Beal, M Flint

    2008-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, as well as with more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex and variable motor and nonmotor symptoms. Recent rapid advances in PD genetics have revealed a prominent role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of the disease, and the products of several PD-associated genes, including SNCA, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2 and HTR2A, show a degree of localization to the mitochondria under certain conditions. Impaired mitochondrial function is likely to increase oxidative stress and might render cells more vulnerable to this and other related processes, including excitotoxicity. The mitochondria, therefore, represent a highly promising target for the development of disease biomarkers by use of genetic, biochemical and bioimaging approaches. Novel therapeutic interventions that modify mitochondrial function are currently under development, and a large phase III clinical trial is underway to examine whether high-dose oral coenzyme Q10 will slow disease progression. In this Review, we examine evidence for the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in the neuronal loss that leads to PD and discuss how this knowledge might further improve patient management and aid in the development of 'mitochondrial therapy' for PD.

  13. Antihelminthic benzimidazoles are novel HIF activators that prevent oxidative neuronal death via binding to tubulin.

    PubMed

    Aleyasin, Hossein; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Kumar, Amit; Sleiman, Sama; Basso, Manuela; Ma, Thong; Siddiq, Ambreena; Chinta, Shankar J; Brochier, Camille; Langley, Brett; Haskew-Layton, Renee; Bane, Susan L; Riggins, Gregory J; Gazaryan, Irina; Starkov, Anatoly A; Andersen, Julie K; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2015-01-10

    Pharmacological activation of the adaptive response to hypoxia is a therapeutic strategy of growing interest for neurological conditions, including stroke, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We screened a drug library with known safety in humans using a hippocampal neuroblast line expressing a reporter of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcription. Our screen identified more than 40 compounds with the ability to induce hypoxia response element-driven luciferase activity as well or better than deferoxamine, a canonical activator of hypoxic adaptation. Among the chemical entities identified, the antihelminthic benzimidazoles represented one pharmacophore that appeared multiple times in our screen. Secondary assays confirmed that antihelminthics stabilized the transcriptional activator HIF-1α and induced expression of a known HIF target gene, p21(cip1/waf1), in post-mitotic cortical neurons. The on-target effect of these agents in stimulating hypoxic signaling was binding to free tubulin. Moreover, antihelminthic benzimidazoles also abrogated oxidative stress-induced death in vitro, and this on-target effect also involves binding to free tubulin. These studies demonstrate that tubulin-binding drugs can activate a component of the hypoxic adaptive response, specifically the stabilization of HIF-1α and its downstream targets. Tubulin-binding drugs, including antihelminthic benzimidazoles, also abrogate oxidative neuronal death in primary neurons. Given their safety in humans and known ability to penetrate into the central nervous system, antihelminthic benzimidazoles may be considered viable candidates for treating diseases associated with oxidative neuronal death, including stroke.

  14. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation from aerobic glycolysis to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Mertens, Jerome; Kim, Yongsung; Ma, Li; Ma, Li; Hamm, Michael; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    How metabolism is reprogrammed during neuronal differentiation is unknown. We found that the loss of hexokinase (HK2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) expression, together with a switch in pyruvate kinase gene splicing from PKM2 to PKM1, marks the transition from aerobic glycolysis in neural progenitor cells (NPC) to neuronal oxidative phosphorylation. The protein levels of c-MYC and N-MYC, transcriptional activators of the HK2 and LDHA genes, decrease dramatically. Constitutive expression of HK2 and LDHA during differentiation leads to neuronal cell death, indicating that the shut-off aerobic glycolysis is essential for neuronal survival. The metabolic regulators PGC-1α and ERRγ increase significantly upon neuronal differentiation to sustain the transcription of metabolic and mitochondrial genes, whose levels are unchanged compared to NPCs, revealing distinct transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in the proliferation and post-mitotic differentiation states. Mitochondrial mass increases proportionally with neuronal mass growth, indicating an unknown mechanism linking mitochondrial biogenesis to cell size. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13374.001 PMID:27282387

  15. Accumulation of iron oxide nanoparticles by cultured primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Petters, Charlotte; Dringen, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are frequently used for biomedical applications. Although nanoparticles can enter the brain, little is known so far on the uptake of IONPs in neurons and on their neurotoxic potential. Hence, we applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONPs to cultured primary rat cerebellar granule neurons. These IONPs had average hydrodynamic diameters of around 80 nm and 120 nm when dispersed in incubation medium in the absence and the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively. Acute exposure of neurons with IONPs for up to 6 h did neither alter the cell morphology nor compromise cell viability, although neurons accumulated large amounts of IONPs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner which caused delayed toxicity. For the first 30 min of incubation of neurons at 37 °C with IONPs the cellular iron content increased proportionally to the concentration of IONPs applied irrespective of the absence and the presence of serum. IONP-exposure in the absence of serum generated maximal cellular iron contents of around 3000 nmol iron/mg protein after 4 h of incubation, while the accumulation in the presence of 10% serum was slower and reached already within 1 h maximal values of around 450 nmol iron/mg protein. For both incubation conditions was the increase in cellular iron contents significantly lowered by reducing the incubation temperature to 4 °C. Application of inhibitors of endocytotic pathways did not affect neuronal IONP accumulation in the absence of serum, while inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis lowered significantly the IONP accumulation in the presence of serum. These data demonstrate that DMSA-coated IONPs are not acutely toxic to cultured neurons and that a protein corona around the particles strongly affects their interaction with neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  17. Mechanisms of Neuronal Protection against Excitotoxicity, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Stroke and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Howard; Modi, Jigar Pravinchandra; Wu, Jang-Yen

    2015-01-01

    In stroke and neurodegenerative disease, neuronal excitotoxicity, caused by increased extracellular glutamate levels, is known to result in calcium overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial deficits may involve a deficiency in energy supply as well as generation of high levels of oxidants which are key contributors to neuronal cell death through necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. Excessive glutamate receptor stimulation also results in increased nitric oxide generation which can be detrimental to cells as nitric oxide interacts with superoxide to form the toxic molecule peroxynitrite. High level oxidant production elicits neuronal apoptosis through the actions of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition to apoptotic responses to severe stress, accumulation of misfolded proteins and high levels of oxidants can elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways which may also contribute to induction of apoptosis. Two categories of therapeutics are discussed that impact major pro-death events that include induction of oxidants, calcium overload, and ER stress. The first category of therapeutic agent includes the amino acid taurine which prevents calcium overload and is also capable of preventing ER stress by inhibiting specific ER stress pathways. The second category involves N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) partial antagonists illustrated by S-Methyl-N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate sulfoxide (DETC-MeSO), and memantine. DETC-MeSO is protective through preventing excitotoxicity and calcium overload and by blocking specific ER stress pathways. Another NMDA receptor partial antagonist is memantine which prevents excessive glutamate excitation but also remarkably allows maintenance of physiological neurotransmission. Targeting of these major sites of neuronal damage using pharmacological agents is discussed in terms of potential therapeutic approaches for neurological disorders.

  18. Oxidative stress in the human fetal brain: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Muramatsu, Fumiaki; Sakayori, Noriko; Kobayashi, Makio

    2002-02-01

    Because accumulation of oxidative modification products seems to relate to aging and has not been fully studied in fetal brains, an immunohistochemical examination was performed on nine brains ranging from 22-40 weeks of gestation. These brains did not demonstrate lesions except hypoxic-ischemic changes. Advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal are generally reported to be negative in neurons of normal young brains, but, in the present study, distinct positive immunoreaction was observed in neurons of fetal brains. Positive immunoreaction appeared earlier in the medulla oblongata than in the cerebrum, and 4-hydroxynonenal began to accumulate earlier than advanced glycation end products. As for glial cells, advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal were positive in reactive astrocytes in mid- to late gestation. Because hypoxic-ischemic changes were observed in most of the patients, it is possible that oxidative stress caused by hypoxic-ischemic may be involved in the accumulation of these products in the fetal brain. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine was negative even in patients demonstrating positive reaction for advanced glycation end products and 4-hydroxynonenal. In the fetal brain, DNA might be strongly protected from oxidative damage. 4-Hydroxynonenal is generally positive in the cytoplasm but was positive in the nucleus of immature neurons and glial cells in the present study, suggesting a unique metabolism of the fetal brain.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Weiger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences. PMID:26287261

  20. Oxidative stress in aging human skin.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-04-21

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.

  1. Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bischof, Johannes; Streubel, Maria Karolin; Trost, Andrea; Richter, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis. PMID:25906193

  2. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vivek; Yadav, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. PMID:24587990

  3. Oxidative Stress in Placenta: Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Tian, Fu-Ju; Lin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, development of the placenta is interrelated with the oxygen concentration. Embryo development takes place in a low oxygen environment until the beginning of the second trimester when large amounts of oxygen are conveyed to meet the growth requirements. High metabolism and oxidative stress are common in the placenta. Reactive oxidative species sometimes harm placental development, but they are also reported to regulate gene transcription and downstream activities such as trophoblast proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. Autophagy and apoptosis are two crucial, interconnected processes in the placenta that are often influenced by oxidative stress. The proper interactions between them play an important role in placental homeostasis. However, an imbalance between the protective and destructive mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis seems to be linked with pregnancy-related disorders such as miscarriage, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Thus, potential therapies to hold oxidative stress in leash, promote placentation, and avoid unwanted apoptosis are discussed. PMID:26693479

  4. Mammalian Metallothionein-2A and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xue-Bin; Wei, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jun; Kong, Yue-Qiong; Wu, Yu-You; Guo, Jun-Li; Li, Tian-Fa; Li, Ji-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian metallothionein-2A (MT2A) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its crucial pathophysiological role in anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, detoxification and anti-inflammation. For many years, most studies evaluating the effects of MT2A have focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS), as second messengers that lead to oxidative stress injury of cells and tissues. Recent studies have highlighted that oxidative stress could activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and MT2A, as a mediator of MAPKs, to regulate the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the molecule mechanism of MT2A remains elusive. A deeper understanding of the functional, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MT2A would be identified, in order to bring new opportunities for oxidative stress therapy. PMID:27608012

  5. Oxidative stress in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Coppo, R; Camilla, R; Amore, A; Peruzzi, L

    2010-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by mesangial deposits of IgA1, likely due to accumulation of IgA immune complexes. The activation of intracellular signaling mostly results in oxidative stress, as detected in mesangial cells cultured with aberrantly glycosylated IgA or IgA aggregates and in renal biopsies of patients with IgAN. Signs of altered oxidation/antioxidation balance have been detected in sera and/or in erythrocytes of patients with IgAN, including increased levels of lipoperoxide or malondialdehyde and reduced activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, increased levels of a marker of oxidative stress, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), have been reported to be significantly associated with proteinuria and disease progression in patients with IgAN. AOPPs are often carried by albumin and can in turn enhance the oxidative stress in the circulation. Recent research suggests that the nephrotoxicity of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN is enhanced in the presence of systemic signs of oxidative stress, and it is tempting to hypothesize that the level of the oxidative milieu conditions the different expression and progression of IgAN.

  6. Oxidative stress in severe acute illness

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Or, David; Bar-Or, Raphael; Rael, Leonard T.; Brody, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    The overall redox potential of a cell is primarily determined by oxidizable/reducible chemical pairs, including glutathione–glutathione disulfide, reduced thioredoxin–oxidized thioredoxin, and NAD+–NADH (and NADP–NADPH). Current methods for evaluating oxidative stress rely on detecting levels of individual byproducts of oxidative damage or by determining the total levels or activity of individual antioxidant enzymes. Oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), on the other hand, is an integrated, comprehensive measure of the balance between total (known and unknown) pro-oxidant and antioxidant components in a biological system. Much emphasis has been placed on the role of oxidative stress in chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. The role of oxidative stress in acute diseases often seen in the emergency room and intensive care unit is considerable. New tools for the rapid, inexpensive measurement of both redox potential and total redox capacity should aid in introducing a new body of literature on the role of oxidative stress in acute illness and how to screen and monitor for potentially beneficial pharmacologic agents. PMID:25644686

  7. Role of oxidative stress on platelet hyperreactivity during aging.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2016-03-01

    Thrombotic events are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Age-accelerated vascular injury is commonly considered to result from increased oxidative stress. There is abundant evidence that oxidative stress regulate several components of thrombotic processes, including platelet activation. Thus oxidative stress can trigger platelet hyperreactivity by decreasing nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore oxidative stress measurement may help in the early identification of asymptomatic subjects at risk of thrombosis. In addition, oxidative stress inhibitors and platelet-derived nitric oxide may represent a novel anti-aggregation/-activation approach. In this article the relative contribution of oxidative stress and platelet activation in aging is explored.

  8. Morphine as a Potential Oxidative Stress-Causing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Skrabalova, Jitka; Drastichova, Zdenka; Novotny, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Morphine exhibits important pharmacological effects for which it has been used in medical practice for quite a long time. However, it has a high addictive potential and can be abused. Long-term use of this drug can be connected with some pathological consequences including neurotoxicity and neuronal dysfunction, hepatotoxicity, kidney dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, most studies examining the impact of morphine have been aimed at determining the effects induced by chronic morphine exposure in the brain, liver, cardiovascular system and macrophages. It appears that different tissues may respond to morphine diversely and are distinctly susceptible to oxidative stress and subsequent oxidative damage of biomolecules. Importantly, production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species induced by morphine, which have been observed under different experimental conditions, can contribute to some pathological processes, degenerative diseases and organ dysfunctions occurring in morphine abusers or morphine-treated patients. This review attempts to provide insights into the possible relationship between morphine actions and oxidative stress. PMID:24376392

  9. Oxidative Stress Resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans†

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Dea; Radman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Deinococcus radiodurans is a robust bacterium best known for its capacity to repair massive DNA damage efficiently and accurately. It is extremely resistant to many DNA-damaging agents, including ionizing radiation and UV radiation (100 to 295 nm), desiccation, and mitomycin C, which induce oxidative damage not only to DNA but also to all cellular macromolecules via the production of reactive oxygen species. The extreme resilience of D. radiodurans to oxidative stress is imparted synergistically by an efficient protection of proteins against oxidative stress and an efficient DNA repair mechanism, enhanced by functional redundancies in both systems. D. radiodurans assets for the prevention of and recovery from oxidative stress are extensively reviewed here. Radiation- and desiccation-resistant bacteria such as D. radiodurans have substantially lower protein oxidation levels than do sensitive bacteria but have similar yields of DNA double-strand breaks. These findings challenge the concept of DNA as the primary target of radiation toxicity while advancing protein damage, and the protection of proteins against oxidative damage, as a new paradigm of radiation toxicity and survival. The protection of DNA repair and other proteins against oxidative damage is imparted by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense systems dominated by divalent manganese complexes. Given that oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is associated with aging and cancer, a comprehensive outlook on D. radiodurans strategies of combating oxidative stress may open new avenues for antiaging and anticancer treatments. The study of the antioxidation protection in D. radiodurans is therefore of considerable potential interest for medicine and public health. PMID:21372322

  10. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  11. Radical-free biology of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2008-01-01

    Free radical-induced macromolecular damage has been studied extensively as a mechanism of oxidative stress, but large-scale intervention trials with free radical scavenging antioxidant supplements show little benefit in humans. The present review summarizes data supporting a complementary hypothesis for oxidative stress in disease that can occur without free radicals. This hypothesis, which is termed the “redox hypothesis,” is that oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of disruption of thiol redox circuits, which normally function in cell signaling and physiological regulation. The redox states of thiol systems are sensitive to two-electron oxidants and controlled by the thioredoxins (Trx), glutathione (GSH), and cysteine (Cys). Trx and GSH systems are maintained under stable, but nonequilibrium conditions, due to a continuous oxidation of cell thiols at a rate of about 0.5% of the total thiol pool per minute. Redox-sensitive thiols are critical for signal transduction (e.g., H-Ras, PTP-1B), transcription factor binding to DNA (e.g., Nrf-2, nuclear factor-κB), receptor activation (e.g., αIIbβ3 integrin in platelet activation), and other processes. Nonradical oxidants, including peroxides, aldehydes, quinones, and epoxides, are generated enzymatically from both endogenous and exogenous precursors and do not require free radicals as intermediates to oxidize or modify these thiols. Because of the nonequilibrium conditions in the thiol pathways, aberrant generation of nonradical oxidants at rates comparable to normal oxidation may be sufficient to disrupt function. Considerable opportunity exists to elucidate specific thiol control pathways and develop interventional strategies to restore normal redox control and protect against oxidative stress in aging and age-related disease. PMID:18684987

  12. Oxidative stress in patients with nongenital warts.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer; Kurutas, Ergul Belge

    2005-08-31

    Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male) and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P< .05). However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Nongenital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer; Belge Kurutas, Ergul

    2005-01-01

    Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male) and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P < .05). However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress. PMID:16192674

  14. Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Y; Barouki, R

    1999-01-01

    Gene expression is modulated by both physiological signals (hormones, cytokines, etc.) and environmental stimuli (physical parameters, xenobiotics, etc.). Oxidative stress appears to be a key pleiotropic modulator which may be involved in either pathway. Indeed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been described as second messengers for several growth factors and cytokines, but have also been shown to rise following cellular insults such as xenobiotic metabolism or enzymic deficiency. Extensive studies on the induction of stress-response genes by oxidative stress have been reported. In contrast, owing to the historical focus on gene induction, less attention has been paid to gene repression by ROS. However, a growing number of studies have shown that moderate (i.e. non-cytotoxic) oxidative stress specifically down-regulates the expression of various genes. In this review, we describe the alteration of several physiological functions resulting from oxidative-stress-mediated inhibition of gene transcription. We will then focus on the repressive oxidative modulation of various transcription factors elicited by ROS. PMID:10477257

  15. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. PMID:26512646

  16. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

  17. Oxidative Stress Marker and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Draganovic, Dragica; Lucic, Nenad; Jojic, Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. Hence, research and test of role and significance of oxidative stress in hypertensive disturbance in pregnancy is very important. Aim: Aims of this research were to determine a level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as oxidative stress marker in blood of pregnant woman with pregnancy induced hypertension and to analyze correlation of TBARS values with blood pressure values in pregnancy induced hypertensive pregnant women. Patients and methods: Research has been performed at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Centre in the Republic of Srpska. It covered 100 pregnant women with hypertension and 100 healthy pregnant women of gestation period from 28 to 40 weeks. Level of TBARS is determined as an equivalent of malondialdehyde standard, in accordance with recommendations by producer (Oxi Select TBARS Analisa Kit). Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. All pregnant women experiencing hypertension had increased TBARS values in medium value interval over 20 µmol, 66%, whereas in group of healthy pregnant women, only 1% experienced increased TBARS value. Pregnant women with difficult preeclampsia (32%) had high TBARS values, over 40 µmol, and with mild PIH, only 4.9% pregnant women. Conclusion: Pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension have extremely increased degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. TBARS values are in positive correlation with blood pressure values, respectively the highest TBARS value were present in pregnant women with the highest blood pressure values. PMID:28210016

  18. Contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Dikalova, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In 1954 Harman proposed the free radical theory of aging, and in 1972 he suggested that mitochondria are both the source and the victim of toxic free radicals. Interestingly, hypertension is age-associated disease and clinical data show that by age 70, 70% of the population has hypertension and this is accompanied by oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy however is not currently available and common antioxidants like ascorbate and vitamin E are ineffective in preventing hypertension. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress and therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondria in hypertension. Recent findings In the past several years, we have shown that the mitochondria become dysfunctional in hypertension and have defined novel role of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in this disease. We have shown that genetic manipulation of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD2) affects blood pressure and have developed mitochondria-targeted therapies such as SOD2 mimetics that effectively lower blood pressure. The specific mechanism of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension, however, remains unclear. Recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated several hormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and environmental pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Summary Nutritional supplements, calorie restriction, and life style change are the most effective preventive strategies to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Aging associated mitochondrial dysfunction, however, reduces efficacy of these strategies. Therefore, we propose that new classes of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can provide high therapeutic potential to improve endothelial function and reduce hypertension. PMID:26717313

  19. Oxr1 Is Essential for Protection against Oxidative Stress-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Benjamin; Bitoun, Emmanuelle; Butts, Darcy L.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Cheeseman, Michael T.; Davies, Ben; Davies, Kay E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common etiological feature of neurological disorders, although the pathways that govern defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegeneration remain unclear. We have identified the role of oxidation resistance 1 (Oxr1) as a vital protein that controls the sensitivity of neuronal cells to oxidative stress; mice lacking Oxr1 display cerebellar neurodegeneration, and neurons are less susceptible to exogenous stress when the gene is over-expressed. A conserved short isoform of Oxr1 is also sufficient to confer this neuroprotective property both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, biochemical assays indicate that Oxr1 itself is susceptible to cysteine-mediated oxidation. Finally we show up-regulation of Oxr1 in both human and pre-symptomatic mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicating that Oxr1 is potentially a novel neuroprotective factor in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22028674

  20. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Potential markers of oxidative stress in stroke.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Antonio; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Polidori, M Cristina; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2005-10-01

    Free radical production is increased in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, leading to oxidative stress that contributes to brain damage. The measurement of oxidative stress in stroke would be extremely important for a better understanding of its pathophysiology and for identifying subgroups of patients that might receive targeted therapeutic intervention. Since direct measurement of free radicals and oxidized molecules in the brain is difficult in humans, several biological substances have been investigated as potential peripheral markers. Among lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde, despite its relevant methodological limitations, is correlated with the size of ischemic stroke and clinical outcome, while F2-isoprostanes appear to be promising, but they have not been adequately evaluated. 8-Hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine has been extensively investigated as markers of oxidative DNA damage but no study has been done in stroke patients. Also enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants have been proposed as indirect markers. Among them ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, uric acid, and superoxide dismutase are related to brain damage and clinical outcome. After a critical evaluation of the literature, we conclude that, while an ideal biomarker is not yet available, the balance between antioxidants and by-products of oxidative stress in the organism might be the best approach for the evaluation of oxidative stress in stroke patients.

  2. Oxidative stress inhibits calpain activity in situ.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, R P; Johnson, G V

    1998-05-22

    In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on calpain-mediated proteolysis and calpain I autolysis in situ were examined. Calpain activity was stimulated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of the membrane-permeable fluorescent substrate N-succinyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-L-tyrosine-7-amido-4-methylcouma rin, as well as the endogenous protein substrates microtubule-associated protein 2, tau and spectrin, was measured. Oxidative stress, induced by addition of either doxorubicin or 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide, resulted in a significant decrease in the extent of ionophore-stimulated calpain activity of both the fluorescent compound and the endogenous substrates compared with control, normoxic conditions. Addition of glutathione ethyl ester, as well as other antioxidants, resulted in the retention/recovery of calpain activity, indicating that oxidation-induced calpain inactivation was preventable/reversible. The rate of autolytic conversion of the large subunit of calpain I from 80 to 78 to 76 kDa was decreased during oxidative stress; however, the extent of calpain autolysis was not altered. These data indicate that oxidative stress may reversibly inactivate calpain I in vivo.

  3. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    PubMed Central

    Hacioglu, Gulay; Senturk, Ayse; Ince, Imran; Alver, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain. PMID:27279982

  4. The role of intracellular zinc release in aging, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Meghan C.; Aizenman, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is marked by structural, chemical, and genetic changes leading to cognitive decline and impaired neural functioning. Further, aging itself is also a risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative disorders, most notably Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many of the pathological changes associated with aging and aging-related disorders have been attributed in part to increased and unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain. ROS are produced as a physiological byproduct of various cellular processes, and are normally detoxified by enzymes and antioxidants to help maintain neuronal homeostasis. However, cellular injury can cause excessive ROS production, triggering a state of oxidative stress that can lead to neuronal cell death. ROS and intracellular zinc are intimately related, as ROS production can lead to oxidation of proteins that normally bind the metal, thereby causing the liberation of zinc in cytoplasmic compartments. Similarly, not only can zinc impair mitochondrial function, leading to excess ROS production, but it can also activate a variety of extra-mitochondrial ROS-generating signaling cascades. As such, numerous accounts of oxidative neuronal injury by ROS-producing sources appear to also require zinc. We suggest that zinc deregulation is a common, perhaps ubiquitous component of injurious oxidative processes in neurons. This review summarizes current findings on zinc dyshomeostasis-driven signaling cascades in oxidative stress and age-related neurodegeneration, with a focus on AD, in order to highlight the critical role of the intracellular liberation of the metal during oxidative neuronal injury. PMID:24860495

  5. Low Extracellular Zinc Increases Neuronal Oxidant Production Through NADPH Oxidase and Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Aimo, Lucila; Cherr, Gary N.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    A decrease in zinc (Zn) levels increases the production of cell oxidants, affects the oxidant defense system and triggers oxidant sensitive signals in neuronal cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This work tested the hypothesis that the increase in neuronal oxidants that occurs when cellular Zn decreases is mediated by the activation of the NMDA receptor. Differentiated PC12 cells were cultured in control, Zn-deficient or Zn-repleted media. The incubation in Zn deficient media led to a rapid increase in cellular calcium levels, which was prevented by a NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801). Cellular calcium accumulation was associated with NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation, an increase in cell oxidant levels, and an associated activation of a redox-sensitive signal (AP-1). In cells incubated in the Zn deficient medium, NADPH oxidase activation was prevented by MK-801 and by a protein kinase C inhibitor. The rise in cell oxidants was prevented by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, of the NOS and by MK-801. A similar pattern of inhibitor action was observed for zinc deficiency-induced AP-1 activation. Results demonstrate that a decrease in extracellular Zn leads to an increase in neuronal oxidants through the activation of the NMDAR that leads to calcium influx and to a calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C/NADPH oxidase and NOS. Changes in extracellular Zn concentrations can be sensed by neurons, which using reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as second messengers, can regulate signaling involved in neuronal development and function. PMID:20211250

  6. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Galley, H F

    2011-07-01

    Sepsis-related organ dysfunction remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU), despite advances in healthcare and science. Marked oxidative stress as a result of the inflammatory responses inherent with sepsis initiates changes in mitochondrial function which may result in organ damage. Normally, a complex system of interacting antioxidant defences is able to combat oxidative stress and prevents damage to mitochondria. Despite the accepted role that oxidative stress-mediated injury plays in the development of organ failure, there is still little conclusive evidence of any beneficial effect of systemic antioxidant supplementation in patients with sepsis and organ dysfunction. It has been suggested, however, that antioxidant therapy delivered specifically to mitochondria may be useful.

  7. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  8. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jason M

    2006-12-01

    Emerging evidence shows that redox-sensitive signal transduction pathways are critical for developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. As a consequence, teratogens that induce oxidative stress (OS) may induce teratogenesis via the misregulation of these same pathways. Many of these pathways are regulated by cellular thiol redox couples, namely glutathione/glutathione disulfide, thioredoxinred/thioredoinox, and cysteine/cystine. This review outlines oxidative stress as a mechanism of teratogenesis through the disruption of thiol-mediated redox signaling. Due to the ability of many known and suspected teratogens to induce oxidative stress and the many signaling pathways that have redox-sensitive components, further research is warranted to fully understand these mechanisms.

  9. Protein misfolding and oxidative stress promote glial-mediated neurodegeneration in an Alexander disease model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqun; Colodner, Kenneth J.; Feany, Mel B.

    2011-01-01

    Although alterations in glial structure and function commonly accompany death of neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, the role glia play in modulating neuronal loss is poorly understood. We have created a model of Alexander disease in Drosophila by expressing disease-linked mutant versions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in fly glia. We find aggregation of mutant human GFAP into inclusions bearing the hallmarks of authentic Rosenthal fibers. We also observe significant toxicity of mutant human GFAP to glia, which is mediated by protein aggregation and oxidative stress. Both protein aggregation and oxidative stress contribute to activation of a robust autophagic response in glia. Toxicity of mutant GFAP to glial cells induces a non-cell autonomous stress response and subsequent apoptosis in neurons, which is dependent on glial glutamate transport. Our findings thus establish a simple genetic model of Alexander disease and further identify cellular pathways critical for glial-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:21414908

  10. Synaptic activity protects neurons against calcium-mediated oxidation and contraction of mitochondria during excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Depp, Constanze; Bas-Orth, Carlos; Schroeder, Lisa; Hellwig, Andrea; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-10-07

    Excitotoxicity triggered by extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke. Mitochondrial calcium overload leading to mitochondrial dysfunction represents an early event in excitotoxicity. Neurons are rendered resistant to excitotoxicity by previous periods of synaptic activity that activates a nuclear calcium-driven neuroprotective gene program. This process, termed acquired neuroprotection, involves transcriptional repression of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter leading to a reduction in excitotoxcity-associated mitochondrial calcium load. As mitochondrial calcium and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be linked, we monitored excitotoxicity-associated changes in the mitochondrial redox status using the ratiometric glutathione redox potential indicator, Grx1-roGFP2, targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Aim of this study was to investigate if suppression of oxidative stress underlies mitoprotection afforded by synaptic activity. We found that synaptic activity protects primary rat hippocampal neurons against acute excitotoxicity-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitochondrial contraction associated with it. Downregulation of the mitochondrial uniporter by genetic means mimics the protective effect of synaptic activity on mitochondrial redox status. These findings indicate that oxidative stress acts downstream of mitochondrial calcium overload in excitotoxicity. Innovation and conclusion: We established mito-Grx1-roGFP2 as a reliable and sensitive tool to monitor rapid redox changes in mitochondria during excitotoxicity. Our results highlight the importance of developing means of blocking mitochondrial calcium overload for therapeutic targeting of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Brahm Kumar; Pandey, Kanti Bhooshan; Abidi, A. B.; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rising all over the world. Uncontrolled state of hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion/action leads to a variety of complications including peripheral vascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, morbidity, and/or mortality. Large body of evidence suggests major role of reactive oxygen species/oxidative stress in development and progression of diabetic complications. In the present paper, we have discussed the recent researches on the biomarkers of oxidative stress during type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26317014

  12. Oxidative Stress, Molecular Inflammation and Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Si-Jin; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the decline of muscle mass and strength with age. Evidence suggests that oxidative stress and molecular inflammation play important roles in age-related muscle atrophy. The two factors may interfere with the balance between protein synthesis and breakdown, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and induce apoptosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss some of the major signaling pathways that are activated or inactivated during the oxidative stress and molecular inflammation seen in aged skeletal muscle. Combined interventions that may be required to reverse sarcopenia, such as exercise, caloric restriction, and nutrition, will also be discussed. PMID:20480032

  13. Oxidative stress in development: nature or nurture?

    PubMed

    Dennery, Phyllis A

    2010-10-15

    An unavoidable consequence of aerobic respiration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These may negatively impact development. Nevertheless, a certain amount of oxidative stress is required to allow for the normal progression of embryonic and fetal growth. Alterations in placental oxidative stress results in altered placental function and ultimately altered fetal growth and/or developmental programming leading to long-term consequences into adulthood. This article reviews the role of redox in fetal development and will focus on how developmental programming is influenced by the fetal and placental redox state as well as discuss potential therapeutic interventions.

  14. Neuronal modelling of baroreflex response to orthostatic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samin, Azfar

    The accelerations experienced in aerial combat can cause pilot loss of consciousness (GLOC) due to a critical reduction in cerebral blood circulation. The development of smart protective equipment requires understanding of how the brain processes blood pressure (BP) information in response to acceleration. We present a biologically plausible model of the Baroreflex to investigate the neural correlates of short-term BP control under acceleration or orthostatic stress. The neuronal network model, which employs an integrate-and-fire representation of a biological neuron, comprises the sensory, motor, and the central neural processing areas that form the Baroreflex. Our modelling strategy is to test hypotheses relating to the encoding mechanisms of multiple sensory inputs to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the site of central neural processing. The goal is to run simulations and reproduce model responses that are consistent with the variety of available experimental data. Model construction and connectivity are inspired by the available anatomical and neurophysiological evidence that points to a barotopic organization in the NTS, and the presence of frequency-dependent synaptic depression, which provides a mechanism for generating non-linear local responses in NTS neurons that result in quantifiable dynamic global baroreflex responses. The entire physiological range of BP and rate of change of BP variables is encoded in a palisade of NTS neurons in that the spike responses approximate Gaussian 'tuning' curves. An adapting weighted-average decoding scheme computes the motor responses and a compensatory signal regulates the heart rate (HR). Model simulations suggest that: (1) the NTS neurons can encode the hydrostatic pressure difference between two vertically separated sensory receptor regions at +Gz, and use changes in that difference for the regulation of HR; (2) even though NTS neurons do not fire with a cardiac rhythm seen in the afferents, pulse

  15. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juvic M; Casart, Ysabel C; Camejo, María I

    2016-01-01

    Placental explant culture, and cellular cytolysis and cellular differentiation have been previously studied. However, oxidative stress and nitric oxide profiles have not been evaluated in these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the release of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide from placental explants cultured over a seven day period. Placental explants were maintained for seven days in culture and the medium was changed every 24 hours. The response was assessed in terms of syncytiotrophoblast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG), cellular cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), and nitric oxide (NO). Levels of hCG increased progressively from day two to attain its highest level on days four and five after which it decreased gradually. In contrast, the levels of LDH, TBARS, and NO were elevated in the early days of placental culture when new syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast were forming and also in the last days of culture when tissue was declining. In conclusion, the levels of NO and lipid peroxidation follow a pattern similar to LDH and contrary to hCG. Future placental explant studies to evaluate oxidative stress and NO should consider the physiological changes inherent during the time of culture.

  16. Oxidative Stress in Schizophrenia: An Integrated Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bitanihirwe, Byron K.Y.; Woo, Tsung-Ung W.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In particular, oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA as observed in schizophrenia is known to impair cell viability and function, which may subsequently account for the deteriorating course of the illness. Currently available evidence points towards an alteration in the activities of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems in schizophrenia. In fact, experimental models have demonstrated that oxidative stress induces behavioural and molecular anomalies strikingly similar to those observed in schizophrenia. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is intimately linked to a variety of pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation, oligodendrocyte abnormalities, mitochondrial dysfunction, hypoactive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and the impairment of fast-spiking gamma-aminobutyric acid interneurons.[bkyb1] Such self-sustaining mechanisms may progressively worsen producing the functional and structural consequences associated with schizophrenia. Recent clinical studies have shown antioxidant treatment to be effective in ameliorating schizophrenic symptoms. Hence, identifying viable therapeutic strategies to tackle oxidative stress and the resulting physiological disturbances provide an exciting opportunity for the treatment and ultimately prevention of schizophrenia. PMID:20974172

  17. Oxidative stress parameters in localized scleroderma patients.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, F; Sener, S; Akbaş, A; Metin, A; Kirbaş, S; Neselioglu, S; Erel, O

    2016-11-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) (morphea) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease with unknown cause that progresses with sclerosis in the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. We have aimed to determine the relationship of morphea lesions with oxidative stress. The total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paroxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) activity parameters of PON 1 enzyme levels in the serum were investigated in 13 LS patients (generalized and plaque type) and 13 healthy controls. TOC values of the patient group were found higher than the TOC values of the control group (p < 0.01). ARES values of the patient group was found to be higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). OSI was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to the control (p < 0.005). Oxidative stress seems to be effective in the pathogenesis. ARES levels have increased in morphea patients regarding to the oxidative stress and its reduction. Further controlled studies are required in wider series.

  18. Molecular control of the amount, subcellular location, and activity state of translation elongation factor 2 in neurons experiencing stress.

    PubMed

    Argüelles, Sandro; Camandola, Simonetta; Hutchison, Emmette R; Cutler, Roy G; Ayala, Antonio; Mattson, Mark P

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) is an important regulator of the protein translation machinery whereby it controls the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA. The activity of eEF-2 is regulated by changes in cellular energy status and nutrient availability and by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation. However, the mechanisms regulating protein translation under conditions of cellular stress in neurons are unknown. Here we show that when rat hippocampal neurons experience oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation induced by exposure to cumene hydroperoxide; CH), eEF-2 is hyperphosphorylated and ribosylated, resulting in reduced translational activity. The degradation of eEF-2 requires calpain proteolytic activity and is accompanied by accumulation of eEF-2 in the nuclear compartment. The subcellular localization of both native and phosphorylated forms of eEF-2 is influenced by CRM1 and 14.3.3, respectively. In hippocampal neurons p53 interacts with nonphosphorylated (active) eEF-2, but not with its phosphorylated form. The p53-eEF-2 complexes are present in cytoplasm and nucleus, and their abundance increases when neurons experience oxidative stress. The nuclear localization of active eEF-2 depends upon its interaction with p53, as cells lacking p53 contain less active eEF-2 in the nuclear compartment. Overexpression of eEF-2 in hippocampal neurons results in increased nuclear levels of eEF-2 and decreased cell death after exposure to CH. Our results reveal novel molecular mechanisms controlling the differential subcellular localization and activity state of eEF-2 that may influence the survival status of neurons during periods of elevated oxidative stress.

  19. Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Psychosis and Psychosis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Henry; Hafizi, Sina; Andreazza, Ana C.; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-01-01

    Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia. These neurons also appear to be sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress during the perinatal and peripubertal periods, which may be mediated in large part by aberrant synaptic pruning. After exploring some of the molecular mechanisms through which neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are thought to exert their effects, we highlight the progress that has been made in identifying psychosis prior to onset through the identification of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR). By combining our understanding of psychosis pathogenesis with the increasing characterization of endophenotypes that precede frank psychosis, it may be possible to identify patients before they present with psychosis and intervene to reduce the burden of the disease to both patients and families. PMID:28304340

  20. Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress in Psychosis and Psychosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Barron, Henry; Hafizi, Sina; Andreazza, Ana C; Mizrahi, Romina

    2017-03-17

    Although our understanding of psychotic disorders has advanced substantially in the past few decades, very little has changed in the standard of care for these illnesses since the development of atypical anti-psychotics in the 1990s. Here, we integrate new insights into the pathophysiology with the increasing interest in early detection and prevention. First, we explore the role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in a subpopulation of cortical parvalbumin-containing interneurons (PVIs). Postmortem and preclinical data has implicated these neurons in the positive and negative symptoms, as well as the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia. These neurons also appear to be sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress during the perinatal and peripubertal periods, which may be mediated in large part by aberrant synaptic pruning. After exploring some of the molecular mechanisms through which neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are thought to exert their effects, we highlight the progress that has been made in identifying psychosis prior to onset through the identification of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR). By combining our understanding of psychosis pathogenesis with the increasing characterization of endophenotypes that precede frank psychosis, it may be possible to identify patients before they present with psychosis and intervene to reduce the burden of the disease to both patients and families.

  1. Neuronal control of breathing: sex and stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Behan, Mary; Kinkead, Richard

    2011-10-01

    There is a growing public awareness that hormones can have a significant impact on most biological systems, including the control of breathing. This review will focus on the actions of two broad classes of hormones on the neuronal control of breathing: sex hormones and stress hormones. The majority of these hormones are steroids; a striking feature is that both groups are derived from cholesterol. Stress hormones also include many peptides which are produced primarily within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and secreted into the brain or into the circulatory system. In this article we will first review and discuss the role of sex hormones in respiratory control throughout life, emphasizing how natural fluctuations in hormones are reflected in ventilatory metrics and how disruption of their endogenous cycle can predispose to respiratory disease. These effects may be mediated directly by sex hormone receptors or indirectly by neurotransmitter systems. Next, we will discuss the origins of hypothalamic stress hormones and their relationship with the respiratory control system. This relationship is 2-fold: (i) via direct anatomical connections to brainstem respiratory control centers, and (ii) via steroid hormones released from the adrenal gland in response to signals from the pituitary gland. Finally, the impact of stress on the development of neural circuits involved in breathing is evaluated in animal models, and the consequences of early stress on respiratory health and disease is discussed.

  2. Protective role of quercetin on PCBs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2012-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  3. Association between Machado-Joseph disease and oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Laura Segabinazzi; da Silveira, Aron Ferreira; Trott, Alexis; Houenou, Lucien J; Algarve, Thaís Doeler; Belló, Caroline; Lenz, Adriano Flesch; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica

    2013-10-09

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, also called Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an hereditary autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that affects the cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. Since the mechanism by which mutant ataxin-3 eventually leads to neuronal death is poorly understood, additional investigations to clarify the biological alterations related to Machado-Joseph disease are necessary. Recent investigations suggest that oxidative stress may contribute significantly to Machado-Joseph disease. We compared markers of oxidative stress between Machado-Joseph disease and healthy control subjects. The results showed that Machado-Joseph patients have higher catalase levels and lower thiol protein levels compared to control subjects. The peripheral blood lymphocyes of MJD patients also showed higher levels of DNA damage by the comet assay than control subjects. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that the oxidative stress is associated with MJD patients. However, whether strategies to increase cellular antioxidative capacity may be effective therapies for the treatment of Machado-Joseph disease is an open question. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential Modulation of Sirtuins by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Leonardo; Escande, Carlos; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacylases. Initially proposed as histone deacetylases, it is now known that they act on a variety of proteins including transcription factors and metabolic enzymes, having a key role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Seven isoforms are identified in mammals (SIRT1–7), all of them sharing a conserved catalytic core and showing differential subcellular localization and activities. Oxidative stress can affect the activity of sirtuins at different levels: expression, posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and NAD levels. Mild oxidative stress induces the expression of sirtuins as a compensatory mechanism, while harsh or prolonged oxidant conditions result in dysfunctional modified sirtuins more prone to degradation by the proteasome. Oxidative posttranslational modifications have been identified in vitro and in vivo, in particular cysteine oxidation and tyrosine nitration. In addition, oxidative stress can alter the interaction with other proteins, like SIRT1 with its protein inhibitor DBC1 resulting in a net increase of deacetylase activity. In the same way, manipulation of cellular NAD levels by pharmacological inhibition of other NAD-consuming enzymes results in activation of SIRT1 and protection against obesity-related pathologies. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the molecular mechanisms of redox regulation of sirtuins to further design adequate pharmacological interventions. PMID:26788256

  5. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rocha, Milagros; Solá, Eva; Bañuls, Celia; Garcia-Malpartida, Katherine; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of oxidative processes in atherosclerosis and the cardiovascular diseases (CVD) that can arise as a result. Atherosclerosis represents a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in the vascular wall. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under pathophysiologic conditions forms an integral part of the development of CVD, and in particular atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity, occurs early on in the development of atherosclerosis, and determines future vascular complications. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for mitochondria-mediated disease processes are not clear, oxidative stress seems to play an important role. In general, ROS are essential to the functions of cells, but adequate levels of antioxidant defenses are required in order to avoid the harmful effects of excessive ROS production. In this review, we will provide a summary of the cellular metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its role in pathophysiological processes such as atherosclerosis; and currently available antioxidants and possible reasons for their efficacy and inefficacy in ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated diseases.

  6. Potential Modulation of Sirtuins by Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo; Escande, Carlos; Denicola, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are a conserved family of NAD-dependent protein deacylases. Initially proposed as histone deacetylases, it is now known that they act on a variety of proteins including transcription factors and metabolic enzymes, having a key role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. Seven isoforms are identified in mammals (SIRT1-7), all of them sharing a conserved catalytic core and showing differential subcellular localization and activities. Oxidative stress can affect the activity of sirtuins at different levels: expression, posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and NAD levels. Mild oxidative stress induces the expression of sirtuins as a compensatory mechanism, while harsh or prolonged oxidant conditions result in dysfunctional modified sirtuins more prone to degradation by the proteasome. Oxidative posttranslational modifications have been identified in vitro and in vivo, in particular cysteine oxidation and tyrosine nitration. In addition, oxidative stress can alter the interaction with other proteins, like SIRT1 with its protein inhibitor DBC1 resulting in a net increase of deacetylase activity. In the same way, manipulation of cellular NAD levels by pharmacological inhibition of other NAD-consuming enzymes results in activation of SIRT1 and protection against obesity-related pathologies. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the molecular mechanisms of redox regulation of sirtuins to further design adequate pharmacological interventions.

  7. Oxidative stress status in patients with melasma.

    PubMed

    Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Kalkan, Göknur; Baş, Yalçın; Akbaş, Ali; Önder, Yalçın; Özyurt, Hüseyin; Sahin, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Melasma is an acquired skin disease characterized clinically by development of gray-brown macules or patches. The lesions have geographic borders and most often seen on face and less frequently on the neck and forearms. Pathogenesis has not been completely understood yet. Although the disease constitutes a very disturbing cosmetic problem, it has not obtained an efficient treatment. There were not any studies in the literature that evaluates the role of oxidative stress in melasma. The evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in melasma. Fifty melasma patients and 50 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The diagnosis was made clinically and the patients were evaluated by Melasma Area Severity Index. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities and malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, protein carbonyl levels were measured both in the melasma group and the control group. SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities were significantly higher in the patient group in comparison with the control group (p < 0.001). Protein carbonyl levels were significantly lower in the patient group (p < 0.001). The results show that the balance between oxidant and anti-oxidants was disrupted and the oxidative stress increased in melasma. These results improve the understanding of etiology-pathogenesis of the disease and its treatment.

  8. Stress-induced nuclear translocation of CDK5 suppresses neuronal death by downregulating ERK activation via VRK3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haengjin; Kim, Wanil; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dohyun; Park, Choon-Ho; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Do-Yeon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Although extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) activity is generally associated with cell survival, prolonged ERK activation induced by oxidative stress also mediates neuronal cell death. Here we report that oxidative stress-induced cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation stimulates neuroprotective signaling via phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 3 (VRK3) at Ser 108. The binding of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase to phosphorylated VRK3 increased its affinity for phospho-ERK and subsequently downregulated ERK activation. Overexpression of VRK3 protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. However the CDK5 was unable to phosphorylate mutant VRK3,