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Sample records for oxidative stress-related mitochondrial

  1. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  2. Oxidative Stress-Related Mechanisms and Antioxidant Therapy in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and is the leading cause of blindness in young adults. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a critical cause of DR. Metabolic abnormalities induced by high-glucose levels are involved in the development of DR and appear to be influenced by oxidative stress. The imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the antioxidant defense system activates several oxidative stress-related mechanisms that promote the pathogenesis of DR. The damage caused by oxidative stress persists for a considerable time, even after the blood glucose concentration has returned to a normal level. Animal experiments have proved that the use of antioxidants is a beneficial therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DR, but more data are required from clinical trials. The aims of this review are to highlight the improvements to our understanding of the oxidative stress-related mechanisms underlying the development of DR and provide a summary of the main antioxidant therapy strategies used to treat the disease. PMID:28265339

  3. Integrated Approaches to Drug Discovery for Oxidative Stress-Related Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Excessive oxidative stress induces dysregulation of functional networks in the retina, resulting in retinal diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Although various therapies have been developed to reduce oxidative stress in retinal diseases, most have failed to show efficacy in clinical trials. This may be due to oversimplification of target selection for such a complex network as oxidative stress. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have facilitated the collection of multilevel omics data, which has driven growth in public databases and in the development of bioinformatics tools. Integration of the knowledge gained from omics databases can be used to generate disease-related biological networks and to identify potential therapeutic targets within the networks. Here, we provide an overview of integrative approaches in the drug discovery process and provide simple examples of how the approaches can be exploited to identify oxidative stress-related targets for retinal diseases. PMID:28053689

  4. Antioxidant capacities of flavones and benefits in oxidative-stress related diseases.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Marcelo D; Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Pereira, Olivia R; Cardoso, Susana M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have been acknowledged for their interesting medicinal properties. Among them, natural flavones, as well as some of their synthetic derivatives, have been shown to exhibit several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-allergic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and antimicrobial. The antioxidant properties of flavones allow them to demonstrate potential application as preventive and attenuating agents in oxidative stress, i.e., a biological condition that is closely associated to aging process and several diseases. Some flavones interfere in distinct oxidative-stress related events by directly reducing the levels of intracellular free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide) and/or of reactive species (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid) thus preventing their amplification and the consequent damage of other biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Flavones can also hinder the activity of central free radical-producing enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and can even modulate the intracellular levels of pro-oxidant and/or antioxidant enzymes. The evaluation of flavones antioxidant ability has been extensively determined in chemical or biological in vitro models, but in vivo therapy with individual flavones or with flavones-enriched extracts has also been reported. The present manuscript revises relevant studies focusing the preventive effects of flavones on stress-related diseases, namely the neurological and cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes and its associated complications.

  5. Oxidative Stress-Related Genetic Variants May Modify Associations of Phthalate Exposures with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I-Jen; Karmaus, Wilfried J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phthalate exposure may increase the risk of asthma. Little is known about whether oxidative-stress related genes may alter this association. First, this motivated us to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of the oxidative-stress related genes glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and EPHX1 in children are associated with phthalate urine concentrations. Second, we addressed the question whether these genes may affect the influence of phthalates on asthma. Methods: In a case-control study composed of 126 asthmatic children and 327 controls, urine phthalate metabolites (monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP) were measured by UPLC-MS/MS at age 3. Genetic variants were analyzed by TaqMan assay. Information on asthma and environmental exposures was also collected. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were performed. Results: Urine MEHHP levels were associated with asthma (adjusted OR 1.33, 95% CI (1.11–1.60). Children with the GSTP1 (rs1695) AA and SOD2 (rs5746136) TT genotypes had higher MEHHP levels as compared to GG and CC types, respectively. Since only SOD2 TT genotype was significantly associated with asthma (adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.78 (1.54–5.02)), we estimated whether SOD2 variants modify the association of MEHHP levels and asthma. As MEHHP concentrations were dependent on GSTP1 and SOD2, but the assessment of interaction requires independent variables, we estimated MEHHP residuals and assessed their interaction, showing that the OR for SOD2 TT was further elevated to 3.32 (1.75–6.32) when the residuals of MEHHP were high. Conclusions: Urine phthalate metabolite concentrations are associated with oxidative-stress related genetic variants. Genetic variants of SOD2, considered to be reflect oxidative stress metabolisms, might

  6. Oxidative stress-related genotypes, fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCullough, Marjorie J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2009-05-01

    Dietary antioxidants may interact with endogenous sources of pro- and antioxidants to impact breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study of postmenopausal women (505 cases and 502 controls) from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to examine the interaction between oxidative stress-related genes and level of vegetable and fruit intake on breast cancer risk. Genetic variations in catalase (CAT) (C-262T), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (G-463A), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) (G894T) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) [(GT)(n) dinucleotide length polymorphism] were not associated with breast cancer risk. Women carrying the low-risk CAT CC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.11], NOS3 TT (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.26-1.12, P-trend = 0.10) or HO-1 S allele and MM genotype (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.55), however, were found to be at non-significantly reduced breast cancer risk among those with high vegetable and fruit intake (> or = median; P-interactions = 0.04 for CAT, P = 0.005 for NOS3 and P = 0.07 for HO-1). Furthermore, those with > or = 4 putative low-risk alleles in total had significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.88, P-interaction = 0.006) compared with those with < or = 2 low-risk alleles. In contrast, among women with low vegetable and fruit intake (< median), the low-risk CAT CC (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.89-1.99), NOS3 TT (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.38-6.22) and MPO AA (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 0.73-5.95) genotypes appeared to be associated with raised breast cancer risk, with significantly increased risks observed in those with > or = 4 low-risk alleles compared with participants with < or = 2 low-risk alleles (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05-2.99, P-interaction = 0.006). Our results support the hypothesis that there are joint effects of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.

  7. Oxidative Stress in Inherited Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Genki; Cortopassi, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial diseases are the result of inherited defects in mitochondrially-expressed genes. One potential pathomechanism for mitochondrial disease is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can occur as the result of increased ROS production, or decreased ROS protection. The role of oxidative stresses in the five most common inherited mitochondrial diseases; Friedreich's ataxia (FA), LHON, MELAS, MERRF and Leigh Syndrome (LS) is discussed. Published reports for oxidative stress involvement in pathomechanism in these five mitochondrial diseases are reviewed. The strongest for oxidative stress pathomechanism among the five diseases was in Friedreich's ataxia. In addition, a meta-analysis was carried out to provide an unbiased evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in the five diseases, by searching for oxidative stress citation count frequency within each disease. Of the five most common mitochondrial diseases, the strongest support for oxidative stress is in Friedreich's ataxia (6.42%), followed by LHON (2.45%), MELAS (2.18%), MERRF (1.71%), and LS (1.03%). The increased frequency of oxidative stress citations was significant relative to the mean of the total pool of five diseases (p<0.01) and the mean of the four non-Friedreich's diseases (p<0.0001). Thus there is support for oxidative stress in all five most common mitochondrial diseases, but the strongest, significant support is for Friedreich's ataxia. PMID:26073122

  8. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders.

  9. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase regulates mitochondrial matrix pH.

    PubMed

    Ghafourifar, P; Richter, C

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide, NO) exerts a wide profile of its biological activities via regulation of respiration and respiration-dependent functions. The presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in mitochondria (mtNOS) was recently reported by us (Ghafourifar and Richter, FEBS Lett. 418, 291-296, 1997) and others (Giulivi et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11038-11043, 1998). Here we report that NO, provided by an NO donor as well as by mtNOS stimulation, regulates mitochondrial matrix pH, transmembrane potential and Ca2+ buffering capacity. Exogenously-added NO causes a dose-dependent matrix acidification. Also mtNOS stimulation, induced by loading mitochondria with Ca2+, causes mitochondrial matrix acidification and a drop in mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Inhibition of mtNOS's basal activity causes mitochondrial matrix alkalinization and provides a resistance to the sudden drop of mitochondrial transmembrane potential induced by mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. We conclude that mtNOS plays a critical role in regulating mitochondrial delta(pH).

  10. Contribution of mitochondrial oxidative stress to hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dikalov, Sergey I.; Dikalova, Anna E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In 1954 Harman proposed the free radical theory of aging, and in 1972 he suggested that mitochondria are both the source and the victim of toxic free radicals. Interestingly, hypertension is age-associated disease and clinical data show that by age 70, 70% of the population has hypertension and this is accompanied by oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy however is not currently available and common antioxidants like ascorbate and vitamin E are ineffective in preventing hypertension. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress and therapeutic potential of targeting mitochondria in hypertension. Recent findings In the past several years, we have shown that the mitochondria become dysfunctional in hypertension and have defined novel role of mitochondrial superoxide radicals in this disease. We have shown that genetic manipulation of mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD2) affects blood pressure and have developed mitochondria-targeted therapies such as SOD2 mimetics that effectively lower blood pressure. The specific mechanism of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hypertension, however, remains unclear. Recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated several hormonal, metabolic, inflammatory, and environmental pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Summary Nutritional supplements, calorie restriction, and life style change are the most effective preventive strategies to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress. Aging associated mitochondrial dysfunction, however, reduces efficacy of these strategies. Therefore, we propose that new classes of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can provide high therapeutic potential to improve endothelial function and reduce hypertension. PMID:26717313

  11. Effect of carvedilol and nebivolol on oxidative stress-related parameters and endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Ramiro J; Castillo, Rodrigo; Rodrigo, Ramón; Prieto, Juan C; Aramburu, Ivonne; Brugere, Solange; Galdames, Katia; Noriega, Viviana; Miranda, Hugo F

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction have been associated with essential hypertension (EH) mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carvedilol and nebivolol on the oxidative stress-related parameters and endothelial function in patients with EH. The studied population included 57 patients, either sex, between 30 and 75 years of age, with mild-to-moderate EH complications. Participants were randomized to receive either carvedilol (12.5 mg) (n = 23) or nebivolol (5 mg) (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Measurements included; 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (BP), flow-mediated dilatation, levels of nitric oxide estimated as nitrite - a nitric oxide metabolite ( NO₂) - in plasma, and oxidative stress-related parameters in plasma and erythrocyte. EH patients who were treated with nebivolol or carvedilol showed systolic BP reductions of 17.4 and 19.9 mmHg, respectively, compared with baseline values (p < 0.01). Diastolic BP was reduced by 13.7 and 12.8 mmHg after the treatment with ebivolol and carvedilol, respectively (p < 0.01) (fig. 2B). Nebivolol and carvedilol showed 7.3% and 8.1% higher endothelium-dependent dilatation in relation to baseline values (p < 0.05). Ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSSH) ratio showed 31.5% and 29.6% higher levels in the carvedilol group compared with basal values; however, nebivolol-treated patients did not show significant differences after treatment. On the other hand, the NO₂ plasma concentration was not modified by the administration of carvedilol. However, nebivolol enhanced these levels in 62.1% after the treatment. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antihypertensive effect of both beta-blockers. However, carvedilol could mediate these effects by an increase in antioxidant capacity and nebivolol through the raise in NO₂ concentration. Further studies are needed to determine the molecular mechanism of these effects.

  12. Profiles of oxidative stress-related microRNA and mRNA expression in auditory cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yimin; Han, Ning; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Weisen; Zou, Fei

    2010-07-30

    Oxidative stress and high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are risk factors of auditory cell injury and hearing impairment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical for the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation and survival. However, little is known about the impact of oxidative stress on the expression of miRNAs and their targeted mRNAs in auditory cells. We employed a cell model of oxidative stress by treatment of House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells with different concentrations of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) to examine the t-BHP-induced production of ROS and to determine the impact of t-BHP treatment on the relative levels of miRNA and mRNA transcripts in HEI-OC1 cells. We found that treatment with different concentrations of t-BHP promoted the production of ROS, but inhibited the proliferation of HEI-OC1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with t-BHP induced HEI-OC1 cell apoptosis. Further microarray analyses revealed that treatment with t-BHP increased the transcription of 35 miRNAs, but decreased the expression of 40 miRNAs. In addition, treatment with t-BHP up-regulated the transcription of 2076 mRNAs, but down-regulated the levels of 580 mRNA transcripts. Notably, the up-regulated (or down-regulated) miRNAs were associated with the decreased (or increased) expression of predicted targeted mRNAs. Importantly, these differentially expressed mRNAs belonged to different functional categories, forming a network participating in the oxidative stress-related process in HEI-OC1 cells. Therefore, our findings may provide new insights into understanding the regulation of miRNAs on the oxidative stress-related gene expression and function in auditory cells.

  13. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2006-01-01

    1.--Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. 2.--Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. 3.--Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 microM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 microM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. 4.--Piracetam treatment (100-500 mg kg(-1) daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. 5.--In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients.

  14. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunyun; Yun, Jisoo; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair.

  15. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair. PMID:27668035

  16. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms affecting response to aspirin in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; La Barba, Sara; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Persistent platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in T2DM. However, current antiplatelet treatments appear less effective in T2DM patients vs nondiabetics at similar risk. A large body of evidence supports the contention that oxidative stress, which characterizes DM, may be responsible, at least in part, for less-than-expected response to aspirin, with multiple mechanisms acting at several levels. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms related to oxidative stress and contributing to suboptimal aspirin action or responsiveness. These include: (1) mechanisms counteracting the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, such as reduced platelet sensitivity to the antiaggregating effects of NO, due to high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress; (2) mechanisms interfering with COX acetylation especially at the platelet level, e.g., lipid hydroperoxide-dependent impaired acetylating effects of aspirin; (3) mechanisms favoring platelet priming (lipid hydroperoxides) or activation (F2-isoprostanes, acting as partial agonists of thromboxane receptor), or aldose-reductase pathway-mediated oxidative stress, leading to enhanced platelet thromboxane A2 generation or thromboxane receptor activation; (4) mechanisms favoring platelet recruitment, such as aspirin-induced platelet isoprostane formation; (5) modulation of megakaryocyte generation and thrombopoiesis by oxidative HO-1 inhibition; and (6) aspirin-iron interactions, eventually resulting in impaired pharmacological activity of aspirin, lipoperoxide burden, and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals capable of promoting protein kinase C activation and platelet aggregation. Acknowledgment of oxidative stress as a major contributor, not only of vascular complications, but also of suboptimal response to antiplatelet agents in T2DM, may open the way to designing and testing novel antithrombotic strategies, specifically targeting

  17. Ageing, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, M-E; Bevilacqua, L; Hagopian, K; Weindruch, R; Ramsey, J J

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondria are a cell's single greatest source of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells is not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the effects of oxidative stress and ageing on mitochondrial function. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  18. Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiaozhen; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Dafeng; Li, Ning; Li, Qiao; Dai, Panpan; Mao, Yixin; Li, Xumin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies suggested that oxidative stress (OS) played a central role in the onset and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO); however, conflicting results were obtained as to the association of OS-related biomarkers and PO. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the association between these markers and PO, and explore factors that may explain the inconsistencies in these results. A systematic literature search was conducted in relevant database. Search terms and selection criteria were priorly determined to identify and include all studies that detected markers of OS in PO patients. We pooled data with a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence interval. Total 17 studies including 12 OS markers were adopted. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), hydroperoxides (HY), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and vitamin B12 (VB12) in plasma/serum were not statistically different between the PO and control group, whereas significantly increased level of homocysteine (Hcy) and nitric oxide (NO), along with decreased SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), folate, and total antioxidant power (TAP) in plasma/serum were obtained in the PO group. In summary, OS might serve as potential biomarkers in the etiopathophysiology and clinical course of PO. PMID:27594735

  19. Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaozhen; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Dafeng; Li, Ning; Li, Qiao; Dai, Panpan; Mao, Yixin; Li, Xumin; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies suggested that oxidative stress (OS) played a central role in the onset and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO); however, conflicting results were obtained as to the association of OS-related biomarkers and PO. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the association between these markers and PO, and explore factors that may explain the inconsistencies in these results. A systematic literature search was conducted in relevant database. Search terms and selection criteria were priorly determined to identify and include all studies that detected markers of OS in PO patients. We pooled data with a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence interval. Total 17 studies including 12 OS markers were adopted. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), hydroperoxides (HY), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and vitamin B12 (VB12) in plasma/serum were not statistically different between the PO and control group, whereas significantly increased level of homocysteine (Hcy) and nitric oxide (NO), along with decreased SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), folate, and total antioxidant power (TAP) in plasma/serum were obtained in the PO group. In summary, OS might serve as potential biomarkers in the etiopathophysiology and clinical course of PO.

  20. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  1. Antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses in the Mediterranean land snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Leomanni, A; Schettino, T; Calisi, A; Gorbi, S; Mezzelani, M; Regoli, F; Lionetto, M G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the alterations of the antioxidant defenses and the overall susceptibility to oxidative stress of the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl at a low environmentally realistic concentration. The animals were exposed to Lactuca sativa soaked for 1h in 1μM Carbaryl. The temporal dynamics of the responses was assessed by measurements at 3, 7 and 14days of exposure. C. apertus exposed to Carbaryl activates a number of enzymatic antioxidant responses, represented by the early induction of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, followed by a delayed induction of superoxide dismutase. Concomitantly, a derangement of the total oxyradical scavenging of the tissues was observed, suggesting an overall impairment of the tissue capability to neutralize ROS probably resulting from the overall negative balance between enzymatic antioxidant defense capability and oxidative stress intensity. This negative balance exposed the animals to the risk of oxidative stress damages including genotoxic damage. Compared to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the antioxidant responses developed to Carbaryl exposure at the low concentration utilized showed a greater percentage variation in exposed organisms. The results pointed out the high sensitivity of the antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses to Carbaryl exposure at an environmental realistic concentration, demonstrating their usefulness in environmental monitoring and risk assessment. The study highlights also the usefulness of the terrestrial snail C. apertus as potential bioindicator species for assessing the risk of pesticide environmental contamination.

  2. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-induced Dermal Toxicity and Tumorigenesis Through Oxidative Stress-related Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kunio; Uetsuka, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Among the many mycotoxins, T-2 toxin, citrinin (CTN), patulin (PAT), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are known to have the potential to induce dermal toxicity and/or tumorigenesis in rodent models. T-2 toxin, CTN, PAT and OTA induce apoptosis in mouse or rat skin. PAT, AFB1 and OTA have tumor initiating properties, and OTA is also a tumor promoter in mouse skin. This paper reviews the molecular mechanisms of dermal toxicity and tumorigenesis induced in rodent models by these mycotoxins especially from the viewpoint of oxidative stress-mediated pathways. PMID:24791061

  3. Novel quercetin derivatives: From redox properties to promising treatment of oxidative stress related diseases.

    PubMed

    Zizkova, Petronela; Stefek, Milan; Rackova, Lucia; Prnova, Marta; Horakova, Lubica

    2017-03-01

    A set of O-substituted quercetin derivatives was prepared with the aim to optimize bioavailability and redox properties of quercetin, a known agent with multiple health beneficial effects. Electron-acceptor/-donor properties of the agents were evaluated theoretically by quantum chemical calculations and by experimental methods in cell-free model systems (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), peroxynitrite scavenging, protein-thiol oxidation) and in cellular systems of fibroblasts, microglials and cancer lines. The order of individual antioxidant effects varied dependently on the system used. In cellular systems, quercetin derivatives were shown to be better antioxidants compared to quercetin. Monochloropivaloylquercetin (CPQ), monoacetylferuloylquercetin (MAFQ) and chloronaphthoquinonequercetin (CHNQ) showed a prominent inhibitory effect on the key enzymes involved in diabetic complications, aldose reductase and α-glucosidase, suggesting their promising therapeutic application. In the cellular models of BHNF-3 fibroblasts, microglial cell line BV-2, colorectal cancer cell lines HCT-116 and HT-29, CHNQ and CPQ were studied for their cytotoxic, antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties. In the rat model, CHNQ attenuated colon inflammation induced by acetic acid. In summary, our studies revealed CPQ and CHNQ as potential remedies of chronic age-related metabolic or inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and neurodegenerations. Furthermore, CHNQ represents a novel promising agent exerting its anticancer effect through induction of oxidative stress-dependent cell death.

  4. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms are associated with xenobiotics exerting excess toxicity to Fanconi anemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Giovanni; Manini, Paola; Bagchi, Debasis

    2003-01-01

    An extensive body of evidence has demonstrated the sensitivity of Fanconi anemia (FA) cells to redox-active xenobiotics, such as mitomycin C, diepoxybutane, cisplatin, and 8-methoxypsoralen plus ultraviolet irradiation, with toxicity mechanisms that are consistent with a deficiency of FA cells in coping with oxidative stress. A recent study has reported on excess sensitivity of FA complementation A group cells to chromium VI [Cr(VI)] toxicity, by postulating that a deficiency in Cr-DNA cross-link removal by FA cells and formation of Cr(VI)-associated cross-links may be the mechanism of Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity. However, the report failed to demonstrate any enhanced Cr uptake or, especially, any increase in Cr-DNA adducts. Thus, well-established findings on Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress may explain excess sensitivity of FA cells to Cr(VI) in terms of its inability to cope with the Cr(VI)-induced prooxidant state. PMID:14594617

  5. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  6. BGP-15 Protects against Oxidative Stress- or Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mitochondrial Destabilization and Reduces Mitochondrial Production of Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Sumegi, Katalin; Fekete, Katalin; Antus, Csenge; Debreceni, Balazs; Hocsak, Eniko; Gallyas, Ferenc; Sumegi, Balazs; Szabo, Aliz

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the progression of mitochondria-related diseases. A novel insulin sensitizer drug candidate, BGP-15, has been shown to have protective effects in several oxidative stress-related diseases in animal and human studies. In this study, we investigated whether the protective effects of BGP-15 are predominantly via preserving mitochondrial integrity and reducing mitochondrial ROS production. BGP-15 was found to accumulate in the mitochondria, protect against ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and attenuate ROS-induced mitochondrial ROS production in a cell culture model, and also reduced ROS production predominantly at the complex I-III system in isolated mitochondria. At physiologically relevant concentrations, BGP-15 protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death by reducing both apoptosis and necrosis. Additionally, it attenuated bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production in LPS-sensitive U-251 glioma cells, suggesting that BGP-15 may have a protective role in inflammatory diseases. However, BGP-15 did not have any antioxidant effects as shown by in vitro chemical and cell culture systems. These data suggest that BGP-15 could be a novel mitochondrial drug candidate for the prevention of ROS-related and inflammatory disease progression. PMID:28046125

  7. Vitamin E in oxidant stress-related cardiovascular pathologies: focus on experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Turan, Belma; Vassort, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this review is to summarize the important roles of vitamin E family members as protective agents in cardiovascular pathologies of different types of disease states and particularly in diabetes, including some of our research results, to illustrate how this recent knowledge is helping to better understand the roles of the vitamin E family in biology, in animals and humans specifically. Cardiovascular disease, a general name for a wide variety of diseases, disorders and conditions, is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease is the world's largest killer, claiming 17.1 million lives a year. Cardiovascular complications result from multiple parameters including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, fibrosis. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are also often linked to cardiovascular disease. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the most life-threatening of the diabetic complications and diabetics are 2- to 4-fold more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes than non-diabetics. In order to prevent the tendency of cardiovascular disease, primary prevention is needed by modifying risk factors. Several recent studies, besides earlier ones, have reported beneficial effects of therapy with antioxidant agents, including trace elements, vitamins (E and/or C), other antioxidants, against the cardiovascular dysfunction. Hence, the use of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists to reduce fatty acid oxidation, of trace elements such as selenium as antioxidant and other antioxidants such as vitamins E and C, contributes to the prevention of these dysfunctions. Moreover, therapy with antioxidants and the above vitamins to prevent or delay the onset and development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients and animal models has been investigated although these studies showed inconsistent results.

  8. Understanding and preventing mitochondrial oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative damage has long been known to contribute to damage in conditions such as ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) injury in heart attack. Over the past years, we have developed a series of mitochondria-targeted compounds designed to ameliorate or determine how this damage occurs. I will outline some of this work, from MitoQ to the mitochondria-targeted S-nitrosating agent, called MitoSNO, that we showed was effective in preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in IR injury with therapeutic implications. In addition, the protection by this compound suggested that ROS production in IR injury was mainly coming from complex I. This led us to investigate the mechanism of the ROS production and using a metabolomic approach, we found that the ROS production in IR injury came from the accumulation of succinate during ischaemia that then drove mitochondrial ROS production by reverse electron transport at complex I during reperfusion. This surprising mechanism led us to develop further new therapeutic approaches to have an impact on the damage that mitochondrial ROS do in pathology and also to explore how mitochondrial ROS can act as redox signals. I will discuss how these approaches have led to a better understanding of mitochondrial oxidative damage in pathology and also to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:27911703

  9. Effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on oxidative stress-related parameters and drug metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjit; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride has been advocated as a potential anticarcinogenic compound. There is no information on the effects of this compound on oxidative stress-related parameters in animals. In the present study the effects of administration of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride in drinking water to balb/c male mice at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ppm for 14 weeks were examined. The tissue distribution of the compound was seen in liver, kidney, lung, intestine, blood, and spleen. The effects of the compound were monitored on levels of lipid peroxidation, GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase, GST, and Cyt P450, along with the liver and kidney function tests. The results show that the cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney followed by liver, intestine, blood, spleen, and lung in decreasing order, in a dose-dependent manner. GSH and GST also showed increase in a dose-dependent manner while SOD and catalase showed increase with the highest dose only. Liver and kidney function tests showed no untoward change with any dose at the end of the study. The results suggest an antioxidant potentiating effect of the hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride besides nontoxicity to liver and kidney. Since the ability to induce an increase of GSH and GST along with other detoxifying enzymes by anticarcinogenic agents has been reported to correlate with the inhibition of tumorigenesis, the cobalt complex might qualify as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

  10. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Galley, H F

    2011-07-01

    Sepsis-related organ dysfunction remains the most common cause of death in the intensive care unit (ICU), despite advances in healthcare and science. Marked oxidative stress as a result of the inflammatory responses inherent with sepsis initiates changes in mitochondrial function which may result in organ damage. Normally, a complex system of interacting antioxidant defences is able to combat oxidative stress and prevents damage to mitochondria. Despite the accepted role that oxidative stress-mediated injury plays in the development of organ failure, there is still little conclusive evidence of any beneficial effect of systemic antioxidant supplementation in patients with sepsis and organ dysfunction. It has been suggested, however, that antioxidant therapy delivered specifically to mitochondria may be useful.

  11. Modification of the association of bisphenol A with abnormal liver function by polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Mee-Ri; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Some studies suggested oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for the relation between exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and liver damage. Therefore, we evaluated modification of genetic polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 or MnSOD), which are oxidative stress-related genes, on the relation between exposure to BPA and liver function in the elderly. We assessed the association of visit-to-visit variations in BPA exposure with abnormal liver function by each genotype or haplotype after controlling for age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, exercise, urinary cotinine levels, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a GLIMMIX model. A significant association of BPA with abnormal liver function was observed only in participants with COX2 GG genotype at rs5277 (odds ratio (OR)=3.04 and p=0.0231), CAT genotype at rs769218 (OR=4.16 and p=0.0356), CAT CT genotype at rs769217 (OR=4.19 and p=0.0348), SOD2 TT genotype at rs4880 (OR=2.59 and p=0.0438), or SOD2 GG genotype at rs2758331 (OR=2.57 and p=0.0457). Moreover, we also found higher OR values in participants with a pair of G-G haplotypes for COX2 (OR=2.81 and p=0.0384), G-C-A haplotype for EPHX1 (OR=4.63 and p=0.0654), A-T haplotype for CAT (OR=4.48 and p=0.0245), or T-G-A haplotype for SOD2 (OR=2.91 and p=0.0491) compared with those with the other pair of haplotypes for each gene. Furthermore, the risk score composed of 4 risky pair of haplotypes showed interactive effect with BPA on abnormal liver function (p=0.0057). Our study results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of COX2, EPHX1, CAT, and SOD2 modify the association of BPA with liver function.

  12. A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Malpress, F H

    1984-08-21

    A coulombic hypothesis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is presented, founded upon the evidence for negative fixed charge formation during electron transport chain activity. The intermediary force is electrostatic (psi H) and not electrochemical (delta mu H). The electrochemical potential of the chemiosmotic hypothesis is identified as a "phantom" parameter which owes its delusive existence to the procedures by which it is measured. The connection between psi H and the conditional delta mu H values is examined; it entails the use of a variable conversion factor, f, where delta mu H (mV) = f psi H, and the concept of the "protonic status" of the diffuse double layer. A number of problems which beset the chemiosmotic view are reappraised in the light of the new interpretation, and find authentic solutions.

  13. Melatonin protects against common deletion of mitochondrial DNA-augmented mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jou, Mei-Jie; Peng, Tsung-I; Yu, Pai-Zu; Jou, Shuo-Bin; Reiter, Russel J; Chen, Jin-Yi; Wu, Hong-Yueh; Chen, Chih-Chun; Hsu, Lee-Fen

    2007-11-01

    Defected mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC), in addition to causing a severe ATP deficiency, often augments reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mitochondria (mROS) which enhances pathological conditions and diseases. Previously, we demonstrated a potent endogenously RC defect-augmented mROS associated dose-dependently with a commonly seen large-scale deletion of 4977 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), i.e. the common deletion (CD). As current treatments for CD-associated diseases are rather supplementary and ineffective, we investigated whether melatonin, a potential mitochondrial protector, provides beneficial protection for CD-augmented mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis particularly upon the induction of a secondary oxidative stress. Detailed mechanistic investigations were performed by using laser scanning dual fluorescence imaging microscopy to provide precise spatial and temporal resolution of mitochondrial events at single cell level. We demonstrate, for the first time, that melatonin significantly prevents CD-augmented mROS formation under basal conditions as well as at early time-points upon secondary oxidative stress induced by H2O2 exposure. Thus, melatonin prevents mROS-mediated depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and subsequent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and cytochrome c release. Moreover, melatonin prevents depletion of cardiolipin which appears to be crucial for postponing later MPTP opening, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane and apoptosis. Finally, the protection provided by melatonin is superior to those caused by the suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+ regulators including the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2) exchanger, the MPTP, and the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter and by antioxidants including vitamin E and mitochondria-targeted coenzyme Q, MitoQ. As RC defect-augmented endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is centrally involved in a variety of pathological

  14. The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide Humanin Protects RPE Cells From Oxidative Stress, Senescence, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sreekumar, Parameswaran G.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Spee, Chris; Mehta, Hemal H.; Wan, Junxiang; Yen, Kelvin; Cohen, Pinchas; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression of humanin (HN) in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and its effect on oxidative stress–induced cell death, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and senescence. Methods Humanin localization in RPE cells and polarized RPE monolayers was assessed by confocal microscopy. Human RPE cells were treated with 150 μM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) in the absence/presence of HN (0.5–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by XF96 analyzer. Retinal pigment epithelial cell death and caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial biogenesis and senescence were analyzed by TUNEL, immunoblot analysis, mitochondrial DNA copy number, SA-β-Gal staining, and p16INK4a expression and HN levels by ELISA. Oxidative stress–induced changes in transepithelial resistance were studied in RPE monolayers with and without HN cotreatment. Results A prominent localization of HN was found in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments of hRPE. Humanin cotreatment inhibited tBH-induced reactive oxygen species formation and significantly restored mitochondrial bioenergetics in hRPE cells. Exogenous HN was taken up by RPE and colocalized with mitochondria. The oxidative stress–induced decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics was prevented by HN cotreatment. Humanin treatment increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and upregulated mitochondrial transcription factor A, a key biogenesis regulator protein. Humanin protected RPE cells from oxidative stress–induced cell death by STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Humanin treatment inhibited oxidant-induced senescence. Polarized RPE demonstrated elevated cellular HN and increased resistance to cell death. Conclusions Humanin protected RPE cells against oxidative stress–induced cell death and restored mitochondrial function. Our data suggest a potential role for HN therapy in the prevention of retinal degeneration, including AMD. PMID:26990160

  15. Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction-elicited oxidative stress and posttranslational protein modification in mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shi-Bei; Lee, Wan-Yu; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2010-07-01

    Pathogenic mutation in mtDNA and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with mitochondrial diseases. In this review, we discuss the oxidative stress-elicited mitochondrial protein modifications that may contribute to the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases. We demonstrated that excess ROS produced by defective mitochondria could increase the acetylation of microtubule proteins through the suppression of Sirt2, which results in perinuclear distribution of mitochondria in skin fibroblasts of patients with CPEO syndrome. Our recent work showed that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced oxidative stress can disrupt protein degradation system by inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and protease activity in human cells harboring mutant mtDNA. This in turn causes accumulation of aberrant proteins in mitochondria and renders the mutant cells more susceptible to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress can modulate phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins, which can affect metabolism in a number of diseases. Taken together, we suggest that oxidative stress-triggered protein modifications and defects in protein turnover play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of mitochondrial diseases.

  16. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thanan, Raynoo; Techasen, Anchalee; Hou, Bo; Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Murata, Mariko

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  17. Mitochondrial matrix P53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress☆

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Torres, Rebecca A.; Fields, Earl J.; Boyd, Amy; Lewis, William

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial matrix-specific p53 construct (termed p53–290) in HepG2 cells was utilized to determine the impact of p53 in the mitochondrial matrix following oxidative stress. H2O2 exposure reduced cellular proliferation similarly in both p53–290 and vector cells, and p53–290 cells demonstrating decreased cell viability at 1 mM H2O2 (~85% viable). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in p53–290 cells while no change was observed in vector cells. Oximetric analysis revealed reduced maximal respiration and reserve capacity in p53–290 cells. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial matrix p53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress by reducing mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function. PMID:23499753

  18. Effects of glutamine supplementation on oxidative stress-related gene expression and antioxidant properties in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Hsuan; Liu, Jun-Jen; Yeh, Chui-Li; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2012-04-01

    There are close links among hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Glutamine (GLN) is an amino acid with immunomodulatory properties. The present study investigated the effect of dietary GLN on oxidative stress-relative gene expressions and tissue oxidative damage in diabetes. There were one normal control (NC) and two diabetic groups in the present study. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide followed by streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in the NC group were fed a regular chow diet. In the two diabetic groups, one group (diabetes mellitus, DM) was fed a common semi-purified diet while the other group received a diet in which part of the casein was replaced by GLN (DM-GLN). GLN provided 25% of total amino acid N. The experimental groups were fed the respective diets for 8 weeks, and then the rats were killed for further analysis. The results showed that blood thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) mRNA expression in the diabetic groups was higher than that in the NC group. Compared with the DM group, the DM-GLN group had lower glutamine fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, a receptor of advanced glycation end products, and Txnip gene expressions in blood mononuclear cells. The total antioxidant capacity was lower and antioxidant enzyme activities were altered by the diabetic condition. GLN supplementation increased antioxidant capacity and normalised antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, the renal nitrotyrosine level and Txnip mRNA expression were lower when GLN was administered. These results suggest that dietary GLN supplementation decreases oxidative stress-related gene expression, increases the antioxidant potential and may consequently attenuate renal oxidative damage in rats with STZ-induced diabetes.

  19. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  20. Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Valeria; Gevi, Federica; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. Materials and methods In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. Results We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Discussion Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP. PMID:25074788

  1. Oxidative DNA damage causes mitochondrial genomic instability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Doudican, Nicole A; Song, Binwei; Shadel, Gerald S; Doetsch, Paul W

    2005-06-01

    Mitochondria contain their own genome, the integrity of which is required for normal cellular energy metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by normal mitochondrial respiration can damage cellular macromolecules, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and have been implicated in degenerative diseases, cancer, and aging. We developed strategies to elevate mitochondrial oxidative stress by exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2) or utilizing mutants lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod2Delta). Experiments were conducted with strains compromised in mitochondrial base excision repair (ntg1Delta) and oxidative damage resistance (pif1Delta) in order to delineate the relationship between these pathways. We observed enhanced ROS production, resulting in a direct increase in oxidative mtDNA damage and mutagenesis. Repair-deficient mutants exposed to oxidative stress conditions exhibited profound genomic instability. Elimination of Ntg1p and Pif1p resulted in a synergistic corruption of respiratory competency upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). Mitochondrial genomic integrity was substantially compromised in ntg1Delta pif1Delta sod2Delta strains, since these cells exhibit a total loss of mtDNA. A stable respiration-defective strain, possessing a normal complement of mtDNA damage resistance pathways, exhibited a complete loss of mtDNA upon exposure to antimycin and H(2)O(2). This loss was preventable by Sod2p overexpression. These results provide direct evidence that oxidative mtDNA damage can be a major contributor to mitochondrial genomic instability and demonstrate cooperation of Ntg1p and Pif1p to resist the introduction of lesions into the mitochondrial genome.

  2. Changes in expression of oxidative stress related genes in grapefruit peel in response to yeast Metschnikowia fructicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into the mode of action of the yeast biocontrol agent, Metschnikowia fructicola, the transcription profiles of genes involved in oxidative stress were studied in grapefruit (Citrus paradis, 'Star Ruby') surface wounds following the application of the yeast antagonist. Three transcri...

  3. Dexamethasone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduce oxidative stress-related DNA damage in differentiating osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Wysokiński, Daniel; Tokarz, Paulina; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Szczepanska, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz

    2014-09-19

    The process of osteoblast differentiation is regulated by several factors, including RUNX2. Recent reports suggest an involvement of RUNX2 in DNA damage response (DDR), which is important due to association of differentiation with oxidative stress. In the present work we explore the influence of two RUNX2 modifiers, dexamethasone (DEX) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), in DDR in differentiating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts challenged by oxidative stress. The process of differentiation was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) reduced the rate of differentiation. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a marker of the process of osteoblasts differentiation, increased in a time-dependent manner and TBH further increased this activity. This may indicate that additional oxidative stress, induced by TBH, may accelerate the differentiation process. The cells displayed changes in the sensitivity to TBH in the course of differentiation. DEX increased ALP activity, but 1,25-D3 had no effect on it. These results suggest that DEX might stimulate the process of preosteoblasts differentiation. Finally, we observed a protective effect of DEX and 1,25-D3 against DNA damage induced by TBH, except the day 24 of differentiation, when DEX increased the extent of TBH-induced DNA damage. We conclude that oxidative stress is associated with osteoblasts differentiation and induce DDR, which may be modulated by RUNX2-modifiers, DEX and 1,25-D3.

  4. NITRIC OXIDE, MITOCHONDRIAL HYPERPOLARIZATION AND T-CELL ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gyorgy; Koncz, Agnes; Fernandez, David; Perl, Andras

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production that plays an essential role in multiple T cell functions. NO acts as a messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in the transduction signaling pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP), an early and reversible event during both T lymphocyte activation and apoptosis, is regulated by NO. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO-induced MHP represents a molecular switch in multiple T cell signaling pathways. Overproduction of NO in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induces mitochondrial biogenesis and alters Ca2+ signaling. Thus, while NO plays a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may disturb normal T cell function, contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17462531

  5. Effect of copper-hydroquinone complex on oxidative stress-related parameters in human erythrocytes (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chandan; Mitra, Prasanta Kumar; Saha, Shyamaprasad; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2009-02-01

    The effect of in vitro exposure of human erythrocytes to micromolar concentrations of hydroquinone and copper simultaneously on oxidative status-related biochemical parameters was studied. Hydroquinone is a component of cigarette smoke and serum copper level is increased in smokers. Copper forms a complex with hydroquinone and enhances its auto-oxidation to benzoquinone which covalently binds to sulfhydryl group containing compounds like reduced glutathione. In this study, copper increased H(2)O(2) production by hydroquinone. Hydroquinone either alone or in the presence of copper produced a decrease of reduced glutathione level without altering methemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation. Catalase inhibition by sodium azide depleted reduced glutathione level further. Copper-hydroquinone complex mediated glutathione depletion in the catalase containing RBC was not decreased by antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. From the known facts and above findings, it is suggested that depletion of reduced glutathione by hydroquinone in the presence of copper in catalase active RBC may be due to the formation of 1, 4 benzoquinone adduct of reduced glutathione and to some extent due to binding of copper to the thiol group of reduced glutathione rather than conversion to oxidized glutathione via reactive oxygen species. Depletion of reduced glutathione by N-ethylmaleimide pretreatment followed by copper-hydroquinone treatment had no effect on methemoglobin level or lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, copper-hydroquinone complex did not increase erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress. This suggests hydroquinone in the presence of copper does not contribute to erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation seen in smokers. Criteria for ideal antioxidant supplementation in smokers were suggested.

  6. Upregulation of Oxidative Stress Related Genes in a Chronic Kidney Disease Attributed to Specific Geographical Locations of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sayanthooran, Saravanabavan; Gunerathne, Lishanthe; Abeysekera, Tilak D. J.; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To infer the influence of internal and external oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease patients of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka, by analyzing expression of genes related directly or indirectly to oxidative stress: glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). Methods. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was carried out for the selected populations: CKDu patients (n = 43), chronic kidney disease patients (CKD; n = 14), healthy individuals from a CKDu endemic area (GHI; n = 9), and nonendemic area (KHI; n = 16). Fold changes were quantified relative to KHI. Results. GCLC had greater than threefold upregulation in all three study groups, with a maximum of 7.27-fold upregulation in GHI (p = 0.000). GSTM1 was not expressed in 25.6% of CKDu and 42.9% of CKD patients, but CKDu patients expressing GSTM1 showed upregulation of 2.60-fold (p < 0.05). Upregulation of FGF23 and NLRP3 genes in CKD and CKDu was observed (p < 0.01), with greater fold changes in CKD. Conclusion. Results suggest higher influence of external sources of oxidative stress in CKDu, possibly owing to environmental conditions. PMID:27975059

  7. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Karlin, Justin; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Wolf, Andrea J; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M; Rentsendorj, Altan; Vargas, Mario; Guerrero, Candace; Wang, Yinsheng; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Underhill, David M; Town, Terrence; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-03-23

    We report that in the presence of signal 1 (NF-κB), the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated by mitochondrial apoptotic signaling that licensed production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). NLRP3 secondary signal activators such as ATP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, resulting in release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, where it bound to and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 inversely regulated mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mitochondrial DNA directly induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, because macrophages lacking mtDNA had severely attenuated IL-1β production, yet still underwent apoptosis. Both binding of oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β secretion could be competitively inhibited by the oxidized nucleoside 8-OH-dG. Thus, our data reveal that oxidized mtDNA released during programmed cell death causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  8. Oxidized Mitochondrial DNA Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome During Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Karlin, Justin; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Wolf, Andrea J.; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M.; Rentsendorj, Altan; Vargas, Mario; Guerrero, Candace; Wang, Yinsheng; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Underhill, David M.; Town, Terrence; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We report that in the presence of signal 1 (NF-κB), the NLRP3 inflammasome was activated by mitochondrial apoptotic signaling that licensed production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). NLRP3 secondary signal activators such as ATP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, resulting in release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, where it bound to and activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 inversely regulated mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mitochondrial DNA directly induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, because macrophages lacking mtDNA had severely attenuated IL-1β production, yet still underwent apoptosis. Both binding of oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β secretion could be competitively inhibited by the oxidized nucleoside, 8-OH-dG. Thus, our data reveal that oxidized mtDNA released during programmed cell death causes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These results provide a missing link between apoptosis and inflammasome activation, via binding of cytosolic oxidized mtDNA to the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:22342844

  9. A positive correlation between mercury and oxidative stress-related gene expression (GPX3 and GSTM3) is measured in female Double-crested Cormorant blood.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Laura A; Lavoie, Raphael A; Bissegger, Sonja; Campbell, Linda M; Langlois, Valerie S

    2014-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a widespread contaminant that has been shown to induce a wide range of adverse health effects in birds including reproductive, physiological and neurological impairments. Here we explored the relationship between blood total Hg concentrations ([THg]) and oxidative stress gene induction in the aquatic piscivorous Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) using a non-lethal technique, i.e., blood gene expression analysis. P. auritus blood was sampled at five sites across the Great Lakes basin, Ontario, Canada and was analyzed for [THg]. To assess cellular stress, the expression of glutathione peroxidases 1 and 3 (GPX1, GPX3), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), heat-shock protein 70 kd-8 (HSP70-8) and glutathione S-transferase µ3 (GSTM3) were measured in whole blood samples using real-time RT-PCR. Results showed a significantly positive correlation between female blood [THg] and both GPX3 and GSTM3 expression. Different levels of oxidative stress experienced by males and females during the breeding season may be influencing the differential oxidative stress responses to blood [THg] observed in this study. Overall, these results suggest that Hg may lead to oxidative stress as some of the cellular stress-related genes were altered in the blood of female P. auritus and that blood gene expression analysis is a successful approach to assess bird health condition.

  10. Exercise and diet-induced weight loss attenuates oxidative stress related-coronary vasoconstriction in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaohui; Novick, Marsha; Muller, Matthew D; Williams, Ronald J; Spilk, Samson; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is a disease of oxidative stress (OS). Acute hyperoxia (breathing 100 % O(2)) can evoke coronary vasoconstriction by the oxidative quenching of nitric oxide (NO). To examine if weight loss would alter the hyperoxia-related coronary constriction seen in obese adolescents, we measured the coronary blood flow velocity (CBV) response to hyperoxia using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before and after a 4-week diet and exercise regimen in 6 obese male adolescents (age 13-17 years, BMI 36.5 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)). Six controls of similar age and BMI were also studied. The intervention group lost 9 ± 1 % body weight, which was associated with a reduced resting heart rate (HR), reduced diastolic blood pressure (BP), and reduced RPP (all P < 0.05). Before weight loss, hyperoxia reduced CBV by 33 ± 3 %. After weight loss, CBV only fell by 15 ± 3 % (P < 0.05). In the control group, CBV responses to hyperoxia were unchanged during the two trials. Thus weight loss: (1) reduces HR, BP, and RPP; and (2) attenuates the OS-related coronary constrictor response seen in obese adolescents. We postulate that: (1) the high RPP before weight loss led to higher myocardial O(2) consumption, higher coronary flow and greater NO production, and in turn a large constrictor response to hyperoxia; and (2) weight loss decreased myocardial oxygen demand and NO levels. Under these circumstances, hyperoxia-induced vasoconstriction was attenuated.

  11. Elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs metabolic adaptations to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Abadi, Arkan; Hettinga, Bart P; Ogborn, Daniel I; MacNeil, Lauren G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress is a complex phenomenon that is inherently tied to energy provision and is implicated in many metabolic disorders. Exercise training increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle yet it remains unclear if oxidative stress plays a role in regulating these adaptations. We demonstrate that the chronic elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress present in Sod2 (+/-) mice impairs the functional and biochemical mitochondrial adaptations to exercise. Following exercise training Sod2 (+/-) mice fail to increase maximal work capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity and mtDNA copy number, despite a normal augmentation of mitochondrial proteins. Additionally, exercised Sod2 (+/-) mice cannot compensate for their higher amount of basal mitochondrial oxidative damage and exhibit poor electron transport chain complex assembly that accounts for their compromised adaptation. Overall, these results demonstrate that chronic skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative stress does not impact exercise induced mitochondrial biogenesis, but impairs the resulting mitochondrial protein function and can limit metabolic plasticity.

  12. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14 days after CPF exposure (0.05 mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25 ng/g within 96 hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations.

  13. Tissue expression analysis of FeMT3, a drought and oxidative stress related metallothionein gene from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    PubMed

    Samardzić, Jelena T; Nikolić, Dragana B; Timotijević, Gordana S; Jovanović, Zivko S; Milisavljević, Mira Đ; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2010-11-01

    Metallothionein type 3 (MT3) expression has previously been detected in leaves, fruits, and developing somatic embryos in different plant species. However, specific tissular and cellular localization of MT3 transcripts have remained unidentified. In this study, in situ RNA-RNA analysis revealed buckwheat metallothionein type 3 (FeMT3) transcript localization in vascular elements, mesophyll and guard cells of leaves, vascular tissue of roots and throughout the whole embryo. Changes in FeMT3 mRNA levels in response to drought and oxidative stress, as well as ROS scavenging abilities of the FeMT3 protein in yeast were also detected, indicating possible involvement of FeMT3 in stress defense and ROS related cellular processes.

  14. Tamoxifen inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress damage induced by copper orthophenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Correa, Francisco; Díaz-Ruiz, Jorge Luis; Chávez, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of tamoxifen and cyclosporin A on mitochondrial permeability transition caused by addition of the thiol-oxidizing pair Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline. The findings indicate that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A circumvent the oxidative membrane damage manifested by matrix Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial swelling, and transmembrane electrical gradient collapse. Furthermore, it was found that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A prevent the generation of TBARs promoted by Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline, as well as the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme aconitase and disruption of mDNA. Electrophoretic analysis was unable to demonstrate a cross-linking reaction between membrane proteins. Yet, it was found that Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is thus plausible that membrane leakiness is due to an oxidative stress injury.

  15. Mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Markus; Thiruveedhi, Krishnaveni; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Kebeish, Rashad; Hirsch, Heinz-Josef; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate is an important reaction step in photorespiration. Land plants and charophycean green algae oxidize glycolate in the peroxisome using oxygen as a co-factor, whereas chlorophycean green algae use a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH) with organic co-factors. Previous analyses revealed the existence of a GDH in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGDH). In this study, the contribution of AtGDH to photorespiration was characterized. Both RNA abundance and mitochondrial GDH activity were up-regulated under photorespiratory growth conditions. Labelling experiments indicated that glycolate oxidation in mitochondrial extracts is coupled to CO(2) release. This effect could be enhanced by adding co-factors for aminotransferases, but is inhibited by the addition of glycine. T-DNA insertion lines for AtGDH show a drastic reduction in mitochondrial GDH activity and CO(2) release from glycolate. Furthermore, photorespiration is reduced in these mutant lines compared with the wild type, as revealed by determination of the post-illumination CO(2) burst and the glycine/serine ratio under photorespiratory growth conditions. The data show that mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants. This indicates the conservation of chlorophycean photorespiration in streptophytes despite the evolution of leaf-type peroxisomes.

  16. A novel locus in the oxidative stress-related gene ALOX12 moderates the association between PTSD and thickness of the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Sadeh, Naomi; Logue, Mark; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Sperbeck, Emily; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Angie; Carter, Weleetka C.; Humphries, Donald E.; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in many common age-related diseases and is hypothesized to play a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related neurodegeneration (Miller and Sadeh, 2014). This study examined the influence of the oxidative stress-related genes ALOX 12 and ALOX 15 on the association between PTSD and cortical thickness. Factor analyses were used to identify and compare alternative models of the structure of cortical thickness in a sample of 218 veterans. The best-fitting model was then used for a genetic association analysis in White non-Hispanic participants (n = 146) that examined relationships between 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the two genes, 8 cortical thickness factors, and each SNP × PTSD interaction. Results identified a novel ALOX12 locus (indicated by two SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium: rs1042357 and rs10852889) that moderated the association between PTSD and reduced thickness of the right prefrontal cortex. A whole-cortex vertex-wise analysis showed this effect to be localized to clusters spanning the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulated cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These findings illustrate a novel factor-analytic approach to neuroimaging-genetic analyses and provide new evidence for the possible involvement of oxidative stress in PTSD-related neurodegeneration. PMID:26372769

  17. Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Implications for Mitochondrially Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2006-01-01

    The overall aim of this article is to review current therapeutic strategies for treating AD, with a focus on mitochondrially targeted antioxidant treatments. Recent advances in molecular, cellular, and animal model studies of AD have revealed that amyloid precursor protein derivatives, including amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers and oligomers, are likely key factors in tau hyperphosphorylation, mitochondrial oxidative damage, inflammatory changes, and synaptic failure in the brain tissue of AD patients. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to treat AD, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiamyloid approaches. Among these, mitochondrial antioxidant therapy has been found to be the most efficacious in reducing pathological changes and in not producing adverse effects; thus, mitochondrial antioxidant therapy is promising as a treatment for AD patients. However, a major limitation in applying mitochondrial antioxidants to AD treatment has been the inability of researchers to enhance antioxidant levels in mitochondria. Recently, however, there has been a breakthrough. Researchers have recently been able to promote the entry of certain antioxidants—including MitoQ, MitoVitE, MitoPBN, MitoPeroxidase, and amino acid and peptide-based SS tetrapeptides—into mitochondria, several hundred-fold more than do natural antioxidants. Once in the mitochondria, they rapidly neutralize free radicals and decrease mitochondrial toxicity. Thus, mitochondrially targeted antioxidants are promising candidates for treating AD patients. PMID:17047303

  18. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: effects of antioxidant treatments.

    PubMed

    Milei, J; Ferreira, R; Grana, D R; Boveris, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined antioxidant actions in 73 patients undergoing coronary artery surgery by assessing mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in ventricular biopsies obtained at preischemia and postreperfusion. Those patients who received antioxidant therapy benefited by less oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

  19. Sirt3 Protects Dopaminergic Neurons from Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Shi, Han; Deng, Han-Xiang; Gius, David; Schumacker, Paul T; James Surmeier, D; Ma, Yong-Chao

    2017-03-24

    Age-dependent elevation in mitochondrial oxidative stress is widely posited to be a major factor underlying the loss of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanistic links between aging and oxidative stress are not well understood. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial deacetylase that could mediate this connection. Indeed, genetic deletion of Sirt3 increased oxidative stress and decreased the membrane potential of mitochondria in SNc dopaminergic neurons. This change was attributable to increased acetylation and decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Site directed mutagenesis of lysine 68 to glutamine (K68Q), mimicking acetylation, decreased MnSOD activity in SNc dopaminergic neurons, whereas mutagenesis of lysine 68 to arginine (K68R), mimicking deacetylation, increased activity. Introduction of K68R MnSOD rescued mitochondrial redox status and membrane potential of SNc dopaminergic neurons from Sirt3 knockouts. Moreover, deletion of DJ-1, which helps orchestrate nuclear oxidant defenses, and Sirt3 in mice led to a clear age-related loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons. Lastly, K68 acetylation of MnSOD was significantly increased in the SNc of PD patients. Taken together, our studies suggest that an age-related decline in Sirt3 protective function is a major factor underlying increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons in PD.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy about depression being a physical illness, in part because a reproducible, sensitive, and specific biologic marker is not available. However, there is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress may be associated with abnormal brain function and mood disorders, such as depression. This paper reviews selected human and animal studies providing evidence that intracellular mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction in specific brain regions is associated with major depressive disorder. This supports the hypothesis that chronic mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may be associated with depression. Evaluation of mitochondrial dysfunction in specific tissues may broaden the perspective of depression beyond theories about neurotransmitters or receptor sites, and may explain the persistent signs and symptoms of depression. PMID:23650447

  1. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Shawna E.; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R.; Fuller, Scott E.; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2015-01-01

    The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Perhaps more importantly, inhibition of mitochondrial FAO also initiates a local, adaptive response in muscle that invokes mitochondrial biogenesis, compensatory peroxisomal fat oxidation, and amino acid catabolism. Loss of its major fuel source (lipid) induces an energy deprivation response in muscle coordinated by signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) to maintain energy supply for locomotion and survival. At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity. PMID:26056297

  2. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Shawna E; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R; Fuller, Scott E; Warfel, Jaycob D; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C; Mynatt, Randall L

    2015-06-23

    The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Perhaps more importantly, inhibition of mitochondrial FAO also initiates a local, adaptive response in muscle that invokes mitochondrial biogenesis, compensatory peroxisomal fat oxidation, and amino acid catabolism. Loss of its major fuel source (lipid) induces an energy deprivation response in muscle coordinated by signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) to maintain energy supply for locomotion and survival. At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity.

  3. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Torequl

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species play an important role in physiological functions. Overproduction of reactive species, notably reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species along with the failure of balance by the body's antioxidant enzyme systems results in destruction of cellular structures, lipids, proteins, and genetic materials such as DNA and RNA. Moreover, the effects of reactive species on mitochondria and their metabolic processes eventually cause a rise in ROS/RNS levels, leading to oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress has been considered to be linked to the etiology of many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer diseases, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich's ataxia, Huntington's disease, Multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's diseases. In addition, oxidative stress causing protein misfold may turn to other NDDs include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and Fatal Familial Insomnia. An overview of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction-linked NDDs has been summarized in this review.

  4. Mitochondrial biology and oxidative stress in Parkinson disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Henchcliffe, Claire; Beal, M Flint

    2008-11-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, as well as with more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex and variable motor and nonmotor symptoms. Recent rapid advances in PD genetics have revealed a prominent role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of the disease, and the products of several PD-associated genes, including SNCA, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2 and HTR2A, show a degree of localization to the mitochondria under certain conditions. Impaired mitochondrial function is likely to increase oxidative stress and might render cells more vulnerable to this and other related processes, including excitotoxicity. The mitochondria, therefore, represent a highly promising target for the development of disease biomarkers by use of genetic, biochemical and bioimaging approaches. Novel therapeutic interventions that modify mitochondrial function are currently under development, and a large phase III clinical trial is underway to examine whether high-dose oral coenzyme Q10 will slow disease progression. In this Review, we examine evidence for the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in the neuronal loss that leads to PD and discuss how this knowledge might further improve patient management and aid in the development of 'mitochondrial therapy' for PD.

  5. Mitochondrial-Nuclear Communication by Prohibitin Shuttling Under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Srinivas; He, Weilue; Atkinson, Cameron; Smith, Joey; Liu, Zhicong; Elledge, Beth; Jahng, Wan Jin

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial-nuclear communication is critical to maintain mitochondrial activity under stress conditions. Adaptation of the mitochondria-nucleus network to changes in the intracellular oxidation and reduction milieu is critical for the survival of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, in relation to their high oxygen demand and rapid metabolism. However, the generation and transmittal of mitochondrial signal to the nucleus remains elusive. Previously, our in vivo study revealed that prohibitin is up-regulated in the retina but is down-regulated in RPE in the aging and diabetic model. In this study, the functional role of prohibitin in the retina and the RPE was studied using biochemical methods, including lipid binding assay, 2D gel electrophoresis, immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and knockdown approach. Protein depletion by siRNA characterized prohibitin as an anti-apoptotic molecule in mitochondria, while lipid binding assay demonstrated subcellular communications between mitochondria and the nucleus under oxidative stress. The changes of the expressions and localization of mitochondrial prohibitin triggered by reactive oxygen species are crucial for mitochondrial integrity. We propose that prohibitin shuttles between mitochondria and the nucleus as an anti-apoptotic molecule and a transcriptional regulator under stress environment in the retina and RPE. PMID:21879722

  6. Exogenous NO depletes Cd-induced toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, re-establishing ATPase activity, and maintaining stress-related hormone equilibrium in white clover plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, S L; Yang, R J; Pan, Y Z; Wang, M H; Zhao, Y; Wu, M X; Hu, J; Zhang, L L; Ma, M D

    2015-11-01

    Various nitric oxide (NO) regulators [including the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), the NO-synthase inhibitor N (G)-nitro-L-Arg-methyl ester (L-NAME), and the SNP analogues sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide] were investigated to elucidate the role of NO in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants after long-term (5 days) exposure to cadmium (Cd). A dose of 100 μM Cd stress significantly restrained plant growth and decreased the concentrations of chlorophyll and NO in vivo, whereas it disrupted the balance of stress-related hormones and enhanced the accumulation of Cd, thereby inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. However, the inhibition of plant growth was relieved by 50 μM SNP through its stimulation of ROS-scavenging compounds (ascorbic acid, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase, non-protein thiol, superoxide dismutase, and total glutathione), regulation of H(+)-ATPase activity of proton pumps, and increasing jasmonic acid and proline but decreasing ethylene in plant tissues. Even so, the alleviating effect of SNP on plant growth was counteracted by cPTIO and L-NAME and was not observed with SNP analogues, suggesting that the protective roles of SNP are related to the induction of NO. These results suggest that NO may improve the Cd tolerance of white clover plants by eliminating oxidative damage, re-establishing ATPase activity, and maintaining hormone equilibrium. Improving our understanding of the role of NO in white clover plants is key to expanding the plantations to various regions and the recovery of pasture species in the future.

  7. Tat-HSP22 inhibits oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death by regulation of the mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Son, Ora; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Keun Wook; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2017-01-04

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the protective effects and mechanisms of HSP22 in hippocampal neuronal cells under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we determined whether HSP22 protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 using Tat-HSP22 fusion protein. We found that Tat-HSP22 transduced into HT-22 cells and that H2O2-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were significantly reduced by Tat-HSP22. In addition, Tat-HSP22 markedly inhibited H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax expression levels, while Bcl-2 expression levels were increased in HT-22 cells. Further, we showed that Tat-HSP22 transduced into animal brain and inhibited cleaved-caspase-3 expression levels as well as significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of animals in the ischemic animal model. In the present study, we demonstrated that transduced Tat-HSP22 attenuates oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death through the mitochondrial signaling pathway and plays a crucial role in inhibiting neuronal cell death, suggesting that Tat-HSP22 protein may be used to prevent oxidative stress-related brain diseases including ischemia.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development.

  9. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Krasnov, George S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Kardymon, Olga L.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Fedorova, Maria S.; Pokrovsky, Anatoly V.; Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kaprin, Andrey D.; Moskalev, Alexey A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging and cancer are the most important issues to research. The population in the world is growing older, and the incidence of cancer increases with age. There is no doubt about the linkage between aging and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that the oxidative stress as a cause and/or consequence of the mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main drivers of these processes. Increasing ROS levels and products of the oxidative stress, which occur in aging and age-related disorders, were also found in cancer. This review focuses on the similarities between ageing-associated and cancer-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction as their common phenotype. PMID:27270647

  11. 4-Nonylphenol induces disruption of spermatogenesis associated with oxidative stress-related apoptosis by targeting p53-Bcl-2/Bax-Fas/FasL signaling.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2017-03-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous environmental chemical with estrogenic activity. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to NP leads to testicular dysfunction. Herein, 24 7-week-old rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP (0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight every 2 days for 20 consecutive days) by intraperitoneal injection. Compared to untreated controls, the parameters of sperm activation rate, curvilinear velocity, average path velocity, and swimming velocity were significantly lower at doses of 100 mg/kg, while sperm morphological abnormalities were higher, indicating functional disruption and reduced fertilization potential. High exposure to NP (100 mg/kg) resulted in disordered arrangement of spermatoblasts and reduction of spermatocytes in seminiferous tubules, while tissues exhibited a marked decline in testicular fructose content and serum FSH, LH, and testosterone levels. Oxidative stress was induced by NP (50 or 100 mg/kg) as evidenced by elevated MDA, decreased SOD and GSH-Px, and inhibited antioxidant gene expression (CAT, GPx, SOD1, and CYP1B1). In addition, NP treatment decreased proportions of Ki-67-positive cells and increased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Rats treated with 100 mg/kg NP exhibited significantly increased mRNA expression of caspase-1, -2, -9, and -11, decreased caspase-8 and PCNA1 mRNA expression, downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratios and upregulation of Fas, FasL, and p53 at the protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, NP-induced apoptosis, hormonal deficiencies, and depletion of fructose potentially impairs spermatogenesis and sperm function. p53-independent Fas/FasL-Bax/Bcl-2 pathways may be involved in NP-induced oxidative stress-related apoptosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 739-753, 2017.

  12. Dietary Supplement Attenuates Radiation-Induced Osteoclastogenic and Oxidative Stress-Related Responses and Protects Adult Mice from Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Tahimic, Candice; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Shahnazari, Mohammed; Halloran, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Our central hypothesis is that oxidative stress plays a key role in cell dysfunction and progressive bone loss caused by radiation exposure during spaceflight. In animal studies, excess free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. We previously reported that exposure to low or high-LET radiation rapidly increases expression levels of pro-osteoclastogenic and oxidative stress-related genes in bone and marrow, followed by pathological changes in skeletal structure. To screen various antioxidants for radioprotective effects on bone, 4 month old, male C57Bl6/J mice were treated with a dietary antioxidant cocktail, injectable alpha-lipoic acid, or a dried plum-enriched diet (DP). Mice were then exposed to 2Gy 137Cs total body radiation and one day later marrow cells were collected and the relevant genes analyzed for expression levels. Of the candidates tested, DP was most effective in reducing bone resorption-related gene expression. Microcomputed tomography revealed that DP also prevented the radiation-induced deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture, as indicated by percent bone volume, trabecular spacing and trabecular number. DP had similar protective effects on skeletal structure after sequential exposure to protons (0.5 Gy, 150MeV/n) and 56Fe 0.5Gy, 600 MeV/n). When cultured ex vivo under osteogenic conditions, bone marrow-derived cells from DP-fed animals exhibited increased colony numbers compared to control diet-fed animals. These findings suggest that DP exerted pro-osteogenic effects apart from previously identified anti-resorptive actions, which may contribute to radioprotection of skeletal tissue. In conclusion, a diet enriched in certain types of antioxidants and polyphenols such as DP may be useful as an intervention to protect tissues from degenerative effects of ionizing radiation.

  13. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  14. Exportability of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation machinery into myelin sheath.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Alessandro; Ravera, Silvia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    White matter comprises over half of the brain, and its role in axonal survival is being reconsidered, consistently with the observation that axonal degeneration follows demyelination. The recent evidence of an extra-mitochondrial aerobic ATP production in isolated myelin vesicles, thanks to the expression therein of the mitochondrial Oxydative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS) machinery, stands in for myelin playing a functional bioenergetic role in ATP supply for the axon. The observation that subunits of the OXPHOS encoded by the mitochondrial genome are expressed in myelin, suggests that they can be the same as those of the inner mitochondrial membrane. This would mean that the OXPHOS is exportable. Here the hypothesis is exposed that the mitochondrion is the unique site of the assembly of the OXPHOS, so that this is exported to those sub cellular districts displaying high energy demand, such as myelin sheath. There the OXPHOS would display a higher efficiency in oxidative ATP production than inside the mitochondrion itself In this respect, the role of the glia in the nervous conduction is shed new light and the oligodendrocyte mitochondrial OXPHOS are hypothesized to be delivered to nascent myelin.

  15. Diseases of the human mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Julio; López-Gallardo, Ester; Herrero-Martín, María Dolores; Martínez-Romero, Iñigo; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Pacheu, David; Carreras, Magdalena; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases, or diseases of the oxidative phosphorylation system, consist of a group of disorders originated by a deficient synthesis of ATP. This system is composed of proteins codified in the two genetic systems of the cell, the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes, and, therefore, the mode of inheritance could be either mendelian or maternal. The diseases can also appear sporadically. Due to the central role that mitochondria play in cellular physiology, these diseases are a social and health problem of great importance. They are considered rare diseases; however, together they constitute a large variety of genetic disorders. It is also believed that mitochondria are involved, directly or indirectly, in many other human diseases, mainly in age-related diseases. This review will focus mainly on describing the special characteristics of the mitochondrial genetic system and the diseases caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations. We will also note the difficulties in studying these pathologies, and the possible involvement of the genetic variability of the mitochondrial genome in the development of these diseases.

  16. Stress-related cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stress-related cardiomyopathies can be observed in the four following situations: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or apical ballooning syndrome; acute left ventricular dysfunction associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage; acute left ventricular dysfunction associated with pheochromocytoma and exogenous catecholamine administration; acute left ventricular dysfunction in the critically ill. Cardiac toxicity was mediated more by catecholamines released directly into the heart via neural connection than by those reaching the heart via the bloodstream. The mechanisms underlying the association between this generalized autonomic storm secondary to a life-threatening stress and myocardial toxicity are widely discussed. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been reported all over the world and has been acknowledged by the American Heart Association as a form of reversible cardiomyopathy. Four "Mayo Clinic" diagnostic criteria are required for the diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: 1) transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities involving the apical and/or midventricular myocardial segments with wall motion abnormalities extending beyond a single epicardial coronary artery distribution; 2) absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease that could be responsible for the observed wall motion abnormality; 3) ECG abnormalities, such as transient ST-segment elevation and/or diffuse T wave inversion associated with a slight troponin elevation; and 4) the lack of proven pheochromocytoma and myocarditis. ECG changes and LV dysfunction occur frequently following subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. This entity, referred as neurocardiogenic stunning, was called neurogenic stress-related cardiomyopathy. Stress-related cardiomyopathy has been reported in patients with pheochromocytoma and in patients receiving intravenous exogenous catecholamine administration. The role of a huge increase in endogenous and/or exogenous catecholamine level in critically ill patients

  17. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle.

  18. Transcriptomics in Interferon-α-Treated Patients Identifies Inflammation-, Neuroplasticity- and Oxidative Stress-Related Signatures as Predictors and Correlates of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hepgul, Nilay; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Agarwal, Kosh; Baraldi, Sara; Borsini, Alessandra; Bufalino, Chiara; Forton, Daniel M; Mondelli, Valeria; Nikkheslat, Naghmeh; Lopizzo, Nicola; Riva, Marco A; Russell, Alice; Hotopf, Matthew; Pariante, Carmine M

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the unique opportunity to assess individuals before and after they develop depression within a short timeframe, interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an ideal model to identify molecular mechanisms relevant to major depression, especially in the context of enhanced inflammation. Fifty-eight patients were assessed prospectively, at baseline and monthly over 24 weeks of IFN-α treatment. New-onset cases of depression were determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Whole-blood transcriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate the following: (1) baseline gene expression differences associated with future development of IFN-α-induced depression, before IFN-α, and (2) longitudinal gene expression changes from baseline to weeks 4 or 24 of IFN-α treatment, separately in those who did and did not develop depression. Transcriptomics data were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite (1.4-fold, FDR adjusted p⩽0.05) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software. Twenty patients (34%) developed IFN-α-induced depression. At baseline, 73 genes were differentially expressed in patients who later developed depression compared with those who did not. After 4 weeks of IFN-α treatment, 592 genes were modulated in the whole sample, representing primarily IFN-α-responsive genes. Substantially more genes were modulated only in patients who developed depression (n=506, compared with n=70 in patients who did not), with enrichment in inflammation-, neuroplasticity- and oxidative stress-related pathways. A similar picture was observed at week 24. Our data indicate that patients who develop IFN-α-induced depression have an increased biological sensitivity to IFN-α, as shown by larger gene expression changes, and specific signatures both as predictors and as correlates. PMID:27067128

  19. Evaluation of different culture systems with low oxygen tension on the development, quality and oxidative stress-related genes of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arias, Maria Elena; Sanchez, Raul; Felmer, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the development, quality and gene expression profile of oxidative stress-related genes of bovine embryos cultured in different culture systems with low oxygen tension (5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2). The systems assessed included: (1) an incubator chamber; (2) a plastic bag; and (3) a foil bag. The choice of culture system had no effect on cleavage rate at 72 h. However, significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in the rate of blastocysts registered at day 7 (29.8, 20.2 and 12.7% for incubator chamber, plastic bag and foil bag, respectively). Total number of cells did not differ between systems, although the proportion of ICM:total cells was affected particularly in the plastic bag (19.5%), compared with the incubator chamber (31.4%). In addition, significant differences were found in the apoptotic:total cell ratio (3.3, 6.5 and 8.8% for the incubator chamber, plastic bag and foil bag, respectively), with apoptotic nuclei localised mainly in the ICM compartment of the embryo. The amount of reactive oxygen species was also different between culture systems and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of SOD2, GSS and GPX1 genes in embryos cultured in the gassed bags as compared with embryos cultured in the incubator chamber. In conclusion, these results give evidence that, under low oxygen tension, the incubator chamber is more efficient and generates higher number of, and better quality, embryos than gassed bag systems evaluated here and this effect was probably due to an increased level of reactive oxygen species in the gassed bags, which upregulates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes to compensate for hyperoxia conditions.

  20. Apricot Melanoidins Prevent Oxidative Endothelial Cell Death by Counteracting Mitochondrial Oxidation and Membrane Depolarization

    PubMed Central

    Giordo, Roberta; Emanueli, Costanza; Sanguinetti, Anna Maria; Piscopo, Amalia; Poiana, Marco; Capobianco, Giampiero; Piga, Antonio; Pintus, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables are thought to be due to phytochemicals contained in fresh plant material. However, whether processed plant foods provide the same benefits as unprocessed ones is an open question. Melanoidins from heat-processed apricots were isolated and their presence confirmed by colorimetric analysis and browning index. Oxidative injury of endothelial cells (ECs) is the key step for the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), therefore the potential protective effect of apricot melanoidins on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative mitochondrial damage and cell death was explored in human ECs. The redox state of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments was detected by using the redox-sensitive, fluorescent protein (roGFP), while the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed with the fluorescent dye, JC-1. ECs exposure to hydrogen peroxide, dose-dependently induced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation. Additionally detected hydrogen peroxide-induced phenomena were MMP dissipation and ECs death. Pretreatment of ECs with apricot melanoidins, significantly counteracted and ultimately abolished hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular oxidation, mitochondrial depolarization and cell death. In this regard, our current results clearly indicate that melanoidins derived from heat-processed apricots, protect human ECs against oxidative stress. PMID:23144984

  1. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Their Role in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mikhed, Yuliya; Daiber, Andreas; Steven, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased in the older population. Risk factors and predictors of future cardiovascular events such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes are observed with higher frequency in elderly individuals. A major determinant of vascular aging is endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent signaling processes. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, loss of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling, loss of endothelial barrier function and infiltration of leukocytes to the vascular wall, explaining the low-grade inflammation characteristic for the aged vasculature. We here discuss the importance of different sources of ROS for vascular aging and their contribution to the increased cardiovascular risk in the elderly population with special emphasis on mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. Also the interaction (crosstalk) of mitochondria with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases is highlighted. Current concepts of vascular aging, consequences for the development of cardiovascular events and the particular role of ROS are evaluated on the basis of cell culture experiments, animal studies and clinical trials. Present data point to a more important role of oxidative stress for the maximal healthspan (healthy aging) than for the maximal lifespan. PMID:26184181

  2. CONTROL OF GLUTAMATE OXIDATION IN BRAIN AND LIVER MITOCHONDRIAL SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    BALAZS, R

    1965-05-01

    1. Glutamate oxidation in brain and liver mitochondrial systems proceeds mainly through transamination with oxaloacetate followed by oxidation of the alpha-oxoglutarate formed. Both in the presence and absence of dinitrophenol in liver mitochondria this pathway accounted for almost 80% of the uptake of glutamate. In brain preparations the transamination pathway accounted for about 90% of the glutamate uptake. 2. The oxidation of [1-(14)C]- and [5-(14)C]-glutamate in brain preparations is compatible with utilization through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, either after the formation of alpha-oxoglutarate or after decarboxylation to form gamma-aminobutyrate. There is no indication of gamma-decarboxylation of glutamate. 3. The high respiratory control ratio obtained with glutamate as substrate in brain mitochondrial preparations is due to the low respiration rate in the absence of ADP: this results from the low rate of formation of oxaloacetate under these conditions. When oxaloacetate is made available by the addition of malate or of NAD(+), the respiration rate is increased to the level obtained with other substrates. 4. When the transamination pathway of glutamate oxidation was blocked with malonate, the uptake of glutamate was inhibited in the presence of ADP or ADP plus dinitrophenol by about 70 and 80% respectively in brain mitochondrial systems, whereas the inhibition was only about 50% in dinitrophenol-stimulated liver preparations. In unstimulated liver mitochondria in the presence of malonate there was a sixfold increase in the oxidation of glutamate by the glutamate-dehydrogenase pathway. Thus the operating activity of glutamate dehydrogenase is much less than the ;free' (non-latent) activity. 5. The following explanation is put forward for the control of glutamate metabolism in liver and brain mitochondrial preparations. The oxidation of glutamate by either pathway yields alpha-oxoglutarate, which is further metabolized. Since aspartate aminotransferase is

  3. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis.

  4. Mitochondrial accumulation under oxidative stress is due to defects in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Hui; Feng, Zhihui; Li, Yuan; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics maintains normal mitochondrial function by degrading damaged mitochondria and generating newborn mitochondria. The accumulation of damaged mitochondria influences the intracellular environment by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction, and thus initiating a vicious cycle. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial malfunction, which is involved in many cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism of mitochondrial accumulation in cardiac myoblasts remains unclear. We observed mitochondrial dysfunction and an increase in mitochondrial mass under the oxidative conditions produced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells. However, in contrast to the increase in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) decreased, suggesting that enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis may be not the primary cause of the mitochondrial accumulation. Therefore, we investigated changes in a number of proteins involved in autophagy. Beclin1, Atg12-Atg5 conjugate, Atg7 contents decreased but LC3-II accumulated in tBHP-treated H9c2 cells. Moreover, the capacity for acid hydrolysis decreased in H9c2 cells. We also demonstrated a decrease in DJ-1 protein under the oxidative conditions that deregulate mitochondrial dynamics. These results reveal that autophagy became defective under oxidative stress. We therefore suggest that defects in autophagy mediate mitochondrial accumulation under these conditions.

  5. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M. . E-mail: palmeira@ci.uc.pt

    2006-04-15

    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications. Four major molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced tissue damage: activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms via de novo synthesis of the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), increased hexosamine pathway flux, increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, and increased polyol pathway flux. Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide is the causal link between high glucose and the pathways responsible for hyperglycemic damage. In fact, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals and/or impaired antioxidant defense capabilities, indicating a central contribution for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the onset, progression, and pathological consequences of diabetes. Besides oxidative stress, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and decreases in mtDNA copy number have been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The study of the relationship of mtDNA to type 2 diabetes has revealed the influence of the mitochondria on nuclear-encoded glucose transporters, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and nuclear-encoded uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in {beta}-cell glucose toxicity. This review focuses on a range of mitochondrial factors important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We review the published literature regarding the direct effects of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial function and suggest the possibility of regulation of mitochondrial function at a transcriptional level in response to hyperglycemia. The main goal of this review is to include a fresh consideration of pathways involved in hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications.

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium Attenuates Acute Kidney Injury by Downregulating the Oxidative Stress-Related Pathway in Ischemia-Reperfusion Rats.

    PubMed

    Tarng, Der-Cherng; Tseng, Wei-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Ying; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Teratoma-like formation addresses a critical safety concern for the potential utility of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Therefore, therapy utilizing iPSC-derived conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) for acute kidney injury (AKI) has attracted substantial interest. A recent study showed that iPSC-CM effectively alleviated ventilator-induced lung injury in rats. It prompts us to assess the therapeutic effects of iPSC-CM on ischemic AKI. First, we assessed the changes in renal function and tubular cell apoptosis by intraperitoneal administration of iPSC-CM to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats. Second, we explored the oxidative stress-related pathway in the apoptosis of renal tubular cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). Administration of iPSC-CM significantly improved renal function and protected tubular cells against apoptosis in rats with I/R-AKI, and the optimal effect was observed at the 50-fold concentrated iPSC-CM. iPSC-CM also mitigated the H/R-induced apoptosis of NRK-52E cells in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was augmented in kidneys following I/R and in NRK-52E cells subjected to H/R. Meanwhile, expressions of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, TNF-α, and cleaved caspase 3 and NF-κB activity were consistently increased in vivo and in vitro. Following administration of iPSC-CM, ROS production was abolished, and inflammatory cytokine expression was significantly suppressed. Annexin V-propidium iodide flow cytometry and in situ TUNEL assay further showed that iPSC-CM markedly attenuated H/R- or I/R-induced tubular cell apoptosis. Intriguingly, treatment with iPSC-CM significantly improved the survival of rats with I/R-induced AKI. iPSC-CM represents a favorable source of stem cell-based therapy and may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for kidney repair in ischemic AKI.

  7. Inhibitors of mitochondrial fission as a therapeutic strategy for diseases with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential cytoplasmic organelles, critical for cell survival and death. Recent mitochondrial research revealed that mitochondrial dynamics-the balance of fission and fusion in normal mitochondrial dynamics--is an important cellular mechanism in eukaryotic cell and is involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology, structure, number, distribution, and function. Research into mitochondria and cell function has revealed that mitochondrial dynamics is impaired in a large number of aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and in several inherited mitochondrial diseases, and that this impairment involves excessive mitochondrial fission, resulting in mitochondrial structural changes and dysfunction, and cell damage. Attempts have been made to develop molecules to reduce mitochondrial fission while maintaining normal mitochondrial fusion and function in those diseases that involve excessive mitochondrial fission. This review article discusses mechanisms of mitochondrial fission in normal and diseased states of mammalian cells and discusses research aimed at developing therapies, such as Mdivi, Dynasore and P110, to prevent or to inhibit excessive mitochondrial fission.

  8. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  9. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  10. A mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging.

    PubMed

    Indo, Hiroko P; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Tamura, Masato; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Oki, Misato; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Clair, Daret K St; Majima, Hideyuki J

    2015-01-01

    Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed "the Superoxide Theory," which postulates that superoxide (O2 (•-)) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an organism causes damage to cells, the smallest constituent unit of an organism, which can lead to the onset of a variety of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases caused by abnormalities in biological defenses or increased intracellular reactive oxygen levels. Oxidative stress also plays a role in aging. Antioxidant systems, including non-enzyme low-molecular-weight antioxidants (such as, vitamins A, C and E, polyphenols, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10) and antioxidant enzymes, fight against oxidants in cells. Superoxide is considered to be a major factor in oxidant toxicity, and mitochondrial MnSOD enzymes constitute an essential defense against superoxide. Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide. The reaction of superoxide generated from mitochondria with nitric oxide is faster than SOD catalyzed reaction, and produces peroxynitrite. Thus, based on research conducted after Fridovich's seminal studies, we now propose a modified superoxide theory; i.e., superoxide is the origin of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and, as such, causes various redox related diseases and aging.

  11. Combined defects in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation in mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah-Sefaa, Abena; McKenzie, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria provide the main source of energy to eukaryotic cells, oxidizing fats and sugars to generate ATP. Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are two metabolic pathways which are central to this process. Defects in these pathways can result in diseases of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart and liver, affecting approximately 1 in 5000 live births. There are no effective therapies for these disorders, with quality of life severely reduced for most patients. The pathology underlying many aspects of these diseases is not well understood; for example, it is not clear why some patients with primary FAO deficiencies exhibit secondary OXPHOS defects. However, recent findings suggest that physical interactions exist between FAO and OXPHOS proteins, and that these interactions are critical for both FAO and OXPHOS function. Here, we review our current understanding of the interactions between FAO and OXPHOS proteins and how defects in these two metabolic pathways contribute to mitochondrial disease pathogenesis. PMID:26839416

  12. Mitochondrial free fatty acid β-oxidation supports oxidative phosphorylation and proliferation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Pacheco-Velázquez, Silvia C; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is functional and sustains tumor proliferation in several cancer cell types. To establish whether mitochondrial β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFAs) contributes to cancer OxPhos functioning, its protein contents and enzyme activities, as well as respiratory rates and electrical membrane potential (ΔΨm) driven by FFA oxidation were assessed in rat AS-30D hepatoma and liver (RLM) mitochondria. Higher protein contents (1.4-3 times) of β-oxidation (CPT1, SCAD) as well as proteins and enzyme activities (1.7-13-times) of Krebs cycle (KC: ICD, 2OGDH, PDH, ME, GA), and respiratory chain (RC: COX) were determined in hepatoma mitochondria vs. RLM. Although increased cholesterol content (9-times vs. RLM) was determined in the hepatoma mitochondrial membranes, FFAs and other NAD-linked substrates were oxidized faster (1.6-6.6 times) by hepatoma mitochondria than RLM, maintaining similar ΔΨm values. The contents of β-oxidation, KC and RC enzymes were also assessed in cells. The mitochondrial enzyme levels in human cervix cancer HeLa and AS-30D cells were higher than those observed in rat hepatocytes whereas in human breast cancer biopsies, CPT1 and SCAD contents were lower than in human breast normal tissue. The presence of CPT1 and SCAD in AS-30D mitochondria and HeLa cells correlated with an active FFA utilization in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the β-oxidation inhibitor perhexiline blocked FFA utilization, OxPhos and proliferation in HeLa and other cancer cells. In conclusion, functional mitochondria supported by FFA β-oxidation are essential for the accelerated cancer cell proliferation and hence anti-β-oxidation therapeutics appears as an alternative promising approach to deter malignant tumor growth.

  13. Mitochondrial division ensures the survival of postmitotic neurons by suppressing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yusuke; Zhang, Zhongyan; Roda, Ricardo; Fukaya, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Junko; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2012-05-14

    Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, and the balance between these two processes regulates mitochondrial shape. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics are associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here we investigate the physiological and cellular functions of mitochondrial division in postmitotic neurons using in vivo and in vitro gene knockout for the mitochondrial division protein Drp1. When mouse Drp1 was deleted in postmitotic Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, mitochondrial tubules elongated due to excess fusion, became large spheres due to oxidative damage, accumulated ubiquitin and mitophagy markers, and lost respiratory function, leading to neurodegeneration. Ubiquitination of mitochondria was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin in Purkinje cells lacking Drp1. Treatment with antioxidants rescued mitochondrial swelling and cell death in Drp1KO Purkinje cells. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide converted elongated tubules into large spheres in Drp1KO fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that mitochondrial division serves as a quality control mechanism to suppress oxidative damage and thus promote neuronal survival.

  14. Mitochondrial membrane potential: a novel biomarker of oxidative environmental stress.

    PubMed Central

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Kreps, Sarah E; Adrie, Christophe; Dall'Ava, Josette; Christiani, David; Polla, Barbara S

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic analyses, traditionally based on long-term cohort or case-control studies, provide retrospective causal associations between exposure to a particular environmental stressor and an exposure-related disease end point. Recent research initiatives have propelled a shift toward exploring molecular epidemiology and molecular biological markers (biomarkers) as a means of providing more immediate, quantitative risk assessment of potentially deleterious environmental exposures. We compared, in normal human monocytes isolated from the blood of healthy donors, variations in Hsp70 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m) in response to exposure to either tobacco smoke or gamma-irradiation, two models for environmentally mediated oxidant exposure. On the basis of its mechanistic specificity for oxidants and little baseline variation in cells from distinct individuals, we propose that delta psi m represents a selective in vitro and in vivo biomarker for oxidant exposure. delta psi m may be used to gauge risks associated with oxidant-mediated air pollution and radiation. PMID:11882482

  15. The inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vianey-Liaud, C; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Mathieu, M

    1987-01-01

    To date, seven inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have been identified. A total of about 100 patients in the world have been reported. Clinically the beta-oxidation defects are more often characterized by episodic hypoglycaemia leading to a coma mimicking Reye's syndrome. The hypoglycaemia is non-ketotic since the synthesis of ketone bodies is deficient. Periods of decompensation occur when carbohydrate supply is poor, e.g. prolonged fasting, vomiting, or increased caloric requirements, as and when lipid stores are used. Defects in beta-oxidation have also been reported to be one cause of sudden infant death syndrome. The diagnosis of these inborn errors is by biochemical investigation since where symptoms suggest such a defect, the precise aetiology cannot be assessed. The biochemical diagnosis is based firstly on identification of abnormal plasma and of urinary metabolites during acute attacks. Derivatives of the omega-oxidation and omega-1-oxidation of medium chain fatty acids have been identified, as well as acylglycine and acylcarnitine conjugates. These metabolites are nearly always absent when patients are in good clinical condition. Secondly, the diagnosis must be based on the identification of the enzymatic defects: this involves global assays which allow a localization of the 'level' of the defect (i.e. the oxidation of long, medium or short chain fatty acids) and specific measurement of enzyme activities (acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and electron carriers: ETF and ETF-DH). The diagnosis of these disorders is of prime importance because of the severity of the clinical symptoms. These can be prevented, in some cases, by an appropriate diet (a high carbohydrate, low fat diet, sometimes supplemented with L-carnitine). In other cases, genetic counselling can be offered.

  16. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity.

  17. Impaired Mitochondrial Fat Oxidation Induces FGF21 in Muscle.

    PubMed

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D; Wicks, Shawna E; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S; Mendoza, Tamra M; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C; Mynatt, Randall L

    2016-05-24

    Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities, and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1b(m-/-)). Cpt1b(m-/-) mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent of the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but it does not contribute to the resistance to diet-induced obesity.

  18. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces FGF21 in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Wicks, Shawna E.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J. Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1bm−/−). Cpt1bm−/− mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet induced obesity. Here we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent on the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but does not contribute to the resistance to diet induced obesity. PMID:27184848

  19. Ceramides and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in obesity.

    PubMed

    Fucho, Raquel; Casals, Núria; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is an epidemic, complex disease that is characterized by increased glucose, lipids, and low-grade inflammation in the circulation, among other factors. It creates the perfect scenario for the production of ceramide, the building block of the sphingolipid family of lipids, which is involved in metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, obesity causes a decrease in fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which contributes to lipid accumulation within the cells, conferring more susceptibility to cell dysfunction. C16:0 ceramide, a specific ceramide species, has been identified recently as the principal mediator of obesity-derived insulin resistance, impaired fatty acid oxidation, and hepatic steatosis. In this review, we have sought to cover the importance of the ceramide species and their metabolism, the main ceramide signaling pathways in obesity, and the link between C16:0 ceramide, FAO, and obesity.-Fucho, R., Casals, N., Serra, D., Herrero, L. Ceramides and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in obesity.

  20. Silica nanoparticles mediated neuronal cell death in corpus striatum of rat brain: implication of mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveen, Arshiya; Rizvi, Syed Husain Mustafa; Mahdi, Farzana; Tripathi, Sandeep; Ahmad, Iqbal; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Khanna, Vinay K.; Singh, Ranjana; Patel, Devendra K.; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-11-01

    Extensive uses of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in biomedical and industrial fields have increased the risk of exposure, resulting concerns about their safety. We focussed on some of the safety aspects by studying neurobehavioural impairment, oxidative stress (OS), neurochemical and ultrastructural changes in corpus striatum (CS) of male Wistar rats exposed to 80-nm SiNPs. Moreover, its role in inducing mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis was also investigated. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioural indices, and a significant increase in lipid peroxide levels (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) and protein carbonyl content, whereas there was a significant decrease in the activities of the enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting impaired antioxidant defence system. Protein (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, caspase-3, caspase 12 and CHOP/Gadd153) and mRNA (Bcl-2, Bax, p53 and CHOP/Gadd153, cytochrome c) expression studies of mitochondrial and ER stress-related apoptotic factors suggested that both the cell organelles were involved in OS-mediated apoptosis in treated rat brain CS. Moreover, electron microscopic studies clearly showed mitochondrial and ER dysfunction. In conclusion, the result of the study suggested that subchronic SiNPs' exposure has the potential to alter the behavioural activity and also to bring about changes in biochemical, neurochemical and ultrastructural profiles in CS region of rat brain. Furthermore, we also report SiNPs-induced apoptosis in CS, through mitochondrial and ER stress-mediated signalling.

  1. Carotid body O2 chemoreception and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, E; Lahiri, S; Storey, B T

    1981-08-01

    The effect on carotid chemoreceptor afferents of oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that does not affect energy conservation, was studied in 20 cats that were anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. Responses of single or a few chemoreceptor afferents to changes in arterial O2 tension (PaO2) at constant arterial CO2 tension were recorded. In addition, responses to nicotine, cyanide, and antimycin A or carbonyl cyanide p-tri-fluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) were tested in normoxia. Oligomycin (50-500 microgram) was administered by close intra-arterial injection, and the same tests were repeated at timed intervals. Initially, oligomycin caused vigorous stimulation of carotid chemoreceptor activity. Subsequently, although the afferent fibers were still active and could be vigorously stimulated by nicotine, they no longer responded to changes in PaO2 or to doses of cyanide, antimycin A, or FCCP. These results separate stimulation of chemoreceptor afferents by hypoxia and metabolic inhibitors and uncouplers from that by nicotine and suggest that intact oxidative phosphorylation, required for maintenance of the intracellular high-energy phosphate levels, forms the basis of O2 chemoreception in the carotid body.

  2. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by DNA gyrase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.; Weinberg, R.; Simpson, M.V.

    1986-05-01

    Supercoiled mtDNA and the swivel requirement for its replication suggest the existence of a mtDNA gyrase. The authors published studies on isolated mitochondria showing that novobiocin, coumermycin, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid promote relaxed DNA formation at the expense of supercoiled DNA are in accord with this view. However, their inability to directly detect the enzyme led them to ask whether these drugs act elsewhere. Their results with isolated rat liver mitochondria show that novo, nal, but not oxo, stimulate O/sub 2/ uptake as much as does 2.4-dinitrophenol (DNP). This possible uncoupling effect was confirmed by a standard (/sup 32/P) assay showing the following inhibitions of ATP synthesis: 0.2 mM novo, 95% (0.4 mM, 100%) 0.4 mM nal, 37%; oxo to at least 1.9 mM, 0%; (0.5 mM 2,4-DNP, 100%). Thus, oxo remains a useful tool for intact mitochondrial studies. Because these three drugs, especially novo, are being used to study the role of DNA superhelicity on pro- and eucaryotic (and mitochondrial) gene expression, the authors studied their effect on oxidative phosphorylation in such cells. In these cases the drugs did not affect DNP-sensitive (/sup 14/C)glutamine transport into E. coli cells (an established measure of ATP level), nor, in an S. cerevisiae mutant permeable to novo, did novo affect the steady state ATP level. Studies on cultured mammalian cells are in progress.

  3. Resolution of mitochondrial oxidant stress improves aged-cardiovascular performance

    PubMed Central

    Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Miura, Shunsuke; Machii, Hirofumi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-01-01

    Background Senescence is a major factor that increases oxidative stress in mitochondria, which contributes toward the pathogenesis of heart disease. However, the effect of antioxidant therapy on cardiac mitochondria in aged-cardiac performance remains elusive. Objectives We postulated that the mitochondrial targeting of superoxide scavenging would have benefits in the aged heart. Methods and results Generation of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity increased in the heart of old mice compared with that in young mice. In old mice treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO (180 µg/kg/day, 28 days) co-infusion using a subcutaneously implanted minipump, levels of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity as well as hydrogen peroxide decreased markedly in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the systolic and diastolic function assessed by echocardiography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated coronary arteries and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation were impaired in old mice compared with that in young mice and were improved by MitoTEMPO treatment. Mitochondria from the old mice myocardium showed lower rates of complex I-dependent and II-dependent respiration compared with that from young mice. Supplementation of MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the respiration rates and efficiency of ATP generation in mitochondria to a level similar to that of young mice. Conclusion Resolution of oxidative stress in mitochondria by MitoTEMPO in old mice restored cardiac function and the capacity of coronary vasodilation to the same magnitude observed in young mice. An antioxidant strategy targeting mitochondria could have a therapeutic benefit in heart disease with senescence. PMID:27740971

  4. Thiol-based antioxidants elicit mitochondrial oxidation via respiratory complex III

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Ponnuraj, Nagendraprabhu; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Hanafin, William P.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Gaskins, H. Rex

    2015-01-01

    Excessive oxidation is widely accepted as a precursor to deleterious cellular function. On the other hand, an awareness of the role of reductive stress as a similar pathological insult is emerging. Here we report early dynamic changes in compartmentalized glutathione (GSH) redox potentials in living cells in response to exogenously supplied thiol-based antioxidants. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular thiol-disulfide exchange via a genetically encoded biosensor targeted to cytosol and mitochondria revealed unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial matrix in response to GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oxidation of the probe occurred within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner and was attenuated with the membrane-permeable ROS scavenger tiron. In contrast, the cytosolic sensor did not respond to similar treatments. Surprisingly, the immediate mitochondrial oxidation was not abrogated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential or inhibition of mitochondrial GSH uptake. After detection of elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS, we systematically inhibited multisubunit protein complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and determined that respiratory complex III is a downstream target of thiol-based compounds. Disabling complex III with myxothiazol completely blocked matrix oxidation induced with GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our findings provide new evidence of a functional link between exogenous thiol-containing antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25994788

  5. Perm1 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance in adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoshitake; Hazen, Bethany C; Gandra, Paulo G; Ward, Samuel R; Schenk, Simon; Russell, Aaron P; Kralli, Anastasia

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are important determinants of muscle function and whole-body health. Mitochondrial content and function are enhanced by endurance exercise and impaired in states or diseases where muscle function is compromised, such as myopathies, muscular dystrophies, neuromuscular diseases, and age-related muscle atrophy. Hence, elucidating the mechanisms that control muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative function can provide new insights into states and diseases that affect muscle health. In past studies, we identified Perm1 (PPARGC1- and ESRR-induced regulator, muscle 1) as a gene induced by endurance exercise in skeletal muscle, and regulating mitochondrial oxidative function in cultured myotubes. The capacity of Perm1 to regulate muscle mitochondrial content and function in vivo is not yet known. In this study, we use adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to increase Perm1 expression in skeletal muscles of 4-wk-old mice. Compared to control vector, AAV1-Perm1 leads to significant increases in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity (by 40-80%). Moreover, AAV1-Perm1-transduced muscles show increased capillary density and resistance to fatigue (by 33 and 31%, respectively), without prominent changes in fiber-type composition. These findings suggest that Perm1 selectively regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, and implicate Perm1 in muscle adaptations that also occur in response to endurance exercise.

  6. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Oxidative stress, cardiolipin and mitochondrial dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is today considered the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting a high proportion of the population worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Obesity, hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia are the most important risk factors. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression to fibrosis and chronic liver disease is still unknown. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of NAFLD, although the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are still unclear. Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in producing lethal hepatocyte injury associated with NAFLD. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main subcellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage mitochondrial proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid located at the level of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays an important role in several reactions and processes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as in mitochondrial dependent steps of apoptosis. This phospholipid is particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Cardiolipin peroxidation has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues in several physiopathological conditions, including NAFLD. In this review, we focus on the potential roles played by oxidative stress and cardiolipin alterations in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with NAFLD. PMID:25339807

  8. Oxidative stress, cardiolipin and mitochondrial dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2014-10-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is today considered the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting a high proportion of the population worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Obesity, hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia are the most important risk factors. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression to fibrosis and chronic liver disease is still unknown. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of NAFLD, although the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are still unclear. Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in producing lethal hepatocyte injury associated with NAFLD. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main subcellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage mitochondrial proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid located at the level of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays an important role in several reactions and processes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as in mitochondrial dependent steps of apoptosis. This phospholipid is particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Cardiolipin peroxidation has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues in several physiopathological conditions, including NAFLD. In this review, we focus on the potential roles played by oxidative stress and cardiolipin alterations in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with NAFLD.

  9. Photosynthetic water oxidation vs. mitochondrial oxygen reduction: distinct mechanistic parallels.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Todd P

    2011-08-01

    The photosynthetic oxygen evolving complex (PSII-OEC) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) not only catalyze anti-parallel reactions (the OEC oxidizes water to dioxygen, whereas CcO reduces dioxygen to water), they also share a number of uncanny molecular and mechanistic similarities. Both feature a redox-active polymetallic cluster that includes a key tyrosine, and both utilize a two-phase mechanism. In one phase the polymetallic cluster undergoes four sequential one-electron transfers: In the PSII-OEC, four successive photooxidations of the photosystem II reaction center P680 (to P680(+)) allows acceptance of 4 × 1e- from the Mn(4)Ca cluster; in CcO, four reduced cytochrome c Fe(2+) cations donate 4 × 1e- to the bimetallic center. In the second phase for each enzyme, the polymetallic cluster undergoes a single four-electron transfer with the O(2)/2 H(2)O redox couple. Intriguing mechanistic similarities between these two complex redox enzymes first delineated over a decade ago by Hoganson/Proshlyakov/Babcock et al. are updated and expanded in this article.

  10. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in the generation and regulation of cellular bioenergetics, producing the majority of adenosine triphosphate molecules by the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Linked to numerous signaling pathways and cellular functions, mitochondria, and OXPHOS in particular, are involved in neuronal development, connectivity, plasticity, and differentiation. Impairments in a variety of mitochondrial functions have been described in different general and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe, chronic, debilitating illness that heavily affects the lives of patients and their families. This article reviews findings emphasizing the role of OXPHOS in the pathophysiology of SCZ. Evidence accumulated during the past few decades from imaging, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies points at OXPHOS deficit involvement in SCZ. Abnormalities have been reported in high-energy phosphates generated by the OXPHOS, in the activity of its complexes and gene expression, primarily of complex I (CoI). In addition, cellular signaling such as cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca+2, neuronal development, connectivity, and plasticity have been linked to OXPHOS function and are reported to be impaired in SCZ. Finally, CoI has been shown as a site of interaction for both dopamine (DA) and antipsychotic drugs, further substantiating its role in the pathology of SCZ. Understanding the role of mitochondria and the OXPHOS in particular may encourage new insights into the pathophysiology and etiology of this debilitating disorder. PMID:27412728

  11. Targeting oxidative stress attenuates malonic acid induced Huntington like behavioral and mitochondrial alterations in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2010-05-25

    Objective of the present study was to explore the possible role of oxidative stress in the malonic acid induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations in rats. In the present study, unilateral single injections of malonic acid at different doses (1.5, 3 and 6 micromol) were made into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. Behavioral parameters were accessed on 1st, 7th and 14th day post malonic acid administration. Oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial enzyme functions were assessed on day 14 after behavioral observations. Ipsilateral striatal malonic acid (3 and 6 micromol) administration significantly reduced body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination and caused oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) in the striatum as compared to sham treated animal. Mitochondrial enzyme complexes and MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolinium bromide) activity were significantly inhibited by malonic acid. Vitamin E treatment (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the various behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations in malonic acid treated animals. Our findings show that targeting oxidative stress by vitamin E in malonic acid model, results in amelioration of behavioral and mitochondrial alterations are linked to inhibition of oxidative damage. Based upon these finding present study hypothesize that protection exerted by vitamin E on behavioral, mitochondrial markers indicates the possible preservation of the functional status of the striatal neurons by targeting the deleterious actions of oxidative stress.

  12. An update on the role of mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is severely reduced in human pathologies where oxidative stress is traditionally thought to play an important role, such as familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This minireview is focused on substantial data that were accumulated over the last 2 decades to support the concept that KGDHC can be a primary mitochondrial target of oxidative stress and at the same time a key contributor to it by producing reactive oxygen species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Mitochondrial function’. PMID:22820180

  13. Concentration dependent effect of calcium on brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress parameters

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Jignesh D.; Nukala, Vidya N.; Sullivan, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction following traumatic brain and spinal cord injury (TBI and SCI) plays a pivotal role in the development of secondary pathophysiology and subsequent neuronal cell death. Previously, we demonstrated a loss of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the first 24 h following TBI and SCI initiates a rapid and extensive necrotic event at the primary site of injury. Within the mitochondrial derived mechanisms, the cross talk and imbalance amongst the processes of excitotoxicity, Ca2+ cycling/overload, ATP synthesis, free radical production and oxidative damage ultimately lead to mitochondrial damage followed by neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are one of the important organelles that regulate intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and are equipped with a tightly regulated Ca2+ transport system. However, owing to the lack of consensus and the link between downstream effects of calcium in published literature, we undertook a systematic in vitro study for measuring concentration dependent effects of calcium (100–1000 nmols/mg mitochondrial protein) on mitochondrial respiration, enzyme activities, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation, membrane potential (ΔΨ) and oxidative damage markers in isolated brain mitochondria. We observed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by calcium without influencing mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) enzyme activities. We observed dose-dependent decreased production of hydrogen peroxide and total ROS/RNS species generation by calcium and no significant changes in protein and lipid oxidative damage markers. These results may shed new light on the prevailing dogma of the direct effects of calcium on mitochondrial bioenergetics, free radical production and oxidative stress parameters that are primary regulatory mitochondrial mechanisms following neuronal injury. PMID:24385963

  14. Mitochondrial ferritin limits oxidative damage regulating mitochondrial iron availability: hypothesis for a protective role in Friedreich ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, Alessandro; Rovelli, Elisabetta; Santambrogio, Paolo; Cozzi, Anna; Taroni, Franco; Levi, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a nuclear-encoded iron-sequestering protein that specifically localizes in mitochondria. In mice it is highly expressed in cells characterized by high-energy consumption, while is undetectable in iron storage tissues like liver and spleen. FtMt expression in mammalian cells was shown to cause a shift of iron from cytosol to mitochondria, and in yeast it rescued the defects associated with frataxin deficiency. To study the role of FtMt in oxidative damage, we analyzed the effect of its expression in HeLa cells after incubation with H2O2 and Antimycin A, and after a long-term growth in glucose-free media that enhances mitochondrial respiratory activity. FtMt reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the level of adenosine 5'triphosphate and the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, and had a positive effect on cell viability. Furthermore, FtMt expression reduces the size of cytosolic and mitochondrial labile iron pools. In cells grown in glucose-free media, FtMt level was reduced owing to faster degradation rate, however it still protected the activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes without affecting the cytosolic iron status. In addition, FtMt expression in fibroblasts from Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients prevented the formation of ROS and partially rescued the impaired activity of mitochondrial Fe-S enzymes, caused by frataxin deficiency. These results indicate that the primary function of FtMt involves the control of ROS formation through the regulation of mitochondrial iron availability. They are consistent with the expression pattern of FtMt observed in mouse tissues, suggesting a FtMt protective role in cells characterized by defective iron homeostasis and respiration, such as in FRDA. PMID:18815198

  15. Assessing of oxidative stress related parameters in diabetes mellitus type 2: cause excessive damaging to DNA and enhanced homocysteine in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Nagra, Saeed Ahmad; Anjum, Fauzia; Javed, Sadia; Farooq, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been documented subsist to the pathogenesis of many diseases including diabetes mellitus. The strength of both parameters could be estimated by measuring oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), its related parameters and the antioxidants glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma of DM patients. Lipid peroxidation was measured as TBARS and presented as malondialdehyde, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (Tg), the antioxidants (vitamin A (β-carotene), vitamin E, vitamin C, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase) levels. The results showed that these parameters, commonly, were declined appreciably in diabetic individuals as compared to the healthy individuals. In most cases, age and gender were appeared to involve in having greater values of diabetes marker. Further, increased level of lipid peroxidation and random behaviour of antioxidant potential also associated with Diabetes. For that reason these biomarkers might be of great important to diagnosis DNA damages of diabetic patients.

  16. XPD localizes in mitochondria and protects the mitochondrial genome from oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fang, Hongbo; Chi, Zhenfen; Wu, Zan; Wei, Di; Mo, Dongliang; Niu, Kaifeng; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Hei, Tom K; Nie, Linghu; Zhao, Yongliang

    2015-06-23

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD/ERCC2) encodes an ATP-dependent helicase that plays essential roles in both transcription and nucleotide excision repair of nuclear DNA, however, whether or not XPD exerts similar functions in mitochondria remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first evidence that XPD is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and cells under oxidative stress showed an enhanced recruitment of XPD into mitochondrial compartment. Furthermore, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and levels of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion were significantly elevated, whereas capacity for oxidative damage repair of mtDNA was markedly reduced in both XPD-suppressed human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and XPD-deficient human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify interacting factor(s) with XPD and TUFM, a mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor was detected to be physically interacted with XPD. Similar to the findings in XPD-deficient cells, mitochondrial common deletion and oxidative damage repair capacity in U2OS cells were found to be significantly altered after TUFM knock-down. Our findings clearly demonstrate that XPD plays crucial role(s) in protecting mitochondrial genome stability by facilitating an efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria.

  17. Cardiac Mitochondrial Proteome Dynamics with Heavy Water Reveals Stable Rate of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis in Heart Failure Despite Decline in Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Li, Ling; Dabkowski, Erinne R.; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio Faustino; Hecker, Peter A.; Recchia, Fabio A.; Sadygov, Rovshan G.; Willard, Belinda; Kasumov, Takhar; Stanley, William C.

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a method to measure mitochondrial proteome dynamics with heavy water (2H2O)-based metabolic labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry. We reported the half-lives and synthesis rates of several proteins in the two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar (SSM and IFM), in Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial protein synthesis rate is reduced in heart failure, with possible differential changes in SSM versus IFM. Six to seven week old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and developed moderate heart failure after 22 weeks. Heart failure and sham rats of the same age received heavy water (5% in drinking water) for up to 80 days. Cardiac SSM and IFM were isolated from both groups and the proteins were separated by 1D gel electrophoresis. Heart failure reduced protein content and increased the turnover rate of several proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and ATP synthesis, while it decreased the turnover of other proteins, including pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit in IFM, but not in SSM. Because of these bidirectional changes, the average overall half-life of proteins was not altered by heart failure in both SSM and IFM. The kinetic measurements of individual mitochondrial proteins presented in this study may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial alterations in the failing heart. PMID:24995939

  18. The Warburg effect in tumor progression: Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as an anti-metastasis mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianrong; Tan, Ming; Cai, Qingsong

    2014-01-01

    Compared to normal cells, cancer cells strongly upregulate glucose uptake and glycolysis to give rise to increased yield of intermediate glycolytic metabolites and the end product pyruvate. Moreover, glycolysis is uncoupled from the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cancer cells. Consequently, the majority of glycolysis-derived pyruvate is diverted to lactate fermentation and kept away from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. This metabolic phenotype is known as the Warburg effect. While it has become widely accepted that the glycolytic intermediates provide essential anabolic support for cell proliferation and tumor growth, it remains largely elusive whether and how the Warburg metabolic phenotype may play a role in tumor progression. We hereby review the cause and consequence of the restrained oxidative metabolism, in particular in tumor metastasis. Cells change or lose their extracellular matrix during the metastatic process. Inadequate/inappropriate matrix attachment generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes a specific type of cell death, termed anoikis, in normal cells. Although anoikis is a barrier to metastasis, cancer cells have often acquired elevated threshold for anoikis and hence heightened metastatic potential. As ROS are inherent byproducts of oxidative metabolism, forced stimulation of glucose oxidation in cancer cells raises oxidative stress and restores cells’ sensitivity to anoikis. Therefore, by limiting the pyruvate flux into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, the Warburg effect enables cancer cells to avoid excess ROS generation from mitochondrial respiration and thus gain increased anoikis resistance and survival advantage for metastasis. Consistent with this notion, pro-metastatic transcription factors HIF and Snail attenuate oxidative metabolism, whereas tumor suppressor p53 and metastasis suppressor KISS1 promote mitochondrial oxidation. Collectively, these findings reveal

  19. The Warburg effect in tumor progression: mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as an anti-metastasis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianrong; Tan, Ming; Cai, Qingsong

    2015-01-28

    Compared to normal cells, cancer cells strongly upregulate glucose uptake and glycolysis to give rise to increased yield of intermediate glycolytic metabolites and the end product pyruvate. Moreover, glycolysis is uncoupled from the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cancer cells. Consequently, the majority of glycolysis-derived pyruvate is diverted to lactate fermentation and kept away from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. This metabolic phenotype is known as the Warburg effect. While it has become widely accepted that the glycolytic intermediates provide essential anabolic support for cell proliferation and tumor growth, it remains largely elusive whether and how the Warburg metabolic phenotype may play a role in tumor progression. We hereby review the cause and consequence of the restrained oxidative metabolism, in particular in the context of tumor metastasis. Cells change or lose their extracellular matrix during the metastatic process. Inadequate/inappropriate matrix attachment generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes a specific type of cell death, termed anoikis, in normal cells. Although anoikis is a barrier to metastasis, cancer cells have often acquired elevated threshold for anoikis and hence heightened metastatic potential. As ROS are inherent byproducts of oxidative metabolism, forced stimulation of glucose oxidation in cancer cells raises oxidative stress and restores cells' sensitivity to anoikis. Therefore, by limiting the pyruvate flux into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, the Warburg effect enables cancer cells to avoid excess ROS generation from mitochondrial respiration and thus gain increased anoikis resistance and survival advantage for metastasis. Consistent with this notion, pro-metastatic transcription factors HIF and Snail attenuate oxidative metabolism, whereas tumor suppressor p53 and metastasis suppressor KISS1 promote mitochondrial oxidation. Collectively, these

  20. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial perturbations and fetal programming of renal disease induced by maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Stangenberg, Stefanie; Nguyen, Long T; Chen, Hui; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Killingsworth, Murray C; Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    An adverse in-utero environment is increasingly recognized to predispose to chronic disease in adulthood. Maternal smoking remains the most common modifiable adverse in-utero exposure leading to low birth weight, which is strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in later life. In order to investigate underlying mechanisms for such susceptibility, female Balb/c mice were sham or cigarette smoke-exposed (SE) for 6 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring kidneys were examined for oxidative stress, expression of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial structure as well as renal functional parameters on postnatal day 1, day 20 (weaning) and week 13 (adult age). From birth throughout adulthood, SE offspring had increased renal levels of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), which left a footprint on DNA with increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosin (8-OHdG) in kidney tubular cells. Mitochondrial structural abnormalities were seen in SE kidneys at day 1 and week 13 along with a reduction in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins and activity of mitochondrial antioxidant Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Smoke exposure also resulted in increased mitochondrial DNA copy number (day 1-week 13) and lysosome density (day 1 and week 13). The appearance of mitochondrial defects preceded the onset of albuminuria at week 13. Thus, mitochondrial damage caused by maternal smoking may play an important role in development of CKD at adult life.

  1. Oxidants and not alkylating agents induce rapid mtDNA loss and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Furda, Amy M.; Marrangoni, Adele M.; Lokshin, Anna; Van Houten, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and encodes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 polypeptides that make up subunits of complex I, III, IV, in the electron transport chain and complex V, the ATP synthase. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in processes such as premature aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer, it has not been shown whether persistent mtDNA damage causes a loss of oxidative phosphorylation. We addressed this question by treating mouse embryonic fibroblasts with either hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and measuring several endpoints, including mtDNA damage and repair rates using QPCR, levels of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded proteins using antibody analysis, and a pharmacologic profile of mitochondria using the Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer. We show that a 60 min treatment with H2O2 causes persistent mtDNA lesions, mtDNA loss, decreased levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, a loss of ATP-linked oxidative phosphorylation and a loss of total reserve capacity. Conversely, a 60 min treatment with 2 mM MMS causes persistent mtDNA lesions but no mtDNA loss, no decrease in levels of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial subunit, and no mitochondrial dysfunction. These results suggest that persistent mtDNA damage is not sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22766155

  2. Melatonin improves age-induced fertility decline and attenuates ovarian mitochondrial oxidative stress in mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chao; Peng, Wei; Yin, Songna; Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Zhang, Jingcheng; Mao, Tingchao; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that melatonin protected against age-related mitochondrial oxidative damage. However, the protective effects of melatonin against ovarian aging has not been explored. Young Kunming females (aged 2–3 months) were fed with melatonin added to drinking water for 6 or 12 months (mo). We found that long-term (12 mo) melatonin treatment significantly reduced ovarian aging, as indicated by substantial increases in litter size, pool of follicles, and telomere length as well as oocyte quantity and quality. Melatonin treatment suppressed ovarian mitochondrial oxidative damage by decreasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generation, inhibiting apoptosis, repressing collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and preserving respiratory chain complex activities. Female mice fed with melatonin had enhanced mitochondrial antioxidant activities, thus reducing the risk of mitochondrial oxidative damage cause by free radicals. Notably, melatonin treatment enhanced SIRT3 activity but not the protein expression level, and increased the binding affinity of FoxO3a to the promoters of both superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT). In conclusion, melatonin exerted protection against aging-induced fertility decline and maintenance of mitochondrial redox balance. PMID:27731402

  3. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah; Lang, Matti A.; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200 mg pyrazole/kg/day for 3 days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. - Highlights: • Pyrazole induces oxidative stress in the mouse liver. • Pyrazole-induced oxidative stress induces mitochondrial targeting of key bilirubin regulatory enzymes, HMOX1

  4. [Cyclosporin A causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells].

    PubMed

    Pérez de Hornedo, J; de Arriba, G; Calvino, M; Benito, S; Parra, T

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. As mitochondria are one of the main sources of ROS in cells, we evaluated the role of CsA in mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells. We incubated cells with CsA 1 microM for 24 hours and studies were performed with flow citometry and confocal microscopy. We studied mitochondrial NAD(P)H content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production (MitoSOX Red), oxidation of cardiolipin of inner mitochondrial membrane (NAO) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DIOC2(3)). Also we analyzed the intracellular ROS synthesis (H2DCF-DA) and reduced glutation (GSH) of cells. Our results showed that CsA decreased NAD(P)H and membrane potential, and increased O2.- in mitochondria. CsA also provoked oxidation of cardiolipin. Furthermore, CsA increased intracellular ROS production and decreased GSH content. These results suggest that CsA has crucial effects in mitochondria. CsA modified mitochondrial physiology through the decrease of antioxidant mitochondrial compounds as NAD(P)H and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of oxidants as O2.-. Also, CsA alters lipidic structure of inner mitochondrial membrane through the oxidation of cardiolipin. These effects trigger a chain of events that favour intracellular synthesis of ROS and depletion of GSH that can compromise cellular viability. Nephrotoxic cellular effects of CsA can be explained, at least in part, through its influence on mitochondrial functionalism.

  5. Cardioprotective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 against ischemia/reperfusion injuries by regulating oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress- related signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingli; Sun, Guibo; Luo, Yun; Wang, Min; Chen, Rongchang; Zhang, Jingyi; Ai, Qidi; Xing, Na; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent reports suggested the involvement of oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated pathways in the progression of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin isolated from P. notoginseng, which has a history of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of NGR1 on I/R-induced heart dysfunction ex vivo and in vitro. Methods: H9c2 cadiomyocytes were incubated with NGR1 for 24 h and exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Isolated rat hearts were perfused by NGR1 for 15 min and then subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), heart rate, and maximal rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dP/dt max/min). Results: NGR1 pretreatment prevents cell apoptosis and delays the onset of ERS by decreasing the protein expression levels of ERS-responsive proteins GRP78, P-PERK, ATF6, IRE, and inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins CHOP, Caspase-12, and P-JNK. Besides, NGR1 scavenges free radical, and increases the activity of antioxidase. NGR1 inhibits Tunicamycin-induced cell death and cardic dysfunction. Conclusion: We elucidated the significant cardioprotective effects of NGR1 against I/R injuries, and demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress and ERS in the protective effects of NGR1. PMID:26888485

  6. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of organs from a non-oilseed plant.

    PubMed

    Masterson, C; Wood, C

    2001-09-22

    Until recently, beta-oxidation was believed to be exclusively located in the peroxisomes of all higher plants. Whilst this is true for germinating oilseeds undergoing gluconeogenesis, evidence demonstrating mitochondrial beta-oxidation in other plant systems has refuted this central dogma of plant lipid metabolism. This report describes a comparative study of the dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation capacities of plant organs. Oxidation of [1-(14)C] palmitate was measured in the cotyledons, plumules and radicles of Pisum sativum L., which is a starchy seed, over a 14 day period from the commencement of imbibition. Respiratory chain inhibitors were used for differentiating between mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation gave a steady, baseline rate and, in the early stages of seedling development, accounted for 70-100% of the beta-oxidation observed. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation gave peaks of activity at days 7 and 10-11, accounting for up to 82% of the total beta-oxidation activity at these times. These peaks coincide with key stages of seedling development and were not observed when normal development was disrupted by growth in the dark. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation was unaffected by etiolation. Since mitochondrial beta-oxidation was overt only during times of intense biosynthetic activity it might be switched on or off during seedling development. In contrast, peroxisomes maintained a continuous, low beta-oxidation activity that could be essential in removing harmful free fatty acids, e.g. those produced by protein and lipid turnover.

  7. Increasing mitochondrial muscle fatty acid oxidation induces skeletal muscle remodeling toward an oxidative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hénique, Carole; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Vavrova, Eliska; Lenoir, Véronique; Ferry, Arnaud; Esnous, Catherine; Ramond, Elodie; Girard, Jean; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Prip-Buus, Carina; Cohen, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a dynamic, remarkably plastic tissue, which allows myofibers to switch from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative types and to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (mFAO) capacity and vascularization in response to exercise training. mFAO is the main muscle energy source during endurance exercise, with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) being the key regulatory enzyme. Whether increasing muscle mFAO affects skeletal muscle physiology in adulthood actually remains unknown. To investigate this, we used in vivo electrotransfer technology to express in mouse tibialis anterior (TA), a fast/glycolytic muscle, a mutated CPT1 form (CPT1mt) that is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA, its physiologic inhibitor. In young (2-mo-old) adult mice, muscle CPT1mt expression enhanced mFAO (+40%), but also increased the percentage of oxidative fibers (+28%), glycogen content, and capillary-to-fiber density (+45%). This CPT1mt-induced muscle remodeling, which mimicked exercise-induced oxidative phenotype, led to a greater resistance to muscle fatigue. In the context of aging, characterized by sarcopenia and reduced oxidative capacity, CPT1mt expression in TAs from aged (20-mo-old) mice partially reversed aging-associated sarcopenia and fiber-type transition, and increased muscle capillarity. These findings provide evidence that mFAO regulates muscle phenotype and may be a potential target to combat age-related decline in muscle function.

  8. Indirubin-3'-oxime impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and prevents mitochondrial permeability transition induction

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, Ana T.; Gomes, Ana P.; Simoes, Anabela M.; Teodoro, Joao S.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.

    2008-12-01

    Indirubin, a red colored 3,2'-bisindole isomer, is a component of Indigo naturalis and is an active ingredient used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic diseases. The family of indirubin derivatives, such as indirubin-3'-oxime, has been suggested for various therapeutic indications. However, potential toxic interactions such as indirubin effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics are still unknown. This study evaluated the action of indirubin-3'-oxime on the function of isolated rat liver mitochondria contributing to a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the multiple effects of indirubin. Indirubin-3'-oxime incubated with isolated rat liver mitochondria, at concentrations above 10{mu}M, significantly depresses the phosphorylation efficiency of mitochondria as inferred from the decrease in the respiratory control and ADP/O ratios, the perturbations in mitochondrial membrane potential and in the phosphorylative cycle induced by ADP. Furthermore, indirubin-3'-oxime at up to 25{mu}M stimulates the rate of state 4 respiration and inhibits state 3 respiration. The increased lag phase of repolarization was associated with a direct inhibition of the mitochondrial ATPase. Indirubin-3'-oxime significantly inhibited the activity of complex II and IV thus explaining the decreased FCCP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria pre-incubated with indirubin-3'-oxime exhibits decreased susceptibility to calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. This work shows for the first time multiple effects of indirubin-3'-oxime on mitochondrial bioenergetics thus indicating a potential mechanism for indirubin-3'-oxime effects on cell function.

  9. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  10. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  11. Curcumin prevents mitochondrial dynamics disturbances in early 5/6 nephrectomy: Relation to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Trejo, Omar Emiliano; Tapia, Edilia; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma Angélica; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; García-Arroyo, Fernando E; Cristóbal, Magdalena; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-11-01

    Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6NX) is a widely used model to study the mechanisms leading to renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, early alterations on renal function, mitochondrial dynamics, and oxidative stress have not been explored yet. Curcumin is an antioxidant that has shown nephroprotection in 5/6NX-induced renal damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on early mitochondrial alterations induced by 5/6NX in rats. In isolated mitochondria, 5/6NX-induced hydrogen peroxide production was associated with decreased activity of complexes I and V, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, alterations in oxygen consumption and increased MDA-protein adducts. In addition, it was found that 5/6NX shifted mitochondrial dynamics to fusion, which was evidenced by increased optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and decreased fission 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 expressions. These data were confirmed by morphological analysis and immunoelectron microscopy of Mfn-1. All the above-described mechanisms were prevented by curcumin. Also, it was found that curcumin prevented renal dysfunction by improving renal blood flow and the total antioxidant capacity induced by 5/6NX. Moreover, in glomeruli and proximal tubules 5/6NX-induced superoxide anion production by uncoupled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) dependent way, this latter was associated with increased phosphorylation of serine 304 of p47phox subunit of NOX. In conclusion, this study shows that curcumin pretreatment decreases early 5/6NX-induced altered mitochondrial dynamics, bioenergetics, and oxidative stress, which may be associated with the preservation of renal function. © 2016 BioFactors, 00(00):000000, 2016.

  12. Therapeutic Strategies for Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Age-Related Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, J S; Kumar, S; Vijayan, M; Bhatti, G K; Reddy, P H

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are complex, intercellular organelles present in the cells and are involved in multiple roles including ATP formation, free radicals generation and scavenging, calcium homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and cell death. Many studies depicted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in aging and pathogenesis of age-related metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Remarkable advancements have been made in understanding the structure, function, and physiology of mitochondria in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. Further, much progress has been done in the improvement of therapeutic strategies, including lifestyle interventions, pharmacological, and mitochondria-targeted therapeutic approaches. These strategies were mainly focused to reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress and to retain the mitochondrial health in various diseases. In this chapter, we have highlighted the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of various disorders and recent progress in the development of mitochondria-targeted molecules as therapeutic measures for metabolic disorders.

  13. Mitochondrial ROS regulate oxidative damage and mitophagy but not age-related muscle fiber atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K.; Pearson, Timothy; Lightfoot, Adam P.; Nye, Gareth A.; Wells, Nicola; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I.; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Griffiths, Richard D.; Jackson, Malcolm J.; McArdle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a major contributor to morbidity and has a profound effect on the quality of life of older people. The potential role of age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and cumulative oxidative stress as the underlying cause of muscle aging remains a controversial topic. Here we show that the pharmacological attenuation of age-related mitochondrial redox changes in muscle with SS31 is associated with some improvements in oxidative damage and mitophagy in muscles of old mice. However, this treatment failed to rescue the age-related muscle fiber atrophy associated with muscle atrophy and weakness. Collectively, these data imply that the muscle mitochondrial redox environment is not a key regulator of muscle fiber atrophy during sarcopenia but may play a key role in the decline of mitochondrial organelle integrity that occurs with muscle aging. PMID:27681159

  14. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kgb.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits-NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide induced sepsis and liver failure by suppression of oxidative stress-related inflammation via PI3K/AKT and NF-κB related signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenhui; Qian, Kejian; Xiong, Jibin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Aizhong; Zou, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In many liver disorders, oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic components, finally resulting in acute liver failure. Erythropoietin and its analogues are well known to influence the interaction between apoptosis and inflammation in brain and kidney. The study is to clarify the effect of curcumin, a natural plant phenolic food additive, on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute liver injury of mice with endotoxemia and associated molecular mechanism from inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress levels. And curcumin, lowered serum cytokines, including Interleukin 1beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and improved liver apoptosis through suppressing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway and inhibiting Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)/Caspase expression, and decreased oxidative stress-associated protein expression, mainly involving 2E1 isoform of cytochrome P450/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/reactive oxygen species (CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS) signaling pathway, as well as liver nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced mice. Moreover, curcumin regulated serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), accelerated liver antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) levels, and inhibited activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (P38/JNK) cascade in the livers of LPS-induced rats. Thus, curcumin treatment attenuates LPS-induced PI3K/AKT and CYP2E/Nrf2/ROS signaling and liver injury. Strategies to inhibit inflammation and apoptosis signaling may provide alternatives to the current clinical approaches to improve oxidative responses of endotoxemia.

  16. FABP4 reversed the regulation of leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in mice adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Cao, Weina; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays key role in fatty acid transportation and oxidation, and increases with leptin synergistically during adipose inflammation process. However, the regulation mechanism between FABP4 and leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation remains unclear. In this study, we found that FABP4 reduced the expression of leptin, CPT-1 and AOX1 in mice adipocytes. Conversely, FABP4 was down-regulated in a time-dependent manner by leptin treatment. Additionally, forced expression of FABP4 attenuated the expression of PGC1-α, UCP2, CPT-1, AOX1 and COX2 compared with leptin incubation. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to the overexpression of FABP4. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the inactivation of mitochondrial complexes I and III by FABP4 overexpression. Furthermore, addition of the Akt/mTOR pathway-specific inhibitor (MK2206) blocked the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and respiration factors, whereas interference of FABP4 overcame these effects. Taken together, FABP4 could reverse the activation of the leptin-induced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signal pathway played a key role in this process. PMID:26310911

  17. Impaired Mitochondrial Energy Production Causes Light-Induced Photoreceptor Degeneration Independent of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Haelterman, Nele A; Sandoval, Hector; Xiong, Bo; Donti, Taraka; Kalsotra, Auinash; Yamamoto, Shinya; Cooper, Thomas A; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-07-01

    Two insults often underlie a variety of eye diseases including glaucoma, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration--defects in mitochondrial function and aberrant Rhodopsin trafficking. Although mitochondrial defects are often associated with oxidative stress, they have not been linked to Rhodopsin trafficking. In an unbiased forward genetic screen designed to isolate mutations that cause photoreceptor degeneration, we identified mutations in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene, ppr, a homolog of human LRPPRC. We found that ppr is required for protection against light-induced degeneration. Its function is essential to maintain membrane depolarization of the photoreceptors upon repetitive light exposure, and an impaired phototransduction cascade in ppr mutants results in excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis. Moreover, loss of ppr results in a reduction in mitochondrial RNAs, reduced electron transport chain activity, and reduced ATP levels. Oxidative stress, however, is not induced. We propose that the reduced ATP level in ppr mutants underlies the phototransduction defect, leading to increased Rhodopsin1 endocytosis during light exposure, causing photoreceptor degeneration independent of oxidative stress. This hypothesis is bolstered by characterization of two other genes isolated in the screen, pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Their loss also causes a light-induced degeneration, excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis and reduced ATP without concurrent oxidative stress, unlike many other mutations in mitochondrial genes that are associated with elevated oxidative stress and light-independent photoreceptor demise.

  18. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Spotlight on Fatty Acid Oxidation and Lipoperoxidation Products

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Giuseppina; Gentile, Fabrizio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Daga, Martina; Arcaro, Alessia; Cetrangolo, Giovanni Paolo; Lepore, Alessio; Ferretti, Carlo; Dianzani, Chiara; Muzio, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In several human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced mainly by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, is increased. In cancer cells, the increase of ROS production has been associated with mtDNA mutations that, in turn, seem to be functional in the alterations of the bioenergetics and the biosynthetic state of cancer cells. Moreover, ROS overproduction can enhance the peroxidation of fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes. In particular, the peroxidation of mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin leads to the formation of reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which are able to react with proteins and DNA. Covalent modifications of mitochondrial proteins by the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the course of oxidative cell stress are involved in the mitochondrial dysfunctions observed in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Such modifications appear to affect negatively mitochondrial integrity and function, in particular energy metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, antioxidant defenses and stress responses. In neurodegenerative diseases, indirect confirmation for the pathogenetic relevance of LPO-dependent modifications of mitochondrial proteins comes from the disease phenotypes associated with their genetic alterations. PMID:26907355

  19. Crystal structures of oxidized and reduced forms of human mitochondrial thioredoxin 2

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Aude; Evrard, Christine; Landtmeters, Marie; Marchand, Cécile; Knoops, Bernard; Declercq, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian thioredoxin 2 is a mitochondrial isoform of highly evolutionary conserved thioredoxins. Thioredoxins are small ubiquitous protein–disulfide oxidoreductases implicated in a large variety of biological functions. In mammals, thioredoxin 2 is encoded by a nuclear gene and is targeted to mitochondria by a N-terminal mitochondrial presequence. Recently, mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 was shown to interact with components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and to play a role in the control of mitochondrial membrane potential, regulating mitochondrial apoptosis signaling pathway. Here we report the first crystal structures of a mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxin 2. Crystal forms of reduced and oxidized human thioredoxin 2 are described at 2.0 and 1.8 Å resolution. Though the folding is rather similar to that of human cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin 1, important differences are observed during the transition between the oxidized and the reduced states of human thioredoxin 2, compared with human thioredoxin 1. In spite of the absence of the Cys residue implicated in dimer formation in human thioredoxin 1, dimerization still occurs in the crystal structure of human thioredoxin 2, mainly mediated by hydrophobic contacts, and the dimers are associated to form two-dimensional polymers. Interestingly, the structure of human thioredoxin 2 reveals possible interaction domains with human peroxiredoxin 5, a substrate protein of human thioredoxin 2 in mitochondria. PMID:16195549

  20. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in metabolic disorders - A step towards mitochondria based therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Jasvinder Singh; Bhatti, Gurjit Kaur; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-11-09

    Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell and are involved in essential functions of the cell, including ATP production, intracellular Ca(2+) regulation, reactive oxygen species production & scavenging, regulation of apoptotic cell death and activation of the caspase family of proteases. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are largely involved in aging, cancer, age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic syndrome. In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding mitochondrial structure, function and their physiology in metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, obesity, stroke and hypertension, and heart disease. Further, progress has also been made in developing therapeutic strategies, including lifestyle interventions (healthy diet and regular exercise), pharmacological strategies and mitochondria-targeted approaches. These strategies were mainly focused to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress and to maintain mitochondrial quality in metabolic syndromes. The purpose of our article is to highlight the recent progress on the mitochondrial role in metabolic syndromes and also summarize the progress of mitochondria-targeted molecules as therapeutic targets to treat metabolic syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases - edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy.

  2. Oxidative stress–induced mitochondrial dysfunction drives inflammation and airway smooth muscle remodeling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiegman, Coen H.; Michaeloudes, Charalambos; Haji, Gulammehdi; Narang, Priyanka; Clarke, Colin J.; Russell, Kirsty E.; Bao, Wuping; Pavlidis, Stelios; Barnes, Peter J.; Kanerva, Justin; Bittner, Anton; Rao, Navin; Murphy, Michael P.; Kirkham, Paul A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M.; Brightling, Christopher E.; Davies, Donna E.; Finch, Donna K.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Gaw, Alasdair; Knox, Alan J.; Mayer, Ruth J.; Polkey, Michael; Salmon, Michael; Singh, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mitochondrial oxidative stress might be involved in driving the oxidative stress–induced pathology. Objective We sought to determine the effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial function in the pathophysiology of airway inflammation in ozone-exposed mice and human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Methods Mice were exposed to ozone, and lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mitochondrial function were determined. Human ASM cells were isolated from bronchial biopsy specimens from healthy subjects, smokers, and patients with COPD. Inflammation and mitochondrial function in mice and human ASM cells were measured with and without the presence of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ. Results Mice exposed to ozone, a source of oxidative stress, had lung inflammation and AHR associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reflected by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, and reduced mitochondrial complex I, III, and V expression. Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ reduced inflammation and AHR. ASM cells from patients with COPD have reduced ΔΨm, adenosine triphosphate content, complex expression, basal and maximum respiration levels, and respiratory reserve capacity compared with those from healthy control subjects, whereas mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were increased. Healthy smokers were intermediate between healthy nonsmokers and patients with COPD. Hydrogen peroxide induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ASM cells from healthy subjects. MitoQ and Tiron inhibited TGF-β–induced ASM cell proliferation and CXCL8 release. Conclusions Mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with COPD is associated with excessive mitochondrial ROS levels, which contribute to enhanced inflammation and cell

  3. Cellular Dysfunction in Diabetes as Maladaptive Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Naudi, Alba; Jove, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Cassanye, Anna; Serrano, Jose; Gonzalo, Hugo; Boada, Jordi; Prat, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in diabetes long-term complications. In this paper, we summarize the growing evidence suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by mitochondrial electron transport chain triggers a maladaptive response by affecting several metabolic and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of cellular dysfunction and diabetic complications. In particular, it is our goal to describe physiological mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial free radical production and regulation to explain the oxidative stress derived from a high intracellular glucose concentration and the resulting maladaptive response that leads to a cellular dysfunction and pathological state. Finally, we outline potential therapies for diabetes focused to the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:22253615

  4. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  5. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

    PubMed

    Lantier, Louise; Fentz, Joachim; Mounier, Rémi; Leclerc, Jocelyne; Treebak, Jonas T; Pehmøller, Christian; Sanz, Nieves; Sakakibara, Iori; Saint-Amand, Emmanuelle; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Maire, Pascal; Marette, André; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Ferry, Arnaud; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit

    2014-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that plays a central role in skeletal muscle metabolism. We used skeletal muscle-specific AMPKα1α2 double-knockout (mdKO) mice to provide direct genetic evidence of the physiological importance of AMPK in regulating muscle exercise capacity, mitochondrial function, and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. Exercise performance was significantly reduced in the mdKO mice, with a reduction in maximal force production and fatigue resistance. An increase in the proportion of myofibers with centralized nuclei was noted, as well as an elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, possibly consistent with mild skeletal muscle injury. Notably, we found that AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 isoforms are dispensable for contraction-induced skeletal muscle glucose transport, except for male soleus muscle. However, the lack of skeletal muscle AMPK diminished maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration, showing an impairment at complex I. This effect was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial number, indicating that AMPK regulates muscle metabolic adaptation through the regulation of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and mitochondrial substrate utilization but not baseline mitochondrial muscle content. Together, these results demonstrate that skeletal muscle AMPK has an unexpected role in the regulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation that contributes to the energy demands of the exercising muscle.-Lantier, L., Fentz, J., Mounier, R., Leclerc, J., Treebak, J. T., Pehmøller, C., Sanz, N., Sakakibara, I., Saint-Amand, E., Rimbaud, S., Maire, P., Marette, A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Ferry, A., Wojtaszewski, J. F. P., Foretz, M., Viollet, B. AMPK controls exercise endurance, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and skeletal muscle integrity.

  6. Mechanism study on mitochondrial fragmentation under oxidative stress caused by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengnan; Zhou, Feifan; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo continual fusion and fission to maintain their morphology and functions, but the mechanism involved is still not clear. Here, we investigated the effect of mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) on mitochondrial dynamics in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1). Upon HF-LPLI-triggered oxidative stress, mitochondria displayed a fragmented structure, which was abolished by exposure to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, indicating that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial translocation of the profission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was observed following HF-LPLI, demonstrating apoptosis-related activation of Drp1. Notably, DHA pre-treatment prevented HF-LPLI-induced Drp1 activation. We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress through activation of Drp1 causes mitochondrial fragmentation.

  7. Nox2 as a potential target of mitochondrial superoxide and its role in endothelial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Nazarewicz, Rafal R.; Bikineyeva, Alfiya; Dikalov, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide (O2·−) production by the NADPH oxidases is implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. We have previously shown that activation of NADPH oxidases increases mitochondrial O2·− which is inhibited by the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mitoKATP) inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoic acid and that scavenging of mitochondrial or cytoplasmic O2·− inhibits hypertension. We hypothesized that mitoKATP-mediated mitochondrial O2·− potentiates cytoplasmic O2·− by stimulation of NADPH oxidases. In this work we studied Nox isoforms as a potential target of mitochondrial O2·−. We tested contribution of reverse electron transfer (RET) from complex II to complex I in mitochondrial O2·− production and NADPH oxidase activation in human aortic endothelial cells. Activation of mitoKATP with low dose of diazoxide (100 nM) decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester probe) and increased production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2·− measured by site-specific probes and mitoSOX. Inhibition of RET with complex II inhibitor (malonate) or complex I inhibitor (rotenone) attenuated the production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2·−. Supplementation with a mitochondria-targeted SOD mimetic (mitoTEMPO) or a mitochondria-targeted glutathione peroxidase mimetic (mitoEbselen) inhibited production of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic O2·−. Inhibition of Nox2 (gp91ds) or Nox2 depletion with small interfering RNA but not Nox1, Nox4, or Nox5 abolished diazoxide-induced O2·− production in the cytoplasm. Treatment of angiotensin II-infused mice with RET inhibitor dihydroethidium (malate) significantly reduced blood pressure. Our study suggests that mitoKATP-mediated mitochondrial O2·− stimulates cytoplasmic Nox2, contributing to the development of endothelial oxidative stress and hypertension. PMID:23955717

  8. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation in liver homogenates and isolated hepatocytes from control and clofibrate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Mannaerts, G P; Debeer, L J; Thomas, J; De Schepper, P J

    1979-06-10

    Mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation were compared in whole liver homogenates. Oxidation of 0.2 mM palmitoyl-CoA or oleate by mitochondria increased rapidly with increasing molar substrate:albumin ratios and became saturated at ratios below 3, while peroxisomal oxidation increased more slowly and continued to rise to reach maximal activity in the absence of albumin. Under the latter condition mitochondrial oxidation was severely depressed. In homogenates from normal liver peroxisomal oxidation was lower than mitochondrial oxidation at all ratios tested except when albumin was absent. In contrast with mitochondrial oxidation, peroxisomal oxidation did not produce ketones, was cyanide-insensitive, was not dependent on carnitine, and was not inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine, malonyl-CoA and 4-pentenoate. Mitochondrial oxidation was inhibited by CoASH concentrations that were optimal for peroxisomal oxidation. In the presence of albumin, peroxisomal oxidation was stimulated by Triton X-100 but unaffected by freeze-thawing; both treatments suppressed mitochondrial oxidation. Clofibrate treatment increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation 2- and 6- to 8-fold, respectively. Peroxisomal oxidation remained unchanged in starvation and diabetes. Fatty acid oxidation was severely depressed by cyanide and (+)-octanoylcarnitine in hepatocytes from normal rats. Hepatocytes from clofibrate-treated rats, which displayed a 3- to 4-fold increase in fatty acid oxidation, were less inhibited by (+)-octanoylcarnitine. Hydrogen peroxide production was severalfold higher in hepatocytes from treated animals oxidizing fatty acids than in control hepatocytes. Assuming that all H2O2 produced during fatty acid oxidation was due to peroxisomal oxidation, it was calculated that the contribution of the peroxisomes to fatty acid oxidation was less than 10% both in cells from control and clofibrate-treated animals.

  9. Role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Peña, Sylvette

    2013-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant expression pattern and typically a late-onset appearance. HD is a movement disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype characterized by involuntary dance-like gait, bioenergetic deficits, motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric deficits. Compelling evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie HD pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying mutant huntingtin-induced neurological toxicity remain unclear. The objective of this paper is to review recent literature regarding the role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and HD pathogenesis.

  10. Proteomic analysis of pRb loss highlights a signature of decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Brandon N.; Danielian, Paul S.; Kottakis, Filippos; Lapek, John D.; Sanidas, Ioannis; Miles, Wayne O.; Dehnad, Mantre; Tschöp, Katrin; Gierut, Jessica J.; Manning, Amity L.; Morris, Robert; Haigis, Kevin; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Haas, Wilhelm; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) protein associates with chromatin and regulates gene expression. Numerous studies have identified Rb-dependent RNA signatures, but the proteomic effects of Rb loss are largely unexplored. We acutely ablated Rb in adult mice and conducted a quantitative analysis of RNA and proteomic changes in the colon and lungs, where RbKO was sufficient or insufficient to induce ectopic proliferation, respectively. As expected, RbKO caused similar increases in classic pRb/E2F-regulated transcripts in both tissues, but, unexpectedly, their protein products increased only in the colon, consistent with its increased proliferative index. Thus, these protein changes induced by Rb loss are coupled with proliferation but uncoupled from transcription. The proteomic changes in common between RbKO tissues showed a striking decrease in proteins with mitochondrial functions. Accordingly, RB1 inactivation in human cells decreased both mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) function. RBKO cells showed decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the accumulation of hypopolarized mitochondria. Additionally, RB/Rb loss altered mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation from 13C-glucose through the TCA cycle in mouse tissues and cultured cells. Consequently, RBKO cells have an enhanced sensitivity to mitochondrial stress conditions. In summary, proteomic analyses provide a new perspective on Rb/RB1 mutation, highlighting the importance of pRb for mitochondrial function and suggesting vulnerabilities for treatment. PMID:26314710

  11. Impaired cerebral mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Fang, Xiangshao; Fu, Yue; Xu, Wen; Jiang, Longyuan; Huang, Zitong

    2014-01-01

    Postcardiac arrest brain injury significantly contributes to mortality and morbidity in patients suffering from cardiac arrest (CA). Evidence that shows that mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key factor in tissue damage after ischemia/reperfusion is accumulating. However, limited data are available regarding the cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and its relationship to the alterations of high-energy phosphate. Here, we sought to identify alterations of mitochondrial morphology and oxidative phosphorylation function as well as high-energy phosphates during CA and CPR in a rat model of ventricular fibrillation (VF). We found that impairment of mitochondrial respiration and partial depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) developed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus following a prolonged cardiac arrest. Optimal CPR might ameliorate the deranged phosphorus metabolism and preserve mitochondrial function. No obvious ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria have been found during CA. We conclude that CA causes cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction along with decay of high-energy phosphates, which would be mitigated with CPR. This study may broaden our understanding of the pathogenic processes underlying global cerebral ischemic injury and provide a potential therapeutic strategy that aimed at preserving cerebral mitochondrial function during CA.

  12. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Insulin Signaling by the Mitochondrial Rhomboid Protease PARL

    PubMed Central

    Civitarese, Anthony E.; MacLean, Paul S.; Carling, Stacy; Kerr-Bayles, Lyndal; McMillan, Ryan P.; Pierce, Anson; Becker, Thomas C.; Moro, Cedric; Finlayson, Jean; Lefort, Natalie; Newgard, Christopher B.; Mandarino, Lawrence; Cefalu, William; Walder, Ken; Collier, Greg R.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Smith, Steven R.; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and aging are characterized by insulin resistance, lower mitochondrial density and function and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In lower organisms continuous remodeling critically maintains the function and life cycle of mitochondria, in part by the protease pcp1 (PARL ortholog). We therefore examined whether variation in PARL protein content is associated with mitochondrial abnormalities and insulin resistance. Relative to healthy, young individuals (23±1y), PARL mRNA and mitochondrial mass were both reduced in elderly subjects (64.4±1.2 y; 51% and 44% respectively) and in subjects with T2DM (51.8±3 y; 31% and 41% respectively; all p<0.05). Muscle knock-down of PARL in mice resulted in lower mitochondrial content (−31±3%, p<0.05), lower OPA1 and PGC1α protein levels and impaired insulin signaling. Furthermore, mitochondrial cristae were malformed and resulted in elevated in vivo oxidative stress. Adenoviral suppression of PARL protein in healthy myotubes lowered mitochondrial mass (−33±8%), insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis (−33±9%) and increased ROS production (2-fold) (all p<0.05). We propose that lower PARL expression may contribute to the mitochondrial abnormalities seen in aging and T2DM. PMID:20444421

  13. Overexpression of PGC-1α Increases Peroxisomal and Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Primary Myotubes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tai-Yu; Zheng, Donghai; Houmard, Joseph A; Brault, Jeffrey J; Hickner, Robert C; Cortright, Ronald N

    2017-01-10

    Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected. Primary myotubes from vastus lateralis biopsies from lean donors (BMI =24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m(2), N = 6) were exposed to adenovirus encoding human PGC-1α or GFP control. Peroxisomal biogenesis proteins (Peroxins) and genes (PEXs) responsible for proliferation and functions were assessed by western blotting and real-time qRT-PCR respectively. 1-(14)C palmitic acid and 1-(14)C lignoceric acid (exclusive peroxisomal specific substrate) were used to assess mitochondrial oxidation of peroxisomal derived metabolites. Following overexpression of PGC-1α, 1) Peroxisomal membrane protein 70kD (PMP70), PEX19, and mitochondrial citrate synthetase protein content were significantly elevated (P<0.05) 2) PGC-1α, PMP70, key PEXs, and peroxisomal β-oxidation mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated (P<0.05) and 3) A concomitant increase in lignoceric acid oxidation by both peroxisomal and mitochondrial activity was observed (P<0.05). These novel findings demonstrate that, in addition to the proliferative effect on mitochondria, PGC-1α can induce peroxisomes and accompanying elevations in long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid oxidation by a peroxisomal-mitochondrial functional cooperation as observed in HSkM cells.

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the achille's heel of melanoma cells resistant to Braf-mutant inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    André, Fanny; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Scalbert, Camille; Garçon, Guillaume; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Balayssac, Stéphane; Rocchi, Stephane; Savina, Ariel; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib/PLX4032, a selective inhibitor of mutant BRAFV600E, constitutes a paradigm shift in melanoma therapy. Unfortunately, acquired resistance, which unavoidably occurs, represents one major limitation to clinical responses. Recent studies have highlighted that vemurafenib activated oxidative metabolism in BRAFV600E melanomas expressing PGC1α. However, the oxidative state of melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We established representative in vitro and in vivo models of human melanoma resistant to vemurafenib including primary specimens derived from melanoma patients. Firstly, our study reveals that vemurafenib increased mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines regardless the expression of PGC1α. Secondly, melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to vemurafenib displayed intrinsically high rates of mitochondrial respiration associated with elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of vemurafenib. Thirdly, the elevated ROS level rendered vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells prone to cell death induced by pro-oxidants including the clinical trial drug, elesclomol. Based on these observations, we propose that the mitochondrial oxidative signature of resistant melanoma constitutes a novel opportunity to overcome resistance to BRAF inhibition. PMID:24161908

  15. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D.; d’Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  16. Glucocorticoids Suppress Mitochondrial Oxidant Production via Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Elevated blood glucose contributes to the development of endothelial and vascular dysfunction, and, consequently, to diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications, because it increases the mitochondrial proton gradient and mitochondrial oxidant production. Therapeutic approaches designed to counteract glucose-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vasculature are expected to show efficacy against all diabetic complications, but direct pharmacological targeting (scavenging) of mitochondrial oxidants remains challenging due to the high reactivity of some of these oxidant species. In a recent study, we have conducted a medium-throughput cell-based screening of a focused library of well-annotated pharmacologically active compounds and identified glucocorticoids as inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide production in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to elevated extracellular glucose. The goal of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of glucocorticoids' action. Our findings show that glucocorticoids induce the expression of the mitochondrial UCP2 protein and decrease the mitochondrial potential. UCP2 silencing prevents the protective effect of the glucocorticoids on ROS production. UCP2 induction also increases the oxygen consumption and the “proton leak” in microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation augments the effect of glucocorticoids via further enhancing the expression of UCP2 at the translational level. We conclude that UCP2 induction represents a novel experimental therapeutic intervention in diabetic vascular complications. While direct repurposing of glucocorticoids may not be possible for the therapy of diabetic complications due to their significant side effects that develop during chronic administration, the UCP2 pathway may be therapeutically targetable by other, glucocorticoid

  17. SIRT1 activation by curcumin pretreatment attenuates mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Weixun; Lin, Yan; Yi, Wei; Liang, Zhenxing; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ning; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Song; Li, Yue; Chen, Wensheng; Yu, Shiqiang; Yi, Dinghua; Jin, Zhenxiao

    2013-12-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cardiovascular system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a type of histone deacetylase, contributes to IRI. Curcumin (Cur) is a strong natural antioxidant and is the active component in Curcuma longa; Cur has protective effects against IRI and may regulate the activity of SIRT1. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Cur pretreatment on myocardial IRI and to elucidate this potential mechanism. Isolated and in vivo rat hearts and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were subjected to IR. Prior to this procedure, the hearts or cardiomyocytes were exposed to Cur in the absence or presence of the SIRT1 inhibitor sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA. Cur conferred a cardioprotective effect, as shown by improved postischemic cardiac function, decreased myocardial infarct size, decreased myocardial apoptotic index, and several biochemical parameters, including the up-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 and the down-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Sirtinol and SIRT1 siRNA each blocked the Cur-mediated cardioprotection by inhibiting SIRT1 signaling. Cur also resulted in a well-preserved mitochondrial redox potential, significantly elevated mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased formation of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. These observations indicated that the IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage was remarkably attenuated. However, this Cur-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by sirtinol or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that Cur pretreatment attenuates IRI by reducing IR-induced mitochondrial oxidative damage through the activation of SIRT1 signaling.

  18. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  19. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine Protects the Enterocyte against Oxidative Damage by Modulation of Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hao; Wu, Miaomiao; Shao, Fangyuan; Guan, Guiping; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal small intestine is susceptible to damage caused by oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in intestinal epithelial cells against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. IPEC-J2 cells were cultured in DMEM-H with NAC and H2O2. After 2-day incubation, IPEC-J2 cells were collected for analysis of DNA synthesis, antioxidation capacity, mitochondrial respiration, and cell apoptosis. The results showed that H2O2 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation rate, mitochondrial respiration, and antioxidation capacity and increased cell apoptosis and the abundance of associated proteins, including cytochrome C, Bcl-XL, cleaved caspase-3, and total caspase-3. NAC supplementation remarkably increased (P < 0.05) proliferation rate, antioxidation capacity, and mitochondrial bioenergetics but decreased cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that NAC might rescue the intestinal injury induced by H2O2. PMID:28003713

  20. Exenatide improves liver mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance by reducing oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixuan; Hou, Lin; Huang, Lanhui; Guo, Jun; Zhou, Xinli

    2017-04-22

    Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and may be accompanied by liver insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic activities and decreased insulin metabolic signaling may promote these maladaptive changes. In this context, exenatide has been reported to reduce hepatic lipid deposition, improve insulin sensitivity and improve mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that exenatide would attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing hepatic lipid deposition, blunting oxidant stress and promoting insulin metabolic signaling in a high fat diet-induced model of obesity and insulin resistance. Sixteen-week-old male C57BL/6 diet-induced obese (DIO) mices and age-matched standard diet (STD) mices were treated with exenatide (10 μg/kg twice a day) for 28 days. Compared with untreated STD mice, untreated DIO mice exhibited deposited excessive lipid in liver and produced the oxidative stress in conjunction with insulin resistance, abnormal hepatic cells and mitochondrial histoarchitecture, mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced organism metabolism. Exenatide reduced hepatic steatosis, decreased oxidative stress, and improved insulin resistance in DIO mice, in concert with improvements in the insulin metabolic signaling, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic activation, adenine nucleotide production, organism metabolism and weight gain. Results support the hypothesis that exenatide reduces hepatic cells and mitochondrial structural anomaly and improves insulin resistance in concert with improvements in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function activation, concomitantly with reductions in oxidative stress.

  1. Oxidation of alpha-ketoglutarate is required for reductive carboxylation in cancer cells with mitochondrial defects

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Andrew R.; Hu, Zeping; Shi, Xiaolei; Jiang, Lei; Boroughs, Lindsey K.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Boriack, Richard; Rakheja, Dinesh; Sullivan, Lucas B.; Linehan, W. Marston; Chandel, Navdeep S.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mammalian cells generate citrate by decarboxylating pyruvate in the mitochondria to supply the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In contrast, hypoxia and other impairments of mitochondrial function induce an alternative pathway that produces citrate by reductively carboxylating α-ketoglutarate (AKG) via NADPH-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). It is unknown how cells generate reducing equivalents necessary to supply reductive carboxylation in the setting of mitochondrial impairment. Here we identified shared metabolic features in cells using reductive carboxylation. Paradoxically, reductive carboxylation was accompanied by concomitant AKG oxidation in the TCA cycle. Inhibiting AKG oxidation decreased reducing equivalent availability and suppressed reductive carboxylation. Interrupting transfer of reducing equivalents from NADH to NADPH by nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase increased NADH abundance and decreased NADPH abundance while suppressing reductive carboxylation. The data demonstrate that reductive carboxylation requires bidirectional AKG metabolism along oxidative and reductive pathways, with the oxidative pathway producing reducing equivalents used to operate IDH in reverse. PMID:24857658

  2. Post-translational oxidative modification and inactivation of mitochondrial complex I in epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Kristen; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip; Patel, Manisha

    2012-08-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage have been implicated in the etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, but whether or not they have a functional impact on mitochondrial processes during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis) is unknown. One consequence of increased steady-state mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels is protein post-translational modification (PTM). We hypothesize that complex I (CI), a protein complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is a target for oxidant-induced PTMs, such as carbonylation, leading to impaired function during epileptogenesis. The goal of this study was to determine whether oxidative modifications occur and what impact they have on CI enzymatic activity in the rat hippocampus in response to kainate (KA)-induced epileptogenesis. Rats were injected with a single high dose of KA or vehicle and evidence for CI modifications was measured during the acute, latent, and chronic stages of epilepsy. Mitochondrial-specific carbonylation was increased acutely (48 h) and chronically (6 week), coincident with decreased CI activity. Mass spectrometry analysis of immunocaptured CI identified specific metal catalyzed carbonylation to Arg76 within the 75 kDa subunit concomitant with inhibition of CI activity during epileptogenesis. Computational-based molecular modeling studies revealed that Arg76 is in close proximity to the active site of CI and carbonylation of the residue is predicted to induce substantial structural alterations to the protein complex. These data provide evidence for the occurrence of a specific and irreversible oxidative modification of an important mitochondrial enzyme complex critical for cellular bioenergetics during the process of epileptogenesis.

  3. The spectrum of pyruvate oxidation defects in the diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.

    PubMed

    Sperl, Wolfgang; Fleuren, Leanne; Freisinger, Peter; Haack, Tobias B; Ribes, Antonia; Feichtinger, René G; Rodenburg, Richard J; Zimmermann, Franz A; Koch, Johannes; Rivera, Isabel; Prokisch, Holger; Smeitink, Jan A; Mayr, Johannes A

    2015-05-01

    Pyruvate oxidation defects (PODs) are among the most frequent causes of deficiencies in the mitochondrial energy metabolism and represent a substantial subset of classical mitochondrial diseases. PODs are not only caused by deficiency of subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) but also by various disorders recently described in the whole pyruvate oxidation route including cofactors, regulation of PDHC and the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier. Our own patients from 2000 to July 2014 and patients identified by a systematic survey of the literature from 1970 to July 2014 with a pyruvate oxidation disorder and a genetically proven defect were included in the study (n=628). Of these defects 74.2% (n=466) belong to PDHC subunits, 24.5% (n=154) to cofactors, 0.5% (n=3) to PDHC regulation and 0.8% (n=5) to mitochondrial pyruvate import. PODs are underestimated in the field of mitochondrial diseases because not all diagnostic centres include biochemical investigations of PDHC in their routine analysis. Cofactor and transport defects can be missed, if pyruvate oxidation is not measured in intact mitochondria routinely. Furthermore deficiency of the X-chromosomal PDHA1 can be biochemically missed depending on the X-inactivation pattern. This is reflected by an increasing number of patients diagnosed recently by genetic high throughput screening approaches. PDHC deficiency including regulation and import affect mainly the glucose dependent central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle. PODs with combined enzyme defects affect also other organs like heart, lung and liver. The spectrum of clinical presentation of PODs is still expanding. PODs are a therapeutically interesting group of mitochondrial diseases since some can be bypassed by ketogenic diet or treated by cofactor supplementation. PDHC kinase inhibition, chaperone therapy and PGC1α stimulation is still a matter of further investigations.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 ameliorates oxidative stress and prevents mitochondrial alteration in ischemic retinal injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwook; Kim, Keun-Young; Shim, Myoung Sup; Kim, Sang Yeop; Ellisman, Mark H; Weinreb, Robert N; Ju, Won-Kyu

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species for protecting neuronal cells against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether a diet supplemented with CoQ10 ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial alteration, as well as promotes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival in ischemic retina induced by intraocular pressure elevation. A CoQ10 significantly promoted RGC survival at 2 weeks after ischemia. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression were significantly increased at 12 h after ischemic injury. In contrast, the CoQ10 significantly prevented the upregulation of SOD2 and HO-1 protein expression in ischemic retina. In addition, the CoQ10 significantly blocked activation of astroglial and microglial cells in ischemic retina. Interestingly, the CoQ10 blocked apoptosis by decreasing caspase-3 protein expression in ischemic retina. Bax and phosphorylated Bad (pBad) protein expression were significantly increased in ischemic retina at 12 h. Interestingly, while CoQ10 significantly decreased Bax protein expression in ischemic retina, CoQ10 showed greater increase of pBad protein expression. Of interest, ischemic injury significantly increased mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression in the retina at 12 h, however, CoQ10 significantly preserved Tfam protein expression in ischemic retina. Interestingly, there were no differences in mitochondrial DNA content among control- or CoQ10-treated groups. Our findings demonstrate that CoQ10 protects RGCs against oxidative stress by modulating the Bax/Bad-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway as well as prevents mitochondrial alteration by preserving Tfam protein expression in ischemic retina. Our results suggest that CoQ10 may provide neuroprotection against oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial alterations in ischemic retinal injury.

  5. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liang, Xinying; Chen, Yaqi; Zhao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1. PMID:26981165

  6. Induction of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Leishmania donovani by Orally Active Clerodane Diterpene

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Manoj; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Sashidhara, Koneni V.; Singh, Suriya Pratap

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the mechanistic aspects of cell death induced by a clerodane diterpene (K-09) in Leishmania donovani promastigotes that was previously demonstrated to be safe and orally active against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). K-09 caused depolarization of the mitochondrion and the generation of reactive oxygen species, triggering an apoptotic response in L. donovani promastigotes. Mitochondrial dysfunction subsequently resulted in the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, impairing ATP production. Oxidative stress caused the depletion of reduced glutathione, while pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was able to abrogate oxidative stress. However, NAC failed to restore the mitochondrial membrane potential or intracellular calcium homeostasis after K-09 treatment, suggesting that the generation of oxidative stress is a downstream event relative to the other events. Caspase-3/-7-like protease activity and genomic DNA fragmentation were observed. Electron microscopy studies revealed gross morphological alterations typical of apoptosis, including severe mitochondrial damage, pyknosis of the nucleus, structural disruption of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex, flagellar pocket alterations, and the displacement of organelles. Moreover, an increased number of lipid droplets was detected after K-09 treatment, which is suggestive of altered lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that K-09 induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic cell death in L. donovani promastigotes, sharing many features with metazoan apoptosis. These mechanistic insights provide a basis for further investigation toward the development of K-09 as a potential drug candidate for VL. PMID:25070112

  7. Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Leishmania donovani by orally active clerodane diterpene.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Manoj; Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya Pratap; Mitra, Kalyan

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the mechanistic aspects of cell death induced by a clerodane diterpene (K-09) in Leishmania donovani promastigotes that was previously demonstrated to be safe and orally active against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). K-09 caused depolarization of the mitochondrion and the generation of reactive oxygen species, triggering an apoptotic response in L. donovani promastigotes. Mitochondrial dysfunction subsequently resulted in the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, impairing ATP production. Oxidative stress caused the depletion of reduced glutathione, while pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was able to abrogate oxidative stress. However, NAC failed to restore the mitochondrial membrane potential or intracellular calcium homeostasis after K-09 treatment, suggesting that the generation of oxidative stress is a downstream event relative to the other events. Caspase-3/-7-like protease activity and genomic DNA fragmentation were observed. Electron microscopy studies revealed gross morphological alterations typical of apoptosis, including severe mitochondrial damage, pyknosis of the nucleus, structural disruption of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex, flagellar pocket alterations, and the displacement of organelles. Moreover, an increased number of lipid droplets was detected after K-09 treatment, which is suggestive of altered lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that K-09 induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic cell death in L. donovani promastigotes, sharing many features with metazoan apoptosis. These mechanistic insights provide a basis for further investigation toward the development of K-09 as a potential drug candidate for VL.

  8. Mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Michael H; Wang, Xinglong; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by prominent neurodegeneration in selective neural systems. Although a small fraction of AD and PD cases exhibit evidence of heritability, among which many genes have been identified, the majority are sporadic without known causes. Molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and pathogenesis of these diseases remain elusive. Convincing evidence demonstrates oxidative stress as a prominent feature in AD and PD and links oxidative stress to the development of neuronal death and neural dysfunction, which suggests a key pathogenic role for oxidative stress in both AD and PD. Notably, mitochondrial dysfunction is also a prominent feature in these diseases, which is likely to be of critical importance in the genesis and amplification of reactive oxygen species and the pathophysiology of these diseases. In this review, we focus on changes in mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial dynamics, two aspects critical to the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and function, in relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD and PD.

  9. The Heuristic of Form: Mitochondrial Morphology and the Explanation of Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Matlin, Karl S

    2016-02-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, the search for the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation by biochemists paralleled the description of mitochondrial form by George Palade and Fritiof Sjöstrand using electron microscopy. This paper explores the extent to which biochemists studying oxidative phosphorylation took mitochondrial form into account in the formulation of hypotheses, design of experiments, and interpretation of results. By examining experimental approaches employed by the biochemists studying oxidative phosphorylation, and their interactions with Palade, I suggest that use of mitochondrial form as a guide to experimentation and interpretation varied considerably among investigators. Most notably, Peter Mitchell, whose chemiosmotic hypothesis was ultimately the basis of the correct mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, incorporated crucial aspects of mitochondrial form into his model that others failed to recognize. I discuss these historical observations in terms of the background and training of the biochemists, as well as a proposed heuristic of form, whose use may increase the possibility that biologically meaningful molecular mechanisms will be discovered.

  10. Mitochondrial metabolism mediates oxidative stress and inflammation in fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Satapati, Santhosh; Kucejova, Blanka; Duarte, Joao A.G.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Reynolds, Lacy; Sunny, Nishanth E.; He, Tianteng; Nair, L. Arya; Livingston, Kenneth; Fu, Xiaorong; Merritt, Matthew E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.; Shelton, John M.; Lambert, Jennifer; Parks, Elizabeth J.; Corbin, Ian; Magnuson, Mark A.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for respiration in all tissues; however, in liver, these organelles also accommodate high-capacity anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways that are essential to gluconeogenesis and other biosynthetic activities. During nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondria also produce ROS that damage hepatocytes, trigger inflammation, and contribute to insulin resistance. Here, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that induction of biosynthesis through hepatic anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways is energetically backed by elevated oxidative metabolism and hence contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation during NAFLD. First, in murine livers, elevation of fatty acid delivery not only induced oxidative metabolism, but also amplified anaplerosis/cataplerosis and caused a proportional rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid–induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Flux appeared to be regulated by redox state, energy charge, and metabolite concentration, which may also amplify antioxidant pathways. Third, preventing elevated oxidative metabolism with metformin also normalized hepatic anaplerosis/cataplerosis and reduced markers of inflammation. Finally, independent histological grades in human NAFLD biopsies were proportional to oxidative flux. Thus, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with elevated oxidative metabolism during an obesogenic diet, and this link may be provoked by increased work through anabolic pathways. PMID:26571396

  11. Ca2+ acting at the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane can stimulate mitochondrial permeability transition induced by phenylarsine oxide.

    PubMed

    Kowaltowski, A J; Castilho, R F

    1997-12-15

    Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induced by the thiol cross-linker phenylarsine oxide (PhAsO) in Ca(2+)-depleted mitochondria incubated in the presence of ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the Ca2+ uniporter, is stimulated by the addition of extramitochondrial Ca2+. The presence of extramitochondrial Ca2+ stimulates the reaction of mitochondrial membrane protein thiol groups with PhAsO. Both Ca(2+)-induced increase in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and protein thiol group reaction with PhAsO are dependent on time (5-10 min to be complete) and the concentration of Ca2+ (1-25 microM). Mitochondrial permeabilization induced by PhAsO (15 microM) and extramitochondrial Ca2+ is inhibited by ADP, cyclosporin A, dibucaine and Mg2+, while mitochondrial permeabilization induced by high concentrations of PhAsO (60 microM) in the absence of Ca2+ is inhibited only by ADP and cyclosporin A. These results suggest that dibucaine and Mg2+ can inhibit mitochondrial permeabilization by antagonizing the effect of Ca2+ on the mitochondrial membrane. Once mitochondrial permeabilization induced by 15 microM PhAsO and extramitochondrial Ca2+ has already occurred, the addition of the Ca2+ chelator EGTA restores mitochondrial membrane potential (MPT pore closure), suggesting that the presence of Ca2+ is essential for the maintenance of the permeability of the mitochondrial membrane to protons (MPT pore opening). In conclusion, the results presented indicate that low Ca2+ concentrations acting at the external side of the inner mitochondrial membrane can stimulate mitochondrial permeability transition induced by PhAsO, due to increased accessibility of protein thiol groups to the reaction with PhAsO and increased probability of MPT pore opening.

  12. Mechanisms of MDMA (Ecstasy)-Induced Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V.; Eddington, Natalie D.; Lee, Insong J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage. PMID:20420575

  13. Mechanisms of MDMA (ecstasy)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Lee, Insong J

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage.

  14. Mitochondrial oxidant stress triggers cell death in simulated ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Iwase, Hirotaro; Chandel, Navdeep S; Waypa, Gregory B; Guzy, Robert D; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T

    2011-07-01

    To clarify the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), we studied cell death mechanisms in a cellular model of I/R. Oxidant stress during simulated ischemia was detected in the mitochondrial matrix using mito-roGFP, a ratiometric redox sensor, and by Mito-Sox Red oxidation. Reperfusion-induced death was attenuated by over-expression of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) or mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (mito-PHGPx), but not by catalase, mitochondria-targeted catalase, or Cu,Zn-SOD. Protection was also conferred by chemically distinct antioxidant compounds, and mito-roGFP oxidation was attenuated by NAC, or by scavenging of residual O(2) during the ischemia (anoxic ischemia). Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) oscillation/opening was monitored by real-time imaging of mitochondrial calcein fluorescence. Oxidant stress caused release of calcein to the cytosol during ischemia, a response that was inhibited by chemically diverse antioxidants, anoxia, or over-expression of Mn-SOD or mito-PHGPx. These findings suggest that mitochondrial oxidant stress causes oscillation of the mPTP prior to reperfusion. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol was not detected until after reperfusion, and was inhibited by anoxic ischemia or antioxidant administration during ischemia. Although DNA fragmentation was detected after I/R, no evidence of Bax activation was detected. Over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L) in cardiomyocytes did not confer protection against I/R-induced cell death. Moreover, murine embryonic fibroblasts with genetic depletion of Bax and Bak, or over-expression of Bcl-X(L), failed to show protection against I/R. These findings indicate that mitochondrial ROS during ischemia triggers mPTP activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and cell death during reperfusion through a Bax/Bak-independent cell death pathway. Therefore

  15. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction induced by isoniazid: study on isolated rat liver and brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ahadpour, Morteza; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Mashayekhi, Vida; Haj Mohammad Ebrahim Tehrani, Kamaleddin; Jafarian, Iman; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Isoniazid (INH or isonicotinic hydrazide) is used for the treatment and prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Liver and brain are two important target organs in INH toxicity. However, the exact mechanisms behind the INH hepatotoxicity or neurotoxicity have not yet been completely understood. Considering the mitochondria as one of the possible molecular targets for INH toxicity, the aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of INH mitochondrial toxicity on isolated mitochondria. Mitochondria were isolated by differential ultracentrifugation from male Sprague-Dawley rats and incubated with different concentrations of INH (25-2000 μM) for the investigation of mitochondrial parameters. The results indicated that INH could interact with mitochondrial respiratory chain and inhibit its activity. Our results showed an elevation in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse after exposure of isolated liver mitochondria in INH. However, different results were obtained in brain mitochondria. Noteworthy, significant glutathione oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion and lipid peroxidation were observed in higher concentration of INH, as compared to liver mitochondria. In conclusion, our results suggest that INH may initiate its toxicity in liver mitochondria through interaction with electron transfer chain, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline and cytochrome c expulsion which ultimately lead to cell death signaling.

  16. A high-fat diet coordinately downregulates genes required for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Lauren M; Xie, Hui; Koza, Robert A; Mynatt, Randall; Hulver, Matthew W; Bray, George A; Smith, Steven R

    2005-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have been associated with a high-fat diet (HFD) and reduced mitochondrial mass and function. We hypothesized a HFD may affect expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we fed 10 insulin-sensitive males an isoenergetic HFD for 3 days with muscle biopsies before and after intervention. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed 297 genes were differentially regulated by the HFD (Bonferonni adjusted P < 0.001). Six genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) decreased. Four were members of mitochondrial complex I: NDUFB3, NDUFB5, NDUFS1, and NDUFV1; one was SDHB in complex II and a mitochondrial carrier protein SLC25A12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC1) alpha and PGC1beta mRNA were decreased by -20%, P < 0.01, and -25%, P < 0.01, respectively. In a separate experiment, we fed C57Bl/6J mice a HFD for 3 weeks and found that the same OXPHOS and PGC1 mRNAs were downregulated by approximately 90%, cytochrome C and PGC1alpha protein by approximately 40%. Combined, these results suggest a mechanism whereby HFD downregulates genes necessary for OXPHOS and mitochondrial biogenesis. These changes mimic those observed in diabetes and insulin resistance and, if sustained, may result in mitochondrial dysfunction in the prediabetic/insulin-resistant state.

  17. Methylglyoxal induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, K S; Choi, E M; Rhee, S Y; Kim, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Methylglyoxal is a reactive dicarbonyl compound produced by glycolytic processing and identified as a precursor of advanced glycation end products. The elevated methylglyoxal levels in patients with diabetes are believed to contribute to diabetic complications, including bone defects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The data indicated that methylglyoxal decreased osteoblast differentiation and induced osteoblast cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with aminoguanidine (a carbonyl scavenger), Trolox (an antioxidant), and cyclosporin A (a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) prevented methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, BAPTA/AM (an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator) and dantrolene (an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release) did not reverse the cytotoxic effect of methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal increased the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxide, and cardiolipin peroxidation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methylglyoxal also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular ATP and nitric oxide levels, suggesting that carbonyl stress-induced loss of mitochondrial integrity contributes to the cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that methylglyoxal induced protein adduct formation, inactivation of glyoxalase I, and activation of glyoxalase II. Aminoguanidine reversed all aforementioned effects of methylglyoxal. Taken together, these data support the notion that high methylglyoxal concentrations have detrimental effects on osteoblasts through a mechanism involving oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Hong, Zhicong; Dong, Weiyang; Deng, Congrui; Zhao, Renwu; Xu, Jian; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Ruxin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm) increases the risk of nasal lesions, but the underlying mechanisms, especially the mechanisms leading to mitochondrial damage, are still unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo effects of PM2.5 exposure on the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, the enzyme activities of Na+K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the morphology and function of mitochondria in the nasal mucosa of rats. Exposure to PM2.5 occurred through inhalation of a PM2.5 solution aerosol. The results show that the PM2.5 exposure induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These changes were accompanied by decreases in the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), Na+K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase in rat nasal mucosa. PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa. These changes were accompanied by abnormal alterations of mitochondrial structures, including mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorder, and even fission resulting from higher doses of PM2.5. Our data shows that oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and mitochondrial dysfunction may be the toxic mechanisms that cause nasal lesions after exposure to PM2.5. PMID:28146064

  19. Oxidized mitochondrial nucleoids released by neutrophils drive type I interferon production in human lupus

    PubMed Central

    Caielli, Simone; Athale, Shruti; Domic, Bojana; Murat, Elise; Chandra, Manjari; Banchereau, Romain; Baisch, Jeanine; Phelps, Kate; Clayton, Sandra; Gong, Mei; Wright, Tracey; Punaro, Marilynn; Palucka, Karolina; Guiducci, Cristiana; Banchereau, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies against nucleic acids and excessive type I interferon (IFN) are hallmarks of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that SLE neutrophils exposed to TLR7 agonist autoantibodies release interferogenic DNA, which we now demonstrate to be of mitochondrial origin. We further show that healthy human neutrophils do not complete mitophagy upon induction of mitochondrial damage. Rather, they extrude mitochondrial components, including DNA (mtDNA), devoid of oxidized (Ox) residues. When mtDNA undergoes oxidation, it is directly routed to lysosomes for degradation. This rerouting requires dissociation from the transcription factor A mitochondria (TFAM), a dual high-mobility group (HMG) protein involved in maintenance and compaction of the mitochondrial genome into nucleoids. Exposure of SLE neutrophils, or healthy IFN-primed neutrophils, to antiribonucleotide protein autoantibodies blocks TFAM phosphorylation, a necessary step for nucleoid dissociation. Consequently, Ox nucleoids accumulate within mitochondria and are eventually extruded as potent interferogenic complexes. In support of the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, mitochondrial retention of Ox nucleoids is a feature of SLE blood neutrophils, and autoantibodies against Ox mtDNA are present in a fraction of patients. This pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in human SLE. PMID:27091841

  20. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Wendy S.; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Burrill, Joel S.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Foncea, Rocio; Jensen, Michael D.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics. Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and the chronic low-grade production of inflammatory cytokines have been mechanistically linked to the development of insulin resistance, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the chronic effects of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β on adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism and morphology using the 3T3-L1 model cell system. TNFα treatment of cultured adipocytes led to significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, including increased proton leak, decreased ΔΨm, increased basal respiration, and decreased ATP turnover. In contrast, although IL-6 and IL-1β decreased maximal respiratory capacity, they had no effect on ΔΨm and varied effects on ATP turnover, proton leak, or basal respiration. Only TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase in oxidative stress (as measured by superoxide anion production and protein carbonylation) and C16 ceramide synthesis. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with cytokines led to decreased mRNA expression of key transcription factors and control proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1α and eNOS as well as deceased expression of COX IV and Cyt C. Whereas each cytokine led to effects on expression of mitochondrial markers, TNFα exclusively led to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased the total level of OPA1 while increasing OPA1 cleavage, without expression of levels of mitofusin 2, DRP-1, or mitofilin being affected. In summary, these results indicate that inflammatory cytokines have unique and specialized effects on adipocyte metabolism, but each leads to decreased mitochondrial function and a reprogramming of fat cell biology. PMID:24595304

  1. Simvastatin impairs ADP-stimulated respiration and increases mitochondrial oxidative stress in primary human skeletal myotubes.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Anderson, Ethan J; Lin, Chien-Te; Kane, Daniel A; Lee, Nam-Sihk; Cortright, Ronald N; Bamman, Marcas M; Neufer, P Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Statins, the widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, cause adverse skeletal muscle side effects ranging from fatigue to fatal rhabdomyolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, and cell death in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (i.e., myotubes). Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease in viability of proliferating and differentiating primary human muscle precursor cells, and a similar dose-dependent effect was noted in differentiated myoblasts and myotubes. Additionally, there were decreases in myotube number and size following 48 h of simvastatin treatment (5 μM). In permeabilized myotubes, maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, supported by palmitoylcarnitine+malate (PCM, complex I and II substrates) and glutamate+malate (GM, complex I substrates), was 32-37% lower (P<0.05) in simvastatin-treated (5 μM) vs control myotubes, providing evidence of impaired respiration at complex I. Mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation were significantly greater in the simvastatin-treated human skeletal myotube cultures compared to control. In addition, simvastatin markedly increased protein levels of Bax (proapoptotic, +53%) and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic, +100%, P<0.05), mitochondrial PTP opening (+44%, P<0.05), and TUNEL-positive nuclei in human skeletal myotubes, demonstrating up-regulation of mitochondrial-mediated myonuclear apoptotic mechanisms. These data demonstrate that simvastatin induces myotube atrophy and cell loss associated with impaired ADP-stimulated maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary human skeletal myotubes, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie human statin-induced myopathy.

  2. Bridges between mitochondrial oxidative stress, ER stress and mTOR signaling in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction, i.e., failure to provide insulin in concentrations sufficient to control blood sugar, is central to the etiology of all types of diabetes. Current evidence implicates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic β cell loss and impaired insulin secretion. Oxidative and ER stress are interconnected so that misfolded proteins induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; likewise, oxidative stress disturbs the ER redox state thereby disrupting correct disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. mTOR signaling regulates many metabolic processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Oxidative stress inhibits mTORC1, which is considered an important suppressor of mitochondrial oxidative stress in β cells, and ultimately, controls cell survival. The interplay between ER stress and mTORC1 is complicated, since the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation can occur upstream or downstream of mTORC1. Persistent activation of mTORC1 initiates protein synthesis and UPR activation, while in the later phase induces ER stress. Chronic activation of ER stress inhibits Akt/mTORC1 pathway, while under particular settings, acute activation of UPR activates Akt-mTOR signaling. Thus, modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress via mTOR signaling may be an approach that will effectively suppress obesity- or glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this review, we focus on the regulations between mTOR signaling and mitochondrial oxidative or ER stress in pancreatic β cells.

  3. Mitochondrial oxidative function in human saponin-skinned muscle fibres: effects of prolonged exercise

    PubMed Central

    Tonkonogi, Michail; Harris, Beorn; Sahlin, Kent

    1998-01-01

    The influence of prolonged exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial oxidative function was investigated in ten men. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after exercise and mitochondrial respiration investigated in fibre bundles made permeable by pretreatment with saponin. After exercise, respiration in the absence of ADP increased by 18 % (P < 0.01), but respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) and maximal ADP-stimulated respiration (1 mM ADP) remained unchanged. In the presence of creatine (20 mM), mitochondrial affinity for ADP increased markedly and respiration at suboptimal ADP concentration (0.1 mM) was similar (pre-exercise) or higher (post-exercise; P < 0.05) than with 1 mM ADP alone. The increase in respiratory rate with creatine was correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = 0.84). Creatine-stimulated respiration increased after prolonged exercise (P < 0.01). The respiratory control index (6.8 ± 0.4, mean ± s.e.m.) and the ratio between respiration at 0.1 and 1 mM ADP (ADP sensitivity index, 0.63 ± 0.03) were not changed after exercise. The sensitivity index was negatively correlated to the relative type I fibre area (r = −0.86). The influence of exercise on muscle oxidative function has for the first time been investigated with the skinned-fibre technique. It is concluded that maximal mitochondrial oxidative power is intact or improved after prolonged exercise, while uncoupled respiration is increased. The latter finding may contribute to the elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption. The finding that the sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration for ADP and creatine are related to fibre-type composition indicates intrinsic differences in the control of mitochondrial respiration between fibres. PMID:9625884

  4. Detoxification of Mitochondrial Oxidants and Apoptotic Signaling Are Facilitated by Thioredoxin-2 and Peroxiredoxin-3 during Hyperoxic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forred, Benjamin J.; Daugaard, Darwin R.; Titus, Brianna K.; Wood, Ryan R.; Floen, Miranda J.; Booze, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria play a fundamental role in the regulation of cell death during accumulation of oxidants. High concentrations of atmospheric oxygen (hyperoxia), used clinically to treat tissue hypoxia in premature newborns, is known to elicit oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury to pulmonary epithelial cells. A consequence of oxidative stress in mitochondria is the accumulation of peroxides which are detoxified by the dedicated mitochondrial thioredoxin system. This system is comprised of the oxidoreductase activities of peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and thioredoxin reductase-2 (TrxR2). The goal of this study was to understand the role of the mitochondrial thioredoxin system and mitochondrial injuries during hyperoxic exposure. Flow analysis of the redox-sensitive, mitochondrial-specific fluorophore, MitoSOX, indicated increased levels of mitochondrial oxidant formation in human adenocarcinoma cells cultured in 95% oxygen. Increased expression of Trx2 and TrxR2 in response to hyperoxia were not attributable to changes in mitochondrial mass, suggesting that hyperoxic upregulation of mitochondrial thioredoxins prevents accumulation of oxidized Prx3. Mitochondrial oxidoreductase activities were modulated through pharmacological inhibition of TrxR2 with auranofin and genetically through shRNA knockdown of Trx2 and Prx3. Diminished Trx2 and Prx3 expression was associated with accumulation of mitochondrial superoxide; however, only shRNA knockdown of Trx2 increased susceptibility to hyperoxic cell death and increased phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1). In conclusion, the mitochondrial thioredoxin system regulates hyperoxic-mediated death of pulmonary epithelial cells through detoxification of oxidants and regulation of redox-dependent apoptotic signaling. PMID:28045936

  5. Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Dysfunction of Mitochondrial Dynamics Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Feng; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Da-Jian; Wang, Ming; Yin, Yi; Chen, De-Xiu; Wei, Lian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the chronic fatigue induced by excessive exercise and the restoration effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on mitochondria. In vivo, we found that excessive exercise could cause oxidative stress statue which led to morphological and functional changes of mitochondria. The changes, including imbalance between mitochondria fusion-fission processes, activation of mitophagy, and decrease of PGC-1α expression, could be restored by APS. We further confirmed in vitro, and what is more, we found that APS may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction through Sirt1 pathway. Based on the results, we may figure out part of the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial amelioration by APS. PMID:26881048

  6. Association between heat stress and oxidative stress in poultry; mitochondrial dysfunction and dietary interventions with phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Akbarian, Abdollah; Michiels, Joris; Degroote, Jeroen; Majdeddin, Maryam; Golian, Abolghasem; De Smet, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    Heat as a stressor of poultry has been studied extensively for many decades; it affects poultry production on a worldwide basis and has significant impact on well-being and production. More recently, the involvement of heat stress in inducing oxidative stress has received much interest. Oxidative stress is defined as the presence of reactive species in excess of the available antioxidant capacity of animal cells. Reactive species can modify several biologically cellular macromolecules and can interfere with cell signaling pathways. Furthermore, during the last decade, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the use of a wide array of natural feed-delivered phytochemicals that have potential antioxidant properties for poultry. In light of this, the current review aims to (1) summarize the mechanisms through which heat stress triggers excessive superoxide radical production in the mitochondrion and progresses into oxidative stress, (2) illustrate that this pathophysiology is dependent on the intensity and duration of heat stress, (3) present different nutritional strategies for mitigation of mitochondrial dysfunction, with particular focus on antioxidant phytochemicals. Oxidative stress that occurs with heat exposure can be manifest in all parts of the body; however, mitochondrial dysfunction underlies oxidative stress. In the initial phase of acute heat stress, mitochondrial substrate oxidation and electron transport chain activity are increased resulting in excessive superoxide production. During the later stage of acute heat stress, down-regulation of avian uncoupling protein worsens the oxidative stress situation causing mitochondrial dysfunction and tissue damage. Typically, antioxidant enzyme activities are upregulated. Chronic heat stress, however, leads to downsizing of mitochondrial metabolic oxidative capacity, up-regulation of avian uncoupling protein, a clear alteration in the pattern of antioxidant enzyme activities, and depletion of antioxidant

  7. DAPK2 regulates oxidative stress in cancer cells by preserving mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, C R; Georgiou, M L; Misterek, M B; Stöcker, S; Chater, E R; Munro, C E; Pardo, O E; Seckl, M J; Costa-Pereira, A P

    2015-01-01

    Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) 2 is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the DAPK family. Although it shows significant structural differences from DAPK1, the founding member of this protein family, DAPK2 is also thought to be a putative tumour suppressor. Like DAPK1, it has been implicated in programmed cell death, the regulation of autophagy and diverse developmental processes. In contrast to DAPK1, however, few mechanistic studies have been carried out on DAPK2 and the majority of these have made use of tagged DAPK2, which almost invariably leads to overexpression of the protein. As a consequence, physiological roles of this kinase are still poorly understood. Using two genetically distinct cancer cell lines as models, we have identified a new role for DAPK2 in the regulation of mitochondrial integrity. RNA interference-mediated depletion of DAPK2 leads to fundamental metabolic changes, including significantly decreased rate of oxidative phosphorylation in combination with overall destabilised mitochondrial membrane potential. This phenotype is further corroborated by an increase in the production of mitochondrial superoxide anions and increased oxidative stress. This then leads to the activation of classical stress-activated kinases such as ERK, JNK and p38, which is observed on DAPK2 genetic ablation. Interestingly, the generation of oxidative stress is further enhanced on overexpression of a kinase-dead DAPK2 mutant indicating that it is the kinase domain of DAPK2 that is important to maintain mitochondrial integrity and, by inference, for cellular metabolism. PMID:25741596

  8. Acyl-CoA thioesterase-2 facilitates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in the liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Cynthia; Bhatia, Lavesh; Nguyen, Teresa; Lynch, Peter; Wang, Miao; Wang, Dongning; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Han, Xianlin; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Claypool, Steven M.; Seifert, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot)2 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and hydrolyses long-chain fatty acyl-CoA into free FA and CoASH. Acot2 is expressed in highly oxi­dative tissues and is poised to modulate mitochondrial FA oxidation (FAO), yet its biological role is unknown. Using a model of adenoviral Acot2 overexpression in mouse liver (Ad-Acot2), we show that Acot2 increases the utilization of FA substrate during the daytime in ad libitum-fed mice, but the nighttime switch to carbohydrate oxidation is similar to control mice. In further support of elevated FAO in Acot2 liver, daytime serum ketones were higher in Ad-Acot2 mice, and overnight fasting led to minimal hepatic steatosis as compared with control mice. In liver mitochondria from Ad-Acot2 mice, phosphorylating O2 consumption was higher with lipid substrate, but not with nonlipid substrate. This increase depended on whether FA could be activated on the outer mitochondrial membrane, suggesting that the FA released by Acot2 could be effluxed from mitochondria then taken back up again for oxidation. This circuit would prevent the build-up of inhibitory long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters. Altogether, our findings indicate that Acot2 can enhance FAO, possibly by mitigating the accumulation of FAO intermediates within the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:25114170

  9. Glutaredoxin 2 catalyzes the reversible oxidation and glutathionylation of mitochondrial membrane thiol proteins: implications for mitochondrial redox regulation and antioxidant DEFENSE.

    PubMed

    Beer, Samantha M; Taylor, Ellen R; Brown, Stephanie E; Dahm, Christina C; Costa, Nikola J; Runswick, Michael J; Murphy, Michael P

    2004-11-12

    The redox poise of the mitochondrial glutathione pool is central in the response of mitochondria to oxidative damage and redox signaling, but the mechanisms are uncertain. One possibility is that the oxidation of glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and the consequent change in the GSH/GSSG ratio causes protein thiols to change their redox state, enabling protein function to respond reversibly to redox signals and oxidative damage. However, little is known about the interplay between the mitochondrial glutathione pool and protein thiols. Therefore we investigated how physiological GSH/GSSG ratios affected the redox state of mitochondrial membrane protein thiols. Exposure to oxidized GSH/GSSG ratios led to the reversible oxidation of reactive protein thiols by thiol-disulfide exchange, the extent of which was dependent on the GSH/GSSG ratio. There was an initial rapid phase of protein thiol oxidation, followed by gradual oxidation over 30 min. A large number of mitochondrial proteins contain reactive thiols and most of these formed intraprotein disulfides upon oxidation by GSSG; however, a small number formed persistent mixed disulfides with glutathione. Both protein disulfide formation and glutathionylation were catalyzed by the mitochondrial thiol transferase glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2), as were protein deglutathionylation and the reduction of protein disulfides by GSH. Complex I was the most prominent protein that was persistently glutathionylated by GSSG in the presence of Grx2. Maintenance of complex I with an oxidized GSH/GSSG ratio led to a dramatic loss of activity, suggesting that oxidation of the mitochondrial glutathione pool may contribute to the selective complex I inactivation seen in Parkinson's disease. Most significantly, Grx2 catalyzed reversible protein glutathionylation/deglutathionylation over a wide range of GSH/GSSG ratios, from the reduced levels accessible under redox signaling to oxidized ratios only found under severe oxidative

  10. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed Central

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  11. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Skulachev, Maxim V; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane-liposomes of pure bovine heart CL-we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature.

  12. Age-related differences in experimental stroke: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanlin; Kong, Xiangwei; Ye, Ruidong; Yang, Qianzi; Han, Junliang; Xiong, Lize

    2011-06-01

    Age is the single most important risk factor for cerebral stroke. Unfortunately, the effect of age on ischemic brain damage is less clear. In this study, we sought to examine the potential influence of aging on the histologic and functional outcomes after ischemia. Juvenile (4 weeks of age), young adult (4 months of age), mid-aged (11-12 months of age), and aged (18-19 months of age) mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no remarkable difference of infarct volume on postoperative days 1 and 3. However, on postoperative day 7, aged mice exhibited significantly worsened infarct volume compared with juvenile and young mice. Intriguingly, the increase of infarct volume was most prominent in the striatal area rather than in cortex. Accordingly, aged mice displayed a slower and incomplete functional recovery after stroke. We further evaluated the effects of aging on the oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction following ischemia. Brain tissues were assayed for lipid, DNA, and protein peroxidation products, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant activities. Aging was associated with declined mitochondrial function and antioxidant detoxification following ischemia, thereby inducing a deteriorated oxidative damage. Regional subanalyses demonstrated that, in accordance with infarct area, the pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance occurred more prominently in subcortical areas. Collectively, these findings suggest mitochondria-mediated oxidative damage may be involved in the age-related aggravated injury in subcortical areas. Mitochondrial protection could be a promising target for neuroprotective therapy, especially in the aged population.

  13. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by β-arrestins in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Jennifer L.; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Han, Mei; Li, Jinju; Theccanat, Tiju; Xu, Xianyao; Akhter, Shahab A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) promotes transformation to myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis leading to myocardial fibrosis, a precursor to heart failure (HF). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, mechanisms of Nox4 regulation are unclear. β-arrestins are scaffold proteins that signal in G-protein-dependent and -independent pathways; for example, in ERK activation. We hypothesize that β-arrestins regulate oxidative stress in a Nox4-dependent manner and increase fibrosis in HF. CFs were isolated from normal and failing adult human left ventricles. Mitochondrial ROS/superoxide production was quantitated using MitoSox. β-arrestin and Nox4 expressions were manipulated using adenoviral overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and Nox4 expression in CFs were significantly increased in HF. Nox4 knockdown resulted in inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased basal and TGF-β-stimulated collagen and α-SMA expression. CF β-arrestin expression was upregulated fourfold in HF. β-arrestin knockdown in failing CFs decreased ROS and Nox4 expression by 50%. β-arrestin overexpression in normal CFs increased mitochondrial superoxide production twofold. These effects were prevented by inhibition of either Nox or ERK. Upregulation of Nox4 seemed to be a primary mechanism for increased ROS production in failing CFs, which stimulates collagen deposition. β-arrestin expression was upregulated in HF and plays an important and newly identified role in regulating mitochondrial superoxide production via Nox4. The mechanism for this effect seems to be ERK-mediated. Targeted inhibition of β-arrestins in CFs might decrease oxidative stress as well as pathological cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26449263

  14. Chronically ischemic mouse skeletal muscle exhibits myopathy in association with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Pipinos, Iraklis I; Swanson, Stanley A; Zhu, Zhen; Nella, Aikaterini A; Weiss, Dustin J; Gutti, Tanuja L; McComb, Rodney D; Baxter, B Timothy; Lynch, Thomas G; Casale, George P

    2008-07-01

    A myopathy characterized by mitochondrial pathology and oxidative stress is present in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with PAD differ in disease severity, mode of presentation, and presence of comorbid conditions. In this study, we used a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia to isolate and directly investigate the effects of chronic inflow arterial occlusion on skeletal muscle microanatomy, mitochondrial function and expression, and oxidative stress. Hindlimb ischemia was induced by staged ligation/division of the common femoral and iliac arteries in C57BL/6 mice, and muscles were harvested 12 wk later. Muscle microanatomy was examined by bright-field microscopy, and mitochondrial content was determined as citrate synthase activity in muscle homogenates and ATP synthase expression by fluorescence microscopy. Electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I through IV were analyzed individually by respirometry. Oxidative stress was assessed as total protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) adducts and altered expression and activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Ischemic muscle exhibited histological features of myopathy and increased mitochondrial content compared with control muscle. Complex-dependent respiration was significantly reduced for ETC complexes I, III, and IV in ischemic muscle. Protein carbonyls, HNE adducts, and MnSOD expression were significantly increased in ischemic muscle. MnSOD activity was not significantly changed, suggesting MnSOD inactivation. Using a mouse model, we have demonstrated for the first time that inflow arterial occlusion alone, i.e., in the absence of other comorbid conditions, causes myopathy with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, recapitulating the muscle pathology of PAD patients.

  15. High fructose causes cardiac hypertrophy via mitochondrial signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Bo; Meng, Yan-Hai; Chang, Shuo; Zhang, Rong-Yuan; Shi, Chen

    2016-01-01

    High fructose diet can cause cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress is a key mediator for myocardial hypertrophy. Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to oxidative stress. This study aims to reveal mitochondrial oxidative stress-related signaling pathway in high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mice were fed high fructose to develop cardiac hypertrophy. Fructose and H2O2 were used to induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 was applied to investigate the possible role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CFTR silence was performed to detect the role of CFTR in high fructose-induced myocardial hypertrophy. ROS, glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial function and hypertrophic markers were measured. We confirmed that long-term high fructose diet caused cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction and elevated mitochondrial ROS. However, SkQ1 administration prevented heart hypertrophy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cadiomyocytes incubated with fructose or H2O2 exhibited significantly increased cell areas but SkQ1 treatment ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high fructose or H2O2 in vitro. Those results revealed that the underlying mechanism for high fructose-induced heart hypertrophy was attributed to mitochondrial oxidative stress. Moreover, CFTR expression was decreased by high fructose intervention and CFTR silence resulted in an increase in mitochondrial ROS, which suggested high fructose diet affected mitochondrial oxidative stress by regulating CFTR expression. Electron transport chain impairment might be related to mitochondrial oxidative damage. In conclusion, our findings indicated that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a central role in pathogenesis of high fructose-induced cardiac hypertrophy. High fructose decreases CFTR expression to regulate mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:27904687

  16. CARDIOSELECTIVE OXIDATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA FOLLOWING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOXORUBICIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This preferential oxidation of cardiac mtDNA is consistent with the bioenergetic failure and the cumulative and irreversible cardiomyopathy that limits the clinical utility of this important antineoplastic drug.

  17. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kayo; Hartman, Philip S; Ishii, Takamasa; Suda, Hitoshi; Akatsuka, Akira; Shoyama, Tetsuji; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki

    2011-01-21

    Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  18. Dexmedetomidine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chunlai; Dai, Xingui; Yang, You; Lin, Mengxiang; Cai, Yeping; Cai, Shaoxi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have identified that dexmedetomidine (DEX) treatment can ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide and ischemia-reperfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DEX ameliorates lung injury remain unclear. The present study investigated whether DEX, which has been reported to exert effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition pores and apoptosis in other disease types, can exert protective effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. It was revealed that LPS-challenged rats exhibited significant lung injury, characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, vascular hyperpermeability, wet-to-dry weight ratio and oxygenation index (PaO2/FIO2), which was attenuated by DEX treatment. DEX treatment inhibited LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by alleviating the cellular ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In addition, DEX treatment markedly prevented the LPS-induced mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in vitro (increases of cell apoptotic rate, cytosolic cytochrome c, and caspase 3 activity) and in vivo (increases of |terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positive cells, cleaved caspase 3, Bax upregulation and Bcl-2 downregulation). Furthermore, DEX treatment markedly attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by downregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species in vitro and lipid peroxides in serum. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that DEX ameliorates LPS-induced ALI by reducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27959438

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents oxidative phosphorylation deficit and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in human cells from subjects with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Rossi, Leonardo; de Bari, Lidia; Scala, Iris; Granese, Barbara; Papa, Sergio; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2013-04-01

    A critical role for mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenesis of Down's syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, associated with mental retardation and early neurodegeneration. Previous studies from our group demonstrated in DS cells a decreased capacity of the mitochondrial ATP production system and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. In this study we have tested the potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) - a natural polyphenol component of green tea - to counteract the mitochondrial energy deficit found in DS cells. We found that EGCG, incubated with cultured lymphoblasts and fibroblasts from DS subjects, rescued mitochondrial complex I and ATP synthase catalytic activities, restored oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and counteracted oxidative stress. These effects were associated with EGCG-induced promotion of PKA activity, related to increased cellular levels of cAMP and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NDUFS4 subunit of complex I. In addition, EGCG strongly promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, as associated with increase in Sirt1-dependent PGC-1α deacetylation, NRF-1 and T-FAM protein levels and mitochondrial DNA content. In conclusion, this study shows that EGCG is a promoting effector of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, acting through modulation of the cAMP/PKA- and sirtuin-dependent pathways. EGCG treatment promises thus to be a therapeutic approach to counteract mitochondrial energy deficit and oxidative stress in DS.

  20. Impaired enzymatic defensive activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and proteasome activation are involved in RTT cell oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Sticozzi, Claudia; Romani, Arianna; Belmonte, Giuseppe; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Cervellati, Franco; Milanese, Chiara; Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Savelli, Vinno; Forman, Henry J; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    A strong correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females in the 95% of the cases, has been well documented although the source of OS and the effect of a redox imbalance in this pathology has not been yet investigated. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have demonstrated in RTT cells high levels of H2O2 and HNE protein adducts. These findings correlated with the constitutive activation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) and that was prevented by a NOX inhibitor and iron chelator pre-treatment, showing its direct involvement. In parallel, we demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, altered mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired proteasome activity in RTT samples. Further, we found that the key cellular defensive enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductases activities were also significantly lower in RTT. Taken all together, our findings suggest that the systemic OS levels in RTT can be a consequence of both: increased endogenous oxidants as well as altered mitochondrial biogenesis with a decreased activity of defensive enzymes that leads to posttranslational oxidant protein modification and a proteasome activity impairment.

  1. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies: Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    d'Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver), neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) along with the occurrence of oxidative stress (OS) have been investigated within the pathogenesis of individual disorders or in groups of interrelated disorders. We attempt to review broad-ranging pathologies that involve mitochondrial-specific deficiencies or rely on cytosol-derived prooxidant states or on autoimmune-induced mitochondrial damage. The established knowledge in these subjects warrants studies aimed at elucidating several open questions that are highlighted in the present review. The relevance of OS and MDF in different pathologies may establish the grounds for chemoprevention trials aimed at compensating OS/MDF by means of antioxidants and mitochondrial nutrients. PMID:24876913

  2. Regulation of mitochondrial function and endoplasmic reticulum stress by nitric oxide in pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Terron-Bautista, José; Beltrán-Povea, Amparo; Cahuana, Gladys M; Soria, Bernat; Nabil, Hajji; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are global processes that are interrelated and regulated by several stress factors. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional biomolecule with many varieties of physiological and pathological functions, such as the regulation of cytochrome c inhibition and activation of the immune response, ERS and DNA damage; these actions are dose-dependent. It has been reported that in embryonic stem cells, NO has a dual role, controlling differentiation, survival and pluripotency, but the molecular mechanisms by which it modulates these functions are not yet known. Low levels of NO maintain pluripotency and induce mitochondrial biogenesis. It is well established that NO disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain and causes changes in mitochondrial Ca2+ flux that induce ERS. Thus, at high concentrations, NO becomes a potential differentiation agent due to the relationship between ERS and the unfolded protein response in many differentiated cell lines. Nevertheless, many studies have demonstrated the need for physiological levels of NO for a proper ERS response. In this review, we stress the importance of the relationships between NO levels, ERS and mitochondrial dysfunction that control stem cell fate as a new approach to possible cell therapy strategies. PMID:28289506

  3. Mitochondrial ATP synthases cluster as discrete domains that reorganize with the cellular demand for oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Laure; Laporte, Damien; Duvezin-Caubet, Stephane; Courtout, Fabien; Sagot, Isabelle

    2014-02-15

    Mitochondria are double membrane-bounded organelles that form a dynamic tubular network. Mitochondria energetic functions depend on a complex internal architecture. Cristae, inner membrane invaginations that fold into the matrix space, are proposed to be the site of oxidative phosphorylation, reactions by which ATP synthase produces ATP. ATP synthase is also thought to have a role in crista morphogenesis. To date, the exploration of the processes regulating mitochondrial internal compartmentalization have been mostly limited to electron microscopy. Here, we describe ATP synthase localization in living yeast cells and show that it clusters as discrete inner membrane domains. These domains are dynamic within the mitochondrial network. They are impaired in mutants defective in crista morphology and partially overlap with the crista-associated MICOS-MINOS-MITOS complex. Finally, ATP synthase occupancy increases with the cellular demand for OXPHOS. Overall our data suggest that domains in which ATP synthases are clustered correspond to mitochondrial cristae. Being able to follow mitochondrial sub-compartments in living yeast cells opens new avenues to explore the mechanisms involved in inner membrane remodeling, an architectural feature crucial for mitochondrial activities.

  4. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Kayo; Hartman, Philip S.; Ishii, Takamasa; Suda, Hitoshi; Akatsuka, Akira; Shoyama, Tetsuji; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  5. Does the oxidative stress theory of aging explain longevity differences in birds? I. Mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates are reported to be inversely related to maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) in mammals and also to be higher in short-living mammals compared to short-living birds. The mammal-bird comparison, however, is mainly based on studies of rats and pigeons. To date, there has been no systematic examination of ROS production in birds that differ in MLSP. Here we report a comparison of mitochondrial ROS production in two short-living (quails) and three long-living bird species (parrots) that exhibit, on average, a 5-fold longevity difference. Mitochondrial ROS production was determined both in isolated mitochondria (heart, skeletal muscle and liver) as traditionally done and also in intact erythrocytes. In all four tissues, mitochondrial ROS production was similar in quails and parrots and showed no correspondence with known longevity differences. The lack of a consistent difference between quails and parrots was not due to differences in mitochondrial content as ROS production in relation to oxygen consumption (determined as the free radical leak) showed a similar pattern. These findings cast doubt on the robustness of the oxidative stress theory of aging.

  6. Organization of the human mitochondrial hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Libiad, Marouane; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Vitvitsky, Victor; Martinov, Michael; Banerjee, Ruma

    2014-11-07

    Sulfide oxidation is expected to play an important role in cellular switching between low steady-state intracellular hydrogen sulfide levels and the higher concentrations where the physiological effects are elicited. Yet despite its significance, fundamental questions regarding how the sulfide oxidation pathway is wired remain unanswered, and competing proposals exist that diverge at the very first step catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). We demonstrate that, in addition to sulfite, glutathione functions as a persulfide acceptor for human SQR and that rhodanese preferentially synthesizes rather than utilizes thiosulfate. The kinetic behavior of these enzymes provides compelling evidence for the flow of sulfide via SQR to glutathione persulfide, which is then partitioned to thiosulfate or sulfite. Kinetic simulations at physiologically relevant metabolite concentrations provide additional support for the organizational logic of the sulfide oxidation pathway in which glutathione persulfide is the first intermediate formed.

  7. Nitrite-nitric oxide control of mitochondrial respiration at the frontier of anoxia.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Abdelilah; Rolletschek, Hardy; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Curien, Gilles; Mostefai, H Ahmed; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Macherel, David

    2008-10-01

    Actively respiring animal and plant tissues experience hypoxia because of mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Controlling oxygen balance is a critical issue that involves in mammals hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediated transcriptional regulation, cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunit adjustment and nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator in vasodilatation and oxygen homeostasis. In plants, NO, mainly derived from nitrite, is also an important signalling molecule. We describe here a mechanism by which mitochondrial respiration is adjusted to prevent a tissue to reach anoxia. During pea seed germination, the internal atmosphere was strongly hypoxic due to very active mitochondrial respiration. There was no sign of fermentation, suggesting a down-regulation of O(2) consumption near anoxia. Mitochondria were found to finely regulate their surrounding O(2) level through a nitrite-dependent NO production, which was ascertained using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping of NO within membranes. At low O(2), nitrite is reduced into NO, likely at complex III, and in turn reversibly inhibits COX, provoking a rise to a higher steady state level of oxygen. Since NO can be re-oxidized into nitrite chemically or by COX, a nitrite-NO pool is maintained, preventing mitochondrial anoxia. Such an evolutionarily conserved mechanism should have an important role for oxygen homeostasis in tissues undergoing hypoxia.

  8. Mitochondrial fat oxidation is essential for lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jaycob D; Bermudez, Estrellita M; Mendoza, Tamra M; Ghosh, Sujoy; Zhang, Jingying; Elks, Carrie M; Mynatt, Randall; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa

    2016-11-28

    Inflammation, lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, how these factors are intertwined in the development of obesity/insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of mitochondrial fat oxidation on lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle. We used skeletal muscle-specific Cpt1b knockout mouse model where the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation results in accumulation of lipid metabolites in muscle and elevated circulating free fatty acids. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine- and members of TLR-signalling pathways were decreased in Cpt1b(m-/-) muscle. Inflammatory signalling pathways were not activated when evaluated by multiplex and immunoblot analysis. In addition, the inflammatory response to fatty acids was reduced in primary muscle cells derived from Cpt1b(m-/-) mice. Gene expression of Cd11c, the M1 macrophage marker, was decreased; while Cd206, the M2 macrophage marker, was increased in skeletal muscle of Cpt1b(m-/-) mice. Finally, expression of pro-inflammatory markers was decreased in white adipose tissue of Cpt1b(m-/-) mice. We show that the inflammatory response elicited by elevated intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle is repressed in Cpt1b(m-/-) mice, strongly supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial processing of fatty acids is essential for the lipid-induction of inflammation in muscle.

  9. Mitochondrial fat oxidation is essential for lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle in mice

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jaycob D.; Bermudez, Estrellita M.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Zhang, Jingying; Elks, Carrie M.; Mynatt, Randall; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, lipotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, how these factors are intertwined in the development of obesity/insulin resistance remains unclear. Here, we examine the role of mitochondrial fat oxidation on lipid-induced inflammation in skeletal muscle. We used skeletal muscle-specific Cpt1b knockout mouse model where the inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation results in accumulation of lipid metabolites in muscle and elevated circulating free fatty acids. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine- and members of TLR-signalling pathways were decreased in Cpt1bm−/− muscle. Inflammatory signalling pathways were not activated when evaluated by multiplex and immunoblot analysis. In addition, the inflammatory response to fatty acids was reduced in primary muscle cells derived from Cpt1bm−/− mice. Gene expression of Cd11c, the M1 macrophage marker, was decreased; while Cd206, the M2 macrophage marker, was increased in skeletal muscle of Cpt1bm−/− mice. Finally, expression of pro-inflammatory markers was decreased in white adipose tissue of Cpt1bm−/− mice. We show that the inflammatory response elicited by elevated intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle is repressed in Cpt1bm−/− mice, strongly supporting the hypothesis that mitochondrial processing of fatty acids is essential for the lipid-induction of inflammation in muscle. PMID:27892502

  10. Protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial thioredoxin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yan; Yu Min; Jones, Dean P.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Cai Jiyang . E-mail: jiyang.cai@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-10-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays important roles in aging and age-related degenerative disorders. The newly identified mitochondrial thioredoxin (mtTrx; Trx2) is a key component of the mitochondrial antioxidant system which is responsible for the clearance of reactive intermediates and repairs proteins with oxidative damage. Here, we show that in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma 1cells, overexpression of mtTrx inhibited apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by a chemical oxidant, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH). The effects of calcium ionophore (Br-A23187) were not affected by mtTrx, suggesting the protection was specific against oxidative injury. The mitochondrial glutathione pool was oxidized by tBH, and this oxidation was not inhibited by increased mtTrx. Consequently, the antioxidant function of mtTrx is not redundant, but rather in addition, to that of GSH. Mutations of Cys90 and Cys93 to serines rendered mtTrx ineffective in protection against tBH-induced cytoxicity. These data indicate that mtTrx controls the mitochondrial redox status independently of GSH and is a key component of the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in cultured neuronal cells.

  11. [Malate oxidation by mitochondrial succinate:ubiquinone-reductase].

    PubMed

    Belikova, Iu O; Kotliar, A B

    1988-04-01

    Succinate:ubiquinone reductase was shown to catalyze the oxidation of L- and D-stereoisomers of malate by artificial electron acceptors and ubiquinone. The rate of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase is by two orders of magnitude lower than that for the natural substrate--succinate. The values of kinetic constants for the oxidation of D- and L-stereoisomers of malate are equal to: V infinity = 0.1 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM and V infinity = 0.05 mumol/min/mg protein, Km = 2 mM, respectively. The malate dehydrogenase activity is fully inhibited by the inhibitors of the dicarboxylate-binding site of the enzyme, i.e., N-ethylmaleimide and malonate and is practically insensitive to carboxin, a specific inhibitor of the ubiquinone-binding center. The enol form of oxaloacetate was shown to be the product of malate oxidation by succinate:ubiquinone reductase. The kinetics of inhibition of the enzyme activity by the ketone and enol forms of oxaloacetate was studied. Both forms of oxaloacetate effectively inhibit the succinate:ubiquinone reductase reaction.

  12. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  13. Excitotoxic mitochondrial depolarisation requires both calcium and nitric oxide in rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Keelan, Julie; Vergun, Olga; Duchen, Michael R

    1999-01-01

    Glutamate neurotoxicity has been attributed to cellular Ca2+ overload. As mitochondrial depolarisation may represent a pivotal step in the progression to cell death, we have used digital imaging techniques to examine the relationship between cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) and mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) during glutamate toxicity, and to define the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction. In cells of > 11 days in vitro (DIV), exposure to 50 mM potassium or 100 μM glutamate had different consequences for ΔΨm. KCl caused a small transient loss of ΔΨm but in response to glutamate there was a profound loss of ΔΨm. In cells of 7–10 DIV, glutamate caused only a modest and reversible drop in ΔΨm. Using fura-2 to measure [Ca2+]c, responses to KCl and glutamate did not appear significantly different. However, use of the low affinity indicator fura-2FF revealed a difference in the [Ca2+]c responses to KCl and glutamate, which clearly correlated with the loss of ΔΨm. Neurons exhibiting a profound mitochondrial depolarisation also showed a large secondary increase in the fura-2FF ratio. The glutamate-induced loss of ΔΨm was dependent on Ca2+ influx. However, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by L-NAME significantly attenuated the loss of ΔΨm. Furthermore, photolysis of caged NO at levels that had no effect alone promoted a profound mitochondrial depolarisation when combined with high [Ca2+]c, either in response to KCl or to glutamate in cultures at 7–10 DIV. In cells that showed only modest mitochondrial responses to glutamate, induction of a mitochondrial depolarisation by the addition of NO was followed by a secondary rise in [Ca2+]c. These data suggest that [Ca2+]c and nitric oxide act synergistically to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired [Ca2+]c homeostasis during glutamate toxicity. PMID:10545145

  14. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xubu; Li, Maoquan; Chen, Yang; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Guangbin; Zhong, Min

    2010-01-22

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative stress may be involved in the adverse effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the brain. Because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects are closely associated with various nervous system diseases and mtDNA is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiofrequency radiation can cause oxidative damage to mtDNA. In this study, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to pulsed RF electromagnetic fields at a frequency of 1800 MHz modulated by 217 Hz at an average special absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg. At 24 h after exposure, we found that RF radiation induced a significant increase in the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG), a common biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the mitochondria of neurons. Concomitant with this finding, the copy number of mtDNA and the levels of mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) transcripts showed an obvious reduction after RF exposure. Each of these mtDNA disturbances could be reversed by pretreatment with melatonin, which is known to be an efficient antioxidant in the brain. Together, these results suggested that 1800 MHz RF radiation could cause oxidative damage to mtDNA in primary cultured neurons. Oxidative damage to mtDNA may account for the neurotoxicity of RF radiation in the brain.

  15. The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial function, attenuates oxidative damage, and increases white matter sparing in the contused spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; McEwen, Melanie L; Nottingham, Stephanie A; Maragos, William F; Dragicevic, Natasha B; Sullivan, Patrick G; Springer, Joe E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective efficacy of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in rats following a mild to moderate spinal cord contusion injury. Animals received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mg/mL of DNP prior to injury. Twenty-four hours following surgery, mitochondrial function was assessed in mitochondria isolated from spinal cord synaptosomes. In addition, synaptosomes were used to measure indicators of reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. Relative to vehicle-treated animals, pretreatment with DNP maintained mitochondrial bioenergetics and significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl content following spinal cord injury. Furthermore, pretreatment with DNP significantly increased the amount of remaining white matter at the injury epicenter 6 weeks after injury. These results indicate that treatment with mitochondrial uncoupling agents may provide a novel approach for the treatment of secondary injury following spinal cord contusion.

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis reflects increased molybdenum intake in caprine.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yu; Liu, Ping; Wang, Liqi; Luo, Junrong; Zhang, Caiying; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-03-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for animals and humans. However, the high dietary intake of Mo leads to disease conditions in heavy metal pollution areas. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of high levels of Mo on the apoptosis of hepatocyte in goats has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present in vivo study was to investigate the impact of Mo on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis genes in the liver using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thirty-six healthy goats were randomly divided into three groups: two groups treated with ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6·Mo7O24·H2O] at 15 and 45 mg Mo kg(-1) BW, respectively, and a control group without treatment. Liver samples were collected from individual goats at different time intervals. The levels of oxidative stress in the mitochondrial membrane and expression of liver-related apoptosis genes, including Bcl-2, Cyt c, caspase-3, and Smac, were examined. The results demonstrated that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) expression were significantly down-regulated in liver cells, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) expression was up-regulated (P < 0.01). The expression of Smac, Cyt c, and caspase-3 was significantly up-regulated, whereas Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated in liver cells (P < 0.01). In addition, histopathological examination revealed varying degrees of vacuolization, irregularity, nuclear fission, and mitochondrial swelling and high-density electrons in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in groups treated with 15 and 45 mg Mo kg(-1) BW. Thus, these results suggested that high molybdenum induced hepatocyte apoptosis and might involve a mitochondrial pathway.

  17. p-Bromophenacyl bromide prevents cumene hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition by inhibiting pyridine nucleotide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, A; Gogvadze, G; Gogvadze, V

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition is commonly characterized as a Ca2+ -dependent non-specific increase in inner membrane permeability that results in swelling of mitochondria and their de-energization. In the present study, the effect of different inhibitors of phospholipase A2--p-bromophenacyl bromide, dibucaine, and aristolochic acid--on hydroperoxide-induced permeability transitions in rat liver mitochondria was tested. p-Bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented the hydroperoxide-induced mitochondrial permeability transition while the effects of dibucaine or aristolochic acid were negligible. Organic hydroperoxides added to mitochondria undergo reduction to corresponding alcohols by mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase. This reduction occurs at the expense of GSH which, in turn, can be reduced by glutathione reductase via oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. The latter is considered a prerequisite step for mitochondrial permeability transition. Among all the inhibitors tested, only p-bromophenacyl bromide completely prevented hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. Interestingly, p-bromophenacyl bromide had no affect on mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, but reacted with mitochondrial glutathione that prevented pyridine nucleotides from being oxidized. Our data suggest that p-bromophenacyl bromide prevents hydroperoxide-induced deterioration of mitochondria via interaction with glutathione rather than through inhibition of phospholipase A2.

  18. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michaela; Hotter, Georgina; Viñas, Jose Luis; Sola, Anna

    2009-01-15

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process.

  19. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Michaela; Sola, Anna

    2009-01-15

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process.

  20. Antioxidant properties of Neu2000 on mitochondrial free radicals and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; McEwen, Melanie L; Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Springer, Joe E

    2013-03-01

    Neu2000 [2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4 trifluoromethylbenzylamino) benzoic acid] is a dual-acting neuroprotective agent that functions both as a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and a free radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigated the scavenging activity of Neu2000 on various classes of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as well as its efficacy for reducing free radicals and oxidative stress/damage induced in spinal cord mitochondrial preparations. Neu2000 exerted scavenging activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and efficiently scavenged peroxynitrite. In the mitochondrial studies, Neu2000 markedly inhibited ROS/RNS and hydrogen peroxide levels following antimycin treatment. In addition, Neu2000 effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals generated by iron(III)-ascorbate, reduced protein carbonyl formation mediated by hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and prevented glutathione oxidation caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, incubation of isolated mitochondria with Neu2000 followed by centrifugation and removal of the supernatant also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. This observation suggests that Neu2000 enters mitochondria to target free radicals or indirectly affects mitochondrial function in a manner that promotes antioxidant activity. The results of the present study demonstrate that Neu2000 possesses potent in vitro antioxidant activity due, most likely, to its active phenoxy group.

  1. Infertility and recurrent miscarriage with complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial oxidative stress in animal models.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takamasa; Yasuda, Kayo; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mitsushita, Junji; Johnson, Thomas E; Hartman, Phil S; Ishii, Naoaki

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with some forms of both male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient knowledge of the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. There are a number of animal models for understanding age-dependent decrease of reproductive ability and diabetic embryopathy, especially abnormal spermatogenesis, oogenesis and embryogenesis with mitochondrial dysfunctions. Several important processes occur in mitochondria, including ATP synthesis, calcium ion storage, induction of apoptosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These events have different effects on the several aspects of reproductive function. Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, developed after studies with the mev-1 mutant of the nematode C. elegans, offer the ability to carefully regulate expression of doxycycline-induced mutated SDHC(V69E) levels and hence modulate endogenous oxidative stress. The mev-1 models have served to illuminate the effects of complex II deficiency-dependent mitochondrial ROS production, although interestingly they maintain normal mitochondrial and intracellular ATP levels. In this review, the reproductive dysfunctions are presented focusing on fertility potentials in each gamete, early embryogenesis, maternal conditions with placental function and neonatal development.

  2. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  3. Modulation of mitochondrial gene expression in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to oxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Y M; Driscoll, K E; Timblin, C R; Hassenbein, D; Mossman, B T

    1998-01-01

    Oxidants are important in the regulation of signal transduction and gene expression. Multiple classes of genes are transcriptionally activated by oxidants and are implicated in different phenotypic responses. In the present study, we performed differential mRNA display to elucidate genes that are induced or repressed after exposure of rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells to H2O2 or crocidolite asbestos, a pathogenic mineral that generates oxidants. After 8 or 24 hr of exposure, RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers to visualize alterations in gene expression. The seven clones obtained were sequenced and encoded the mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunits ND5 and ND6, and 16S ribosomal RNA. Evaluation of their expression by Northern blot analysis revealed increased expression of 16S rRNA after 1 or 2 hr of exposure to H2O2. At later time periods (4 and 24 hr), mRNA levels of 16S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase were decreased in H2O2-treated RLE cells when compared to sham controls. Crocidolite asbestos caused increases in 16S rRNA levels after 8 hr of exposure, whereas after 24 hr of exposure to asbestos, 16S rRNA levels were decreased in comparison to sham controls. In addition to these oxidants, the nitric oxide generator spermine NONOate caused similar decreases in NADH dehydrogenase mRNA levels after 4 hr of exposure. The present data and previous studies demonstrated that all oxidants examined resulted in apoptosis in RLE cells during the time frame where alterations of mitochondrial gene expression were observed. As the mitochondrion is a major organelle that controls apoptosis, alterations in expression of mitochondrial genes may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9788897

  4. Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiratory activity of human articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maneiro, E; Lopez-Armada, M; de Andres, M C; Carames, B; Martin, M; Bonilla, A; del Hoyo, P; Galdo, F; Arenas, J; Blanco, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial activity and its relation with the apoptosis of human articular chondrocytes. Materials and methods: Mitochondrial function was evaluated by analysing respiratory chain enzyme complexes, citrate synthase (CS) activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). The activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes (complex I: NADH CoQ1 reductase, complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, complex III: ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase, complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase) and CS were measured in human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal cartilage. The Δψm was measured by 5,5',6,6'-tetracholoro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazole carbocyanide iodide (JC-1) using flow cytometry. Apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of caspases was analysed by ribonuclease protection analysis and the detection of protein synthesis by western blotting. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as an NO compound donor. Results: SNP at concentrations higher than 0.5 mmol/l for 24 hours induced cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis. SNP elicited mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7 and down regulated bcl-2 synthesis in a dose and time dependent manner. Furthermore, 0.5 mM SNP induced depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane at 5, 12, and 24 hours. Analysis of the MRC showed that at 5 hours, 0.5 mM SNP reduced the activity of complex IV by 33%. The individual inhibition of mitochondrial complex IV with azide modified the Δψm and induced apoptosis. Conclusions: This study suggests that the effect of NO on chondrocyte survival is mediated by its effect on complex IV of the MRC. PMID:15708893

  5. Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions.

    PubMed

    Denis, Marie-Claude; Desjardins, Yves; Furtos, Alexandra; Marcil, Valérie; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Montoudis, Alain; Garofalo, Carole; Delvin, Edgard; Marette, André; Levy, Emile

    2015-02-01

    Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC®-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor κB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1-α, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells in situ

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Flomenberg, Neal; Birbe, Ruth C; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Howell, Anthony; Pavlides, Stephanos; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Ertel, Adam; Pestell, Richard G; Broda, Paolo; Minetti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new mechanism for explaining energy transfer in cancer metabolism. In this scenario, cancer cells behave as metabolic parasites, by extracting nutrients from normal host cells, such as fibroblasts, via the secretion of hydrogen peroxide as the initial trigger. Oxidative stress in the tumor microenvironment then leads to autophagy-driven catabolism, mitochondrial dys-function and aerobic glycolysis. This, in turn, produces high-energy nutrients (such as L-lactate, ketones and glutamine) that drive the anabolic growth of tumor cells, via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. A logical prediction of this new “parasitic” cancer model is that tumor-associated fibroblasts should show evidence of mitochondrial dys-function (mitophagy and aerobic glycolysis). In contrast, epithelial cancer cells should increase their oxidative mitochondrial capacity. To further test this hypothesis, here we subjected frozen sections from human breast tumors to a staining procedure that only detects functional mitochondria. This method detects the in situ enzymatic activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX), also known as Complex IV. Remarkably, cancer cells show an over-abundance of COX activity, while adjacent stromal cells remain essentially negative. Adjacent normal ductal epithelial cells also show little or no COX activity, relative to epithelial cancer cells. Thus, oxidative mitochondrial activity is selectively amplified in cancer cells. Although COX activity staining has never been applied to cancer tissues, it could now be used routinely to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, and to establish negative margins during cancer surgery. Similar results were obtained with NADH activity staining, which measures Complex I activity, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity staining, which measures Complex II activity. COX and NADH activities were blocked by electron transport inhibitors, such as Metformin. This has mechanistic and clinical implications

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Jorge L; Billings, Frederic T; Bojanowski, Matthew T; Gilliam, Laura A; Yu, Chang; Roshanravan, Baback; Roberts, L Jackson; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Ikizler, T Alp; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria abnormalities in skeletal muscle may contribute to frailty and sarcopenia, commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dysfunctional mitochondria are also a major source of oxidative stress and may contribute to cardiovascular disease in CKD We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial structure and function worsens with the severity of CKD Mitochondrial volume density, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, BNIP3, and PGC1α protein expression were evaluated in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from 27 subjects (17 controls and 10 with CKD stage 5 on hemodialysis). We also measured mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma isofurans, and plasma F2-isoprostanes in 208 subjects divided into three groups: non-CKD (eGFR>60 mL/min), CKD stage 3-4 (eGFR 60-15 mL/min), and CKD stage 5 (on hemodialysis). Muscle biopsies from patients with CKD stage 5 revealed lower mitochondrial volume density, lower mtDNA copy number, and higher BNIP3 content than controls. mtDNA copy number in PBMCs was decreased with increasing severity of CKD: non-CKD (6.48, 95% CI 4.49-8.46), CKD stage 3-4 (3.30, 95% CI 0.85-5.75, P = 0.048 vs. non-CKD), and CKD stage 5 (1.93, 95% CI 0.27-3.59, P = 0.001 vs. non-CKD). Isofurans were higher in patients with CKD stage 5 (median 59.21 pg/mL, IQR 41.76-95.36) compared to patients with non-CKD (median 49.95 pg/mL, IQR 27.88-83.46, P = 0.001), whereas F2-isoprostanes did not differ among groups. Severity of CKD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress. Mitochondrial abnormalities, which are common in skeletal muscle from patients with CKD stage 5, may explain the muscle dysfunction associated with frailty and sarcopenia in CKD Further studies are required to evaluate mitochondrial function in vivo in patients with different CKD stages.

  8. Some aspects of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in human atrial tissue during cardiopulmonary by-pass.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Gasparetto, A; Antonelli, M; Bufi, M; De Blasi, R A

    1987-01-01

    Following previous research on the hypoxic cell in human circulatory shock, the present work has investigated some mitochondrial oxidative aspects in atrial biopsies taken during cardiopulmonary by-pass. Cardioplegic solution and hypothermia were administered to 10 patients and the atrial samples were collected before and after aortic clamping. The results show a cellular protective effect of cardioplegia and hypothermia on the electron-transport chain, even if the enzymes with high KmO2 appear to be more sensitive to ischaemia. The results suggest a metabolic injury rather than an oxidative damage due to the induced ischaemia, alterations to fatty-acid beta-oxidation being especially notable. Because of the unchanged oxidative capacities, the oxyradical generation and the peroxidative damage appear to be irrelevant in the ischaemic period and during the course of reperfusion. Further studies are needed to elucidate the metabolic damage and the therapeutic implications due to the induced ischaemia in the myocardial cell during the aortic clamping.

  9. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  10. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress precedes mitochondrially mediated apoptotic death of cultured fetal cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vinitha; Watts, Lora Talley; Maffi, Shivani Kaushal; Chen, Juanjuan; Schenker, Steven; Henderson, George

    2003-11-15

    In utero ethanol exposure elicits apoptotic cell death in the fetal brain, and this may be mediated by oxidative stress. Our studies utilize cultured fetal rat cortical neurons and illustrate that ethanol elicits a rapid onset of oxidative stress, which culminates in mitochondrially mediated apoptotic cell death. Cells exposed to ethanol (2.5 mg/ml) remained attached to their polylysine matrix during a 24-hr exposure, but they exhibited distinct signs of oxidative stress, decreased viability, and apoptosis. Confocal microscopy of live cortical neurons pretreated with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate demonstrated an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within 5 min of ethanol exposure. The levels of ROS further increased by 58% within 1 hr (P <.05) and by 82% within 2 hr (P <.05), accompanied by increases of mitochondrial 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). These early events were followed by decreased trypan blue exclusion of 10% to 32% (P <.05) at the 6- to 24-hr time points, respectively. This culminates in apoptotic death, with increases of Annexin V binding of 43%, 89%, 123%, and 238%, at 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr of ethanol treatment, respectively, as well as DNA fragmentation increases of 50% and 65% by 12 and 24 hr, respectively. Release of cytochrome c by mitochondria increased by 53% at 6 hr of exposure (P <.05), concomitant with activation of caspase 3 (52% at 12 hr, P <.05). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine increased cellular glutathione and prevented apoptosis. These studies provide a time line illustrating that oxidative stress and formation of a proapoptotic lipid peroxidation product, HNE, precede a cascade of mitochondrially mediated events in cultured fetal cortical neurons, culminating in apoptotic death. The prevention of apoptosis by augmentation of glutathione stores also strongly supports a role for oxidative stress in ethanol-mediated apoptotic death of fetal cortical neurons.

  11. Acute exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to paraquat causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2013-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ; 1, 1'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium), an herbicide and model neurotoxicant, is identified to be one of the prime risk factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the Drosophila system, PQ is commonly used to measure acquired resistance against oxidative stress (PQ resistance test). Despite this, under acute PQ exposure, data on the oxidative stress response and associated impact on mitochondria among flies is limited. Accordingly, in this study, we measured markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions among adult male flies (8-10 days old) exposed to varying concentrations of PQ (10, 20, and 40 mM in 5% sucrose solution) employing a conventional filter disc method for 24 h. PQ exposure resulted in significant elevation in the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde: 43% increase: hydroperoxide: 32-39% increase), with concomitant enhancement in reduced glutathione and total thiol levels in cytosol. Higher activity of antioxidant enzymes were also evident along with increased free iron levels. Furthermore, PQ exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation and activity of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). The activity levels of complex I-III, complex II-III, and Mg+2 adinosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were also decreased significantly. A robust diminution in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and moderate decline in the citrate synthase activity suggested a specific effect on citric acid cycle enzymes. Collectively, these data suggest that acute PQ exposure causes significant oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction among flies in vivo. It is suggested that in various experimental settings, while conducting the "PQ resistance stress test" incorporation of selected biochemical end points is likely to enhance the quality of the data.

  12. Impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation in rats under cold-hypoxic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arkadeb; Vats, Praveen; Singh, Vijay K.; Sharma, Yogendra K.; Singh, Som N.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial ß-oxidation of fatty acid provides a major source of energy in mammals. High altitude (HA), characterized by hypobaric hypoxia and low ambient temperatures, causes alteration in metabolic homeostasis. Several studies have depicted that hypoxic exposure in small mammals causes hypothermia due to hypometabolic state. Moreover, cold exposure along with hypoxia reduces hypoxia tolerance in animals. The present study investigated the rate of β-oxidation and key enzymes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), in rats exposed to cold-hypobaric hypoxic environment. Male Sprague Dawley rats (190-220 g) were randomly divided into eight groups ( n = 6 rats in each group): 1 day hypoxia (H1); 7 days hypoxia (H7); 1 day cold (C1); 7 days cold (C7); 1 day cold-hypoxia (CH1); 7 days cold-hypoxia (CH7) exposed; and unexposed control for 1 and 7 days (UC1 and UC7). After exposure, animals were anaesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg body weight) and xylazine (10 mg/kg body weight) intraperitonialy and sacrificed. Mitochondrial CPT-I, HAD, 14C-palmitate oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle and liver, and plasma leptin were measured. Mitochondrial CPT-I was significantly reduced in muscle and liver in CH1 and CH7 as compared to respective controls. HAD activity was significantly reduced in H1 and CH7, and in H1, H7, CH1, and CH7 as compared to unexposed controls in muscle and liver, respectively. A concomitant decrease in 14C-palmitate oxidation was found. Significant reduction in plasma leptin in hypoxia and cold-hypoxia suggested hypometabolic state. It can be concluded that ß-oxidation of fatty acids is reduced in rats exposed to cold-hypoxic environment due to the persisting hypometabolic state in cold-hypoxia exposure.

  13. The development of structure-activity relationships for mitochondrial dysfunction: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Naven, Russell T; Swiss, Rachel; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Will, Yvonne; Greene, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the development of idiosyncratic organ toxicity. An ability to predict mitochondrial dysfunction early in the drug development process enables the deselection of those drug candidates with potential safety liabilities, allowing resources to be focused on those compounds with the highest chance of success to the market. A database of greater than 2000 compounds was analyzed to identify structural and physicochemical features associated with the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (herein defined as an increase in basal respiration). Many toxicophores associated with potent uncoupling activity were identified, and these could be divided into two main mechanistic classes, protonophores and redox cyclers. For the protonophores, potent uncoupling activity was often promoted by high lipophilicity and apparent stabilization of the anionic charge resulting from deprotonation of the protonophore. The potency of redox cyclers did not appear to be prone to variations in lipophilicity. Only 11 toxicophores were of sufficient predictive performance that they could be incorporated into a structural-alert model. Each alert was associated with one of three confidence levels (high, medium, and low) depending upon the lipophilicity-activity profile of the structural class. The final model identified over 68% of those compounds with potent uncoupling activity and with a value for specificity above 99%. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude that although structural alert methodology is useful for identifying toxicophores associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, they are not a replacement for the mitochondrial dysfunction assays in early screening paradigms.

  14. Mitochondrial dependent oxidative stress in cell culture induced by laser radiation at 1265 nm.

    PubMed

    Saenko, Yury V; Glushchenko, Eugenia S; Zolotovskii, Igor O; Sholokhov, Evgeny; Kurkov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is the main technique applied for surface carcinoma treatment. This technique employs singlet oxygen generated via a laser excited photosensitizer as a main damaging agent. However, prolonged sensitivity to intensive light, relatively low tissue penetration by activating light the cost of photosensitizer (PS) administration can limit photodynamic therapy applications. Early was reported singlet oxygen generation without photosensitizer induced by a laser irradiation at the wavelength of 1250-1270 nm. Here, we study the dynamics of oxidative stress, DNA damage, changes of mitochondrial potential, and mitochondrial mass induced by a laser at 1265 nm have been studied in HCT-116 and CHO-K cells. Laser irradiation of HCT-116 and CHO-K cells has induced a dose-dependent cell death via increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, increase of DNA damage, decrease of mitochondrial potential, and reduced glutathione. It has been shown that, along with singlet oxygen generation, the increase of the intracellular ROS concentration induced by mitochondrial damage contributes to the damaging effect of the laser irradiation at 1265 nm.

  15. Integrative Approaches for Studying Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genome Co-evolution in Oxidative Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Sunnucks, Paul; Morales, Hernán E.; Lamb, Annika M.; Pavlova, Alexandra; Greening, Chris

    2017-01-01

    In animals, interactions among gene products of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (mitonuclear interactions) are of profound fitness, evolutionary, and ecological significance. Most fundamentally, the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes responsible for cellular bioenergetics are formed by the direct interactions of 13 mitochondrial-encoded and ∼80 nuclear-encoded protein subunits in most animals. It is expected that organisms will develop genomic architecture that facilitates co-adaptation of these mitonuclear interactions and enhances biochemical efficiency of OXPHOS complexes. In this perspective, we present principles and approaches to understanding the co-evolution of these interactions, with a novel focus on how genomic architecture might facilitate it. We advocate that recent interdisciplinary advances assist in the consolidation of links between genotype and phenotype. For example, advances in genomics allow us to unravel signatures of selection in mitochondrial and nuclear OXPHOS genes at population-relevant scales, while newly published complete atomic-resolution structures of the OXPHOS machinery enable more robust predictions of how these genes interact epistatically and co-evolutionarily. We use three case studies to show how integrative approaches have improved the understanding of mitonuclear interactions in OXPHOS, namely those driving high-altitude adaptation in bar-headed geese, allopatric population divergence in Tigriopus californicus copepods, and the genome architecture of nuclear genes coding for mitochondrial functions in the eastern yellow robin. PMID:28316610

  16. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial and proteostasis malfunction in adrenoleukodystrophy: A paradigm for axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Stéphane; Ferrer, Isidre; Pujol, Aurora

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisomal and mitochondrial malfunction, which are highly intertwined through redox regulation, in combination with defective proteostasis, are hallmarks of the most prevalent multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases-including Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)-and of the aging process, and are also found in inherited conditions. Here we review the interplay between oxidative stress and axonal degeneration, taking as groundwork recent findings on pathomechanisms of the peroxisomal neurometabolic disease adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). We explore the impact of chronic redox imbalance caused by the excess of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) on mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis, and discuss how this impairs protein quality control mechanisms essential for neural cell survival, such as the proteasome and autophagy systems. As consequence, prime molecular targets in the pathogenetic cascade emerge, such as the SIRT1/PGC-1α axis of mitochondrial biogenesis, and the inhibitor of autophagy mTOR. Thus, we propose that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants; mitochondrial biogenesis boosters such as the antidiabetic pioglitazone and the SIRT1 ligand resveratrol; and the autophagy activator temsirolimus, a derivative of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, hold promise as disease-modifying therapies for X-ALD.

  17. Nitric oxide-mediated mitochondrial damage in the brain: mechanisms and implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, J P; Almeida, A; Stewart, V; Peuchen, S; Land, J M; Clark, J B; Heales, S J

    1997-06-01

    Within the CNS and under normal conditions, nitric oxide (.NO) appears to be an important physiological signalling molecule. Its ability to increase cyclic GMP concentration suggests that .NO is implicated in the regulation of important metabolic pathways in the brain. Under certain circumstances .NO synthesis may be excessive and .NO may become neurotoxic. Excessive glutamate-receptor stimulation may lead to neuronal death through a mechanism implicating synthesis of both .NO and superoxide (O2.-) and hence peroxynitrite (ONOO-) formation. In response to lipopolysaccharide and cytokines, glial cells may also be induced to synthesize large amounts of .NO, which may be deleterious to the neighbouring neurones and oligodendrocytes. The precise mechanism of .NO neurotoxicity is not fully understood. One possibility is that it may involve neuronal energy deficiency. This may occur by ONOO- interfering with key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, mitochondrial calcium metabolism, or DNA damage with subsequent activation of the energy-consuming pathway involving poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase. Possible mechanisms whereby ONOO- impairs the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the relevance for neurotoxicity are discussed. The intracellular content of reduced glutathione also appears important in determining the sensitivity of cells to ONOO- production. It is concluded that neurotoxicity elicited by excessive .NO production may be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction leading to an energy deficiency state.

  18. Stat3 promotes mitochondrial transcription and oxidative respiration during maintenance and induction of naive pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Elena; Betto, Riccardo M; Soriano, Maria E; Smith, Austin G; Martello, Graziano

    2016-03-15

    Transcription factor Stat3 directs self-renewal of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells downstream of the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Stat3 upregulates pivotal transcription factors in the ES cell gene regulatory network to sustain naïve identity. Stat3 also contributes to the rapid proliferation of ES cells. Here, we show that Stat3 increases the expression of mitochondrial-encoded transcripts and enhances oxidative metabolism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that Stat3 binds to the mitochondrial genome, consistent with direct transcriptional regulation. An engineered form of Stat3 that localizes predominantly to mitochondria is sufficient to support enhanced proliferation of ES cells, but not to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Furthermore, during reprogramming from primed to naïve states of pluripotency, Stat3 similarly upregulates mitochondrial transcripts and facilitates metabolic resetting. These findings suggest that the potent stimulation of naïve pluripotency by LIF/Stat3 is attributable to parallel and synergistic induction of both mitochondrial respiration and nuclear transcription factors.

  19. Prolonged exposure to insulin induces mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress through increasing mitochondrial cholesterol content in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Shuang; Gu, Haihua; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Huailan; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2012-05-01

    We addressed the link between excessive exposure to insulin and mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress in this study and found that prolonged exposure to insulin increased mitochondrial cholesterol in cultured hepatocytes and in mice and stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased the reduced glutathione to glutathione disulfide ratio in cultured hepatocytes. Exposure of isolated hepatic mitochondria to cholesterol alone promoted ROS emission. The oxidative stress induced by the prolonged exposure to insulin was prevented by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin. We further found that prolonged exposure to insulin decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the increased ROS production came from mitochondrial respiration complex I. Finally, we observed that prolonged exposure to insulin decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity in a cholesterol synthesis-dependent manner. Together our results demonstrate that excess exposure to insulin causes mitochondrion-derived oxidative stress through cholesterol synthesis in hepatocytes.

  20. High concentrations of stavudine impair fatty acid oxidation without depleting mitochondrial DNA in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Igoudjil, Anissa; Massart, Julie; Begriche, Karima; Descatoire, Véronique; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    The antiretroviral nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) stavudine (d4T) can induce mild to severe liver injuries such as steatosis (i.e. triglyceride accumulation), steatohepatitis and liver failure. NRTI-induced toxicity has been ascribed to the inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication causing mtDNA depletion and respiratory chain dysfunction. This can secondarily impair the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), thus leading to lactic acidosis and hepatic steatosis. However, NRTIs could also impair mitochondrial function and induce hepatic steatosis through other mechanisms. In this study, we sought to determine whether d4T could inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation through a mtDNA-independent mechanism. Since human tumoral and non-tumoral hepatic cell lines were unable to efficiently oxidize palmitic acid, the effects of d4T on mitochondrial FAO were assessed on cultured rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that 750 microM of d4T significantly inhibited palmitic acid oxidation after 48 or 72 h of culture, without inducing cell death. Importantly, high concentrations of zidovudine and zalcitabine (two other NRTIs that can induce hepatic steatosis), or beta-aminoisobutyric acid (a d4T metabolite), did not impair FAO in rat hepatocytes. D4T-induced FAO inhibition was observed without mtDNA depletion and lactate production, and was fully prevented with l-carnitine or clofibrate coincubation. l-carnitine also prevented the accretion of neutral lipids within rat hepatocytes. High concentrations of d4T were unable to inhibit FAO on freshly isolated liver mitochondria. Moreover, a microarray analysis was performed to clarify the mechanism whereby d4T can inhibit mitochondrial FAO and induce triglyceride accumulation in rat hepatocytes. The microarray data, confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, showed that d4T increased the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP1c

  1. Biochemical properties of rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase with respect to oxidation of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D L; Keyes, S R; Lemelin, M A; Denk, H; Schenkman, J B

    1976-03-25

    The oxidation of formaldehyde by rat liver mitochondria in the presence of 50 mM phosphate was enhanced 2-fold by exogenous NAD+. Absolute requirement of NAD+ for formaldehyde oxidation was demonstrated by depleting the mitochondria of their NAD+ content (4.6 nmol/mg of protein), followed by reincorporation of the NAD+ into the depleted mitochondria. Aldehyde (formaldehyde) dehydrogenase activity was completely abolished in the depleted mitochondria, but the enzyme activity was restored to control levels following reincorporation of the pyridine nucleotide. Phosphate stimulation of formaldehyde oxidation could not be explained fully by the phosphate-induced swelling which enhances membrane permeability to NAD+, since stimulation of the enzyme activity by increased phosphate concentrations was still observed in the absence of exogenous NAD+. The Km for formaldehyde oxidation by the mitochondria was found to be 0.38 nM, a value similar to that obtained with varying concentrations of NAD+; both Vmax values were very similar, giving a value of 70 to 80 nmol/min/mg of protein. The pH optimum for the mitochondrial enzyme was 8.0. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by anaerobiosis was apparently due to the inability of the respiratory chain to oxidize the generated NADH. The inhibition of mitochondrial formaldehyde oxidation by succinate was found to be due to a lowering of the NAD+ level in the mitochondria. Succinate also inhibited acetaldehyde oxidation by the mitochondria. Malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinic dehydrogenase, blocked the inhibitory effect of succinate. The respiratory chain inhibitors, rotenone, and antimycin A plus succinate, strongly inhibited formaldehyde oxidation by apparently the same mechanism, although the crude enzyme preparation (freed from the membrane) was slightly sensitive to rotenone. The mitochondria were subfractionated, and 85% of the enzyme activity was found in the inner membrane fraction (mitoplast). Furthermore, separation

  2. Long-Term Exposure to AZT, but not d4T, Increases Endothelial Cell Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Erik R.; Bassit, Leda; Hernandez-Santiago, Brenda I.; Detorio, Mervi A.; Liang, Bill; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Walp, Erik R.; Dikalov, Sergey; Jones, Dean P.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T), cause toxicities to numerous tissues, including the liver and vasculature. While much is known about hepatic NRTI toxicity, the mechanism of toxicity in endothelial cells is incompletely understood. Human aortic endothelial and HepG2 liver cells were exposed to 1 μM AZT or d4T for up to 5 weeks. Markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, NRTI phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, and cytotoxicity were monitored over time. In endothelial cells, AZT significantly oxidized glutathione redox potential, increased total cellular and mitochondrial-specific superoxide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased lactate release, and caused cell death from weeks 3 through 5. Toxicity occurred in the absence of di- and tri-phosphorylated AZT and mtDNA depletion. These data show that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells occur with a physiologically relevant concentration of AZT, and require long-term exposure to develop. In contrast, d4T did not induce endothelial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or cytotoxicity despite the presence of d4T-triphosphate. Both drugs depleted mtDNA in HepG2 cells without causing cell death. Endothelial cells are more susceptible to AZT-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells, and AZT caused greater endothelial dysfunction than d4T because of its pro-oxidative effects. PMID:19067249

  3. Oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial function in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Martínez-Romero, Esaú César; Miller-Arrevillaga, Guillermo; Villa-Hernández, David; Hernández-Godínez, Pedro Pablo; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín Paul; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable cause of visual disability. The aims of the present study were to investigate levels and behavior oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial function in non-proliferative DR (NPDR) and to establish the correlation between the severity of NPDR and markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. Methods In a transverse analysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with mild, moderate and severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) were evaluated for markers of oxidative stress (i.e. products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) catabolites) and antioxidant activity (i.e. total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity of erythrocytes). Mitochondrial function was also determined as the fluidity of the submitochondrial particles of platelets and the hydrolytic activity of F0/F1-ATPase. Results Levels of LPO and NO were significantly increased in T2DM patients with severe NPDR (3.19 ± 0.05 μmol/mL and 45.62 ± 1.27 pmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.007 and P < 0.0001 vs levels in health volunteers, respectively), suggesting the presence of oxidative stress. TAC had significant decrease levels with minimum peak in severe retinopathy with 7.98 ± 0.48 mEq/mL (P < 0.0001). In contrast with TAC, erythrocyte catalase and GPx activity was increased in patients with severe NPDR (139.4 ± 4.4 and 117.13 ± 14.84 U/mg, respectively; P < 0.0001 vs healthy volunteers for both), suggesting an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. The fluidity of membrane submitochondrial particles decreased significantly in T2DM patients with mild, moderate, or severe NPDR compared with that in healthy volunteers (P < 0.0001 for all). Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the hydrolytic activity of the F0/F1-ATPase in T2DM patients with mild NPDR (265.07 ± 29.55 nmol/PO4; P < 0.0001 vs healthy volunteers), suggesting

  4. Phylogenomic Evidence for a Myxococcal Contribution to the Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Pujol, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin of eukaryotes remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Although it is clear that eukaryotic genomes are a chimeric combination of genes of eubacterial and archaebacterial ancestry, the specific ancestry of most eubacterial genes is still unknown. The growing availability of microbial genomes offers the possibility of analyzing the ancestry of eukaryotic genomes and testing previous hypotheses on their origins. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have applied a phylogenomic analysis to investigate a possible contribution of the Myxococcales to the first eukaryotes. We conducted a conservative pipeline with homologous sequence searches against a genomic sampling of 40 eukaryotic and 357 prokaryotic genomes. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that several eukaryotic proteins traced to Myxococcales. Most of these proteins were associated with mitochondrial lipid intermediate pathways, particularly enzymes generating reducing equivalents with pivotal roles in fatty acid β-oxidation metabolism. Our data suggest that myxococcal species with the ability to oxidize fatty acids transferred several genes to eubacteria that eventually gave rise to the mitochondrial ancestor. Later, the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic lineage acquired those metabolic genes through endosymbiotic gene transfer. Conclusions/Significance Our results support a prokaryotic origin, different from α-proteobacteria, for several mitochondrial genes. Our data reinforce a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model in which the mitochondrion appears to be an important entry point for myxococcal genes to enter eukaryotes. PMID:21760940

  5. Nickel(II)-induced nasal epithelial toxicity and oxidative mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lim, Soo-Sung; Baek, Byoung Joon; An, Je-Min; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-03-01

    In probing the underlying mechanisms of nickel(II)-induced cytotoxicity on nasal epithelium, we investigated the effects of nickel(II) acetate on nasal epithelial RPMI-2650 cells. Nickel(II) elicited apoptosis, as signified by pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in annexin V binding, hypodiploid DNA, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Nickel(II)-induced G2/M arrest was associated with up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, decrease in phosphorylation at Thr(161) of Cdc2, and down-regulation of cyclin B1. Associated with these responses, ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased in a nickel(II) concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated these changes. p53 reporter gene assay and analyses of p53, Puma, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels indicated that NAC inhibited nickel(II)-induced activation of p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our study provides evidences that nickel(II) may induce oxidative damage on nasal epithelium in which antioxidant NAC protects cells against nickel(II)-induced apoptosis through the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage.

  6. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Robert A.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites. PMID:26976749

  7. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Implications for Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and animal-model studies have revealed several cellular events that are involved in the progression of asthma, including: increased Th2 cytokines leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the activated inflammatory cells, leading to tissue injury in the bronchial epithelium. Further, aging and animal model studies have revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved and play a large role in asthma. Recent studies using experimental allergic asthmatic mouse models and peripheral cells and tissues from asthmatic humans have revealed antioxidants as promising treatments for people with asthma. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the involvement of inflammatory changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress in the development and progression of asthma. This article also addresses the relationship between aging and age-related immunity in triggering asthma, the antioxidant therapeutic strategies in treating people with asthma. PMID:21461182

  8. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Robert A; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-03-15

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites.

  9. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg−1). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress. PMID:27340417

  10. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Melatonin prevents the dynamin-related protein 1-dependent mitochondrial fission and oxidative insult in the cortical neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium treatment.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jih-Ing; Pan, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Huang, Chiu-Ying; Chen, Pei-Chun; Shin, Jyh Wei

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and precisely regulated by the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. Aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation controlled by the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), may result in cell death. Our previous results showed that melatonin protected neurons by inhibiting oxidative stress in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) )-induced PD model. However, the effect of melatonin on mitochondrial dynamics remains uncharacterized. Herein, we investigated the effect of melatonin and the role of Drp1 on MPP(+) -induced mitochondrial fission in rat primary cortical neurons. We found that MPP(+) induced a rapid increase in the ratio of GSSG:total glutathione (a marker of oxidative stress) and mitochondrial fragmentation, Drp1 upregulation within 4 hours, and finally resulted in neuron loss 48 hours after the treatment. Neurons overexpressing wild-type Drp1 promoted mitochondrial and nuclear fragmentation; however, neurons overexpressing dominant-negative Drp1(K38A) or cotreated with melatonin exhibited significantly reduced MPP(+) -induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuron death. Moreover, melatonin cotreatment prevented an MPP(+) -induced high ratio of GSSG and mitochondrial Drp1 upregulation. The prevention of mitochondrial fission by melatonin was not found in neurons transfected with wild-type Drp1. These results provide a new insight that the neuroprotective effect of melatonin against MPP(+) toxicity is mediated by inhibiting the oxidative stress and Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation.

  12. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites Protect Mitochondrial Function in Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leirós, Marta; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alonso, Eva; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Houssen, Wael E.; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat provides a large number of structurally-diverse bioactive compounds for drug development. Marine sponges have been studied over many years and are found to be a rich source of these bioactive chemicals. This study is focused on the evaluation of the activity of six diterpene derivatives isolated from Spongionella sp. on mitochondrial function using an oxidative in vitro stress model. The test compounds include the Gracilins (A, H, K, J and L) and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1. Compounds were co-incubated with hydrogen peroxide for 12 hours to determine their protective capacities and their effect on markers of apoptosis and Nrf2/ARE pathways was evaluated. Results conclude that Gracilins preserve neurons against oxidative damage, and that in particular, tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 shows a complete neuroprotective activity. Oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and consequently to neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, Friedreich ataxia or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This neuroprotection against oxidation conditions suggest that these metabolites could be interesting lead candidates in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24473170

  13. Novel role of FATP1 in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián, David; Guitart, Maria; García-Martínez, Celia; Mauvezin, Caroline; Orellana-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Serra, Dolors; Gómez-Foix, Anna M.; Hegardt, Fausto G.; Asins, Guillermina

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) catalyzes the first step in long-chain fatty acid import into mitochondria, and it is believed to be rate limiting for β-oxidation of fatty acids. However, in muscle, other proteins may collaborate with CPT1. Fatty acid translocase/CD36 (FAT/CD36) may interact with CPT1 and contribute to fatty acid import into mitochondria in muscle. Here, we demonstrate that another membrane-bound fatty acid binding protein, fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), collaborates with CPT1 for fatty acid import into mitochondria. Overexpression of FATP1 using adenovirus in L6E9 myotubes increased both fatty acid oxidation and palmitate esterification into triacylglycerides. Moreover, immunocytochemistry assays in transfected L6E9 myotubes showed that FATP1 was present in mitochondria and coimmunoprecipitated with CPT1 in L6E9 myotubes and rat skeletal muscle in vivo. The cooverexpression of FATP1 and CPT1 also enhanced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, similar to the cooverexpression of FAT/CD36 and CPT1. However, etomoxir, an irreversible inhibitor of CPT1, blocked all these effects. These data reveal that FATP1, like FAT/CD36, is associated with mitochondria and has a role in mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. PMID:19429947

  14. Conservative and compensatory evolution in oxidative phosphorylation complexes of angiosperms with highly divergent rates of mitochondrial genome evolution.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Whitehill, Nicholas S; Snow, Christopher D; Sloan, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    Interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial gene products are critical for eukaryotic cell function. Nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial-targeted proteins (N-mt genes) experience elevated rates of evolution, which has often been interpreted as evidence of nuclear compensation in response to elevated mitochondrial mutation rates. However, N-mt genes may be under relaxed functional constraints, which could also explain observed increases in their evolutionary rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we examined patterns of sequence and structural evolution in nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded oxidative phosphorylation proteins from species in the angiosperm genus Silene with vastly different mitochondrial mutation rates. We found correlated increases in N-mt gene evolution in species with fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. Structural modeling revealed an overrepresentation of N-mt substitutions at positions that directly contact mutated residues in mitochondrial-encoded proteins, despite overall patterns of conservative structural evolution. These findings support the hypothesis that selection for compensatory changes in response to mitochondrial mutations contributes to the elevated rate of evolution in N-mt genes. We discuss these results in light of theories implicating mitochondrial mutation rates and mitonuclear coevolution as drivers of speciation and suggest comparative and experimental approaches that could take advantage of heterogeneity in rates of mtDNA evolution across eukaryotes to evaluate such theories.

  15. Behavioral deficit, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction precede tau pathology in P301S transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Magali; Stack, Cliona; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Jainuddin, Shari; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia N.; Yang, Lichuan; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Beal, Flint

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal tau accumulation can lead to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. P301S mice overexpress the human tau mutated gene, resulting in tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation. Mice also develop synaptic deficits and microglial activation prior to any neurodegeneration and tangles. Oxidative stress can also affect tauopathy. We studied the role of oxidative stress in relationship to behavioral abnormalities and disease progression in P301S mice at 2, 7, and 10 mo of age. At 7 mo of age, P301S mice had behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity and disinhibition. At the same age, we observed increased carbonyls in P301S mitochondria (∼215 and 55% increase, males/females), and deregulation in the activity and content of mitochondrial enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species formation and energy metabolism, such as citrate synthase (∼19 and ∼5% decrease, males/females), MnSOD (∼16% decrease, males only), cytochrome C (∼19% decrease, females only), and cytochrome C oxidase (∼20% increase, females only). These changes in mitochondria proteome appeared before tau hyperphosphorylation and tangle formation, which were observed at 10 mo and were associated with GSK3β activation. At that age, mitochondria proteome deregulation became more apparent in male P301S mitochondria. The data strongly suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities appear prior to tau pathology.—Dumont, M., Stack, C., Elipenahli, C., Jainuddin, S., Gerges, M., Starkova, M. N., Yang, L., Starkov, A. A., Beal, F. Behavioral deficit, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction precede tau pathology in P301S transgenic mice. PMID:21825035

  16. Modulation of mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis by red wine polyphenols via estrogen receptor, NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    PubMed

    Duluc, Lucie; Jacques, Caroline; Soleti, Raffaella; Iacobazzi, Francesco; Simard, Gilles; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2013-04-01

    Red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPC) are reported to exert vasculoprotective properties on endothelial cells, involving nitric oxide (NO) release via a redox-sensitive pathway. This NO release involves the activation of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα). Paradoxical effects of a RWPC treatment occur in a rat model of post-ischemic neovascularization, where a low-dose is pro-angiogenic while a higher dose is anti-angiogenic. NO and ERα are key regulators of mitochondrial capacity, and angiogenesis is a highly energetic process associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. However, whether RWPC induces changes in mitochondrial capacity has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of RWPC at low (10(-4)g/l, LCP) and high concentration (10(-2)g/l, HCP) in human endothelial cells. Mitochondrial respiration, expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content were assessed using oxygraphy and quantitative PCR respectively. In vitro capillary formation using ECM gel(®) was also performed. Treatment with LCP increased mitochondrial respiration, with a maximal effect achieved at 48h. LCP also increased expression of several mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, HCP did not affect these parameters. Furthermore, LCP modulated both mitochondrial capacity and angiogenesis through mechanisms sensitive to ER, NADPH oxidase and NO-synthase inhibitors. Finally, the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis abolished the pro-angiogenic capacity of LCP. These results suggest a possible association between the modulation of mitochondrial capacity by LCP and its pro-angiogenic activity. These data provide evidence for a role of mitochondria in the regulation of angiogenesis by RWPC.

  17. The novel mitochondrial iron chelator 5-((methylamino)methyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline protects against mitochondrial-induced oxidative damage and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Mena, Natalia P; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Lourido, Fernanda; Urrutia, Pamela J; Mena, Raúl; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Cassels, Bruce K; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-08-07

    Abundant evidence indicates that iron accumulation, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and a group of disorders known as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two novel 8-OH-quinoline-based iron chelators, Q1 and Q4, to decrease mitochondrial iron accumulation and oxidative damage in cellular and animal models of PD. We found that at sub-micromolar concentrations, Q1 selectively decreased the mitochondrial iron pool and was extremely effective in protecting against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Q4, in turn, preferentially chelated the cytoplasmic iron pool and presented a decreased capacity to protect against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Oral administration of Q1 to mice protected substantia nigra pars compacta neurons against oxidative damage and MPTP-induced death. Taken together, our results support the concept that oral administration of Q1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NBIA.

  18. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase: mechanism of action and role in regulating oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David F; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2014-12-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation has a central role in eukaryotic metabolism, providing the energy (ATP) required for survival. Regulation of this important pathway is, however, still not understood, largely due to limitations in the ability to measure the essential metabolites, including oxygen (pO2, oxygen pressure), ADP, and AMP. In addition, neither the mechanism of oxygen reduction by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase nor how its rate is controlled is understood, although this enzyme determines the rate of oxygen consumption and thereby the rate of ATP synthesis. Cytochrome c oxidase is responsible for reduction of molecular oxygen to water using reducing equivalents donated by cytochrome c and for site 3 energy coupling in oxidative phosphorylation. A mechanism-based model of the cytochrome c oxidase reaction is presented in which transfer of reducing equivalents from the lower- to the higher-potential region of the coupling site occurs against an opposing energy barrier, Q. The steady-state rate equation is fitted to data for the dependence of mitochondrial respiratory rate on cytochrome c reduction, oxygen pressure (pO2), and [ATP]/[ADP][Pi] at pH 6.5 to 8.35 (where Pi is inorganic phosphate). The fit of the rate expression to the experimental data is very good for all experimental conditions. Levels of the intermediates in oxygen reduction in the oxidase reaction site have been calculated. An intermediate in the reaction, tentatively identified as peroxide, bridged between the iron and copper atoms of the reaction site has a central role in coupling mitochondrial respiration to the [ATP]/[ADP][Pi].

  19. High-intensity interval training increases intrinsic rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in rat red and white skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yuko; Kitaoka, Yu; Hatta, Hideo; Bonen, Arend

    2013-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can increase mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle. However, it is unclear whether HIIT alters the intrinsic capacity of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, or whether such changes are associated with changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation, or with reciprocal changes in the nuclear receptor coactivator (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α)) and the corepressor (receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140)). We examined whether HIIT alters fatty acid oxidation rates in the isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria of red and white skeletal muscle and (or) induces changes in muscle PGC-1α and RIP140 proteins and mitochondrial FAT/CD36 protein content. Rats were divided into untrained or HIIT-trained groups. HIIT animals performed 10 bouts of 1-min high-intensity treadmill running (30-55 m·min(-1)), separated by 2 min of rest, for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. As expected, after the training period, HIIT increased mitochondrial enzymes (citrate synthase, COXIV, and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) in red and white muscle, indicating that muscle mitochondrial volume had increased. HIIT also increased the rates of palmitate oxidation in mitochondria of red (37% for SS and 19% for IMF) and white (36% for SS and 12% for IMF) muscle. No changes occurred in SS and IMF mitochondrial FAT/CD36 proteins, despite increasing FAT/CD36 at the whole-muscle level (27% for red and 22% for white). Concurrently, muscle PGC-1α protein was increased in red (22%) and white (16%) muscle, but RIP140 was not altered. These results indicate that increases in SS and IMF mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation induced by HIIT are accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α, but not RIP140 or FAT/CD36.

  20. Dexmedetomidine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunlai; Dai, Xingui; Yang, You; Lin, Mengxiang; Cai, Yeping; Cai, Shaoxi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have identified that dexmedetomidine (DEX) treatment can ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide and ischemia-reperfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DEX ameliorates lung injury remain unclear. The present study investigated whether DEX, which has been reported to exert effects on oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability transition pores and apoptosis in other disease types, can exert protective effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced ALI by inhibiting oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial‑dependent apoptosis. It was revealed that LPS‑challenged rats exhibited significant lung injury, characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, vascular hyperpermeability, wet‑to‑dry weight ratio and oxygenation index (PaO2/FIO2), which was attenuated by DEX treatment. DEX treatment inhibited LPS‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction, as evidenced by alleviating the cellular ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In addition, DEX treatment markedly prevented the LPS‑induced mitochondrial‑dependent apoptotic pathway in vitro (increases of cell apoptotic rate, cytosolic cytochrome c, and caspase 3 activity) and in vivo (increases of |terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling positive cells, cleaved caspase 3, Bax upregulation and Bcl‑2 downregulation). Furthermore, DEX treatment markedly attenuated LPS‑induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by downregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species in vitro and lipid peroxides in serum. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that DEX ameliorates LPS‑induced ALI by reducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

  1. Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, Douglas R.

    2009-11-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation results in the immediate formation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been assumed that the subsequent injury processes leading to genomic instability and carcinogenesis following radiation, derive from the initial oxidative damage caused by these free radicals and ROS. It is now becoming increasingly obvious that metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions can be altered by irradiation leading to persistent increases in steady-state levels of intracellular free radicals and ROS that contribute to the long term biological effects of radiation exposure by causing chronic oxidative stress. The objective during the last period of support (DE-FG02-05ER64050; 5/15/05-12/31/09) was to determine the involvement of mitochondrial genetic defects in metabolic oxidative stress and the biological effects of low dose/low LET radiation. Aim 1 was to determine if cells with mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits C and D (SDHC and SDHD in mitochondrial complex II) demonstrated increases in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2•- and H2O2) as well as demonstrating increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation (10 cGy) in cultured mammalian cells. Aim #2 was to determine if mitochondrially-derived ROS contributed to increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation in mammalian cells containing mutations in SDH subunits. Aim #3 was to determine if a causal relationship existed between increases in mitochondrial ROS production, alterations in electron transport chain proteins, and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. Evidence gathered in the 2005-2009 period of support demonstrated that mutations in genes coding for mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins (ETC); either Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit C (SDHC) or subunit D (SDHD); caused increased ROS production, increased genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation

  2. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  3. Impaired translocation and activation of mitochondrial Akt1 mitigated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Ying; Deng, Wu; Chen, Yumay; Fan, Weiwei; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Jope, Richard S; Wallace, Douglas C; Wang, Ping H

    2013-06-01

    Insulin can translocate Akt to mitochondria in cardiac muscle. The goals of this study were to define sub-mitochondrial localization of the translocated Akt, to dissect the effects of insulin on Akt isoform translocation, and to determine the direct effect of mitochondrial Akt activation on Complex V activity in normal and diabetic myocardium. The translocated Akt sequentially localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space, inner membrane, and matrix. To confirm Akt translocation, in vitro import assay showed rapid entry of Akt into mitochondria. Akt isoforms were differentially regulated by insulin stimulation, only Akt1 translocated into mitochondria. In the insulin-resistant Type 2 diabetes model, Akt1 translocation was blunted. Mitochondrial activation of Akt1 increased Complex V activity by 24% in normal myocardium in vivo and restored Complex V activity in diabetic myocardium. Basal mitochondrial Complex V activity was lower by 22% in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium. Insulin-stimulated Complex V activity was not impaired in the Akt1(-/-) myocardium, due to compensatory translocation of Akt2 to mitochondria. Akt1 is the primary isoform that relayed insulin signaling to mitochondria and modulated mitochondrial Complex V activity. Activation of mitochondrial Akt1 enhanced ATP production and increased phosphocreatine in cardiac muscle cells. Dysregulation of this signal pathway might impair mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic myocardium.

  4. Iontophoresis with gold nanoparticles improves mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress markers of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Paulo C L; Venâncio, Mirelli; Souza, Priscila S; Victor, Eduardo G; de Souza Notoya, Frederico; Paganini, Carla S; Streck, Emilio L; da Silva, Luciano; Pinho, Ricardo A; Paula, Marcos M S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of microcurrent and gold nanoparticles on oxidative stress parameters and the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the healing of skin wounds. Thirty 60-day old male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups (N=6): Control; Burn wounds; Microcurrent (MIC); Gold nanoparticle gel (GNP gel) and Microcurrent+Gold nanoparticle gel (MIC+GNP gel). The microcurrent treatment was applied for five consecutive days at a dose of 300 μA. The results demonstrate a significant decrease in the activity of complexes I, II-III and IV in the Burn Wounds group compared to the control, and the MIC+GNP gel group was able to reverse this inhibition in complexes I, III and IV. Furthermore, a significant reduction in oxidative damage parameters and a significant increase in the levels of antioxidant defence enzymes were induced in the MIC+GNP gel group compared to the Burn Wounds group. The data strongly indicate that the group receiving treatment with MIC+GNP gel had improved mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress parameters, which contributed to tissue repair.

  5. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p < 0.05) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Levels of NADH, NAD(+), NAD(+)/NADH, and NADH redox in kidneys indicate increased mitochondrial oxidative stress from 8 to 16 weeks in GC-treated mice. These results indicate that altered metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  6. Cerium oxide nanoparticles prevent apoptosis in primary cortical culture by stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Arya, A; Sethy, N K; Das, M; Singh, S K; Das, A; Ujjain, S K; Sharma, R K; Sharma, M; Bhargava, K

    2014-07-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) of spherical shape have unique antioxidant capacity primarily due to alternating + 3 and + 4 oxidation states and crystal defects. Several studies revealed the protective efficacies of CNPs in cells and tissues against the oxidative damage. However, its effect on mitochondrial functioning, downstream effectors of radical burst and apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether CNPs treatment could protect the primary cortical cells from loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and Δψm-dependent cell death. CNPs with spherical morphology and size range 7-10 nm were synthesized and utilized at a concentration of 25 nM on primary neuronal culture challenged with 50 μM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We showed that optimal dose of CNPs minimized ROS content of the cells and also curbed related surge in cellular calcium flux. Importantly, CNPs treatment prevented apoptotic loss of cell viability. Reduction in the apoptosis could be successfully attributed to the maintenance of Δψm and restoration of major redox equivalents NADH/NAD(+) ratio and cellular ATP. These findings, therefore, suggest possible route of CNPs protective efficacies in primary cortical culture.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce strong oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Pérez-Arizti, José Antonio; Márquez-Ramírez, Sandra Gissela; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma Laura; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Iglesias, Gisela Gutiérrez; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2014-08-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the chemical, electrical, and electronic industries. TiO2 NPs can enter directly into the brain through the olfactory bulb and can be deposited in the hippocampus region; therefore, we determined the toxic effect of TiO2 NPs on rat and human glial cells, C6 and U373, respectively. We evaluated some events related to oxidative stress: (1) redox-signaling mechanisms by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; (2) peroxidation of lipids by cis-parinaric acid; (3) antioxidant enzyme expression by PCR in real time; and (4) mitochondrial damage by MitoTracker Green FM staining and Rh123. TiO2 NPs induced a strong oxidative stress in both glial cell lines by mediating changes in the cellular redox state and lipid peroxidation associated with a rise in the expression of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase 2. TiO2 NPs also produced morphological changes, damage of mitochondria, and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating toxicity. TiO2 NPs had a cytotoxic effect on glial cells; however, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to ascertain that exposure to TiO2 NPs can cause brain injury and be hazardous to health.

  8. Sources of superoxide/H2O2 during mitochondrial proline oxidation.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Rothschild, Daniel E; Quinlan, Casey L; Scott, Gary K; Benz, Christopher C; Brand, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    p53 Inducible gene 6 (PIG6) encodes mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and is up-regulated several fold upon p53 activation. Proline dehydrogenase is proposed to generate radicals that contribute to cancer cell apoptosis. However, there are at least 10 mitochondrial sites that can produce superoxide and/or H2O2, and it is unclear whether proline dehydrogenase generates these species directly, or instead drives production by other sites. Amongst six cancer cell lines, ZR75-30 human breast cancer cells had the highest basal proline dehydrogenase levels, and mitochondria isolated from ZR75-30 cells consumed oxygen and produced H2O2 with proline as sole substrate. Insects use proline oxidation to fuel flight, and mitochondria isolated from Drosophila melanogaster were even more active with proline as sole substrate than ZR75-30 mitochondria. Using mitochondria from these two models we identified the sites involved in formation of superoxide/H2O2 during proline oxidation. In mitochondria from Drosophila the main sites were respiratory complexes I and II. In mitochondria from ZR75-30 breast cancer cells the main sites were complex I and the oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Even with combinations of substrates and respiratory chain inhibitors designed to minimize the contributions of other sites and maximize any superoxide/H2O2 production from proline dehydrogenase itself, there was no significant direct contribution of proline dehydrogenase to the observed H2O2 production. Thus proline oxidation by proline dehydrogenase drives superoxide/H2O2 production, but it does so mainly or exclusively by providing anaplerotic carbon for other mitochondrial dehydrogenases and not by producing superoxide/H2O2 directly.

  9. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados-Principal, Sergio; El-Azem, Nuri; Pamplona, Reinald; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Vera-Ramirez, Laura; Quiles, Jose L; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in several processes including cancer, aging and cardiovascular disease, and has been shown to potentiate the therapeutic effect of drugs such as doxorubicin. Doxorubicin causes significant cardiotoxicity characterized by marked increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein, we investigate whether doxorubicin-associated chronic cardiac toxicity can be ameliorated with the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol in rats with breast cancer. Thirty-six rats bearing breast tumors induced chemically were divided into 4 groups: control, hydroxytyrosol (0.5mg/kg, 5days/week), doxorubicin (1mg/kg/week), and doxorubicin plus hydroxytyrosol. Cardiac disturbances at the cellular and mitochondrial level, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and apoptosis-inducing factor, and oxidative stress markers have been analyzed. Hydroxytyrosol improved the cardiac disturbances enhanced by doxorubicin by significantly reducing the percentage of altered mitochondria and oxidative damage. These results suggest that hydroxytyrosol improve the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This study demonstrates that hydroxytyrosol protect rat heart damage provoked by doxorubicin decreasing oxidative damage and mitochondrial alterations.

  10. Enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during methamphetamine induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.-W.; Ping, Y.-H.; Yen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Yeh, C.-L.; Chi, C.-W.; Lee, H.-C. . E-mail: hclee2@ym.edu.tw

    2007-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an abused drug that may cause psychiatric and neurotoxic damage, including degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and apoptosis of non-monoaminergic cells in Brain. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these METH-induced neurotoxic effects remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed a time course assessment to investigate the effects of METH on intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We characterized that METH induces a temporal sequence of several cellular events including, firstly, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within 1 h of the METH treatment, secondly, an extensive decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h of the treatment, thirdly, an increase in mitochondrial mass after the drug treatment for 24 h, and finally, a decrease in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial proteins per mitochondrion as well as the occurrence of apoptosis after 48 h of the treatment. Importantly, vitamin E attenuated the METH-induced increases in intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial mass, and prevented METH-induced cell death. Our observations suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis may play critical roles in METH-induced neurotoxic effects.

  11. Aging-induced alterations in gene transcripts and functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes in the heart.

    PubMed

    Preston, Claudia C; Oberlin, Andrew S; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Gupta, Anu; Sagar, Sandeep; Syed, Rashad H Khazi; Siddiqui, Sabeeh A; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad

    2008-06-01

    Aging is associated with progressive decline in energetic reserves compromising cardiac performance and tolerance to injury. Although deviations in mitochondrial functions have been documented in senescent heart, the molecular bases for the decline in energy metabolism are only partially understood. Here, high-throughput transcription profiles of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins in ventricles from adult (6-months) and aged (24-months) rats were compared using microarrays. Out of 614 genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins, 94 were differentially expressed with 95% downregulated in the aged. The majority of changes affected genes coding for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (39), substrate metabolism (14) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (6). Compared to adult, gene expression changes in aged hearts translated into a reduced mitochondrial functional capacity, with decreased NADH-dehydrogenase and F(0)F(1) ATPase complex activities and capacity for oxygen-utilization and ATP synthesis. Expression of genes coding for transcription co-activator factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis were downregulated in aged ventricles without reduction in mitochondrial density. Thus, aging induces a selective decline in activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and V within a broader transcriptional downregulation of mitochondrial genes, providing a substrate for reduced energetic efficiency associated with senescence.

  12. Aging-Induced Alterations in Gene Transcripts and Functional Activity of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Complexes in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Claudia C.; Oberlin, Andrew S.; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L.; Gupta, Anu; Sagar, Sandeep; Khazi Syed, Rashad H.; Siddiqui, Sabeeh; Raghavakaimal, Sreekumar; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with progressive decline in energetic reserves compromising cardiac performance and tolerance to injury. Although deviations in mitochondrial functions have been documented in senescent heart, the molecular bases for the decline in energy metabolism are only partially understood. Here, high-throughput transcription profiles of genes coding for mitochondrial proteins in ventricles from adult (6-months) and aged (24-months) rats were compared using microarrays. Out of 614 genes encoding for mitochondrial proteins, 94 were differentially expressed with 95% downregulated in the aged. The majority of changes affected genes coding for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (39), substrate metabolism (14) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (6). Compared to adult, gene expression changes in aged hearts translated into a reduced mitochondrial functional capacity, with decreased NADH-dehydrogenase and F0F1-ATPase complex activities and capacity for oxygen-utilization and ATP synthesis. Expression of genes coding for transcription co-activator factors involved in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis were downregulated in aged ventricles without reduction in mitochondrial density. Thus, aging induces a selective decline in activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and V within a broader transcriptional downregulation of mitochondrial genes, providing a substrate for reduced energetic efficiency associated with senescence. PMID:18400259

  13. Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwu; Lan, Xiaoyan; Ahsan, Anil; Xi, Yalin; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Zonghui; Chu, Peng; Song, Yushu; Piao, Fengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Lin, Yuan; Han, Guozhu; Tang, Zeyao

    2016-03-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an exogenous energy substance, which provides phosphate groups for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle and promotes energy metabolism in cells. However, it is still unclear whether PCr has influenced on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHO) in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of PCr on lipopolsaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mitochondrial OXPHO pathway. PCr protected HUVECs against LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, cytosolic release of cytochrome c (Cyt C), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of caspases, and increasing Bcl2 expression, while suppressing Bax expression. More importantly, PCr significantly improved mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential, enhanced the activities of ATP synthase and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKmt) in creatine shuttle, influenced on respiratory chain enzymes, respiratory control ratio, phosphorus/oxygen ratio and ATP production of OXPHO. Above PCr-mediated mitochondrial events were effectively more favorable to reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) pathway than reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotid pathway in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our results revealed that PCr protects against LPS-induced HUVECs apoptosis, which probably related to stabilization of intracellular energy metabolism, especially for FADH2 pathway in mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP synthase and CKmt. Our findings suggest that PCr may play a certain role in the treatment of atherosclerosis via protecting endothelial cell function.

  14. A Computational Screen for Regulators of Oxidative Phosphorylation Implicates SLIRP in Mitochondrial RNA Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Joshua M.; Nilsson, Roland; Gohil, Vishal M.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Gauhar, Zareen; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2009-01-01

    The human oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) system consists of approximately 90 proteins encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and serves as the primary cellular pathway for ATP biosynthesis. While the core protein machinery for OxPhos is well characterized, many of its assembly, maturation, and regulatory factors remain unknown. We exploited the tight transcriptional control of the genes encoding the core OxPhos machinery to identify novel regulators. We developed a computational procedure, which we call expression screening, which integrates information from thousands of microarray data sets in a principled manner to identify genes that are consistently co-expressed with a target pathway across biological contexts. We applied expression screening to predict dozens of novel regulators of OxPhos. For two candidate genes, CHCHD2 and SLIRP, we show that silencing with RNAi results in destabilization of OxPhos complexes and a marked loss of OxPhos enzymatic activity. Moreover, we show that SLIRP plays an essential role in maintaining mitochondrial-localized mRNA transcripts that encode OxPhos protein subunits. Our findings provide a catalogue of potential novel OxPhos regulators that advance our understanding of the coordination between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes for the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. PMID:19680543

  15. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands. PMID:26674215

  16. Mitochondrial oxidative stress caused by Sod2 deficiency promotes cellular senescence and aging phenotypes in the skin.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Michael C; Flynn, James M; Day, Nicholas U; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Cellular senescence arrests the proliferation of mammalian cells at risk for neoplastic transformation, and is also associated with aging. However, the factors that cause cellular senescence during aging are unclear. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause cellular senescence in culture, and accumulated molecular damage due to mitochondrial ROS has long been thought to drive aging phenotypesin vivo. Here, we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative stress can promote cellular senescence in vivo and contribute to aging phenotypes in vivo, specifically in the skin. We show that the number of senescent cells, as well as impaired mitochondrial (complex II) activity increase in naturally aged mouse skin. Using a mouse model of genetic Sod2 deficiency, we show that failure to express this important mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme also impairs mitochondrial complex II activity, causes nuclear DNA damage, and induces cellular senescence but not apoptosis in the epidermis. Sod2 deficiency also reduced the number of cells and thickness of the epidermis, while increasing terminal differentiation. Our results support the idea that mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular senescence contribute to aging skin phenotypes in vivo.

  17. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-12-17

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands.

  18. Role of calcium signaling in the activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and citric acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Traaseth, Nathaniel; Elfering, Sarah; Solien, Joseph; Haynes, Virginia; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2004-07-23

    An apparent discrepancy arises about the role of calcium on the rates of oxygen consumption by mitochondria: mitochondrial calcium increases the rate of oxygen consumption because of the activation of calcium-activated dehydrogenases, and by activating mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), decreases the rates of oxygen consumption because nitric oxide is a competitive inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase. To this end, the rates of oxygen consumption and nitric oxide production were followed in isolated rat liver mitochondria in the presence of either L-Arg (to sustain a mtNOS activity) or N(G)-monomethyl-L-Arg (NMMA, a competitive inhibitor of mtNOS) under State 3 conditions. In the presence of NMMA, the rates of State 3 oxygen consumption exhibited a K(0.5) of 0.16 microM intramitochondrial free calcium, agreeing with those required for the activation of the Krebs cycle. By plotting the difference between the rates of oxygen consumption in State 3 with L-Arg and with NMMA at various calcium concentrations, a K(0.5) of 1.2 microM intramitochondrial free calcium was obtained, similar to the K(0.5) (0.9 microM) of the dependence of the rate of nitric oxide production on calcium concentrations. The activation of dehydrogenases, followed by the activation of mtNOS, would lead to the modulation of the Krebs cycle activity by the modulation of nitric oxide on the respiratory rates. This would ensue in changes in the NADH/NAD and ATP/ADP ratios, which would influence the rate of the cycle and the oxygen diffusion.

  19. Oxidative stress is not a major contributor to somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Itsara, Leslie S; Kennedy, Scott R; Fox, Edward J; Yu, Selina; Hewitt, Joshua J; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Pallanck, Leo J

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is implicated in aging and common diseases of the elderly, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanisms that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations are poorly understood. To develop a simple invertebrate model system to address this matter, we used the Random Mutation Capture (RMC) assay to characterize the age-dependent frequency and distribution of mtDNA mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Because oxidative stress is a major suspect in the age-dependent accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations, we also used the RMC assay to explore the influence of oxidative stress on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. We found that many of the features associated with mtDNA mutations in vertebrates are conserved in Drosophila, including a comparable somatic mtDNA mutation frequency (∼10(-5)), an increased frequency of mtDNA mutations with age, and a prevalence of transition mutations. Only a small fraction of the mtDNA mutations detected in young or old animals were G∶C to T∶A transversions, a signature of oxidative damage, and loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Sod2, had no detectable influence on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. Moreover, a loss-of-function mutation in Ogg1, which encodes a DNA repair enzyme that removes oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine residues (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), did not significantly influence the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency of Sod2 mutants. Together, these findings indicate that oxidative stress is not a major cause of somatic mtDNA mutations. Our data instead suggests that somatic mtDNA mutations arise primarily from errors that occur during mtDNA replication. Further studies using Drosophila should aid in the identification of factors that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations.

  20. Hyperglycemic switch from mitochondrial nitric oxide to superoxide production in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Sergey V; Gao, Shujuan; Li, Hong; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2002-11-01

    The accumulated ultrastructural and biochemical evidence is highly suggestive of the existence of mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (mtNOS), where local production of NO regulates the electron transport along the respiratory chain. Here, the functional competence of mtNOS in situ in a living cell was examined using an intravital fluorescent NO indicator, 4,5-diaminofluorescein, employing a new procedure for loading it into the mitochondria to demonstrate local NO generation in undisrupted endothelial cells and in isolated mitochondria as well as in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing endothelial NOS. With the use of this approach, we showed that endothelial cells incubated in the presence of high concentration of D-glucose (but not L-glucose) are characterized by the reduced NO synthetic function of mitochondria despite the unaltered abundance of the enzyme. In parallel, mitochondrial generation of superoxide was augmented in endothelial cells incubated in the presence of a high concentration of D-glucose. Both the NO generation and superoxide production in hyperglycemic environment could be restored to control levels by treating cells with a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic. In addition, enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production could be suppressed with an inhibitor of NOS in stimulated endothelial cells. In conclusion, the data 1) provide direct evidence of mitochondrial NO production in endothelial cells, 2) demonstrate its suppression and enhanced superoxide generation in hyperglycemic environment, and 3) provide evidence that "uncoupled" mtNOS represents an important source of superoxide anions in endothelial cells incubated in high glucose-containing medium.

  1. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    PubMed

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth

    2013-08-26

    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  2. Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: a potential mechanism involved in cannabis-related stroke.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities V max (complexes I, III, and IV activities), V succ (complexes II, III, and IV activities), V tmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased V max (-71%; P < 0.0001), V succ (-65%; P < 0.0001), and V tmpd (-3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke.

  3. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Samanta, Luna; Roy, Anita; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B. N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP) and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation. PMID:24987693

  4. Supplementation of T3 recovers hypothyroid rat liver cells from oxidatively damaged inner mitochondrial membrane leading to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Samanta, Luna; Roy, Anita; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP) and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation.

  5. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), Vtmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P < 0.0001), Vsucc (−65%; P < 0.0001), and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  6. Selenium reduces mobile phone (900 MHz)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 MHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Cultures of the cancer cells were divided into four main groups as controls, selenium, EMR, and EMR + selenium. In EMR groups, the cells were exposed to 900 MHz EMR for 1 h (SAR value of the EMR was 0.36 ± 0.02 W/kg). In selenium groups, the cells were also incubated with sodium selenite for 1 h before EMR exposure. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability, (b) intracellular ROS production, (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (d) cell apoptosis, and (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. Selenium suppressed EMR-induced oxidative cell damage and cell viability (MTT) through a reduction of oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, selenium indicated anti-apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. In conclusion, 900 MHz EMR appears to induce apoptosis effects through oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization although incubation of selenium seems to counteract the effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  7. Increased Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Signal Correlates with Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in an Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Du; Zhang, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Yu, Qing; Douglas, Justin T.; Bratasz, Anna; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cognitive decline and memory loss. The pathological features are amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Many studies have suggested that oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important mechanism for AD progression. Our recent study demonstrated that oxidative stress could further impair mitochondrial function. In the present study, we adopted a transgenic mouse model of AD (mAPP, overexpressing AβPP/Aβ in neurons) and performed redox measurements using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging with methoxycarbamyl-proxyl (MCP) as a redox-sensitive probe for studying oxidative stress in an early stage of pathology in a transgenic AD mouse model. Through assessing oxidative stress, mitochondrial function and cognitive behaviors of mAPP mice at the age of 8–9 months, we found that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appeared in the early onset of AD. Increased ROS levels were associated with defects of mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction. Notably, the in vivo EPR method offers a unique way of assessing tissue oxidative stress in living animals under noninvasive conditions, and thus holds a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring the progression of AD. PMID:26890765

  8. A general introduction to the biochemistry of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway has been characterised at the biochemical level as well as the molecular biological level. FAO plays a pivotal role in energy homoeostasis, but it competes with glucose as the primary oxidative substrate. The mechanisms behind this so-called glucose–fatty acid cycle operate at the hormonal, transcriptional and biochemical levels. Inherited defects for most of the FAO enzymes have been identified and characterised and are currently included in neonatal screening programmes. Symptoms range from hypoketotic hypoglycaemia to skeletal and cardiac myopathies. The pathophysiology of these diseases is still not completely understood, hampering optimal treatment. Studies of patients and mouse models will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis and will ultimately lead to better treatment. PMID:20195903

  9. Stereoselective and nonstereoselective effects of ibuprofen enantiomers on mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Freneaux, E.; Fromenty, B.; Berson, A.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Letteron, P.; Larrey, D.; Pessayre, D. , Hopital Beaujon, Clichy )

    1990-11-01

    The effects of the R-(-) and S-(+)ibuprofen enantiomers were first studied in vitro with mouse liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous coenzyme A. In the presence of a low concentration of coenzyme A (2.5 microM), the R-(-)enantiomer (which forms an acylcoenzyme A) inhibited stereoselectively the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid but not that of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitoyl-L-carnitine (which can directly enter the mitochondria). In the presence, however, of a concentration of coenzyme A (50 microM) reproducing that present in liver cell cytosol, both enantiomers (2 mM) slightly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid and markedly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)octanoic acid and (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid. In vivo, both enantiomers (1 mmol.kg-1) similarly inhibited the formation of ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)fatty acids. Both enantiomers similarly decreased plasma ketone bodies. Both similarly increased hepatic triglycerides, and both produced mild microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that both ibuprofen enantiomers inhibit beta oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the R-(-)enantiomer may stereoselectively sequester coenzyme A; at low concentrations of coenzyme A in vitro, this may stereoselectively inhibit the mitochondrial uptake and beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids.

  10. Oxidative modification enhances the immunostimulatory effects of extracellular mitochondrial DNA on plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pazmandi, Kitti; Agod, Zsofia; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabo, Attila; Fekete, Tunde; Sogor, Viktoria; Veres, Agota; Boldogh, Istvan; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Lanyi, Arpad; Bacsi, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress and characterized by elevated levels of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules released from injured or even living cells into the surrounding microenvironment. One of these endogenous danger signals is the extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) containing evolutionary conserved unmethylated CpG repeats. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by recruited inflammatory cells modify mtDNA oxidatively, resulting primarily in accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) lesions. In this study, we examined the impact of native and oxidatively modified mtDNAs on the phenotypic and functional properties of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which possess a fundamental role in the regulation of inflammation and T cell immunity. Treatment of human primary pDCs with native mtDNA up-regulated the expression of a costimulatory molecule (CD86), a specific maturation marker (CD83), and a main antigen-presenting molecule (HLA-DQ) on the cell surface, as well as increased TNF-α and IL-8 production from the cells. These effects were more apparent when pDCs were exposed to oxidatively modified mtDNA. Neither native nor oxidized mtDNA molecules were able to induce interferon (IFN)-α secretion from pDCs unless they formed a complex with human cathelicidin LL-37, an antimicrobial peptide. Interestingly, simultaneous administration of a Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 antagonist abrogated the effects of both native and oxidized mtDNAs on human pDCs. In a murine model, oxidized mtDNA also proved a more potent activator of pDCs compared to the native form, except for induction of IFN-α production. Collectively, we demonstrate here for the first time that elevated levels of 8-oxoG bases in the extracellular mtDNA induced by oxidative stress increase the immunostimulatory capacity of mtDNA on pDCs.

  11. Effects of Atorvastatin on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Mitochondrial Morphofunctionality in Hyperfibrinogenemia-Induced Atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scribano, María de la Paz; Baez, María del Carmen; Florencia, Becerra; Tarán, Mariana Denise; Franco, Signorini; Balceda, Ariel G.; Moya, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), oxidative stress, and atherogenesis was established. Effect of atorvastatin (Ator) was assessed. Wistar male (6 months) rats were studied: Ctr, control, without HF induction; Ctr-Ator, without HF treated with atorvastatin; AI, atherogenesis induced, and AI-Ator, atherogenesis induced and treated with atorvastatin. Atherogenesis was induced by daily adrenaline injection (0.1 mL/day/rat) for 90 days; treatment started 15 days after induction. Fibrinogen (mg/dL) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in plasma (mM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (U/mL) in red cell lysate by spectrophotometry. Slices of aorta were analyzed by electron microscopy (EM). ANOVA and chi-square test were used; P < 0.05 was established. There were no significant differences between Ctr and Ctr-Atorv in fibrinogen, NO, and SOD values. Comparing Ctr with AI an increase of fibrinogen is observed (P < 0.001), but it decreased after administration of atorvastatin in AI-Ator (P < 0.001). NO diminished in AI relative to Ctr and increased in AI-Ator (P < 0.001). SOD showed an increase in AI and AI-Ator compared to Ctr (P < 0.001). EM revealed expansion of intermembrane space and disorganization of crests in AI. In AI-Ator mitochondrial areas and diameters were similar to control. Atorvastatin normalizes HF, stabilizes NO, increases SOD, and produces a partial regression of mitochondrial lesions. PMID:26556431

  12. A vanillin derivative causes mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers oxidative stress in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Han-Ok; Cho, Yong-Joon; Kim, Jeongmi; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Younghoon; Jung, Won Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a well-known food and cosmetic additive and has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. It has also been suggested to have antifungal activity against major human pathogenic fungi, although it is not very effective. In this study, the antifungal activities of vanillin and 33 vanillin derivatives against the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the main pathogen of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients, were investigated. We found a structural correlation between the vanillin derivatives and antifungal activity, showing that the hydroxyl or alkoxy group is more advantageous than the halogenated or nitrated group in benzaldehyde. Among the vanillin derivatives with a hydroxyl or alkoxy group, o-vanillin and o-ethyl vanillin showed the highest antifungal activity against C. neoformans. o-Vanillin was further studied to understand the mechanism of antifungal action. We compared the transcriptome of C. neoformans cells untreated or treated with o-vanillin by using RNA sequencing and found that the compound caused mitochondrial dysfunction and triggered oxidative stress. These antifungal mechanisms of o-vanillin were experimentally confirmed by the significantly reduced growth of the mutants lacking the genes involved in mitochondrial functions and oxidative stress response.

  13. A Vanillin Derivative Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Triggers Oxidative Stress in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Han-Ok; Cho, Yong-Joon; Kim, Jeongmi; Chun, Jongsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Younghoon; Jung, Won Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is a well-known food and cosmetic additive and has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. It has also been suggested to have antifungal activity against major human pathogenic fungi, although it is not very effective. In this study, the antifungal activities of vanillin and 33 vanillin derivatives against the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, the main pathogen of cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompromised patients, were investigated. We found a structural correlation between the vanillin derivatives and antifungal activity, showing that the hydroxyl or alkoxy group is more advantageous than the halogenated or nitrated group in benzaldehyde. Among the vanillin derivatives with a hydroxyl or alkoxy group, o-vanillin and o-ethyl vanillin showed the highest antifungal activity against C. neoformans. o-Vanillin was further studied to understand the mechanism of antifungal action. We compared the transcriptome of C. neoformans cells untreated or treated with o-vanillin by using RNA sequencing and found that the compound caused mitochondrial dysfunction and triggered oxidative stress. These antifungal mechanisms of o-vanillin were experimentally confirmed by the significantly reduced growth of the mutants lacking the genes involved in mitochondrial functions and oxidative stress response. PMID:24586538

  14. Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Villegas-Rivera, Geannyne; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is defined as peripheral nerve dysfunction. There are three main alterations involved in the pathologic changes of DPN: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inflammation induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by several identified pathways: polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C, advanced glycosylation end-products, and glycolysis. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for most of the production of reactive oxygen and nitrosative species. These free radicals cause lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and nucleic acid damage, to finally induce axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination. The prevalence of DPN ranges from 2.4% to 78.8% worldwide, depending on the diagnostic method and the population assessed (hospital-based or outpatients). Risk factors include age, male gender, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled glycaemia, height, overweight and obesity, and insulin treatment. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, and composite scores combined with nerve conduction studies are the most reliable to identify early DPN. Treatment should be directed to improve etiologic factors besides reducing symptoms; several approaches have been evaluated to reduce neuropathic impairments and improve nerve conduction, such as oral antidiabetics, statins, and antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid, ubiquinone, and flavonoids). PMID:28058263

  15. Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Villegas-Rivera, Geannyne; Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is defined as peripheral nerve dysfunction. There are three main alterations involved in the pathologic changes of DPN: inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inflammation induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B, activator protein 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by several identified pathways: polyol, hexosamine, protein kinase C, advanced glycosylation end-products, and glycolysis. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction accounts for most of the production of reactive oxygen and nitrosative species. These free radicals cause lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and nucleic acid damage, to finally induce axonal degeneration and segmental demyelination. The prevalence of DPN ranges from 2.4% to 78.8% worldwide, depending on the diagnostic method and the population assessed (hospital-based or outpatients). Risk factors include age, male gender, duration of diabetes, uncontrolled glycaemia, height, overweight and obesity, and insulin treatment. Several diagnostic methods have been developed, and composite scores combined with nerve conduction studies are the most reliable to identify early DPN. Treatment should be directed to improve etiologic factors besides reducing symptoms; several approaches have been evaluated to reduce neuropathic impairments and improve nerve conduction, such as oral antidiabetics, statins, and antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid, ubiquinone, and flavonoids).

  16. An animal model to study human muscular diseases involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Warren, Blair E

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondria are producing most of the energy needed for many cellular functions by a process named oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). It is now well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunctions are involved in several pathologies or degenerative processes, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and aging. Animal models are currently used to try to understand the role of mitochondria in human diseases but a major problem is that mitochondria from different species and tissues are variable in terms of regulation. Analysis of mitochondrial function in three species of planarian flatworms (Tricladia, Platyhelminthes) shows that they share a very rare characteristic with human mitochondria: a strong control of oxidative phosphorylation by the phosphorylation system. The ratio of coupled OXPHOS over maximal electron transport capacity after uncoupling (electron transport system; ETS) well below 1.0 indicates that the phosphorylation system is limiting the rate of OXPHOS. The OXPHOS/ETS ratios are 0.62 ± 0.06 in Dugesia tigrina, 0.63 ± 0.05 in D. dorotocephala and 0.62 ± 0.05 in Procotyla fluviatilis, comparable to the value measured in human muscles. To our knowledge, no other animal model displays this peculiarity. This new model offers a venue in which to test the phosphorylation system as a potential therapeutic control point within humans.

  17. Metabolic rewiring in cancer cells overexpressing the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ): Activation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and sensitization to oxidative cell death induced by mitochondrial targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    André, Fanny; Trinh, Anne; Balayssac, Stéphane; Maboudou, Patrice; Dekiouk, Salim; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Quesnel, Bruno; Idziorek, Thierry; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cell metabolism is largely controlled by oncogenic signals and nutrient availability. Here, we highlighted that the glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), an intracellular protein influencing many signaling pathways, reprograms cancer cell metabolism to promote proliferation. We provided evidence that GILZ overexpression induced a significant increase of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as evidenced by the augmentation in basal respiration, ATP-linked respiration as well as respiratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of glucose, glutamine and fatty acid oxidation reduced the activation of GILZ-induced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. At glycolysis level, GILZ-overexpressing cells enhanced the expression of glucose transporters in their plasmatic membrane and showed higher glycolytic reserve. (1)H NMR metabolites quantification showed an up-regulation of amino acid biosynthesis. The GILZ-induced metabolic reprograming is present in various cancer cell lines regardless of their driver mutations status and is associated with higher proliferation rates persisting under metabolic stress conditions. Interestingly, high levels of OXPHOS made GILZ-overexpressing cells vulnerable to cell death induced by mitochondrial pro-oxidants. Altogether, these data indicate that GILZ reprograms cancer metabolism towards mitochondrial OXPHOS and sensitizes cancer cells to mitochondria-targeted drugs with pro-oxidant activities.

  18. Intact mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport is essential for agonist-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)

    PubMed Central

    Charoensin, Suphachai; Eroglu, Emrah; Opelt, Marissa; Bischof, Helmut; Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T.; Kirsch, Andrijana; Depaoli, Maria R.; Frank, Saša; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Malli, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake regulates diverse endothelial cell functions and has also been related to nitric oxide (NO•) production. However, it is not entirely clear if the organelles support or counteract NO• biosynthesis by taking up Ca2+. The objective of this study was to verify whether or not mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake influences Ca2+-triggered NO• generation by endothelial NO• synthase (eNOS) in an immortalized endothelial cell line (EA.hy926), respective primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and eNOS-RFP (red fluorescent protein) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We used novel genetically encoded fluorescent NO• probes, the geNOps, and Ca2+ sensors to monitor single cell NO• and Ca2+ dynamics upon cell treatment with ATP, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-generating agonist. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was specifically manipulated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of recently identified key components of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter machinery. In endothelial cells and the eNOS-RFP expressing HEK293 cells we show that reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake upon the knock-down of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) protein and the essential MCU regulator (EMRE) yield considerable attenuation of the Ca2+-triggered NO• increase independently of global cytosolic Ca2+ signals. The knock-down of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1), a gatekeeper of the MCU, increased both mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration and Ca2+-induced NO• signals. The positive correlation between mitochondrial Ca2+ elevation and NO• production was independent of eNOS phosphorylation at serine1177. Our findings emphasize that manipulating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake may represent a novel strategy to control eNOS-mediated NO• production. PMID:27923677

  19. Contribution of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthases to mitochondrial damage and melatonin rescue in LPS-treated mice.

    PubMed

    García, José Antonio; Ortiz, Francisco; Miana, Javier; Doerrier, Carolina; Fernández-Ortiz, Marisol; Rusanova, Iryna; Escames, Germaine; García, José Joaquín; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-01-21

    NOS isoform activation is related to liver failure during sepsis, but the mechanisms driving mitochondrial impairment remain unclear. We induced sepsis by LPS administration to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-)) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)) mice and their respective wild-type controls to examine the contribution of iNOS to mitochondrial failure in the absence of nNOS. To achieve this goal, the determination of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and protein content of iNOS in cytosol and mitochondria, the mitochondrial respiratory complex content, and the levels of nitrosative and oxidative stress (by measuring 3-nitrotyrosine residues and carbonyl groups, respectively) were examined in the liver of control and septic mice. We detected strongly elevated iNOS mRNA expression and protein levels in liver cytosol and mitochondria of septic mice, which were related to enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stress, and with fewer changes in respiratory complexes. The absence of the iNOS, but not nNOS, gene absolutely prevented mitochondrial impairment during sepsis. Moreover, the nNOS gene did not modify the expression and the effects of iNOS here shown. Melatonin administration counteracted iNOS activation and mitochondrial damage and enhanced the expression of the respiratory complexes above the control values. These effects were unrelated to the presence or absence of nNOS. iNOS is a main target to prevent liver mitochondrial impairment during sepsis, and melatonin represents an efficient antagonist of these iNOS-dependent effects whereas it may boost mitochondrial respiration to enhance liver survival.

  20. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity.

  1. Oxidative damage of DNA induced by X-irradiation decreases the uterine endometrial receptivity which involves mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liang, Jin-Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    X irradiation may lead to female infertility and the mechanism is still not clear. After X irradiation exposure, significantly morphological changes and functional decline in endometrial epithelial cells were observed. The mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction and oxidative DNA damage were noticed after X irradiation. In addition, pretreatment with NAC, NH4Cl or Pep A reduced the X irradiation induced damages. These studies demonstrate that the oxidative DNA damage which involved dysfunctional lysosomal and mitochondrial contribute to X irradiation-induced impaired receptive state of uterine endometrium and proper protective reagents can be helpful in improving endometrial function. PMID:26064230

  2. Inhibition of oxidative stress by coenzyme Q10 increases mitochondrial mass and improves bioenergetic function in optic nerve head astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Y H; Kim, K-Y; Shim, M S; Choi, S-H; Choi, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Perkins, G A; Ju, W-K

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to dysfunction of glial cells in the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the biological basis of the precise functional role of mitochondria in this dysfunction is not fully understood. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential cofactor of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant, acts by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) for protecting neuronal cells against oxidative stress in many neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we tested whether hydrogen peroxide (100 μM H2O2)-induced oxidative stress alters the mitochondrial network, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex (Cx) expression and bioenergetics, as well as whether CoQ10 can ameliorate oxidative stress-mediated alterations in mitochondria of the ONH astrocytes in vitro. Oxidative stress triggered the activation of ONH astrocytes and the upregulation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression in the ONH astrocytes. In contrast, CoQ10 not only prevented activation of ONH astrocytes but also significantly decreased SOD2 and HO-1 protein expression in the ONH astrocytes against oxidative stress. Further, CoQ10 prevented a significant loss of mitochondrial mass by increasing mitochondrial number and volume density and by preserving mitochondrial cristae structure, as well as promoted mitofilin and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 protein expression in the ONH astrocyte, suggesting an induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. Finally, oxidative stress triggered the upregulation of OXPHOS Cx protein expression, as well as reduction of cellular adeonsine triphosphate (ATP) production and increase of ROS generation in the ONH astocytes. However, CoQ10 preserved OXPHOS protein expression and cellular ATP production, as well as decreased ROS generation in the ONH astrocytes. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction or alteration may be an important

  3. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Damsgaard, R; Hagen, C; Díez-Sánchez, C; Ara, I; Wright-Paradis, C; Schrauwen, P; Hesselink, M; Calbet, J A L; Christiansen, M; Helge, J W; Saltin, B

    2015-12-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating northern Greenland is identical to Danes of western Europe haplogroups. Biochemical coupling efficiency was preserved across variations in diet, muscle fiber type, and uncoupling protein-3 content. Mitochondrial phenotype displayed plasticity in relation to lifestyle and environment. Untrained Inuit and Danes had identical capacities to oxidize fat substrate in arm muscle, which increased in Danes during the 42 days of acclimation to exercise, approaching the higher level of the Inuit hunters. A common pattern emerges of mitochondrial acclimatization and evolutionary adaptation in humans at high latitude and high altitude where economy of locomotion may be optimized by preservation of biochemical coupling efficiency at modest mitochondrial density, when submaximum performance is uncoupled from VO2max and maximum capacities of oxidative phosphorylation.

  4. The potential for mitochondrial fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle influences whole body fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, K; Mogensen, M; Bagger, M; Fernström, M; Pedersen, P K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in isolated mitochondrial vesicles (mit) and its relation to training status, fiber type composition, and whole body FA oxidation. Trained (Vo(2 peak) 60.7 +/- 1.6, n = 8) and untrained subjects (39.5 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).kg(-1), n = 5) cycled at 40, 80, and 120 W, and whole body relative FA oxidation was assessed from respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Mit were isolated from muscle biopsies, and maximal ADP stimulated respiration was measured with carbohydrate-derived substrate [pyruvate + malate (Pyr)] and FA-derived substrate [palmitoyl-l-carnitine + malate (PC)]. Fiber type composition was determined from analysis of myosin heavy-chain (MHC) composition. The rate of mit oxidation was lower with PC than with Pyr, and the ratio between PC and Pyr oxidation (MFO) varied greatly between subjects (49-93%). MFO was significantly correlated to muscle fiber type distribution, i.e., %MHC I (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), but was not different between trained (62 +/- 5%) and untrained subjects (72 +/- 2%). MFO was correlated to RER during submaximal exercise at 80 (r = -0.62, P = 0.02) and 120 W (r = -0.71, P = 0.007) and interpolated 35% Vo(2 peak) (r = -0.74, P = 0.004). ADP sensitivity of mit respiration was significantly higher with PC than with Pyr. It is concluded that MFO is influenced by fiber type composition but not by training status. The inverse correlation between RER and MFO implies that intrinsic mit characteristics are of importance for whole body FA oxidation during low-intensity exercise. The higher ADP sensitivity with PC than that with Pyr may influence fuel utilization at low rate of respiration.

  5. Stilbenes and resveratrol metabolites improve mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation defects in human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inborn enzyme defects of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO) form a large group of genetic disorders associated to variable clinical presentations ranging from life-threatening pediatric manifestations up to milder late onset phenotypes, including myopathy. Very few candidate drugs have been identified in this group of disorders. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, recently shown to have beneficial metabolic properties in mice models. Our study explores its possible effects on FAO and mitochondrial energy metabolism in human cells, which are still very little documented. Methods Using cells from controls and from patients with Carnitine Palmitoyl Transferase 2 (CPT2) or Very Long Chain AcylCoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency we characterized the metabolic effects of RSV, RSV metabolites, and other stilbenes. We also focused on analysis of RSV uptake, and on the effects of low RSV concentrations, considering the limited bioavailability of RSV in vivo. Results Time course of RSV accumulation in fibroblasts over 48 h of treatment were consistent with the resulting stimulation or correction of FAO capacities. At 48 h, half maximal and maximal FAO stimulations were respectively achieved for 37,5 microM (EC50) and 75 microM RSV, but we found that serum content of culture medium negatively modulated RSV uptake and FAO induction. Indeed, decreasing serum from 12% to 3% led to shift EC50 from 37,5 to 13 microM, and a 2.6-3.6-fold FAO stimulation was reached with 20 microM RSV at 3% serum, that was absent at 12% serum. Two other stilbenes often found associated with RSV, i.e. cis- RSV and piceid, also triggered significant FAO up-regulation. Resveratrol glucuro- or sulfo- conjugates had modest or no effects. In contrast, dihydro-RSV, one of the most abundant circulating RSV metabolites in human significantly stimulated FAO (1.3-2.3-fold). Conclusions This study provides the first compared data on

  6. Mitochondria-targeted Ogg1 and aconitase-2 prevent oxidant-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Williams, David; Cheng, Yuan; Ridge, Karen; Schumacker, Paul T; Weitzman, Sigmund; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Kamp, David W

    2014-02-28

    Mitochondria-targeted human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (mt-hOgg1) and aconitase-2 (Aco-2) each reduce oxidant-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, but it is unclear whether protection occurs by preventing AEC mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. Using quantitative PCR-based measurements of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage, mtDNA damage was preferentially noted in AEC after exposure to oxidative stress (e.g. amosite asbestos (5-25 μg/cm(2)) or H2O2 (100-250 μM)) for 24 h. Overexpression of wild-type mt-hOgg1 or mt-long α/β 317-323 hOgg1 mutant incapable of DNA repair (mt-hOgg1-Mut) each blocked A549 cell oxidant-induced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and cleaved caspase-9. In contrast, compared with controls, knockdown of Ogg1 (using Ogg1 shRNA in A549 cells or primary alveolar type 2 cells from ogg1(-/-) mice) augmented mtDNA lesions and intrinsic apoptosis at base line, and these effects were increased further after exposure to oxidative stress. Notably, overexpression of Aco-2 reduced oxidant-induced mtDNA lesions, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis, whereas siRNA for Aco-2 (siAco-2) enhanced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis. Finally, siAco-2 attenuated the protective effects of mt-hOgg1-Mut but not wild-type mt-hOgg1 against oxidant-induced mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for mt-hOgg1 and Aco-2 in preserving AEC mtDNA integrity, thereby preventing oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, p53 mitochondrial translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis. Furthermore, mt-hOgg1 chaperoning of Aco-2 in preventing oxidant-mediated mtDNA damage and apoptosis may afford an innovative target for the molecular events underlying oxidant-induced toxicity.

  7. The MIA pathway: a key regulator of mitochondrial oxidative protein folding and biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mordas, Amelia; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2015-08-18

    Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10-15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting of the

  8. The MIA Pathway: A Key Regulator of Mitochondrial Oxidative Protein Folding and Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Mitochondria are fundamental intracellular organelles with key roles in important cellular processes like energy production, Fe/S cluster biogenesis, and homeostasis of lipids and inorganic ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently linked to many human pathologies (cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, stroke) and apoptosis. Mitochondrial biogenesis relies on protein import as most mitochondrial proteins (about 10–15% of the human proteome) are imported after their synthesis in the cytosol. Over the last several years many mitochondrial translocation pathways have been discovered. Among them, the import pathway that targets proteins to the intermembrane space (IMS) stands out as it is the only one that couples import to folding and oxidation and results in the covalent modification of the incoming precursor that adopt internal disulfide bonds in the process (the MIA pathway). The discovery of this pathway represented a significant paradigm shift as it challenged the prevailing dogma that the endoplasmic reticulum is the only compartment of eukaryotic cells where oxidative folding can occur. The concept of the oxidative folding pathway was first proposed on the basis of folding and import data for the small Tim proteins that have conserved cysteine motifs and must adopt intramolecular disulfides after import so that they are retained in the organelle. The introduction of disulfides in the IMS is catalyzed by Mia40 that functions as a chaperone inducing their folding. The sulfhydryl oxidase Erv1 generates the disulfide pairs de novo using either molecular oxygen or, cytochrome c and other proteins as terminal electron acceptors that eventually link this folding process to respiration. The solution NMR structure of Mia40 (and supporting biochemical experiments) showed that Mia40 is a novel type of disulfide donor whose recognition capacity for its substrates relies on a hydrophobic binding cleft found adjacent to a thiol active CPC motif. Targeting

  9. The neuroprotective effects of taurine against nickel by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Zhong, Min; Li, Li; Lu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-17

    Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the toxicity of nickel. Taurine is recognized as an efficient antioxidant and is essential for mitochondrial function. To investigate whether taurine could protect against the neurotoxicity of nickel, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to various concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2; 0.5mM, 1mM and 2mM) for 24h or to 1mM NiCl2 for various periods (0 h, 12h, 24h and 48 h). Our results showed that taurine efficiently reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by NiCl2. Along with this protective effect, taurine pretreatment not only significantly reversed the increase of ROS production and mitochondrial superoxide concentration, but also attenuated the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in neurons exposed to NiCl2 for 24h. Moreover, nickel exposure reduced ATP production, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mtDNA content. These types of oxidative damage in the mitochondria were efficiently ameliorated by taurine pretreatment. Taken together, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of taurine against the toxicity of nickel might largely depend on its roles in reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Taurine may have great pharmacological potential in treating the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system.

  10. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Desler, Claus; Hickson, Ian D; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2014-04-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly slower than the preceding mitochondrial BER steps. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria improved the rate of overall BER, increased cell survival after menadione induced oxidative stress and reduced autophagy following the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy.

  11. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Reveals Mitochondrial Oxidative Enzyme Impairment and Restoration in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Angel, Thomas E.; Lewis, Michael P.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Wiedner, Susan D.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-10-24

    High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and concomitant development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct effect of a HFD or if the mitochondrial function is reduced with increased HFD duration. We hypothesized that the function of mitochondrial oxidative and lipid metabolism functions in skeletal muscle mitochondria for HFD mice are similar or elevated relative to standard diet (SD) mice, thereby IR is neither cause nor consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. We applied a chemical probe approach to identify functionally reactive ATPases and nucleotide-binding proteins in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6J mice fed HFD or SD chow for 2-, 8-, or 16-weeks; feeding time points known to induce IR. A total of 293 probe-labeled proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, of which 54 differed in abundance between HFD and SD mice. We found proteins associated with the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and lipid metabolism were altered in function when comparing SD to HFD fed mice at 2-weeks, however by 16-weeks HFD mice had TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and respiratory chain function at levels similar to or higher than SD mice.

  12. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kalghatgi, Sameer; Spina, Catherine S; Costello, James C; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S; Collins, James J

    2013-07-03

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics-quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams-cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic-induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people.

  13. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Damage in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costello, James C.; Liesa, Marc; Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Slomovic, Shimyn; Molina, Anthony; Shirihai, Orian S.; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged antibiotic treatment can lead to detrimental side effects in patients, including ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and tendinopathy, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of antibiotics in mammalian systems remain unclear. It has been suggested that bactericidal antibiotics induce the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria. We show that clinically relevant doses of bactericidal antibiotics—quinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams—cause mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS overproduction in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that these bactericidal antibiotic–induced effects lead to oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Mice treated with bactericidal antibiotics exhibited elevated oxidative stress markers in the blood, oxidative tissue damage, and up-regulated expression of key genes involved in antioxidant defense mechanisms, which points to the potential physiological relevance of these antibiotic effects. The deleterious effects of bactericidal antibiotics were alleviated in cell culture and in mice by the administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine or prevented by preferential use of bacteriostatic antibiotics. This work highlights the role of antibiotics in the production of oxidative tissue damage in mammalian cells and presents strategies to mitigate or prevent the resulting damage, with the goal of improving the safety of antibiotic treatment in people. PMID:23825301

  14. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction and a protective unfolded protein response in RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Cano, Marisol; Wang, Lei; Wan, Jun; Barnett, Bradley P; Ebrahimi, Katayoon; Qian, Jiang; Handa, James T

    2014-04-01

    How cells degenerate from oxidative stress in aging-related disease is incompletely understood. This study's intent was to identify key cytoprotective pathways activated by oxidative stress and determine the extent of their protection. Using an unbiased strategy with microarray analysis, we found that retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) had overrepresented genes involved in the antioxidant and unfolded protein response (UPR). Differentially expressed antioxidant genes were predominantly located in the cytoplasm, with no induction of genes that neutralize superoxide and H2O2 in the mitochondria, resulting in accumulation of superoxide and decreased ATP production. Simultaneously, CSE induced the UPR sensors IRE1α, p-PERK, and ATP6, including CHOP, which was cytoprotective because CHOP knockdown decreased cell viability. In mice given intravitreal CSE, the RPE had increased IRE1α and decreased ATP and developed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as suggested by decreased LRAT abundance, altered ZO-1 immunolabeling, and dysmorphic cell shape. Mildly degenerated RPE from early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) samples had prominent IRE1α, but minimal mitochondrial TOM20 immunolabeling. Although oxidative stress is thought to induce an antioxidant response with cooperation between the mitochondria and the ER, herein we show that mitochondria become impaired sufficiently to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition despite a protective UPR. With similar responses in early AMD samples, these results suggest that mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress despite a protective UPR during the early phases of aging-related disease.

  15. Oxidative stress-induced alterations in PPAR-γ and associated mitochondrial destabilization contribute to kidney cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Small, David M; Morais, Christudas; Coombes, Jeff S; Bennett, Nigel C; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism(s) underlying renoprotection by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists in diabetic and nondiabetic kidney disease are not well understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contribute to kidney disease. PPAR-γ upregulates proteins required for mitochondrial biogenesis. Our aim was to determine whether PPAR-γ has a role in protecting the kidney proximal tubular epithelium (PTE) against mitochondrial destabilisation and oxidative stress. HK-2 PTE cells were subjected to oxidative stress (0.2-1.0 mM H₂O₂) for 2 and 18 h and compared with untreated cells for apoptosis, mitosis (morphology/biomarkers), cell viability (MTT), superoxide (dihydroethidium), mitochondrial function (MitoTracker red and JC-1), ATP (luminescence), and mitochondrial ultrastructure. PPAR-γ, phospho-PPAR-γ, PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α, Parkin (Park2), p62, and light chain (LC)3β were investigated using Western blots. PPAR-γ was modulated using the agonists rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, and troglitazone. Mitochondrial destabilization increased with H₂O₂concentration, ATP decreased (2 and 18 h; P < 0.05), Mitotracker red and JC-1 fluorescence indicated loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and superoxide increased (18 h, P < 0.05). Electron microscopy indicated sparse mitochondria, with disrupted cristae. Mitophagy was evident at 2 h (Park2 and LC3β increased; p62 decreased). Impaired mitophagy was indicated by p62 accumulation at 18 h (P < 0.05). PPAR-γ expression decreased, phospho-PPAR-γ increased, and PGC-1α decreased (2 h), indicating aberrant PPAR-γ activation and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis. Cell viability decreased (2 and 18 h, P < 0.05). PPAR-γ agonists promoted further apoptosis. In summary, oxidative stress promoted mitochondrial destabilisation in kidney PTE, in association with increased PPAR-γ phosphorylation. PPAR-γ agonists failed to protect PTE. Despite positive effects in other tissues, PPAR

  16. Short-term training alters the control of mitochondrial respiration rate before maximal oxidative ATP synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Layec, Gwenael; Haseler, Luke J.; Hoff, Jan; Hart, Corey R.; Liu, Xin; Le Fur, Yann; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Short-term exercise training may induce metabolic and performance adaptations before any changes in mitochondrial enzyme potential. However, there has not been a study that has directly assessed changes in mitochondrial oxidative capacity or metabolic control as a consequence of such training in vivo. Therefore, we used 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to examine the effect of short-term plantar flexion exercise training on phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics and the control of respiration rate. Method To this aim, we investigated 12 healthy men, experienced with this exercise modality (TRA), and 7 time-control subjects (TC). Results After 5 days of training, maximum work rate during incremental plantar flexion exercise was significantly improved (P < 0.01). During the recovery period, the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (PRE: 28 ± 13 mM.min−1; POST: 26 ± 15 mM.min−1) and the PCr recovery time constant (PRE: 31 ± 19 s; POST: 29 ± 16) were not significantly altered. In contrast, the Hill coefficient (nH) describing the cooperativity between respiration rate and ADP was significantly increased in TRA (PRE:nH = 2.7 ± 1.4; POST: nH = 3.4 ± 1.9, P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there were no systematic variations in any of these variables in TC. Conclusion This study reveals that 5 days of training induces rapid adaptation in the allosteric control of respiration rate by ADP before any substantial improvement in muscle oxidative capacity occurs. PMID:23582030

  17. Troglitazone-induced hepatic mitochondrial proteome expression dynamics in heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice: Two-stage oxidative injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H. |; Chung, Maxey C.M. | Lin Qingsong; Boelsterli, Urs A. ||

    2008-08-15

    The determinants of susceptibility to troglitazone-induced idiosyncratic liver injury have not yet been determined; however, troglitazone has been shown to target mitochondria and induce mitochondria-mediated hepatocellular injury in vitro. The aim of this study was to use a systems approach to analyze the dynamics of mitochondrial changes at the proteome level and more clearly define the mechanisms and time course of troglitazone hepatotoxicity by using a previously characterized mouse model that is highly sensitized to troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Mice heterozygous in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (Sod2{sup +/-}) were injected intraperitoneally with troglitazone (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Hepatic mitochondria were isolated, purified, and subjected to two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found that among the {approx} 1500 resolved hepatic mitochondrial proteins, 70 exhibited significantly altered abundance after troglitazone treatment. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that early changes (2 weeks) included increased levels of heat shock protein family members (mortalin, HSP7C), Lon protease, and catalase, indicating induction of a mitochondrial stress response. In contrast, after 4 weeks, a number of critical proteins including ATP synthase {beta}-subunit, aconitase-2, and catalase exhibited decreased abundance, and total protein carbonyls were significantly increased, suggesting uncompensated oxidative damage. Aconitase-2 (ACO2) was decreased at both time points, making this protein a potential sensitive and early biomarker for mitochondrial oxidant stress. These results show that, in this murine model of underlying clinically silent mitochondrial stress, superimposed troglitazone induces a two-stage response: an initial adaptive response, followed by a toxic response involving oxidant injury to mitochondrial proteins.

  18. Underlying mitochondrial dysfunction triggers flutamide-induced oxidative liver injury in a mouse model of idiosyncratic drug toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimshetty, Rohini; Desai, Varsha G.; Kale, Vijay M.; Lee, Taewon; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; New, Lee S.; Chan, Eric C.Y.; Younis, Husam; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2009-07-15

    Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-androgen, but not its bioisostere bicalutamide, has been associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Although the susceptibility factors are unknown, mitochondrial injury has emerged as a putative hazard of flutamide. To explore the role of mitochondrial sensitization in flutamide hepatotoxicity, we determined the effects of superimposed drug stress in a murine model of underlying mitochondrial abnormalities. Male wild-type or heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice were injected intraperitoneously with flutamide (0, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. A kinetic pilot study revealed that flutamide (100 mg/kg/day) caused approximately 10-fold greater exposure than the reported therapeutic mean plasma levels. Mutant (5/10), but not wild-type, mice in the high-dose group exhibited small foci of hepatocellular necrosis and an increased number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Hepatic GSSG/GSH, protein carbonyl levels, and serum lactate levels were significantly increased, suggesting oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Measurement of mitochondrial superoxide in cultured hepatocytes demonstrated that mitochondria were a significant source of flutamide-enhanced oxidant stress. Indeed, mitochondria isolated from flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited decreased aconitase activity as compared to vehicle controls. A transcriptomics analysis using MitoChips revealed that flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited a selective decrease in the expression of all complexes I and III subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA. In contrast, Sod2{sup +/-} mice receiving bicalutamide (50 mg/kg/day) did not reveal any hepatic changes. These results are compatible with our concept that flutamide targets hepatic mitochondria and exerts oxidant stress that can lead to overt hepatic injury in the presence of an underlying mitochondrial abnormality.

  19. SIRT3 in Neural Stem Cells Attenuates Microglia Activation-Induced Oxidative Stress Injury Through Mitochondrial Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, De-Qi; Wang, Yan; Li, Ming-Xing; Ma, Yan-Jiao; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in energy metabolism, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. However, the role of SIRT3 in neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unknown. In previous studies, we found that microglia activation-induced cytotoxicity negatively regulated survival of NSCs, along with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT3 on the microglia activation-induced oxidative stress injury in NSCs and its possible mechanisms. In the present study, microglia-NSCs co-culture system was used to demonstrate the crosstalk between both cell types. The cytotoxicity of microglia activation by Amyloid-β (Aβ) resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and down-regulation of SIRT3, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene expression in NSCs, concomitant to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, increased cell apoptosis rate and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) depolarization. Furthermore, SIRT3 knockdown in NSCs via small interfering RNA (siRNA) accelerated cell injury, whereas SIRT3 overexpression provided resistance to microglia activation-induced oxidative stress cellular damage. The mechanisms of SIRT3 attenuated activated microglia-induced NSC dysfunction included the decreased mPTP opening and cyclophilin D (CypD) protein expression, inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome C (Cyt C) release to cytoplasm, declined Bax/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) ratio and reduced caspase-3/9 activity. Taken together, these data imply that SIRT3 ameliorates microglia activation-induced oxidative stress injury through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in NSCs, these results may provide a novel intervention target for NSC survival. PMID:28197079

  20. Effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial properties and oxidative stress in cells from patients with mtDNA defects.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Keir J; Robinson, Brian H; Hood, David A

    2009-02-01

    Mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations contribute to various disease states characterized by low ATP production. In contrast, thyroid hormone [3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3))] induces mitochondrial biogenesis and enhances ATP generation within cells. To evaluate the role of T(3)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in patients with mtDNA mutations, three fibroblast cell lines with mtDNA mutations were evaluated, including two patients with Leigh's syndrome and one with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Compared with control cells, patient fibroblasts displayed similar levels of mitochondrial mass, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) protein expression. However, patient cells exhibited a 1.6-fold elevation in ROS production, a 1.7-fold elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, a 1.2-fold elevation in mitochondrial membrane potential, and 30% less complex V activity compared with control cells. Patient cells also displayed 20-25% reductions in both cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and MnSOD protein levels compared with control cells. After T(3) treatment of patient cells, ROS production was decreased by 40%, cytoplasmic Ca2+ was reduced by 20%, COX activity was increased by 1.3-fold, and ATP levels were elevated by 1.6-fold, despite the absence of a change in mitochondrial mass. There were no significant alterations in the protein expression of PGC-1alpha, Tfam, or UCP2 in either T(3)-treated patient or control cells. However, T(3) restored the mitochondrial membrane potential, complex V activity, and levels of MnSOD to normal values in patient cells and elevated MnSOD levels by 21% in control cells. These results suggest that T(3) acts to reduce cellular oxidative stress, which may help attenuate ROS-mediated damage, along with improving mitochondrial function and energy status in cells with mtDNA defects.

  1. Antineoplastic copper coordinated complexes (Casiopeinas) uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and induce mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiac mitochondria and cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Silva-Platas, Christian; Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Carrancá, Mariana; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Bernal-Ramírez, Judith; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; González, Lorena N; Rojo, Rocío; Martínez, Luis Enrique; Valiente-Banuet, Juan; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Bravo-Gómez, María Elena; García, Noemí; Carvajal, Karla; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    Copper-based drugs, Casiopeinas (Cas), exhibit antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Unfortunately, the clinical use of these novel chemotherapeutics could be limited by the development of dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas cardiotoxicity and anticancer activity are not completely understood. Here, we explore the potential impact of Cas on the cardiac mitochondria energetics as the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas-induced cardiotoxicity. To explore the properties on mitochondrial metabolism, we determined Cas effects on respiration, membrane potential, membrane permeability, and redox state in isolated cardiac mitochondria. The effect of Cas on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was also evaluated in isolated cardiomyocytes by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Cas IIIEa, IIgly, and IIIia predominately inhibited maximal NADH- and succinate-linked mitochondrial respiration, increased the state-4 respiration rate and reduced membrane potential, suggesting that Cas also act as mitochondrial uncouplers. Interestingly, cyclosporine A inhibited Cas-induced mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Similarly to isolated mitochondria, in isolated cardiomyocytes, Cas treatment decreased the Δψm and cyclosporine A treatment prevented mitochondrial depolarization. The production of H2O2 increased in Cas-treated mitochondria, which might also increase the oxidation of mitochondrial proteins such as adenine nucleotide translocase. In accordance, an antioxidant scavenger (Tiron) significantly diminished Cas IIIia mitochondrial depolarization. Cas induces a prominent loss of membrane potential, associated with alterations in redox state, which increases mPTP opening, potentially due to thiol-dependent modifications of the pore, suggesting that direct or indirect inhibition of mPTP opening might

  2. Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial activity of human synovial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger implicated in the destruction and inflammation of joint tissues. Cartilage and synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) have high levels of NO. NO is known to modulate various cellular pathways and, thus, inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) of chondrocytes and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in multiple cell types. For these reasons, and because of the importance of the synovial membrane in development of OA pathology, we investigated the effects of NO on survival, mitochondrial function, and activity of fibroblastic human OA synovial cells. Methods Human OA synovia were obtained from eight patients undergoing hip joint replacement. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a NO donor compound and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assays. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by analyzing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) with flow cytometry using the fluorofore DePsipher. ATP levels were measured by luminescence assays, and the activities of the respiratory chain complexes (complex I: NADH CoQ1 reductase, complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, complex III: ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase) and citrate synthase (CS) were measured by enzymatic assay. Protein expression analyses were performed by western blot. Results SNP at a concentration of 0.5 mM induced cell death, shown by the MTT method at different time points. The percentages of viable cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 86.11 ± 4.9%, 74.31 ± 3.35%, and 43.88 ± 1.43%, respectively, compared to the basal level of 100% (*p < 0.05). SNP at 0.5 mM induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane at 12 hours with a decrease in the ratio of polarized cells (basal = 2.48 ± 0.28; SNP 0.5 mM = 1.57 ± 0.11; *p < 0.01). The time course analyses of treatment with SNP at 0.5 mM demonstrated that treatment reliably and

  3. Ozone protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury: A role for oxidative preconditioning in attenuating mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixin; Xu, Ying; Li, Dandan; Zhu, Erjun; Deng, Li; Liu, Zonghong; Zhang, Guowei; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction during cardiovascular surgery, heart transplantation and cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. The purpose of the present study was to explore, firstly, whether ozone induces oxidative preconditioning by activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and, secondly, whether ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) can protect the heart against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage. Rats were subjected to 30min of cardiac ischemia followed by 2h of reperfusion, with or without prior OzoneOP (100μg/kg/day) for 5 days. Antioxidant capacity, myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were evaluated and compared at the end of reperfusion. OzoneOP was found to increase antioxidant capacity and to protect the myocardium against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage and myocardial apoptosis. The study suggests a potential role for OzoneOP in protecting the heart against IRI during cardiovascular surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or transplantation.

  4. Venlafaxine-Induced Cytotoxicity Towards Isolated Rat Hepatocytes Involves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial/Lysosomal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Elham; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Eftekhari, Aziz; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Depression is a public disorder worldwide. Despite the widespread use of venlafaxine in the treatment of depression, it has been associated with the incidence of toxicities. Hence, the goal of the current investigation was to evaluate the mechanisms of venlafaxine–induced cell death in the model of the freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Methods: Collagenase-perfused rat hepatocytes were treated with venlafaxine and other agents. Cell damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, lysosomal damage, glutathione (GSH) level were analyzed. Moreover, rat liver mitochondria were isolated through differential centrifugation to assess respiratory chain functionality. Results: Our results demonstrated that venlafaxine could induce ROS formation followed by lipid peroxidation, cellular GSH content depletion, elevated GSSG level, loss of lysosmal membrane integrity, MMP collapse and finally cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. N-acetyl cysteine, taurine and quercetine significantly decreased the aforementioned venlafaxine-induced cellular events. Also, radical scavenger (butylatedhydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol), CYP2E1 inhibitor (4-methylpyrazole), lysosomotropic agents (methylamine and chloroquine), ATP generators (L-gluthamine and fructose) and mitochondrial pore sealing agents (trifluoperazine and L-carnitine) considerably reduced cytotoxicity, ROS generation and lysosomal leakage following venlafaxine treatment. Mitochondrion dysfunction was concomitant with the blockade of the electron transfer complexes II and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory system. Conclusion: Therefore, our data indicate that venlafaxine induces oxidative stress towards hepatocytes and our findings provide evidence to propose that mitochondria and lysosomes are of the primary targets in venlafaxine-mediated cell damage. PMID:28101459

  5. Natural terpenes prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and release of apoptotic proteins during nimesulide-hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Madhulika; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Pandey, Pramod K; Kakkar, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    Nimesulide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, is reported to cause severe hepatotoxicity. In this study, molecular mechanisms involved in deranged oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction during nimesulide-induced hepatotoxicity and its attenuation by plant derived terpenes, camphene and geraniol has been explored in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hepatotoxicity due to nimesulide (80 mg/kg BW) was evident from elevated SGPT, SGOT, bilirubin and histo-pathological changes. Antioxidants and key redox enzymes (iNOS, mtNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, GPx and GR) were altered significantly as assessed by their mRNA expression, Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activities. Redox imbalance along with oxidative stress was evident from decreased NAD(P)H and GSH (56% and 74% respectively; P<0.001), increased superoxide and secondary ROS/RNS generation along with oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules. Nimesulide reduced mitochondrial activity, depolarized mitochondria and caused membrane permeability transition (MPT) followed by release of apoptotic proteins (AIF; apoptosis inducing factor, EndoG; endonuclease G, and Cyto c; cytochrome c). It also significantly activated caspase-9 and caspase-3 and increased oxidative DNA damage (level of 8-Oxoguanine glycosylase; P<0.05). A combination of camphene and geraniol (CG; 1:1), when pre-administered in rats (10 mg/kg BW), accorded protection against nimesulide hepatotoxicity in vivo, as evident from normalized serum biomarkers and histopathology. mRNA expression and activity of key antioxidant and redox enzymes along with oxidative stress were also normalized due to CG pre-treatment. Downstream effects like decreased mitochondrial swelling, inhibition in release of apoptotic proteins, prevention of mitochondrial depolarization along with reduction in oxidized NAD(P)H and increased mitochondrial electron flow further supported protective action of selected terpenes against nimesulide toxicity. Therefore CG, a

  6. Oxidized and Original article degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides (DeMPs), especially RNA, are potent immunogenic regulators in primary mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Abhinav R; Gao, Linda Y; Srivatsa, Shachi; Bobersky, Elizabeth Z; Periasamy, Sivakumar; Hunt, Danielle T; Altman, Kyle E; Crawford, Dana R

    2017-03-01

    Certain mitochondrial components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or danger signals, triggering a proinflammatory response in target (usually immune) cells. We previously reported the selective degradation of mitochondrial DNA and RNA in response to cellular oxidative stress, and the immunogenic effect of this DNA in primary mouse astrocytes. Here, we extend these studies to assess the immunogenic role of both mitochondrial DNA and RNA isolated from hydrogen peroxide (HP) treated HA1 cells (designated "DeMPs" for degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides) using mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), a conventional immune cell type. DeMPs and control mitochondrial DNA (cont mtDNA) and RNA (cont mtRNA) were transfected into BMDMs and cell-free media analyzed for the presence of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, and TNFα) and Type I interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β). Cont mtDNA induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production, and this effect was even greater with DeMP DNA. A similar response was observed for Type I interferons. An even stronger induction of proinflammatory cytokine and type 1 interferons was observed for cont mtRNA. However, contrary to DeMP DNA, DeMP RNA attenuated rather than potentiated the cont mtRNA cytokine inductions. This attenuation effect was not accompanied by an IL-10 or TGFβ anti-inflammatory response. All DeMP effects were observed at multiple oxidant concentrations. Finally, DeMP production and immunogenicity overlaps with cellular adaptive response and so may contribute to cellular oxidant protection. These results provide new insight into the immunogenicity of mitochondrial polynucleotides, and identify new roles and selective consequences of cellular oxidation.

  7. NBQX treatment improves mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative events after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaojun; Azbill, Robert D; Springer, Joe E

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of inhibiting ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes on measures of oxidative stress events at acute times following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Rats received a moderate contusion injury and 15 min later were treated with one of two doses of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzol[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium (NBQX), MK-801, or the appropriate vehicle. At 4 h following injury, spinal cords were removed and a crude synaptosomal preparation obtained to examine mitochondrial function using the MTT assay, as well as measures of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and glutamate and glucose uptake. We report here that intraspinal treatment with either 15 or 30 nmol of NBQX improves mitochondrial function and reduces the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation products. In contrast, MK-801, given intravenously at doses of 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg, was without effect on these same measures. Neither drug treatment had an effect on glutamate or glucose uptake, both of which are reduced at acute times following SCI. Previous studies have documented that drugs acting on non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors exhibit greater efficacy compared to NMDA receptor antagonists on recovery of function and tissue sparing following traumatic spinal cord injury. The results of this study provide a potential mechanism by which blockade of the non-NMDA ionotropic receptors exhibit positive effects following traumatic SCI.

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus mitochondrial electron transport chain mediates oxidative stress homeostasis, hypoxia responses, and fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Willger, Sven D.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus fumigatus alternative oxidase (aoxA) and cytochrome C (cycA) null mutants and assessed their ability to tolerate hypoxia, macrophage killing, and virulence. In contrast to ΔaoxA, ΔcycA was found to be significantly impaired in conidia germination, growth in normoxia and hypoxia, and displayed attenuated virulence. Intriguingly, loss of cycA results in increased levels of AoxA activity, which results in increased resistance to oxidative stress, macrophage killing, and long-term persistence in murine lungs. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unidentified role for fungal mitochondrial respiration in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis, and lay the foundation for future research into its role in hypoxia signaling and adaptation. PMID:22443190

  9. Linkage of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions to Spontaneous Culture Degeneration in Aspergillus nidulans*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hu, Xiao; Xia, Yongliang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Chengshu

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi including mushrooms frequently and spontaneously degenerate during subsequent culture maintenance on artificial media, which shows the loss or reduction abilities of asexual sporulation, sexuality, fruiting, and production of secondary metabolites, thus leading to economic losses during mass production. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of fungal degeneration, the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans was employed in this study for comprehensive analyses. First, linkage of oxidative stress to culture degeneration was evident in A. nidulans. Taken together with the verifications of cell biology and biochemical data, a comparative mitochondrial proteome analysis revealed that, unlike the healthy wild type, a spontaneous fluffy sector culture of A. nidulans demonstrated the characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunctions. Relative to the wild type, the features of cytochrome c release, calcium overload and up-regulation of apoptosis inducing factors evident in sector mitochondria suggested a linkage of fungal degeneration to cell apoptosis. However, the sector culture could still be maintained for generations without the signs of growth arrest. Up-regulation of the heat shock protein chaperones, anti-apoptotic factors and DNA repair proteins in the sector could account for the compromise in cell death. The results of this study not only shed new lights on the mechanisms of spontaneous degeneration of fungal cultures but will also provide alternative biomarkers to monitor fungal culture degeneration. PMID:24345786

  10. Long-lived Indy induces reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Neretti, Nicola; Wang, Pei-Yu; Brodsky, Alexander S.; Nyguyen, Hieu H.; White, Kevin P.; Rogina, Blanka; Helfand, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Decreased Indy activity extends lifespan in D. melanogaster without significant reduction in fecundity, metabolic rate, or locomotion. To understand the underlying mechanisms leading to lifespan extension in this mutant strain, we compared the genome-wide gene expression changes in the head and thorax of adult Indy mutant with control flies over the course of their lifespan. A signature enrichment analysis of metabolic and signaling pathways revealed that expression levels of genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway are significantly lower in Indy starting at day 20. We confirmed experimentally that complexes I and III of the electron transport chain have lower enzyme activity in Indy long-lived flies by Day 20 and predicted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria could be reduced. Consistently, we found that both ROS production and protein damage are reduced in Indy with respect to control. However, we did not detect significant differences in total ATP, a phenotype that could be explained by our finding of a higher mitochondrial density in Indy mutants. Thus, one potential mechanism by which Indy mutants extend life span could be through an alteration in mitochondrial physiology leading to an increased efficiency in the ATP/ROS ratio. PMID:19164521

  11. Endogenous 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopaquinone modifications on protein tyrosine: links to mitochondrially derived oxidative stress via hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Monroe, Matthew E; Chen, Baowei; Chin, Mark H; Heibeck, Tyler H; Schepmoes, Athena A; Yang, Feng; Petritis, Brianne O; Camp, David G; Pounds, Joel G; Jacobs, Jon M; Smith, Desmond J; Bigelow, Diana J; Smith, Richard D; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2010-06-01

    Oxidative modifications of protein tyrosines have been implicated in multiple human diseases. Among these modifications, elevations in levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a major product of hydroxyl radical addition to tyrosine, has been observed in a number of pathologies. Here we report the first proteome survey of endogenous site-specific modifications, i.e. DOPA and its further oxidation product dopaquinone in mouse brain and heart tissues. Results from LC-MS/MS analyses included 50 and 14 DOPA-modified tyrosine sites identified from brain and heart, respectively, whereas only a few nitrotyrosine-containing peptides, a more commonly studied marker of oxidative stress, were detectable, suggesting the much higher abundance for DOPA modification as compared with tyrosine nitration. Moreover, 20 and 12 dopaquinone-modified peptides were observed from brain and heart, respectively; nearly one-fourth of these peptides were also observed with DOPA modification on the same sites. For both tissues, these modifications are preferentially found in mitochondrial proteins with metal binding properties, consistent with metal-catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation from mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These modifications also link to a number of mitochondrially associated and other signaling pathways. Furthermore, many of the modification sites were common sites of previously reported tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting potential disruption of signaling pathways. Collectively, the results suggest that these modifications are linked with mitochondrially derived oxidative stress and may serve as sensitive markers for disease pathologies.

  12. Fatty acid binding protein facilitates sarcolemmal fatty acid transport but not mitochondrial oxidation in rat and human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Graham P; Lally, Jamie; Nickerson, James G; Alkhateeb, Hakam; Snook, Laelie A; Heigenhauser, George J F; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2007-01-01

    The transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) across mitochondrial membranes is regulated by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) activity. However, it appears that additional fatty acid transport proteins, such as fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, influence not only LCFA transport across the plasma membrane, but also LCFA transport into mitochondria. Plasma membrane-associated fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) is also known to be involved in sacrolemmal LCFA transport, and it is also present on the mitochondria. At this location, it has been identified as mitochondrial aspartate amino transferase (mAspAT), despite being structurally identical to FABPpm. Whether this protein is also involved in mitochondrial LCFA transport and oxidation remains unknown. Therefore, we have examined the ability of FABPpm/mAspAT to alter mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Muscle contraction increased (P < 0.05) the mitochondrial FAT/CD36 content in rat (+22%) and human skeletal muscle (+33%). By contrast, muscle contraction did not alter the content of mitochondrial FABPpm/mAspAT protein in either rat or human muscles. Electrotransfecting rat soleus muscles, in vivo, with FABPpm cDNA increased FABPpm protein in whole muscle (+150%; P < 0.05), at the plasma membrane (+117%; P < 0.05) and in mitochondria (+80%; P < 0.05). In these FABPpm-transfected muscles, palmitate transport into giant vesicles was increased by +73% (P < 0.05), and fatty acid oxidation in intact muscle was increased by +18% (P < 0.05). By contrast, despite the marked increase in mitochondrial FABPpm/mAspAT protein content (+80%), the rate of mitochondrial palmitate oxidation was not altered (P > 0.05). However, electrotransfection increased mAspAT activity by +70% (P < 0.05), and the mitochondrial FABPpm/mAspAT protein content was significantly correlated with mAspAT activity (r= 0.75). It is concluded that FABPpm has two distinct functions depending on its subcellular location: (a) it contributes to

  13. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  14. Survivin promotes oxidative phosphorylation, subcellular mitochondrial repositioning, and tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneira, Dayana B.; Caino, M. Cecilia; Seo, Jae Ho; Angelin, Alessia; Wallace, Douglas C.; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.

    2015-01-01

    Survivin promotes cell division and suppresses apoptosis in many human cancers, and increased abundance correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis. Here, we showed that a pool of survivin that localized to the mitochondria of certain tumor cell lines enhanced the stability of oxidative phosphorylation Complex II, which promoted cellular respiration. Survivin also supported the subcellular trafficking of mitochondria to the cortical cytoskeleton of tumor cells, which was associated with increased membrane ruffling, increased focal adhesion complex turnover, and increased tumor cell migration and invasion in cultured cells, and enhanced metastatic dissemination in vivo. Therefore, we found that mitochondrial respiration enhanced by survivin contributes to cancer metabolism, and relocalized mitochondria may provide a “regional” energy source to fuel tumor cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:26268608

  15. Metabolic interplay between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidation: The reverse Warburg effect and its therapeutic implication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis, i.e., the Warburg effect, may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, increasing evidence highlights the limitations of the Warburg effect, such as high mitochondrial respiration and low glycolysis rates in cancer cells. To explain such contradictory phenomena with regard to the Warburg effect, a metabolic interplay between glycolytic and oxidative cells was proposed, i.e., the “reverse Warburg effect”. Aerobic glycolysis may also occur in the stromal compartment that surrounds the tumor; thus, the stromal cells feed the cancer cells with lactate and this interaction prevents the creation of an acidic condition in the tumor microenvironment. This concept provides great heterogeneity in tumors, which makes the disease difficult to cure using a single agent. Understanding metabolic flexibility by lactate shuttles offers new perspectives to develop treatments that target the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and overcome the limitations of glycolytic inhibitors. PMID:26322173

  16. Hepatic Mitochondrial Alterations and Increased Oxidative Stress in Nutritional Diabetes-Prone Psammomys obesus Model

    PubMed Central

    Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M. Nieves; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; El-Mir, M. Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R.; Detaille, Dominique; Koceïr, E. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species. PMID:22675340

  17. Ferricytochrome c protects mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Fabian, Marian; Robinson, Neal C; Musatov, Andrej

    2010-11-30

    An excess of ferricytochrome c protects purified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and bound cardiolipin from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative modification. All of the peroxide-induced changes within cytochrome c oxidase, such as oxidation of Trp(19,IV) and Trp(48,VIIc), partial dissociation of subunits VIa and VIIa, and generation of cardiolipin hydroperoxide, no longer take place in the presence of ferricytochrome c. Furthermore, ferricytochrome c suppresses the yield of H(2)O(2)-induced free radical detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy within cytochrome c oxidase. These protective effects are based on two mechanisms. The first involves the peroxidase/catalase-like activity of ferricytochrome c, which results in the decomposition of H(2)O(2), with the apparent bimolecular rate constant of 5.1±1.0M(-1)s(-1). Although this value is lower than the rate constant of a specialized peroxidase, the activity is sufficient to eliminate H(2)O(2)-induced damage to cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of an excess of ferricytochrome c. The second mechanism involves ferricytochrome c-induced quenching of free radicals generated within cytochrome c oxidase. These results suggest that ferricytochrome c may have an important role in protection of cytochrome c oxidase and consequently the mitochondrion against oxidative damage.

  18. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the peroxisomal disease X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    López-Erauskin, J; Galino, J; Ruiz, M; Cuezva, J M; Fabregat, I; Cacabelos, D; Boada, J; Martínez, J; Ferrer, I; Pamplona, R; Villarroya, F; Portero-Otín, M; Fourcade, S; Pujol, A

    2013-08-15

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited metabolic disorder of the nervous system characterized by axonopathy in spinal cords and/or cerebral demyelination, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) in plasma and tissues. The disease is caused by malfunction of the ABCD1 gene, which encodes a peroxisomal transporter of VLCFAs or VLCFA-CoA. In the mouse, Abcd1 loss causes late onset axonal degeneration in the spinal cord, associated with locomotor disability resembling the most common phenotype in patients, adrenomyeloneuropathy. We have formerly shown that an excess of the VLCFA C26:0 induces oxidative damage, which underlies the axonal degeneration exhibited by the Abcd1(-) mice. In the present study, we sought to investigate the noxious effects of C26:0 on mitochondria function. Our data indicate that in X-ALD patients' fibroblasts, excess of C26:0 generates mtDNA oxidation and specifically impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) triggering mitochondrial ROS production from electron transport chain complexes. This correlates with impaired complex V phosphorylative activity, as visualized by high-resolution respirometry on spinal cord slices of Abcd1(-) mice. Further, we identified a marked oxidation of key OXPHOS system subunits in Abcd1(-) mouse spinal cords at presymptomatic stages. Altogether, our results illustrate some of the mechanistic intricacies by which the excess of a fatty acid targeted to peroxisomes activates a deleterious process of oxidative damage to mitochondria, leading to a multifaceted dysfunction of this organelle. These findings may be of relevance for patient management while unveiling novel therapeutic targets for X-ALD.

  19. Enhancement of Muscle Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity and Alterations in Insulin Action Are Lipid Species Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Nigel; Hariharan, Krit; TidAng, Jennifer; Frangioudakis, Georgia; Beale, Susan M.; Wright, Lauren E.; Zeng, Xiao Yi; Leslie, Simon J.; Li, Jing-Ya; Kraegen, Edward W.; Cooney, Gregory J.; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been reported to be less obesogenic than long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs); however, relatively little is known regarding their effect on insulin action. Here, we examined the tissue-specific effects of MCFAs on lipid metabolism and insulin action. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS C57BL6/J mice and Wistar rats were fed either a low-fat control diet or high-fat diets rich in MCFAs or LCFAs for 4–5 weeks, and markers of mitochondrial oxidative capacity, lipid levels, and insulin action were measured. RESULTS Mice fed the MCFA diet displayed reduced adiposity and better glucose tolerance than LCFA-fed animals. In skeletal muscle, triglyceride levels were increased by the LCFA diet (77%, P < 0.01) but remained at low-fat diet control levels in the MCFA-fed animals. The LCFA diet increased (20–50%, P < 0.05) markers of mitochondrial metabolism in muscle compared with low-fat diet–fed controls; however; the increase in oxidative capacity was substantially greater in MCFA-fed animals (50–140% versus low-fat–fed controls, P < 0.01). The MCFA diet induced a greater accumulation of liver triglycerides than the LCFA diet, likely due to an upregulation of several lipogenic enzymes. In rats, isocaloric feeding of MCFA or LCFA high-fat diets induced hepatic insulin resistance to a similar degree; however, insulin action was preserved at the level of low-fat diet–fed controls in muscle and adipose from MCFA-fed animals. CONCLUSIONS MCFAs reduce adiposity and preserve insulin action in muscle and adipose, despite inducing steatosis and insulin resistance in the liver. Dietary supplementation with MCFAs may therefore be beneficial for preventing obesity and peripheral insulin resistance. PMID:19720794

  20. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  1. Nuclear recruitment of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by α-syntrophin is crucial for the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aquilano, Katia; Baldelli, Sara; Ciriolo, Maria R

    2014-01-03

    Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) has various splicing variants and different subcellular localizations. nNOS can be found also in the nucleus; however, its exact role in this compartment is still not completely defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the PDZ domain allows the recruitment of nNOS to nuclei, thus favoring local NO production, nuclear protein S-nitrosylation, and induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. In particular, overexpression of PDZ-containing nNOS (nNOSα) increases S-nitrosylated CREB with consequent augmented binding on cAMP response element consensus sequence on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator (PGC)-1α promoter. The resulting PGC-1α induction is accompanied by the expression of mitochondrial genes (e.g., TFAM, MtCO1) and increased mitochondrial mass. Importantly, full active nNOS lacking PDZ domain (nNOSβ) does not localize in nuclei and fails in inducing the expression of PGC-1α. Moreover, we substantiate that the mitochondrial biogenesis normally accompanying myogenesis is associated with nuclear translocation of nNOS. We demonstrate that α-Syntrophin, which resides in nuclei of myocytes, functions as the upstream mediator of nuclear nNOS translocation and nNOS-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Overall, our results indicate that altered nNOS splicing and nuclear localization could be contributing factors in human muscular diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment.

  2. MitoTEMPO Prevents Oxalate Induced Injury in NRK-52E Cells via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Modulating Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major risks for urolithiasis, hyperoxaluria can be caused by genetic defect or dietary intake. And high oxalate induced renal epithelial cells injury is related to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether MitoTEMPO, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, could protect against oxalate mediated injury in NRK-52E cells via inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and modulating oxidative stress. MitoSOX Red was used to determine mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and quantification of ATP synthesis were measured to evaluate mitochondrial function. The protein expression of Nox4, Nox2, and p22 was also detected to explore the effect of oxalate and MitoTEMPO on NADPH oxidase. Our results revealed that pretreatment with MitoTEMPO significantly inhibited oxalate induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) release and decreased oxalate induced mtROS generation. Further, MitoTEMPO pretreatment restored disruption of Δψm and decreased ATP synthesis mediated by oxalate. In addition, MitoTEMPO altered the protein expression of Nox4 and p22 and decreased the protein expression of IL-6 and osteopontin (OPN) induced by oxalate. We concluded that MitoTEMPO may be a new candidate to protect against oxalate induced kidney injury as well as urolithiasis. PMID:28116040

  3. Neutrophil extracellular traps enriched in oxidized mitochondrial DNA are interferogenic and contribute to lupus-like disease.

    PubMed

    Lood, Christian; Blanco, Luz P; Purmalek, Monica M; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; De Ravin, Suk S; Smith, Carolyne K; Malech, Harry L; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A; Elkon, Keith B; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in autoimmunity, but how they are generated and their roles in sterile inflammation remain unclear. Ribonucleoprotein immune complexes (RNP ICs), inducers of NETosis, require mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) for maximal NET stimulation. After RNP IC stimulation of neutrophils, mitochondria become hypopolarized and translocate to the cell surface. Extracellular release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA is proinflammatory in vitro, and when this DNA is injected into mice, it stimulates type I interferon (IFN) signaling through a pathway dependent on the DNA sensor STING. Mitochondrial ROS are also necessary for spontaneous NETosis of low-density granulocytes from individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus. This was also observed in individuals with chronic granulomatous disease, who lack NADPH oxidase activity but still develop autoimmunity and type I IFN signatures. Mitochondrial ROS inhibition in vivo reduces disease severity and type I IFN responses in a mouse model of lupus. Together, these findings highlight a role for mitochondria in the generation not only of NETs but also of pro-inflammatory oxidized mitochondrial DNA in autoimmune diseases.

  4. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: Ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L.; Tudella, Valeria G.

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 {mu}M) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca{sup 2+} efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP{sup +} transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. - Graphical abstract: Guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane and induces cancer cell death Display Omitted Highlights: > We addressed the involvement of mitochondria in guttiferone (GA) toxicity toward cancer cells. > GA promoted membrane permeabilization, membrane potential dissipation, NAD(P)H depletion, ROS accumulation and ATP depletion. > These actions

  5. Activating HSP72 in rodent skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity and decreases insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Darren C; Bruce, Clinton R; Drew, Brian G; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L; Hevener, Andrea L; Febbraio, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised.

  6. Activating HSP72 in Rodent Skeletal Muscle Increases Mitochondrial Number and Oxidative Capacity and Decreases Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Henstridge, Darren C.; Bruce, Clinton R.; Drew, Brian G.; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S.; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J.; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Febbraio, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised. PMID:24430435

  7. In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Function Using Luciferase-Expressing Caenorhabditis elegans: Contribution of Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, and Fatty Acid Oxidation to Toxicant-Induced Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Luz, Anthony L; Lagido, Cristina; Hirschey, Matthew D; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are a target of many drugs and environmental toxicants; however, how toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the progression of human disease remains poorly understood. To address this issue, in vivo assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial function need to be developed. Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we describe how to rapidly assess the in vivo role of the electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation in energy metabolism following toxicant exposure, using a luciferase-expressing ATP reporter strain. Alterations in mitochondrial function subsequent to toxicant exposure are detected by depleting steady-state ATP levels with inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation. Differential changes in ATP following short-term inhibitor exposure indicate toxicant-induced alterations at the site of inhibition. Because a microplate reader is the only major piece of equipment required, this is a highly accessible method for studying toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Methionine sulfoxide reductase 2 reversibly regulates Mge1, a cochaperone of mitochondrial Hsp70, during oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Allu, Praveen Kumar; Marada, Adinarayana; Boggula, Yerranna; Karri, Srinivasu; Krishnamoorthy, Thanuja; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in protein(s). Although these reductases have been implicated in several human diseases, there is a dearth of information on the identity of their physiological substrates. By using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we show that of the two methionine sulfoxide reductases (MXR1, MXR2), deletion of mitochondrial MXR2 renders yeast cells more sensitive to oxidative stress than the cytosolic MXR1. Our earlier studies showed that Mge1, an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide exchange factor of Hsp70, acts as an oxidative sensor to regulate mitochondrial Hsp70. In the present study, we show that Mxr2 regulates Mge1 by selectively reducing MetO at position 155 and restores the activity of Mge1 both in vitro and in vivo. Mge1 M155L mutant rescues the slow-growth phenotype and aggregation of proteins of mxr2Δ strain during oxidative stress. By identifying the first mitochondrial substrate for Mxrs, we add a new paradigm to the regulation of the oxidative stress response pathway. PMID:25428986

  9. Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Palacios, Hector H; Gasimov, Eldar; Obrenovich, Mark E; Morales, Ludis; Leszek, Jerzy; Bragin, Valentin; Solís Herrera, Arturo; Gokhman, Dmitry

    2010-01-19

    Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a principal underlying event in aging, including age-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria provide energy for basic metabolic processes. Their decay with age impairs cellular metabolism and leads to a decline of cellular function. Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are two leading causes of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence strongly supports the theory that oxidative stress, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces mitochondrial damage, which arises from chronic hypoperfusion and is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis that underlies both disease processes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratios and cellular oxygen consumption decline with age and correlate with increased oxidant production. The sustained hypoperfusion and oxidative stress in brain tissues can stimulate the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and brain endothelium probably increase the accumulation of oxidative stress products, which therefore contributes to blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain parenchymal cell damage. Determining the mechanisms behind these imbalances may provide crucial information in the development of new, more effective therapies for stroke and AD patients in the near future.

  10. THE PRESENCE OF THE OVARY PREVENTS HEPATIC MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDATIVE STRESS IN YOUNG AND AGED FEMALE MICE THROUGH GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE 1

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Ana P.; Schappal, Anna E.; Morris, E. Matthew; Thyfault, John P.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Spangenburg, Espen E.

    2016-01-01

    Background For unknown reasons a woman’s risk for developing the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) increases dramatically with age and/or loss of ovarian function. The MetS is characterized by hepatic insulin resistance (IR), which is strongly associated with intrahepatic lipid (IHL) accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the endocrine function of the ovary can directly impact hepatic mitochondrial function, this hypothesis remains untested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the influence of age and secretory function of the ovary on mechanisms that regulate hepatic mitochondrial function. Methods Adult (10 week-old) and aged (88 week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were separated into two groups to undergo bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or control surgery (SHAM). Eight weeks after surgery hepatic tissue was removed for measurements of total IHL and fatty acid species within hepatic triglycerides, mitochondrial function, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results Hepatic IHL content was not affected by OVX, but was increased by age. OVX had no effect on mitochondrial respiration, however, hepatic mitochondria from aged mice had lower O2 consumption, lower complex IV and higher complex I content. Mitochondrial H2O2 production was highest in OVX groups and exacerbated by age, while mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was highest in the aged mice and exacerbated by OVX. Regardless of age, OVX resulted in lower mitochondrial content of antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). Isolated liver tissue from a sub-set of animals were acutely treated with conditioned ovarian media which increased Gpx1 mRNA expression compared to vehicle treated liver tissue. Conclusion Ovarian secretory function is necessary for the maintenance of hepatic ROS buffering capacity in the mitochondria, while age significantly influences mitochondrial respiration. These data suggest that when age is coupled with loss of

  11. Bisphenol A induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts from children with autism and unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kulbir; Chauhan, Ved; Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Abha

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. Although there is no single identifiable cause for autism, roles for genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in autism. Extensive evidence suggests increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in autism. In this study, we examined whether bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental risk factor for autism by studying its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the lymphoblasts. When lymphoblastoid cells from autistic subjects and age-matched unaffected sibling controls were exposed to BPA, there was an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in both groups. A further subdivision of the control group into two subgroups-unaffected nontwin siblings and twin siblings-showed significantly higher ROS levels without any exposure to BPA in the unaffected twin siblings compared to the unaffected nontwin siblings. ROS levels were also significantly higher in the autism vs the unaffected nontwin siblings group. The effect of BPA on three important mtDNA genes-NADH dehydrogenase 1, NADH dehydrogenase 4, and cytochrome b-was analyzed to observe any changes in the mitochondria after BPA exposure. BPA induced a significant increase in the mtDNA copy number in the lymphoblasts from the unaffected siblings group and in the unaffected twin siblings group vs the unaffected nontwin siblings. In all three genes, the mtDNA increase was seen in 70% of the subjects. These results suggest that BPA exposure results in increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the autistic subjects as well as the age-matched sibling control subjects, particularly unaffected twin siblings. Therefore, BPA may act as an environmental risk factor for autism in genetically susceptible children by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

  12. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  13. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y Y; Song, J H; Shin, Y K; Han, E S; Lee, C S

    2000-10-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic tissue damage. Several antioxidants have been described as beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1, 10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid found in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), and has been shown to possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. From this point of view, the possible anti-diabetic effect of boldine and its mechanism were evaluated. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, boldine (100 mg kg(-1), daily in drinking water), diabetic [single dose of 80 mg kg(-1)of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p.] and diabetic simultaneously fed with boldine for 8 weeks. Diabetic status was evaluated periodically with changes of plasma glucose levels and body weight in rats. The effect of boldine on the STZ-induced diabetic rats was examined with the formation of malondialdehydes and carbonyls and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria of the pancreas, kidney and liver. The scavenging action of boldine on oxygen free radicals and the effect on mitochondrial free-radical production were also investigated. The treatment of boldine attenuated the development of hyperglycemia and weight loss induced by STZ injection in rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyls in liver, kidney and pancreas mitochondria were significantly increased in STZ-treated rats and decreased after boldine administration. The activities of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the liver, pancreas and kidney were significantly elevated in STZ-treated rats. Boldine administration decreased STZ-induced elevation of MnSOD activity in kidney and pancreas mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria. In the STZ-treated group, glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in liver

  14. Impaired fatty acid oxidation in a Drosophila model of mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kishita, Yoshihito; Tsuda, Manabu; Aigaki, Toshiro

    2012-03-09

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), which consists of the MTPα and MTPβ subunits, catalyzes long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. MTP deficiency in humans results in Reye-like syndrome. Here, we generated Drosophila models of MTP deficiency by targeting two genes encoding Drosophila homologs of human MTPα and MTPβ, respectively. Both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies were viable, but demonstrated reduced lifespan, defective locomotor activity, and reduced fecundity represented by the number of eggs laid by the females. The phenotypes of Mtpα(KO) flies were generally more striking than those of Mtpβ(KO) flies. Mtpα(KO) flies were hypersensitive to fasting, and retained lipid droplets in their fat body cells as in non-fasting conditions. The amount of triglyceride was also unchanged upon fasting in Mtpα(KO) flies, suggesting that lipid mobilization was disrupted. Finally, we showed that both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies accumulated acylcarnitine and hydroxyacylcarnitine, diagnostic markers of MTP deficiencies in humans. Our results indicated that both Mtpα(KO) and Mtpβ(KO) flies were impaired in long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. These flies should be useful as a model system to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of MTP deficiency.

  15. Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lages, Yury M.; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Lemos, Gabriela A.; Galina, Antonio; Castilho, Leda R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen concentration should be carefully regulated in all living tissues, beginning at the early embryonic stages. Unbalances in oxygen regulation can lead to cell death and disease. However, to date, few studies have investigated the consequences of variations in oxygen levels for fetal-like cells. Therefore, in the present work, human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells grown in 3% oxygen (v/v) were compared with NPCs cultured in 21% (v/v) oxygen. Low oxygen concentrations altered the mitochondrial content and oxidative functions of the cells, which led to improved ATP production, while reducing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NPCs cultured in both conditions showed no differences in proliferation and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymatic activity was not altered in NPCs cultured in 3% oxygen under normal conditions, however, when exposed to external agents known to induce oxidative stress, greater susceptibility to DNA damage was observed. Our findings indicate that the management of oxygen levels should be considered for in vitro models of neuronal development and drug screening. PMID:26713239

  16. Fatty Acid Oxidation-Driven Src Links Mitochondrial Energy Reprogramming and Regulation of Oncogenic Properties in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B.; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R.; Graham, Brett H.; Frigo, Daniel E.; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T.; Creighton, Chad J.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Summary Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models, confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis. PMID:26923594

  17. Fatty Acid Oxidation-Driven Src Links Mitochondrial Energy Reprogramming and Oncogenic Properties in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R; Graham, Brett H; Frigo, Daniel E; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T; Creighton, Chad J; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-03-08

    Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis.

  18. Left Ventricular Transmural Gradient in Mitochondrial Respiration Is Associated with Increased Sub-Endocardium Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Productions

    PubMed Central

    Kindo, Michel; Gerelli, Sébastien; Bouitbir, Jamal; Hoang Minh, Tam; Charles, Anne-Laure; Mazzucotelli, Jean-Philippe; Zoll, Joffrey; Piquard, François; Geny, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Left ventricle (LV) transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration has been recently reported. However, to date, the physiological mechanisms involved in the lower endocardium mitochondrial respiration chain capacity still remain to be determined. Since, nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression in the heart has spatial heterogeneity and might impair mitochondrial function, we investigated a potential association between LV transmural NO and mitochondrial function gradient. Methods: Maximal oxidative capacity (VMax) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (VSucc) and IV (VTMPD), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H2O2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). Further, the effect of a direct NO donor (MAHMA NONOate) on maximal mitochondrial respiratory rates (Vmax) was determined. Results: Mitochondrial respiratory chain activities were reduced in the Endo compared with the Epi (−16.92%; P = 0.04 for Vmax and –18.73%; P = 0.02, for Vsucc, respectively). NO production was two-fold higher in the Endo compared with the Epi (P = 0.002) and interestingly, increasing NO concentration reduced Vmax. Mitochondrial H2O2 and LV ROS productions were significantly increased in Endo compared to Epi, citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial coupling being similar in the two layers. Conclusions: LV mitochondrial respiration transmural gradient is likely related to NO and possibly ROS increased production in the sub-endocardium. PMID:27582709

  19. Nitric oxide and DOPAC-induced cell death: from GSH depletion to mitochondrial energy crisis.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Carla; Barbosa, Rui M; Almeida, Leonor; Laranjinha, João

    2011-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms inherent to cell death associated with Parkinson's disease are not clearly understood. Diverse pathways, sequence of events and models have been explored in several studies. Recently, we have proposed an integrative mechanism, encompassing the interaction of nitric oxide (•NO) and a major dopamine metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic (DOPAC), leading to a synergistic mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death that may be operative in PD. In this study, we have studied the sequence of events underlying the mechanisms of cell death in PC12 cells exposed to •NO and DOPAC in terms of: a) free radical production; b) modulation by glutathione (GSH); c) energetic status and d) outer membrane mitochondria permeability. Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) it is shown the early production of oxygen free radicals followed by a depletion of GSH reflected by an increase of GSSG/GSH ratio in the cells treated with the mixture of •NO/DOPAC, as compared with the cells individually exposed to each of the stimulus. Glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may rescue cells from death, increasing GSH content and preventing ATP loss in cells treated with the mixture DOPAC/•NO but failed to exert similar effects in the cells challenged only with •NO. The depletion of GSH is accompanied by a decreased activity of mitochondrial complex I. At a later stage, the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO include a rise in the ratio Bax/Bcl-2, an observation not evident when cells were exposed only to •NO. The results support a free radical-induced pathway leading to cell death involving the concerted action of DOPAC and •NO and the critical role of GSH in maintaining a functional mitochondria.

  20. Mitochondrial oxidative stress mediates high-phosphate-induced secretory defects and apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet Thi; Quan, Xianglan; Hwang, Kyu-Hee; Xu, Shanhua; Das, Ranjan; Choi, Seong-Kyung; Wiederkehr, Andreas; Wollheim, Claes B; Cha, Seung-Kuy; Park, Kyu-Sang

    2015-06-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) plays an important role in cell signaling and energy metabolism. In insulin-releasing cells, Pi transport into mitochondria is essential for the generation of ATP, a signaling factor in metabolism-secretion coupling. Elevated Pi concentrations, however, can have toxic effects in various cell types. The underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the effect of Pi on secretory function and apoptosis in INS-1E clonal β-cells and rat pancreatic islets. Elevated extracellular Pi (1~5 mM) increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), superoxide generation, caspase activation, and cell death. Depolarization of the ΔΨm abolished Pi-induced superoxide generation. Butylmalonate, a nonselective blocker of mitochondrial phosphate transporters, prevented ΔΨm hyperpolarization, superoxide generation, and cytotoxicity caused by Pi. High Pi also promoted the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) pore, leading to apoptosis, which was also prevented by butylmalonate. The mitochondrial antioxidants mitoTEMPO or MnTBAP prevented Pi-triggered PT pore opening and cytotoxicity. Elevated extracellular Pi diminished ATP synthesis, cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations, and insulin content and secretion in INS-1E cells as well as in dispersed islet cells. These parameters were restored following preincubation with mitochondrial antioxidants. This treatment also prevented high-Pi-induced phosphorylation of ER stress proteins. We propose that elevated extracellular Pi causes mitochondrial oxidative stress linked to mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Such stress results in reduced insulin content and defective insulin secretion and cytotoxicity. Our data explain the decreased insulin content and secretion observed under hyperphosphatemic states.

  1. C-phycocyanin confers protection against oxalate-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shukkur M; Boppana, Nithin B; Devarajan, Asokan; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D; Shankar, Esaki M; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A; Karthik, Harve S; Ebrahim, Abdul S

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis.

  2. Oxidative stress and susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition precedes the onset of diabetes in autoimmune non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, C; La Guardia, P G; Leite, A C R; Oliveira, D N; de Lima Zollner, R L; Catharino, R R; Vercesi, A E; Oliveira, H C F

    2014-12-01

    Beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes (TID) is associated with cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine whether oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are present in T1D model (non-obese diabetic mouse, NOD) and if they are related to the stages of disease development. NOD mice were studied at three stages: non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, and diabetic and compared with age-matched Balb/c mice. Mitochondria respiration rates measured at phosphorylating and resting states in liver and soleus biopsies and in isolated liver mitochondria were similar in NOD and Balb/c mice at the three disease stages. However, NOD liver mitochondria were more susceptible to calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition as determined by cyclosporine-A-sensitive swelling and by decreased calcium retention capacity in all three stages of diabetes development. Mitochondria H2O2 production rate was higher in non-diabetic, but unaltered in pre-diabetic and diabetic NOD mice. The global cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not specific mitochondria ROS production, was significantly increased in NOD lymphomononuclear and stem cells in all disease stages. In addition, marked elevated rates of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H2DCF) oxidation were observed in pancreatic islets from non-diabetic NOD mice. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and lipidomic approach, we identified oxidized lipid markers in NOD liver mitochondria for each disease stage, most of them being derivatives of diacylglycerols and phospholipids. These results suggest that the cellular oxidative stress precedes the establishment of diabetes and may be the cause of mitochondrial dysfunction that is involved in beta cell death.

  3. Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    He, Huamei; Tao, Hai; Xiong, Hui; Duan, Sheng Zhong; McGowan, Francis X; Mortensen, Richard M; Balschi, James A

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (RSG), a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, causes cardiotoxicity independently of PPARγ. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in perfused hearts isolated from C57BL/6, cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ-deficient mice, and their littermates. Cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative stress were measured in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Treatment of isolated hearts with RSG at the supratherapeutic concentrations of 10 and 30 μM caused myocardial energy deficiency as evidenced by the decreases in [PCr], [ATP], ATP/ADP ratio, energy charge with a concomitant cardiac dysfunction as indicated by the decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, rates of tension development and relaxation, and by an increase in end-diastolic pressure. When incubated with tissue homogenate or isolated mitochondria at these same concentrations, RSG caused mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by the decreases in respiration rate, substrate oxidation rates, and activities of complexes I and IV. RSG also increased complexes I- and III-dependent O₂⁻ production, decreased glutathione content, inhibited superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in mitochondria, consistent with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 20 mM prevented RSG-induced above toxicity at those in vitro settings. Cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ deletion and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the observed cardiotoxicity. Intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg RSG also caused cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress, 600 mg/kg NAC antagonized these adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RSG at supratherapeutic concentrations causes cardiotoxicity via a PPARγ-independent mechanism involving oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse hearts.

  4. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunction Induced by Single- and Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Ghanbary, Fatemeh; Seydi, Enayatollah; Ghasemi, Alireza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Ashtari, Khadijeh; Akbari, Mohsen

    2017-03-10

    With the ever-increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in health-related and engineering applications, the hazardous risks of this material have become a major concern. It is well-known that CNTs accumulate with cytotoxic and genotoxic levels within vital organs. It has also been shown that treating cell cultures with CNTs resulted in cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis/necrosis. The goal of this pilot study is to perform a comprehensive comparative study on the toxicity of single-wall (SW) and multi-wall (MW) carbon nanotubes in rat skin cells. Our results confirm a dose-dependent toxicity of SWCNT and MWCNT due to the loss of mitochondrial activity, increase in mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse before mitochondrial swelling. Moreover, disturbance in the oxidative phosphorylation is observed by a decrease in ATP level. These events induced the release of cytochrome c via outer membrane rupture or MPT pore opening and subsequently programmed cell-death of all doses compared to control group. Our results demonstrate that although MWCNT can be very toxic, SWCNT cause more mitochondrial damage to the cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation compensation may preserve vision in patients with OPA1-linked autosomal dominant optic atrophy.

    PubMed

    Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Kearns, Lisa S; Staffieri, Sandra E; Hewitt, Alex W; Cohn, Amy C; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy where vision impairment results from specific loss of retinal ganglion cells of the optic nerve. Around 60% of ADOA cases are linked to mutations in the OPA1 gene. OPA1 is a fission-fusion protein involved in mitochondrial inner membrane remodelling. ADOA presents with marked variation in clinical phenotype and varying degrees of vision loss, even among siblings carrying identical mutations in OPA1. To determine whether the degree of vision loss is associated with the level of mitochondrial impairment, we examined mitochondrial function in lymphoblast cell lines obtained from six large Australian OPA1-linked ADOA pedigrees. Comparing patients with severe vision loss (visual acuity [VA]<6/36) and patients with relatively preserved vision (VA>6/9) a clear defect in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and reduced respiration rates were observed in patients with poor vision. In addition, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymology in ADOA patients with normal vision revealed increased complex II+III activity and levels of complex IV protein. These data suggest that OPA1 deficiency impairs OXPHOS efficiency, but compensation through increases in the distal complexes of the respiratory chain may preserve mitochondrial ATP production in patients who maintain normal vision. Identification of genetic variants that enable this response may provide novel therapeutic insights into OXPHOS compensation for preventing vision loss in optic neuropathies.

  6. A novel immunofluorescent assay to investigate oxidative phosphorylation deficiency in mitochondrial myopathy: understanding mechanisms and improving diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Mariana C; Grady, John P; Grünewald, Anne; Vincent, Amy; Dobson, Philip F; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Rygiel, Karolina A

    2015-10-15

    Oxidative phosphorylation defects in human tissues are often challenging to quantify due to a mosaic pattern of deficiency. Biochemical assays are difficult to interpret due to the varying enzyme deficiency levels found in individual cells. Histochemical analysis allows semi-quantitative assessment of complex II and complex IV activities, but there is no validated histochemical assay to assess complex I activity which is frequently affected in mitochondrial pathology. To help improve the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease and to study the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial abnormalities in disease, we have developed a quadruple immunofluorescent technique enabling the quantification of key respiratory chain subunits of complexes I and IV, together with an indicator of mitochondrial mass and a cell membrane marker. This assay gives precise and objective quantification of protein abundance in large numbers of individual muscle fibres. By assessing muscle biopsies from subjects with a range of different mitochondrial genetic defects we have demonstrated that specific genotypes exhibit distinct biochemical signatures in muscle, providing evidence for the diagnostic use of the technique, as well as insight into the underlying molecular pathology. Stringent testing for reproducibility and sensitivity confirms the potential value of the technique for mechanistic studies of disease and in the evaluation of therapeutic approaches.

  7. Attenuation of Ca2+ homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions in diabetic rat heart: insulin therapy or aerobic exercise?

    PubMed

    da Silva, Márcia F; Natali, Antônio J; da Silva, Edson; Gomes, Gilton J; Teodoro, Bruno G; Cunha, Daise N Q; Drummond, Lucas R; Drummond, Filipe R; Moura, Anselmo G; Belfort, Felipe G; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Maldonado, Izabel R S C; Alberici, Luciane C

    2015-07-15

    We tested the effects of swimming training and insulin therapy, either alone or in combination, on the intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial functions in diabetic rat hearts. Male Wistar rats were separated into control, diabetic, or diabetic plus insulin groups. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Insulin-treated groups received 1 to 4 UI of insulin daily for 8 wk. Each group was divided into sedentary or exercised rats. Trained groups were submitted to swimming (90 min/day, 5 days/wk, 8 wk). [Ca(2+)]i transient in left ventricular myocytes (LVM), oxidative stress in LV tissue, and mitochondrial functions in the heart were assessed. Diabetes reduced the amplitude and prolonged the times to peak and to half decay of the [Ca(2+)]i transient in LVM, increased NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox-4) expression, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased carbonyl protein contents in LV tissue. In isolated mitochondria, diabetes increased Ca(2+) uptake, susceptibility to permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) expression, and oxygen consumption but reduced H2O2 release. Swimming training corrected the time course of the [Ca(2+)]i transient, UCP-2 expression, and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Insulin replacement further normalized [Ca(2+)]i transient amplitude, Nox-4 expression, and carbonyl content. Alongside these benefits, the combination of both therapies restored the LV tissue SOD and mitochondrial O2 consumption, H2O2 release, and MPTP opening. In conclusion, the combination of swimming training with insulin replacement was more effective in attenuating intracellular Ca(2+) disruptions, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunctions in STZ-induced diabetic rat hearts.

  8. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, catalase and markers of oxidative stress in platelets of patients with severe aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Sharma, D R; Verma, D; Bhalla, A; Gill, K D; Singh, S

    2013-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used fumigant and rodenticide, leads to high mortality if ingested. Its toxicity is due to phosphine that is liberated when it comes in contact with moisture. The exact site or mechanism of action of phosphine is not known, although it is widely believed that it affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Basic serum biochemical parameters, activity of mitochondrial complexes, antioxidant enzymes and parameters of oxidative stress were estimated in the platelets of 21 patients who developed severe poisoning following ALP ingestion. These parameters were compared with 32 healthy controls and with 22 patients with shock due to other causes (cardiogenic shock (11), septic shock (9) and hemorrhagic shock (2)). The serum levels of creatine kinase-muscle brain and lactate dehydrogenase were higher in patients poisoned with ALP, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV. The activity of catalase was lower but the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected in them. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation was observed, whereas total blood thiol levels were lower. In patients severely poisoned with ALP, not only cytochrome c oxidase but also other complexes are involved in mitochondrial electron transport, and enzymes are also inhibited.

  9. Solid phase synthesis of mitochondrial triphenylphosphonium-vitamin E metabolite using a lysine linker for reversal of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Soto, Jamie; Lim, Carol S; Abel, E Dale

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants has been an area of interest due to the mitochondria's role in producing and metabolizing reactive oxygen species. Antioxidants, especially vitamin E (α-tocopherol), have been conjugated to lipophilic cations to increase their mitochondrial targeting. Synthetic vitamin E analogues have also been produced as an alternative to α-tocopherol. In this paper, we investigated the mitochondrial targeting of a vitamin E metabolite, 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC), which is similar in structure to vitamin E analogues. We report a fast and efficient method to conjugate the water-soluble metabolite, α-CEHC, to triphenylphosphonium cation via a lysine linker using solid phase synthesis. The efficacy of the final product (MitoCEHC) to lower oxidative stress was tested in bovine aortic endothelial cells. In addition the ability of MitoCEHC to target the mitochondria was examined in type 2 diabetes db/db mice. The results showed mitochondrial accumulation in vivo and oxidative stress decrease in vitro.

  10. Solid Phase Synthesis of Mitochondrial Triphenylphosphonium-Vitamin E Metabolite Using a Lysine Linker for Reversal of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Soto, Jamie; Lim, Carol S.; Abel, E. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants has been an area of interest due to the mitochondria's role in producing and metabolizing reactive oxygen species. Antioxidants, especially vitamin E (α-tocopherol), have been conjugated to lipophilic cations to increase their mitochondrial targeting. Synthetic vitamin E analogues have also been produced as an alternative to α-tocopherol. In this paper, we investigated the mitochondrial targeting of a vitamin E metabolite, 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2′-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC), which is similar in structure to vitamin E analogues. We report a fast and efficient method to conjugate the water-soluble metabolite, α-CEHC, to triphenylphosphonium cation via a lysine linker using solid phase synthesis. The efficacy of the final product (MitoCEHC) to lower oxidative stress was tested in bovine aortic endothelial cells. In addition the ability of MitoCEHC to target the mitochondria was examined in type 2 diabetes db/db mice. The results showed mitochondrial accumulation in vivo and oxidative stress decrease in vitro. PMID:23341934

  11. AMPA receptor activation causes preferential mitochondrial Ca²⁺ load and oxidative stress in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Tewari, Bhanu P; Singh, Mahendra; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2015-08-07

    It is well established that motor neurons are highly vulnerable to glutamate induced excitotoxicity. The selective vulnerability of these neurons has been attributed to AMPA receptor mediated excessive rise in cytosolic calcium and consequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Earlier we have reported that in motor neurons a generic rise in [Ca(2+)]i does not always lead to mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading and membrane depolarization but it occurs upon AMPA receptor activation. The mechanism of such specific mitochondrial involvement upon AMPA receptor activation is not known. The present study examines the mitochondrial Ca(2+) regulation and oxidative stress in spinal cord neurons upon AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor activation. Stimulating the spinal neurons with AMPA exhibited a sharp rise in [Ca(2+)]m in both motor and other spinal neurons that was sustained up to the end of recording time of 30min. The rise in [Ca(2+)]m was substantially higher in motor neurons than in other spinal neurons which could be due to the differential mitochondrial homeostasis in two types of neurons. To examine this possibility, we measured AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading in the presence of mitochondrial inhibitors. In both cell types the AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading was blocked by mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocker ruthenium red. In motor neurons it was also inhibited substantially by CGP37157 and cyclosporine-A, the blockers of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) respectively, whereas no effect of these agents was observed in other spinal neurons. Thus in motor neurons the Ca(2+) sequestration by mitochondria occurs through mitochondrial calcium uniporter as well as due to reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, in contrast the latter pathway does not contribute in other spinal neurons. The ROS formation was inhibited by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME in both types of neurons, however the mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor rotenone

  12. The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta; Weinman, Steven A.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-03-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 {+-} 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

  13. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

    PubMed

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  14. Oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet and preventive effect of polyphenols: Involvement of mitochondrial and NAD(P)H oxidase systems.

    PubMed

    Feillet-Coudray, C; Sutra, T; Fouret, G; Ramos, J; Wrutniak-Cabello, C; Cabello, G; Cristol, J P; Coudray, C

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase systems and oxidative stress were investigated in 12 week high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-fed rats. A protective effect of wine polyphenol (PP) extract was also examined. In liver, maximal activities of CII and CII+III mitochondrial complexes were decreased but NADPH oxidase expression (p22(phox) and p47(phox)) and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anion production were not modified, whereas oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation products and antioxidant systems) was increased with HFHS diet. In muscle, anion superoxide production was slightly increased while mitochondrial complex activities and lipid and protein oxidation products were not modified with HFHS diet. In heart, NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production were increased, and maximal activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes or oxidative stress parameters were not modified. Wine polyphenol extract had an inhibiting effect on liver oxidative stress and on heart NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production, and on induction of hepatic steatosis with HFHS diet. Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction could be a primary event in the development of oxidative stress in liver, while in skeletal muscle and in heart the NADPH oxidase system seems to be mainly involved in oxidative stress. Wine polyphenol extract was shown to partially prevent oxidative stress in liver and heart tissues and to nearly completely prevent steatosis development in liver.

  15. RIP1 maintains DNA integrity and cell proliferation by regulating PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, Q; Bai, L; Chen, W; Wang, X; Tellez, C S; Leng, S; Padilla, M T; Nyunoya, T; Belinsky, S A; Lin, Y

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect contributes to cancer cell proliferation; however, how this glucose metabolism pathway is precisely regulated remains elusive. Here we show that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a cell death and survival signaling factor, regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Loss of RIP1 in lung cancer cells suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression, impairing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and accelerating glycolysis, resulting in spontaneous DNA damage and p53-mediated cell proliferation inhibition. Thus, although aerobic glycolysis within a certain range favors cancer cell proliferation, excessive glycolysis causes cytostasis. Our data suggest that maintenance of glycolysis by RIP1 is pivotal to cancer cell energy homeostasis and DNA integrity and may be exploited for use in anticancer therapy.

  16. RIP1 maintains DNA integrity and cell proliferation by regulating PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Wang, Q; Bai, L; Chen, W; Wang, X; Tellez, C S; Leng, S; Padilla, M T; Nyunoya, T; Belinsky, S A; Lin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect contributes to cancer cell proliferation; however, how this glucose metabolism pathway is precisely regulated remains elusive. Here we show that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a cell death and survival signaling factor, regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Loss of RIP1 in lung cancer cells suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression, impairing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and accelerating glycolysis, resulting in spontaneous DNA damage and p53-mediated cell proliferation inhibition. Thus, although aerobic glycolysis within a certain range favors cancer cell proliferation, excessive glycolysis causes cytostasis. Our data suggest that maintenance of glycolysis by RIP1 is pivotal to cancer cell energy homeostasis and DNA integrity and may be exploited for use in anticancer therapy. PMID:24583643

  17. Involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial/lysosomal cross-talk in olanzapine cytotoxicity in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Aziz; Azarmi, Yadollah; Parvizpur, Alireza; Eghbal, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    1. Olanzapine (OLZ) is a widely used atypical antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia and other disorders. Serious hepatotoxicity and elevated liver enzymes have been reported in patients receiving OLZ. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the OLZ hepatotoxicity are unknown. 2. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of OLZ on freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was assessed. Our results showed that the cytotoxicity of OLZ in hepatocytes is mediated by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial potential collapse, lysosomal membrane leakiness, GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation preceding cell lysis. All the aforementioned OLZ-induced cellular events were significantly (p < 0.05) prevented by ROS scavengers, antioxidants, endocytosis inhibitors and adenosine triphosphate generators. Also, the present results demonstrated that CYP450 is involved in OLZ-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity mechanism. 3. It is concluded that OLZ hepatotoxicity is associated with both mitochondrial/lysosomal involvement following the initiation of oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

  18. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products on the cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of BDE 47.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Andrew; Kruse, Shane E; Marcinek, David J; Gallagher, Evan P

    2015-06-01

    High levels of the flame retardant 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 47) have been detected in Pacific salmon sampled near urban areas, raising concern over the safety of salmon consumption. However, salmon fillets also contain the antioxidants eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), whose oxidation products induce cellular antioxidant responses. Because oxidative stress is a mechanism of BDE 47 toxicity, we hypothesized that oxidized EPA and DHA can ameliorate the cellular and mitochondrial toxicity of BDE 47. HepG2 cells were treated with a mixture of oxidized EPA and DHA (oxEPA/oxDHA) at a ratio relevant to salmon consumption (1.5/1 oxEPA/oxDHA) followed by exposure to 100 μM BDE 47. Pretreatment with oxEPA/oxDHA for 12 h prior to BDE 47 exposure prevented BDE 47-mediated depletion of glutathione, and increased expression of antioxidant response genes. oxEPA/oxDHA also reduced the level of reactive oxygen species production by BDE 47. The oxEPA/oxDHA antioxidant responses were associated with partial protection against BDE 47-induced loss of viability and also mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial electron transport system functional analysis revealed extensive inhibition of State 3 respiration and maximum respiratory capacity by BDE 47 were partially reversed by oxEPA/oxDHA. Our findings indicate that the antioxidant effects of oxEPA/oxDHA protect against short exposures to BDE 47, including a protective role of these compounds on maintaining cellular and mitochondrial function.

  19. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by fish muscle mitochondria: Potential role in acute heat-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Banh, Sheena; Wiens, Lilian; Sotiri, Emianka; Treberg, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Acute heat challenge is known to induce cell-level oxidative stress in fishes. Mitochondria are well known for the capacity to make reactive oxygen species (ROS) and as such are often implicated as a source of the oxidants associated with this thermally-induced oxidative stress. This implication is often asserted, despite little direct data for mitochondrial ROS metabolism in fishes. Here we characterize mitochondrial ROS metabolism in three Actinopterygian fish species at two levels, the capacity for superoxide/H2O2 production and the antioxidant thiol-reductase enzyme activities. We find that red muscle mitochondria from all three species have measurable ROS production and respond to different assay conditions consistent with what might be anticipated; assuming similar relative contributions from difference ROS producing sites as found in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. Although there are species and assay specific exceptions, fish mitochondria may have a greater capacity to produce ROS than that found in the rat when either normalized to respiratory capacity or determined at a common assay temperature. The interspecific differences in ROS production are not correlated with thiol-based antioxidant reductase activities. Moreover, mimicking an acute in vivo heat stress by comparing the impact of increasing assay temperature on these processes in vitro, we find evidence supporting a preferential activation of mitochondrial H2O2 production relative to the increase in the capacity of reductase enzymes to supply electrons to the mitochondrial matrix peroxidases. This supports the contention that mitochondria may be, at least in part, responsible for the ROS that lead to oxidative stress in fish tissues exposed to acute heat challenge.

  20. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D

    2015-01-01

    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  1. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the L-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Mitochondrial PKM2 regulates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by stabilizing Bcl2

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ji; Cao, Ruixiu; Wang, Xiongjun; Zhang, Yajuan; Wang, Pan; Gao, Hong; Li, Chen; Yang, Fan; Zeng, Rong; Wei, Ping; Li, Dawei; Li, Wenfeng; Yang, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) catalyzes the last step of glycolysis and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that PKM2 also regulates apoptosis. However, the mechanisms underlying such a role of PKM2 remain elusive. Here we show that PKM2 translocates to mitochondria under oxidative stress. In the mitochondria, PKM2 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl2 at threonine (T) 69. This phosphorylation prevents the binding of Cul3-based E3 ligase to Bcl2 and subsequent degradation of Bcl2. A chaperone protein, HSP90α1, is required for this function of PKM2. HSP90α1's ATPase activity launches a conformational change of PKM2 and facilitates interaction between PKM2 and Bcl2. Replacement of wild-type Bcl2 with phosphorylation-deficient Bcl2 T69A mutant sensitizes glioma cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and impairs brain tumor formation in an orthotopic xenograft model. Notably, a peptide that is composed of the amino acid residues from 389 to 405 of PKM2, through which PKM2 binds to Bcl2, disrupts PKM2-Bcl2 interaction, promotes Bcl2 degradation and impairs brain tumor growth. In addition, levels of Bcl2 T69 phosphorylation, conformation-altered PKM2 and Bcl2 protein correlate with one another in specimens of human glioblastoma patients. Moreover, levels of Bcl2 T69 phosphorylation and conformation-altered PKM2 correlate with both grades and prognosis of glioma malignancy. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism through which mitochondrial PKM2 phosphorylates Bcl2 and inhibits apoptosis directly, highlight the essential role of PKM2 in ROS adaptation of cancer cells, and implicate HSP90-PKM2-Bcl2 axis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in glioblastoma. PMID:28035139

  3. Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Assis; Araujo Vieira, Francielli; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Mulling dos Santos, Matheus; Ramos, Angelica; Dias Ferreira, Rafael; Teixeira de Macedo, Gabriel; Vargas Klimaczewski, Claudia; Lopes Seeger, Rodrigo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda B.

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous-leaf extract of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata are traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and cancer, especially in South America, Africa, and Asia. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as their protective activities against toxic agents. Phytochemical screenings of the extracts were carried out by HPLC analysis. The in vitro antioxidant capacities were compared by DPPH radical scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activities. Mitochondrial parameters observed were swelling, lipid peroxidation and dehydrogenase activity. The major chemical constituent of S. cumini was rutin. In B. forficata were predominant quercetin and gallic acid. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity at all tested concentrations, while B. forficata had not similar property. In mitochondria, high concentrations of B. forficata alone induced a decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, but low concentrations of this extract prevented the effect induced by Fe2++H2O2. This was also observed with high concentrations of S. cumini. Both extracts partially prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/citrate. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+, while B. forficata alone induced swelling more than Ca2+. This study suggests that leaf extract of S. cumini might represent a useful therapeutic for the treatment of diseases related with mitochondrial dysfunctions. On the other hand, the consumption of B. forficata should be avoided because mitochondrial damages were observed, and this possibly may pose risk to human health. PMID:27152111

  4. Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Assis; Araujo Vieira, Francielli; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Mulling Dos Santos, Matheus; Ramos, Angelica; Dias Ferreira, Rafael; Teixeira de Macedo, Gabriel; Vargas Klimaczewski, Claudia; Lopes Seeger, Rodrigo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda B

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous-leaf extract of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata are traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and cancer, especially in South America, Africa, and Asia. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as their protective activities against toxic agents. Phytochemical screenings of the extracts were carried out by HPLC analysis. The in vitro antioxidant capacities were compared by DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(2+) chelating activities. Mitochondrial parameters observed were swelling, lipid peroxidation and dehydrogenase activity. The major chemical constituent of S. cumini was rutin. In B. forficata were predominant quercetin and gallic acid. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity at all tested concentrations, while B. forficata had not similar property. In mitochondria, high concentrations of B. forficata alone induced a decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, but low concentrations of this extract prevented the effect induced by Fe(2+)+H2O2. This was also observed with high concentrations of S. cumini. Both extracts partially prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/citrate. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+), while B. forficata alone induced swelling more than Ca(2+). This study suggests that leaf extract of S. cumini might represent a useful therapeutic for the treatment of diseases related with mitochondrial dysfunctions. On the other hand, the consumption of B. forficata should be avoided because mitochondrial damages were observed, and this possibly may pose risk to human health.

  5. On the mechanisms of phenothiazine-induced mitochondrial permeability transition: Thiol oxidation, strict Ca2+ dependence, and cyt c release.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Thiago S; Faria, Priscila A; Santana, Débora P; Ferreira, Juliana C; Oliveira, Vitor; Nascimento, Otaciro R; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Curti, Carlos; Nantes, Iseli L; Rodrigues, Tiago

    2010-10-15

    Phenothiazines (PTZ) are drugs widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Trifluoperazine, a piperazinic PTZ derivative, has been described as inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). We reported previously the antioxidant activity of thioridazine at relatively low concentrations associated to the inhibition of the MPT (Brit. J. Pharmacol., 2002;136:136-142). In this study, it was investigated the induction of MPT by PTZ derivatives at concentrations higher than 10 microM focusing on the molecular mechanism involved. PTZ promoted a dose-response mitochondrial swelling accompanied by mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation and calcium release, being thioridazine the most potent derivative. PTZ-induced MPT was partially inhibited by CsA or Mg(2+) and completely abolished by the abstraction of calcium. The oxidation of reduced thiol group of mitochondrial membrane proteins by PTZ was upstream the PTP opening and it was not sufficient to promote the opening of PTP that only occurred when calcium was present in the mitochondrial matrix. EPR experiments using DMPO as spin trapping excluded the participation of reactive oxygen species on the PTZ-induced MPT. Since PTZ give rise to cation radicals chemically by the action of peroxidases and cyanide inhibited the PTZ-induced swelling, we propose that PTZ bury in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the chemically generated PTZ cation radicals modify specific thiol groups that in the presence of Ca(2+) result in MPT associated to cytochrome c release. These findings contribute for the understanding of mechanisms of MPT induction and may have implications for the cell death induced by PTZ.

  6. Oxidative DNA damage drives carcinogenesis in MUTYH-associated-polyposis by specific mutations of mitochondrial and MAPK genes.

    PubMed

    Venesio, Tiziana; Balsamo, Antonella; Errichiello, Edoardo; Ranzani, Guglielmina N; Risio, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    MUTYH is a DNA-base-excision-repair gene implicated in the activation of nuclear and mitochondrial cell-death pathways. MUTYH germline mutations cause an inherited polyposis, MUTYH-associated-polyposis, characterized by multiple adenomas and increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Since this carcinogenesis remains partially unknown, we searched for nuclear and mitochondrial gene alterations that may drive the tumorigenic process. Ninety-six adenomas and 7 carcinomas from 12 MUTYH-associated-polyposis and 13 classical/attenuated adenomatous polyposis patients were investigated by sequencing and pyrosequencing for the presence of mutations in KRAS, BRAF, MT-CO1/MT-CO2 and MT-TD genes. KRAS mutations were identified in 24% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 15% classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas; mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis adenomas exhibited only c.34G>T transversions in codon 12, an alteration typically associated with oxidative DNA damage, or mutations in codon 13; neither of these mutations was found in classical/attenuated familial polyposis adenomas (P<0.001). Mutated MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinomas showed KRAS c.34G>T transversions, prevalently occurring with BRAFV600E; none of the classical/attenuated familial polyposis carcinomas displayed these alterations. Comparing mitochondrial DNA from lymphocytes and adenomas of the same individuals, we detected variants in 82% MUTYH-associated-polyposis vs 38% classical/attenuated familial polyposis patients (P=0.040). MT-CO1/MT-CO2 missense mutations, which cause aminoacid changes, were only found in MUTYH-associated-polyposis lesions and were significantly associated with KRAS mutations (P=0.0085). We provide evidence that MUTYH-associated-polyposis carcinogenesis is characterized by the occurrence of specific mutations in both KRAS and phylogenetically conserved genes of mitochondrial DNA which are involved in controlling oxidative phosphorylation; this implies the existence of a

  7. Chasing great paths of Helmut Sies "Oxidative Stress".

    PubMed

    Majima, Hideyuki J; Indo, Hiroko P; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Matsui, Hirofumi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J; Ozawa, Toshihiko; St Clair, Daret K

    2016-04-01

    Prof. Dr. Helmut Sies is a pioneer of "Oxidative Stress", and has published over 18 papers with the name of "Oxidative Stress" in the title. He has been Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics" for many years, and is a former Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Free Radical Research". He has clarified our understanding of the causes of chronic developing diseases, and has studied antioxidant factors. In this article, importance of "Oxidative Stress" and our mitochondrial oxidative stress studies; roles of mitochondrial ROS, effects of vitamin E and its homologues in oxidative stress-related diseases, effects of antioxidants in vivo and in vitro, and a mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging are introduced, and some of our interactions with Helmut are described, congratulating and appreciating his great path.

  8. Hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells in situ: visualizing the therapeutic effects of metformin in tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Flomenberg, Neal; Birbe, Ruth C; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Howell, Anthony; Pavlides, Stephanos; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Ertel, Adam; Pestell, Richard G; Broda, Paolo; Minetti, Carlo; Lisanti, Michael P; Sotgia, Federica

    2011-12-01

    We have recently proposed a new mechanism for explaining energy transfer in cancer metabolism. In this scenario, cancer cells behave as metabolic parasites, by extracting nutrients from normal host cells, such as fibroblasts, via the secretion of hydrogen peroxide as the initial trigger. Oxidative stress in the tumor microenvironment then leads to autophagy-driven catabolism, mitochondrial dys-function, and aerobic glycolysis. This, in turn, produces high-energy nutrients (such as L-lactate, ketones, and glutamine) that drive the anabolic growth of tumor cells, via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. A logical prediction of this new "parasitic" cancer model is that tumor-associated fibroblasts should show evidence of mitochondrial dys-function (mitophagy and aerobic glycolysis). In contrast, epithelial cancer cells should increase their oxidative mitochondrial capacity. To further test this hypothesis, here we subjected frozen sections from human breast tumors to a staining procedure that only detects functional mitochondria. This method detects the in situ enzymatic activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX), also known as Complex IV. Remarkably, cancer cells show an over-abundance of COX activity, while adjacent stromal cells remain essentially negative. Adjacent normal ductal epithelial cells also show little or no COX activity, relative to epithelial cancer cells. Thus, oxidative mitochondrial activity is selectively amplified in cancer cells. Although COX activity staining has never been applied to cancer tissues, it could now be used routinely to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, and to establish negative margins during cancer surgery. Similar results were obtained with NADH activity staining, which measures Complex I activity, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity staining, which measures Complex II activity. COX and NADH activities were blocked by electron transport inhibitors, such as Metformin. This has mechanistic and clinical implications for

  9. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel finding of

  10. Inducible HSP70 regulates superoxide dismutase-2 and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the endothelial cells from developing lungs

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Eis, Annie; Rana, Ujala; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Corbett, John A.; Pritchard, Kirkwood; Konduri, Girija G.

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) is synthesized in the cytosol and imported into the mitochondrial matrix, where it is activated and functions as the primary antioxidant for cellular respiration. The specific mechanisms that target SOD-2 to the mitochondria remain unclear. We hypothesize that inducible heat shock protein 70 (iHSP70) targets SOD-2 to the mitochondria via a mechanism facilitated by ATP, and this process is impaired in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We observed that iHSP70 interacts with SOD-2 and targets SOD-2 to the mitochondria. Interruption of iHSP70-SOD-2 interaction with 2-phenylethylenesulfonamide-μ (PFT-μ, a specific inhibitor of substrate binding to iHSP70 COOH terminus) and siRNA-mediated knockdown of iHSP70 expression disrupted SOD-2 transport to mitochondria. Increasing intracellular ATP levels by stimulation of respiration with CaCl2 facilitated the mitochondrial import of SOD-2, increased SOD-2 activity, and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide (O2·−) levels in PPHN pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) by promoting iHSP70-SOD-2 dissociation at the outer mitochondrial membrane. In contrast, oligomycin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATPase, decreased SOD-2 expression and activity and increased O2·− levels in the mitochondria of control PAEC. The basal ATP levels and degree of iHSP70-SOD-2 dissociation were lower in PPHN PAEC and lead to increased SOD-2 degradation in cytosol. In normal pulmonary arteries (PA), PFT-μ impaired the relaxation response of PA rings in response to nitric oxide (NO) donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine. Pretreatment with Mito-Q, a mitochondrial targeted O2·− scavenger, restored the relaxation response in PA rings pretreated with PFT-μ. Our observations suggest that iHSP70 chaperones SOD-2 to the mitochondria. Impaired SOD-2-iHSP70 dissociation decreases SOD-2 import and contributes to mitochondrial oxidative stress in PPHN. PMID:24375796

  11. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle.

    PubMed

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-06-05

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis.

  12. The role of nitric oxide signaling in food intake; insights from the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Changjie; Zhao, Qingguo; Lu, Baisong

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in feeding control through involvement in brain lipid sensing, and regulating NPY/AgRP and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in neurons and it stimulates feeding in many species. Whether reactive oxygen species affect feeding through interaction with nitric oxide is unclear. We previously reported that Immp2l mutation in mice causes excessive mitochondrial superoxide generation, which causes infertility and early signs of aging. In our present study, reduced food intake in mutant mice resulted in significantly reduced body weight and fat composition while energy expenditure remained unchanged. Lysate from mutant brain showed a significant decrease in cGMP levels, suggesting insufficient nitric oxide signaling. Thus, our data suggests that reactive oxygen species may regulate food intake through modulating the bioavailability of nitric oxide.

  13. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the striatum from pleiotrophin knockout and midkine knockout mice treated with cocaine reveals regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins potentially underlying cocaine-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Gramage, Esther; Herradón, Gonzalo; Pérez-García, Carmen

    2013-12-06

    The neurotrophic factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly upregulated in different brain areas relevant to drug addiction after administrations of different drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants. We have previously demonstrated that PTN and MK modulate amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and that PTN prevents cocaine-induced cytotoxicity in NG108-15 and PC12 cells. In an effort to dissect the different mechanisms of action triggered by PTN and MK to exert their protective roles against psychostimulant neurotoxicity, we have now used a proteomic approach to study protein phosphorylation, in which we combined phosphoprotein enrichment, by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, in order to identify the phosphoproteins regulated in the striatum of PTN knockout, MK knockout and wild type mice treated with a single dose of cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.). We identified 7 differentially expressed phosphoproteins: 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60 (ERP60), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), aconitase and two subunits of hemoglobin. Most of these proteins are related to neurodegeneration processes and oxidative stress and their variations specially affect the PTN knockout mice, suggesting a protective role of endogenous PTN against cocaine-induced neural alterations. Further studies are needed to validate these proteins as possible targets against neural alterations induced by cocaine.

  14. Pioglitazone alleviates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and mito-oxidative damage in the d-galactose-induced mouse model.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Chronic injection of d-galactose can cause gradual deterioration in learning and memory capacity, and activates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in the brain of mice. Thus, it serves as an animal model of ageing. Recent evidence has shown that mild cognitive impairment in humans might be alleviated by treatment with piogliatzone (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists). To continue exploring the effects of piogliatzone in this model, we focused on behavioural alteration, oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in d-galactose-induced mice. The ageing model was established by administration of d-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (15 mg/kg) were given daily to d-galactose-induced senescent mice. The cognitive behaviour of mice was monitored using the Morris water maze. The anti-oxidant status and apoptotic activity in the ageing mice was measured by determining mito-oxidative parameters and caspase-3 activity in brain tissue. Systemic administration of d-galactose significantly increased behavioural alterations, biochemical parameters, mitochondrial enzymes, and activations of caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control group. Piogliatzone treatment significantly improved behavioural abnormalities, biochemical, cellular alterations, and attenuated the caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity as compared with the control. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) with pioglitazone reversed the protective effect of pioglitazone in d-galactose-induced mice. The present study highlights the protective effects of pioglitzone against d-galactose-induced memory dysfunction, mito-oxidative damage and apoptosis through activation of PPARγ receptors. These findings suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful for the prevention or alleviation of ageing.

  15. The mitochondrial permeability transition, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the mechanism of copper toxicity in cultured neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pichili V B; Rao, Kakulavarapu V Rama; Norenberg, Michael D

    2008-08-01

    Copper is an essential element and an integral component of various enzymes. However, excess copper is neurotoxic and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, prion conditions, and other disorders. Although mechanisms of copper neurotoxicity are not fully understood, copper is known to cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. As oxidative stress is an important factor in the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), we determined whether mPT plays a role in copper-induced neural cell injury. Cultured astrocytes and neurons were treated with 20 microM copper and mPT was measured by changes in the cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m), employing the potentiometric dye TMRE. In astrocytes, copper caused a 36% decrease in the Delta Psi m at 12 h, which decreased further to 48% by 24 h and remained at that level for at least 72 h. Cobalt quenching of calcein fluorescence as a measure of mPT similarly displayed a 45% decrease at 24 h. Pretreatment with antioxidants significantly blocked the copper-induced mPT by 48-75%. Copper (24 h) also caused a 30% reduction in ATP in astrocytes, which was completely blocked by CsA. Copper caused death (42%) in astrocytes by 48 h, which was reduced by antioxidants (35-60%) and CsA (41%). In contrast to astrocytes, copper did not induce mPT in neurons. Instead, it caused early and extensive death with a concomitant reduction (63%) in ATP by 14 h. Neuronal death was prevented by antioxidants and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors but not by CsA. Copper increased protein tyrosine nitration in both astrocytes and neurons. These studies indicate that mPT, and oxidative and nitrosative stress represent major factors in copper-induced toxicity in astrocytes, whereas oxidative and nitrosative stress appears to play a major role in neuronal injury.

  16. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  17. Mitochondrial nitric-oxide synthase stimulation causes cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria. Evidence for intramitochondrial peroxynitrite formation.

    PubMed

    Ghafourifar, P; Schenk, U; Klein, S D; Richter, C

    1999-10-29

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by members of the NO synthase (NOS) family. Recently the existence of a mitochondrial NOS (mtNOS), its Ca(2+) dependence, and its relevance for mitochondrial bioenergetics was reported (Ghafourifar, P., and Richter, C. (1997) FEBS Lett. 418, 291-296; Giulivi, C., Poderoso, J. J., and Boveris, A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11038-11043). Here we report on the possible involvement of mtNOS in apoptosis. We show that uptake of Ca(2+) by mitochondria triggers mtNOS activity and causes the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria in a Bcl-2-sensitive manner. mtNOS-induced cytochrome c release was paralleled by increased lipid peroxidation. The release of cytochrome c as well as increase in lipid peroxidation were prevented by NOS inhibitors, a superoxide dismutase mimic, and a peroxynitrite scavenger. We show that mtNOS-induced cytochrome c release is not mediated via the mitochondrial permeability transition pore because the release was aggravated by cyclosporin A and abolished by blockade of mitochondrial calcium uptake by ruthenium red. We conclude that, upon Ca(2+)-induced mtNOS activation, peroxynitrite is formed within mitochondria, which causes the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria, and we propose a mechanism by which elevated Ca(2+) levels induce apoptosis.

  18. Muscle oxidative phosphorylation quantitation using creatine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrCEST) MRI in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Wilson, Neil; D’Aquilla, Kevin; Elliott, Mark; Yan, Felicia; Wade, Kristin; Nguyen, Sara; Worsley, Diana; Parris-Skeete, Chevonne; McCormick, Elizabeth; Xiao, Rui; Cunningham, Zuela Zolkipli; Fishbein, Lauren; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Lynch, David R.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Yudkoff, Marc; Falk, Marni J.; Reddy, Ravinder; McCormack, Shana E.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mitochondrial energy deficiency is implicated in the pathophysiology of many age-related human diseases. Currently available tools to estimate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in skeletal muscle in vivo lack high anatomic resolution. Muscle groups vary with respect to their contractile and metabolic properties. Therefore, muscle group–specific estimates of OXPHOS would be advantageous. To address this need, a noninvasive creatine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrCEST) MRI technique has recently been developed, which provides a measure of free creatine. After exercise, skeletal muscle can be imaged with CrCEST in order to make muscle group–specific measurements of OXPHOS capacity, reflected in the recovery rate (τCr) of free Cr. In this study, we found that individuals with genetic mitochondrial diseases had significantly (P = 0.026) prolonged postexercise τCr in the medial gastrocnemius muscle, suggestive of less OXPHOS capacity. Additionally, we observed that lower resting CrCEST was associated with prolonged τPCr, with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of –0.42 (P = 0.046), consistent with previous hypotheses predicting that resting creatine levels may correlate with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy–based estimates of OXPHOS capacity. We conclude that CrCEST can noninvasively detect changes in muscle creatine content and OXPHOS capacity, with high anatomic resolution, in individuals with mitochondrial disorders. PMID:27812541

  19. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration elicited by a bacterial metabolite in a C. elegans Parkinson's model.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Martinez, B A; Berkowitz, L A; Caldwell, G A; Caldwell, K A

    2014-01-09

    Genetic and idiopathic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by loss of dopamine (DA) neurons and typically the formation of protein inclusions containing the alpha-synuclein (α-syn) protein. Environmental contributors to PD remain largely unresolved but toxins, such as paraquat or rotenone, represent well-studied enhancers of susceptibility. Previously, we reported that a bacterial metabolite produced by Streptomyces venezuelae caused age- and dose-dependent DA neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans and human SH-SY5Y neurons. We hypothesized that this metabolite from a common soil bacterium could enhance neurodegeneration in combination with PD susceptibility gene mutations or toxicants. Here, we report that exposure to the metabolite in C. elegans DA neurons expressing human α-syn or LRRK2 G2019S exacerbates neurodegeneration. Using the PD toxin models 6-hydroxydopamine and rotenone, we demonstrate that exposure to more than one environmental risk factor has an additive effect in eliciting DA neurodegeneration. Evidence suggests that PD-related toxicants cause mitochondrial dysfunction, thus we examined the impact of the metabolite on mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress. An ex vivo assay of C. elegans extracts revealed that this metabolite causes excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Likewise, enhanced expression of a superoxide dismutase reporter was observed in vivo. The anti-oxidant probucol fully rescued metabolite-induced DA neurodegeneration, as well. Interestingly, the stress-responsive FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 was activated following exposure to the metabolite. Through further mechanistic analysis, we discerned the mitochondrial defects associated with metabolite exposure included adenosine triphosphate impairment and upregulation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Metabolite-induced toxicity in DA neurons was rescued by complex I activators. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of mitochondrial

  20. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

    PubMed

    Wanders, Ronald J A; Ruiter, Jos P N; IJLst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R; Houten, Sander M

    2010-10-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results.

  1. Phosphatidylethanolamine deficiency in Mammalian mitochondria impairs oxidative phosphorylation and alters mitochondrial morphology.

    PubMed

    Tasseva, Guergana; Bai, Helin Daniel; Davidescu, Magdalena; Haromy, Alois; Michelakis, Evangelos; Vance, Jean E

    2013-02-08

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, but the role of phospholipids, particularly the nonbilayer-forming lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), in mitochondrial function is poorly understood. Elimination of mitochondrial PE (mtPE) synthesis via phosphatidylserine decarboxylase in mice profoundly alters mitochondrial morphology and is embryonic lethal (Steenbergen, R., Nanowski, T. S., Beigneux, A., Kulinski, A., Young, S. G., and Vance, J. E. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 40032-40040). We now report that moderate <30% depletion of mtPE alters mitochondrial morphology and function and impairs cell growth. Acute reduction of mtPE by RNAi silencing of phosphatidylserine decarboxylase and chronic reduction of mtPE in PSB-2 cells that have only 5% of normal phosphatidylserine synthesis decreased respiratory capacity, ATP production, and activities of electron transport chain complexes (C) I and CIV but not CV. Blue native-PAGE analysis revealed defects in the organization of CI and CIV into supercomplexes in PE-deficient mitochondria, correlated with reduced amounts of CI and CIV proteins. Thus, mtPE deficiency impairs formation and/or membrane integration of respiratory supercomplexes. Despite normal or increased levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins in mtPE-deficient cells, and no reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondria were extensively fragmented, and mitochondrial ultrastructure was grossly aberrant. In general, chronic reduction of mtPE caused more pronounced mitochondrial defects than did acute mtPE depletion. The functional and morphological changes in PSB-2 cells were largely reversed by normalization of mtPE content by supplementation with lyso-PE, a mtPE precursor. These studies demonstrate that even a modest reduction of mtPE in mammalian cells profoundly alters mitochondrial functions.

  2. Experimental Evidence that 3-Methylglutaric Acid Disturbs Mitochondrial Function and Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain Synaptosomes: New Converging Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Paz-Loyola, Ariana Lizbeth; de Lima, María Eduarda; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Seminotti, Bianca; Ribeiro, César Augusto João; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir; Santamaría, Abel

    2016-10-01

    3-Methylglutaric acid (3MGA) is an organic acid that accumulates in various organic acidemias whose patients present neurodegeneration events in children coursing with metabolic acidurias. Limited evidence describes the toxic mechanisms elicited by 3MGA in the brain. Herein, we explored the effects of 3MGA on different toxic endpoints in synaptosomal and mitochondrial-enriched fractions of adult rat brains to provide novel information on early mechanisms evoked by this metabolite. At 1 and 5 mM concentration, 3MGA increased lipid peroxidation, but decreased mitochondrial function only at 5 mM concentration. Despite less intense effects were obtained at 1 mM concentra