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Sample records for oxide electrochemical sensors

  1. Tutorial Review: Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors for Physiological Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Privett, Benjamin J.; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The important biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) have prompted the development of analytical techniques capable of sensitive and selective detection of NO. Electrochemical sensing, more than any other NO-detection method, embodies the parameters necessary for quantifying NO in challenging physiological environments such as blood and the brain. Herein, we provide a broad overview of the field of electrochemical NO sensors, including design, fabrication, and analytical performance characteristics. Both electrochemical sensors and biological applications are detailed. PMID:20502795

  2. An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammed; Mandal, Sanghamitra; Manasreh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol-gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm(-1), matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM. PMID:26263988

  3. An Electrochemical Glucose Sensor Based on Zinc Oxide Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Marie, Mohammed; Mandal, Sanghamitra; Manasreh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A glucose electrochemical sensor based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods was investigated. The hydrothermal sol-gel growth method was utilized to grow ZnO nanorods on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates. The total active area of the working electrode was 0.3 × 0.3 cm2 where titanium metal was deposited to enhance the contact. Well aligned hexagonal structured ZnO nanorods with a diameter from 68 to 116 nm were obtained. The excitonic peak obtained from the absorbance spectroscopy was observed at ~370 nm. The dominant peak of Raman spectroscopy measurement was at 440 cm(-1), matching with the lattice vibration of ZnO. The uniform distribution of the GOx and Nafion membrane that has been done using spin coating technique at 4000 rotations per minute helps in enhancing the ion exchange and increasing the sensitivity of the fabricated electrochemical sensor. The amperometric response of the fabricated electrochemical sensor was 3 s. The obtained sensitivity of the fabricated ZnO electrochemical sensor was 10.911 mA/mM·cm2 and the lower limit of detection was 0.22 µM.

  4. Electrochemical micro sensor

    DOEpatents

    Setter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-09-12

    A micro-amperometric electrochemical sensor for detecting the presence of a pre-determined species in a fluid material is disclosed. The sensor includes a smooth substrate having a thin coating of solid electrolytic material deposited thereon. The working and counter electrodes are deposited on the surface of the solid electrolytic material and adhere thereto. Electrical leads connect the working and counter electrodes to a potential source and an apparatus for measuring the change in an electrical signal caused by the electrochemical oxidation or reduction of the species. Alternatively, the sensor may be fabricated in a sandwich structure and also may be cylindrical, spherical or other shapes.

  5. Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor for On-line Monitoring of Aerosol Oxidative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sameenoi, Yupaporn; Koehler, Kirsten; Shapiro, Jeff; Boonsong, Kanokporn; Sun, Yele; Collett, Jeffrey; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has a significant impact on human morbidity and mortality; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced toxicity are poorly defined. A leading hypothesis states that airborne PM induces harm by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in and around human tissues, leading to oxidative stress. We report here, a system employing a microfluidic electrochemical sensor coupled directly to a Particle-into-Liquid-Sampler (PILS) system to measure aerosol oxidative activity in an on-line format. The oxidative activity measurement is based on the dithiothreitol assay (DTT assay) where after oxidized by PM, the remaining reduced DTT was analyzed by the microfluidic sensor. The sensor consists of an array of working, reference, and auxiliary electrodes fabricated in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic device. Cobalt (II) phthalocyanine (CoPC)-modified carbon paste was used as the working electrode material allowing selective detection of reduced DTT. The electrochemical sensor was validated off-line against the traditional DTT assay using filter samples taken from urban environments and biomass burning events. After off-line characterization, the sensor was coupled to a PILS to enable on-line sampling/analysis of aerosol oxidative activity. Urban dust and industrial incinerator ash samples were aerosolized in an aerosol chamber and analyzed for their oxidative activity. The on-line sensor reported DTT consumption rates (oxidative activity) in good correlation with aerosol concentration (R2 from 0.86–.97) with a time-resolution of approximately 3 minutes. PMID:22651886

  6. Electrochemical sensor for bisphenol A based on magnetic nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixuan; Cheng, Yuxiao; Zhou, Yuyan; Li, Bingyu; Gu, Wei; Shi, Xinhao; Xian, Yuezhong

    2013-03-30

    Bisphenol A (BPA), as one kind of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, has adverse impact on human health and environment. It is urgent to develop effective and simple methods for quantitative determination of BPA. In this work, an electrochemical sensor for BPA based on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites and chitosan was presented for the first time. The MNPs-rGO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies show that MNPs-rGO composites can lower the oxidation overpotential and enhance electrochemical response of BPA due to the synergetic effects of MNPs and rGO. Under the optimal experiment conditions, the oxidation peak current was proportional to the concentration of BPA over the range of 6.0×10(-8) to 1.1×10(-5)molL(-1) with the detection limit of 1.7×10(-8)molL(-1). Moreover, the MNPs-rGO based electrochemical sensor shows excellent stability, reproducibility and selectivity. The electrochemical sensor has been successfully applied to the determination of BPA in real samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J. F. M.; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring FENO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 1∶10-9) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO®, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). FENO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide monitoring by quantum cascade laser: comparison with chemiluminescent and electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Mandon, Julien; Högman, Marieann; Merkus, Peter J F M; van Amsterdam, Jan; Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2012-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F(E)NO) is considered an indicator in the diagnostics and management of asthma. In this study we present a laser-based sensor for measuring F(E)NO. It consists of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) combined with a multi-pass cell and wavelength modulation spectroscopy for the detection of NO at the sub-part-per-billion by volume (ppbv, 110(-9)) level. The characteristics and diagnostic performance of the sensor were assessed. A detection limit of 0.5 ppbv was demonstrated with a relatively simple design. The QCL-based sensor was compared with two market sensors, a chemiluminescent analyzer (NOA 280, Sievers) and a portable hand-held electrochemical analyzer (MINO, Aerocrine AB, Sweden). F(E)NO from 20 children diagnosed with asthma and treated with inhaled corticosteroids were measured. Data were found to be clinically acceptable within 1.1 ppbv between the QCL-based sensor and chemiluminescent sensor and within 1.7 ppbv when compared to the electrochemical sensor. The QCL-based sensor was tested on healthy subjects at various expiratory flow rates for both online and offline sampling procedures. The extended NO parameters, i.e. the alveolar region, airway wall, diffusing capacity, and flux were calculated and showed a good agreement with the previously reported values.

  9. Electrochemical Sensors: Functionalized Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-03-24

    This chapter summarizes recent devellopment of electrochemical sensors based on functionlized mesoporous silica materials. The nanomatrials based sensors have been developed for sensitive and selective enrironmental detection of toxic heavy metal and uranium ions.

  10. Electrochemical methane sensor

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, S.; Otagawa, T.; Stetter, J.R.

    1984-08-27

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about 1.4 volts vs R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  11. Facile synthesis of cobalt oxide/reduced graphene oxide composites for electrochemical capacitor and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Toan; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Deivasigamani, Ranjith Kumar; Kharismadewi, Dian; Iwai, Yoshio; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4/rGO) were produced using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. Both the reduction of GO and the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles occurred simultaneously under this condition. At the same current density of 0.5 A g-1, the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibited much a higher specific capacitance (545 F g-1) than that of bare Co3O4 (100 F g-1). On the other hand, for the detection of H2O2, the peak current of Co3O4/rGO was 4 times higher than that of Co3O4. Moreover, the resulting composite displayed a low detection limit of 0.62 μM and a high sensitivity of 28,500 μA mM-1cm-2 for the H2O2 sensor. These results suggest that the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposite is a promising material for both supercapacitor and non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor applications.

  12. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris; Larson, David

    1997-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis.

  13. Electrochemical enzyme-less urea sensor based on nano-tin oxide synthesized by hydrothermal technique.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S G; Fouad, H; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, Z A

    2015-12-01

    Nano-Tin oxide was synthesized using hydrothermal method at 150 °C for 6 h and then thin films were deposited by electrophoretic method at an optimized voltage of 100 V for 5 min on electropolished aluminum substrate. Spherical particles of about 30-50 nm diameters are observed with partial agglomeration when observed under electron microscope, which are tetragonal rutile structure. XPS results showed peaks related to Sn 4d, Sn 3d, O 1s & C 1s with spin-orbit splitting of 8.4 eV for Sn 3d. Feasibility studies of enzyme less urea sensing characteristics of nano-tin oxide thin films are exhibited herein. The deposited films have been used for enzyme less urea sensing from 1 to 20 mM concentration in buffer solution. The sensors were characterized electrochemically to obtain cyclic voltammogram as a function of urea concentration and scan rate. The sensitivity is estimated as 18.9 μA/mM below 5 mM and 2.31 μA/mM above 5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.6 mM.

  14. Electrochemical enzyme-less urea sensor based on nano-tin oxide synthesized by hydrothermal technique.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S G; Fouad, H; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, Z A

    2015-12-01

    Nano-Tin oxide was synthesized using hydrothermal method at 150 °C for 6 h and then thin films were deposited by electrophoretic method at an optimized voltage of 100 V for 5 min on electropolished aluminum substrate. Spherical particles of about 30-50 nm diameters are observed with partial agglomeration when observed under electron microscope, which are tetragonal rutile structure. XPS results showed peaks related to Sn 4d, Sn 3d, O 1s & C 1s with spin-orbit splitting of 8.4 eV for Sn 3d. Feasibility studies of enzyme less urea sensing characteristics of nano-tin oxide thin films are exhibited herein. The deposited films have been used for enzyme less urea sensing from 1 to 20 mM concentration in buffer solution. The sensors were characterized electrochemically to obtain cyclic voltammogram as a function of urea concentration and scan rate. The sensitivity is estimated as 18.9 μA/mM below 5 mM and 2.31 μA/mM above 5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.6 mM. PMID:26381425

  15. Electrochemical aptamer sensor for thrombin detection based on Au nanoneedle and enzymatic ascorbic acid oxidization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Hua, Mei; Luo, Lei; Du, Huali; Yang, Yunhui

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we describe an aptamer-based sandwich-type electrochemical sensor for the detection of human alpha-thrombin. Au nanoneedles were synthesized in the hole of the naked polycarbonate (PC) template using electrodepositing strategy. The thiolated thrombin aptamer I was immobilized as the capture probe on the gold nanoneedles through Au-S bond. After the thrombin was captured, the biotinylated aptamer II, used as the detection probe, was bound to thrombin. Then, the streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) was linked to the biotinylated aptamer II and catalyze hydrolyzation reaction of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to produce ascorbic acid. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to detect the oxidizing current of ascorbic acid, which is proportional to the concentration of thrombin bound on the electrode surface ranging from 0.24 nM to 150 nM with a detection limit of 0.1 nM at 3 sigma. This assay is rapid, simple, sensitive and highly specific. It could be applied to detect thrombin in complex real sample.

  16. Remote electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.; Larson, D.

    1997-10-14

    An electrochemical sensor is described for remote detection, particularly useful for metal contaminants and organic or other compounds. The sensor circumvents technical difficulties that previously prevented in-situ remote operations. The microelectrode, connected to a long communications cable, allows convenient measurements of the element or compound at timed and frequent intervals and instrument/sample distances of ten feet to more than 100 feet. The sensor is useful for both downhole groundwater monitoring and in-situ water (e.g., shipboard seawater) analysis. 21 figs.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  18. Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic graphene oxide@gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers for determination of dibutyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiaojiao; Li, Leilei; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite of magnetic graphene oxide @ gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers (MGO@AuNPs-MIPs) was synthesized and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dibutyl phthalate (DBP) electrochemical sensor. The composite of MGO@AuNPs was first synthesized using coprecipitation and self-assembly technique. Then the template molecules (DBP) were absorbed at the MGO@AuNPs surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was further achieved at the MGO@AuNPs surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DBP molecules from the imprinted polymers film rapidly and completely. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DBP was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized MGO@AuNPs-MIPs composite. Under optimal experimental conditions, selective detection of DBP in a linear concentration range of 2.5 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-6)mol/L was obtained. The new DBP electrochemical sensor also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 2.0 × 10(-6)mol/L DBP.

  19. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Jianming; Li, Guang

    2008-01-01

    Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  20. Tailoring the structural and microstructural properties of nanosized tantalum oxide for high temperature electrochemical gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, Anna; Di Bartolomeo, Elisabetta; Chevallier, Laure; D'Ottavi, Cadia; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    2009-07-01

    Ta2O5 nanopowders to be used as sensing electrodes in high temperature electrochemical gas sensors for hydrocarbons detection were synthesized using a sol-gel method and their structural and microstructural properties were investigated. The as-synthesized powders were heated at different temperatures in the range 250-1000 degrees C and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. This investigation allowed to identify the correct thermal treatments to achieve the microstructural, textural and functional stability of materials working at high temperature, preserving their nano-metric grain size. Planar sensors fabricated by using Ta2O5 powders treated at 750 degrees C showed promising results for the selective detection of propylene at high temperature (700 degrees C). The good stability of the sensing response after gas exposure at high temperature was correlated to the stable microstructure the electrodes. Thus, Ta2O5 powders seems good candidate as sensing electrode for sensors for automotive exhausts monitoring. PMID:19916469

  1. An electrochemical acetylcholine sensor based on lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H; Vais, R Dehdari

    2013-10-15

    Lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure was synthesized by a simple method and characterized. The nanostructure was then applied to modify a carbon paste electrode and for the fabrication of a sensor, and the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetylcholine (ACh) on the modified electrode was investigated. The electrocatalytic efficiency of the nickel oxide nanostructure was compared with nickel micro- and nanoparticles, and the lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure showed the highest efficiency. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrooxidation process were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization curve and chronoamperometry. The catalytic rate constant and the charge transfer coefficient of ACh electrooxidation by the active nickel species, and the diffusion coefficient of ACh were reported. A sensitive and time-saving hydrodynamic amperometry method was developed for the determination of ACh. ACh was determined with a sensitivity of 392.4 mA M⁻¹ cm⁻² and a limit of detection of 26.7 μM. The sensor had the advantages of simple fabrication method without using any enzyme or reagent and immobilization step, high electrocatalytic activity, very high sensitivity, long-term stability, and antifouling surface property toward ACh and its oxidation product.

  2. Polyaniline-iron oxide nanohybrid film as multi-functional label-free electrochemical and biomagnetic sensor for catechol.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Lang, Heinrich; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2013-09-17

    Polyaniline-iron oxide magnetic nanohybrid was synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic, microstructural and electrochemical techniques. The smart integration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles within the polyaniline (PANI) matrix yielded a mesoporous nanohybrid (Fe3O4@PANI) with high surface area (94 m(2) g(-1)) and average pore width of 12.8 nm. Catechol is quasi-reversibly oxidized to o-quinone and reduced at the Fe3O4@PANI modified electrodes. The amperometric current response toward catechol was evaluated using the nanohybrid and the sensitivity and detection limit were found to be 312 μA μL(-1) and 0.2 nM, respectively. The results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the increased solution resistance (Rs) was due to elevated adsorption of catechol on the modified electrodes. Photoluminescence spectra showed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) between p-π orbitals of the phenolate oxygen in catechol and the d-σ* metal orbital of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid. Potential dependent spectroelectrochemical behavior of Fe3O4@PANI nanohybrid toward catechol was studied using UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. The binding activity of the biomagnetic particles to catechol through Brownian relaxation was evident from AC susceptibility measurements. The proposed sensor was used for successful recovery of catechol in tap water samples.

  3. A sensitive electrochemical sensor using an iron oxide/graphene composite for the simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sohee; Oh, Jiseop; Kim, Dongwon; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2016-11-01

    We report an analytical assessment of an iron oxide (Fe2O3)/graphene (G) nanocomposite electrode used in combination with in situ plated bismuth (Bi) working as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of trace Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+). The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analyzer, and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the Fe2O3/G/Bi composite modified electrode were investigated. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry was applied for the detection of metal ions. Due to the synergetic effect between graphene and the Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the modified electrode showed improved electrochemical catalytic activity high sensitivity toward trace heavy metal ions. Several parameters such as the preconcentration potential, bismuth concentration, preconcentration time, and pH were carefully optimized to determine the target metal ions. Under optimized conditions, the linear range of the electrode was 1-100μgL(-1) for Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Pb(2+), and the detection limits were 0.11μgL(-1), 0.08μgL(-1), and 0.07μgL(-1), respectively (S/N =3). Repeatability (% RSD) was found to be 1.68% for Zn(2+), 0.92% for Cd(2+), and 1.69% for Pb(2+) for single sensor with 10 measurements and 0.89% for Zn(2+), 1.15% for Cd(2+), and 0.91% for Pb(2+) for 5 different electrodes. The Fe2O3/G/Bi composite electrode was successfully applied to the analysis of trace metal ions in real samples. The solventless thermal decomposition method applied to the simple and easy synthesis of nanocomposite electrode materials can be extended to the synthesis of nanocomposites and promising electrode materials for the determination of heavy metal ions. PMID:27591647

  4. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.

  5. Synthesis of Ultrastable Ag Nanoplates/Polyethylenimine-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as a Versatile Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jindi; Zhang, Guoxin; Sun, Wanxia; Sun, Jingsong; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-25

    Investigations on Ag nanostructures/reduced graphene oxide composites have been frequently reported, yet the morphology control of those loaded Ag nanocrystals is still challenging. We herein develop a facile method to grow triangular Ag nanoplates (AgP) on polyethylenimine-modified reduced graphene oxide (AgP/PEI-rGO). The AgP/PEI-rGO hybrids show unexpected high stability against chloride ions (Cl(-) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), which is possibly due to the strong interaction between surface Ag atoms with the amine groups of PEI. In the chronoamperometry measurements for detecting H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 , the AgP/PEI-rGO hybrid shows very wide linear ranges (usually 10(-6) -10(-2)  mol L(-1) for H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 ) and low detection limits (down to ≈1×10(-7)  mol L(-1) ), which demonstrate the promising electrochemical sensor applications of these metal/graphene hybrids with well-defined morphologies and facets. In addition, this strategy could be extended to the deposition of other noble metals on rGO with controlled morphologies. PMID:27362916

  6. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.; Olsen, K.B.

    1999-08-24

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery is described. The probe comprises an integrated membrane sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s). 19 figs.

  7. Renewable-reagent electrochemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph; Olsen, Khris B.

    1999-01-01

    A new electrochemical probe(s) design allowing for continuous (renewable) reagent delivery. The probe comprises an integrated membrane-sampling/electrochemical sensor that prevents interferences from surface-active materials and greatly extends the linear range. The probe(s) is useful for remote or laboratory-based monitoring in connection with microdialysis sampling and electrochemical measurements of metals and organic compounds that are not readily detected in the absence of reacting with the compound. Also disclosed is a method of using the probe(s).

  8. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines.

  9. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  10. A reagentless non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor presented using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Mutyala, Sankararao; Mathiyarasu, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    Herein, we report a simple, facile and reproducible non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor using electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrode was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-Visible, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) analysis revealed that ERGO/GCE exhibited virtuous charge transfer properties for a standard redox systems and showed excellent performance towards electroreduction of H2O2. Amperometric study using ERGO/GCE showed high sensitivity (0.3μA/μM) and faster response upon the addition of H2O2 at an applied potential of -0.25V vs. Ag/AgCl. The detection limit is assessed to be 0.7μM (S/N=3) and the time to reach a stable study state current is <3s for a linear range of H2O2 concentration (1-16μM). In addition, the modified electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. PMID:27612728

  11. Patternable Nanowire Sensors for Electrochemical Recording of Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, P.; Postetter, D.; Saragnese, D. L.; Randall, C. L.; Mirski, M. A.; Gracias, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Spatially resolved electrochemical recording of neurochemicals is challenging due to the challenges associated with producing nanometer scale patternable and integrated sensors. We describe the lithographic fabrication and characterization of patternable gold nanowire (NW) based sensors for the electrochemical recording of dopamine (DA). We demonstrate a straightforward NW-size-independent approach to align contact pads to NWs. Sensors, with NW widths as small as 30 nm, exhibited: considerable insensitivity to scan rates during cyclic voltammetry, a nonlinear increase in oxidation current with increasing NW width, and the selectivity to measure sub-maximal synaptic concentrations of DA in the presence of interfering ascorbic acid. The electrochemical sensitivity of gold NW electrode sensors was much larger than gold thin film electrodes. In chronoamperometric measurements, the NW sensors were found to be sensitive for sub-µM concentration of DA. Hence, the patternable NW sensors represent an attractive platform for electrochemical sensing and recording. PMID:19904993

  12. Detection of theophylline utilising portable electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiancheng; Randviir, Edward P; Banks, Craig E

    2014-04-21

    The electrochemical oxidation of theophylline (TP) is investigated utilising screen-printed electrodes. Through thorough investigation of pH, we propose a reaction mechanism, finding that the oxidation of TP is stable over a wide pH range, in particular under acidic conditions. Conversely under alkaline conditions, theophylline fouls the electrode surface. The screen-printed carbon sensors are applied towards the electroanalytical sensing of TP with a remarkable amount of success in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The screen-printed sensors have been shown to be applicable to the detection of TP at unharmful, medicinally relevant (55-110 μM), and toxic concentrations in aqueous media at physiological pH. Thus this work presents a proof-of-concept approach towards TP detection utilising sensors commonly implemented in point-of-care applications.

  13. Electrochemically Grown Single Nanowire Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Penner, Reginald; Bangar, Mangesh; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.

    2004-01-01

    We report a fabrication technique that is potentially capable of producing arrays of individually addressable nanowire sensors with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. The concept has been demonstrated with electrodeposition of palladium wires with 75 nm to 350 nm widths. We have also fabricated single and double conducting polymer nanowires (polyaniline and polypyrrole) with 100nm and 200nm widths using electrochemical direct growth. Using single Pd nanowires, we have also demonstrated hydrogen sensing. It is envisioned that these are the first steps towards nanowire sensor arrays capable of simultaneously detecting multiple chemical species.

  14. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1-30.0 μM and 30.0-330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples. PMID:24857472

  15. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1-30.0 μM and 30.0-330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples.

  16. Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, Harold R.; Breault, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

  17. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Organic Conjugated Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Aminur; Kumar, Pankaj; Park, Deog-Su; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2008-01-01

    Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potential candidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods, unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energy storage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts. Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in a neutral aqueous solution. Thus, these are extensively used in the fabrication of accurate, fast, and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors in the medical diagnostic laboratories. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors play an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity are achievable for environmental monitoring and clinical diagnostics. In this review, we summarized the recent advances in conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors, which covers chemical sensors (potentiometric, voltammetric, amperometric) and biosensors (enzyme based biosensors, immunosensors, DNA sensors).

  18. Embroidered electrochemical sensors for biomolecular detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiyuan; Lillehoj, Peter B

    2016-05-24

    Electrochemical sensors are powerful analytical tools which possess the capacity for rapid detection of biomarkers in clinical specimens. While most electrochemical sensors are fabricated on rigid substrates, there is a growing need for sensors that can be manufactured on inexpensive and flexible materials. Here, we present a unique embroidered electrochemical sensor that is capable of quantitative analytical measurements using raw biofluid samples. Conductive threads immobilized with enzyme probes were generated using a simple and robust fabrication process and used to fabricate flexible, mechanically robust electrodes on textiles. For proof of concept, measurements were performed to detect glucose and lactate in buffer and whole blood samples, which exhibited excellent specificity and accuracy. We also demonstrate that our embroidered biosensor can be readily fabricated in two-dimensional (2D) arrays for multiplexed measurements. Lastly, we show that this biosensor exhibits good resiliency against mechanical stress and superior repeatability, which are important requirements for flexible sensor platforms. PMID:27156700

  19. The fabrication and characterization of electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Francis Marion

    The work described in this dissertation involves the fabrication and characterization of new electrochemical sensors for trace analysis. Initially, ring-disk ultramicro electrodes (RD-UME) were fabricated to serve as a sensor platform. In addition, a method was developed to improve the sensitivity of carbon electrodes for selenium(IV) by modifying them with copper-mercury (Cu/Hg) films. Fabrication of the RD-UMEs involved several material chemistry techniques: chemical vapor deposition, metallo-organic deposition, and electropolymerization. First, carbon fibers were coated with silica by resistively heating carbon fibers while passing a gas phase mixture containing silica precursors over the hot fibers. Second, one-half of each silica-coated carbon fiber was dip-coated in a solution containing noble metallo-organic compounds, and baked in an annealing oven, forming a thin, metallized carbon film. Finally, this film was sealed by electropolymerizing 2-allylphenol, forming nonconductive polymer at the electrode surface. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were used to characterize silica, metallized carbon, and polymer films. After attaching independent electrical leads to the metallized carbon film and the carbon fiber, cyclic voltammetry was used to evaluate the quality of the individual electrodes, as well as their combinations in three- and two-electrode cells. After fabricating dual electrodes, electrochemical sensors were developed for detecting selenium(IV). Specifically, electrodes were modified with electrodeposited Cu/Hg films. The modified electrodes possess interesting hybrid characteristics that are useful for sensor applications. As an amalgam of copper and mercury, Cu/Hg films exhibit properties of both metals. Comparable to copper, the films will oxidize to form aqueous copper ions. At the same time, the electrodes modified with Cu/Hg films have a hydrogen over-potential comparable to mercury film electrodes. Following characterization, the

  20. Electrochemical Label-Free Nucleotide Sensors.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Numerous researchers have devoted a great deal of effort over the last few decades to the development of electrochemical oligonucleotide detection techniques, owing to their advantages of simple design, inherently small dimensions, and low power requirements. Their simplicity and rapidity of detection makes label-free oligonucleotide sensors of great potential use as first-aid screening tools in the analytical field of environmental measurements and healthcare management. This review article covers label-free oligonucleotide sensors, focusing specifically on topical electrochemical techniques, including intrinsic redox reaction of bases, conductive polymers, the use of electrochemical indicators, and highly ordered probe structures.

  1. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Saleh Ahammad, A. J.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Rahman, Md. Aminur

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers. PMID:22574013

  2. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of chemical weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    Catalyzed electrochemical oxidation (CEO), a low-temperature electrochemical oxidation technique, is being examined for its potential use in destroying chemical warfare agents. The CEO process oxidizes organic compounds to form carbon dioxide and water. A bench-scale CEO system was used in three separate tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Intelligence and National Security through the Advanced Concepts Program. The tests examined the effectiveness of CEO in destroying sarin (GB), a chemical nerve agent. The tests used 0.5 mL, 0.95 mL, and 1.0 mL of GB, corresponding to 544 mg, 816 mg, and 1,090 mg, respectively, of GB. Analysis of the off gas showed that, under continuous processing of the GB agent, destruction efficiencies of better than six 9s (99.9999% destroyed) could be achieved.

  4. Highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite and nafion composite modified screen printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shuhao; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we report a highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite/nafion composite modified screen printed carbon (SPC) electrode. Electrochemically activated graphite/nafion composite was prepared by using a simple electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to characterize the surface morphology of the fabricated composite electrode. The SEM result clearly indicates that the graphitic basal planes were totally disturbed and leads to the formation of graphite nanosheets. The composite modified electrode showed an enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA when compared with either electrochemical pretreated graphite or nafion SPC electrodes. The fabricated composite electrode exhibits a good electrocatalytic oxidation toward DA in the linear response range from 0.5 to 70 μM with the detection limit of 0.023 μM. The proposed sensor also exhibits very good selectivity and stability, with the appreciable sensitivity. In addition, the proposed sensor showed satisfactory recovery results toward the commercial pharmaceutical DA samples.

  5. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  6. Determining Performance Acceptability of Electrochemical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed to screen commercial electrochemical oxygen sensors to reduce the failure rate. There are three aspects to the method: First, the sensitivity over time (several days) can be measured and the rate of change of the sensitivity can be used to predict sensor failure. Second, an improvement to this method would be to store the sensors in an oxygen-free (e.g., nitrogen) environment and intermittently measure the sensitivity over time (several days) to accomplish the same result while preserving the sensor lifetime by limiting consumption of the electrode. Third, the second time derivative of the sensor response over time can be used to determine the point in time at which the sensors are sufficiently stable for use.

  7. Folic Acid Determination Using Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shamaeizadeh, Nahal; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in the human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. One of the modern techniques which overcome the disadvantages of conventional determination methods is the sensors. Possibility of miniaturization, the development of microfabricated electrochemical (EC) sensors has resulted in high sensitivity, portability, improved performance and spatial resolution, low power consumption, and the opportunity for integration with other technologies made Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems-based EC sensors suitable to identify low concentration analytes and microorganisms in a variety of mediums. PMID:26605021

  8. Electrochemical Biosensors - Sensor Principles and Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Dorothee; MacKenzie, Robert; Vörös, Janos; Reimhult, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate

  9. Electrochemically grown single-nanowire sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Penner, Reginald M.; Bangar, Mangesh; Mulchandani, Ashok; Myung, Nosang V.

    2004-12-01

    We report a fabrication technique that is potentially capable of producing arrays of individually addressable nanowire sensors with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. The concept has been demonstrated with electrodeposition of palladium wires with 75 nm to 350 nm widths. We have also fabricated single and double conducting polymer nanowires (polyaniline and polypyrrole) with 100nm and 200nm widths using electrochemical direct growth. Using single Pd nanowires, we have also demonstrated hydrogen sensing. It is envisioned that these are the first steps towards nanowire sensor arrays capable of simultaneously detecting multiple chemical species.

  10. Wearable electrochemical sensors for monitoring performance athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Kevin J.; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Coyle, Shirley; Schazmann, Benjamin; Byrne, Robert; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays, wearable sensors such as heart rate monitors and pedometers are in common use. The use of wearable systems such as these for personalized exercise regimes for health and rehabilitation is particularly interesting. In particular, the true potential of wearable chemical sensors, which for the real-time ambulatory monitoring of bodily fluids such as tears, sweat, urine and blood has not been realized. Here we present a brief introduction into the fields of ionogels and organic electrochemical transistors, and in particular, the concept of an OECT transistor incorporated into a sticking-plaster, along with a printable "ionogel" to provide a wearable biosensor platform.

  11. Electrochemical nonenzymatic sensor based on CoO decorated reduced graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of carbofuran and carbaryl in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wang, MingYan; Huang, JunRao; Wang, Meng; Zhang, DongEn; Chen, Jun

    2014-05-15

    A novel nonenzymatic sensor based on cobalt (II) oxide (CoO)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was developed for the detection of carbofuran (CBF) and carbaryl (CBR). Two well-defined and separate differential pulse voltammetric peaks for CBF and CBR were obtained with the CoO/rGO sensor in a mixed solution, making the simultaneous detection of both carbamate pesticides possible. The nonenzymatic sensor demonstrated a linear relationship over a wide concentration range of 0.2-70 μM (R=0.9996) for CBF and 0.5-200 μM (R=0.9995) for CBR. The lower detection limit of the sensor was 4.2 μg/L for CBF and 7.5 μg/L for CBR (S/N=3). The developed sensor was used to detect CBF and CBR in fruit and vegetable samples and yielded satisfactory results.

  12. Electrochemical oxidation for landfill leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yang Englehardt, James D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview of electrochemical oxidation processes used for treatment of landfill leachate. The typical characteristics of landfill leachate are briefly reviewed, and the reactor designs used for electro-oxidation of leachate are summarized. Electrochemical oxidation can significantly reduce concentrations of organic contaminants, ammonia, and color in leachate. Pretreatment methods, anode materials, pH, current density, chloride concentration, and other additional electrolytes can considerably influence performance. Although high energy consumption and potential chlorinated organics formation may limit its application, electrochemical oxidation is a promising and powerful technology for treatment of landfill leachate.

  13. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: the poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-09-15

    A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists - clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0-36.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58-1.46 ng mL(-1) range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples.

  14. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Yang, Guohai; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-10-29

    We report that considerable attention has been devoted to the integration of recognition elements with electronic elements to develop electrochemical sensors and biosensors.Various electrochemical devices, such as amperometric sensors, electrochemical impedance sensors, and electrochemical luminescence sensors as well as photoelectrochemical sensors, provide wide applications in the detection of chemical and biological targets in terms of electrochemical change of electrode interfaces. Here, this review focuses on recent advances in electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures during 2013 to 2014. The aim of this effort is to provide the reader with a clear and concise view of new advances in areas ranging from electrode engineering, strategies for electrochemical signal amplification, and novel electroanalytical techniques used in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors. Moreover, the authors have attempted to highlight areas of the latest and significant development of enhanced electrochemical nanosensors and nanobiosensors that inspire broader interests across various disciplines. Electrochemical sensors for small molecules, enzyme-based biosensors, genosensors, immunosensors, and cytosensors are reviewed herein (Figure 1). Such novel advances are important for the development of electrochemical sensors that open up new avenues and methods for future research. In conclusion, we recommend readers interested in the general principles of electrochemical sensors and electrochemical methods to refer to other excellent literature for a broad scope in this area.(3, 4) However, due to the explosion of publications in this active field, we do not claim that this Review includes all of the published works in the past two years and we apologize to the authors of excellent work, which is unintentionally left out.

  15. Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Yang, Guohai; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-10-29

    We report that considerable attention has been devoted to the integration of recognition elements with electronic elements to develop electrochemical sensors and biosensors.Various electrochemical devices, such as amperometric sensors, electrochemical impedance sensors, and electrochemical luminescence sensors as well as photoelectrochemical sensors, provide wide applications in the detection of chemical and biological targets in terms of electrochemical change of electrode interfaces. Here, this review focuses on recent advances in electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures during 2013 to 2014. The aim of this effort is to provide the reader with a clear and concise view of new advancesmore » in areas ranging from electrode engineering, strategies for electrochemical signal amplification, and novel electroanalytical techniques used in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors. Moreover, the authors have attempted to highlight areas of the latest and significant development of enhanced electrochemical nanosensors and nanobiosensors that inspire broader interests across various disciplines. Electrochemical sensors for small molecules, enzyme-based biosensors, genosensors, immunosensors, and cytosensors are reviewed herein (Figure 1). Such novel advances are important for the development of electrochemical sensors that open up new avenues and methods for future research. In conclusion, we recommend readers interested in the general principles of electrochemical sensors and electrochemical methods to refer to other excellent literature for a broad scope in this area.(3, 4) However, due to the explosion of publications in this active field, we do not claim that this Review includes all of the published works in the past two years and we apologize to the authors of excellent work, which is unintentionally left out.« less

  16. Nanoparticle chains as electrochemical sensors and electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Long; Baig, Maarij; Maheshwari, Vivek

    2016-04-01

    With the advances in the field of nanotechnology, significant progress is being achieved in fabrication of nanoscale electrodes (nanoelectrodes) and using their properties for applications in multiple fields. Compared with conventional macroscale electrodes, nanoelectrodes offer many advantages that arise from their limited size. Self-assembled chains of metal nanoparticles in particular have drawn interest for fabrication of nanoelectrodes because of their unique electrical properties and geometric morphology. This article discusses the fabrication methods and potential applications of nanoparticle chains as nanoelectrodes in electrochemical systems and also as conductometric sensors. The challenges for such systems are also summarized.

  17. Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mrinal

    2002-01-01

    A novel technology for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration has been invented. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electronegativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors.

  18. Sensor apparatus using an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Mrinal

    2003-07-01

    A method for sensing mechanical quantities such as force, stress, strain, pressure and acceleration is disclosed. This technology is based on a change in the electrochemically generated voltage (electromotive force) with application of force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration. The change in the voltage is due to a change in the internal resistance of the electrochemical cell with a change in the relative position or orientation of the electrodes (anode and cathode) in the cell. The signal to be detected (e.g. force, stress, strain, pressure or acceleration) is applied to one of the electrodes to cause a change in the relative position or orientation between the electrodes. Various materials, solid, semisolid, gel, paste or liquid can be utilized as the electrolyte. The electrolyte must be an ion conductor. The examples of solid electrolytes include specific polymer conductors, polymer composites, ion conducting glasses and ceramics. The electrodes are made of conductors such as metals with dissimilar electro negativities. Significantly enhanced sensitivities, up to three orders of magnitude higher than that of comparable commercial sensors, are obtained. The materials are substantially less expensive than commercially used materials for mechanical sensors. An apparatus for sensing such mechanical quantities using materials such as doped 1,4 cis-polyisopropene and nafion. The 1,4 cis-polyisopropene may be doped with lithium perchlorate or iodine. The output voltage signal increases with an increase of the sensing area for a given stress. The device can be used as an intruder alarm, among other applications.

  19. Electrochemical Molecular Imprinted Sensors Based on Electrospun Nanofiber and Determination of Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunyun; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Haiqing; Zeng, Yanbo; Yin, Zhengzhi; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electrochemical molecularly imprinted sensors were fabricated and used for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA). Nanofiber membranes of cellulose acetate (CA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CA/MWCNTs/PVP) were prepared by electrospinning technique. After being transferred to a glass carbon electrode (GC), the nanofiber interface was further polymerized with pyrrole through electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Meanwhile, target molecules (such as AA) were embedded into the polypyrrole through the hydrogen bond. The effects of monomer concentration (pyrrole), the number of scan cycles and scan rates of polymerization were optimized. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) tests indicated that the oxidation current of AA (the selected target) were higher than that of the structural analogues, which illustrated the selective recognition of AA by molecularly imprinted sensors. Simultaneously, the molecularly imprinted sensors had larger oxidation current of AA than non-imprinted sensors in the processes of rebinding. The electrochemical measurements showed that the molecularly imprinted sensors demonstrated good identification behavior for the detection of AA with a linear range of 10.0 - 1000 μM, a low detection limit down to 3 μM (S/N = 3), and a recovery rate range from 94.0 to 108.8%. Therefore, the electrochemical molecularly imprinted sensors can be used for the recognition and detection of AA without any time-consuming elution. The method presented here demonstrates the great potential for electrospun nanofibers and MWCNTs to construct electrochemical sensors. PMID:26256603

  20. Electrochemical Molecular Imprinted Sensors Based on Electrospun Nanofiber and Determination of Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunyun; Wang, Dandan; Liu, Haiqing; Zeng, Yanbo; Yin, Zhengzhi; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electrochemical molecularly imprinted sensors were fabricated and used for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA). Nanofiber membranes of cellulose acetate (CA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CA/MWCNTs/PVP) were prepared by electrospinning technique. After being transferred to a glass carbon electrode (GC), the nanofiber interface was further polymerized with pyrrole through electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Meanwhile, target molecules (such as AA) were embedded into the polypyrrole through the hydrogen bond. The effects of monomer concentration (pyrrole), the number of scan cycles and scan rates of polymerization were optimized. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) tests indicated that the oxidation current of AA (the selected target) were higher than that of the structural analogues, which illustrated the selective recognition of AA by molecularly imprinted sensors. Simultaneously, the molecularly imprinted sensors had larger oxidation current of AA than non-imprinted sensors in the processes of rebinding. The electrochemical measurements showed that the molecularly imprinted sensors demonstrated good identification behavior for the detection of AA with a linear range of 10.0 - 1000 μM, a low detection limit down to 3 μM (S/N = 3), and a recovery rate range from 94.0 to 108.8%. Therefore, the electrochemical molecularly imprinted sensors can be used for the recognition and detection of AA without any time-consuming elution. The method presented here demonstrates the great potential for electrospun nanofibers and MWCNTs to construct electrochemical sensors.

  1. Woven electrochemical fabric-based test sensors (WEFTS): a new class of multiplexed electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tripurari; Rajamanickam, G P; Dendukuri, Dhananjaya

    2015-05-01

    We present textile weaving as a new technique for the manufacture of miniature electrochemical sensors with significant advantages over current fabrication techniques. Biocompatible silk yarn is used as the material for fabrication instead of plastics and ceramics used in commercial sensors. Silk yarns are coated with conducting inks and reagents before being handloom-woven as electrodes into patches of fabric to create arrays of sensors, which are then laminated, cut and packaged into individual sensors. Unlike the conventionally used screen-printing, which results in wastage of reagents, yarn coating uses only as much reagent and ink as required. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic yarns are used for patterning so that sample flow is restricted to a small area of the sensor. This simple fluidic control is achieved with readily available materials. We have fabricated and validated individual sensors for glucose and hemoglobin and a multiplexed sensor, which can detect both analytes. Chronoamperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to detect glucose and hemoglobin, respectively. Industrial quantities of these sensors can be fabricated at distributed locations in the developing world using existing skills and manufacturing facilities. We believe such sensors could find applications in the emerging area of wearable sensors for chemical testing.

  2. Real-time, multiplexed electrochemical DNA detection using an active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor biosensor array with integrated sensor electronics.

    PubMed

    Levine, Peter M; Gong, Ping; Levicky, Rastislav; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2009-03-15

    Optical biosensing based on fluorescence detection has arguably become the standard technique for quantifying extents of hybridization between surface-immobilized probes and fluorophore-labeled analyte targets in DNA microarrays. However, electrochemical detection techniques are emerging which could eliminate the need for physically bulky optical instrumentation, enabling the design of portable devices for point-of-care applications. Unlike fluorescence detection, which can function well using a passive substrate (one without integrated electronics), multiplexed electrochemical detection requires an electronically active substrate to analyze each array site and benefits from the addition of integrated electronic instrumentation to further reduce platform size and eliminate the electromagnetic interference that can result from bringing non-amplified signals off chip. We report on an active electrochemical biosensor array, constructed with a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, to perform quantitative DNA hybridization detection on chip using targets conjugated with ferrocene redox labels. A 4 x 4 array of gold working electrodes and integrated potentiostat electronics, consisting of control amplifiers and current-input analog-to-digital converters, on a custom-designed 5 mm x 3 mm CMOS chip drive redox reactions using cyclic voltammetry, sense DNA binding, and transmit digital data off chip for analysis. We demonstrate multiplexed and specific detection of DNA targets as well as real-time monitoring of hybridization, a task that is difficult, if not impossible, with traditional fluorescence-based microarrays.

  3. Electrochemical Oxidation of Cysteine at a Film Gold Modified Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Its Application in a Flow—Through Voltammetric Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Huang, Wen-Shiuan

    2012-01-01

    A flow-electrolytical cell containing a strand of micro Au modified carbon fiber electrodes (CFE) has been designedand characterized for use in a voltammatric detector for detecting cysteine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cysteine is more efficiently electrochemical oxidized on a Au /CFE than a bare gold and carbon fiber electrode. The possible reaction mechanism of the oxidation process is described from the relations to scan rate, peak potentials and currents. For the pulse mode, and measurements with suitable experimental parameters, a linear concentration from 0.5 to 5.0 mg·L−1 was found. The limit of quantification for cysteine was below 60 ng·mL−1. PMID:22737024

  4. Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200μm thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

  5. Niobium oxide dispersed on a carbon-ceramic matrix, SiO2/C/Nb2O5, used as an electrochemical ascorbic acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Leliz T; Villis, Paulo C M; Arguello, Jacqueline; Landers, Richard; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    A film of niobium oxide was immobilized on a SiO(2)/C carbon-ceramic matrix (specific surface area 270 m(2)g(-1)) and characterized by N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. This new carbon-ceramic material, SiO(2)/C/Nb(2)O(5), was used for construction of electrodes, and it shows ability to improve the electron-transfer between the electrode surface and ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid was made by differential pulse and cyclic voltammetry techniques, making it potentially useful for developing a new ascorbic acid sensor.

  6. Electrochemical NO{sub x} Sensors for Automotive Diesel Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L P; Pham, A Q; Glass, R S

    2002-11-25

    New emissions regulations will increase the need for compact, inexpensive sensors for monitoring and control of automotive exhaust gas pollutants. Species of interest include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). The current work is directed towards the development of fast, high sensitivity electrochemical NO{sub x} sensors for automotive diesel applications. We have investigated potentiometric NO sensors with good sensitivity and fast response when operated in 10% O{sub 2}. The sensors consist of yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates attached with NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sensing electrodes and Pt reference electrodes. A composite NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Rh sensing electrode is shown to give significantly faster response than NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} alone. The exact role of the Rh in enhancing the response speed is not clear at present. However, the Rh appears to accumulate at the contacts between the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and may enhance the inter-particle electronic conduction. Ongoing testing of these sensors is being performed to elucidate the sensing mechanisms and to quantify cross sensitivity to, for example, NO{sub 2}.

  7. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on amine group modified graphene covalently linked electrode for 4-nonylphenol detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Cai, Rong; Chen, Xing; Liu, Yu-Nan; Rao, Wei; Yao, Shou-Zhuo

    2013-10-15

    In this work, an imprinted electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical reduced graphene covalently modified carbon electrode was developed for the determination of 4-nonylphenol (NP). An amine-terminated functional graphene oxide was covalently modified onto the electrode surface with diazonium salt reactions to improve the stability and reproducibility of the imprinted sensor. The electrochemical properties of each modified electrodes were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The electrochemical characteristic of the imprinted sensor was also investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in detail. The response currents of the imprinted electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward 4-nonylphenol concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(-11) to 1.0 × 10(-8) gm L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-12) gm L(-1) (S/N=3). The fabricated electrochemical imprinted sensor was successfully applied to the detection of 4-nonylphenol in rain and lake water samples.

  8. Photocatalytically Renewable Micro-electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Quan; Liu, Yan-Ling; Wang, Qian; Duo, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Li, Yu-Tao; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-11-23

    Electrode fouling and passivation is a substantial and inevitable limitation in electrochemical biosensing, and it is a great challenge to efficiently remove the contaminant without changing the surface structure and electrochemical performance. Herein, we propose a versatile and efficient strategy based on photocatalytic cleaning to construct renewable electrochemical sensors for cell analysis. This kind of sensor was fabricated by controllable assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO2 to form a sandwiching RGO@TiO2 structure, followed by deposition of Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the RGO shell. The Au NPs-RGO composite shell provides high electrochemical performance. Meanwhile, the encapsulated TiO2 ensures an excellent photocatalytic cleaning property. Application of this renewable microsensor for detection of nitric oxide (NO) release from cells demonstrates the great potential of this strategy in electrode regeneration and biosensing.

  9. Real-time monitoring of hydrogen peroxide consumption in an oxidation reaction in molecular solvent and ionic liquids by a hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Sordi, Daniela; Arduini, Fabiana; Conte, Valeria; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2011-06-20

    An efficient electrochemical protocol to monitor hydrogen peroxide consumption during metal-catalyzed oxidation by using screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian blue is presented. In particular, cyclooctene oxidation to cyclooctene oxide, catalyzed by a vanadium(V)-salophen complex (H(2)salophen=N,N'-o-phenylenebis(salicylideneimine)), in molecular and ionic media was tested. Initially, a protocol for batch analysis was developed for a monophasic system in acetonitrile, and subsequently, an in situ protocol was developed for a biphasic system of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate/phosphate buffer. Calibration curves were performed in amperometric mode by applying -50 mV versus an Ag pseudo-reference. The calibration curve of hydrogen peroxide showed a linear correlation from 1 × 10(-6) up to 5 × 10(-3) mol L(-1) with satisfactory inter- and intra-electrode reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 5 and 13%, respectively, for the monophasic system and 11 and 13%, respectively, for the biphasic system). Kinetic studies to investigate the oxidation reaction for both the mono- and biphasic systems have been carried out in amperometric mode as well. Firstly, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was examined, which showed that, in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate(,) it completely decomposed in 300 min, whereas in acetonitrile, in the same time frame, 20% of the initial amount was still active. In the presence of 1% of the catalyst the decomposition rate increased in both solvents. Finally, the complete oxidation of cyclooctene was followed and the effective conversion was determined. The developed protocols showed high reproducibility, with the advantage that the environmentally friendly biphasic system could also be recycled. The good analytical performance obtained, coupled with a short analysis time, the possibility of in-line automation and the use of ionic liquids instead of molecular solvents, made this

  10. Non-invasive wearable electrochemical sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-07-01

    Wearable sensors have garnered considerable recent interest owing to their tremendous promise for a plethora of applications. Yet the absence of reliable non-invasive chemical sensors has greatly hindered progress in the area of on-body sensing. Electrochemical sensors offer considerable promise as wearable chemical sensors that are suitable for diverse applications owing to their high performance, inherent miniaturization, and low cost. A wide range of wearable electrochemical sensors and biosensors has been developed for real-time non-invasive monitoring of electrolytes and metabolites in sweat, tears, or saliva as indicators of a wearer's health status. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive electrochemical sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of wearable wireless sensing devices and body-sensor networks, and thus find considerable use in a wide range of personal health-care monitoring applications, as well as in sport and military applications.

  11. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. PMID:24932865

  12. CD/AuNPs/MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor for quercetin dual-signal detection.

    PubMed

    Kan, Xianwen; Zhang, Tingting; Zhong, Min; Lu, Xiaojing

    2016-03-15

    A dual-signal strategy was developed in the present work for quercetin (QR) electrochemical recognition and detection. Mercapto-β-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD) self-assembled on gold nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode surface to fabricate an electrochemical sensor. Scanning electron microscope, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to characterize the preparation process of the sensor. Hydroquinone (HQ) was chosen as an electrochemical marker for QR detection due to its small molecular size for the formation of inclusion with HS-β-CD. The results of UV-vis and differential pulse voltammetry demonstrate that the added QR can replace the included HQ in CD cavities, resulting in the dual-signal in electrochemical experiments composed of the decrease of oxidized current of HQ and the increase of oxidized current of QR. Compared with the sensor for QR detection in the absence of HQ, the sensor based dual-signal strategy exhibited a higher sensitivity with a wider detection range from 5.0 × 10(-9) to 7.0 × 10(-6)mol/L. With good selectivity, reproducibility, and stability, the sensor was applied for real samples detection with satisfactory results. The proposed dual-signal strategy can be readily extended to the selective recognition and sensitive detection of other molecules.

  13. Method of determining methane and electrochemical sensor therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Otagawa, Takaaki; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1986-01-01

    A method and instrument including an electrochemical cell for the detection and measurement of methane in a gas by the oxidation of methane electrochemically at a working electrode in a nonaqueous electrolyte at a voltage about about 1.4 volts versus R.H.E. (the reversible hydrogen electrode potential in the same electrolyte), and the measurement of the electrical signal resulting from the electrochemical oxidation.

  14. Electro-chemical sensors, sensor arrays and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Howard E.; Kong, Hoyoul

    2014-07-08

    An electro-chemical sensor includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and a semiconductor channel in electrical contact with the first and second electrodes. The semiconductor channel includes a trapping material. The trapping material reduces an ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct a current of charge carriers by trapping at least some of the charge carriers to localized regions within the semiconductor channel. The semiconductor channel includes at least a portion configured to be exposed to an analyte to be detected, and the trapping material, when exposed to the analyte, interacts with the analyte so as to at least partially restore the ability of the semiconductor channel to conduct the current of charge carriers.

  15. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  16. Electrochemical oxidation of wastewater - opportunities and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Woisetschläger, D; Humpl, B; Koncar, M; Siebenhofer, M

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation by means of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes generates a very efficient oxidizing environment by forming hydroxyl radicals, providing effective water purification for elimination of persistent pollutants. In this project the degradation rates of organic and inorganic substances are investigated. Experiments were performed in laboratory and pilot scale with synthetic and industrial wastewaters. Performance parameters were evaluated in terms of total organic carbon/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, specific energy consumption and current efficiency. The integration of this advanced oxidation technology combined with conventional technology was then applied in a wastewater treatment concept of landfill leachate. The raw leachate with a low biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio was electrochemically oxidized to prepare the purified leachate for discharge into a sewage system or a receiving water body. The cost estimation regarding operation and capital costs addresses the economics for the treatment of heavily polluted effluents. PMID:24037171

  17. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-09-04

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics.

  18. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  19. Carbon Nanomaterials Based Electrochemical Sensors/Biosensors for the Sensitive Detection of Pharmaceutical and Biological Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors and biosensors have attracted considerable attention for the sensitive detection of a variety of biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Since the discovery of carbon-based nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, C60 and graphene, they have garnered tremendous interest for their potential in the design of high-performance electrochemical sensor platforms due to their exceptional thermal, mechanical, electronic, and catalytic properties. Carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors have been employed for the detection of various analytes with rapid electron transfer kinetics. This feature article focuses on the recent design and use of carbon nanomaterials, primarily single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), SWCNTs-rGO, Au nanoparticle-rGO nanocomposites, and buckypaper as sensing materials for the electrochemical detection of some representative biological and pharmaceutical compounds such as methylglyoxal, acetaminophen, valacyclovir, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH), and glucose. Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of SWCNTs, rGO, and SWCNT-rGO for the detection of acetaminophen and valacyclovir was comparatively studied, revealing that SWCNT-rGO nanocomposites possess excellent electrocatalytic activity in comparison to individual SWCNT and rGO platforms. The sensitive, reliable and rapid analysis of critical disease biomarkers and globally emerging pharmaceutical compounds at carbon nanomaterials based electrochemical sensor platforms may enable an extensive range of applications in preemptive medical diagnostics. PMID:26404304

  20. Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R.; Macazo, Florika C.; Gutierrez, Brenda; Lottermoser, Justine; Liu, Juan; White, Ryan J.

    2016-06-01

    The development of structure-switching, electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors over the past ˜10 years has led to a variety of reagentless sensors capable of analytical detection in a range of sample matrices. The crux of this methodology is the coupling of target-induced conformation changes of a redox-labeled aptamer with electrochemical detection of the resulting altered charge transfer rate between the redox molecule and electrode surface. Using aptamer recognition expands the highly sensitive detection ability of electrochemistry to a range of previously inaccessible analytes. In this review, we focus on the methods of sensor fabrication and how sensor signaling is affected by fabrication parameters. We then discuss recent studies addressing the fundamentals of sensor signaling as well as quantitative characterization of the analytical performance of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Although the limits of detection of reported electrochemical aptamer-based sensors do not often reach that of gold-standard methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the operational convenience of the sensor platform enables exciting analytical applications that we address. Using illustrative examples, we highlight recent advances in the field that impact important areas of analytical chemistry. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects for this class of sensors.

  1. Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors.

    PubMed

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R; Macazo, Florika C; Gutierrez, Brenda; Lottermoser, Justine; Liu, Juan; White, Ryan J

    2016-06-12

    The development of structure-switching, electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors over the past ∼10 years has led to a variety of reagentless sensors capable of analytical detection in a range of sample matrices. The crux of this methodology is the coupling of target-induced conformation changes of a redox-labeled aptamer with electrochemical detection of the resulting altered charge transfer rate between the redox molecule and electrode surface. Using aptamer recognition expands the highly sensitive detection ability of electrochemistry to a range of previously inaccessible analytes. In this review, we focus on the methods of sensor fabrication and how sensor signaling is affected by fabrication parameters. We then discuss recent studies addressing the fundamentals of sensor signaling as well as quantitative characterization of the analytical performance of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Although the limits of detection of reported electrochemical aptamer-based sensors do not often reach that of gold-standard methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the operational convenience of the sensor platform enables exciting analytical applications that we address. Using illustrative examples, we highlight recent advances in the field that impact important areas of analytical chemistry. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects for this class of sensors.

  2. Electrochemical fabrication and amperometric sensor application of graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Ayşe; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2016-07-01

    Graphene sheets have been fabricated by applying two-step electrochemical processes in two-electrode cell system containing 0.1 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). First step is intercalation of SDS into graphite anode electrode and this process has been applied at different intercalation potential values of 1, 3, 5, and 7 V. Second step includes exfoliation of SDS-intercalated graphite electrode in the same medium by acting as cathode. Stable graphene dispersions are obtained after these two electrochemical steps. Characterization of graphene sheets have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Graphene sheets have been modified onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by drop-casting of graphene dispersion. Graphene/GCE having a good electrocatalytic activity has been used for amperometric determination of nitrite in both standard laboratory and real samples. The oxidation current density was linearly proportional to the nitrite concentration in a range between 1 and 250 μM. The sensitivity of the sensor was calculated as 0.843 μAμM-1 cm-2 with a detection limit of 0.24 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.0.

  3. An improved sensor for electrochemical microcalorimetry, based on lithiumtantalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frittmann, Stefan; Halka, Vadym; Jaramillo, Carlos; Schuster, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a pyroelectric sensor for electrochemical microcalorimetry, based on LiTaO3, which provides unprecedented sensitivity for the detection of electrochemically induced heat effects. Deterioration of the heat signal by electrostriction effects on the electrode surface is suppressed by a multilayered construction, where an intermediate sapphire sheet dampens mechanical deformations. Thus, well textured thin metal films become viable candidates as electrodes. We demonstrate the sensor performance for Cu underpotential deposition on (111)-textured Au films on sapphire. The sensor signal compares well with a purely thermal signal induced by heating with laser pulses. The high sensitivity of the sensor is demonstrated by measuring heat effects upon double layer charging in perchloric acid, i.e., in the absence of electrochemical charge- or ion-transfer reactions.

  4. Ductile mode electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining for glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Eunseok; Lee, Chan-Young; Jun, Martin B. G.; Min, Byung-Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a new mechanical machining process using electrochemical oxidation was reported. Electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining was applied to the machining of glassy carbon. The material removal process of the electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining consists of repeated cycles of oxidation followed by removal of the oxide layer. In this paper, we experimentally investigate and compare the critical chip thickness for ductile mode cutting in mechanical machining and electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining of glassy carbon. The theoretical critical chip thickness is calculated for mechanical machining of glassy carbon and experimentally verified. The effect of electrochemical oxidation on the critical chip thickness for ductile mode micromachining is also studied for glassy carbon. It is found that the critical chip thickness is increased for the electrochemical oxidation assisted micromachining.

  5. Multiple frequency method for operating electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Louis P.

    2012-05-15

    A multiple frequency method for the operation of a sensor to measure a parameter of interest using calibration information including the steps of exciting the sensor at a first frequency providing a first sensor response, exciting the sensor at a second frequency providing a second sensor response, using the second sensor response at the second frequency and the calibration information to produce a calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, using the first sensor response at the first frequency, the calculated concentration of the interfering parameters, and the calibration information to measure the parameter of interest.

  6. Improved electrochemical biosensor response via metal oxide pre-oxidation of chemical interferents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseknecht, Jamie G.; Tapsak, Mark A.

    2007-09-01

    Typical biological samples are inherently complicated. They may contain a myriad of compounds that are electroactive at the same potential as that used in many electrochemical biosensors. Therefore, a biosensor design feature must be included that either eliminates or blocks the interferents from generating false positive signals. The ability to use an insoluble compound, that of MnO II, in order to oxidize interferents such as ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and uric acid, was investigated in a prototype sensor system at a bias potential of 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl. Unlike previous work with these materials, a difference between the ability for the metal oxide to oxidize the interferents was observed. Most effective was the capability of MnO II to oxidize uric acid. Alternatively, the MnO II had little effect on acetaminophen. The study is both introduced and results are discussed within the context of an implantable glucose sensor.

  7. Electrochemical Corrosion Rate Sensors for Waste Incineration Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Matthes, S.A.; Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Eden, D.A.

    2007-03-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate sensors work in high temperature waste incineration applications where ash is deposited. The ash serves as the electrolyte for electrochemical measurements, such as liner polarization resistance, electrochemical noise, and harmonic distortion analyses. Results to date have shown that these types of sensors respond qualitatively to changes in temperature, gas composition, alloy composition, and type of ash. Several years of research have shown that high temperature corrosion rate probes need to be better understood before corrosion rate can be used as a process variable by power plant operators. More recent research has shown that electrochemical corrosion probes typically measure lower corrosion rates than those measured by standard mass loss techniques. While still useful for monitoring changes in corrosion rates, absolute probe corrosion rates will need a calibration factor to be useful. Ideas for research that may help resolve these issues are presented.

  8. Synthesis and utilisation of graphene for fabrication of electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent contributions in the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of graphene to the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future prospects. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving graphene sensors have been reported ever since the first design of graphene electrochemical biosensor. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centres of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make it a very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Graphene promotes the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, haemoglobin, biomolecules such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25281124

  9. Developments in electrochemical sensors for occupational and environmental health applications.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Kevin

    2003-08-15

    This paper provides an overview of recent advances in electrochemical sensors for industrial hygiene monitoring applications. Currently available instrument technologies as well as new devices under development are both exemplified. Progress in ruggedization and miniaturization of electroanalytical devices has led to significant improvements for on-site monitoring applications, e.g. in harsh environments and in biological monitoring. Sensor arrays and modified electrodes offer considerable promise for improved electrochemical sensing, i.e. through multi-species detection and enhanced selectivity. On-site electroanalytical detection and measurement in the field may become more widely used for applications in occupational health monitoring.

  10. Application of electrochemical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for characterization of electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Salamifar, S Ehsan; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-10-01

    We report the use of electrochemical surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (EC-SPR) in the characterization of electrochemical DNA sensors. Three DNA probes, including a stem-loop probe and two linear probes (LP), were used in this study. Among the three sensors, the 3xLP sensor, a new sensor design with three consecutive target recognition sites, showed the largest change in SPR signal upon hybridization to T-25, a 25-base target with overhang regions that do not bind to the 3xLP probe. A detection limit of 20nM was determined for T-25 using this sensor. Overall, this work has demonstrated the main advantage of EC-SPR, which is the ability to monitor both optical and electrochemical signals simultaneously, from sensor fabrication to target interrogation and sensor regeneration. It also alludes to the potential use of this hybrid technique to differentiate between non-specific binding and non-specific adsorption of non-complement targets onto the sensor surface.

  11. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect

    Marina, Olga A; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2010-11-23

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  12. Cerium-modified doped strontium titanate compositions for solid oxide fuel cell anodes and electrodes for other electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Marina, Olga A [Richland, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-03-02

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells and electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers, sensors, pumps and the like, the compositions comprising cerium-modified doped strontium titanate. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using anode material compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having anodes comprising the compositions.

  13. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Rieke, Peter C.; Coffey, Gregory W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Hardy, John S.; Singh, Prabhaker; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  14. Solid oxide electrochemical cell fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Dollard, Walter J.; Folser, George R.; Pal, Uday B.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A method to form an electrochemical cell (12) is characterized by the steps of thermal spraying stabilized zirconia over a doped lanthanum manganite air electrode tube (14) to provide an electrolyte layer (15), coating conductive particles over the electrolyte, pressurizing the outside of the electrolyte layer, feeding halide vapors of yttrium and zirconium to the outside of the electrolyte layer and feeding a source of oxygen to the inside of the electrolyte layer, heating to cause oxygen reaction with the halide vapors to close electrolyte pores if there are any and to form a metal oxide coating on and between the particles and provide a fuel electrode (16).

  15. Recent Electrochemical and Optical Sensors in Flow-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chailapakul, Orawon; Ngamukot, Passapol; Yoosamran, Alongkorn; Siangproh, Weena; Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn

    2006-01-01

    Some recent analytical sensors based on electrochemical and optical detection coupled with different flow techniques have been chosen in this overview. A brief description of fundamental concepts and applications of each flow technique, such as flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA), batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA (MSFIA), and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) were reviewed.

  16. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B Jill

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  17. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B Jill

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors.

  18. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. PMID:26320782

  19. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  20. Electrochemical sensor/detector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Perone, Sam P.; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kimmons, James F.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system is described comprising in combination: (a) a multielement, microelectrode array detector containing means for acquiring a plurality of signals; (b) electronic means for receiving said signals and converting said signals into a readout or display providing information with respect to the nature and concentration of elements present in a solution being tested. Also described is the means of making the above described microelectrode detector.

  1. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-06-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  2. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors.

    PubMed

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-12-04

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO₂) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO₂ sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  3. Single particle electrochemical sensors and methods of utilization

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph; Flounders, Albert W.; Hughes, Robert C.; Ricco, Antonio J.; Wally, Karl; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Janek, Richard P.

    2006-04-04

    The present invention discloses an electrochemical device for detecting single particles, and methods for using such a device to achieve high sensitivity for detecting particles such as bacteria, viruses, aggregates, immuno-complexes, molecules, or ionic species. The device provides for affinity-based electrochemical detection of particles with single-particle sensitivity. The disclosed device and methods are based on microelectrodes with surface-attached, affinity ligands (e.g., antibodies, combinatorial peptides, glycolipids) that bind selectively to some target particle species. The electrodes electrolyze chemical species present in the particle-containing solution, and particle interaction with a sensor element modulates its electrolytic activity. The devices may be used individually, employed as sensors, used in arrays for a single specific type of particle or for a range of particle types, or configured into arrays of sensors having both these attributes.

  4. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide) as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants. PMID:25019067

  5. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Kamalakanta; Pandey, Shubha; Kadyan, Anu; Pandey, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability), ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review. PMID:26690155

  6. Zinc oxide nanostructures for electrochemical cortisol biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Tracy, Kathryn; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report on fabrication of a label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical cortisol immunosensors using one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two dimensional nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) as immobilizing matrix. The synthesized ZnO nanostructures (NSs) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selective area diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) which showed that both ZnO-NRs and ZnO-NFs are single crystalline and oriented in [0001] direction. Anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-Cab) are used as primary capture antibodies to detect cortisol using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increase in cortisol concentration and exhibits a sensitivity of 3.078 KΩ. M-1 for ZnO-NRs and 540 Ω. M -1 for ZnO-NFs. The developed ZnO-NSs based immunosensor is capable of detecting cortisol at 1 pM. The observed sensing parameters are in physiological range. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat to detect cortisol at point-of-care.

  7. An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Kerman, Kagan; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliability at a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensors use a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface, interactions with the target protein and the molecular recognition layer. Traditionally, redox enzymes have provided the molecular recognition elements from which target proteins have interacted with. This necessitates that the redox-active enzymes couple with electrode surfaces and usually requires the participation of added diffusional components, or assembly of the enzymes in functional chemical matrices. These complications, among many others, have seen a trend towards non-enzymatic-based electrochemical protein sensors. Several electrochemical detection approaches have been exploited. Basically, these have fallen into two categories: labeled and label-free detection systems. The former rely on a redox-active signal from a reporter molecule or a label, which changes upon the interaction of the target protein. In this review, we discuss the label-free electrochemical detection of proteins, paying particular emphasis to those that exploit intrinsic redox-active amino acids.

  8. Corrosion monitoring of reinforcing steel in concrete by electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Guofu; Hong, Yi; Ou, Jinping

    2010-04-01

    Health degradation by corrosion of steel in civil engineering, especially in rough environment, is a persistent problem. Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques can lead to improved estimates of structural safety and serviceability. A novel all solid state-current confined corrosion sensor has been developed to provide the platform for corrosion monitoring of the steel bar in concrete beam by electrochemical method. Finite element method has been used to certify the current confined effect of the sensor. The sensors have been used in concrete beams to monitor the corrosion of the steel bar. Also, half-cell potential of the beam has obtained. The results shows that the corrosion sensor can effectively confine the current in the fixed area which is 45mm×π×Dsteel bar and the monitoring results of the corrosion sensor are accurate.

  9. Development of the electrochemical fatigue sensor for evaluating fatigue damage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.F.; Wang, J.; Wang, M.Z.; DeLuccia, J.; Laird, C.

    1999-07-01

    The Electrochemical Fatigue Sensor (EFS) is a device which operates by an electrochemical-mechanical interaction and which can sense the type and extent of fatigue damage both before and after crack initiation. It was initially explored through studies on soft metals. Here the authors report efforts to determine the ability of the device to read damage in hardened commercial alloys: 7075 aluminum alloy, 4130 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. They also demonstrate that the device, which uses an electrolytic medium, does not degrade the fatigue properties if care is used in electrolyte selection.

  10. Engineering new aptamer geometries for electrochemical aptamer-based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ryan J.; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2009-05-01

    Electrochemical aptamer-based sensors (E-AB sensors) represent a promising new approach to the detection of small molecules. E-AB sensors comprise an aptamer that is attached at one end to an electrode surface. The distal end of the aptamer probed is modified with an electroactive redox marker for signal transduction. Herein we report on the optimization of a cocaine-detecting E-AB sensor via optimization of the geometry of the aptamer. We explore two new aptamer architectures, one in which we concatenate three cocaine aptamers into a poly-aptamer and a second in which we divide the cocaine aptamer into pieces connected via an unstructured, 60-thymine linker. Both of these structures are designed such that the reporting redox tag will be located farther from the electrode in the unfolded, target-free conformation. Consistent with this, we find that signal gains of these two constructs are two to three times higher than that of the original E-AB architecture. Likewise all three architectures are selective enough to deploy directly in complex sample matrices, such as undiluted whole blood, with all three sensors successfully detecting the presence of cocaine. The findings in this ongoing study should be of value in future efforts to optimize the signaling of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors.

  11. Electrochemical sensor having suspended element counter electrode and deflection method for current sensing

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2010-05-18

    An electrochemical suspended element-based sensor system includes a solution cell for holding an electrolyte comprising solution including at least one electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species. A working electrode (WE), reference electrode (RE) and a counter electrode (CE) are disposed in the solution. The CE includes an asymmetric suspended element, wherein one side of the suspended element includes a metal or a highly doped semiconductor surface. The suspended element bends when current associated with reduction or oxidation of the electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species at the WE passes through the suspended element. At least one measurement system measures the bending of the suspended element or a parameter which is a function of the bending.

  12. Rapid in situ detection of ultratrace 2,4-dinitrotoluene solids by a sandwiched paper-like electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Chengguo; Luo, Qingying; Lin, Yi; Hu, Shengshui

    2014-08-19

    This work reported the rapid in situ detection of ultratrace 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) solids on various substrates by a sandwiched paper-like electrochemical sensor. The sensor, prepared by a simple electroless deposition method without using special instruments, possessed a unique thin-film structure of an insulated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane in between two gold (Au) conducting layers. The resulting gold-PVDF sandwich (GPVDFS) array exhibited excellent flexibility, porosity and electrochemical performance as a highly integrated dual-electrode sensor platform. The infiltration of nonvolatile ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes containing ferrocene (Fc) into the GPVDFS array produced a paper-like electrochemical sensor, which can directly detect ultratrace DNT solids on various substrate surfaces (e.g., plant leaves, gloves and metal knives) with detection limit as low as 0.33 ng/mm(2). The critical role of Fc in the detection of DNT at this dual-electrode sensor was explored. The compensating electrochemical oxidation of Fc at the counter/reference electrode was found to be essential to the reduction of DNT at the working electrode when IL electrolytes were employed. The present work thus demonstrated the promising applications of paper-based porous electrode arrays in developing IL-based electrochemical sensors for the in situ detection of analyte solids in complicated environments.

  13. Rapid in situ detection of ultratrace 2,4-dinitrotoluene solids by a sandwiched paper-like electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Chengguo; Luo, Qingying; Lin, Yi; Hu, Shengshui

    2014-08-19

    This work reported the rapid in situ detection of ultratrace 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) solids on various substrates by a sandwiched paper-like electrochemical sensor. The sensor, prepared by a simple electroless deposition method without using special instruments, possessed a unique thin-film structure of an insulated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane in between two gold (Au) conducting layers. The resulting gold-PVDF sandwich (GPVDFS) array exhibited excellent flexibility, porosity and electrochemical performance as a highly integrated dual-electrode sensor platform. The infiltration of nonvolatile ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes containing ferrocene (Fc) into the GPVDFS array produced a paper-like electrochemical sensor, which can directly detect ultratrace DNT solids on various substrate surfaces (e.g., plant leaves, gloves and metal knives) with detection limit as low as 0.33 ng/mm(2). The critical role of Fc in the detection of DNT at this dual-electrode sensor was explored. The compensating electrochemical oxidation of Fc at the counter/reference electrode was found to be essential to the reduction of DNT at the working electrode when IL electrolytes were employed. The present work thus demonstrated the promising applications of paper-based porous electrode arrays in developing IL-based electrochemical sensors for the in situ detection of analyte solids in complicated environments. PMID:25072393

  14. Selective Electrochemical versus Chemical Oxidation of Bulky Phenol.

    PubMed

    Zabik, Nicole L; Virca, Carolyn N; McCormick, Theresa M; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of selected tert-butylated phenols 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (1), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2), 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol (3), 2-tert-butylphenol (4), and 4-tert-butylphenol (5) was studied in an aprotic environment using cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry, and UV-vis spectroscopy. All compounds exhibited irreversible oxidation of the corresponding phenol or phenolate ion. Compound 2 was selectively electrochemically oxidized, while other phenol analogues underwent mostly chemical oxidation. The electrochemical oxidation of 2 produced a highly absorbing product, 3,5,3',5'-tetra-tert-butyl-4,4'-diphenoquinone, which was characterized by X-ray crystal diffraction. The electrochemical oxidation was monitored as a function of electrochemical parameters and concentration. Experimental and theoretical data indicated that the steric hindrance, phenoxyl radical stability, and hydrogen bonding influenced the outcome of the electrochemical oxidation. The absence of the substituent at the para position and the presence of the bulky substituents at ortho positions were structural and electrostatic requirements for the selective electrochemical oxidation.

  15. Selective Electrochemical versus Chemical Oxidation of Bulky Phenol.

    PubMed

    Zabik, Nicole L; Virca, Carolyn N; McCormick, Theresa M; Martic-Milne, Sanela

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of selected tert-butylated phenols 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (1), 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2), 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol (3), 2-tert-butylphenol (4), and 4-tert-butylphenol (5) was studied in an aprotic environment using cyclic voltammetry, square-wave voltammetry, and UV-vis spectroscopy. All compounds exhibited irreversible oxidation of the corresponding phenol or phenolate ion. Compound 2 was selectively electrochemically oxidized, while other phenol analogues underwent mostly chemical oxidation. The electrochemical oxidation of 2 produced a highly absorbing product, 3,5,3',5'-tetra-tert-butyl-4,4'-diphenoquinone, which was characterized by X-ray crystal diffraction. The electrochemical oxidation was monitored as a function of electrochemical parameters and concentration. Experimental and theoretical data indicated that the steric hindrance, phenoxyl radical stability, and hydrogen bonding influenced the outcome of the electrochemical oxidation. The absence of the substituent at the para position and the presence of the bulky substituents at ortho positions were structural and electrostatic requirements for the selective electrochemical oxidation. PMID:27454828

  16. Stretchable Electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Jin, Zi-He; Liu, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xue-Bo; Qin, Yu; Xu, Jia-Quan; Fan, Cui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-24

    Stretchable electrochemical sensors are conceivably a powerful technique that provides important chemical information to unravel elastic and curvilinear living body. However, no breakthrough was made in stretchable electrochemical device for biological detection. Herein, we synthesized Au nanotubes (NTs) with large aspect ratio to construct an effective stretchable electrochemical sensor. Interlacing network of Au NTs endows the sensor with desirable stability against mechanical deformation, and Au nanostructure provides excellent electrochemical performance and biocompatibility. This allows for the first time, real-time electrochemical monitoring of mechanically sensitive cells on the sensor both in their stretching-free and stretching states as well as sensing of the inner lining of blood vessels. The results demonstrate the great potential of this sensor in electrochemical detection of living body, opening a new window for stretchable electrochemical sensor in biological exploration.

  17. Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective electrochemical (EC) sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50uL) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next-generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This manuscript highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed. PMID:19018275

  18. Wearable electrochemical sensors for in situ analysis in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Malzahn, Kerstin; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

    2011-07-21

    The development of wearable screen-printed electrochemical sensors on underwater garments comprised of the synthetic rubber neoprene is reported. These wearable sensors are able to determine the presence of environmental pollutants and security threats in marine environments. Owing to its unique elastic and superhydrophobic morphology, neoprene is an attractive substrate for thick-film electrochemical sensors for aquatic environments and offers high-resolution printing with no apparent defects. The neoprene-based sensor was evaluated for the voltammetric detection of trace heavy metal contaminants and nitroaromatic explosives in seawater samples. We also describe the first example of enzyme (tyrosinase) immobilization on a wearable substrate towards the amperometric biosensing of phenolic contaminants in seawater. Furthermore, the integration of a miniaturized potentiostat directly on the underwater garment is demonstrated. The wearable sensor-potentiostat microsystem provides a visual indication and alert if the levels of harmful contaminants have exceeded a pre-defined threshold. The concept discussed here is well-suited for integration into dry- and wetsuits worn by divers and recreational surfers/swimmers, thereby providing them with the ability to continuously assess their surroundings for environmental contaminants and security hazards.

  19. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  20. Electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanoporous silica for environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Conner, Marianne M.

    2004-12-01

    Nanostructured materials enable the development of miniature sensing devices that are compact, low-cost, low-energy-consumption, and easily integrated into field-deployable units. Recently we have successfully developed electrochemical sensors based on functionalized nanostructured materials for the characterization of metal ions. Specifically, glycinyl-urea self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Gly-UR SAMMS) has been incorporated in carbon paste electrodes for the detection of toxic metals such as lead, copper, and mercury based on adsorptive stripping voltammetry, while acetamide phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on nanoporous silica (Ac-Phos SAMMS) has been used for the detection of uranium. Both electrochemical sensors yield reproducible measurements with excellent detection limits (at ppb level), are selective for target species, does not require the use of mercury film and chelating agents, and require little or no regeneration of electrode materials. The rigid, open, paralleled pore structure combined with suitable interfacial chemistry of SAMMS also results in fast responses of the electrochemical sensors.

  1. Methane-oxygen electrochemical coupling in an ionic liquid: a robust sensor for simultaneous quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Guo, Min; Baker, Gary A; Stetter, Joseph R; Lin, Lu; Mason, Andrew J; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2014-10-21

    Current sensor devices for the detection of methane or natural gas emission are either expensive and have high power requirements or fail to provide a rapid response. This report describes an electrochemical methane sensor utilizing a non-volatile and conductive pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte and an innovative internal standard method for methane and oxygen dual-gas detection with high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability. At a platinum electrode in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2)-based ILs, methane is electro-oxidized to produce CO2 and water when an oxygen reduction process is included. The in situ generated CO2 arising from methane oxidation was shown to provide an excellent internal standard for quantification of the electrochemical oxygen sensor signal. The simultaneous quantification of both methane and oxygen in real time strengthens the reliability of the measurements by cross-validation of two ambient gases occurring within a single sample matrix and allows for the elimination of several types of random and systematic errors in the detection. We have also validated this IL-based methane sensor employing both conventional solid macroelectrodes and flexible microfabricated electrodes using single- and double-potential step chronoamperometry. PMID:25093213

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of perfluorinated compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Li, Yang; Shang, Enxiang; Xu, Zesheng; Liu, Jinzi

    2016-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent and refractory organic pollutants that have been detected in various environmental matrices and municipal wastewater. Electrochemical oxidation (EO) is a promising remediation technique for wastewater contaminated with PFCs. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that the "non-active" anodes, including boron-doped diamond, tin oxide, and lead dioxide, are effective in PFCs elimination in wastewater due to their high oxygen evolution potential. Many researchers have conducted experiments to investigate the optimal conditions (i.e., potential, current density, pH value, plate distance, initial PFCs concentration, electrolyte, and other factors) for PFCs elimination to obtain the maximal elimination efficiency and current efficiency. The EO mechanism and pathways of PFCs have been clearly elucidated, which undergo electron transfer, Kolbe decarboxylation or desulfonation, hydrolysis, and radical reaction. In addition, the safety evaluation and energy consumption evaluation of the EO technology have also been summarized to decrease toxic ion release from electrode and reduce the cost of this technique. Although the ultrasonication and hydrothermal techniques combined with the EO process can improve the removal efficiency and current efficiency significantly, these coupled techniques have not been commercialized and applied in industrial wastewater treatment. Finally, key challenges facing EO technology are listed and the directions for further research are pointed out (such as combination with other techniques, treatment for natural waters contaminated by low levels of PFCs, and reactor design).

  3. Electrochemical oxidation of perfluorinated compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Li, Yang; Shang, Enxiang; Xu, Zesheng; Liu, Jinzi

    2016-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent and refractory organic pollutants that have been detected in various environmental matrices and municipal wastewater. Electrochemical oxidation (EO) is a promising remediation technique for wastewater contaminated with PFCs. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that the "non-active" anodes, including boron-doped diamond, tin oxide, and lead dioxide, are effective in PFCs elimination in wastewater due to their high oxygen evolution potential. Many researchers have conducted experiments to investigate the optimal conditions (i.e., potential, current density, pH value, plate distance, initial PFCs concentration, electrolyte, and other factors) for PFCs elimination to obtain the maximal elimination efficiency and current efficiency. The EO mechanism and pathways of PFCs have been clearly elucidated, which undergo electron transfer, Kolbe decarboxylation or desulfonation, hydrolysis, and radical reaction. In addition, the safety evaluation and energy consumption evaluation of the EO technology have also been summarized to decrease toxic ion release from electrode and reduce the cost of this technique. Although the ultrasonication and hydrothermal techniques combined with the EO process can improve the removal efficiency and current efficiency significantly, these coupled techniques have not been commercialized and applied in industrial wastewater treatment. Finally, key challenges facing EO technology are listed and the directions for further research are pointed out (such as combination with other techniques, treatment for natural waters contaminated by low levels of PFCs, and reactor design). PMID:26745381

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical behavior of nanostructured cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vinay Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio

    2009-01-08

    Nanostructured Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides were electrochemically deposited onto stainless steel electrode by electrochemical method and characterized for their structural and supercapacitive properties. The SEM images indicated that the obtained Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides had cauliflower-type nanostructure. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, Co and Ni. The EDX elemental mapping images indicated that Ni, Co and O are distributed uniformly. The deposited Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides showed good supercapacitive characteristics with a specific capacitance of 331 F/g at 1 mA/cm{sup 2} current density in 1 M KOH electrolyte. A mechanism of the formation of cauliflower-shape Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides was proposed. A variety of promising applications in the fields such as energy storage devices and sensors can be envisioned from Co-Ni/Co-Ni oxides.

  5. Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    A special issue of Sensors entitled “Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology” has been prepared over a period of three years. In this Editorial Note we would like to highlight one of the possible directions for electrochemical sensor and biosensor research resulting from the ideas of Czechoslovakian Nobel Prize winner Jaroslav Heyrovsky and his colleague Rudolf Brdicka.

  6. An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on gold nanorods decorated graphene oxide sheets for sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaowei; Fang, Xian; Shi, Anqi; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2013-12-15

    A simple electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective DNA detection was constructed based on gold nanorods (Au NRs) decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheets. The high-quality Au NRs-GO nanocomposite was synthesized via the electrostatic self-assembly technique, which is considered a potential sensing platform. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to monitor the DNA hybridization event using methylene blue as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of methylene blue were linear with the logarithm of the concentrations of complementary DNA from 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-14)M with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10(-15)M (signal/noise=3). Moreover, the prepared electrochemical sensor can effectively distinguish complementary DNA sequences in the presence of a large amount of single-base mismatched DNA (1000:1), indicating that the biosensor has high selectivity.

  7. Synthesis of surface roughed Pt nanowires and their application as electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Li, Zhiyang; Ruan, Dajiang; Gu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, platinum nanowires with roughed surface textures were fabricated by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method for electrochemical sensors toward hydrogen peroxide detection. The electrochemical behavior of the glassy carbon electrode modified with these nanowires has been studied for oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in phosphate buffer solution. Surface roughness was found to enhance the sensitivity of the Pt nanowire based electrochemical sensor towards H2O2. The Pt nanowires with rough surfaces displayed higher electrocatalytic response compared to nanowires with smooth surfaces, with a sensitivity of 171 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and linear dynamic range up to 35 mM. The nanowire concentration effect on the sensing behavior was investigated with the best sensitivity output found at a nanowire concentration of roughly 8.6 x 10(7) number of nanowires/cm2. The new sensor also showed good anti-interference property and exhibited high accuracy when a real water sample containing H2O2 was measured. PMID:25924305

  8. Synthesis of surface roughed Pt nanowires and their application as electrochemical sensors for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan; Li, Zhiyang; Ruan, Dajiang; Gu, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, platinum nanowires with roughed surface textures were fabricated by a galvanostatic electrodeposition method for electrochemical sensors toward hydrogen peroxide detection. The electrochemical behavior of the glassy carbon electrode modified with these nanowires has been studied for oxidation of hydrogen peroxide by using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in phosphate buffer solution. Surface roughness was found to enhance the sensitivity of the Pt nanowire based electrochemical sensor towards H2O2. The Pt nanowires with rough surfaces displayed higher electrocatalytic response compared to nanowires with smooth surfaces, with a sensitivity of 171 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and linear dynamic range up to 35 mM. The nanowire concentration effect on the sensing behavior was investigated with the best sensitivity output found at a nanowire concentration of roughly 8.6 x 10(7) number of nanowires/cm2. The new sensor also showed good anti-interference property and exhibited high accuracy when a real water sample containing H2O2 was measured.

  9. A single use electrochemical sensor based on biomimetic nanoceria for the detection of wine antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Veronica; Sharpe, Erica; Vasilescu, Alina; Andreescu, Silvana

    2016-08-15

    We report the development and characterization of a disposable single use electrochemical sensor based on the oxidase-like activity of nanoceria particles for the detection of phenolic antioxidants. The use of nanoceria in the sensor design enables oxidation of phenolic compounds, particularly those with ortho-dihydroxybenzene functionality, to their corresponding quinones at the surface of a screen printed carbon electrode. Detection is carried out by electrochemical reduction of the resulting quinone at a low applied potential of -0.1V vs the Ag/AgCl electrode. The sensor was optimized and characterized with respect to particle loading, applied potential, response time, detection limit, linear concentration range and sensitivity. The method enabled rapid detection of common phenolic antioxidants including caffeic acid, gallic acid and quercetin in the µM concentration range, and demonstrated good functionality for the analysis of antioxidant content in several wine samples. The intrinsic oxidase-like activity of nanoceria shows promise as a robust tool for sensitive and cost effective analysis of antioxidants using electrochemical detection. PMID:27260442

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of a Nanocoax-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal, Binod; Archibald, Michelle M.; Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Connolly, Timothy; Shepard, Stephen C.; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    We used an imprint lithography process to fabricate three dimensional electrochemical sensors comprising arrays of vertically-oriented coaxial electrodes, with the coax cores and shields serving as working and counter electrodes, respectively, and with nanoscale separation gaps.[2] Arrays of devices with different electrode gaps (coax annuli) were prepared, yielding increasing sensitivity with decreasing annulus thickness. A coax-based sensor with a 100 nm annulus was found to have sensitivity 100 times greater than that of a conventional planar sensor control, which had millimeter-scale electrode gap spacing. We suggest that this enhancement is due to an increase in the diffusion of molecules between electrodes, which improves the current per unit surface area compared to the planar device. Supported by NIH (National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases).

  11. Oxide modified air electrode surface for high temperature electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous cermet electrode (16) and a porous lanthanum manganite electrode (14), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) between them, where the lanthanum manganite surface next to the electrolyte contains a thin discontinuous layer of high surface area cerium oxide and/or praseodymium oxide, preferably as discrete particles (30) in contact with the air electrode and electrolyte.

  12. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of a-Si Micro and Nano-Gap Structure for Electrochemical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahi, Th. S.; Hashim, U.; Ahmed, N. M.; Ali, Md. Eaqub

    2011-05-01

    The development and application of micro gap for electrochemical sensors and biomolecule detection are reviewed in this article. The preparation methods for micro- and nano-gaps and their properties are discussed along with their advantages in electrochemical sensors and biomolecule detection. Biology and medicine have seen great advances in biosensors and biochips capable of characterizing and quantifying electrochemical sensor. To understand the important relationship between sensibility and nano structure, we introduce the fabrication and characterization of micro- and nano-gap structures for electrochemical sensor. In this paper, two mask designs are proposed. The first is the lateral micro- and nano-gap with aluminum (Al) electrode, and the second mask is for pad Al electrode pattern. Lateral micro-gaps are introduced in the fabrication process using amorphous silicon (a-Si) and Al as an electrode. Conventional ultraviolet lithography technique and dry etching for a-Si layer with wet etching for Al surface processes are used to fabricate the micro- and nano-gaps based on the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology and characterization of its conductivity. Electrical characterization is applied using Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer, Spectrum Analyzer, current-voltage (IV)-capacitance-voltage (CV) station for electrical characteristics. Conductivity, resistance, and capacitance tests are performed to characterize and verify the structure of the device, resulting in a small micro-gap as revealed by a further IV curve result showing a current in nano amps. The characteristics of the fabricated gap are close to those of a micro-gap, as verified by the literature.

  14. Enzyme electrochemical sensor electrode and method of making it

    DOEpatents

    Rishpon, Judith; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor electrode is formed from an electronic conductor coated with a casting solution containing a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and a selected enzyme. The selected enzyme catalyzes a reaction between a predetermined substance in a solution and oxygen to form an electrochemically active compound that is detected at the electronic conductor. The resulting perfluorosulfonic acid polymer provides a stable matrix for the enzyme for long lived enzyme activity, wherein only thin coatings are required on the metal conductor. The polymer also advantageously repels interfering substances from contacting the enzyme and contains quantities of oxygen to maintain a sensing capability during conditions of oxygen depletion in the sample. In one particular embodiment, glucose oxidase is mixed with the perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to form an electrode for glucose detection.

  15. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Nanomaterials for Environmental Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Lin, Yuehe; Fryxell, Glen E.

    2012-12-10

    This article review work relevant to the two fastest growing nanomaterials in electrochemical sensing of metal ions: organically modified ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanostructured self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silicas (SAMMS) materials are highly effective as electrode modifiers; they can be either mixed with conductive materials or spin-cast as a thin-film on electrode surface. The interfacial chemistry of SAMMS can be fine-tuned to selectively preconcentrate the specific metal ions of interest. The functional groups on SAMMS materials enable the preconcentration to be done without mercury, supporting electrolytes, applied potential, and solution degassing, all of which are often required in conventional adsorptive stripping voltammetric sensors. Since it was first introduced in 1991, CNTs have been widely investigated for electrochemical sensors of many important biomolecules because of their electrocatalytic and antifouling properties, biocompatibility, high surface, and mechanical strength. For trace metal analysis, CNT thin-film created by drop-coating of CNT-solvent suspensions on electrode surfaces has been explored in order to develop mercury-free sensors by exploiting the bulk properties of the CNTs. Array of low-site-density aligned carbon nanotubes has been grown on metal substrates by a non-lithographic method. Each CNT serves as a nanoelectrode which normally has greater mass transfer rate and higher mass sensitivity than conventional macroelectrodes. The array of millions of CNT nanoelectrodes provides magnified voltammetric signals for trace metal ions without the need for a signal amplifier.

  16. A Facile Electrochemical Sensor for Nonylphenol Determination Based on the Enhancement Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Zhang, Weina; Wang, Zhihui; Yu, Guangxia; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Yikai

    2013-01-01

    A facile electrochemical sensor for the determination of nonylphenol (NP) was fabricated in this work. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which formed a bilayer on the surface of the carbon paste (CP) electrode, displayed a remarkable enhancement effect for the electrochemical oxidation of NP. Moreover, the oxidation peak current of NP at the CTAB/CP electrode demonstrated a linear relationship with NP concentration, which could be applied in the direct determination of NP. Some experimental parameters were investigated, such as external solution pH, mode and time of accumulation, concentration and modification time of CTAB and so on. Under optimized conditions, a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to 2.5 × 10−5 mol·L−1 was obtained for the sensor, with a low limit of detection at 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1. Several distinguishing advantages of the as-prepared sensor, including facile fabrication, easy operation, low cost and so on, suggest a great potential for its practical applications. PMID:23296332

  17. Heterogeneous Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensor Surfaces for Controlled Sensor Response.

    PubMed

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R; Glaser, Ethan P; White, Ryan J

    2015-06-16

    Structure-switching sensors utilize recognition elements that undergo a conformation change upon target binding that is converted into a quantitative signal. Electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors achieve detection of analytes through a conformation change in an electrode-bound, oligonucleotide aptamer by measuring changes in electron transfer efficiencies. The analytical performance of these sensors is related to the magnitude of the conformation change of the aptamer. The goal of the present work is to develop a general method to predictably tune the analytical performance (sensitivity and linear range) of electrochemical, aptamer-based sensors by utilizing a mixture of rationally designed aptamer sequences that are specific for the same target but with different affinities on the same electrode surface. To demonstrate control over sensor performance, we developed heterogeneous sensors for two representative small molecule targets (adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin). We demonstrate that mixtures of modified sequences can be used to tune the affinity, dynamic range, and sensitivity of the resulting sensors predicted by a bi-Langmuir-type isotherm.

  18. Nanotechnology-based electrochemical sensors for biomonitoring chemical exposures.

    PubMed

    Barry, Richard C; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of dosimetry measurements and modeling represents a promising strategy for deciphering the relationship between chemical exposure and disease outcome. To support the development and implementation of biological monitoring programs, quantitative technologies for measuring xenobiotic exposure are needed. The development of portable nanotechnology-based electrochemical (EC) sensors has the potential to meet the needs for low cost, rapid, high-throughput, and ultrasensitive detectors for biomonitoring an array of chemical markers. Highly selective EC sensors capable of pM sensitivity, high-throughput and low sample requirements (<50 microl) are discussed. These portable analytical systems have many advantages over currently available technologies, thus potentially representing the next generation of biomonitoring analyzers. This paper highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are presented. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are discussed.

  19. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  20. Electrochemical and partial oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rahul

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen has been the most common fuel used for the fuel cell research but there remains challenging technological hurdles and storage issues with hydrogen fuel. The direct electrochemical oxidation of CH4 (a major component of natural gas) in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to generate electricity has a potential of commercialization in the area of auxiliary and portable power units and battery chargers. They offer significant advantages over an external reformer based SOFC, namely, (i) simplicity in the overall system architecture and balance of plant, (ii) more efficient and (iii) availability of constant concentration of fuel in the anode compartment of SOFC providing stability factor. The extreme operational temperature of a SOFC at 700-1000°C provides a thermodynamically favorable pathway to deposit carbon on the most commonly used Ni anode from CH4 according to the following reaction (CH4 = C + 2H2), thus deteriorating the cell performance, stability and durability. The coking problem on the anode has been a serious and challenging issue faced by the catalyst research community worldwide. This dissertation presents (i) a novel fabricated bi-metallic Cu-Ni anode by electroless plating of Cu on Ni anode demonstrating significantly reduced or negligible coke deposition on the anode for CH4 and natural gas fuel after long term exposure, (ii) a thorough microstructural examination of Ni and Cu-Ni anode exposed to H2, CH4 and natural gas after long term exposure at 750°C by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and (iii) in situ electrochemical analysis of Ni and Cu-Ni for H2, CH4 and natural gas during long term exposure at 750°C by impedance spectroscopy. A careful investigation of variation in the microstructure and performance characteristics (voltage-current curve and impedance) of Ni and Cu-Ni anode before and after a long term exposure of CH4 and natural gas would allow us to test the validation of a

  1. Fabrication of conducting polymer micro/nanostructures coated with Au nanoparticles for electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    An, Taechang; Choi, WooSeok; Lee, Eunjoo; Cho, Seong J; Lim, Geunbae

    2012-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) micro/nanostructures coated with Au nanoparticles were prepared by electropolymerization and electro-deposition. Two types of PPy structures, micro-embossed and nanowire forest, were synthesized on patterned gold electrodes using different aqueous solutions, and Au nanoparticles were coated onto the PPy micro/nanostructure surface. The size of the Au nanoparticles ranged from 10 to 100 nm, and the maximum density of the nanoparticles was 73 particles/microm2. The small size and high density of the Au nanoparticles were achieved by optimizing the deposition time and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) concentration. Cyclic voltammograms of ferrocyanide oxidation showed that the PPy micro/nanostructures coated with Au nanoparticles exhibit good electrochemical activity. These high-performance electrodes can be used in electrochemical sensors because the Au nanoparticles enhance electron transfer and provide a binding site for biomarker molecules, such as DNA, protein, and aptamers.

  2. An electrochemical fungicide pyrimethanil sensor based on carbon nanotubes/ionic-liquid construction modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jichun; Wang, Qiong; Zhang, Minhui; Zhang, Shuming; Zhang, Lei

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmentally friendly electroanalytical detection method for pyrimethanil (PMT) was developed, which was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and ionic liquids (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). MWCNTs-IL modified electrode significantly enhanced the oxidation peak current of PMT by combining the excellent electrochemical properties of MWCNTs and IL, suggesting that the modified electrode can remarkably improve the sensitivity of PMT detection. Under the optimum conditions, this electrochemical sensor exhibited a linear concentration range for PMT of 1.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and the detection limit was 1.6 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The fabricated electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and anti-interference, and also it was successfully employed to detect PMT in real samples.

  3. Monitoring Cooperative Binding Using Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3′ terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM–4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein–DNA binding mechanisms. PMID:25517392

  4. Monitoring cooperative binding using electrochemical DNA-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Macazo, Florika C; Karpel, Richard L; White, Ryan J

    2015-01-20

    Electrochemical DNA-based (E-DNA) sensors are utilized to detect a variety of targets including complementary DNA, small molecules, and proteins. These sensors typically employ surface-bound single-stranded oligonucleotides that are modified with a redox-active molecule on the distal 3' terminus. Target-induced flexibility changes of the DNA probe alter the efficiency of electron transfer between the redox active methylene blue and the electrode surface, allowing for quantitative detection of target concentration. While numerous studies have utilized the specific and sensitive abilities of E-DNA sensors to quantify target concentration, no studies to date have demonstrated the ability of this class of collision-based sensors to elucidate biochemical-binding mechanisms such as cooperativity. In this study, we demonstrate that E-DNA sensors fabricated with various lengths of surface-bound oligodeoxythymidylate [(dT)n] sensing probes are able to quantitatively distinguish between cooperative and noncooperative binding of a single-stranded DNA-binding protein. Specifically, we demonstrate that oligo(dT) E-DNA sensors are able to quantitatively detect nM levels (50 nM-4 μM) of gene 32 protein (g32p). Furthermore, the sensors exhibit signal that is able to distinguish between the cooperative binding of the full-length g32p and the noncooperative binding of the core domain (*III) fragment to single-stranded DNA. Finally, we demonstrate that this binding is both probe-length- and ionic-strength-dependent. This study illustrates a new quantitative property of this powerful class of biosensor and represents a rapid and simple methodology for understanding protein-DNA binding mechanisms.

  5. Ferrocene bound poly(vinyl chloride) as ion to electron transducer in electrochemical ion sensors.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Marcin; Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Bakker, Eric

    2010-08-15

    We report here on the synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) covalently modified with ferrocene groups (FcPVC) and the electrochemical behavior of the resulting polymeric membranes in view of designing all solid state voltammetric ion sensors. The Huisgen cycloaddition ("click chemistry") was found to be a simple and efficient method for ferrocene attachment. A degree of PVC modification with ferrocene groups between 1.9 and 6.1 mol % was achieved. The chemical modification of the PVC backbone does not significantly affect the ion-selective properties (selectivity, mobility, and solvent casting ability) of potentiometric sensing membranes applying this polymer. Importantly, the presence of such ferrocene groups may eliminate the need for an additional redox-active layer between the membrane and the inner electric contact in all solid state sensor designs. Electrochemical doping of this system was studied in a symmetrical sandwich configuration: glassy carbon electrode |FcPVC| glassy carbon electrode. Prior electrochemical doping from aqueous solution, resulting in a partial oxidation of the ferrocene groups, was confirmed to be necessary for the sandwich configuration to pass current effectively. The results suggest that only approximately 2.3 mol % of the ferrocene groups are electrochemically accessible, likely due to surface confined electrochemical behavior in the polymer. Indeed, cyclic voltammetry of aqueous hexacyanoferrate (III) remains featureless at cathodic potentials (down to -0.5 V). This indicates that the modified membrane is not responsive to redox-active species in the sample solution, making it possible to apply this polymer as a traditional, single membrane. Yet, the redox capacity of the electrode modified with this type of membrane was more than 520 microC considering a 20 mm(2) active electrode area, which appears to be sufficient for numerous practical ion voltammetric applications. The electrode was observed to operate reproducibly, with 1

  6. Molecular beacon mediated circular strand displacement strategy for constructing a ratiometric electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fenglei; Du, Lili; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Daoquan; Du, Yan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ratiometric electrochemical sensor for sensitive and selective determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) had been developed based on signal-on and signal-off strategy. The target DNA hybridized with the loop portion of ferrocene (Fc) labeled hairpin probe immobilized on the gold electrode (GE), the Fc away from the surface of GE and the methylene blue (MB) was attached to an electrode surface by hybridization between hairpin probe and MB labeled primer. Such conformational changes resulted in the oxidation peak current of Fc decreased and that of MB increased, and the changes of dual signals are linear with the concentration of DNA. Furthermore, with the help of strand-displacement polymerization, polymerase catalyzed the extension of the primer and the sequential displacement of the target DNA, which led to the release of target and another polymerization cycle. Thus the circular strand displacement produced the multiplication of the MB confined near the GE surface and Fc got away from the GE surface. Therefore, the recognition of target DNA resulted in both the "signal-off" of Fc and the "signal-on" of MB for dual-signal electrochemical ratiometric readout. The dual signal strategy offered a dramatic enhancement of the stripping response. The dynamic range of the target DNA detection was from 10(-13) to 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a detection limit down to 28 fM level. Compared with the single signaling electrochemical sensor, the dual-signaling electrochemical sensing strategy developed in this paper was more selective. It would have important applications in the sensitive and selective electrochemical determination of other small molecules and proteins.

  7. An electrochemical sensor based on cellulose nanocrystal for the enantioselective discrimination of chiral amino acids.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qing; Dong, Shuqing; Sun, Yaming; Lu, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-oxidized cellulose nanocrystals (TOCNCs) and l-cystines (l-Cys) modified Au electrode (TOCNC/l-Cys/Au) has been fabricated for detection and discrimination of the enantiomers of phenylalanine (Phe), leucine (Leu), and valine (Val). The three amino acids are in connection with metabolism diseases. The TOCNC/l-Cys/Au electrode exhibited obvious peak current difference for the amino acid enantiomers by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The TOCNCs on the electrode surface expressed different interactions with d- and l-amino acids, so the electrochemical recognitions of the three amino acid enantiomers were achieved. TOCNCs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modified electrodes were characterized by SEM and electrochemical techniques. According to DPV, peak currents of the two enantiomers decreased linearly with their concentrations. Furthermore, satisfactory results were obtained when this electrode was applied to measure the d- and l-Phe mixture. The experimental results show that TOCNCs are suitable material for chiral sensor. The contrast of serum sample of healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes also was proposed, and significant difference was exhibited on the modified electrode. This work is significant for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple metabolic diseases. PMID:27288559

  8. Electrochemical As(III) whole-cell based biochip sensor.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Beggah, Siham; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Girault, Hubert H

    2013-09-15

    The development of a whole-cell based sensor for arsenite detection coupling biological engineering and electrochemical techniques is presented. This strategy takes advantage of the natural Escherichia coli resistance mechanism against toxic arsenic species, such as arsenite, which consists of the selective intracellular recognition of arsenite and its pumping out from the cell. A whole-cell based biosensor can be produced by coupling the intracellular recognition of arsenite to the generation of an electrochemical signal. Hereto, E. coli was equipped with a genetic circuit in which synthesis of beta-galactosidase is under control of the arsenite-derepressable arsR-promoter. The E. coli reporter strain was filled in a microchip containing 16 independent electrochemical cells (i.e. two-electrode cell), which was then employed for analysis of tap and groundwater samples. The developed arsenic-sensitive electrochemical biochip is easy to use and outperforms state-of-the-art bacterial bioreporters assays specifically in its simplicity and response time, while keeping a very good limit of detection in tap water, i.e. 0.8ppb. Additionally, a very good linear response in the ranges of concentration tested (0.94ppb to 3.75ppb, R(2)=0.9975 and 3.75 ppb to 30ppb, R(2)=0.9991) was obtained, complying perfectly with the acceptable arsenic concentration limits defined by the World Health Organization for drinking water samples (i.e. 10ppb). Therefore, the proposed assay provides a very good alternative for the portable quantification of As (III) in water as corroborated by the analysis of natural groundwater samples from Swiss mountains, which showed a very good agreement with the results obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:23584229

  9. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g(-1), 739 F g(-1)) and cycling stability (704 F g(-1) retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors. PMID:25023373

  10. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-07-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g-1, 739 F g-1) and cycling stability (704 F g-1 retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors.

  11. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Haotian; Li, Yuzhang; Liu, Yayuan; Sun, Jie; Lee, Sanghan; Lee, Jang-Soo; Cui, Yi

    2015-08-26

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt-nickel-iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensional carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm(-2), small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec(-1), and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications. PMID:27162978

  12. In Situ Electrochemical Oxidation Tuning of Transition Metal Disulfides to Oxides for Enhanced Water Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The development of catalysts with earth-abundant elements for efficient oxygen evolution reactions is of paramount significance for clean and sustainable energy storage and conversion devices. Our group demonstrated recently that the electrochemical tuning of catalysts via lithium insertion and extraction has emerged as a powerful approach to improve catalytic activity. Here we report a novel in situ electrochemical oxidation tuning approach to develop a series of binary, ternary, and quaternary transition metal (e.g., Co, Ni, Fe) oxides from their corresponding sulfides as highly active catalysts for much enhanced water oxidation. The electrochemically tuned cobalt–nickel–iron oxides grown directly on the three-dimensional carbon fiber electrodes exhibit a low overpotential of 232 mV at current density of 10 mA cm–2, small Tafel slope of 37.6 mV dec–1, and exceptional long-term stability of electrolysis for over 100 h in 1 M KOH alkaline medium, superior to most non-noble oxygen evolution catalysts reported so far. The materials evolution associated with the electrochemical oxidation tuning is systematically investigated by various characterizations, manifesting that the improved activities are attributed to the significant grain size reduction and increase of surface area and electroactive sites. This work provides a promising strategy to develop electrocatalysts for large-scale water-splitting systems and many other applications. PMID:27162978

  13. A double signal electrochemical human immunoglobulin G immunosensor based on gold nanoparticles-polydopamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide as a sensor platform and AgNPs/carbon nanocomposite as signal probe and catalytic substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Huang, Na; Lu, Qiujun; Liu, Meiling; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Youyu; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, a double signal electrochemical Human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) immunosensor based on AgNPs/carbon nanocomposite (Ag/C NC) as the signal probe and catalytic substrate was developed for fast and sensitive detection of HIgG. The as-prepared AuNPs-PDA-rGO nanocomposite and Ag/C NC were confirmed by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the proposed immunosensor. The AuNPs-PDA-rGO nanocomposite can improve the electron transfer rate and capture more Ab1. In the sandwich-type immunoassay process, the Ag/C NC functionalized bioconjugates were captured on HIgG/Ab1/AuNPs-PDA-rGO surface and the electrochemical double-signal strategy was employed. These double electrochemical detection signals were directly monitored the oxidation current originated from Ag/C NC and indirectly detected the reduction current of benzoquinone which was produced from the reaction of H2O2 and HQ by catalysis of Ag/C NC in electrochemical detection of HIgG. Under the optimized conditions, the current responses were changed with the concentrations of HIgG for the proposed immunosensor with wide linear ranges of 0.1 to 100 ngmL(-1) and 0.01-100 ngmL(-1) with the lowest detection concentration of 0.001 ng mL(-1) in the absence and presence of H2O2 and HQ. The double-signal strategy is used for detection of HIgG, and the results came from the two signals were well consistent with each other. The proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in analysis of human IgG in real samples and this strategy may provide a relative simple and effective method for construction of other immunsensors in detection of other biomarkers in clinical medicine.

  14. High sensitivity, low power, microfabricated electrochemical sensor for CO

    SciTech Connect

    Neuzil, P.; Kayvani, D.; Maclay, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    CO is a toxic byproduct of incomplete combustion. Improperly vented fireplaces and faulty furnaces cause a estimated 400 deaths in the US each year. The presence of high CO levels may also indicate the presence of a fire. Hence, improved CO detection is of great interest and in the last several years commercial CO detectors have been released. The two most common methods of CO detection in commercial systems for residential use are (1) optical colorometric method, and (2) tin oxide sensor. The colorometric method has the advantage of low power, but the devices tend to give an alarm condition when exposed to low CO levels for a long time period, are difficult to reset, and have a lifetime of about 1 year. The tin oxide sensors have limited stability and high power requirement since the sensor must be heated. There is a need for a stable, sensitive, low power, low cost CO sensor. The authors have developed a planar amperometric sensor for CO detection using microfabrication technology.

  15. The novel voltammetric method for determination of hesperetin based on a sensitive electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjun; Wang, Lu; Wang, Qinqin; Zou, Lina; Ye, Baoxian

    2016-04-01

    A highly sensitive voltammetric sensor, based on reduced graphene oxide on SWCNTs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), was constructed and used for sensitive detection of hesperetin. The electrochemical behavior of hesperetin at this sensor was investigated systematically and a novel voltammetric method for determination of hesperetin was proposed. The redox characters of hesperetin was discussed in detail and a reasonable reaction mechanism was proposed also. As the analytical method, the response currents were linear relationship with the hesperetin concentrations in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8) to 3.0 × 10(-6) mol L-(1), with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The method was also applied successfully to detect hesperetin in biological samples and Chinese herbal medicine Flos buddlejae with satisfactory results.

  16. Fabrication of copper nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a high performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of neotame.

    PubMed

    Bathinapatla, Ayyappa; Kanchi, Suvardhan; Singh, Parvesh; Sabela, Myalowenkosi I; Bisetty, Krishna

    2015-05-15

    A highly sensitive and novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of neotame using differential pulse voltammetry with a modified glassy carbon electrode is presented. The method was further customized by the fabrication of the electrode surface with copper nanoparticles-ammonium piperidine dithiocarbamate-mutiwalled carbon nanotubes assimilated with β-cyclodextrin. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes assimilated with β-cyclodextrin/glassy carbon electrode exhibited catalytic activity towards the oxidation of neotame at a potential of 1.3 V at pH 3.0. The transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, frontier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were employed to characterize the electrochemical sensor. The sensitivity and detection limits of the electrode increased two-fold in contrast to the β-CD-MWCNTs/GCE sensor. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of neotame in food samples, with results similar to those achieved by our modified capillary electrophoresis method with a 96% confidence level.

  17. Preparation and characterization of AuNPs/CNTs-ErGO electrochemical sensors for highly sensitive detection of hydrazine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenting; Sun, Yongjiao; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Lian, Kun; Hu, Jie; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor of hydrazine has been fabricated by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) coating of carbon nanotubes-electrochemical reduced graphene oxide composite film (CNTs-ErGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Cyclic voltammetry and potential amperometry have been used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the fabricated sensors for hydrazine detection. The performances of the sensors were optimized by varying the CNTs to ErGO ratio and the quantity of Au nanoparticles. The results show that under optimal conditions, a sensitivity of 9.73μAμM(-1)cm(-2), a short response time of 3s, and a low detection limit of 0.065μM could be achieved with a linear concentration response range from 0.3μM to 319μM. The enhanced electrochemical performances could be attributed to the synergistic effect between AuNPs and CNTs-ErGO film and the outstanding catalytic effect of the Au nanoparticles. Finally, the sensor was successfully used to analyse the tap water, showing high potential for practical applications. PMID:27343607

  18. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27612758

  19. Fabrication a new modified electrochemical sensor based on Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated graphene for citalopram determination.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Leili; Rounaghi, Gholam Hossein; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Chamsaz, Mahmoud; Tarahomi, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a simple approach for sensing of citalopram (CTL) using gold-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PdNPs) decorated graphene modified gold electrode. Au-PdNPs were deposited at the surface of a graphene modified gold electrode with simple electrodeposition method. The morphology and the electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV). The novel sensor exhibited an excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of CTL. The oxidation peak current of CTL, was linear in the range of 0.5-50μM with a detection limit 0.049μM with respect to concentration of citalopram. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for determination of CTL tablet and human plasma samples with satisfactory results.

  20. Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite modified electrode for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical genosensor.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, P Abdul; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Shihabudeen, P K; Sandhyarani, N

    2016-09-15

    Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite (rGO:Y) is applied as electrochemical genosensor platform for ultrahigh sensitive detection of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene for the first time. The sensor is based on the sandwich assay in which gold nanoparticle cluster labeled reporter DNA hybridize to the target DNA. Glassy carbon electrode modified with rGO-yttria serves as the immobilization platform for capture probe DNA. The sensor exhibited a fine capability of sensing BRCA1 gene with linear range of 10attomolar (aM) to 1nanomolar (nM) and a detection limit of 5.95attomolar. The minimum distinguishable response concentration is down to the attomolar level with a high sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrated that the use of rGO:Y modified electrode along with gold nanoparticle cluster (AuNPC) label leads to the highly sensitive electrochemical detection of BRCA1 gene. PMID:27153526

  1. Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite modified electrode for enhancing the sensitivity of electrochemical genosensor.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, P Abdul; Radhakrishnan, Thulasi; Shihabudeen, P K; Sandhyarani, N

    2016-09-15

    Reduced graphene oxide-yttria nanocomposite (rGO:Y) is applied as electrochemical genosensor platform for ultrahigh sensitive detection of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene for the first time. The sensor is based on the sandwich assay in which gold nanoparticle cluster labeled reporter DNA hybridize to the target DNA. Glassy carbon electrode modified with rGO-yttria serves as the immobilization platform for capture probe DNA. The sensor exhibited a fine capability of sensing BRCA1 gene with linear range of 10attomolar (aM) to 1nanomolar (nM) and a detection limit of 5.95attomolar. The minimum distinguishable response concentration is down to the attomolar level with a high sensitivity and selectivity. We demonstrated that the use of rGO:Y modified electrode along with gold nanoparticle cluster (AuNPC) label leads to the highly sensitive electrochemical detection of BRCA1 gene.

  2. Controllable Synthesis of Formaldehyde Modified Manganese Oxide Based on Gas-Liquid Interfacial Reaction and Its Application of Electrochemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wushuang; Sheng, Qinglin; Nie, Fei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-12-30

    Controllable synthesis of manganese oxides was performed via a simple one-step synthetic method. Then obtained manganese oxides which exhibit flower-like, cloud-like, hexagon-like, and rod-like morphologies were modified by formaldehyde based on a simple self-made gas-liquid reaction device respectively and the modified manganese oxides with coral-like, scallop-like and rod-like morphology were synthesized accordingly. The obtained materials were characterized and the formation mechanism was also researched. Then the modified manganese oxides were used to fabricate electrochemical sensors to detect H2O2. Comparison of electrochemical properties between three kinds of modified manganese oxides was investigated and the best one has been successfully employed as H2O2 sensor which shows a low detection limit of 0.01 μM, high sensitivity of 162.69 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and wide linear range of 0.05 μM-12.78 mM. The study provides a new method for controllable synthesis of metal oxides, and electrochemical application of formaldehyde modified manganese oxides will provides a new strategy for electrochemical sensing with high performance, low cost, and simple fabrication. PMID:26647786

  3. Controllable Synthesis of Formaldehyde Modified Manganese Oxide Based on Gas-Liquid Interfacial Reaction and Its Application of Electrochemical Sensing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wushuang; Sheng, Qinglin; Nie, Fei; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-12-30

    Controllable synthesis of manganese oxides was performed via a simple one-step synthetic method. Then obtained manganese oxides which exhibit flower-like, cloud-like, hexagon-like, and rod-like morphologies were modified by formaldehyde based on a simple self-made gas-liquid reaction device respectively and the modified manganese oxides with coral-like, scallop-like and rod-like morphology were synthesized accordingly. The obtained materials were characterized and the formation mechanism was also researched. Then the modified manganese oxides were used to fabricate electrochemical sensors to detect H2O2. Comparison of electrochemical properties between three kinds of modified manganese oxides was investigated and the best one has been successfully employed as H2O2 sensor which shows a low detection limit of 0.01 μM, high sensitivity of 162.69 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and wide linear range of 0.05 μM-12.78 mM. The study provides a new method for controllable synthesis of metal oxides, and electrochemical application of formaldehyde modified manganese oxides will provides a new strategy for electrochemical sensing with high performance, low cost, and simple fabrication.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

  5. Metal/Metal Oxide Differential Electrode pH Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Buehler, Martin; Keymeulen, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state electrochemical sensors for measuring the degrees of acidity or alkalinity (in terms of pH values) of liquid solutions are being developed. These sensors are intended to supplant older electrochemical pH sensors that include glass electrode structures and reference solutions. The older sensors are fragile and subject to drift. The present developmental solid-state sensors are more rugged and are expected to be usable in harsh environments. The present sensors are based on a differential-electrode measurement principle. Each sensor includes two electrodes, made of different materials, in equilibrium with the solution of interest.

  6. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%-18% O₂ at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  7. Effect of Electrode Configuration on Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrode configuration on the impedancemetric response of nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors was investigated for solid electrochemical cells [Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Au)]. Fabrication of the sensors was carried out at 1050 °C in order to establish a porous YSZ electrolyte that enabled gas diffusion. Two electrode configurations were studied where Au wire electrodes were either embedded within or wrapped around the YSZ electrolyte. The electrical response of the sensors was collected via impedance spectroscopy under various operating conditions where gas concentrations ranged from 0 to 100 ppm NO and 1%–18% O2 at temperatures varying from 600 to 700 °C. Gas diffusion appeared to be a rate-limiting mechanism in sensors where the electrode configuration resulted in longer diffusion pathways. The temperature dependence of the NO sensors studied was independent of the electrode configuration. Analysis of the impedance data, along with equivalent circuit modeling indicated the electrode configuration of the sensor effected gas and ionic transport pathways, capacitance behavior, and NO sensitivity. PMID:26404312

  8. Biological applications of the electrochemical sensing of nitric oxide: fundamentals and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Trouillon, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique cellular messenger linked to a number of important biological processes. Its free radical nature, small size and fast diffusivity make it highly reactive and membrane permeable. Unfortunately, its reactivity, coupled with the inherent complexity of in situ biological measurements, makes it a challenge to detect. For the past 20 years, electrochemical methods have been used to investigate the role of NO in a number of biological processes, including vascular physiology, immune response, neuronal mediation, tissue growth and oxidative stress. This review examines the biological applications of electrochemical NO sensors and the technologies used to elucidate different physiological phenomena associated with this unique biomolecule with a specific focus on the developments and innovations reported in the last 3 years.

  9. Electrochemical sensing of glucose by reduced graphene oxide-zinc ferrospinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnavaz, Zohreh; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-08-01

    We have developed ZnFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanosheets modified glassy carbon (ZnFe2O4/rGO/GCE) electrode as a novel system for the electrochemical glucose sensing. Via a facile in situ hydrothermal route, the reduction of GO and the formation of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles occurred simultaneously. This enables the ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles dispersed on the reduced graphene sheet. Characterization of nanocomposite by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly demonstrate the successful attachment of ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles to graphene sheets. Electrochemical studies revealed that the ZnFe2O4/rGO/GCE possess excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of glucose and the performance of sensor is enhanced by integration of graphene nanosheets with ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles.

  10. Treatment of Radioactive Organic Wastes by an Electrochemical Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.H.; Ryue, Y.G.; Kwak, K.K.; Hong, K.P.; Kim, D.H.

    2007-07-01

    A waste treatment system by using an electrochemical oxidation (MEO, Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation) was installed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes, especially EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid) generated during the decontamination activity of nuclear installations. A cerium and silver mediated electrochemical oxidation technique method has been developed as an alternative for an incineration process. An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the above two processes and to establish the conditions to operate the pilot-scale system has been carried out by changing the concentration of the catalyst and EDTA, the operational current density, the operating temperature, and the electrolyte concentration. As for the results, silver mediated oxidation was more effective in destructing the EDTA wastes than the cerium mediated oxidation process. For a constant volume of the EDTA wastes, the treatment time for the cerium-mediated oxidation was 9 hours and its conversion ratio of EDTA to water and CO{sub 2} was 90.2 % at 80 deg. C, 10 A, but the treatment time for the silver-mediated oxidation was 3 hours and its conversion ratio was 89.2 % at 30 deg. C, 10 A. (authors)

  11. A Hg(II)-mediated "signal-on" electrochemical glutathione sensor.

    PubMed

    Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Hamid R; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-08-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a DNA-based electrochemical sensor for detection of glutathione. Sensor signaling relies on glutathione's ability to chelate mercury Hg(II), displacing it from the thymine-Hg(II)-thymine complex formed between the surface-immobilized DNA probes. Our results show that this sensor is sensitive and selective enough to be employed in saliva.

  12. Corrosion and Electrochemical Oxidation of a Pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Mustin, C.; Berthelin, J.; Marion, P.; de Donato, P.

    1992-01-01

    The oxidation of a pure pyrite by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is not really a constant phenomenon; it must be considered to be more like a succession of different steps which need characterization. Electrochemical studies using a combination of a platinum electrode and a specific pyrite electrode (packed-ground-pyrite electrode) revealed four steps in the bioleaching process. Each step can be identified by the electrochemical behavior (redox potentials) of pyrite, which in turn can be related to chemical (leachate content), bacterial (growth), and physical (corrosion patterns) parameters of the leaching process. A comparison of the oxidation rates of iron and sulfur indicated the nonstoichiometric bacterial oxidation of a pure pyrite in which superficial phenomena, aqueous oxidation, and deep crystal dissolution are successively involved. Images PMID:16348688

  13. Surface Morphology of Si(111) during Electrochemical Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, A.; Miki, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Morita, Y.; Tokumoto, H.

    1997-03-01

    Topographical changes of hydrogen terminated Si(111) during electrochemical oxidation in a 0.2 M H_2SO4 aqueous solution have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrogen terminated surface with atomically flat terraces was prepared by dipping into a NH_4F aqueous solution. Electrochemical oxidation has been performed by a potentiostatic (constant potential) or a galvanostatic (constant current) method. AFM images show that the oxidation occured on the terraces and proceeded homogeneously. The surface became rough as the oxidation proceeded. However, step edges were still observed even after the charge of 50 mC/cm^2 was applied. Quantitative analysis of a relation between the charge and surface morphology will be discussed. the address below:

  14. Surface functionalisation of carbon for low cost fabrication of highly stable electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Debela, Ahmed M; Ortiz, Mayreli; Beni, Valerio; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2015-09-15

    An alternative strategy for surface tethering of DNA probes, where highly reactive glassy carbon (GC) substrates are prepared via electrochemical hydrogenation and electrochemical/chemical chlorination is reported. Thiolated DNA probes and alkanethiols were stably immobilised on the halogenated carbon, with electrochemical chlorination being milder, thus producing less damage to the surface. Electrochemical DNA sensors prepared using this surface chemistry on carbon with electrochemical chlorination providing an improved performance, producing a highly ordered surface and the use of lateral spacers to improve steric accessibility to immobilised probes was not required.

  15. Improved in vivo performance of amperometric oxygen (PO2) sensing catheters via electrochemical nitric oxide generation/release.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hang; Coughlin, Megan A; Major, Terry C; Aiello, Salvatore; Rojas Pena, Alvaro; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-08-18

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of -2 ± 11% and good correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of -31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R(2) = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors. PMID:26201351

  16. Graphene oxide nanocapsules within silanized hydrogels suitable for electrochemical pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kataky, R; Hadden, J H L; Coleman, K S; Ntola, C N M; Chowdhury, M; Duckworth, A R; Dobson, B P; Campos, R; Pyner, S; Shenton, F

    2015-06-28

    Soft biocompatible gels comprised of rolled up graphene oxide nanocapsules within the pores of silanized hydrogels may be used as electrochemical pseudocapacitors with physiological glucose or KOH as a reducing agent, affording a material suitable for devices requiring pulses with characteristic time less than a second. PMID:25977943

  17. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review.

    PubMed

    Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Oturan, Mehmet A; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Panizza, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which (•)OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which (•)OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

  18. Electrochemical Allylic Oxidation of Olefins: Sustainable and Safe.

    PubMed

    Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Selt, Maximilian

    2016-10-01

    The power you're supplying: With the application of an optimized electrochemical approach, the allylic oxidation of olefins, which is an important C-H activation process that provides access to enones, becomes a sustainable, versatile, and potent key reaction for organic synthesis.

  19. Ultrasensitive Detection of Ferulic Acid Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Functionalized Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-jie; Gao, Xia; Zhang, Pei; Feng, Shi-lan; Hu, Fang-di; Li, Ying-dong; Wang, Chun-ming

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical redox of ferulic acid (FA) was investigated systematically by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-modified glassy carbon electrode (PDDA-G/GCE) as a working electrode. A simple and sensitive differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique was proposed for the direct quantitative determination of FA in Angelica sinensis and spiked human urine samples for the first time. The dependence of the intensities of currents and potentials on nature of the supporting electrolyte, pH, scan rate, and concentration was investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed sensor exhibited excellent electrochemical sensitivity to FA, and the oxidation peak current was proportional to FA concentration in the range of 8.95 × 10−8 M ~5.29 × 10−5 M, with a relatively low detection limit of 4.42 × 10−8 M. This fabricated sensor also displayed acceptable reproducibility, long-term stability, and high selectivity with negligible interferences from common interfering species. Besides, it was applied to detect FA in Angelica sinensis and biological samples with satisfactory results, making it a potential alternative tool for the quantitative detection of FA in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24900937

  20. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  1. Based on magnetic graphene oxide highly sensitive and selective imprinted sensor for determination of sunset yellow.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaojiao; Duan, Huimin; Wang, Yanhui; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-15

    A new imprinted material based on β-cyclodextrin/ionic liquid/gold nanoparticles functionalized magnetic graphene oxide has been successfully synthesized and modified to the glassy carbon electrode surface to constructed imprinted electrochemical sensor to detect sunset yellow. The sensitivity and electrochemical response of the electrode can be improved by nanomaterials. The surface morphology and crystal structure of the hybrid nanomaterial has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of the hybrid nanomaterials based sensor were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed electrochemical sensor showed a fast rebinding dynamics, which was successfully applied to sunset yellow detection with a wide linear range from 5.0×10(-9) to 2.0×10(-6)mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.0×10(-9)mol L(-1). The electrochemical sensor has been successfully applied in the determination of SY in spiked water samples, mirinda drink and minute maid, and the recoveries for the standards added are 97-105%.

  2. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Russell R.

    1990-01-01

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

  3. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, R.R.

    1990-11-20

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

  4. Decolorization of landfill leachate using electrochemical oxidation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumaah, Majd Ahmed; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2015-09-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate from the Jeram sanitary landfill leachate using charcoal base metallic composite electrodes. The control parameters used were applied voltage, Cl- concentration (as supporting electrolyte) and pH of the solution. The optimum conditions obtained were NaCl concentration of 1.5 % (w/v), applied voltage of 10 V, operating time 180 min and C60CG Co10PVC15 electrode as an anode.15 Electrochemical treatment using charcoal base metallic composite electrode was able to remove color up to 79%.

  5. Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjuan; Liu, Yuanying; Chen, Jing; Guo, Qifei; Wang, Ting; Pang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Co3V2O8 thin nanoplates are firstly described as a kind of electrode material for supercapacitors. More importantly, from electrochemical measurements, the obtained Co3V2O8 nanoplate electrode shows a good specific capacitance (0.5 A g−1, 739 F g−1) and cycling stability (704 F g−1 retained after 2000 cycles). This study essentially offers a new kind of metal vanadium oxides as electrochemical active material for the development of supercapacitors. PMID:25023373

  6. Electrochemical sensor for rapid detection of triclosan using a multiwall carbon nanotube film.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinquan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wu, Kangbing

    2009-10-28

    It is of great importance to develop a rapid analytical method for triclosan because it has been widely added in household products and can form highly toxic dioxin-type derivatives. Herein, an electrochemical sensor based on a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film was developed for the rapid detection of triclosan. The electrochemical responses of triclosan were examined, given that its oxidation is irreversible and involves one electron. At the MWCNT film, the oxidation signals of triclosan remarkably increase, suggesting that the MWCNT film exhibits a considerable enhancement effect with triclosan. The analytical parameters, such as pH value, amount of MWCNT suspension, and accumulation time, were optimized. The linear range is from 50 microg L(-1) to 1.75 mg L(-1), and the limit of detection is 16.5 microg L(-1) (about 57 nM). Finally, the new method was successfully employed to detect triclosan in different toothpaste samples, which was testified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  7. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  8. Electrochemical sensing chemical oxygen demand based on the catalytic activity of cobalt oxide film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinqi; Wu, Can; Wu, Kangbing; Cheng, Qin; Zhou, Yikai

    2012-07-29

    Cobalt oxide sensing film was in situ prepared on glassy carbon electrode surface via constant potential oxidation. Controlling at 0.8 V in NaOH solution, the high-valence cobalt catalytically oxidized the reduced compounds, decreasing its surface amount and current signal. The current decline was used as the response signal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) because COD represents the summation of reduced compounds in water. The surface morphology and electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide were readily tuned by variation of deposition potential, time, medium and Co(2+) concentration. As confirmed from the atomic force microscopy measurements, the cobalt oxide film, that prepared at 1.3 V for 40 s in pH 4.6 acetate buffer containing 10 mM Co(NO(3))(2), possesses large surface roughness and numerous three-dimensional structures. Electrochemical tests indicated that the prepared cobalt oxide exhibited high electrocatalytic activity to the reduced compounds, accompanied with strong COD signal enhancement. As a result, a novel electrochemical sensor with high sensitivity, rapid response and operational simplicity was developed for COD. The detection limit was as low as 1.1 mg L(-1). The analytical application was studied using a large number of lake water samples, and the accuracy was tested by standard method.

  9. A CMOS analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhichao, Li; Yuntao, Liu; Min, Chen; Jingbo, Xiao; Jie, Chen

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) analog front-end chip for amperometric electrochemical sensors. The chip includes a digital configuration circuit, which can communicate with an external microcontroller by employing an I2C interface bus, and thus is highly programmable. Digital correlative double samples technique and an incremental sigma-delta analog to digital converter (Σ-Δ ADC) are employed to achieve a new proposed system architecture with double samples. The chip has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process with high-precision and high-linearity performance occupying an area of 1.3 × 1.9 mm2. Sample solutions with various phosphate concentrations have been detected with a step concentration of 0.01 mg/L. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Project (No. 2015CB352103).

  10. Sensor/ROIC Integration using Oxide Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhenyu; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    We explore the Ziptronix Direct Bond Interconnect (DBI) technology [2] for the integration of sensors and readout integrated circuits (ROICs) for high energy physics. The technology utilizes an oxide bond to form a robust mechanical connection between layers which serves to assist with the formation of metallic interlayer connections. We report on testing results of sample sensors bonded to ROICs and thinned to 100 {micro}m.

  11. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H3PW12O40, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10-12-1.0 × 10-10 M and 2.0 × 10-13 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  12. Electrochemical deposition of conducting ruthenium oxide films from solution

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Warren, L.F.

    1984-02-01

    In the last decade, ruthenium oxide, RuO /sub x/ (x less than or equal to 2), has been used extensively as the active anode electrocatalyst constituent for Cl/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ evolution reactions, in chlorate production, and in metal electrowinning from mixed chloride-sulfate solutions. More recently, this material has been incorporated in several light-induced water electrolysis schemes and apparently possesses the ability to inhibit CdS photocorrosion by acting as a hole scavenger. The numerous applications for this catalyst material certainly warrant further studies of its electrochemical properties on a variety of substrates, e.g., semiconductors. The lack of a simple technique for controlled deposition of ruthenium oxide onto conducting substrates prompted us to investigate an electrochemical approach to this problem. We describe here a new way to electrochemically deposit conducting films of hydrated ruthenium oxide from an aqueous solution of the benzeneruthenium (II)aqua complex. The films slowly dissolve in aqueous electrolytes upon potential cycling, yet appear to be catalytic with regards to water oxidation.

  13. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics, Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the NMSU activity over the first year of the project (i.e., the 11/03-8/04 period). This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the reliability of devices for field screening of toxic metals. This 11-mos activity has already resulted in 2 research papers (published or in press in major journals), and several invited presentations in major meetings. (Several more publications are expected in the late part of 2004.) The electrochemical sensors being investigated rely on the highly sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) technique to detect metal ions of interest to the DOE, particularly uranium and chromium.

  14. A Review on Direct Electrochemistry of Catalase for Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Periasamy Arun; Yogeswaran, Umasankar; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Catalase (CAT) is a heme enzyme with a Fe(III/II) prosthetic group at its redox centre. CAT is present in almost all aerobic living organisms, where it catalyzes the disproportionation of H2O2 into oxygen and water without forming free radicals. In order to study this catalytic mechanism in detail, the direct electrochemistry of CAT has been investigated at various modified electrode surfaces with and without nanomaterials. The results show that CAT immobilized on nanomaterial modified electrodes shows excellent catalytic activity, high sensitivity and the lowest detection limit for H2O2 determination. In the presence of nanomaterials, the direct electron transfer between the heme group of the enzyme and the electrode surface improved significantly. Moreover, the immobilized CAT is highly biocompatible and remains extremely stable within the nanomaterial matrices. This review discusses about the versatile approaches carried out in CAT immobilization for direct electrochemistry and electrochemical sensor development aimed as efficient H2O2 determination. The benefits of immobilizing CAT in nanomaterial matrices have also been highlighted. PMID:22573989

  15. Facile and novel electrochemical preparation of a graphene-transition metal oxide nanocomposite for ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing of acetaminophen and phenacetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lin; Gu, Shuqing; Ding, Yaping; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Zhen

    2013-12-01

    A facile and novel preparation strategy based on electrochemical techniques for the fabrication of electrodeposited graphene (EGR) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite was developed. The morphology and structure of the EGR-based nanocomposite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Due to the synergistic effect of EGR and ZnO nanoparticles, an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for acetaminophen (AC) and phenacetin (PCT) was successfully fabricated. The linearity ranged from 0.02 to 10 μM for AC and 0.06 to 10 μM for PCT with high sensitivities of 54 295.82 μA mM-1 cm2 for AC and 21 344.66 μA mM-1 cm2 for PCT, respectively. Moreover, the practical applicability was validated to be reliable and desirable in pharmaceutical detections. The excellent results showed the promise of the proposed preparation strategy of EGR-transition metal oxide nanocomposite in the field of electroanalytical chemistry.A facile and novel preparation strategy based on electrochemical techniques for the fabrication of electrodeposited graphene (EGR) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite was developed. The morphology and structure of the EGR-based nanocomposite were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Due to the synergistic effect of EGR and ZnO nanoparticles, an ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for acetaminophen (AC) and phenacetin (PCT) was successfully fabricated. The linearity ranged from 0.02 to 10 μM for AC and 0.06 to 10

  16. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Gourishankar, Karthick

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  17. Electrochemical Sensor Array and Its Application to Real Time Imaging of a Brain Slice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Nahoko; Shimada, Akiyoshi; Nyberg, Tobias; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    An electrochemical sensing system using a planar microelectrode array has been developed to monitor biological molecules with relatively high special and temporal resolutions. This enables us a real time imaging of the biological molecules release from a tissue invasively. In this study, we have established a multichannel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing system to monitor the real time H2O2 distribution in a tissue using a planar sensor array. H2O2 has been recognized in association with the pathology of neurological diseases because it is a by-product of a degenerative reaction of reactive oxygen species, one of the major causes of oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The sensor array is based on a 64-channel ITO electrode array of 50x50 μm electrodes modified with an enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, and an electron transfer mediator. Then we place a cultured rat hippocampal slice on the array and measure the current at each sensor using a multipotentiostat. When we introduce bicuculline into the solution as a stimulant, in the presence of a catalase inhibitor, we can observe a distinct increase in the H2O2 concentration. This real-time H2O2 distribution monitoring system will be a powerful tool with which to explore the neuronal cell death mechanism in biological systems.

  18. Mesoporous ZnS–NiS Nanocomposites for Nonenzymatic Electrochemical Glucose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chengzhen; Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Junhong; Wang, Zhangtao; Wu, Haipeng; Gu, Kaiyue; Du, Weimin; Pang, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites are prepared via ion- exchange reactions using ZnS as the precursor. The prepared mesoporous ZnS–NiS composite materials have large surface areas (137.9 m2 g−1) compared with the ZnS precursor. More importantly, the application of these mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites as nonenzymatic glucose sensors was successfully explored. Electrochemical sensors based on mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites exhibit a high selectivity and a low detection limit (0.125 μm) toward the oxidation of glucose, which can mainly be attributed to the morphological characteristics of the mesoporous structure with high specific surface area and a rational composition of the two constituents. In addition, the mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites coated on the surface of electrodes can be used to modify the mass transport regime, and this alteration can, in favorable circumstances, facilitate the amperometric discrimination between species. These results suggest that such mesoporous ZnS–NiS composites are promising materials for nonenzymatic glucose sensors. PMID:25861568

  19. A regenerative electrochemical sensor based on oligonucleotide for the selective determination of mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Han, Donghoon; Kim, Yang-Rae; Oh, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Tae Hyun; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Hasuck

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a selective, sensitive, and re-usable electrochemical sensor for Hg2+ ion detection. This sensor is based on the Hg2+-induced conformational change of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) which involves an electroactive, ferrocene-labeled DNA hairpin structure and provides strategically the selective binding of a thymine-thymine mismatch for the Hg2+ ion. The ferrocene-labeled DNA is self-assembled through S-Au bonding on a polycrystalline gold electrode surface and the surface blocked with 3-mercapto-1-propanol to form a mixed monolayer. The modified electrode showed a voltammetric signal due to a one-step redox reaction of the surface-confined ferrocenyl moiety. The 'signal-on' upon mercury binding could be attributed to a change in the conformation of ferrocene-labeled DNA from an open structure to a restricted hairpin structure. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of the modified electrode showed a linear response of the ferrocene oxidation signal with increase of Hg2+ concentration in the range between 0.1 and 2 microM with a detection limit of 0.1 microM. The molecular beacon mercury(II) ion sensor was amenable to regeneration by simply unfolding the ferrocene-labeled DNA in 10 microM cysteine, and could be regenerated with no loss in signal gain upon subsequent mercury(II) ion binding.

  20. Microelectrode miRNA sensors enabled by enzymeless electrochemical signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanyu; Viennois, Emilie; Merlin, Didier; Wang, Gangli

    2015-08-18

    Better detections of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as disease biomarkers could advance diseases diagnosis and treatment. Current analysis methods or sensors for research and applications are challenged by the low concentrations and wide dynamic range (from aM to nM) of miRNAs in a physiological sample. Here, we report a one-step label-free electrochemical sensor comprising a triple-stem DNA-redox probe structure on a gold microelectrode. A new signal amplification mechanism without the need of a redox enzyme is introduced. The novel strategy overcomes the fundamental limitations of microelectrode DNA sensors that fail to generate detectable current, which is primarily due to the limited amount of redox probes in response to the target analyte binding. By employing a reductant, tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) in the detection buffer solution, each redox molecule on the detection probe is cyclically oxidized at the electrode and reduced by the reductant; thus, the signal is amplified in situ during the detection period. The combined merits in the diagnosis power of cyclic voltammetry and the high sensitivity of pulse voltammetry enable parallel analysis for method validation and optimization previously inaccessible. As such, the detection limit of miRNA-122 was 0.1 fM via direct readout, with a wide detection range from sub fM to nM. The detection time is within minutes, which is a significant improvement over other macroscopic sensors and other relevant techniques such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The high selectivity of the developed sensors is demonstrated by the discrimination against two most similar family sequences: miR-122-3p present in serum and 2-mismatch synthetic RNA sequence. Interference such as nonspecific adsorption, a common concern in sensor development, is reduced to a negligible amount by adopting a multistep surface modification strategy. Importantly, unlike qRT-PCR, the

  1. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Naim, Norshafadzila; Abdullah, H; Umar, Akrajas Ali; Abdul Hamid, Aidil; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2015-01-01

    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing. PMID:26078996

  2. Electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide nanorods for hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Damasco Ty, Jennifer; Yanagi, Hisao

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays for inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells were electrochemically deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates with a rotating disk electrode setup. The addition of a ZnO seed layer on the ITO prior to electrochemical deposition improved the morphology of the nanorods, resulting in nanorods with smaller and homogenous diameters as well as a higher degree of vertical orientation on to the substrate. The ZnO films deposited on the seeded ITO substrates had higher optical transmittance and lower concentration of defects. Chronoamperometric transient curves show that nucleation and coalescence occurred later for bare ITO substrates, indicating lower densities of initial nuclei, resulting in the growth of nanorods with larger diameters. The solar cell characteristics of the devices fabricated from the seeded ITO substrates were better. The seed layer also acts as a hole-blocking layer, preventing the direct contact between the hole-transporting polymer material and the ITO.

  3. Playing peekaboo with graphene oxide: a scanning electrochemical microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Rapino, Stefania; Treossi, Emanuele; Palermo, Vincenzo; Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can image graphene oxide (GO) flakes on insulating and conducting substrates. The contrast between GO and the substrate is controlled by the electrostatic interactions that are established between the charges of the molecular redox mediator and the charges present in the sheet/substrate. SECM also allows quantitative measurement - at the nano/microscale - of the charge transfer kinetics between single monolayer sheets and agent molecules.

  4. Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Hugo; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; McEvoy, Niall; O'Brien, Sean; Nicolosi, Valeria; Duesberg, Georg S

    2014-02-14

    Herein we use Nitrogen-doped reduced Graphene Oxide (N-rGO) as the active material in supercapacitor electrodes. Building on a previous work detailing the synthesis of this material, electrodes were fabricated via spray-deposition of aqueous dispersions and the electrochemical charge storage mechanism was investigated. Results indicate that the functionalised graphene displays improved performance compared to non-functionalised graphene. The simplicity of fabrication suggests ease of up-scaling of such electrodes for commercial applications.

  5. Simultaneous electrochemical detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid using an iron oxide/reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2014-08-19

    The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1-9 mM and 0.5-100 µM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 µM for AA and DA, respectively.

  6. Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid Using an Iron Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Peik-See, Teo; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Nay-Ming, Huang; Hong-Ngee, Lim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on an iron oxide/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode (Fe3O4/rGO/GCE) and its simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is described here. The Fe3O4/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized via a simple, one step in-situ wet chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of rGO sheets was confirmed by FESEM and TEM images. The electrochemical behavior of Fe3O4/rGO/GCE towards electrocatalytic oxidation of DA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The electrochemical studies revealed that the Fe3O4/rGO/GCE dramatically increased the current response against the DA, due to the synergistic effect emerged between Fe3O4 and rGO. This implies that Fe3O4/rGO/GCE could exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and remarkable electron transfer kinetics towards the oxidation of DA. Moreover, the modified sensor electrode portrayed sensitivity and selectivity for simultaneous determination of AA and DA. The observed DPVs response linearly depends on AA and DA concentration in the range of 1–9 mM and 0.5–100 μM, with correlation coefficients of 0.995 and 0.996, respectively. The detection limit of (S/N = 3) was found to be 0.42 and 0.12 μM for AA and DA, respectively. PMID:25195850

  7. Signal enhancement of electrochemical biosensors via direct electrochemical oxidation of silver nanoparticle labels coated with zwitterionic polymers.

    PubMed

    Geagea, R; Aubert, P-H; Banet, P; Sanson, N

    2015-01-01

    A new electrochemical label has been developed, which is made up of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with a mixture of zwitterionic and biotinylated zwitterionic polymers. These polymers improve colloidal stability in physiological medium and ensure biorecognition while direct electrochemical oxidation of silver nanoparticles strongly enhances the detection signal. The resulting hybrid nanomaterials are used as labels in the electrochemical sensing of avidin using sandwich assays elaborated using the biotin-avidin biorecognition system.

  8. Investigation of solid polymer electrolyte gas sensor with different electrochemical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzelczyk, A.; Jasinski, G.; Chachulski, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this work solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) amperometric sulphur dioxide sensor is investigated. Nafion was used as a membrane electrode and 1M sulphuric acid as an internal electrolyte. Sensor response to sulphur dioxide was measured. Besides traditional constant voltage amperometry also different electrochemical techniques were used. Results obtained by these methods are compared.

  9. Indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays connected with disposable electrochemical nucleic acid sensor system.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Hakan; Erdem, Arzum; Kuralay, Filiz; Jelen, Frantisek

    2009-04-15

    An indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays connected with a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) were successfully developed, and also compared for the electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization. The oxidation signals of echinomycin (ECHI) and electroactive DNA bases, guanine and adenine, respectively were monitored in the presence of DNA hybridization by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. The biotinylated probe was immobilized onto the magnetic beads (magnetic particles, microspheres) and hybridization with its complementary target at the surface of particles within the medium was exhibited successfully using electrochemical sensor system. For the selectivity studies, the results represent that both indicator-based and indicator-free magnetic assays provide a better discrimination for DNA hybridization compared to duplex with one-base or more mismatches. The detection limits (S/N=3) of the magnetic assays based on indicator or indicator-free were found in nM concentration level of target using disposable sensor technology with good reproducibility. The characterization and advantages of both proposed magnetic assays connected with a disposable electrochemical sensor are also discussed and compared with those methods previously reported in the literature.

  10. An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Meiqin; Wei, Qianhui; Gao, Yongjie; Guo, Lijuan; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Mahboob, Shahid; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. PMID:27089341

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Glucose Measurement.

    PubMed

    Park, Minjeong; Choi, Hyonkwang; Park, Yunjae; Lee, Wookyoung; Lee, Jewon; Jeon, Minhyon

    2015-10-01

    Glucose in the blood is generally measured by electrochemical method using glucose oxidase (GOx) which acts as enzymes and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite. The rGO, which has low dispersibility, reduces the sensing capability of sensors. In order to solve this problem, the rGO electrodes with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have been reported. However, rGO with low electrical conductivity and mobility is not compatible to the electrochemical system. In this study, graphene with excellent electrical properties was added to PVP protected rGO. The rGO was synthesized using a Hummer and Offeman's method. Graphene was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a Cu catalyst. Platinum (Pt) electrodes, Ag/AgCl, and PVP protected rGO were used as working electrode, reference electrode, and counter electrode, respectively. Surface morphology and structural properties of graphene were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Cyclic voltametry (CV) and I-V probe station were used to analyze the performance of the electrodes. Glucose concentration was systematically varied and the reduction current was monitored using I-V probe station. PMID:26726435

  12. Biomaterial based sulphur di oxide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P. K.; Sarkar, A.

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials are getting importance in the present research field of sensors. In this present paper performance of biomaterial based gas sensor made of gum Arabica and garlic extract had been studied. Extract of garlic clove with multiple medicinal and chemical utility can be proved to be useful in sensing Sulphur di Oxide gas. On exposure to Sulphur di Oxide gas the material under observation suffers some temporary structural change, which can be observed in form of amplified potentiometric change through simple electronic circuitry. Exploiting this very property a potentiometric gas sensor of faster response and recovery time can be designed. In this work sensing property of the said material has been studied through DC conductance, FTIR spectrum etc.

  13. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field.

  14. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field. PMID:26579616

  15. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Weng Hong; Yap, Yuen Kiat; Chong, Wu Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-01-01

    The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH. PMID:25526358

  16. Observable Electrochemical Oxidation of Carbon Promoted by Platinum Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kou, Zongkui; Cheng, Kun; Wu, Hui; Sun, Ronghui; Guo, Beibei; Mu, Shichun

    2016-02-17

    The radical degradation of Pt-based catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), predominantly caused by the oxidation of carbon supports, heavily blocks the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). As reported, the electrochemical oxidation of carbon could be accelerated by Pt catalysts; however, hitherto no direct evidence is present for the promotion of Pt catalysts. Herein, a unique ultrathin carbon layer (approximately 2.9 nm in thickness) covered Pt catalyst (Pt/C-GC) is designed and synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. This magnifies the catalysis effect of Pt to carbon oxidation due to the greatly increased contact sites between the metal-support, making it easy to investigate the carbon oxidation process by observing the thinning of the carbon layer on Pt nanoparticles from TEM observations. Undoubtedly, this finding can better guide the structural design of the durable metal catalysts for PEMFCs and other applications.

  17. Critical View on graphene oxide production and its transfer to surfaces aiming electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Timm, Ronaldo Adriano; Kisner, Alexandre; Bassetto, Victor Costa; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2014-09-01

    Graphene and related materials has been studied aiming their use in several applications including electrochemical sensing systems for a large number of different analytes. However, there have been proportionally only a few studies discussing deeply the implications of the different variables that could be tuned in the preparations of these materials for the development of the electrochemical platforms. In this review it is discussed how the size, number of layers, crystallinity and purity of the graphite starting material affects the final graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared by chemical exfoliation. The exfoliation process and the most frequently applied transfer methods used to prepare thin films of GO and rGO on surfaces/electrodes of sensing platforms are also discussed. The electrochemical behavior of these materials is evaluated as a role of surface organization and adsorption. Considering the parameters previously presented, it is outlined some of the most relevant sensors and biosensor systems, which employ graphene related materials and attempts to explore different possibilities of deposition.

  18. Electrochemical K-562 cells sensor based on origami paper device for point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Haiyun; Huang, Jiadong; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2015-12-01

    A low-cost, simple, portable and sensitive paper-based electrochemical sensor was established for the detection of K-562 cell in point-of-care testing. The hybrid material of 3D Au nanoparticles/graphene (3D Au NPs/GN) with high specific surface area and ionic liquid (IL) with widened electrochemical windows improved the good biocompatibility and high conductivity was modified on paper working electrode (PWE) by the classic assembly method and then employed as the sensing surface. IL could not only enhance the electron transfer ability but also provide sensing recognition interface for the conjugation of Con A with cells, with the cell capture efficiency and the sensitivity of biosensor strengthened simultaneously. Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilization matrix was used to capture cells. As proof-of-concept, the paper-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of K-562 cells was developed. With such sandwich-type assay format, K-562 cells as model cells were captured on the surface of Con A/IL/3D AuNPs@GN/PWE. Con A-labeled dendritic PdAg NPs were captured on the surface of K-562 cells. Such dendritic PdAg NPs worked as catalysts promoting the oxidation of thionine (TH) by H2O2 which was released from K-562 cells via the stimulation of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Therefore, the current signal response was dependent on the amount of PdAg NPs and the concentration of H2O2, the latter of which corresponded with the releasing amount from cells. So, the detection method of K-562 cell was also developed. Under optimized experimental conditions, 1.5×10(-14) mol of H2O2 releasing from each cell was calculated. The linear range and the detection limit for K-562 cells were determined to be 1.0×10(3)-5.0×10(6) cells/mL and 200 cells/mL, respectively. Such as-prepared sensor showed excellent analytical performance with good fabrication reproducibility, acceptable precision and satisfied accuracy, providing a novel protocol in point-of-care testing of cells.

  19. Electrochemical detection of Cu2+ through Ag nanoparticle assembly regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lin; Wu, Jie; Li, Jie; Ge, Yanqiu; Ju, Huangxian

    2014-05-15

    A highly sensitive and selective electrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of Cu(2+) by the assembly of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) at dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] encapsulated Au nanoparticles (DSP-AuNPs), which was regulated by copper-catalyzed oxidation of cysteamine (Cys). The electrochemical sensor was constructed by layer-by-layer modification of glassy carbon electrode with carbon nanotubes, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and DSP-AuNPs. In the absence of Cu(2+), Cys could bind to the surface of citrate-stabilized AgNPs via Ag-S bond, thus AgNPs could be assembled on the sensor surface through the reaction between DSP and Cys. In contrast, the copper-catalyzed oxidation of Cys by dissolved oxygen in the presence of Cu(2+) inhibited the Cys-induced aggregation of AgNPs, leading to the decrease of the electrochemical stripping signal of AgNPs. Under the optimized conditions, this method could detect Cu(2+) in the range of 1.0-1000 nM with a detection limit of 0.48 nM. The proposed Cu(2+) sensor showed good reproducibility, stability and selectivity. It has been satisfactorily applied to determine Cu(2+) in water samples.

  20. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of synthetic colorants in beverages.

    PubMed

    Jampasa, Sakda; Siangproh, Weena; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-11-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (ERGO-SPCE) for the simultaneous determination of sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TZ) was proposed. An ERGO film was coated onto the electrode surface using a cyclic voltammetric method and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 0.1M phosphate buffer at a pH of 6, the two oxidation peaks of SY and TZ appeared separately at 0.41 and 0.70V, respectively. Surprisingly, the electrochemical response remarkably increased approximately 90- and 20-fold for SY and TZ, respectively, using the modified electrode in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration curves exhibited linear ranges from 0.01 to 20.0µM for SY and from 0.02 to 20.0µM for TZ. The limits of detection were found to be 0.50 and 4.50nM (at S/N=3) for SY and TZ, respectively. Furthermore, this detection platform provided very high selectivity for the measurement of both colorants. This electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine the amount of SY and TZ in commercial beverages. Comparison of the results obtained from this proposed method to those obtained by an in-house standard technique proved that this developed method has good agreement in terms of accuracy for practical applications. This sensor offers an inexpensive, rapid and sensitive determination. The proposed system is therefore suitable for routine analysis and should be an alternative method for the analysis of food colorants.

  1. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of synthetic colorants in beverages.

    PubMed

    Jampasa, Sakda; Siangproh, Weena; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-11-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (ERGO-SPCE) for the simultaneous determination of sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TZ) was proposed. An ERGO film was coated onto the electrode surface using a cyclic voltammetric method and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 0.1M phosphate buffer at a pH of 6, the two oxidation peaks of SY and TZ appeared separately at 0.41 and 0.70V, respectively. Surprisingly, the electrochemical response remarkably increased approximately 90- and 20-fold for SY and TZ, respectively, using the modified electrode in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration curves exhibited linear ranges from 0.01 to 20.0µM for SY and from 0.02 to 20.0µM for TZ. The limits of detection were found to be 0.50 and 4.50nM (at S/N=3) for SY and TZ, respectively. Furthermore, this detection platform provided very high selectivity for the measurement of both colorants. This electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine the amount of SY and TZ in commercial beverages. Comparison of the results obtained from this proposed method to those obtained by an in-house standard technique proved that this developed method has good agreement in terms of accuracy for practical applications. This sensor offers an inexpensive, rapid and sensitive determination. The proposed system is therefore suitable for routine analysis and should be an alternative method for the analysis of food colorants. PMID:27591594

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Assess Vascular Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Li, Rongsong; Ai, Lisong; Edington, Collin; Yu, Hongyu; Barr, Mark; Kim, E. S.; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammatory responses are intimately linked with oxidative stress, favoring the development of pre-atherosclerotic lesions. We proposed that oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and foam cell infiltrates in the subendothelial layer engendered distinct electrochemical properties that could be measured in terms of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Concentric bipolar microelectrodes were applied to interrogate EIS of aortas isolated from fat-fed New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits and explants of human aortas. Frequency-dependent EIS measurements were assessed between 10 kHz and 100 kHz, and were significantly elevated in the pre-atherosclerotic lesions in which oxLDL and macrophage infiltrates were prevalent (At 100 kHz: aortic arch lesion = 26.7 ± 2.7 kΩ vs. control = 15.8 ± 2.4 kΩ; at 10 kHz: lesions = 49.2 ± 7.3 kΩ vs. control = 27.6 ± 2.7 kΩ, n = 10, p<0.001). Similarly, EIS measurements were significantly elevated in the human descending aorta where pre-atherosclerotic lesions or fatty streaks were prominent. EIS measurements remained unchanged in spite of various depths of electrode submersion or orientation of the specimens. Hence, the concentric bipolar microelectrodes provided a reliable means to measure endoluminal electrochemical modifications in regions of pro-inflammatory with high spatial resolution and reproducibility albeit uneven lesion topography and non-uniform current distribution. PMID:20652746

  3. A high performance nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone-graphene nanosheets-nickel nanoparticles-chitosan nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguang; Guo, Yujing; Dong, Chuan

    2015-05-01

    In this report, a new nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by chemical deposition of nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized graphene nanosheets (GNs) with chitosan (CS) as the protective coating. The as obtained nanocomposite (PVP-GNs-NiNPs-CS) was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Benefiting from the synergistic effect of GNs (large surface area and high conductivity), NiNPs (high electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose oxidation) and CS (good film-forming and antifouling ability), a nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor was established. The nanocomposite displays greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the glucose oxidation in NaOH solution. The PVP-GNs-NiNPs-CS based electrochemical glucose sensor demonstrates good sensitivity, wide linear range (0.1 μM-0.5 mM), outstanding detection limit (30 nM), attractive selectivity, good reproducibility, high stability as well as prominent feasibility for the real sample analysis. The proposed experiment might open up a new possibility for widespread use of non-enzymatic sensors for monitoring blood glucose owing to its advantages of low cost, simple preparation and excellent properties for glucose detection.

  4. Electrochemical & Thermochemical Behavior of Cerium(IV) Oxide delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueh, William C.

    The mixed-valent nature of nonstoichiometric ceria (CeO2-delta ) gives rise to a wide range of intriguing properties, such as mixed ionic and electronic conduction and oxygen storage. Surface and transport behavior in rare-earth (samaria) doped and undoped ceria were investigated, with particular emphasis on applications in electrochemical and thermochemical energy conversion processes such as fuel cells and solar fuel production. The electrochemical responses of bulk-processed ceria with porous Pt and Au electrodes were analyzed using 1-D and 2-D transport models to decouple surface reactions, near-surface transport and bulk transport. Combined experimental and numerical results indicate that hydrogen electro-oxidation and hydrolysis near open-circuit conditions occur preferentially over the ceria | gas interface rather than over the ceria | gas | metal interface, with the rate-limiting step likely to be either surface reaction or transport through the surface oxygen vacancy depletion layer. In addition, epitaxial thin films of ceria were grown on zirconia substrates using pulsed-laser deposition to examine electrocatalysis over well-defined microstructures. Physical models were derived to analyze the electrochemical impedance response. By varying the film thickness, interfacial and chemical capacitance were decoupled, with the latter shown to be proportional to the small polaron densities. The geometry of microfabricated metal current collectors (metal = Pt, Ni) was also systematically varied to investigate the relative activity of the ceria | gas and the ceria | metal | gas interfaces. The data suggests that the electrochemical activity of the metal-ceria composite is only weakly dependent on the metal due to the relatively high activity of the ceria | gas interface. In addition to electrochemical experiments, thermochemical reduction-oxidation studies were performed on ceria. It was shown that thermally-reduced ceria, upon exposure to H 2O and/or CO2, can be

  5. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for in vitro detection of parathyroid hormone based on a MoS2-graphene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong-U.; Kim, Hye Youn; Kulkarni, Atul; Ahn, Chisung; Jin, Yinhua; Kim, Yeongseok; Lee, Kook-Nyung; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Taesung

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a biosensor based on a MoS2-graphene (MG) composite that can measure the parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration in serum samples from patients. The interaction between PTH and MG was analysed via an electrochemical sensing technique. The MG was functionalized using L-cysteine. Following this, PTH could be covalently immobilized on the MG sensing electrode. The properties of MG were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Following optimization of immobilized materials—such as MG, PTH, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—the performance of the MG sensor was investigated via cyclic voltammetry, to assess its linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on graphene oxide (GO) and MG-modified electrodes to confirm the capture of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting PTH. Furthermore, the ALP-PTH-MG sensor exhibits a linear response towards PTH from artificial serum over a range of 1–50 pg mL‑1. Moreover, patient sera (n = 30) were evaluated using the ALP-PTH-MG sensor and compared using standard equipment (Roche E 170). The P-value is less than 0.01 when evaluated with a t-test using Welch’s correction. This implies that the fabricated sensor can be deployed for medical diagnosis.

  6. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for in vitro detection of parathyroid hormone based on a MoS2-graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong-U; Kim, Hye Youn; Kulkarni, Atul; Ahn, Chisung; Jin, Yinhua; Kim, Yeongseok; Lee, Kook-Nyung; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a biosensor based on a MoS2-graphene (MG) composite that can measure the parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration in serum samples from patients. The interaction between PTH and MG was analysed via an electrochemical sensing technique. The MG was functionalized using l-cysteine. Following this, PTH could be covalently immobilized on the MG sensing electrode. The properties of MG were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Following optimization of immobilized materials—such as MG, PTH, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—the performance of the MG sensor was investigated via cyclic voltammetry, to assess its linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on graphene oxide (GO) and MG-modified electrodes to confirm the capture of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting PTH. Furthermore, the ALP-PTH-MG sensor exhibits a linear response towards PTH from artificial serum over a range of 1–50 pg mL−1. Moreover, patient sera (n = 30) were evaluated using the ALP-PTH-MG sensor and compared using standard equipment (Roche E 170). The P-value is less than 0.01 when evaluated with a t-test using Welch’s correction. This implies that the fabricated sensor can be deployed for medical diagnosis. PMID:27694822

  7. Exfoliated graphite-ruthenium oxide composite electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sagar; Lokesh, K. S.; Sampath, S.

    The performance of exfoliated graphite (EG)-ruthenium oxide (RuO x) composites as binderless electrodes is evaluated for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). A composite of EG-RuO x is prepared by a modified sol-gel process. The material is characterized using X-ray diffraction and microscopy. Electrochemical capacitors with the composite electrodes in the presence of aqueous sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) electrolyte are evaluated using voltammetry, impedance and charge-discharge studies. Cyclic voltammetry reveals very stable current-voltage behaviour up to several thousands of cycles, as well as high specific capacitances, e.g., a few hundreds of farads per gram for the composite that contains 16.5 wt.% RuO x.

  8. Free-standing and flexible graphene papers as disposable non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Hou, Chengyi; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2016-06-01

    We have explored AuNPs (13 nm) both as a catalyst and as a core for synthesizing water-dispersible and highly stable core-shell structural gold@Prussian blue (Au@PB) nanoparticles (NPs). Systematic characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) disclosed AuNPs coated uniformly by a 5 nm thick PB layer. Au@PB NPs were attached to single-layer graphene oxide (GO) to form Au@PB decorated GO sheets. The resulting hybrid material was filtered layer-by-layer into flexible and free-standing GO paper, which was further converted into conductive reduced GO (RGO)/Au@PB paper via hydrazine vapour reduction. High-resolution TEM images suggested that RGO papers are multiply sandwich-like structures functionalized with core-shell NPs. Resulting sandwich functionalized graphene papers have high conductivity, sufficient flexibility, and robust mechanical strength, which can be cut into free-standing electrodes. Such electrodes, used as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors, were tested systematically for electrocatalytic sensing of hydrogen peroxide. The high performance was indicated by some of the key parameters, for example the linear H2O2 concentration response range (1-30 μM), the detection limit (100 nM), and the high amperometric sensitivity (5 A cm(-2) M(-1)). With the advantages of low cost and scalable production capacity, such graphene supported functional papers are of particular interest in the use as flexible disposable sensors.

  9. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    SciTech Connect

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    During the four-year period of the grant all of the goals of the originally proposed work were achieved, and some additional accomplishments are here reported. Two types of sensors were designed and built in the lab, capable of detecting uranium, plutonium and thorium at the 10 part-per-trillion level. The basis of both sensor types is a specially designed polymer having selective binding sites for actinyl ions of the form MO{sub 2}{sup 2+}(aq), where M is any actinide in the +6 oxidation state. This binding site also traps ions of the form MO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), where M is any actinide in the +4 oxidation state. In this way, the polymer is responsive to the two most common water-soluble ions of the actinide series. The chelating ring responsible for binding the actinyl ions was identified from the literature, calix[n]arene where n = 6. Several versions of this sensing polymer were coated on conductive substrates and demonstrated for actinide sensing. An optimized sensor was developed and is fully described in this report. It has a polymer bilayer, fabricated under the particular conditions given below. Two different operating modes were demonstrated having different capabilities. One is the chemFET mode (a FET is a field effect transistor) and the other is the voltammetric mode. These two sensors give complementary information regarding the actinide species in a sample. Therefore our recommendation is that both be used together in a probe. A detailed design for such a probe has been filed as a patent application with the United States Patent Office, and is patent pending. The sensing polymer incorporating this actinyl-chelating ring was tested under a variety of conditions and the operating limits were determined. A full factorial experiment testing the polymerization method was conducted to optimize performance and characteristics of this polymer. The actinyl-sensing polymer was also deposited on the gate of a field effect transistor (FET) and demonstrated as a

  10. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian; Szreders, Bernard E.

    1988-04-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approx. 1100 to 1300 C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20 and 50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  11. Effect of base pairing on the electrochemical oxidation of guanine.

    PubMed

    Costentin, Cyrille; Hajj, Viviane; Robert, Marc; Savéant, Jean-Michel; Tard, Cédric

    2010-07-28

    The effect of base pairing by cytosine on the electrochemical oxidation of guanine is examined by means of cyclic voltammetry on carefully purified reactants in a solvent, CHCl(3), which strongly favors the formation of an H-bonded pair. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the oxidation reaction are not strongly influenced by the formation of the pair. They are actually similar to those of the reaction in which 2,6-lutidine, an encumbered base that cannot form a pair with guanine, replaces cytosine. The reaction does not entail a concerted proton-electron mechanism, as attested by the absence of H/D isotope effect. It rather involves the rate-determining formation of the cation radical, followed by its deprotonation and dimerization of the resulting neutral radical in competition with its further oxidation.

  12. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Brian, Riley; Szreders, Bernard E.

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  13. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  14. Wearable autonomous microsystem with electrochemical gas sensor array for real-time health and safety monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Mu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaowen; Guo, Min; Jin, Rong; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high demand for a wearable autonomous multi-analyte gas sensor system for real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a system level solution through synergistic integration of sensors, electronics, and data analysis algorithms. Electrochemical sensors featuring ionic liquids were chosen to provide low-power room-temperature operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, good selectivity, and a long operating life with low maintenance. The system utilizes a multi-mode electrochemical instrumentation circuit that combines all signal condition functions within a single microelectronics chip to minimize system cost, size and power consumption. Embedded sensor array signal processing algorithms enable gas classification and concentration estimation within a real-world mixture of analytes. System design and integration methodologies are described, and preliminary results are shown for a first generation SO(2) sensor and a thumb-drive sized prototype system.

  15. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Evan J; Rosen, Brandon R; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as "classics". Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  16. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C–H oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C–H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C–H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C–H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C–H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C–H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  17. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Evan J; Rosen, Brandon R; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as "classics". Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact. PMID:27096371

  18. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  19. In situ detection of TNT contamination using electrochemical sensors in cone penetrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cespedes, Ernesto R.; Cooper, Stafford S.; Davis, William M.; Buttner, William J.; Vickers, William C.

    1995-01-01

    The pyrolysis of TNT and other explosive compounds generates signature compounds that can be efficiently detected by electrochemical sensors. This concept was implemented in the development and testing of a sensor probe for the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) for the in situ detection of TNT, RDX, HMX, and other nitrogen-containing soil contaminants. This paper describes the results of laboratory studies and field tests conducted to determine the feasibility of employing electrochemical sensors for detecting subsurface explosives contaminants. A method for the in situ pyrolysis of explosives contaminants in soils was developed, and laboratory tests determined that electrochemical sensing of the pyrolysis products was sensitive, selective, reversible, and capable of broad dynamic range. A penetrometer probe that accommodates the electrochemical sensors (including power supply and signal conditioning electronics), the pyrolyzer unit, the pneumatic components, and geophysical sensors for soil classification was designed and fabricated. Results of tests conducted at the Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant during September 1994, which demonstrated the performance of the SCAPS sensor under actual field conditions, are presented.

  20. Design and use of electrochemical sensors in enantioselective high throughput screening of drugs. A minireview.

    PubMed

    Stefana, R I; van Staden, J L; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2000-12-01

    The importance of reliable detection systems for enantiomeric assays increases with the necessity of high throughput screening analysis of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. The utilization of electrochemical sensors in enantioselective analysis is an accurate and precise alternative to chromatographic techniques. The reliability of the response characteristics as well as of the analytical information obtained by using electrochemical sensors is strictly correlated with the design of the sensors. The designs evaluated for sensors have been based on PVC, imprinting polymers and carbon paste matrices. Among these, carbon paste sensors have been the most reliable and have been utilized for the construction of potentiometric, enantioselective membrane electrodes as well as for amperometric biosensors, and immunosensors. There are two ways to use the electrochemical sensors in enantioselective screening analysis: selective binding and catalyst selectivity. A molecule with a special chemical architecture is required for selective binding: a lock for a key. The high reliability of analytical information obtained using these sensors has made possible the automation of potentiometric and amperometric techniques by integration of enantioselective sensors as detectors in flow injection analysis and sequential injection analysis techniques.

  1. Electrochemical techniques for characterization of stem-loop probe and linear probe-based DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Rebecca Y; Walker, Bryce; Stormberg, Kent; Zaitouna, Anita J; Yang, Weiwei

    2013-12-15

    Here we present a summary of the sensor performance of the stem-loop probe (SLP) and linear probe (LP) electrochemical DNA sensors when interrogated using alternating current voltammetry (ACV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Specifically, we identified one critical parameter for each voltammetric technique that can be adjusted for optimal sensor performance. Overall, the SLP sensor displayed good sensor performance (i.e., 60+% signal attenuation in the presence of the target) over a wider range of experimental conditions when compared to the LP sensor. When used with ACV, the optimal frequency range was found to be between 5 and 5000 Hz, larger than the 5-100 Hz range observed with the LP sensor. A similar trend was observed for the two sensors in CV; the LP sensor was operational only at scan rates between 30 and 100 V/s, whereas the SLP sensor performed well at scan rates between 1 and 1000 V/s. Unlike ACV and CV, DPV has demonstrated to be a more versatile sensor interrogation technique for this class of sensors. Despite the minor differences in total signal attenuation upon hybridization to the target DNA, both SLP and LP sensors performed optimally under most pulse widths used in this study. More importantly, when used with longer pulse widths, both sensors showed "signal-on" behavior, which is generally more desirable for sensor applications.

  2. Chemical and Biological Sensors Based on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have been explored for sensing applications for several decades due to their many advantages like easy fabrication, low cost, flexibility, and biocompatibility. Among these OTFTs, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years since the devices can operate stably in aqueous environment with relatively low working voltages and are suitable for applications in chemical and biological sensing. In this thesis, ion-sensitive properties of OECTs based on poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) have been systematically studied. It was found that the gate electrode played an important role on the ion-sensitive properties of OECTs. For the devices with Ag/AgCl gate electrode, Nernstian relationships between the shift of gate voltage and the concentrations of cations were obtained. For the devices with Pt and Au gate electrodes, the ion sensitivities were higher than that given by Nernst equation, which could be attributed to the interface between the metal gate electrode and the electrolyte. Moreover, OECTs based on PEDOT:PSS were integrated into flexible microfluidic systems. Then a novel label-free DNA sensor was developed, in which single-stranded DNA probes were immobilized on the surface of Au gate electrode. These devices successfully detected complementary DNA targets at concentrations as low as 1 nM. The detection limit was also extended to 10 pM by pulse-enhanced hybridization process of DNA. OECTs based on PEDOT:PSS were also exploited as cell-based biosensors. Human esophageal squamous epithelial cancer cell lines (KYSE30) and fibroblast cell lines (HFFI) were successfully grown on the surface of PEDOT:PSS film. Then the devices were used for in-vitro monitoring cell activities when the living cells were treated by trypsin and an anti-cancer drug, retinoic acid. It was found that the devices were sensitive to the change of surface charge

  3. Corner heating in rectangular solid oxide electrochemical cell generators

    DOEpatents

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement in a solid oxide electrochemical cell generator 1 having a rectangular design with four sides that meet at corners, and containing multiplicity of electrically connected fuel cells 11, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen containing gas is passed into said cells, and said fuel is burned to form heat, electricity, and an exhaust gas. The improvement comprises passing the exhaust gases over the multiplicity of cells 11 in such a way that more of the heat in said exhaust gases flows at the corners of the generator, such as through channels 19.

  4. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical nano-vanadium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mjejri, I; Sediri, F

    2016-10-15

    Hierarchically structured nano-vanadium oxides with different morphologies have been synthesized via a template-free hydrothermal route by adjusting the organic precursor quantities. The effects of molar ratio on structure, morphology and crystallite sized were investigated. The possible growth mechanism is also proposed. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the vanadium oxyhydroxide H2V3O8 samples deliver very high charging capacity, good reversibility and a better cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to multiple advantageous structural features.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of hierarchical nano-vanadium oxide.

    PubMed

    Mjejri, I; Sediri, F

    2016-10-15

    Hierarchically structured nano-vanadium oxides with different morphologies have been synthesized via a template-free hydrothermal route by adjusting the organic precursor quantities. The effects of molar ratio on structure, morphology and crystallite sized were investigated. The possible growth mechanism is also proposed. When evaluated as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the vanadium oxyhydroxide H2V3O8 samples deliver very high charging capacity, good reversibility and a better cycling stability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to multiple advantageous structural features. PMID:27442146

  6. Ascorbic Acid Assisted Synthesis of Cobalt Oxide Nanostructures, Their Electrochemical Sensing Application for the Sensitive Determination of Hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahira, Aneela; Nafady, Ayman; Baloach, Quarratulain; Sirajuddin; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Shaikh, Tayyaba; Arain, Munazza; Willander, Magnus; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    This study describes, the synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures using ascorbic acid as a growth directing agent by the hydrothermal method. Ascorbic acid is used for the first time for the synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures and a unique morphology is prepared in the present study. The cobalt oxide nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microcopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. These analytical techniques demonstrated well defined morphology, good crystalline quality, and high purity of as prepared cobalt oxide nanostructures. The glassy carbon electrode was modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures for the development of a sensitive and selective electrochemical hydrazine sensor. The developed hydrazine sensor exhibits a linear range of 2-24 μM. The sensitivity and limit of detection of presented hydrazine sensors are 12,734 μA/mM/cm2 and 0.1 μM respectively. The developed hydrazine sensor is highly selective, stable, and reproducible. The proposed sensor is successfully applied for the detection of hydrazine from different water samples. The present study provides the development of an alternative tool for the reliable monitoring of hydrazine from environmental and biological samples.

  7. Platinum electrodeposition at unsupported electrochemically reduced nanographene oxide for enhanced ammonia oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cunci, Lisandro; Velez, Carlos A; Perez, Ivan; Suleiman, Amal; Larios, Eduardo; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Watkins, James J; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2014-02-12

    The electrochemical reduction of highly oxidized unsupported graphene oxide nanosheets and its platinum electrodeposition was done by the rotating disk slurry electrode technique. Avoiding the use of a solid electrode, graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced in a slurry solution with a scalable process without the use of a reducing agent. Graphene oxide nanosheets were synthesized from carbon platelet nanofibers to obtain highly hydrophilic layers of less than 250 nm in width. The graphene oxide and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/Pt (erGOx/Pt) hybrid materials were characterized through different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Pt nanoparticles with 100 facets, clusters, and atoms at erGOx were identified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the electrocatalytic activity of the highly dispersed erGOx/Pt hybrid material toward the oxidation of ammonia, which showed a 5-fold current density increase when compared with commercially available Vulcan/Pt 20%. This is in agreement with having Pt (100) facets present in the HRTEM images of the erGOx/Pt material.

  8. Platinum Electrodeposition at Unsupported Electrochemically Reduced Nanographene Oxide for Enhanced Ammonia Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of highly oxidized unsupported graphene oxide nanosheets and its platinum electrodeposition was done by the rotating disk slurry electrode technique. Avoiding the use of a solid electrode, graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced in a slurry solution with a scalable process without the use of a reducing agent. Graphene oxide nanosheets were synthesized from carbon platelet nanofibers to obtain highly hydrophilic layers of less than 250 nm in width. The graphene oxide and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/Pt (erGOx/Pt) hybrid materials were characterized through different spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. Pt nanoparticles with 100 facets, clusters, and atoms at erGOx were identified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the electrocatalytic activity of the highly dispersed erGOx/Pt hybrid material toward the oxidation of ammonia, which showed a 5-fold current density increase when compared with commercially available Vulcan/Pt 20%. This is in agreement with having Pt (100) facets present in the HRTEM images of the erGOx/Pt material. PMID:24417177

  9. Electrochemical surface plasmon resonance sensor based on two-electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Yazhuo; Dong, Wei; Wen, Yizhang; Pang, Kai; Zhan, Shuyue; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    To obtain detailed information about electrochemistry reactions, a two-electrode electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) sensor has been proposed. We describe the theory of potential modulation for this novel sensor and determine the factors that can change the SPR resonance angle. The reference electrode in three-electrode configuration was eliminated, and comparing with several other electrode materials, activated carbon (AC) is employed as the suitable counter electrode for its potential stability. Just like three-electrode configuration, the simpler AC two-electrode system can also obtain detailed information about the electrochemical reactions.

  10. Electrochemical degradation, kinetics & performance studies of solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Debanjan

    Linear and Non-linear electrochemical characterization techniques and equivalent circuit modelling were carried out on miniature and sub-commercial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks as an in-situ diagnostic approach to evaluate and analyze their performance under the presence of simulated alternative fuel conditions. The main focus of the study was to track the change in cell behavior and response live, as the cell was generating power. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was the most important linear AC technique used for the study. The distinct effects of inorganic components usually present in hydrocarbon fuel reformates on SOFC behavior have been determined, allowing identification of possible "fingerprint" impedance behavior corresponding to specific fuel conditions and reaction mechanisms. Critical electrochemical processes and degradation mechanisms which might affect cell performance were identified and quantified. Sulfur and siloxane cause the most prominent degradation and the associated electrochemical cell parameters such as Gerisher and Warburg elements are applied respectively for better understanding of the degradation processes. Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) was applied for kinetic studies in SOFCs for the very first time for estimating the exchange current density and transfer coefficients. EFM is a non-linear in-situ electrochemical technique conceptually different from EIS and is used extensively in corrosion work, but rarely used on fuel cells till now. EFM is based on exploring information obtained from non-linear higher harmonic contributions from potential perturbations of electrochemical systems, otherwise not obtained by EIS. The baseline fuel used was 3 % humidified hydrogen with a 5-cell SOFC sub-commercial planar stack to perform the analysis. Traditional methods such as EIS and Tafel analysis were carried out at similar operating conditions to verify and correlate with the EFM data and ensure the validity of the

  11. Fabrication of highly catalytic silver nanoclusters/graphene oxide nanocomposite as nanotag for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiamian; Wang, Xiuyun; Wu, Shuo; Song, Jie; Zhao, Yanqiu; Ge, Yanqiu; Meng, Changgong

    2016-02-01

    Silver nanoclusters and graphene oxide nanocomposite (AgNCs/GRO) is synthesized and functionalized with detection antibody for highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a model tumor marker involved in many cancers. AgNCs with large surface area and abundant amount of low-coordinated sites are synthesized with DNA as template and exhibit high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. GRO is employed to assemble with AgNCs because it has large specific surface area, super electronic conductivity and strong π-π stacking interaction with the hydrophobic bases of DNA, which can further improve the catalytic ability of the AgNCs. Using AgNCs/GRO as signal amplification tag, an enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensing protocol is designed for the highly sensitive detection of CEA on the capture antibody functionalized immunosensing interface. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) and a low limit of detection of 0.037 pg mL(-1). Practical sample analysis reveals the sensor has good accuracy and reproducibility, indicating the great application prospective of the AgNCs/GRO in fabricating highly sensitive immunosensors, which can be extended to the detection of various kinds of low abundance disease related proteins.

  12. Effect of redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor performance of displacement-based electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-gang; Zaitouna, Anita J; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-02-17

    This article summarizes the sensor performance of four electrochemical DNA sensors that exploit the recently developed displacement-replacement sensing motif. In the absence of the target, the capture probe is partially hybridized to the signaling probe at the distal end, positioning the redox label, methylene blue (MB), away from the electrode. In the presence of the target, the MB-modified signaling probe is released; one type of probe is capable of assuming a stem-loop probe (SLP) conformation, whereas the other type adopts a linear probe (LP) conformation. Independent of the sensor architecture, all four sensors showed "signal-on" sensor behavior. Unlike the previous report, here we focused on elucidating the effect of the redox label tether length and flexibility on sensor sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, and reusability. For both SLP and LP sensors, the limit of detection was 10 pM for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with three extra thymine (T3) bases linked to the MB label. A limit of detection of 100 pM was determined for sensors fabricated using a signaling probe with five extra thymine (T5) bases. The linear dynamic range was between 10 pM and 100 nM for the T3 sensors, and between 100 pM and 100 nM for the T5 sensors. When compared to the LP sensors, the SLP sensors showed higher signal enhancement in the presence of the full-complement target. More importantly, the SLP-T5 sensor was found to be highly specific; it is capable of discriminating between the full complement and single-base mismatch targets even when employed in undiluted blood serum. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of using oligo-T(s) as a tunable linker to control flexibility of the tethered redox label, so as to achieve the desired sensor response.

  13. Electrochemically tunable thermal conductivity of lithium cobalt oxide.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jiung; Losego, Mark D; Zhang, Hui Gang; Kim, Honggyu; Zuo, Jianmin; Petrov, Ivan; Cahill, David G; Braun, Paul V

    2014-06-03

    Using time-domain thermoreflectance, the thermal conductivity and elastic properties of a sputter deposited LiCoO2 film, a common lithium-ion cathode material, are measured as a function of the degree of lithiation. Here we report that via in situ measurements during cycling, the thermal conductivity of a LiCoO2 cathode reversibly decreases from ~5.4 to 3.7 W m(-1) K(-1), and its elastic modulus decreases from 325 to 225 GPa, as it is delithiated from Li1.0CoO2 to Li0.6CoO2. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on lithiation appears correlated with the lithiation-dependent phase behaviour. The oxidation-state-dependent thermal conductivity of electrolytically active transition metal oxides provides opportunities for dynamic control of thermal conductivity and is important to understand for thermal management in electrochemical energy storage devices.

  14. DNA nanostructure-decorated surfaces for enhanced aptamer-target binding and electrochemical cocaine sensors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yanli; Pei, Hao; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Huang, Qing; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai

    2011-10-01

    The sensitivity of aptamer-based electrochemical sensors is often limited by restricted target accessibility and surface-induced perturbation of the aptamer structure, which arise from imperfect packing of probes on the heterogeneous and locally crowded surface. In this study, we have developed an ultrasensitive and highly selective electrochemical aptamer-based cocaine sensor (EACS), based on a DNA nanotechnology-based sensing platform. We have found that the electrode surface decorated with an aptamer probe-pendant tetrahedral DNA nanostructure greatly facilitates cocaine-induced fusion of the split anticocaine aptamer. This novel design leads to a sensitive cocaine sensor with a remarkably low detection limit of 33 nM. It is also important that the tetrahedra-decorated surface is protein-resistant, which not only suits the enzyme-based signal amplification scheme employed in this work, but ensures high selectivity of this sensor when deployed in sera or other adulterated samples.

  15. Selective electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from water oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine A.; Norskov, Jens K.

    2015-10-08

    Water is a life-giving source, fundamental to human existence, yet over a billion people lack access to clean drinking water. The present techniques for water treatment such as piped, treated water rely on time and resource intensive centralized solutions. In this work, we propose a decentralized device concept that can utilize sunlight to split water into hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide can oxidize organics while the hydrogen bubbles out. In enabling this device, we require an electrocatalyst that can oxidize water while suppressing the thermodynamically favored oxygen evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, wemore » show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e– water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e– oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. Furthermore, we present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively.« less

  16. Selective electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide from water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine A.; Norskov, Jens K.

    2015-10-08

    Water is a life-giving source, fundamental to human existence, yet over a billion people lack access to clean drinking water. The present techniques for water treatment such as piped, treated water rely on time and resource intensive centralized solutions. In this work, we propose a decentralized device concept that can utilize sunlight to split water into hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide can oxidize organics while the hydrogen bubbles out. In enabling this device, we require an electrocatalyst that can oxidize water while suppressing the thermodynamically favored oxygen evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e– water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e– oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. Furthermore, we present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively.

  17. Selective Electrochemical Generation of Hydrogen Peroxide from Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Hansen, Heine A; Nørskov, Jens K

    2015-11-01

    Water is a life-giving source, fundamental to human existence, yet over a billion people lack access to clean drinking water. The present techniques for water treatment such as piped, treated water rely on time and resource intensive centralized solutions. In this work, we propose a decentralized device concept that can utilize sunlight to split water into hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide can oxidize organics while the hydrogen bubbles out. In enabling this device, we require an electrocatalyst that can oxidize water while suppressing the thermodynamically favored oxygen evolution and form hydrogen peroxide. Using density functional theory calculations, we show that the free energy of adsorbed OH* can be used to determine selectivity trends between the 2e(-) water oxidation to H2O2 and the 4e(-) oxidation to O2. We show that materials which bind oxygen intermediates sufficiently weakly, such as SnO2, can activate hydrogen peroxide evolution. We present a rational design principle for the selectivity in electrochemical water oxidation and identify new material candidates that could perform H2O2 evolution selectively.

  18. HME powder detection using space sampling and electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagan, Avi; Wang, Joseph; Cizek, Karel; Lu, Donglai; La Belle, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    A new concept for effective sampling and detecting HME powder traces is described. The collection is based on the particles mobility under rotation into an accumulation collector unit, followed by sequential transfer to the electrochemical detection system where surface washing yields a higher concentration at room temperature. The electrochemical detection of the peroxide explosives is based on photochemical degradation or acid treatment resulting in hydrogen peroxide which is sensed by a Prussian-blue (PB) modified strip electrode at a low potential. Nitrates such as Urea Nitrate are detected using unique reactions which generate one product which has a specific electrochemical signature. Nitroaromatics, nitramines and nitroesters are detected. The new "Add and Detect" procedure is operator independent and is the safest as the operator.

  19. Electrochemical formation of a composite polymer-aluminum oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge-Marchese, Jude Mary

    1997-10-01

    The formation of polymer films through electrochemical techniques utilizing electrolytes which include conductive polymer is of great interest to the coatings and electronics industries as a means for creating electrically conductive and corrosion resistant finishes. One of these polymers, polyamino-benzene (polyaniline), has been studied for this purpose for over ten years. This material undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition upon doping with protonic acids in an acid/base type reaction. Review of prior studies dealing with polyaniline and working knowledge of aluminum anodization has led to the development of a unique process whereby composite polymer-aluminum oxide films are formed. The basis for the process is a modification of the anodizing electrolyte which results in the codeposition of polyaniline during aluminum anodization. A second process, which incorporates electrochemical sealing of the anodic layer with polyaniline was also developed. The formation of these composite films is documented through experimental processing, and characterized by way of scientific analysis and engineering tests. Analysis results revealed the formation of unique dual phase anodic films with fine microstructures which exhibited full intrusion of the columnar aluminum oxide structure with polyaniline, indicating the polymer was deposited as the metal oxidation proceeded. An aromatic amine derivative of polyaniline with aluminum sulfate was determined to be the reaction product within the aluminum oxide phase of the codeposited films. Scientific characterization determined the codeposition process yields completely chemically and metallurgically bound composite films. Engineering studies determined the films, obtained through a single step, exhibited superior wear and corrosion resistance to conventionally anodized and sealed films processed through two steps, demonstrating the increased manufacturing process efficiency that can be realized with the modification of the

  20. Construction of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles for Trace Determination of Amoxicillin in Bovine Milk.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Yusof, Nor Azah; Hajian, Reza; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-01-20

    In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs). The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2-10 µM and 10-30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA) = 2.88C (µM) + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA) = 0.88C (µM) + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method.

  1. Construction of an Electrochemical Sensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles for Trace Determination of Amoxicillin in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Yusof, Nor Azah; Hajian, Reza; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs). The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2–10 µM and 10–30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA) = 2.88C (µM) + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA) = 0.88C (µM) + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method. PMID:26805829

  2. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses.

  3. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses. PMID:26165278

  4. Ferrocene labelings as inhibitors and dual electrochemical sensors of human glutathione S-transferase P1-1.

    PubMed

    Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Quesada-Soriano, Indalecio; García-Maroto, Federico; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; García-Fuentes, Luís

    2012-12-01

    The inhibitory and sensor properties of two ferrocene conjugates, in which the ferrocene and glutathione are linked through a spacer arm of different length and chemical structure, on human Pi glutathione S-transferase, were examined by activity assays, ITC, fluorescence spectroscopy and voltammetry. Such ferrocene conjugates are strong competitive inhibitors of this enzyme with an enhanced binding affinity, the one bearing the longest spacer arm being the most potent inhibitor. Voltammetric measurements showed a strong decrease of the peak current intensity and an increase of the oxidation potential upon binding of ferrocene-glutathione conjugates to GST P1-1 showing that both conjugates can be used as dual electrochemical sensors for GST P1-1.

  5. Nanoporous zeolite and solid-state electrochemical devices for nitrogen-oxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiun-Chan

    Solid-state electrochemical gas sensing devices composed of stabilized-zirconia electrolyte have used extensively in the automobile and chemical industry. Two types of electrochemical devices, potentiometric and amperometric, were developed in this thesis for total NOx (NO + NO2) detection in harsh environments. In potentiometric devices, Pt covered with Pt containing zeolite Y (PtY) and WO3 were examined as the two electrode materials. Significant reactivity differences toward NOx between PtY and WO 3 led to the difference in non-electrochemical reactions and resulted in a electrode potential. With gases passing through a PtY filter, it was possible to remove interferences from 2000 ppm CO, 800 ppm propane, 10 ppm NH3, as well as to minimize effects of 1˜13% O2, CO2, and H2O. Total NOx concentration was measured by maintaining a temperature difference between the filter and the sensor. The sensitivity was significantly improved by connecting sensors in series. Amperometic devices were also developed to detect NOx passing through the PtY filter. By applying a low anodic potential of 80 mV, NO in the NOx equilibrated mixture can be oxidized at a Pt working electrode on the YSZ electrolyte at 500°C. The PtY can be held separate from the YSZ or coated onto the YSZ as a film. This design was demonstrated to exhibit total-NOx detection capability, a low NOx detection limit (< 1 ppm), high NOx selectivity relative to CO and oxygen, and linear dependence on NOx concentration. The non-electrochemical reactions around the triple-phase boundary were studied to understand the origin of the superior performance of WO3 on potentiometric NOx sensing. From TPD, DRIFTS, XRD, Raman, and catalytic activity measurements, the interfacial reactions between WO 3 and YSZ were found to dramatically reduce the NOx catalytic activity of YSZ. WO3 reacted with surface Y2O3 on YSZ and formed less catalytically active yttrium tungsten oxides and monoclinic ZrO2, which suppressed the non-electrochemical

  6. State-of-the-art review of electrochemical noise sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Eden, D.

    2001-09-01

    There are a number of different techniques capable of being used to measure corrosion within equipment. The most simple, the use of metal coupons, usually causes the process to be shut down, is manpower intensive, and has a time delay in getting the required corrosion information. Electrical Resistance (ER) techniques are often used but their response is very sensitive to temperature and they cannot differentiate between general and localized corrosion. Electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical noise (EN), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), harmonic distortion analysis (HDA), and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), have the capability of solving most of those drawbacks. Electrochemical probes can be mounted permanently in most equipment, give regular measurements of the intensity of corrosion, and some can detect localized corrosion. Of all of the electrochemical techniques, EN has the most potential for being used successfully to measure general and localized corrosion rates of equipment. The EN technique was studied in the late 1970s and early 80s as a means of detecting localized (stochastic) corrosion phenomena, such as occurs with pitting, crevice and cavitation attack. EN measurements are based on fluctuations in electrochemical potential and corrosion current that occur during corrosion. Electrochemical potential is related to the driving force (thermodynamics) of the reaction, while corrosion current is related to the rate of reaction (kinetics) of the reaction. The idea is that random electrochemical events on the surface of a corroding metal will generate noise in the overall potential and current signals. Each type of corrosion (for example general corrosion, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking) will have a characteristic “fingerprint” or “signature” in the signal noise. This “fingerprint” can be used to predict the type and severity of

  7. Simultaneous determination of hydroxylamine and phenol using a nanostructure-based electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Hadi Mahmoudi; Beitollahi, Hadi; Tajik, Somayeh; Malakootian, Mohammad; Maleh, Hassan Karimi

    2014-11-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of hydroxylamine on the surface of a carbon paste electrode modified with carbon nanotubes and 2,7-bis(ferrocenyl ethyl)fluoren-9-one is studied. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward hydroxylamine and phenol were investigated. The results showed an efficient catalytic activity of the electrode for the electro-oxidation of hydroxylamine, which leads to lowering its overpotential. The modified electrode exhibits an efficient electron-mediating behavior together with well-separated oxidation peaks for hydroxylamine and phenol. Also, the modified electrode was used for determination of hydroxylamine and phenol in some real samples.

  8. Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Combining specific recognition capabilities with the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of small electrodes represents a promising methodology in bioanalytical and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report the development of reproducible electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors on a gold microelectrode platform. Specifically, we develop microscale sensors (25 μm diameter) for two representative small molecule targets–adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin. Furthermore, we report on the challenges encountered at this size scale including small-magnitude signals and interference from the irreversible reduction of dissolved oxygen and present methods to circumvent these challenges. Through the electrochemical deposition of dendritic gold nanostructures, we demonstrate microscale sensors with improved performance by increasing signal-to-noise and consequently sensitivity. Finally, we report on the use of the nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins as an additional layer of surface passivation for stable sensor performance. The sensor development here represents general guidelines for fabricating electrochemical, folding aptamer-based sensors on small-scale electrodes. PMID:25337781

  9. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Sensors for DNA Detection at the Point of Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Kuangwen

    In the post-genomic era, ever-advancing capabilities in DNA detection and analysis have become vital to the detection of infectious diseases and the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities and inheritable diseases. The benefit of such capabilities, however, has yet to reach patients outside of centralized facilities. There thus exists an increasing need to decentralize DNA detection methods and to administer such diagnostics at the "point of care." Electrochemical-based DNA sensors present a compelling approach, but have yet to deliver satisfactory sensitivity, specificity, miniaturization, and real-time monitoring capability to meet the demand of point-of-care diagnostics. Motivated by their potential and their current limitations, in this dissertation, we present a series of strategies that we have undertaken in order to address the key shortcomings of electrochemical DNA sensors and advance them toward point-of-care applications. First, we report a single-step, single reagent, label-free, isothermal electrochemical DNA sensor based on the phenomenon of enzyme catalyzed target recycling amplification. Using this technique, we achieve improved detection limit in comparison to hybridization-based sensors without amplification. We also demonstrate greater than 16-fold amplification of signal at low target concentrations. Next, we present a novel electrochemical DNA sensor that detects single-nucleotide mismatched targets with unprecedented "polarity-switching" responses. This "bipolar" sensor employs a surface-bound and redox-modified (methylene blue) DNA probe architecture, and outputs a decreased Faradaic current when hybridized to a perfectly matched (PM) target, but conversely reports an increased Faradaic current when hybridized to a single-base mismatched (SM) target. Third, we describe the microfluidic electrochemical dynamic allele specific hybridization (microE-DASH) platform for versatile and rapid detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Implementing

  10. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on redox polymer/carbon nanotube modified electrodes: a review.

    PubMed

    Barsan, Madalina M; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2015-06-30

    The aim of this review is to present the contributions to the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on polyphenazine or polytriphenylmethane redox polymers together with carbon nanotubes (CNT) during recent years. Phenazine polymers have been widely used in analytical applications due to their inherent charge transport properties and electrocatalytic effects. At the same time, since the first report on a CNT-based sensor, their application in the electroanalytical chemistry field has demonstrated that the unique structure and properties of CNT are ideal for the design of electrochemical (bio)sensors. We describe here that the specific combination of phenazine/triphenylmethane polymers with CNT leads to an improved performance of the resulting sensing devices, because of their complementary electrical, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and also due to synergistic effects. The preparation of polymer/CNT modified electrodes will be presented together with their electrochemical and surface characterization, with emphasis on the contribution of each component on the overall properties of the modified electrodes. Their importance in analytical chemistry is demonstrated by the numerous applications based on polymer/CNT-driven electrocatalytic effects, and their analytical performance as (bio) sensors is discussed.

  11. Electrochemical sensor for chloramphenicol based on novel multiwalled carbon nanotubes@molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangming; Zhao, Faqiong

    2015-02-15

    Herein, we present a novel electrochemical sensor for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), which is based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes@molecularly imprinted polymer (MWCNTs@MIP), mesoporous carbon (CKM-3) and three-dimensional porous graphene (P-r-GO). Firstly, 3-hexadecyl-1-vinylimidazolium chloride (C16VimCl) was synthetized by using 1-vinylimidazole and 1-chlorohexadecane as precursors. Then, C16VImCl was used to improve the dispersion of MWCNT and as monomer to prepare MIP on MWCNT surface to obtain MWCNTs@MIP. After that, the obtained MWCNTs@MIP was coated on the CKM-3 and P-r-GO modified glassy carbon electrode to construct an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CAP. The parameters concerning this assay strategy were carefully considered. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical sensor offered an excellent response for CAP. The linear response ranges were 5.0 × 10(-9)-5 × 10(-7)mol L(-1) and 5.0 × 10(-7)-4.0 × 10(-6), respectively, and the detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-10)mol L(-1). The electrochemical sensor was applied to determine CAP in real samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Electrochemical sensor for dopamine based on a novel graphene-molecular imprinted polymers composite recognition element.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Gan, Shiyu; Li, Fenghua; Niu, Li

    2011-10-15

    A novel composite of graphene sheets/Congo red-molecular imprinted polymers (GSCR-MIPs) was synthesized through free radical polymerization (FRP) and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dopamine (DA) electrochemical sensor. The template molecules (DA) were firstly absorbed at the GSCR surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was further achieved at the GSCR surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DA molecules from the imprinted polymers film, and as a result, DA could be rapidly and completely removed by this way. With regard to the traditional MIPs, the GSCR-MIPs not only possessed a faster desorption and adsorption dynamics, but also exhibited a higher selectivity and binding capacity toward DA molecule. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DA was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized GSCR-MIPs nanocomposites. Under experimental conditions, selective detection of DA in a linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-7)-8.3 × 10(-4)M was obtained, which revealed a lower limit of detection and wider linear response compared to some previously reported DA electrochemical MIPs sensors. The new DA electrochemical sensor based on GSCR-MIPs composites also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 20 μM DA. PMID:21824760

  13. SERS speciation of the electrochemical oxidation-reduction of riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Matthew R; Schultz, Zachary D

    2016-08-15

    The reduction and oxidation of the flavin system is an important electron transfer reaction in biological systems. Several reaction pathways exist to connect oxidized to fully reduced riboflavin, each with unique intermediates including a semi-quinone radical. By performing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with simultaneous electrochemical detection of riboflavin at different pH values, we are able to correlate reversible changes in spectral features to the current changes observed in the cyclic voltammetry. Multivariate curve resolution analysis of the SERS spectra indicates that three distinct components were present at the SERS electrode at each pH during the potential sweep. To verify and better understand the variations in Raman bands across the voltammogram, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the effect of pH and oxidation state on the riboflavin Raman spectrum. The calculated spectra show qualitative agreement with the species identified in the chemometric analysis. This combination of results indicates the presence of the oxidized, semi-quinone, and reduced forms of riboflavin and provides insight into the mechanism of the flavin redox system. PMID:27297697

  14. Novel Signal-Amplified Fenitrothion Electrochemical Assay, Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Dispersed Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limin; Dong, Jinbo; Wang, Yulong; Cheng, Qi; Yang, Mingming; Cai, Jia; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-03-01

    A novel signal-amplified electrochemical assay for the determination of fenitrothion was developed, based on the redox behaviour of organophosphorus pesticides on a glassy carbon working electrode. The electrode was modified using graphene oxide dispersion. The electrochemical response of fenitrothion at the modified electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, current-time curves, and square-wave voltammetry. Experimental parameters, namely the accumulation conditions, pH value, and volume of dispersed material, were optimised. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between the oxidation peak current and the fenitrothion concentration. The linear range was 1–400 ng·mL‑1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng·mL‑1 (signal-to-nose ratio = 3). The high sensitivity of the sensor was demonstrated by determining fenitrothion in pakchoi samples.

  15. Novel Signal-Amplified Fenitrothion Electrochemical Assay, Based on Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Dispersed Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Dong, Jinbo; Wang, Yulong; Cheng, Qi; Yang, Mingming; Cai, Jia; Liu, Fengquan

    2016-01-01

    A novel signal-amplified electrochemical assay for the determination of fenitrothion was developed, based on the redox behaviour of organophosphorus pesticides on a glassy carbon working electrode. The electrode was modified using graphene oxide dispersion. The electrochemical response of fenitrothion at the modified electrode was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, current-time curves, and square-wave voltammetry. Experimental parameters, namely the accumulation conditions, pH value, and volume of dispersed material, were optimised. Under the optimum conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between the oxidation peak current and the fenitrothion concentration. The linear range was 1–400 ng·mL−1, with a detection limit of 0.1 ng·mL−1 (signal-to-nose ratio = 3). The high sensitivity of the sensor was demonstrated by determining fenitrothion in pakchoi samples. PMID:27003798

  16. Electrochemical production of hydrogen coupled with the oxidation of arsenite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungwon; Kwon, Daejung; Kim, Kitae; Hoffmann, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The production of hydrogen accompanied by the simultaneous oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) was achieved using an electrochemical system that employed a BiOx-TiO2 semiconductor anode and a stainless steel (SS) cathode in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte. The production of H2 was enhanced by the addition of As(III) during the course of water electrolysis. The synergistic effect of As(III) on H2 production can be explained in terms of (1) the scavenging of reactive chlorine species (RCS), which inhibit the production of H2 by competing with water molecules (or protons) for the electrons on the cathode, by As(III) and (2) the generation of protons, which are more favorably reduced on the cathode than water molecules, through the oxidation of As(III). The addition of 1.0 mM As(III) to the electrolyte at a constant cell voltage (E cell) of 3.0 V enhanced the production of H2 by 12% even though the cell current (I cell) was reduced by 5%. The net effect results in an increase in the energy efficiency (EE) for H2 production (ΔEE) by 17.5%. Furthermore, the value ΔEE, which depended on As(III) concentration, also depended on the applied E cell. For example, the ΔEE increased with increasing As(III) concentration in the micromolar range but decreased as a function of E cell. This is attributed to the fact that the reactions between RCS and As(III) are influenced by both RCS concentration depending on E cell and As(III) concentration in the solution. On the other hand, the ΔEE decreased with increasing As(III) concentration in the millimolar range due to the adsorption of As(V) generated from the oxidation of As(III) on the semiconductor anode. In comparison to the electrochemical oxidation of certain organic compounds (e.g., phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2-chlorophenol, salicylic acid, catechol, maleic acid, oxalate, and urea), the ΔEE obtained during As(III) oxidation (17.5%) was higher than that observed during the oxidation of the above organic compounds

  17. Physical and electrochemical study of cobalt oxide nano- and microparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Alburquenque, D.; Vargas, E.; Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J.; Marco, J.F.; Gautier, J.L.

    2014-07-01

    Cobalt oxide nanocrystals of size 17–21 nm were synthesized by a simple reaction between cobalt acetate (II) and dodecylamine. On the other hand, micrometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was prepared using the ceramic method. The structural examination of these materials was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). XRD studies showed that the oxides were pure, well-crystallized, spinel cubic phases with a-cell parameter of 0.8049 nm and 0.8069 nm for the nano and micro-oxide, respectively. The average particle size was 19 nm (nano-oxide) and 1250 μm (micro-oxide). Morphological studies carried out by SEM and TEM analyses have shown the presence of octahedral particles in both cases. Bulk and surface properties investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), point zero charge (pzc), FTIR and cyclic voltammetry indicated that there were no significant differences in the composition on both materials. The magnetic behavior of the samples was determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The compounds showed paramagnetic character and no coercivity and remanence in all cases. Galvanostatic measurements of electrodes formed with nanocrystals showed better performance than those built with micrometric particles. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and microparticles with same structure but with different cell parameters, particle size and surface area were synthesized. • Oxide nanoparticles showed better electrochemical behavior than micrometric ones due to area effect.

  18. Nanotechnology-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomonitoring Chemical Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Timchalk, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript highlights research focused on the development of field-deployable analytical instruments based on EC detection. Background information and a general overview of EC detection methods and integrated use of nanomaterials in the development of these sensors are provided. New developments in EC sensors using various types of screen-printed electrodes, integrated nanomaterials, and immunoassays are discussed. Recent applications of EC sensors for assessing exposure to pesticides or detecting biomarkers of disease are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to monitor chemical metabolites, enzyme activity, or protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of EC platforms for dosimetric studies are covered.

  19. Nickel nanoparticles with hcp structure: Preparation, deposition as thin films and application as electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Neiva, Eduardo G C; Oliveira, Marcela M; Marcolino, Luiz H; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2016-04-15

    Hexagonal close packed (hcp) nickel nanoparticles stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized through the thermal treatment of face centered cubic (fcc) nickel nanoparticles. Controlling both the temperature of the heat treatment and the amount of PVP was possible the control of the hcp/fcc rate in the samples, where the higher Ni/PVP ratio produces only the hcp-nickel phase (average size of 8.9 nm) highly stable in air. The crystalline structure, the presence of PVP, the size of the nanoparticles and the stability of the hcp-nickel were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Thin films of hcp and fcc nickel nanoparticles were prepared through a biphasic system and deposited over indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) substrates, which were electrochemically characterized and applied as glycerol amperometric sensors in NaOH medium. Parameters as the number of cycles applied and the scan rate were evaluated and indicate that hcp nickel nanoparticles are more reactive to form Ni(OH)2 and lead to more electroactive Ni(OH)2 structure. The hcp nickel nanoparticles-modified electrode showed the best sensitivity (0.258 μA L μmol(-1)) and detection limit (2.4 μmol L(-1)) toward glycerol. PMID:26821149

  20. Determination of trace amounts of zearalenone in beverage samples with an electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Afzali, D; Padash, M; Mostafavi, A

    2015-11-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical sensor is purposed for the preconcentration and determination of zearalenone using a carbon paste electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. A differential pulse voltammetric method is employed to study the behavior of zearalenone on this modified electrode. The analytical procedure consists of a closed-circuit accumulation step onto the modified electrode. An anodic peak, related to the oxidation of accumulated and reduced zearalenone on the electrode surface, was observed at 0.40 V. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2.0-50.0 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection was found to be 0.58 ng mL(-1), and the relative standard deviations for five replicated determinations at 5.0 and 30.0 ng mL(-1) of zearalenone were 2.71 and 1.44%, respectively. The modified electrode was applied successfully for the analysis of zearalenone in different malt beverage samples.

  1. Highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Sunset Yellow based on the ultrafine Au-Pd and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Yang, Beibei; Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Yang, Ping; Du, Yukou

    2016-11-01

    A sensitive and novel electrochemical sensor with Au-Pd and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au-Pd-RGO/GCE) was successfully fabricated by one-step synthesis method for the detection of Sunset Yellow. The as-prepared composites were uniformly dispersed on the surface of electrode with an average diameter of approximately 3.44nm, and the ultrafine nanoparticles effectively enhanced the electrochemical active surface area of GCE. The modified electrode had been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) results showed high stability and outstanding electrocatalytic activity of Au-Pd-RGO/GCE for the detection of SY with low detection limits (1.5 nM, S/N=3) and wide concentration ranges (0.686-331.686μM). The Au-Pd-RGO/GCE was further applied to detect SY in real samples with good recovery. Herein, the fabricated Au-Pd-RGO/GCE showed excellent sensitivity, stability and repeatability for the detection of SY and will be a promising application in electrochemical sensor.

  2. Fully printed metabolite sensor using organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiblin, Gaëtan; Aliane, Abdelkader; Coppard, Romain; Owens, Róisín. M.; Mailley, Pascal; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-08-01

    As conducting polymer based devices, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are suited for printing process. The convenience of the screen-printing techniques allowed us to design and fabricate OECTs with a selected design and using different gate material. Depending on the material used, we were able to tune the transistor for different biological application. Ag/AgCl gate provided transistor with good transconductance, and electrochemical sensitivity to pH was provided by polyaniline ink. Finally, we validate the enzymatic sensing of glucose and lactate with a Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) gate often used due to its biocompatible properties. The screen-printing process allowed us to fabricate a large amount of devices in a short period of time, using only commercially available grades of ink, showing by this way the possible transfer to industrial purpose.

  3. Cobalt Oxide Nanoflowers for Electrochemical Determination of Glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouch, Quratulain; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khaskheli, Ghulam Qadir; Soomro, Razium Ali; Sirajuddin; Samoon, Muhammad Kashif; Deewani, Vinod Kumar

    2015-10-01

    This study reports a simple, economic, and efficient approach for synthesis of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanostructures by a low-temperature aqueous chemical growth method. The synthesized Co3O4 nanostructures were characterized by various techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized nanostructures exhibited flower-shaped morphology with thickness of each pellet in the range of 200 to 300 nm. The synthesized Co3O4 nanostructures with excellent structural features exhibited high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution. This enabled development of a highly sensitive (1618.71 µA mM-1 cm-2), stable and reproducible non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The developed sensor demonstrated high anti-interference capability against common interferents such as dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. Furthermore, the applicability of the developed sensor for the determination of glucose from human blood serum provides an alternative approach for the routine glucose analysis.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation and reuse of tannery saline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sundarapandiyan, S; Chandrasekar, R; Ramanaiah, B; Krishnan, S; Saravanan, P

    2010-08-15

    In this present work, electrochemical treatment of saline wastewater with organic (protein) load was studied. The influence of the critical parameters of electro-oxidation such as pH, period, salt concentration and current density on the reduction of organic load was studied using graphite electrodes. It was found that current density of 0.024 A/cm(2) for a period of 2 h at pH 9.0 rendered best results in terms of reduction in COD and TKN. The energy requirement for the reduction of 1 kg of TKN and 1 kg of COD are 22.45 kWh and 0.80 kWh respectively at pH 9 and 0.024 A/cm(2). Reuse experiments were conducted at commercial scale. One of the saline waste streams in leather manufacturing process, pickling was treated and reused continuously thrice. The characteristics of the waste stream and the quality of the leathers indicate that the reuse of saline streams with intermittent electrochemical treatment is feasible. PMID:20435417

  5. Tin Oxide Microheater for Chemical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Ansari, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is the main material utilized for the fabrication of chemical sensing pellets which operate at elevated temperatures. The heating is commonly carried out with ruthenium dioxide resistors. Here, a tin oxide-based microheater is developed for microsensor applications. These microheaters are fabricated on 0.5 mm thick alumina substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. The optimum SnO2 heaters have a sheet resistivity in the 40-70 Ω/a range. Ohmic Ag/SnO2 contacts are formed by silver paste printing followed by an appropriate thermal annealing, which provide connections to the external circuitry. Durability tests are carried out on several samples; the long-term performance of the fabricated devices is satisfactory. The method allows the elimination of the expensive ruthenium dioxide from the structure of generic gas sensors.

  6. A novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline for ultrasensitive detection of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglan; Jin, Jun; Yuan, Caixia; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Qin, Dongdong; Shan, Duoliang; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-21

    A simple and mild strategy was proposed to develop a novel electrochemical sensor based on zirconia/ordered macroporous polyaniline (ZrO2/OMP) and further used for the detection of methyl parathion (MP), one of the organophosphate pesticides (OPPs). Due to the strong affinity of phosphate groups with ZrO2 and the advantages of OMP such as high catalytic activity and good conductivity, the developed sensor showed a limit of detection as low as 2.28 × 10(-10) mol L(-1) (S/N = 3) by square-wave voltammograms, and good selectivity, acceptable reproducibility and stability. Most importantly, this novel sensor was successfully applied to detect MP in real samples of apple and cabbage. It is expected that this method has potential applications in electrochemical sensing platforms with simple, sensitive, selective and fast analysis.

  7. Structural and electrochemical properties of lutetium bis-octachloro-phthalocyaninate nanostructured films. Application as voltammetric sensors.

    PubMed

    Alessio, P; Apetrei, C; Rubira, R J G; Constantino, C J L; Medina-Plazal, C; De Saja, J A; Rodríguez-Méndez, M L

    2014-09-01

    Thin films of the bis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octachlorophthalocyaninate] lutetium(III) complex (LuPc2Cl32) have been prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett and the Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) techniques. The influence of the chlorine substituents in the structure of the films and in their spectroscopic, electrochemical and sensing properties has been evaluated. The π-A isotherms exhibit a monolayer stability greater than the observed in the unsubstituted analogue (LuPc2), being easily transferred to solid substrates, also in contrast to LuPc2. The LB and LS films present a linear growth forming stratified layers, monitored by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The latter also revealed the presence of LuPc2Cl32 in the form of monomers and aggregates in both films. The FTIR data showed that the LuPc2Cl32 molecules present a non-preferential arrangement in both films. Monolayers of LB and LS were deposited onto 6 nm Ag island films to record surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS), leading to enhancement factors close to 2 x 10(3). Finally, LB and LS films deposited onto ITO glass have been successfully used as voltammetric sensors for the detection of catechol. The improved electroactivity of the LB and LS films has been confirmed by the reduction of the overpotential of the oxidation of catechol. The enhancement of the electrocatalytic effect observed in LB and LS films is the result of the nanostructured arrangement of the surface which increases the number of active sites. The sensors show a limit of detection in the range of 10(-5) mol/L.

  8. Nanomaterial-based Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Glucose and Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadalinezhad, Asieh

    designed glucose biosensor exhibits a wide linear range, up to 18 mM glucose, as well as high sensitivity and selectivity. Glucose measurements of human serum using the developed biosensor showed excellent agreement with the data recorded by a commercial blood glucose monitoring assay. Finally, we fabricated an enzyme-free glucose sensor based on nanoporous palladium-cadmium (PdCd) networks. A hydrothermal method was applied in the synthesis of PdCd nanomaterials. The effect of the composition of the PdCd nanomaterials on the performance of the electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Amperometric studies showed that the nanoporous PdCd electrode was responsive to the direct oxidation of glucose with high electrocatalytic activity. The sensitivity of the sensor for continuous glucose monitoring was 146.21 microAmM--1cm--2, with linearity up to 10 mM and a detection limit of 0.05 mM. In summary, the electrochemical biosensors proposed in my PhD study exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity for the continuous monitoring of analytes in the presence of common interference species. Our results have shown that the performance of the biosensors is significantly dependent on the dimensions and morphologies of nanostructured materials. The unique nanomaterials-based platforms proposed in this dissertation open the door to the design and fabrication of high-performance electrochemical biosensors for medical diagnostics.

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of electrochemically synthesized aluminum oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-03-01

    In this study, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via an electrochemical method. The effects of reaction parameters such as supporting electrolytes, solvent, current and electrolysis time on the shape and size of the resulting NPs were investigated. The Al2O3 NPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Moreover, the Al2O3 NPs were explored for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye under sunlight irradiation via two processes: adsorption followed by photocatalysis; coupled adsorption and photocatalysis. The coupled process exhibited a higher photodegradation efficiency (45%) compared to adsorption followed by photocatalysis (32%). The obtained kinetic data was well fitted using a pseudo-first-order model for MG degradation.

  10. Corrosion mechanism of cuprous oxide/iodide solar electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennakone, K.; Gurunnanselage, W.; Dharmaratne, D.; Jayewardena, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanisms for cuprous oxide corrosion in an iodide solution are investigated in light of the importance of instability effects arising from semiconductor electrode corrosion in solar electrochemical cells. Experiments involved the use of a potassium iodide solution containing a trace of iodine as the redox electrolyte, with a cuprous oxide-coated copper plate as the photocathode and a copper window coated with cupric sulphide as the counterelectrode. Measurement of the time dependence of the short circuit current at constant illumination intensity reveals it to undergo a rapid decay accompanied by the formation of a cuprous iodide-cupric oxide deposit on the photocathode surface. The region surrounding a circular patch of light focussed on the photocathode is found to exhibit CuO and CuI deposits signalling corrosion in the anodic region surrounding the cathodic spot. Measurements of the time dependence of the open circuit voltage furthermore indicate that the saturation voltage decays with time, due to short circuiting in the photocathode between anodic and cathodic regions.

  11. Biosensing Test-Bed Using Electrochemically Deposited Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Sheetal K; Yadav, Premlata; Ghosh, Subhasis; Basu, Tinku; Mahapatro, Ajit K

    2016-09-21

    The development of an efficient test-bed for biosensors requires stable surfaces, capable of interacting with the functional groups present in bioentities. This work demonstrates the formation of highly stable electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) thin films reproducibly on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using a reliable technique through 60 s chronoamperometric reduction of a colloidal suspension maintained at neutral pH containing graphene oxide in deionized water. Structural optimization and biocompatible interactions of the resulting closely packed and uniformly distributed ERGO flakes on ITO surfaces (ERGO/ITO) are characterized using various microscopic and spectroscopic tools. Lipase enzyme is immobilized on the ERGO surface in the presence of ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide for the detection of triglyceride in a tributyrin (TBN) solution. The ERGO/ITO surfaces prepared using the current technique indicate the noticeable detection of TBN, a source of triglycerides, at a sensitivity of 37 pA mg dL(-1) cm(-2) in the linear range from 50 to 300 mg dL(-1) with a response time of 12 s. The low apparent Michaelies-Menten constant of 0.28 mM suggests high enzyme affinity to TBN. The currently developed fast, simple, highly reproducible, and reliable technique for the formation of an ERGO electrode could be routinely utilized as a test bed for the detection of clinically active bioentities. PMID:27509332

  12. Enhancing the analytical performance of electrochemical RNA aptamer-based sensors for sensitive detection of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R; Wagan, Samiullah; Wagan, Samuillah; White, Ryan J

    2014-01-21

    Folding-based electrochemical sensors utilizing structure-switching aptamers are specific, selective, sensitive, and widely applicable to the detection of a variety of target analytes. The specificity is achieved by the binding properties of an electrode-bound RNA or DNA aptamer biorecognition element. Signaling in this class of sensors arises from changes in electron transfer efficiency upon target-induced changes in the conformation/flexibility of the aptamer probe. These changes can be readily monitored electrochemically. Because of this signaling mechanism, there are several approaches to maximizing the analytical attributes (i.e., sensitivity, limit of detection, and observed binding affinity) of the aptamer sensor. Here, we present a systematic study of several approaches, including electrochemical interrogation parameters and biomolecular engineering of the aptamer sequence, to develop a sensor for the detection of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Specifically, through a combination of optimizing the electrochemical signal and engineering the parent 26-nucleotide RNA aptamer sequence to undergo larger conformation changes, we develop several improved sensors. These sensors exhibit binding affinities ranging from 220 nM to 42 μM, as much as a 100-fold improved limit of detection in comparison to previously reported sensors, and a variety of linear ranges including the therapeutic window for tobramycin. These data demonstrate that rational engineering of the aptamer structure to create large conformation changes upon target binding leads to improved sensor performance. We believe that the sensor design guidelines outlined here represent a general strategy for developing new aptamer folding-based electrochemical sensors.

  13. Square-wave stripping voltammetric determination of caffeic acid on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-Nafion composite film.

    PubMed

    Filik, Hayati; Çetintaş, Gamze; Avan, Asiye Aslıhan; Aydar, Sevda; Koç, Serkan Naci; Boz, İsmail

    2013-11-15

    An electrochemical sensor composed of Nafion-graphene nanocomposite film for the voltammetric determination of caffeic acid (CA) was studied. A Nafion graphene oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode was fabricated by a simple drop-casting method and then graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced over the glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical analysis method was based on the adsorption of caffeic acid on Nafion/ER-GO/GCE and then the oxidation of CA during the stripping step. The resulting electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytical response to the oxidation of caffeic acid (CA). The electrochemistry of caffeic acid on Nafion/ER-GO modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square-wave adsorption stripping voltammetry (SW-AdSV). At optimized test conditions, the calibration curve for CA showed two linear segments: the first linear segment increased from 0.1 to 1.5 and second linear segment increased up to 10 µM. The detection limit was determined as 9.1×10(-8) mol L(-1) using SW-AdSV. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to determine CA in white wine samples.

  14. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  15. Wire-like nano-polyaniline deposited electrochemically in a reverse micelle electrolyte as a pH sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fei; Jiao, Han-dong; Zhao, Shi-qiang

    2015-10-01

    Wire-like polyaniline (PANI) films were successfully electrodeposited onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate using a pulse galvanostatic method (PGM) in a reverse micelle electrolyte. The as-prepared PANI films were electrochemically analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 mol·L-1 HClO4 solution. It is found that the as-prepared PANI films are highly porous, exhibit the diameters of approximately 100 nm and the lengths exceeding 3 μm, and have favorable electrochemical activities. Furthermore, the as-prepared wire-like PANI films show a good linear relationship of the potentiometric response curve over the pH value range of 3-10 with a slope of 74.13 mV·pH-1 in 0.5 mol·L-1 K2HPO4 basal solutions. The results demonstrate that the prepared wire-like PANI films are promising pH sensors.

  16. Fabrication of Highly Sensitive and Stable Hydroxylamine Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Lu; Chen, Huanhuan; Hu, Xiaoya; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-07-20

    This paper describes the immobilization of gold nanoparticles on metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks (AuNPs/MMPF-6(Fe)) through electrostatic adsorption. The composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and voltammetric methods. MMPF-6(Fe) exhibited a pair of redox peaks of the Fe(III)TCPP/Fe(II)TCPP redox couple. The AuNPs/MMPF-6(Fe)-based electrochemical sensor demonstrates a distinctly higher electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of hydroxylamine due to the synergic effect of the gold metal nanoparticles and metal-metalloporphyrin matrix. The voltammetric current response exhibits two linear dynamic ranges, 0.01-1.0 and 1.0-20.0 μmol L(-1), and the detection limit was as low as 0.004 μmol L(-1) (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor exhibits high reproducibility and stability in acid solution. Our work not only offers a simple way to achieve the direct electrochemical behavior of metalloporphyrin but also expands the potential applications of MOFs-based composites in bioanalysis.

  17. Fabrication of Highly Sensitive and Stable Hydroxylamine Electrochemical Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Metal-Metalloporphyrin Framework Modified Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Lu; Chen, Huanhuan; Hu, Xiaoya; Ma, Shengqian

    2016-07-20

    This paper describes the immobilization of gold nanoparticles on metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks (AuNPs/MMPF-6(Fe)) through electrostatic adsorption. The composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and voltammetric methods. MMPF-6(Fe) exhibited a pair of redox peaks of the Fe(III)TCPP/Fe(II)TCPP redox couple. The AuNPs/MMPF-6(Fe)-based electrochemical sensor demonstrates a distinctly higher electrocatalytic response to the oxidation of hydroxylamine due to the synergic effect of the gold metal nanoparticles and metal-metalloporphyrin matrix. The voltammetric current response exhibits two linear dynamic ranges, 0.01-1.0 and 1.0-20.0 μmol L(-1), and the detection limit was as low as 0.004 μmol L(-1) (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor exhibits high reproducibility and stability in acid solution. Our work not only offers a simple way to achieve the direct electrochemical behavior of metalloporphyrin but also expands the potential applications of MOFs-based composites in bioanalysis. PMID:27351460

  18. Patterned electrode-based amperometric gas sensor for direct nitric oxide detection within microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wansik; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Takayama, Shuichi

    2010-04-15

    This article describes a thin amperometric nitric oxide (NO) sensor that can be microchannel embedded to enable direct real-time detection of NO produced by cells cultured within the microdevice. A key for achieving the thin ( approximately 1 mm) planar sensor configuration required for sensor-channel integration is the use of gold/indium-tin oxide patterned electrode directly on a porous polymer membrane (pAu/ITO) as the base working electrode. The electrochemically deposited Au-hexacyanoferrate layer on pAu/ITO is used to catalyze NO oxidation to nitrite at lower applied potentials (0.65-0.75 V vs Ag/AgCl) and stabilize current output. Furthermore, use of a gas-permeable membrane to separate internal sensor compartments from the sample phase imparts excellent NO selectivity over common interfering agents (e.g., nitrite, ascorbate, ammonia, etc.) present in culture media and biological fluids. The optimized sensor design reversibly detects NO down to the approximately 1 nM level in stirred buffer and <10 nM in flowing buffer when integrated within a polymeric microfluidic device. We demonstrate utility of the channel-embedded sensor by monitoring NO generation from macrophages cultured within non-gas-permeable microchannels, as they are stimulated with endotoxin. PMID:20329749

  19. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors for determination of catecholamine neurotransmitters: A review.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José A; Fernandes, Paula M V; Pereira, Carlos M; Silva, F

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson. Furthermore, the release of catecholamines as a consequence of induced stimulus is an important indicator of reward-related behaviors, such as food, drink, sex and drug addiction. Thus, the development of simple, fast and sensitive electroanalytical methodologies for the determination of catecholamines is currently needed in clinical and biomedical fields, as they have the potential to serve as clinically relevant biomarkers for specific disease states or to monitor treatment efficacy. Currently, three main strategies have used by researchers to detect catecholamine molecules, namely: the use electrochemical materials in combination with, for example, HPLC or FIA, the incorporation of new materials/layers on the sensor surfaces (Tables 1-7) and in vivo detection, manly by using FSCV at CFMEs (Section 10). The developed methodologies were able not only to accurately detect catecholamines at relevant concentration levels, but to do so in the presence of co-existing interferences in samples detected (ascorbate, for example). This review examines the progress made in electrochemical sensors for the selective detection of catecholamines in the last 15 years, with special focus on highly innovative features introduced by nanotechnology. As the literature in rather extensive, we try to simplify this work by summarizing and grouping electrochemical sensors according to the manner their substrates were chemically modified. We also discuss the current and future

  20. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors for determination of catecholamine neurotransmitters: A review.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José A; Fernandes, Paula M V; Pereira, Carlos M; Silva, F

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the state of the art of electrochemical devices for the detection of an important class of neurotransmitters: the catecholamines. This class of biogenic amines includes dopamine, noradrenaline (also called norepinephrine) and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Researchers have focused on the role of catecholamine molecules within the human body because they are involved in many important biological functions and are commonly associated with several diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson. Furthermore, the release of catecholamines as a consequence of induced stimulus is an important indicator of reward-related behaviors, such as food, drink, sex and drug addiction. Thus, the development of simple, fast and sensitive electroanalytical methodologies for the determination of catecholamines is currently needed in clinical and biomedical fields, as they have the potential to serve as clinically relevant biomarkers for specific disease states or to monitor treatment efficacy. Currently, three main strategies have used by researchers to detect catecholamine molecules, namely: the use electrochemical materials in combination with, for example, HPLC or FIA, the incorporation of new materials/layers on the sensor surfaces (Tables 1-7) and in vivo detection, manly by using FSCV at CFMEs (Section 10). The developed methodologies were able not only to accurately detect catecholamines at relevant concentration levels, but to do so in the presence of co-existing interferences in samples detected (ascorbate, for example). This review examines the progress made in electrochemical sensors for the selective detection of catecholamines in the last 15 years, with special focus on highly innovative features introduced by nanotechnology. As the literature in rather extensive, we try to simplify this work by summarizing and grouping electrochemical sensors according to the manner their substrates were chemically modified. We also discuss the current and future

  1. Biocompatible hydrogel membranes for the protection of RNA aptamer-based electrochemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoukroun-Barnes, Lauren R.; Wagan, Samiullah; Liu, Juan; Leach, Jennie B.; White, Ryan J.

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemical-aptamer based (E-AB) sensors represent a universal specific, selective, and sensitive sensing platform for the detection of small molecule targets. Their specific detection abilities are afforded by oligonucleotide (RNA or DNA) aptamers employed as electrode-bound biorecognition elements. Sensor signaling is predicated on bindinginduced changes in conformation and/or flexibility of the aptamer that is readily measurable electrochemically. While sensors fabricated using DNA aptamers can achieve specific and selective detection even in unadulterated sample matrices, such as blood serum, RNA-based sensors fail when challenged in the same sample matrix without significant sample pretreatment. This failure is at least partially a result of enzymatic degradation of the RNA sensing element. This degradation destroys the sensing aptamer inhibiting the quantitative measurement of the target analyte and thus limits the application of E-AB sensors constructed with RNA aptamer. To circumvent this, we demonstrate that a biocompatible hydrogel membrane protects the RNA aptamer sensor surface from enzymatic degradation for at least 3 hours - a remarkable improvement over the rapid (~minutes) degradation of unprotected sensors. To demonstrate this, we characterize the response of sensors fabricated with representative DNA and RNA aptamers directed against the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin in blood serum both protected and unprotected by a polyacrylamide membrane. Furthermore, we find encapsulation of the sensor surface with the hydrogel does not significantly impede the detection ability of aptamer-based sensors. This hydrogel-aptamer interface will thus likely prove useful for the long-term monitoring of therapeutics in complex biological media.

  2. A new electrochemical sensor of nitro aromatic compound based on three-dimensional porous Pt-Pd nanoparticles supported by graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cai-Xia; Fan, Yan-Ru; Tao-Zhang; Guo, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Jing-Xuan; Wang, Yong-Lan; Shan, Duo-Liang; Lu, Xiao-Quan

    2014-08-15

    In this study, an electrochemical sensor of nitro aromatic compound based on three-dimensional porous Pt-Pd nanoparticles (Pt-Pd NPs) supported by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets-multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNTs) nanocomposite (marked as Pt-Pd NPs/CNTs-rGO) was investigated for the first time. This hybrid nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile and versatile hydrothermal synthetic strategy while its structure and property are evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The result shows that 3D porous Pt-Pd NPs/CNTs-rGO nanocomposite has a large specific surface area of 326.6m(2)g(-1) and exhibited ultrahigh rate capability and good cycling properties at high rates. Electrochemical studies have been performed for the nitro aromatic compounds detection by using different pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The proposed nanocomposite exhibited much enhanced elctrocatalytic activity and high sensitivity toward the detection of nitro aromatic compounds which compared with Pt-Pd NPs dispersed on functionalized rGO, Pt-Pd NPs dispersed on functionalized CNTs, rGO-CNTs and bare glass carbon electrode (GCE). On the basis of the above synergetic electrochemical sensing and synthesis procedure, the hybrid material can be recommended as a robust material for sensor-related applications. Moreover, the proposed sensor exhibits high reproducibility, long-time storage stability and satisfactory anti-interference ability.

  3. Development of Self-Powered Wireless-Ready High Temperature Electrochemical Sensors for In-Situ Corrosion Monitoring for Boiler Tubes in Next Generation Coal-based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xingbo

    2015-06-30

    The key innovation of this project is the synergy of the high temperature sensor technology based on the science of electrochemical measurement and state-of-the-art wireless communication technology. A novel self-powered wireless high temperature electrochemical sensor system has been developed for coal-fired boilers used for power generation. An initial prototype of the in-situ sensor demonstrated the capability of the wireless communication system in the laboratory and in a pilot plant (Industrial USC Boiler Setting) environment to acquire electrochemical potential and current signals during the corrosion process. Uniform and localized under-coal ash deposit corrosion behavior of Inconel 740 superalloy has been studied at different simulated coal ash hot corrosion environments using the developed sensor. Two typical potential noise patterns were found to correlate with the oxidation and sulfidation stages in the hot coal ash corrosion process. Two characteristic current noise patterns indicate the extent of the corrosion. There was a good correlation between the responses of electrochemical test data and the results from corroded surface analysis. Wireless electrochemical potential and current noise signals from a simulated coal ash hot corrosion process were concurrently transmitted and recorded. The results from the performance evaluation of the sensor confirm a high accuracy in the thermodynamic and kinetic response represented by the electrochemical noise and impedance test data.

  4. Stretchable Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Intravascular Detection of Lipid-Rich Lesions in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hung; Yu, Fei; Zhao, Yu; Scianmarello, Nick; Lee, Juhyun; Dai, Wangde; Jen, Nelson; Beebe, Tyler; Li, Rongsong; Ebrahimi, Ramin; Chang, Donald S.; Mody, Freny V.; Pacella, John; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics have enabled catheter-based intravascular sensing. However, real-time interrogation of unstable plaque remains an unmet clinical challenge. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of stretchable electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensors for endoluminal investigations in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits on diet-induced hyperlipidemia. A parylene C (PAC)-based EIS sensor mounted on the surface of an inflatable silicone balloon affixed to the tip of an interrogating catheter was deployed 1) on the explants of NZW rabbit aorta for detection of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions, and 2) on live animals for demonstration of balloon inflation and EIS measurements. An input peak-to-peak AC voltage of 10 mV and sweeping-frequency from 300 kHz to 100 Hz were delivered to the endoluminal sites. Balloon inflation allowed EIS sensors to be in contact with endoluminal surface. In the oxidized low-density-lipoprotein (oxLDL)-rich lesions from explants of fat-fed rabbits, impedance magnitude increased significantly by 1.5-fold across the entire frequency band, and phase shifted ~5 degrees at frequencies below 10 kHz. In the lesion-free sites of the normal diet-fed rabbits, impedance magnitude increased by 1.2-fold and phase shifted ~5 degrees at frequencies above 30 kHz. Thus, we demonstrate the feasibility of stretchable intravascular EIS sensors for identification of lipid rich lesions, with a translational implication for detecting unstable lesions. PMID:24333932

  5. Biomedical Detection via Macro- and Nano-Sensors Fabricated with Metallic and Semiconducting Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Jong-In

    2013-01-01

    Originally developed as gas sensors, the benefits of metallic and semiconducting oxide materials are now being realized in other areas of sensing, such as chemical, environmental, and biomedical monitoring and detection. Metallic and semiconducting oxides have continuously expanded their roles to date, and have also established their significance in biosensing by utilizing a variety of modes for signal generation and detection mechanism. These sensors are typically based either on their optical, electrochemical, electrical, gravimetric, acoustic, and magnetic properties for signal transduction. This article reviews such biosensors that employ metallic and semiconducting oxides as active sensing elements to detect nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and a variety of important biomarkers, both in thin film and one-dimensional forms. Specific oxide materials (Mx Oy ) examined comprehensively in this article include M = Fe, Cu, Si, Zn, Sn, In. The derivatives of these oxide materials resulting from incorporation of dopants are examined as well. The crystalline structures and unique properties that may be exploited for various biosensing applications are discussed, and recent efforts investigating the feasibility of using these oxide materials in biosensor technology are described. Key biosensor characteristics resulting from reduced dimensionality are overviewed under the motif of planar and one-dimensional sensors. This article also provides insight into current challenges facing biosensor applications for metallic and semiconducting oxides. In addition, future outlook in this particular field as well as different impacts on biology and medicine are addressed. PMID:23627064

  6. Electrochemical Water Oxidation of Ultrathin Cobalt Oxide-Based Catalyst Supported onto Aligned ZnO Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Koteeswara Reddy, Nandanapalli; Winkler, Stefanie; Koch, Norbert; Pinna, Nicola

    2016-02-10

    A stable and durable electrochemical water oxidation catalyst based on CoO functionalized ZnO nanorods (NRs) is introduced. ZnO NRs were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) by using a low-temperature chemical solution method and were functionalized with cobalt oxide by electrochemical deposition. The electrochemical water oxidation performance of cobalt oxide functionalized ZnO NRs was studied under alkaline (pH = 10) conditions. From these studies, it is noticed that cobalt oxide functionalized ZnO NRs show electrocatalytic activity toward water oxidation with current density on the order of several mA cm(-2). Further, 30 s CoO deposited ZnO nanorods exhibited excellent galvanostatic stability at a current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and potentiostatic stability at 1.25 V vs Ag/AgCl over an electrolysis period of 1 h. PMID:26784675

  7. Use of high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells to measure electronic transport and thermodynamics in metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Ma, B.; Park, E.T.

    1997-10-01

    By using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors can perform high-temperature coulometric titration and measure electronic transport properties to determine the electronic defect structure of metal oxides. This technique reduces the time and expense required for conventional thermogravimetric measurements. The components of the gas-tight coulometric titration cell are an oxygen sensor, Pt/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Pt, and an encapsulated metal oxide sample. Based on cell design, both transport and thermodynamic measurements can be performed over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (pO{sub 2} = 10{sup {minus}35} to 1 atm). This paper describes the high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells used to determine electronic defect structures and transport properties for pure and doped-oxide systems, such as YSZ, doped and pure ceria (Ca-CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}), copper oxides, and copper-oxide-based ceramic superconductors, transition metal oxides, SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x}, and BaTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Multi-resistive Reduced Graphene Oxide Diode with Reversible Surface Electrochemical Reaction induced Carrier Control

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyungtak; Ahn, Seungbae; Kim, Jinseo; Lee, Young-Ahn; Chung, Koo-Hyun; Jeon, Ki-Joon

    2014-01-01

    The extended application of graphene-based electronic devices requires a bandgap opening in order to realize the targeted device functionality. Since the bandgap tuning of pristine graphene is limited to 360 meV, the chemical modification of graphene is considered essential to achieve a large bandgap opening at the expense of electrical properties degradation. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has attracted significant interest for fabricating graphene-based semiconductors since it has several advantages over other forms of chemically modified graphene; such as tunable bandgap opening, decent electrical properties, and easy synthesis. Because of the reduced bonding nature of RGO, the role of metastable oxygen in the RGO matrix is recently highlighted and it may offer emerging ionic devices. In this study, we show that multi-resistivity RGO/n-Si diodes can be obtained by controlling the RGO thickness at a nanometer scale. This is made possible by (1) a metastable lattice-oxygen drift within bulk RGO and (2) electrochemical ambient hydroxyl (OH) formation at the RGO surface. The effect demonstrated in a p-RGO/n-Si heterojunction diode is equivalent to electrochemically driven reversible electronic manipulation and therefore provides an important basis for the application of O bistability in RGO for chemical sensors and electrocatalysis. PMID:25007942

  9. Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Taichi; Yan, Hanxu; Hamasaki, Takeki; Kinjo, Tomoya; Nakamichi, Noboru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Kabayama, Shigeru; Shirahata, Sanetaka

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. In the present study, the protective effect of ERW against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in several rodent neuronal cell lines and primary cells. ERW was found to significantly suppress H2O2 (50-200 μM) induced PC12 and SFME cell deaths. ERW scavenged intracellular ROS and exhibited a protective effect against neuronal network damage caused by 200 μM H2O2 in N1E-115 cells. ERW significantly suppressed NO-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells despite the fact that it did not have the ability to scavenge intracellular NO. ERW significantly suppressed both glutamate induced Ca(2+) influx and the resulting cytotoxicity in primary cells. These results collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW. PMID:25383141

  10. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  11. Treatment and toxicity evaluation of methylene blue using electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-sung; Wei, Ming-Chi; Peng, Tzu-Huan; Li, Heng-Ching; Chao, Shu-Ju; Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-08-01

    Treatment of a basic dye, methylene blue, by electrochemical oxidation, fly ash adsorption, and combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption was compared. Methylene blue at 100 mgL(-1) was used in this study. The toxicity was also monitored by the Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. When electrochemical oxidation was used, 99% color and 84% COD were removed from the methylene blue solution in 20 min at a current density of 428 Am(-2), NaCl of 1000 mgL(-1), and pH(0) of 7. However, the decolorized solution showed high toxicity (100% light inhibition). For fly ash adsorption, a high dose of fly ash (>20,000 mgL(-1)) was needed to remove methylene blue, and the Freundlich isotherm described the adsorption behavior well. In the combined electrochemical oxidation-fly ash adsorption treatment, the addition of 4000 mgL(-1) fly ash effectively reduced intermediate toxicity and decreased the COD of the electrochemical oxidation-treated methylene blue solution. The results indicated that the combined process effectively removed color, COD, and intermediate toxicity of the methylene blue solution.

  12. Electrochemically Deposited Ceria Structures for Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Evan C.

    As the pursuit towards emissions reduction intensifies with growing interest and nascent technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) remain an illustrious candidate for achieving our goals. Despite myriad advantages, SOFCs are still too costly for widespread deployment, even as unprecedented materials developments have recently emerged. This suggests that, in addition to informed materials selection, the necessary power output--and, thereby, cost-savings--gains must come from the fuel cell architecture. The work presented in this manuscript primarily investigates cathodic electrochemical deposition (CELD) as a scalable micro-/nanoscale fabrication tool for engineering ceria-based components in a SOFC assembly. Also, polymer sphere lithography was utilized to deposit fully connected, yet fully porous anti-dot metal films on yttira-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) with specific and knowable geometries, useful for mechanistic studies. Particular attention was given to anode structures, for which anti-dot metal films on YSZ served as composite substrates for subsequent CELD of doped ceria. By tuning the applied potential, a wide range of microstructures from high surface area coatings to planar, thin films was possible. In addition, definitive deposition was shown to occur on the electronically insulating YSZ surfaces, producing quality YSZ|ceria interfaces. These CELD ceria deposits exhibited promising electrochemical activity, as probed by A.C. Impedance Spectroscopy. In an effort to extend its usefulness as a SOFC fabrication tool, the CELD of ceria directly onto common SOFC cathode materials without a metallic phase was developed, as well as templated deposition schemes producing ceria nanowires and inverse opals.

  13. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  14. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  15. Developing high-sensitivity ethanol liquid sensors based on ZnO/porous Si nanostructure surfaces using an electrochemical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husairi, Mohd; Rouhi, Jalal; Alvin, Kevin; Atikah, Zainurul; Rusop, Muhammad; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2014-07-01

    ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on porous Si (PSi) substrates using the thermal catalytic-free immersion method. Crack-like ZnO nanostructures were formed on the bare, sponge-like PSi structures. An approach to fabricate chemical sensors based on the ZnO/PSi nanostructure arrays that uses an electrochemical impedance technique is reported. Sensor performance was evaluated for ethanol solutions by the morphology and defect structures of the ZnO nanostructure layer. Results indicate that the ZnO/PSi nanostructure chemical sensor exhibits rapid and high response to ethanol compared with a PSi nanostructure sensor because of its small particle size and an oxide layer acting as a capacitive layer on the PSi nanostructure surface.

  16. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  17. Recent developments in nanostructure based electrochemical glucose sensors.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shabi Abbas; Shin, Jae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem causing 4 million deaths each year and 171 million people suffering worldwide. Although there is no cure for diabetes, nevertheless, the blood glucose level of diabetic patients should be monitored tightly to avoid further complications. Thus, monitoring of glucose in blood has become an inevitable need leading to fabrication of accurate and sensitive advanced blood sugar detection devices for clinical diagnosis and personal care. It led to the development of enzymatic glucose sensing approach. Later on, various types of nanostructures have been utilized owing to their high surface area, great stability, and cost effectiveness for the fabrication of enzymatic as well as for nonenzymatic glucose sensing approach. This work reviews on both categories, however it is not intended to discuss all the research reports published regarding nanostructure based enzymatic and nonenzymatic approaches between mid-2010 and mid-2015. We, do, however, focused to describe the details of many substantial articles explaining the design of sensors, and utilities of the prepared sensors, so that readers might get the principles behind such devices and relevant detection strategies. This work also focuses on biocompatibility and toxicity of nanomaterials as well as provides a critical opinion and discussions about misconceptions in glucose sensors.

  18. Demonstration of Electrochemical Cell Properties by a Simple, Colorful Oxidation-reduction Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Lloyd J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes apparatus/methodology and provides background information for an experiment demonstrating electrochemical concepts and properties of electrochemical cells. The color of a solution close to an electrode is changed from that of the bulk solution to either of two contrasting colors depending on whether the reaction is oxidation or…

  19. An Electrochemical NO₂ Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-11-11

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity.

  20. An Electrochemical NO2 Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity. PMID:26569248

  1. An Electrochemical NO₂ Sensor Based on Ionic Liquid: Influence of the Morphology of the Polymer Electrolyte on Sensor Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kuberský, Petr; Altšmíd, Jakub; Hamáček, Aleš; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zmeškal, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effect of ionic liquid in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) and its layer morphology on the characteristics of an electrochemical amperometric nitrogen dioxide sensor. Five different ionic liquids were immobilized into a solid polymer electrolyte and key sensor parameters (sensitivity, response/recovery times, hysteresis and limit of detection) were characterized. The study revealed that the sensor based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][N(Tf)2]) showed the best sensitivity, fast response/recovery times, and low sensor response hysteresis. The working electrode, deposited from water-based carbon nanotube ink, was prepared by aerosol-jet printing technology. It was observed that the thermal treatment and crystallinity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in the solid polymer electrolyte influenced the sensitivity. Picture analysis of the morphology of the SPE layer based on [EMIM][N(Tf)2] ionic liquid treated under different conditions suggests that the sensor sensitivity strongly depends on the fractal dimension of PVDF spherical objects in SPE. Their deformation, e.g., due to crowding, leads to a decrease in sensor sensitivity. PMID:26569248

  2. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Luca; Evrard, David; Groenen-Serrano, Karine; Freyssinier, Mathilde; Ruffien-Cizsak, Audrey; Gros, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic “on line” monitoring devices are also evoked. PMID:24818124

  3. Combining Electrochemical Sensors with Miniaturized Sample Preparation for Rapid Detection in Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today to develop new test systems, amperometric biosensors are prominent players—best represented by the ubiquitous amperometric-based glucose sensors. Electrochemical approaches in general require little and often enough only simple hardware components, are rugged and yet provide low limits of detection. They thus offer many of the desirable attributes for point-of-care/point-of-need tests. This review focuses on investigating the important integration of sample preparation with (primarily electrochemical) biosensors. Sample clean up requirements, miniaturized sample preparation strategies, and their potential integration with sensors will be discussed, focusing on clinical sample analyses. PMID:25558994

  4. An electrochemical-sensor system for real-time flow measurements in porous materials.

    PubMed

    Bathany, Cédric; Han, Ja-Ryoung; Abi-Samra, Kameel; Takayama, Shuichi; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2015-08-15

    Flow monitoring in porous materials is critical for the engineering of paper-based microfluidic bioassays. Here, we present an electrochemical-sensor system that monitors the liquid flow in porous materials without affecting the real flow in paper-strip samples. The developed microfluidic sensor records an amperometric signal created by the solution movement mediated by paper wicking. This approach allows the in situ monitoring of the different hydrodynamic conditions of a specific paper geometry or composition. In addition, the method proposed in this work was employed to characterise the fluid flow of different nitrocellulose paper strips after oxygen-plasma treatment or dextran coating. The dextran fluid-flow modifiers were further used on the paper strip-based assays as means of signal enhancement. The proposed electrochemical-sensing method offers a valuable alternative to existing optical-based monitoring techniques for flow measurement in paper-based microfluidic systems.

  5. Combining electrochemical sensors with miniaturized sample preparation for rapid detection in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Baeumner, Antje J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today to develop new test systems, amperometric biosensors are prominent players-best represented by the ubiquitous amperometric-based glucose sensors. Electrochemical approaches in general require little and often enough only simple hardware components, are rugged and yet provide low limits of detection. They thus offer many of the desirable attributes for point-of-care/point-of-need tests. This review focuses on investigating the important integration of sample preparation with (primarily electrochemical) biosensors. Sample clean up requirements, miniaturized sample preparation strategies, and their potential integration with sensors will be discussed, focusing on clinical sample analyses. PMID:25558994

  6. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Luca; Evrard, David; Groenen-Serrano, Karine; Freyssinier, Mathilde; Ruffien-Ciszak, Audrey; Gros, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic “on line” monitoring devices are also evoked.

  7. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Luca; Evrard, David; Groenen-Serrano, Karine; Freyssinier, Mathilde; Ruffien-Cizsak, Audrey; Gros, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic "on line" monitoring devices are also evoked.

  8. Disposable electrochemical sensor for rapid determination of heavy metals in herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, I; Mascini, M; Minunni, M; Bilia, A R; Vincieri, F F

    2003-06-01

    Analysis of herbal drugs and extracts need rapid and affordable methods to assure the quality of products. The application of the electrochemical sensors in the field of quality control of herbal drugs, herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products appears very promising, advantageous and alternative to conventional methods due to their inherent specificity, simplicity and for the fast response obtained. This paper presents a proposal about the application of disposable electrochemical sensors associated with electroanalytical instrumentation for the detection of heavy metal analysis in herbal drugs. In particular samples of St. John's wort were analysed applying anodic stripping voltammetry. The content of Cd and Pb were evaluated. The ICP spectroscopy was used as reference method.

  9. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. The portable devices will be based on Microscale Total Analytical systems ( -TAS) or ''Lab-on-a-chip'' in combination with electrochemical (stripping-voltammetric) sensors. The resulting microfluidics/electrochemical sensor system would allow testing for toxic metals to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. Progress Summary/Accomplishments: This report summarizes the ASU activity over the second year of the project. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of sensing and microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microchips with the real world.

  10. Electrochemical sensors and devices for heavy metals assay in water: the French groups' contribution.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Luca; Evrard, David; Groenen-Serrano, Karine; Freyssinier, Mathilde; Ruffien-Cizsak, Audrey; Gros, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    A great challenge in the area of heavy metal trace detection is the development of electrochemical techniques and devices which are user-friendly, robust, selective, with low detection limits and allowing fast analyses. This review presents the major contribution of the French scientific academic community in the field of electrochemical sensors and electroanalytical methods within the last 20 years. From the well-known polarography to the up-to-date generation of functionalized interfaces, the different strategies dedicated to analytical performances improvement are exposed: stripping voltammetry, solid mercury-free electrode, ion selective sensor, carbon based materials, chemically modified electrodes, nano-structured surfaces. The paper particularly emphasizes their advantages and limits face to the last Water Frame Directive devoted to the Environmental Quality Standards for heavy metals. Recent trends on trace metal speciation as well as on automatic "on line" monitoring devices are also evoked. PMID:24818124

  11. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    DOEpatents

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  12. Electrochemical Gold(III) Sensor with High Sensitivity and Tunable Dynamic Range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2016-02-16

    We report the design and fabrication of a sensitive, specific, and selective electrochemical ion (E-ION) sensor for detection of Au(III). The signaling mechanism is based on the interactions between Au(III) and adenine; formation of these complexes rigidifies the methylene blue (MB)-modified oligoadenine probes, resulting in a concentration-dependent reduction in the MB signal. The dynamic range of the sensor can be tuned by simply changing the length of the DNA probe (six (A6) or 12 (A12) adenines). Independent of the probe length, both sensors have demonstrated to be sensitive, with a limits of detection of 50 and 20 nM for the A6 and A12 sensors, respectively. With further optimization, this sensing strategy may offer a promising approach for analyzing Au(III).

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O.; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O.; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3− in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications. PMID:26197322

  14. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-07-21

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3- in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications.

  15. Electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Russell, James H.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret

    2002-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory funded a Natural Gas Infrastructure Reliability program directed at increasing and enhancing research and development activities in topics such as remote leak detection, pipe inspection, and repair technologies and materials. The Albany Research Center (ARC), U.S. Department of Energy was funded to study the use of electrochemical noise sensors for detection of localized and general corrosion of natural gas transmission pipelines. As part of this, ARC entered into a collaborative effort with the corrosion sensor industry to demonstrate the capabilities of commercially available remote corrosion sensors for use with the Nation's Gas Transmission Pipeline Infrastructure needs. The goal of the research was to develop an emerging corrosion sensor technology into a monitor for the type and degree of corrosion occurring at key locations in gas transmission pipelines.

  16. Electrochemical Impedance Sensors for Monitoring Trace Amounts of NO3 in Selected Growing Media.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Caron, William-O; Loubier, Mathilde; Normandeau, Charles-O; Viens, Jeff; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Gosselin, Benoit; Messaddeq, Younes

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the feeding of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, production optimization, and data storage. This paper describes a low-cost, compact, and scalable nitrate sensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring trace amounts of NO3- in selected growing media. The nitrate sensor can be integrated to conventional microelectronics to perform online nitrate sensing continuously over a wide concentration range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm, with a response time of about 1 min, and feed data into a database for storage and analysis. The paper describes the structural design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the field testing of the nitrate sensor performed within tree nursery settings under ISO/IEC 17025 certifications. PMID:26197322

  17. Electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanomaterials for acetaminophen detection: A review.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Andreea; Tertiş, Mihaela; Săndulescu, Robert; Bedioui, Fethi; Cristea, Alexandru; Cristea, Cecilia

    2015-07-30

    This study describes the advancements made over the last five years in the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors for acetaminophen detection. This study reviews the different configurations based on unmodified and chemically modified carbon nanotubes and graphene. The influence of various modifiers on the two types of materials is presented along with their role on the enhancement of the selectivity and sensitivity of (bio)sensors. The review is focused on a comparative description of the applications of carbon-based nanomaterials towards acetaminophen detection and presents the results in a critical manner.

  18. Nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for in vitro detection of small molecule metabolites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Lu; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule metabolites secreted by pathological processes can act as molecular biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. In vitro detection of the metabolites such as glucose and reactive oxygen species is of great significance for precise screening, monitoring and prognosis of metabolic disorders and relevant diseases such as cancer, and has been under intense research and development in clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize recent developments in nanomaterial based electrochemical (bio)sensors for in vitro detection of glucose and reactive oxygen species and the progress in utilizing lightweight and flexible electrodes and micro/nanoscale electrodes for flexible and miniaturized sensors.

  19. A Facile Electrochemical Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide@Polydopamine Composite: A Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Amperometric Detection of Chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ting; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel and sensitive amperometric sensor for chlorpromazine (CPZ) based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polydopamine (PDA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The RGO@PDA composite was prepared by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with PDA. The RGO@PDA composite modified electrode shows an excellent electro-oxidation behavior to CPZ when compared with other modified electrodes such as GO, RGO and GO@PDA. Amperometric i-t method was used for the determination of CPZ. Amperometry result shows that the RGO@PDA composite detects CPZ in a linear range from 0.03 to 967.6 μM. The sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.0018 μM with the analytical sensitivity of 3.63 ± 0.3 μAμM–1 cm–2. The RGO@PDA composite shows its high selectivity towards CPZ in the presence of potentially interfering drugs such as metronidazole, phenobarbital, chlorpheniramine maleate, pyridoxine and riboflavin. In addition, the fabricated RGO@PDA modified electrode showed an appropriate recovery towards CPZ in the pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:27650697

  20. A Facile Electrochemical Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide@Polydopamine Composite: A Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Amperometric Detection of Chlorpromazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ting; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan

    2016-09-01

    We report a novel and sensitive amperometric sensor for chlorpromazine (CPZ) based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polydopamine (PDA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The RGO@PDA composite was prepared by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with PDA. The RGO@PDA composite modified electrode shows an excellent electro-oxidation behavior to CPZ when compared with other modified electrodes such as GO, RGO and GO@PDA. Amperometric i-t method was used for the determination of CPZ. Amperometry result shows that the RGO@PDA composite detects CPZ in a linear range from 0.03 to 967.6 μM. The sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.0018 μM with the analytical sensitivity of 3.63 ± 0.3 μAμM–1 cm–2. The RGO@PDA composite shows its high selectivity towards CPZ in the presence of potentially interfering drugs such as metronidazole, phenobarbital, chlorpheniramine maleate, pyridoxine and riboflavin. In addition, the fabricated RGO@PDA modified electrode showed an appropriate recovery towards CPZ in the pharmaceutical tablets.

  1. A Facile Electrochemical Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide@Polydopamine Composite: A Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform for Amperometric Detection of Chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ting; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Ramaraj, Sayee Kannan

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel and sensitive amperometric sensor for chlorpromazine (CPZ) based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polydopamine (PDA) composite modified glassy carbon electrode. The RGO@PDA composite was prepared by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with PDA. The RGO@PDA composite modified electrode shows an excellent electro-oxidation behavior to CPZ when compared with other modified electrodes such as GO, RGO and GO@PDA. Amperometric i-t method was used for the determination of CPZ. Amperometry result shows that the RGO@PDA composite detects CPZ in a linear range from 0.03 to 967.6 μM. The sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.0018 μM with the analytical sensitivity of 3.63 ± 0.3 μAμM(-1 )cm(-2). The RGO@PDA composite shows its high selectivity towards CPZ in the presence of potentially interfering drugs such as metronidazole, phenobarbital, chlorpheniramine maleate, pyridoxine and riboflavin. In addition, the fabricated RGO@PDA modified electrode showed an appropriate recovery towards CPZ in the pharmaceutical tablets. PMID:27650697

  2. Copper-Based Electrochemical Sensor with Palladium Electrode for Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry of Manganese

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Voltammetry offers an attractive approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor uses palladium working and auxiliary electrodes and integrates them with a copper-based reference electrode for simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and printed circuit board processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Copper electrodes were prepared on glass substrate using a combination of microfabrication procedures followed by electrodeposition of palladium. The disposable sensor system was formed by bonding a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) well to the glass substrate. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese using our new disposable palladium-based sensors exhibited 334 nM (18.3 ppb) limit of detection in borate buffer. The sensor was used to demonstrate manganese determination in natural water samples from a pond in Burnet Woods, located in Cincinnati, OH, and the Ohio River. PMID:25476591

  3. Implantable electrochemical sensors for biomedical and clinical applications: progress, problems, and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang Ming; Dong, Hua; Cao, Xiaodong; Luong, John H T; Zhang, Xueji

    2007-01-01

    Biosensors are of great interest for their ability to monitor clinically important analytes such as blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. A classic example is to monitor the dynamics of blood-glucose levels for treating diabetes. However, the current practice, based on a three decade old technology, requires a drop of blood on a test strip, which is in dire need of replacement. The increasing demands and interests in developing implantable glucose sensors for treating diabetes has led to notable progress in this area, and various electrochemical sensors have been developed for intravascular and subcutaneous applications. However, implantations are plagued by biofouling, tissue destruction and infection around the implanted sensors and the response signals must be interpreted in terms of blood or plasma concentrations for clinical utility, rather than tissue fluid levels. This review focuses on the potentials and pitfalls of implantable electrochemical sensors and presents our opinions about future possibilities of such implantable devices with respect to biocompatibility issues, long-term calibration, and other aging effects on the sensors.

  4. Copper-based electrochemical sensor with palladium electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Bange, Adam; Haynes, Erin N; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-12-16

    In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Voltammetry offers an attractive approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor uses palladium working and auxiliary electrodes and integrates them with a copper-based reference electrode for simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and printed circuit board processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Copper electrodes were prepared on glass substrate using a combination of microfabrication procedures followed by electrodeposition of palladium. The disposable sensor system was formed by bonding a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) well to the glass substrate. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese using our new disposable palladium-based sensors exhibited 334 nM (18.3 ppb) limit of detection in borate buffer. The sensor was used to demonstrate manganese determination in natural water samples from a pond in Burnet Woods, located in Cincinnati, OH, and the Ohio River.

  5. Highly sensitive and doubly orientated selective molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for Cu(2.).

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Zhang, Lianming; Wei, Ge; Zhang, Yun; Zeng, Ying

    2015-07-15

    Studies on molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensors for metal ions determination have been widely reported. However, the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors needs to be improved urgently. In the current work, a novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was originally developed for selective determination of ultratrace Cu(2+) by combining the metal-ligand chelate orientated recognition with enzyme amplification effect. The detection relied on a competition reaction between Cu(2+)-glycine (Cu-Gly) and horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled Cu-Gly on the imprinted polymer membrane modified electrode. The sensitivity of this sensor was promoted by enzyme amplification. Selectivity was improved by the double-specificity derived from ligand-to-metal ion and metal-ligand chelate orientated recognition of 3D imprinted cavities. This technique was quantitatively sensitive to Cu(2+) concentrations ranging from 0.5nmol/L to 30nmol/L, with a detection limit of 42.4pmol/L. which was lower than those in most of the reported methods. The allowable amounts of interference ions were higher when it compared to other common molecularly imprinted sensors. Moreover, the results of assaying several real samples have proven its feasibility for practical applications. PMID:25771304

  6. Carbon nanotube/polymer composite electrodes for flexible, attachable electrochemical DNA sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Lee, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-15

    All-solution-processed, easily-made, flexible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based electrodes were fabricated and used for electrochemical DNA sensors. These electrodes could serve as a recognition layer for DNA, without any surface modification, through π-π interactions between the MWCNTs and DNA, greatly simplifying the fabrication process for DNA sensors. The electrodes were directly connected to an electrochemical analyzer in the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements, where methylene blue was used as a redox indicator. Since neither functional groups nor probe DNA were immobilized on the surfaces of the electrodes, the sensor can be easily regenerated by washing these electrodes with water. The limit of detection was found to be 1.3 × 10(2)pM (S/N=3), with good DNA sequence differentiation ability. Fast fabrication of a DNA sensor was also achieved by cutting and attaching the MWCNT-PDMS composite electrodes at an analyte solution-containable region. Our results pave the way for developing user-fabricated easily attached DNA sensors at low costs.

  7. Copper-based electrochemical sensor with palladium electrode for cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Bange, Adam; Haynes, Erin N; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2014-12-16

    In this work, we report on the development of a palladium-based, microfabricated point-of-care electrochemical sensor for the determination of manganese using square wave cathodic stripping voltammetry. Heavy metals require careful monitoring, yet current methods are too complex for a point-of-care system. Voltammetry offers an attractive approach to metal detection on the microscale, but traditional carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes are difficult or expensive to microfabricate, preventing widespread use. Our sensor uses palladium working and auxiliary electrodes and integrates them with a copper-based reference electrode for simple fabrication and compatibility with microfabrication and printed circuit board processing, while maintaining competitive performance in electrochemical detection. Copper electrodes were prepared on glass substrate using a combination of microfabrication procedures followed by electrodeposition of palladium. The disposable sensor system was formed by bonding a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) well to the glass substrate. Cathodic stripping voltammetry of manganese using our new disposable palladium-based sensors exhibited 334 nM (18.3 ppb) limit of detection in borate buffer. The sensor was used to demonstrate manganese determination in natural water samples from a pond in Burnet Woods, located in Cincinnati, OH, and the Ohio River. PMID:25476591

  8. Polyaniline-graphene oxide nanocomposite sensor for quantification of calcium channel blocker levamlodipine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Sinha, Ankita; Khan, Ab Lateef

    2016-08-01

    A novel polyaniline-graphene oxide nanocomposite (PANI/GO/GCE) sensor has been fabricated for quantification of a calcium channel blocker drug levamlodipine (LAMP). Fabricated sensor has been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, square wave and cyclic voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The developed PANI/GO/GCE sensor has excellent analytical performance towards electrocatalytic oxidation as compared to PANI/GCE, GO/GCE and bare GCE. Under optimized experimental conditions, the fabricated sensor exhibits a linear response for LAMP for its oxidation over a concentration range from 1.25μgmL(-1) to 13.25μgmL(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9950 (r(2)), detection limit of 1.07ngmL(-1) and quantification limit of 3.57ngmL(-1). The sensor shows an excellent performance for detecting LAMP with reproducibility of 2.78% relative standard deviation (RSD). The proposed method has been successfully applied for LAMP determination in pharmaceutical formulation with a recovery from 99.88% to 101.75%.

  9. Electrochemical Surface Plasmon Resonance Fiber-Optic Sensor: In Situ Detection of Electroactive Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Guo, Tuan; Qiu, Xuhui; Tang, Jiahuan; Huang, Yunyun; Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui; Li, Zhaohui; Guan, Bai-Ou; Zhang, Xuming; Albert, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Spectroelectrochemistry has been found to be an efficient technique for revealing extracellular electron transfer (EET) mechanism of electroactive biofilms (EABs). Herein, we propose a novel electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) optical fiber sensor for monitoring EABs in situ. The sensor uses a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) imprinted in a commercial single-mode fiber and coated with nanoscale gold film for high-efficiency SPR excitation. The wavelength shift of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) over the fiber surface clearly identifies the electrochemical activity of the surface localized (adjacent to the electrode interface) bacterial cells in EABs, which differs from the "bulk" detections of the conventional electrochemical measurements. A close relationship between the variations of redox state of the EABs and the changes of the SPR under potentiostatic conditions has been achieved, pointing to a new way to study the EET mechanism of the EABs. Benefiting from its compact size, high sensitivity, and ease of use, together with remote operation ability, the proposed sensor opens up a multitude of opportunities for monitoring EABs in various hard-to-reach environments. PMID:27214753

  10. Fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensors on gold-modified recessed platinum nanoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Salamifar, S Ehsan; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2014-03-18

    We report the use of gold-modified recessed platinum (Pt) nanoelectrodes in the fabrication of linear and stem-loop probe-based electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensors. Pt nanoelectrodes with a radius less than 10 nm were reproducibly fabricated using an optimized laser pulling technique. Prior to sensor fabrication, the nanoelectrode was electrochemically etched to create a recessed nanopore, followed by electrodeposition of gold into the nanopore using either cyclic voltammetry or constant potential amperometry. Both techniques enabled controlled deposition of gold into the nanopores, resulting in a nanostructured gold electrode with a well-defined surface area. In addition, we systematically determined the optimal experimental condition for DNA probe immobilization and target interrogation. The electron transfer rate constants of methylene blue, as determined using alternating current voltammetry, were found to be much higher than those obtained from E-DNA sensors fabricated on conventional macroscale electrodes. While this unique phenomenon requires further investigation, our results clearly show that these gold-modified nanoelectrodes can be used as substrates for this class of electrochemical biosensors.

  11. Electrochemical Sensor for Organophosphate Pesticides and Nerve Agents Using Zirconia Nanoparticles as Selective Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    Electrochemical sensor for detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents using zirconia (ZrO₂) nanoparticles as selective sorbents is presented. Zirconia nanoparticles were electrodynamically deposited onto the polycrystalline gold electrode by cyclic voltammetry. Because of a strong affinity of zirconia to the phosphoric group, nitroaromatic OPs strongly bind to the ZrO₂ nanoparticle surface. The electrochemical characterization and anodic stripping voltammetric performance of bound OPs were evaluated using cyclic voltammetric and square-wave voltammetric (SWV) analysis. SWV was used to monitor the amount of bound OPs and provide simple, fast, and facile quantitative methods for nitroaromatic OP compounds. The sensor surface can be regenerated by successively running SWV scanning. Operational parameters, including the amount of nanoparticles, adsorption time, and the pH of the reaction medium have been optimized. The stripping voltammetric response is highly linear over the 5–200 ng/mL (ppb) methyl parathion range examined (2-min adsorption), with a detection limit of 1 ng/mL (10 min accumulation), and good precision (RSD=5.3 %, n = 10). The promising stripping voltammetric performances open new opportunities for fast, simple, and sensitive analyzing of OPs in environmental and biological samples. These findings can lead to a widespread use of electrochemical sensors to detect OP contaminates.

  12. Development of electrochemical folic acid sensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2015-02-01

    We report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application as sensing element for the precise determination of folic acid (FA) by electrochemical method. The structure and composition of the HA NPs characterized using XRD, FTIR, Raman and XPS. SEM and EDX studies confirmed the formation of elongated spherical shaped HA NPs with an average particle size of about 34 nm. The HA NPs thin film on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were deposited by drop casting method. Electrocatalytic behavior of FA in the physiological pH 7.0 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. The fabricated HA/GCE exhibited a linear calibration plot over a wide FA concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 3.5 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 75 nM. In addition, the HA NPs modified GCE showed good selectivity toward the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100-fold excess of ascorbic acid (AA) and 1000-fold excess of other common interferents. The fabricated biosensor exhibits good sensitivity and stability, and was successfully applied for the determination of FA in pharmaceutical samples.

  13. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    PubMed

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication.

  14. Bismuth nanoparticles integration into heavy metal electrochemical stripping sensor.

    PubMed

    Cadevall, Miquel; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2015-08-01

    Between their many applications bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) are showing interest as pre-concentrators in heavy metals detection while being applied as working electrode modifiers used in electrochemical stripping analysis. From the different reported methods to synthesize BiNPs we are focused on the typical polyol method, largely used in these types of metallic and semi-metallic nanoparticles. This study presents the strategy for an easy control of the shape and size of BiNPs including nanocubes, nanosferes and triangular nanostructures. To improve the BiNP size and shape, different reducing agents (ethylene glycol or sodium hypophosphite) and stabilizers (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, in different amounts) have been studied. The efficiency of BiNPs for heavy metals analysis in terms of detection sensitivity while being used as modifiers of screen-printed carbon electrodes including the applicability of the developed device in real sea water samples is shown. A parallel study between the obtained nanoparticles and their performance in heavy metal sensing has been described in this communication. PMID:25994368

  15. Highly sensitive Fe₃O₄ nanobeads/graphene-based molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for 17β-estradiol in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Xueru; Li, Ping; Huang, Yanfeng; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Jimei

    2015-07-16

    A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on Fe3O4 nanobeads immobilized on graphene (Fe3O4-MIP@RGO) has been developed for detecting 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) in water using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization technique. 17β-E2 can be detected by this electrochemical sensor through the response current change before and after binding 17β-E2. The Fe3O4-MIP@RGO-based sensor amplifies the response current in differential pulse voltammetry measurement, allowing the detection limit reaching 0.819 nM in a wide linear range from 0.05 to 10 μM. Moreover, Fe3O4-MIP@RGO-based sensor exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity towards 17β-E2. This MIP electrochemical sensor has a promising potential in the detection of 17β-E2 in water.

  16. Diagnosis of Intoxication by the Organophosphate VX: Comparison Between an Electrochemical Sensor and Ellman´s Photometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Hrabinova, Martina; Kuca, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor is introduced as a tool applicable for diagnosis of intoxication by cholinesterase inhibitors caused by the well-known nerve agent VX. The traditional Ellman method was chosen for comparison with the sensor's analytical parameters. Both methods are based on estimation of blood cholinesterase inhibition as a marker of intoxication. While Ellman's method provided a limit of detection of 5.2×10-7 M for blood containing VX, the electrochemical sensor was able to detect 4.0×10-7 M. Good correlation between both methods was observed (R = 0.92). The electrochemical sensor could be considered a convenient tool for a fast yet accurate method, easily available for field as well as laboratory use. Time and cost savings are key features of the sensor-based assay.

  17. Optimization of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors via optimization of probe packing density and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    White, Ryan J; Phares, Noelle; Lubin, Arica A; Xiao, Yi; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2008-09-16

    Electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors, which are comprised of an electrode modified with surface immobilized, redox-tagged DNA aptamers, have emerged as a promising new biosensor platform. In order to further improve this technology we have systematically studied the effects of probe (aptamer) packing density, the AC frequency used to interrogate the sensor, and the nature of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) used to passivate the electrode on the performance of representative E-AB sensors directed against the small molecule cocaine and the protein thrombin. We find that, by controlling the concentration of aptamer employed during sensor fabrication, we can control the density of probe DNA molecules on the electrode surface over an order of magnitude range. Over this range, the gain of the cocaine sensor varies from 60% to 200%, with maximum gain observed near the lowest probe densities. In contrast, over a similar range, the signal change of the thrombin sensor varies from 16% to 42% and optimal signaling is observed at intermediate densities. Above cut-offs at low hertz frequencies, neither sensor displays any significant dependence on the frequency of the alternating potential employed in their interrogation. Finally, we find that E-AB signal gain is sensitive to the nature of the alkanethiol SAM employed to passivate the interrogating electrode; while thinner SAMs lead to higher absolute sensor currents, reducing the length of the SAM from 6-carbons to 2-carbons reduces the observed signal gain of our cocaine sensor 10-fold. We demonstrate that fabrication and operational parameters can be varied to achieve optimal sensor performance and that these can serve as a basic outline for future sensor fabrication.

  18. Electrochemical chlorine evolution at rutile oxide (110) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Heine A; Man, Isabela C; Studt, Felix; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations we study the electrochemical chlorine evolution reaction on rutile (110) oxide surfaces. First we construct the Pourbaix surface diagram for IrO(2) and RuO(2), and from this we find the chlorine evolution reaction intermediates and identify the lowest overpotential at which all elementary reaction steps in the chlorine evolution reaction are downhill in free energy. This condition is then used as a measure for catalytic activity. Linear scaling relations between the binding energies of the intermediates and the oxygen binding energies at cus-sites are established for MO(2) (M being Ir, Ru, Pt, Ti). The linear relations form the basis for constructing a generalized surface phase diagram where two parameters, the potential and the binding energy of oxygen, are needed to determine the surface composition. We calculate the catalytic activity as function of the oxygen binding energy, giving rise to a Sabatier volcano. By combining the surface phase diagram and the volcano describing the catalytic activity, we find that the reaction mechanism differs depending on catalyst material. The flexibility in reaction path means that the chlorine evolution activity is high for a wide range of oxygen binding energies. We find that the required overpotential for chlorine evolution is lower than the overpotential necessary for oxygen evolution. PMID:20024470

  19. Eliminating degradation in solid oxide electrochemical cells by reversible operation.

    PubMed

    Graves, Christopher; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-02-01

    One promising energy storage technology is the solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), which can both store electricity as chemical fuels (electrolysis mode) and convert fuels to electricity (fuel-cell mode). The widespread use of SOCs has been hindered by insufficient long-term stability, in particular at high current densities. Here we demonstrate that severe electrolysis-induced degradation, which was previously believed to be irreversible, can be completely eliminated by reversibly cycling between electrolysis and fuel-cell modes, similar to a rechargeable battery. Performing steam electrolysis continuously at high current density (1 A cm(-2)), initially at 1.33 V (97% energy efficiency), led to severe microstructure deterioration near the oxygen-electrode/electrolyte interface and a corresponding large increase in ohmic resistance. After 4,000 h of reversible cycling, however, no microstructural damage was observed and the ohmic resistance even slightly improved. The results demonstrate the viability of applying SOCs for renewable electricity storage at previously unattainable reaction rates, and have implications for our fundamental understanding of degradation mechanisms that are usually assumed to be irreversible.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators.

  1. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-01-01

    Graphene oxide is electrochemically reduced which is called electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-G). ER-G is characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The oxygen content is significantly decreased and the sp 2 carbon is restored after electrochemical reduction. ER-G exhibits much higher electrochemical capacitance and cycling durability than carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and chemically reduced graphene; the specific capacitance measured with cyclic voltammetry (20 mV/s) is ~165 F/g, ~86 F/g, and ~100 F/g for ER-G, CNTs, and chemically reduced graphene,1 respectively. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced on ER-G electrodes as compared with CNTs. ER-G has shown a good potential for applications in energy storage, biosensors, and electrocatalysis.

  2. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Pu, Zhihua; Zou, Chongwei; Wang, Ridong; Lai, Xiaochen; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity. PMID:26958097

  3. A continuous glucose monitoring device by graphene modified electrochemical sensor in microfluidic system.

    PubMed

    Pu, Zhihua; Zou, Chongwei; Wang, Ridong; Lai, Xiaochen; Yu, Haixia; Xu, Kexin; Li, Dachao

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous glucose monitoring microsystem consisting of a three-electrode electrochemical sensor integrated into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip, which was used to transdermally extract and collect subcutaneous interstitial fluid, was fabricated from five polydimethylsiloxane layers using micromolding techniques. The electrochemical sensor was integrated into the chip for continuous detection of glucose. Specifically, a single-layer graphene and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were decorated onto the working electrode (WE) of the sensor to construct a composite nanostructured surface and improve the resolution of the glucose measurements. Graphene was transferred onto the WE surface to improve the electroactive nature of the electrode to enable measurements of low levels of glucose. The AuNPs were directly electrodeposited onto the graphene layer to improve the electron transfer rate from the activity center of the enzyme to the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the composite nanostructured surface to specifically detect glucose. The factors required for AuNPs deposition and GOx immobilization were also investigated, and the optimized parameters were obtained. The experimental results displayed that the proposed sensor could precisely measure glucose in the linear range from 0 to 162 mg/dl with a detection limit of 1.44 mg/dl (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor exhibited the potential to detect hypoglycemia which is still a major challenge for continuous glucose monitoring in clinics. Unlike implantable glucose sensors, the wearable device enabled external continuous monitoring of glucose without interference from foreign body reaction and bioelectricity.

  4. Solid-phase electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide films in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) film was evaporated onto graphite and used as an electrode to produce electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) films by electrochemical reduction in 6 M KOH solution through voltammetric cycling. Fourier transformed infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ERGO. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of ERGO and GO films in ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple with 0.1 M KCl supporting electrolyte gave results that are in accordance with previous reports. Based on the EIS results, ERGO shows higher capacitance and lower charge transfer resistance compared to GO. PMID:24059434

  5. Recent progress in electrochemical oxidation of saccharides at gold and copper electrodes in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Torto, Nelson

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the progress made in the past 10 years, on electrochemical oxidation of saccharides in alkaline media for gold and copper electrodes. The mechanism and processes associated with the electrochemical oxidation of saccharides at native and surface coated electrodes continues to be of great interest. Despite the effort and various mechanisms proposed, still the need for an electrochemically active material that understands the complexity associated with saccharides continues to increase as their detection poses a challenge for bioanalytical chemistry and liquid chromatography.

  6. Response of electrochemical oxygen sensors to inert gas-air and carbon dioxide-air mixtures: measurements and mathematical modelling.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P T; Gant, S E; Dowker, K P; Batt, R

    2011-02-15

    Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium. The measurements indicate that both types of sensors over-read the oxygen concentrations when atmospheres contain high levels of helium. Sensors with alkaline electrolytes are also shown to underestimate the severity of the hazard in atmospheres containing high levels of carbon dioxide. This deviation is greater for alkaline electrolyte sensors compared to acid electrolyte sensors. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict the response of an alkaline electrolyte, electrochemical gas sensor. Differences between predicted and measured sensor responses are less than 10% in relative terms for nearly all of the gas mixtures tested, and in many cases less than 5%. Extending the model to simulate responses of sensors with acid electrolytes would be straightforward.

  7. Multiparametric optimization of a new high-sensitive and disposable mercury (II) electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Armas, M A; María-Hormigos, R; Cantalapiedra, A; Gismera, M J; Sevilla, M T; Procopio, J R

    2016-01-21

    An electrochemical sensor for mercury (II) determination was developed by modifying the surface of a commercial screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with a polystyrene sulfonate-NiO-carbon nanopowder composite material. Mercury measurements were performed by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Sensor composition and measurement conditions were optimized using a multivariate experiment design. A screening experiment by using a Plackett-Burman design was first performed in order to determine the main contributing factors to the electrochemical response. The most important factors were employed to establish the interactions between different experimental variables and get the best conditions for mercury determination. For this purpose, a five level central composite design and a response surface methodology were used. The optimized method using the developed NiO-PSS-SPCE sensor presents a very low limit of detection of 0.021 μg L(-1) and a linear response over two concentration ranges with two different slopes, from 0.05 to 2.0 μg L(-1) and between 2.0 and 75 μg L(-1). The sensor was successfully applied to mercury determination in water samples. PMID:26724765

  8. Multiparametric optimization of a new high-sensitive and disposable mercury (II) electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Armas, M A; María-Hormigos, R; Cantalapiedra, A; Gismera, M J; Sevilla, M T; Procopio, J R

    2016-01-21

    An electrochemical sensor for mercury (II) determination was developed by modifying the surface of a commercial screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with a polystyrene sulfonate-NiO-carbon nanopowder composite material. Mercury measurements were performed by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Sensor composition and measurement conditions were optimized using a multivariate experiment design. A screening experiment by using a Plackett-Burman design was first performed in order to determine the main contributing factors to the electrochemical response. The most important factors were employed to establish the interactions between different experimental variables and get the best conditions for mercury determination. For this purpose, a five level central composite design and a response surface methodology were used. The optimized method using the developed NiO-PSS-SPCE sensor presents a very low limit of detection of 0.021 μg L(-1) and a linear response over two concentration ranges with two different slopes, from 0.05 to 2.0 μg L(-1) and between 2.0 and 75 μg L(-1). The sensor was successfully applied to mercury determination in water samples.

  9. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions.

    PubMed

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R² = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  10. Practical Application of Electrochemical Nitrate Sensor under Laboratory and Forest Nursery Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Caron, William-Olivier; Lamhamedi, Mohammed S.; Viens, Jeff; Messaddeq, Younès

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate leaching to ensure greater protection of groundwater quality has become a global issue. The development of new technologies for more accurate dosing of nitrates helps optimize fertilization programs. This paper presents the practical application of a newly developed electrochemical sensor designed for in situ quantification of nitrate. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the use of electrochemical impedance to determine nitrate concentrations in growing media under forest nursery conditions. Using impedance measurements, the sensor has been tested in laboratory and compared to colorimetric measurements of the nitrate. The developed sensor has been used in water-saturated growing medium and showed good correlation to certified methods, even in samples obtained over a multi-ion fertilisation season. A linear and significant relationship was observed between the resistance and the concentration of nitrates (R2 = 0.972), for a range of concentrations of nitrates. We also observed stability of the sensor after exposure of one month to the real environmental conditions of the forest nursery. PMID:27483266

  11. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V.

    2015-04-30

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  12. Metal Oxide Gas Sensors: Sensitivity and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengxiang; Yin, Longwei; Zhang, Luyuan; Xiang, Dong; Gao, Rui

    2010-01-01

    Conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors have been widely used and investigated in the detection of gases. Investigations have indicated that the gas sensing process is strongly related to surface reactions, so one of the important parameters of gas sensors, the sensitivity of the metal oxide based materials, will change with the factors influencing the surface reactions, such as chemical components, surface-modification and microstructures of sensing layers, temperature and humidity. In this brief review, attention will be focused on changes of sensitivity of conductometric semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors due to the five factors mentioned above. PMID:22294916

  13. Electrochemically-Controlled Compositional Oscillations of Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoro, Eva; Crumlin, Ethan; Pöpke, Hendrik; Luerssen, Bjoern; Amati, Matteo; Abyaneh, Majid; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Gregoratti, Luca; Janek, Jürgen; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides can exhibit a wide range of interesting characteristics such as being catalytically active and electronically and/or ionically conducting, and thus they have been used in a number of solid-state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and sensors. As the surface compositions of perovskites can greatly influence the catalytic properties, knowing and controlling their surface chemistries is crucial to enhance device performance. In this study, we demonstrate that the surface strontium (Sr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations of perovskite-based thin films can be controlled reversibly at elevated temperatures by applying small electrical potential biases. The surface chemistry changes of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 (LSC113), LaSrCoO4 (LSC214), and LSC214-decorated LSC113 films (LSC113/214) were investigated in situ by utilizing synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), where the largest changes of surface Sr was found for the LSC113/214 surface. These findings offer the potential of reversibly controlling the surface functionality of perovskites.

  14. Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidics/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Portable Analyzer Based on Microfluidic/Nanoengineered Electrochemical Sensors for in Situ Characterization of Mixed Wastes PI: Dr. Joseph Wang (In Collaboration with the PNNL PI Dr. Y. Lin). Objective of Research: This research effort aims at developing a portable analytical system for fast, sensitive, and inexpensive, on-site monitoring of toxic transition metals and radionuclides in contaminated DOE Sites. The portable devices will be based on Microscale Total Analytical systems ( -TAS) or 'Lab-on-a-chip' in combination with electrochemical (stripping-voltammetric) sensors. The resulting microfluidics/electrochemical sensor system would allow testing for toxic metals to be performed more rapidly, inexpensively, and reliably in a field setting. Progress Summary/Accomplishments: This report summarizes the ASU activity over the second year of the project. In accordance to our original objectives our studies have focused on various fundamental and practical aspects of sensing and microchip devices for monitoring metal contaminants. As described in this section, we have made a substantial progress, and introduced effective routes for improving the on-site detection of toxic metals and for interfacing microchips with the real world. This activity has already resulted in 7 research papers (published or in press in major international journals). The electrochemical sensors being developed rely on the highly sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) technique to detect metal ions of interest to the DOE, particularly uranium and chromium. Traditionally, AdSV measurements of U and Cr require the use of mercury electrodes which are not suitable attractive for field deployment. Our initial goal was thus to replace these toxic mercury electrodes with 'environmentally-friendly' sensor materials. In particular, we demonstrated recently that bismuth-film electrodes offer high-quality measurements of heavy metals that compare favorably with that of mercury electrodes

  15. A bioactive polymer grafted on titanium oxide layer obtained by electrochemical oxidation. Improvement of cell response.

    PubMed

    Hélary, Gérard; Noirclère, Flavie; Mayingi, Josselin; Bacroix, Brigitte; Migonney, Véronique

    2010-02-01

    The anchorage failure of titanium implants in human body is mainly due to biointegration problem. The proposed solution is to graft a bioactive polymer at the surface of the implant in order to improve and control the interactions with the living system. In this paper, we describe the grafting of poly sodium styrene sulfonate on titanium surface by using a silanization reaction. The key point is to increase the TiOH content at the surface of the implant which can react with methoxy silane groups of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). Two procedures were used: chemical oxidation and electrochemical oxidation. The last oxidation procedure was carried out in two different electrolytes: oxalic acid and methanol. These different oxidation methods allow controlling the roughness and the depth of the oxide layer. The methacryloyl group of MPS grafted at the titanium surface by silanization reaction is copolymerized with sodium styrene sulfonate using a thermal initiator able to produce radicals by heating. Colorimetric method, ATR-FTIR, XPS techniques and contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the surfaces. MG63 osteoblastic cell response was studied on polished, oxidized and grafted titanium samples. Cell adhesion, Alkaline Phosphatase activity and calcium nodules formation were significantly enhanced on grafted titanium surfaces compared to un-modified surfaces.

  16. Wireless programmable electrochemical drug delivery micropump with fully integrated electrochemical dosing sensors.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Roya; Cobo, Angelica; Meng, Ellis

    2015-08-01

    We present a fully integrated implantable electrolysis-based micropump with incorporated EI dosing sensors. Wireless powering and data telemetry (through amplitude and frequency modulation) were utilized to achieve variable flow control and a bi-directional data link with the sensors. Wireless infusion rate control (0.14-1.04 μL/min) and dose sensing (bolus resolution of 0.55-2 μL) were each calibrated separately with the final circuit architecture and then simultaneous wireless flow control and dose sensing were demonstrated. Recombination detection using the dosing system, as well as, effects of coil separation distance and misalignment in wireless power and data transfer were studied. A custom-made normally closed spring-loaded ball check valve was designed and incorporated at the reservoir outlet to prevent backflow of fluids as a result of the reverse pressure gradient caused by recombination of electrolysis gases. Successful delivery, infusion rate control, and dose sensing were achieved in simulated brain tissue. PMID:26149696

  17. Wireless programmable electrochemical drug delivery micropump with fully integrated electrochemical dosing sensors.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Roya; Cobo, Angelica; Meng, Ellis

    2015-08-01

    We present a fully integrated implantable electrolysis-based micropump with incorporated EI dosing sensors. Wireless powering and data telemetry (through amplitude and frequency modulation) were utilized to achieve variable flow control and a bi-directional data link with the sensors. Wireless infusion rate control (0.14-1.04 μL/min) and dose sensing (bolus resolution of 0.55-2 μL) were each calibrated separately with the final circuit architecture and then simultaneous wireless flow control and dose sensing were demonstrated. Recombination detection using the dosing system, as well as, effects of coil separation distance and misalignment in wireless power and data transfer were studied. A custom-made normally closed spring-loaded ball check valve was designed and incorporated at the reservoir outlet to prevent backflow of fluids as a result of the reverse pressure gradient caused by recombination of electrolysis gases. Successful delivery, infusion rate control, and dose sensing were achieved in simulated brain tissue.

  18. Optimal Sensor Selection for Classifying a Set of Ginsengs Using Metal-Oxide Sensors.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jiacheng; Zhang, Tinglin; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2015-07-03

    The sensor selection problem was investigated for the application of classification of a set of ginsengs using a metal-oxide sensor-based homemade electronic nose with linear discriminant analysis. Samples (315) were measured for nine kinds of ginsengs using 12 sensors. We investigated the classification performances of combinations of 12 sensors for the overall discrimination of combinations of nine ginsengs. The minimum numbers of sensors for discriminating each sample set to obtain an optimal classification performance were defined. The relation of the minimum numbers of sensors with number of samples in the sample set was revealed. The results showed that as the number of samples increased, the average minimum number of sensors increased, while the increment decreased gradually and the average optimal classification rate decreased gradually. Moreover, a new approach of sensor selection was proposed to estimate and compare the effective information capacity of each sensor.

  19. Characterization of the electrochemical behavior of gastrointestinal fluids using a multielectrode sensor probe.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Karen; Alvarez de Eulate, Eva; Marchesi, Julian R; Kolida, Sofia; Gibson, Glenn; Arrigan, Damien W M; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I

    2011-09-01

    A characterization of gastrointestinal fluids has been performed by means of an electrochemical sensor that has potential for clinical in vivo and in vitro monitoring applications. The sensor comprised a three-electrode cell with a counter, reference, and four working electrodes, Au, Pt, Ir, and Rh. Cyclic voltammetry was used to obtain chemical information from faecal water (in vitro) and gut model (in vivo) fluids. Stable voltammetric responses were obtained for both fluids at these noble metal working electrodes. The responses differed in shape that demonstrated the discrimination capability and the potential for practical use as a tool for gastrointestinal fluid investigation. The analysis of the stability profiles in faecal water over a 14-h duration has indicated a possible adsorption mechanism with the formation of a biolayer on the sensor surface. The stability in gut model fluids over a 42-h duration has demonstrated a more stable profile, but the mechanisms involved are more complicated to determine.

  20. Electrochemical components employing polysiloxane-derived binders

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2013-06-11

    A processed polysiloxane resin binder for use in electrochemical components and the method for fabricating components with the binder. The binder comprises processed polysiloxane resin that is partially oxidized and retains some of its methyl groups following partial oxidation. The binder is suitable for use in electrodes of various types, separators in electrochemical devices, primary lithium batteries, electrolytic capacitors, electrochemical capacitors, fuel cells and sensors.

  1. An electrochemical sensor for nitrobenzene using π-conjugated polymer-embedded nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Victor M; Fasih-Ahmad, Sohaib A; Osonga, Francis J; Sadik, Omowunmi A

    2016-04-01

    A novel electrochemical sensing platform for nitrobenzene has been developed using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded in the poly(amic) acid (PAA) polymer matrix (PAA-AgNPs). PAA was synthesized via the polycondensation reaction of para-phenylenediamine and benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic dianhydride. PAA-AgNP nanocomposites were synthesized by the in situ reduction of a silver precursor by the polymer at room temperature in a one-step approach without using an extraneous reducing or capping agent. The composite was subsequently characterized in solution and as a thin film. The X-ray diffraction technique revealed the crystalline nature of the PAA films with the embedded AgNPs. Unlike conventional polymers, the synthesized PAA membrane exhibits significant UV/Vis spectroscopic response. The sequestered nanoparticles also show the characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks confirming the presence of AgNPs. Integrated charge areas were 4.826 mC and 2.176 C for PAA/GC and PAA-AgNPs/GC respectively. The charge at the PAA-AgNP/GC electrode is 451 times greater than that at the PAA/GC electrode suggesting that the AgNP composite exhibits higher electroactivity. When tested as a sensor for nitrobenzene, the PAA-AgNP modified GC electrode showed promising potential as an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensors exhibit a wide linear dynamic range (10-600 μM) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9735, a detection limit of 1.68 μM and a sensitivity of 7.88 μA μM(-1). The sensor also exhibited minimal interference effects on structurally-similar nitroaromatic compounds and metal species such as 4-nitroaniline (4-NA), 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), dinitrobenzene (DNB), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+). PMID:26936406

  2. Continuous monitoring of Naproxen by a cytochrome P450-based electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Baj-Rossi, C; Rezzonico Jost, T; Cavallini, A; Grassi, F; De Micheli, G; Carrara, S

    2014-03-15

    This paper reports the characterization of an electrochemical biosensor for the continuous monitoring of Naproxen based on cytochrome P450. The electrochemical biosensor is based on the drop-casting of multi-walled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNTs) and microsomal cytochrome P4501A2 (msCYP1A2) on a graphite screen-printed electrode (SPE). The proposed biosensor was employed to monitor Naproxen (NAP), a well-known anti-inflammatory compound, through cyclic voltammetry. The dynamic linear range for the amperometric detection of NAP had an upper limit of 300 µM with a corresponding limit of detection (LOD) of 16 ± 1 µM (S/N=3), which is included in NAP physiological range (9-300 µM). The MWCNT/msCYP1A2-SPE sensor was also calibrated for NAP detection in mouse serum that was previously extracted from mice, showing a slightly higher LOD (33 ± 18 µM). The stability of the msCYP1A2-based biosensor was assessed by longtime continuous cyclic voltammetric measurements. The ability of the sensor to monitor drug delivery was investigated by using a commercial micro-osmotic pump. Results show that the MWCNT/msCYP1A2-SPE sensor is capable of precisely monitoring the real-time delivery of NAP for 16 h. This work proves that the proposed electrochemical sensor might represent an innovative point-of-care solution for the personalization of drug therapies, as well as for pharmacokinetic studies in both animals and humans.

  3. A new electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and codeine based on porous silicon/palladium nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ahmadi, Najmeh; Rezaei, Behzad; Abarghoui, Mehdi Mokhtari

    2015-03-01

    A porous silicon/palladium nanostructure was prepared and used as a new electrode material for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and codeine (COD). Palladium nanoparticles were assembled on porous silicon (PSi) microparticles by a simple redox reaction between the Pd precursor and PSi in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. This novel nanostructure was characterized by different spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The high electrochemical activity, fast electron transfer rate, high surface area and good antifouling properties of this nanostructure enhanced the oxidation peak currents and reduced the peak potentials of ACT and COD at the surface of the proposed sensor. Simultaneous determination of ACT and COD was explored using differential pulse voltammetry. A linear range of 1.0-700.0 µmol L(-1) was achieved for ACT and COD with detection limits of 0.4 and 0.3 µmol L(-1), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was used for the determination of ACT and COD in blood serum, urine and pharmaceutical compounds.

  4. Pt/graphene-CNTs nanocomposite based electrochemical sensors for the determination of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in thermal printing papers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhixiang; Du, Yongling; Wang, Zaihua; Feng, Qingliang; Wang, Chunming

    2013-01-21

    A facile and green method was developed to synthesize the graphene-carbon nanotubes (Gr-CNTs) nanocomposite with a sandwich lamination structure. Pt nanoparticles were loaded on the as-synthesized Gr-CNTs nanocomposite to prepare an electrochemical sensor for determining bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal printing paper. The electrochemical behavior of BPA on the Pt/Gr-CNTs nanocomposite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronocoulometry (CC). The direct determination of BPA was accomplished by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) under optimized conditions. The oxidation peak current was proportional to the BPA concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-5) M and 1.0 × 10(-5) to 8.0 × 10(-5) M with a correlation coefficient of 0.987 and 0.998, respectively. The detection limit was 4.2 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). The fabricated electrode showed good reproducibility, stability and selectivity. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine BPA in thermal printing papers samples and the results were satisfactory.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of a Novel Nanodendrite-based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Disease Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Timothy; Archibald, Michelle M.; Nesbitt, Nathan T.; Rossi, Matthew; Glover, Jennifer A.; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    Technologies to detect early stage cancer would provide significant benefit to cancer disease patients. Clinical measurement of biomarkers offers the promise of a noninvasive and cost effective screening for early stage detection. We are currently developing a novel 3-dimensional nanopillar dendrite biosensor array for the detection of human cancer biomarkers (e . g . CA-125 for early-stage ovarian cancer) in serum and other fluids. Here, we describe a nanoscale 3D architecture that can afford molecular detection at room temperature. We report our efforts on the development of an all-electronic, ambient temperature, rapid-response dendritic biosensor fabricated by directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) that achieves molecular-scale sensitivity for protein biomarker based detection. Each sensor is a vertically-oriented nanodendritic array where an electrochemical signal is detected from the oxidation of the redox end-product of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using the present nanodendritic array structure as a sensitive device to detect a range of proteins of interest, including disease biomarkers. Supported by NIH (National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases).

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymer decorated nanoporous gold for highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchun; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jiang; Tang, Hui; Cao, Cong; Zhao, Dongsheng; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical nanosensors based on nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) are developed for pharmaceutical analysis by using metronidazole (MNZ) as a model analyte. NPGL, serving as the loading platform for MIP immobilization, possesses large accessible surface area with superb electric conductivity, while electrochemically synthesized MIP thin layer affords selectivity for specific recognition of MNZ molecules. For MNZ determination, the hybrid electrode shows two dynamic linear range of 5 × 10−11 to 1 × 10−9 mol L−1 and 1 × 10−9 to 1.4 × 10−6 mol L−1 with a remarkably low detection limit of 1.8 × 10−11 mol L−1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity towards MNZ with excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, the reliability of MIP-NPGL for MNZ detection is proved in real fish tissue samples, demonstrating the potential for the proposed electrochemical sensors in monitoring drug and biological samples. PMID:25572290

  7. Copper nanoparticles entrapped in SWCNT-PPy nanocomposite on Pt electrode as NOx electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Subash; Rajesh, Seenivasan; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Bhargava, Kalpana; Ilavazhagan, Govindaswamy; Vasu, Veerapandy; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2011-08-15

    A highly sensitive NO(x) sensor was designed and developed by electrochemical incorporation of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified Pt electrode. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Further, the electrochemical behavior of the CuNP-SWCNT-PPy-Pt electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. It exhibited the characteristic CuNP reversible redox peaks at -0.15 V and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuNP-SWCNT-PPy-Pt electrode towards NO(x) is four-fold than the CuNP-PPy-Pt electrode. These results clearly revealed that the SWCNT-PPy nanocomposite facilitated the electron transfer from CuNP to Pt electrode and provided an electrochemical approach for the determination of NO(x). A linear dependence (r(2)=0.9946) on the NO(x) concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 2000 μM, with a sensitivity of 0.22 ± 0.002 μA μM(-1)cm(-2) and detection limit of 0.7 μM was observed for the CuNP-SWCNT-PPy-Pt electrode. In addition, the sensor exhibited good reproducibility and retained stability over a period of one month.

  8. Development of an electrochemical insulin sensor based on the insulin-linked polymorphic region.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Jennifer Y; Schaefer, Cody S; Yang, Weiwei; Grout, Rebecca L; Lai, Rebecca Y

    2013-04-15

    Here we report the design and fabrication of an electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensor for detection of insulin. The aptamer used in this study is the insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR) sequence, a G-rich sequence that presumably undergoes ligand-induced folding to form a G-quadruplex in presence of insulin. Our circular dichroism data, however, suggests that the ILPR sequence, even in absence of the target, is predominantly in a G-quadruplex-like form. Insulin binding, however, has shown to further induce the formation of the G-quadruplex. To evaluate the potential of the ILPR sequence as a biosensing element, we constructed two E-AB insulin sensors that are identical in all aspects but the location of the methylene blue (MB) redox label. We find that the sensor fabricated with internal MB-modified probes (In-IT) shows enhanced sensing behavior when compared to one fabricated using terminal-MB modified probes (In1). The improvements observed with the In-IT sensor could be attributed to the more effective obstruction of electron transfer upon insulin binding. Overall, both sensors perform well, affording a detection limit of 10 nM and 50 nM for the In-IT and In1 sensors, respectively.

  9. Electrochemical sensor with flavin-containing monooxygenase for triethylamine solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirokazu; Shirai, Takeshi; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2008-06-01

    A bioelectronic sensor for triethylamine (TEA) was developed with a flavin-containing monooxygenase type 3 (FMO-3). The TEA biosensor consisted of a Clark-type dissolved-oxygen electrode and an FMO-3 immobilized membrane. The FMO-3 solution was mixed with a poly(vinyl alcohol) containing stilbazolium groups (PVA-SbQ), coated on to the dialysis membrane, and the membrane was irradiated with a fluorescent light to immobilize the enzyme. In order to amplify the biosensor output, a substrate regeneration cycle, obtained by coupling the monooxygenase with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) as reducing reagent system, was applied. The effect of pH on the determination of TEA was studied. The maximum response was achieved at pH >9.0. A drop of the phosphate buffer solution with the AsA was put on the sensing area of the oxygen electrode, and the FMO-3 immobilized membrane was placed on the oxygen electrode and covered with a supporting Nylon mesh net which was secured with a silicone O-ring. A measurement system for TEA solution was constructed using the FMO-3 biosensor, a personal computer, a computer-controlled potentiostat, and an A/D converter. The FMO-3 biosensor was used to measure TEA solution from 0.5 to 4.0 mmol L(-1) with 10.0 mmol L(-1) AsA. The biosensor also had good reproducibility, for example a 6.31% coefficient of variation for five measurements, and the output current was maintained over a few hours. In order to improve the selectivity of the TEA biosensor, three type of biosensor with FMO isomer types 1, 3, and 5 were constructed and used to measure nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The outputs of the isomer biosensors indicated individual patterns for each sample solution. The selectivity of TEA biosensor would be improved, and determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds would be possible, by using the different output of biosensors prepared from different FMO isomers. PMID:18157663

  10. Semiconducting Metal Oxide Based Sensors for Selective Gas Pollutant Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kanan, Sofian M.; El-Kadri, Oussama M.; Abu-Yousef, Imad A.; Kanan, Marsha C.

    2009-01-01

    A review of some papers published in the last fifty years that focus on the semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) based sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of various environmental pollutants is presented. PMID:22408500

  11. Nickel/cobalt oxide-decorated 3D graphene nanocomposite electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhi Sa; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-15

    A NiCo2O4 bimetallic electro-catalyst was synthesized on three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene) for the non-enzymatic detection of urea. The structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4/3D graphene nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The NiCo2O4/3D graphene was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to fabricate a highly sensitive urea sensor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A high sensitivity of 166 μAmM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) was obtained for the NiCo2O4/3D graphene/ITO sensor. The sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.06-0.30 mM (R(2)=0.998) and a fast response time of approximately 1.0 s with a detection limit of 5.0 µM. Additionally, the sensor exhibited high stability with a sensitivity decrease of only 5.5% after four months of storage in ambient conditions. The urea sensor demonstrates feasibility for urea analysis in urine samples.

  12. Nickel/cobalt oxide-decorated 3D graphene nanocomposite electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of urea.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nhi Sa; Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2016-03-15

    A NiCo2O4 bimetallic electro-catalyst was synthesized on three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene) for the non-enzymatic detection of urea. The structural and morphological properties of the NiCo2O4/3D graphene nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The NiCo2O4/3D graphene was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to fabricate a highly sensitive urea sensor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared electrode were studied by cyclic voltammetry. A high sensitivity of 166 μAmM(-)(1)cm(-)(2) was obtained for the NiCo2O4/3D graphene/ITO sensor. The sensor exhibited a linear range of 0.06-0.30 mM (R(2)=0.998) and a fast response time of approximately 1.0 s with a detection limit of 5.0 µM. Additionally, the sensor exhibited high stability with a sensitivity decrease of only 5.5% after four months of storage in ambient conditions. The urea sensor demonstrates feasibility for urea analysis in urine samples. PMID:26433071

  13. STEP wastewater treatment: a solar thermal electrochemical process for pollutant oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohui; Wu, Hongjun; Zhang, Guoxue; Licht, Stuart

    2012-10-01

    A solar thermal electrochemical production (STEP) pathway was established to utilize solar energy to drive useful chemical processes. In this paper, we use experimental chemistry for efficient STEP wastewater treatment, and suggest a theory based on the decreasing stability of organic pollutants (hydrocarbon oxidation potentials) with increasing temperature. Exemplified by the solar thermal electrochemical oxidation of phenol, the fundamental model and experimental system components of this process outline a general method for the oxidation of environmentally stable organic pollutants into carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. Using thermodynamic calculations we show a sharply decreasing phenol oxidation potential with increasing temperature. The experimental results demonstrate that this increased temperature can be supplied by solar thermal heating. In combination this drives electrochemical phenol removal with enhanced oxidation efficiency through (i) a thermodynamically driven decrease in the energy needed to fuel the process and (ii) improved kinetics to sustain high rates of phenol oxidation at low electrochemical overpotential. The STEP wastewater treatment process is synergistic in that it is performed with higher efficiency than either electrochemical or photovoltaic conversion process acting alone. STEP is a green, efficient, safe, and sustainable process for organic wastewater treatment driven solely by solar energy.

  14. Portable system and method combining chromatography and array of electrochemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Zaromb, Solomon; Stetter, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable system for analyzing a fluid sample includes a small, portable, low-pressure and low-power chromatographic analyzer and a chemical parameter spectrometry monitor including an array of sensors for detecting, identifying and measuring the concentrations of a variety of components in the eluent from the chromatographic analyzer. The monitor includes one or more operating condition controllers which may be used to change one or more of the operating conditions during exposure of the sensors to the eluent from the chromatography analyzer to form a response pattern which is then compared with a library of previously established patterns. Gas and liquid chromatographic embodiments are disclosed. In the gas embodiment, the operating condition controllers include heated filaments which may convert electrochemically inactive components to electrochemically active products. In the liquid chromatography embodiment, low-power, liquid-phase equivalents of heated filaments are used with appropriate sensors. The library response patterns may be divided into subsets and the formed pattern may be assigned for comparison only with the patterns of a particular subset.

  15. Electrochemical endotoxin sensors based on TLR4/MD-2 complexes immobilized on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Tae Yun; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Byung Kook; Kim, Beob Soo; Yoon, Hwa In; Lee, Hyeong Yun; Cho, Yong Woo

    2011-10-15

    Even low concentrations of endotoxins can be life-threatening. As such, continuous effort has been directed toward the development of sensitive and specific endotoxin detection systems. In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of a new electrochemical endotoxin sensor based on a human recombinant toll-like receptor 4 (rhTLR4) and myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) complex. The rhTLR4/MD-2 complex, which specifically binds to endotoxin, was immobilized on gold electrodes through a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) technique involving the use of dithiobis(succinimidyl undecanoate) (DSU). The surface topography of the electrodes at each fabrication stage was characterized with a nanosurface profiler and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrochemical signals generated from interactions between the rhTLR4/MD-2 complex and the endotoxin were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A linear relationship between the peak current and endotoxin concentration was obtained in the range of 0.0005 to 5 EU/mL with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.978. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) was fairly low, 0.0002 EU/mL. The rhTLR4/MD-2 based sensors exhibited no current responses to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bearing two lipid chains, which is structurally similar to endotoxin, indicating the high specificity of the sensors to endotoxin. PMID:21816600

  16. Electrochemical sensor for sulfadimethoxine based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole: study of imprinting parameters.

    PubMed

    Turco, Antonio; Corvaglia, Stefania; Mazzotta, Elisabetta

    2015-01-15

    The present work describes the development of a simple and cost-effective electrochemical sensor for sulfadimethoxine (SDM) based on molecularly imprinted overoxidized polypyrrole (PPy). An all electrochemical approach is used for sensor fabrication and application consisting in molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) galvanostatic deposition on a gold electrode and its overoxidation under different experimental conditions and in SDM amperometric detection. Several parameters influencing the imprinting effect are critically discussed and evaluated. A key role of the electrolyte used in electropolymerization (tetrabuthylammonium perchlorate and lithium perchlorate) has emerged demonstrating its effect on sensing performances of imprinted PPy and, related to this, on its morphology, as highlighted by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of different overoxidation conditions in removing template is evaluated by analyzing MIP films before and after the treatment by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also evidencing the correlation between MIP chemical structure and its rebinding ability. MIP-template interaction is verified also by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Under the selected optimal conditions, MIP sensor shows a linear range from 0.15 to 3.7 mM SDM, a limit of detection of 70 μM, a highly reproducible response (RSD 4.2%) and a good selectivity in the presence of structurally related molecules. SDM was determined in milk samples spiked at two concentration levels: 0.2 mM and 0.4 mM obtaining a satisfactory recovery of (97±3)% and (96±8)%, respectively.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of sugars at moderate potentials catalyzed by Rh porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shin-Ichi; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takeda, Sahori; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    2010-05-28

    In this communication, we demonstrate that certain kinds of Rh porphyrins on carbon black can electrochemically oxidize aldose at low potentials. The onset potential was much lower than those with the other complex-based catalysts. A product analysis suggested that this reaction involves 2-electron oxidation of the aldehyde group.

  18. Development of metal oxide impregnated stilbite thick film ethanol sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabole, M. P.; Lakhane, M. A.; Choudhari, A. L.; Khairnar, R. S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the study of the sensing efficiency of Titanium oxide/ Stilbite and Copper oxide /Stilbite composites towards detection of hazardous pollutants like ethanol. Stilbite based composites are prepared by physically mixing zeolite with metal oxides namely TiO2 and CuO with weight ratios of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25. The resulting sensor materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy techniques. Composite sensors are fabricated in the form of thick film by using screen printing technique. The effect of metal oxide concentration on various ethanol sensing parameters such as operating temperature, maximum uptake capacity and response/recovery time are investigated. The results indicate that metal oxide impregnated stilbite composites have great potential as low temperature ethanol sensor.

  19. Carbon dioxide sensing mechanisms of an electrocatalytic sensor/cell based on a tungsten stabilized bismuth oxide solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Erika Leigh

    This work describes the specific O2/CO2 sensing mechanisms of a solid-state, thick-film, electrocatalytic cermet (ceramic/metallic) gas sensor based on a tungsten stabilized bismuth oxide (WBO) solid electrolyte. The sensors embody the same configuration of classical planar oxygen sensors with two catalytic electrodes sandwiching an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and a buried metal oxide reference. The technique of cyclic voltammetry is used where a cyclic voltage is ramped across the electrodes to promote electrochemical reactions on the surface of the sensor. These reactions alter the ionic current flow through the solid electrolyte, generating voltage-current related responses (voltammograms) which are gas specific. The WBO sensors have the identical configuration of previously investigated sensors of this type based on a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte which show good response to O 2 but do not respond to CO2 to any degree. This dissertation examines the specific function of each solid electrolyte layer and relates them to both the WBO sensors ability to respond uniquely to CO2 and the YSZ sensors incapability to respond to CO2. The research suggests that the tungsten component of the WBO electrolyte along with the porosity of the WBO layer together are responsible for the unique CO 2 response of this sensor.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Mechanism, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyan; Santiago-Schübel, Beatrix; Xiao, Hongxia; Hollert, Henner; Kueppers, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we studied the electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of three typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs), and investigated residual antibacterial activity and toxicity changes after oxidation processes. Electrochemistry coupled to mass spectrometry (EC-MS) was used to study the oxidation processes of ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR) and ofloxacin (OFL). Eight oxidation products for each parent compound were identified and their chemical structures were elucidated. The transformation trend of each product, with the continuous increase of voltage from 0 to 3000 mV, was recorded by online EC-MS. The oxidation pathways were proposed based on the structural information and transformation trends of oxidation products. We found the oxidation mechanisms of FQs consisted of the hydroxylation and cleavage of piperazinyl ring via reactions with hydroxyl radicals, while the fluoroquinolone core remained intact. The antibacterial activity of the parent compounds and their oxidation mixtures was estimated using zone inhibition tests for gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. It was found that the oxidation mixtures of CIP and NOR retained the antibacterial properties with lower activity compared to their parent compounds, while the antibacterial activity of OFL was almost eliminated after oxidation. Furthermore, the toxicity of the three FQs and their oxidation mixtures were evaluated using algal growth inhibition test (Desmodesmus subspicatus). The median effective concentration (EC50) values for the algal inhibition tests were calculated for the end point of growth rate. The toxicity of CIP and NOR to green algae after electrochemical oxidation, remained unchanged, while that of OFL significantly increased. The results presented in this paper contribute to an understanding of the electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of FQs, and highlight the potential environmental risks of FQs after electrochemical oxidation processes.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Mechanism, residual antibacterial activity and toxicity change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyan; Santiago-Schübel, Beatrix; Xiao, Hongxia; Hollert, Henner; Kueppers, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we studied the electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of three typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs), and investigated residual antibacterial activity and toxicity changes after oxidation processes. Electrochemistry coupled to mass spectrometry (EC-MS) was used to study the oxidation processes of ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR) and ofloxacin (OFL). Eight oxidation products for each parent compound were identified and their chemical structures were elucidated. The transformation trend of each product, with the continuous increase of voltage from 0 to 3000 mV, was recorded by online EC-MS. The oxidation pathways were proposed based on the structural information and transformation trends of oxidation products. We found the oxidation mechanisms of FQs consisted of the hydroxylation and cleavage of piperazinyl ring via reactions with hydroxyl radicals, while the fluoroquinolone core remained intact. The antibacterial activity of the parent compounds and their oxidation mixtures was estimated using zone inhibition tests for gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. It was found that the oxidation mixtures of CIP and NOR retained the antibacterial properties with lower activity compared to their parent compounds, while the antibacterial activity of OFL was almost eliminated after oxidation. Furthermore, the toxicity of the three FQs and their oxidation mixtures were evaluated using algal growth inhibition test (Desmodesmus subspicatus). The median effective concentration (EC50) values for the algal inhibition tests were calculated for the end point of growth rate. The toxicity of CIP and NOR to green algae after electrochemical oxidation, remained unchanged, while that of OFL significantly increased. The results presented in this paper contribute to an understanding of the electrochemical oxidation mechanisms of FQs, and highlight the potential environmental risks of FQs after electrochemical oxidation processes. PMID:27318447

  2. A Nanocoaxial-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Cholera Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Michelle M.; Rizal, Binod; Connolly, Timothy; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.

    2015-03-01

    Sensitive, real-time detection of biomarkers is of critical importance for rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease for point of care (POC) technologies. Current methods do not allow for POC applications due to several limitations, including sophisticated instrumentation, high reagent consumption, limited multiplexing capability, and cost. Here, we report a nanocoaxial-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT). The linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 μg/ml, and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical ELISA used widely in clinical applications. In addition to matching the detection profile of the standard ELISA, the nanocoaxial array provides a simple electrochemical readout and a miniaturized platform with multiplexing capabilities for the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers, giving the nanocoax a desirable advantage over the standard method towards POC applications. Sensitive, real-time detection of biomarkers is of critical importance for rapid and accurate diagnosis of disease for point of care (POC) technologies. Current methods do not allow for POC applications due to several limitations, including sophisticated instrumentation, high reagent consumption, limited multiplexing capability, and cost. Here, we report a nanocoaxial-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT). The linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 μg/ml, and the limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical

  3. Electrochemical preparation of nickel and copper oxides-decorated graphene composite for simultaneous determination of dopamine, acetaminophen and tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingdi; Ouyang, Xiaoqian; Ding, Yaping; Luo, Liqing; Xu, Duo; Ning, Yanqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, transition metal oxides decorated graphene (GR) have been fabricated for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), acetaminophen (AC) and tryptophan (Trp) using square wave voltammetry. Electro-deposition is a facile preparation strategy for the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. GR can be modified by using citric acid to produce more functional groups, which is conducive to the deposition of dispersed metal particles. The morphologies and interface properties of the obtained NiO-CuO/GR nanocomposite were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the composite film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified electrode exhibited that the linear response ranges for detecting DA, AC and Trp were 0.5-20 μM, 4-400 μM and 0.3-40 μM, respectively, and the detection limits were 0.17 μM, 1.33 μM and 0.1 μM (S/N=3). Under optimal conditions, the sensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and satisfactory results in real samples analysis. PMID:26695242

  4. Electrochemical preparation of nickel and copper oxides-decorated graphene composite for simultaneous determination of dopamine, acetaminophen and tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingdi; Ouyang, Xiaoqian; Ding, Yaping; Luo, Liqing; Xu, Duo; Ning, Yanqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, transition metal oxides decorated graphene (GR) have been fabricated for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), acetaminophen (AC) and tryptophan (Trp) using square wave voltammetry. Electro-deposition is a facile preparation strategy for the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. GR can be modified by using citric acid to produce more functional groups, which is conducive to the deposition of dispersed metal particles. The morphologies and interface properties of the obtained NiO-CuO/GR nanocomposite were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the composite film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified electrode exhibited that the linear response ranges for detecting DA, AC and Trp were 0.5-20 μM, 4-400 μM and 0.3-40 μM, respectively, and the detection limits were 0.17 μM, 1.33 μM and 0.1 μM (S/N=3). Under optimal conditions, the sensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and satisfactory results in real samples analysis.

  5. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  6. Electrochemical, Electrochemiluminescence, and Photoelectrochemical Aptamer-Based Nanostructured Sensors for Biomarker Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ravalli, Andrea; Voccia, Diego; Palchetti, Ilaria; Marrazza, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Aptamer-based sensors have been intensively investigated as potential analytical tools in clinical analysis providing the desired portability, fast response, sensitivity, and specificity, in addition to lower cost and simplicity versus conventional methods. The aim of this review, without pretending to be exhaustive, is to give the readers an overview of recent important achievements about electrochemical, electrochemiluminescence, and photoelectrochemical aptasensors for the protein biomarker determination, mainly cancer related biomarkers, by selected recent publications. Special emphasis is placed on nanostructured-based aptasensors, which show a substantial improvement of the analytical performances. PMID:27490578

  7. Electrochemical, Electrochemiluminescence, and Photoelectrochemical Aptamer-Based Nanostructured Sensors for Biomarker Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravalli, Andrea; Voccia, Diego; Palchetti, Ilaria; Marrazza, Giovanna

    2016-08-02

    Aptamer-based sensors have been intensively investigated as potential analytical tools in clinical analysis providing the desired portability, fast response, sensitivity, and specificity, in addition to lower cost and simplicity versus conventional methods. The aim of this review, without pretending to be exhaustive, is to give the readers an overview of recent important achievements about electrochemical, electrochemiluminescence, and photoelectrochemical aptasensors for the protein biomarker determination, mainly cancer related biomarkers, by selected recent publications. Special emphasis is placed on nanostructured-based aptasensors, which show a substantial improvement of the analytical performances.

  8. Detection of γ-radiation and heavy metals using electrochemical bacterial-based sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shanawa, M.; Nabok, A.; Hashim, A.; Smith, T.; Forder, S.

    2013-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to develop a simple electrochemical sensor for detection of γ-radiation and heavy metals using bacteria. A series of DC and AC electrical measurements were carried out on samples of two types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans. As a first step, a correlation between DC and AC electrical conductivity and bacteria concentration in solution was established. The study of the effect of γ-radiation and heavy metal ions (Cd2+) on DC and AC electrical characteristics of bacteria revealed a possibility of pattern recognition of the above inhibition factors.

  9. Detection of Nitroaromatic Explosives Using an Electrical- Electrochemical and Optical Hybrid Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Aguilar, Alvaro

    In today's world there is a great need for sensing methods as tools to provide critical information to solve today's problems in security applications. Real time detection of trace chemicals, such as explosives, in a complex environment containing various interferents using a portable device that can be reliably deployed in a field has been a difficult challenge. A hybrid nanosensor based on the electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the interaction of the reduction products with conducting polymer nanojunctions in an ionic liquid was fabricated. The sensor simultaneously measures the electrochemical current from the reduction of TNT and the conductance change of the polymer nanojunction caused from the reduction product. The hybrid detection mechanism, together with the unique selective preconcentration capability of the ionic liquid, provides a selective, fast, and sensitive detection of TNT. The sensor, in its current form, is capable of detecting parts per trillion level TNT in the presence of various interferents within a few minutes. A novel hybrid electrochemical-colorimetric (EC-C) sensing platform was also designed and fabricated to meet these challenges. The hybrid sensor is based on electrochemical reactions of trace explosives, colorimetric detection of the reaction products, and unique properties of the explosives in an ionic liquid (IL). This approach affords not only increased sensitivity but also selectivity as evident from the demonstrated null rate of false positives and low detection limits. Using an inexpensive webcam a detection limit of part per billion in volume (ppbV) has been achieved and demonstrated selective detection of explosives in the presence of common interferences (perfumes, mouth wash, cleaners, petroleum products, etc.). The works presented in this dissertation, were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS, 2009) and Nano Letters (2010), won first place in the National Defense Research

  10. Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Gul, Saima; Steter, Juliana R; Miwa, Douglas W; Motheo, Artur J

    2015-10-01

    The appearance of pharmaceutical compounds and their bioactive transformation products in aquatic environments is becoming an issue of increasing concern. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation of the widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using a commercial mixed oxide anode (Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2) and a single compartment filter press-type flow reactor. The kinetics of SMX degradation was determined as a function of electrolyte composition, applied current density, and initial pH. Almost complete (98 %) degradation of SMX could be achieved within 30 min of electrolysis in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl solution at pH 3 with applied current densities ≥20 mA cm(-2). Nine major intermediates of the reaction were identified by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS (e.g., C6H9NO2S (m/z = 179), C6H4NOCl (m/z = 141), and C6H6O2 (m/z = 110)). The degradation followed various routes involving cleavage of the oxazole and benzene rings by hydroxyl and/or chlorine radicals, processes that could occur before or after rupture of the N-S bond, followed by oxidation of the remaining moieties. Analysis of the total organic carbon content revealed that the antibiotic was partially mineralized under the conditions employed and some inorganic ions, including NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-), could be identified. The results presented herein demonstrate the efficacy of the electrochemical process using a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 anode for the remediation of wastewater containing the antibiotic SMX. PMID:26002364

  11. Route of electrochemical oxidation of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole on a mixed oxide anode.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Gul, Saima; Steter, Juliana R; Miwa, Douglas W; Motheo, Artur J

    2015-10-01

    The appearance of pharmaceutical compounds and their bioactive transformation products in aquatic environments is becoming an issue of increasing concern. In this study, the electrochemical oxidation of the widely used antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using a commercial mixed oxide anode (Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2) and a single compartment filter press-type flow reactor. The kinetics of SMX degradation was determined as a function of electrolyte composition, applied current density, and initial pH. Almost complete (98 %) degradation of SMX could be achieved within 30 min of electrolysis in 0.1 mol L(-1) NaCl solution at pH 3 with applied current densities ≥20 mA cm(-2). Nine major intermediates of the reaction were identified by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS (e.g., C6H9NO2S (m/z = 179), C6H4NOCl (m/z = 141), and C6H6O2 (m/z = 110)). The degradation followed various routes involving cleavage of the oxazole and benzene rings by hydroxyl and/or chlorine radicals, processes that could occur before or after rupture of the N-S bond, followed by oxidation of the remaining moieties. Analysis of the total organic carbon content revealed that the antibiotic was partially mineralized under the conditions employed and some inorganic ions, including NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-), could be identified. The results presented herein demonstrate the efficacy of the electrochemical process using a Ti/Ru0.3Ti0.7O2 anode for the remediation of wastewater containing the antibiotic SMX.

  12. Electrochemical Instability of Phosphonate-Derivatized, Ruthenium(III) Polypyridyl Complexes on Metal Oxide Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jacob T; Hanson, Kenneth; Vannucci, Aaron K; Lapides, Alexander M; Alibabaei, Leila; Norris, Michael R; Meyer, Thomas J; Harrison, Daniel P

    2015-05-13

    The oxidative stability of the molecular components of dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells for solar water splitting remains to be explored systematically. We report here the results of an electrochemical study on the oxidative stability of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes surface-bound to fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes in acidic solutions and, to a lesser extent, as a function of pH and solvent with electrochemical monitoring. Desorption occurs for the Ru(II) forms of the surface-bound complexes with oxidation to Ru(III) enhancing both desorption and decomposition. Based on the results of long-term potential hold experiments with cyclic voltammetry monitoring, electrochemical oxidation to Ru(III) results in slow decomposition of the complex by 2,2'-bipyridine ligand loss and aquation and/or anation. A similar pattern of ligand loss was also observed for a known chromophore-catalyst assembly for both electrochemical water oxidation and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Our results are significant in identifying the importance of enhancing chromophore stability, or at least transient stability, in oxidized forms in order to achieve stable performance in aqueous environments in photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:25871342

  13. Kinetic studies of electrochemical generation of Ag(II) ion and catalytic oxidation of selected organics

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.; Martinez, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a method to treat mixed hazardous wastes containing selected organic compounds and heavy metals, including actinide elements. One approach is to destroy the organic via electrochemical oxidation to carbon dioxide, then recover the metal contaminants through normally accepted procedures such as ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The authors have chosen to study the electrochemical oxidation of a simple alcohol, iso-propanol. Much of the recent work reported involved the use of an electron transfer mediator, usually the silver(I)/(II) redox couple. This involved direct electrochemical generation of the mediator at the anode of a divided cell followed by homogeneous reaction of the mediator with the organic compound. In this study the authors have sought to compare the mediated reaction with direct electrochemical oxidation of the organic. In addition to silver(I)/(II) they also looked at the cobalt(II)/(III) redox coupled. In the higher oxidation state both of these metal ions readily hydrolyze in aqueous solution to ultimately form insoluble oxide. The study concluded that in a 6M nitric acid solution at room temperature iso-propanol can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Acetic acid is a stable intermediate and resists further oxidation. The presence of Co(III) enhances the rate or efficiency of the reaction.

  14. Real-time monitoring of oxidative burst from single plant protoplasts using microelectrochemical sensors modified by platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ai, Feng; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Wei, Fang; Dong, Xu-Yan; Cheng, Jie-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2009-10-15

    Oxidative bursts from plants play significant roles in plant disease defense and signal transduction; however, it has not hitherto been investigated on individual living plant cells. In this article, we fabricated a novel sensitive electrochemical sensor based on electrochemical deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the surface of carbon fiber microdisk electrodes via a nanopores containing polymer matrix, Nafion. The numerous hydrophilic nanochannels in the Nafion clusters coated on the electrode surface served as the molecular template for the deposition and dispersion of Pt, which resulted in the uniform construction of small Pt nanoparticles. The novel sensor displayed a high sensitivity for detection of H(2)O(2) with a detection limit of 5.0 x 10(-9) M. With the use of this microelectrochemical sensor, the oxidative burst from individual living plant protoplasts have been real-time monitored for the first time. The results showed that oxidative burst from single protoplasts triggered by a pathogen analogue were characterized by quanta release with a large number of "transient oxidative microburst" events, and protoplasts from the transgenic plants biologically displayed better disease-resistance and showed a distinguished elevation and longer-lasting oxidative burst.

  15. Capsid protein oxidation in feline calicivirus using an electrochemical inactivation treatment.

    PubMed

    Shionoiri, Nozomi; Nogariya, Osamu; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic viral infections are an international public health concern, and viral disinfection has received increasing attention. Electrochemical treatment has been used for treatment of water contaminated by bacteria for several decades, and although in recent years several reports have investigated viral inactivation kinetics, the mode of action of viral inactivation by electrochemical treatment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the inactivation of feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for human noroviruses, by electrochemical treatment in a developed flow-cell equipped with a screen-printed electrode. The viral infectivity titer was reduced by over 5 orders of magnitude after 15 min of treatment at 0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl. Proteomic study of electrochemically inactivated virus revealed oxidation of peptides located in the viral particles; oxidation was not observed in the non-treated sample. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy revealed that viral particles in the treated sample had irregular structures. These results suggest that electrochemical treatment inactivates FCV via oxidation of peptides in the structural region, causing structural deformation of virus particles. This first report of viral protein damage through electrochemical treatment will contribute to broadening the understanding of viral inactivation mechanisms.

  16. Simple and rapid fabrication of disposable carbon-based electrochemical cells using an electronic craft cutter for sensor and biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Afonso, André S; Uliana, Carolina V; Martucci, Diego H; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the construction of an all-plastic disposable carbon-based electrochemical cell (DCell) using a simple procedure based on the use of a home cutter printer for prototyping and laminating. The cutter printer and adhesive vinyl films were used to produce three electrodes in an electrochemical cell layout, and a laminating process was then used to define the geometric area and insulate the electrodes. The DCell showed excellent performance in several applications including the determination of toxic metals in water samples, the immobilization of DNA and the detection of Salmonella. An unmodified DCell was applied for Pb and Cd detection in the range of 100-300 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 50 and 39 ng mL(-1) for Cd and Pb, respectively. DNA was successfully immobilized on a DCell and used for studies of interaction between bisphenol A and DNA. The square wave voltammetry of a DNA modified DCell presented a guanine oxidation current 2.5 times greater after exposure of the electrode to bisphenol A and no current variation for the adenine moiety indicating that bisphenol A showed a preference for DNA interaction sites. A magneto-immunoassay was developed using a DCell for Salmonella detection in milk samples. The system presented a linear range from 100 to 700 cells mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 100 cells mL(-1) and good recovery values between 93% and 101% in milk samples, with no interference from Escherichia coli. Using the proposed method, hundreds of DCells can be assembled in less than two hours, at a material cost of less than US $0.02 per cell. The all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell developed was successfully applied as an electrochemical sensor and biosensor. The feasibility of the developed all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell was demonstrated in applications as both sensor and biosensor. PMID:26695279

  17. Simple and rapid fabrication of disposable carbon-based electrochemical cells using an electronic craft cutter for sensor and biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Afonso, André S; Uliana, Carolina V; Martucci, Diego H; Faria, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the construction of an all-plastic disposable carbon-based electrochemical cell (DCell) using a simple procedure based on the use of a home cutter printer for prototyping and laminating. The cutter printer and adhesive vinyl films were used to produce three electrodes in an electrochemical cell layout, and a laminating process was then used to define the geometric area and insulate the electrodes. The DCell showed excellent performance in several applications including the determination of toxic metals in water samples, the immobilization of DNA and the detection of Salmonella. An unmodified DCell was applied for Pb and Cd detection in the range of 100-300 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 50 and 39 ng mL(-1) for Cd and Pb, respectively. DNA was successfully immobilized on a DCell and used for studies of interaction between bisphenol A and DNA. The square wave voltammetry of a DNA modified DCell presented a guanine oxidation current 2.5 times greater after exposure of the electrode to bisphenol A and no current variation for the adenine moiety indicating that bisphenol A showed a preference for DNA interaction sites. A magneto-immunoassay was developed using a DCell for Salmonella detection in milk samples. The system presented a linear range from 100 to 700 cells mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 100 cells mL(-1) and good recovery values between 93% and 101% in milk samples, with no interference from Escherichia coli. Using the proposed method, hundreds of DCells can be assembled in less than two hours, at a material cost of less than US $0.02 per cell. The all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell developed was successfully applied as an electrochemical sensor and biosensor. The feasibility of the developed all-plastic disposable electrochemical cell was demonstrated in applications as both sensor and biosensor.

  18. Development electrochemical in-situ pH-pCO2-ORP sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitashima, K.; Koike, Y.; Kyo, M.; Henmi, H.

    2005-12-01

    The pH and pCO2 of seawater are an important factor that affects the thermodynamic state of all various acid-base systems and biological activity in the ocean. In recent years, in-situ measurement using pH and/or pCO2 sensors has attracted attention in relation to global warming issues. We developed the electrochemical in-situ pH-pCO2-ORP sensors for measurement of these parameters in seawater through the water column in high precision. The pH sensor was used an ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) for the pH electrode and a chlorine ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE) for the reference electrode. Both these electrodes have solid-type construction and therefore have high pressure and shock resistance and can be used satisfactorily in deep-sea conditions. For the pCO2 sensor, the pH sensor was sealed with a gas permeable membrane filled with the inner solution. The pH sensor can detect the pCO2 change as the inner solution pH changes which is caused by penetration of carbon dioxide through the membrane. An amorphous Teflon membrane manufactured by U.S. DuPont (Teflon AF) was used as the gas permeable membrane for this pCO2 sensor. The ORP sensor was used a platinum or gold electrode for the working electrode and Cl-ISE for the reference electrode. The sea tests using those sensors were carried out in various locations of the ocean, high accuracy, quick response, and long-term stability have been achieved. In the field, the response speed of the developed pH sensor is 1 second or less, and the measurement accuracy is _0.005 pH. The in-situ (3000m depth, 1.81/4C) response time of the pCO2 sensor was less than 60 seconds.

  19. Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Torres, A Carolina; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-04-15

    A simple, economic, highly sensitive and highly selective method for the detection of caffeine has been developed at bare and Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrochemical behaviour of caffeine was examined in electrolyte solutions of phosphate buffer saline, sodium perchlorate, and in choline chloride plus oxalic acid, using analytical determinations by fixed potential amperometry, phosphate buffer saline being the best. Modifications of the GCE surface with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Nafion, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were tested in order to evaluate possible sensor performance enhancements, Nafion giving the most satisfactory results. The effect of interfering compounds usually found in samples containing caffeine was examined at GCE without and with Nafion coating, to exclude interferences, and the sensors were successfully applied to determine the caffeine content in commercial beverages and drugs.

  20. Simple electrochemical sensor for caffeine based on carbon and Nafion-modified carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Torres, A Carolina; Barsan, Madalina M; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-04-15

    A simple, economic, highly sensitive and highly selective method for the detection of caffeine has been developed at bare and Nafion-modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrochemical behaviour of caffeine was examined in electrolyte solutions of phosphate buffer saline, sodium perchlorate, and in choline chloride plus oxalic acid, using analytical determinations by fixed potential amperometry, phosphate buffer saline being the best. Modifications of the GCE surface with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Nafion, and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were tested in order to evaluate possible sensor performance enhancements, Nafion giving the most satisfactory results. The effect of interfering compounds usually found in samples containing caffeine was examined at GCE without and with Nafion coating, to exclude interferences, and the sensors were successfully applied to determine the caffeine content in commercial beverages and drugs. PMID:24295698

  1. Synthesis of Au/Graphene Oxide Composites for Selective and Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Ascorbic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel ascorbic acid (AA) sensor applied to the detection of AA in human sera and pharmaceuticals. A series of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide sheets (Au NP/GO) composites were successfully synthesized by reduction of gold (III) using sodium citrate. Then the Au NP/GO composites were used to construct nonenzymatic electrodes in practical AA measurement. The electrode that has the best performance presents attractive analytical features, such as a low working potential of +0.15 V, a high sensitivity of 101.86 μA mM−1 cm−2 to AA, a low detection limit of 100 nM, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity. And more,it was also employed to accurately and practically detect AA in human serum and clinical vitamin C tablet with the existence of some food additive. The enhanced AA electrochemical properties of the Au NP/GO modified electrode in our work can be attributed to the improvement of electroactive surface area of Au NPs and the synergistic effect from the combination of Au NPs and GO sheets. This work shows that the Au NP/GO/GCEs hold the prospect for sensitive and selective determination of AA in practical clinical application. PMID:25515430

  2. Synthesis of Au/Graphene Oxide Composites for Selective and Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we present a novel ascorbic acid (AA) sensor applied to the detection of AA in human sera and pharmaceuticals. A series of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide sheets (Au NP/GO) composites were successfully synthesized by reduction of gold (III) using sodium citrate. Then the Au NP/GO composites were used to construct nonenzymatic electrodes in practical AA measurement. The electrode that has the best performance presents attractive analytical features, such as a low working potential of +0.15 V, a high sensitivity of 101.86 μA mM-1 cm-2 to AA, a low detection limit of 100 nM, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity. And more,it was also employed to accurately and practically detect AA in human serum and clinical vitamin C tablet with the existence of some food additive. The enhanced AA electrochemical properties of the Au NP/GO modified electrode in our work can be attributed to the improvement of electroactive surface area of Au NPs and the synergistic effect from the combination of Au NPs and GO sheets. This work shows that the Au NP/GO/GCEs hold the prospect for sensitive and selective determination of AA in practical clinical application.

  3. Synthesis of Au/graphene oxide composites for selective and sensitive electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel ascorbic acid (AA) sensor applied to the detection of AA in human sera and pharmaceuticals. A series of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide sheets (Au NP/GO) composites were successfully synthesized by reduction of gold (III) using sodium citrate. Then the Au NP/GO composites were used to construct nonenzymatic electrodes in practical AA measurement. The electrode that has the best performance presents attractive analytical features, such as a low working potential of +0.15 V, a high sensitivity of 101.86 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to AA, a low detection limit of 100 nM, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity. And more,it was also employed to accurately and practically detect AA in human serum and clinical vitamin C tablet with the existence of some food additive. The enhanced AA electrochemical properties of the Au NP/GO modified electrode in our work can be attributed to the improvement of electroactive surface area of Au NPs and the synergistic effect from the combination of Au NPs and GO sheets. This work shows that the Au NP/GO/GCEs hold the prospect for sensitive and selective determination of AA in practical clinical application. PMID:25515430

  4. Synthesis of Au/graphene oxide composites for selective and sensitive electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Xu, Lin; Xing, Ruiqing; Li, Qingling; Zhou, Chunyang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2014-12-17

    In this work, we present a novel ascorbic acid (AA) sensor applied to the detection of AA in human sera and pharmaceuticals. A series of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide sheets (Au NP/GO) composites were successfully synthesized by reduction of gold (III) using sodium citrate. Then the Au NP/GO composites were used to construct nonenzymatic electrodes in practical AA measurement. The electrode that has the best performance presents attractive analytical features, such as a low working potential of +0.15 V, a high sensitivity of 101.86 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to AA, a low detection limit of 100 nM, good reproducibility and excellent selectivity. And more,it was also employed to accurately and practically detect AA in human serum and clinical vitamin C tablet with the existence of some food additive. The enhanced AA electrochemical properties of the Au NP/GO modified electrode in our work can be attributed to the improvement of electroactive surface area of Au NPs and the synergistic effect from the combination of Au NPs and GO sheets. This work shows that the Au NP/GO/GCEs hold the prospect for sensitive and selective determination of AA in practical clinical application.

  5. Real-Time Telemetry System for Amperometric and Potentiometric Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Song; Huang, Hong-Yi; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Hu, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Wen-Fong; Wu, Cheng-Feng; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2011-01-01

    A real-time telemetry system, which consists of readout circuits, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a microcontroller unit (MCU), a graphical user interface (GUI), and a radio frequency (RF) transceiver, is proposed for amperometric and potentiometric electrochemical sensors. By integrating the proposed system with the electrochemical sensors, analyte detection can be conveniently performed. The data is displayed in real-time on a GUI and optionally uploaded to a database via the Internet, allowing it to be accessed remotely. An MCU was implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to filter noise, transmit data, and provide control over peripheral devices to reduce power consumption, which in sleep mode is 70 mW lower than in operating mode. The readout circuits, which were implemented in the TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process, include a potentiostat and an instrumentation amplifier (IA). The measurement results show that the proposed potentiostat has a detectable current range of 1 nA to 100 μA, and linearity with an R2 value of 0.99998 in each measured current range. The proposed IA has a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) greater than 90 dB. The proposed system was integrated with a potentiometric pH sensor and an amperometric nitrite sensor for in vitro experiments. The proposed system has high linearity (an R2 value greater than 0.99 was obtained in each experiment), a small size of 5.6 cm × 8.7 cm, high portability, and high integration. PMID:22164093

  6. Re-engineering aptamers to support reagentless, self-reporting electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    White, Ryan J; Rowe, Aaron A; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2010-03-01

    Electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors have emerged as a promising and versatile new biosensor platform. Combining the generality and specificity of aptamer-ligand interactions with the selectivity and convenience of electrochemical readouts, this approach affords the detection of a wide variety of targets directly in complex, contaminant-ridden samples, such as whole blood, foodstuffs and crude soil extracts, without the need for exogenous reagents or washing steps. Signaling in this class of sensors is predicated on target-induced changes in the conformation of an electrode-bound probe aptamer that, in turn, changes the efficiency with which a covalently attached redox tag exchanges electrons with the interrogating electrode. Aptamer selection strategies, however, typically do not select for the conformation-switching architectures, and as such several approaches have been reported to date by which aptamers can be re-engineered such that they undergo the binding-induced switching required to support efficient E-AB signaling. Here, we systematically compare the merits of these re-engineering approaches using representative aptamers specific to the small molecule adenosine triphosphate and the protein human immunoglobulin E. We find that, while many aptamer architectures support E-AB signaling, the observed signal gain (relative change in signal upon target binding) varies by more than two orders of magnitude across the various constructs we have investigated (e.g., ranging from -10% to 200% for our ATP sensors). Optimization of the switching architecture is thus an important element in achieving maximum E-AB signal gain and we find that this optimal geometry is specific to the aptamer sequence upon which the sensor is built.

  7. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Asif I.; Mohd Syaifudin, A. R.; Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Yu, P. L.; Al-Bahadly, I. H.; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Kosel, Jǘrgen; Liao, Tai-Shan

    2013-06-01

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental and food pollutants well known as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). These developmental and reproductive toxicants pose a grave risk to the human health due to their unlimited use in consumer plastic industry. Detection of phthalates is strictly laboratory based time consuming and expensive process and requires expertise of highly qualified and skilled professionals. We present a real time, non-invasive, label free rapid detection technique to quantify phthalates' presence in deionized water and fruit juices. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique applied to a novel planar inter-digital (ID) capacitive sensor plays a vital role to explore the presence of phthalate esters in bulk fluid media. The ID sensor with multiple sensing gold electrodes was fabricated on silicon substrate using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device fabrication technology. A thin film of parylene C polymer was coated as a passivation layer to enhance the capacitive sensing capabilities of the sensor and to reduce the magnitude of Faradic current flowing through the sensor. Various concentrations, 0.002ppm through to 2ppm of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in deionized water, were exposed to the sensing system by dip testing method. Impedance spectra obtained was analysed to determine sample conductance which led to consequent evaluation of its dielectric properties. Electro-chemical impedance spectrum analyser algorithm was employed to model the experimentally obtained impedance spectra. Curve fitting technique was applied to deduce constant phase element (CPE) equivalent circuit based on Randle's equivalent circuit model. The sensing system was tested to detect different concentrations of DEHP in orange juice as a real world application. The result analysis indicated that our rapid testing technique is able to detect the presence of DEHP in all test samples distinctively.

  8. Rapid preparation of α-FeOOH and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures by microwave heating and their application in electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Marinho, J.Z.; Montes, R.H.O.; Moura, A.P. de; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Munoz, R.A.A.; Lima, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Simple microwave method leads to the rapid formation of the goethite and hematite. • Homogenous nucleation and growth of particles are controlled by synthesis time. • Modified electrode with α-FeOOH nanoplates improved the electrochemical response. • The sample is directly heated by microwaves and its crystallization is accelerated. • Fe{sup 3+} nanostructures are promising for development of electrochemical sensors. - Abstract: α-FeOOH (goethite) and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) nanostructures have been successfully synthesized using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method and by the rapid burning in a microwave oven of the as-prepared goethite, respectively. The orthorhombic α-FeOOH to rhombohedralα-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} structural transformation was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy results. Plates-like α-FeOOH prepared in 2 min and rounded and quasi-octahedral shaped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles obtained in 10 min were observed using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The use of microwave heating allowed iron oxides to be prepared with shorter reaction times when compared to other synthesis methods. α-FeOOH nanoplates were incorporated into graphite-composite electrodes, which presented electrocatalytic properties towards the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbic acid in comparison with unmodified electrodes. This result demonstrates that such α-FeOOH nanostructures are very promising chemical modifiers for the development of improved electrochemical sensors.

  9. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  10. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  11. Mapping Electrochemical Heterogeneity at Iron Oxide Surfaces: A Local Electrochemical Impedance Study.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Marie; Boily, Jean-François

    2015-12-22

    Alternating current scanning electrochemical microscopy (AC-SECM) was used for the first time to map key electrochemical attributes of oriented hematite (α-Fe2O3) single crystal surfaces at the micron-scale. Localized electrochemical impedance spectra (LEIS) of the (001) and (012) faces provided insight into the spatial variations of local double layer capacitance (C(dl)) and charge transfer resistance (R(ad)). These parameters were extracted by LEIS measurements in the 0.4-8000 Hz range to probe the impedance response generated by the redistribution of water molecules and charge carriers (ions) under an applied AC. These were attributed to local variations in the local conductivity of the sample surfaces. Comparison with global EIS measurements on the same samples uncovered highly comparable frequency-resolved processes, that were broken down into contributions from the bulk hematite, the interface as well as the microelectrode/tip assembly. This work paves the way for new studies aimed at mapping electrochemical processes at the mesoscale on this environmentally and technologically important material.

  12. Advances in the electrochemical simulation of oxidation reactions mediated by cytochrome p450.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Ugo; Boujtita, Mohammed

    2014-10-20

    Combining electrochemistry with mass spectrometry constitutes an increasingly useful approach for simulating reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). In this review, we discuss the ability of the electrochemical cell to act as a reliable tool to mimic CYP450. The electrochemical oxidation process and CYP450-catalyzed reactions are compared in terms of mechanistic pathways, chemical structures of reactive intermediate metabolites, and final chemical structures of oxidation products. The oxidation reactions mediated by CYP450 are known to occur by either a single electron transfer (SET) or a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. The similarities between the reactions mediated electrochemically or by CYP450 are discussed in terms of SET and HAT mechanisms.

  13. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles based electrochemical sensor for the measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules (N-acyl-homoserine-lactones).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hui; Jiang, Donglei; Shao, Jingdong; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-01-15

    We have developed a novel and economical electrochemical sensor to measure Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules (AHLs) using magnetic nanoparticles and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) capable of selectively absorbing AHLs were successfully synthesized by surface polymerization. The particles were deposited onto a magnetic carbon paste electrode (MGCE) surface, and characterized by electrochemical measurements. Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) was utilized to record the oxidative current signal that is characteristic of AHL. The detection limit of this assay was determined to be 8×10(-10)molL(-1) with a linear detection range of 2.5×10(-9)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-7)molL(-1). This Fe3O4@SiO2-MIP-based electrochemical sensor is a valuable new tool that allows quantitative measurement of Gram-negative bacterial quorum signaling molecules. It has potential applications in the fields of clinical diagnosis or food analysis with real-time detection capability, high specificity, excellent reproducibility, and good stability.

  14. A Nanocoaxial-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Cholera Toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Michelle; Rizal, Binod; Connolly, Timothy; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Biology; Physics Collaboration

    We report a nanocoax-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of bacterial toxins using an electrochemical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The device architecture is composed of vertically-oriented, nanoscale coaxial electrodes, with coax cores and shields serving as integrated working and counter electrodes, respectively. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated for the detection of cholera toxin (CT), with a linear dynamic range of detection was 10 ng/ml - 1 µg/ml, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 ng/ml. This level of sensitivity is comparable to the standard optical ELISA used widely in clinical applications. The nanocoax array thus matches the detection profile of the standard ELISA while providing a simple electrochemical readout and a miniaturized platform with multiplexing capabilities, toward point-of-care (POC) implementation. In addition, next generation nanocoax devices with extended cores are currently under development, which would provide a POC platform amenable for biofunctionalization of ELISA receptor proteins directly onto the device. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute Award No. CA137681 and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Award No. AI100216).

  15. Development of an electrochemical Limulus amebocyte lysate assay technique for portable and highly sensitive endotoxin sensor.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kumi Y; Takahashi, Satoko; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2012-04-01

    Here, we report the development of an electrochemical detection method for endotoxin based on the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. A mixture of LAL reagent and endotoxin sample solution was incubated for 1 h. The endotoxin activated a cascade reaction of zymogens contained in the LAL to generate p-nitroaniline (pNA) which was then electrochemically detected by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The generated pNA gave a clear peak at -0.75 V vs. silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl), which increased with the concentration of endotoxin in the LAL assay solution. This DPV detection was performed using an electrode chip device fabricated from a diamond-like carbon-coated glass substrate. This chip device could detect as low as 10 endotoxin units l(-1) at room temperature within 1 h. This novel electrochemical method for the detection of endotoxin appears promising for the development of compact, low-cost and easy-to-use sensors for on-site monitoring of potentially contaminated medical supplies, including dialysis fluid, transplanted tissue and culture medium for assisted reproduction. PMID:21844129

  16. Novel reagentless paper-based screen-printed electrochemical sensor to detect phosphate.

    PubMed

    Cinti, Stefano; Talarico, Daria; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    Herein we describe a novel reagentless paper-based electrochemical phosphate sensor, manufactured with a simple and inexpensive approach. By following three easy steps, consisting of wax patterning, paper chemical modification, and electrode screen-printing, the filter paper provides an effective electroanalytical platform to sense phosphate ions in standard solutions and real samples (river water). The electrochemical properties of the paper-based platform were evaluated, firstly, by using ferricyanide as a redox mediator, proving no analyte-entrapment due to the cellulose lattice. Then, the reference colorimetric method for phosphate ions, which is based on the formation of phosphomolybdic complex, was successfully adapted to a reagentless electrochemically paper-based platform. This novel and highly sustainable configuration readily allows for the determination of phosphate ions with high reproducibility and long storage stability, achieving a detection limit of 4 μM over a wide linear range up to 300 μM. This in-house approach would be able to generically develop an affordable in situ and user-friendly sensing device without the addition of any reagent, to be applied for a broad range of analytes. PMID:27086102

  17. Detection of methyl salicylate using bi-enzyme electrochemical sensor consisting salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi; Bullock, Hannah; Lee, Sarah A; Sekar, Narendran; Eiteman, Mark A; Whitman, William B; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P

    2016-11-15

    Volatile organic compounds have been recognized as important marker chemicals to detect plant diseases caused by pathogens. Methyl salicylate has been identified as one of the most important volatile organic compounds released by plants during a biotic stress event such as fungal pathogen infection. Advanced detection of these marker chemicals could help in early identification of plant diseases and has huge significance for agricultural industry. This work describes the development of a novel bi-enzyme based electrochemical biosensor consisting of salicylate hydroxylase and tyrosinase enzymes immobilized on carbon nanotube modified electrodes. The amperometric detection using the bi-enzyme platform was realized through a series of cascade reactions that terminate in an electrochemical reduction reaction. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the sensitivity of the bi-enzyme sensor was 30.6±2.7µAcm(-2)µM(-1) and the limit of detection and limit of quantification were 13nM (1.80ppb) and 39nM (5.39ppb) respectively. Interference studies showed no significant interference from the other common plant volatile compounds. Synthetic analyte studies revealed that the bi-enzyme based biosensor can be used to reliably detect methyl salicylate released by unhealthy plants. PMID:27236726

  18. Serum Creatinine Detection by a Conducting Polymer Based Electrochemical Sensor to Identify Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Cheng, Scott; Korin, Yael; Reed, Elaine F.; Gjertson, David; Ho, Chih-ming; Gritsch, H. Albin; Veale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients who have abnormally high creatinine levels in their blood often have allograft dysfunction secondary to rejection. Creatinine has become the preferred marker for renal dysfunction and is readily available in hospital clinical settings. We developed a rapid and accurate polymer-based electrochemical point-of-care (POC) assay for creatinine detection from whole blood to identify allograft dysfunction. The creatinine concentrations of 19 blood samples from transplant recipients were measured directly from clinical serum samples by the conducting polymer based electrochemical (EC) sensor arrays. These measurements were compared to the traditional clinical laboratory assay. The time required for detection was less than 5 minutes from sample loading. Sensitivity of the detection was found to be 0.46 mg/dL of creatinine with only 40 μL sample in the creatinine concentration range of 0 mg/dL to 11.33 mg/dL. Signal levels that were detected electrochemically correlated closely with the creatinine blood concentration detected by the UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center traditional clinical laboratory assay (correlation coefficient 0.94). This work is encouraging for the development of a rapid and accurate POCT device for measuring creatinine levels in whole blood. PMID:22881369

  19. Novel alkaline-reduced cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites for non-enzymatic amperometric glucose sensor application.

    PubMed

    Yazid, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd; Isa, Illyas Md; Hashim, Norhayati

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites-modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O/graphene/GCE). The Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized based on a simple and straightforward chemical reduction process in alkaline aqueous solution using sodium carbonate as reductant. The size and shape of Cu2O nanoparticles on graphene sheets can be controlled by changing the amount of graphene oxide added during reaction. The electrochemical properties of Cu2O/graphene/GCE in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the pH, concentration of supporting electrolyte, and scan rate had very crucial effect on the sensitivity of prepared sensor towards glucose oxidation. At an applied potential of +0.50V, the Cu2O/graphene/GCE presented a high sensitivity of 1330.05μAmM(-1)cm(-2) and fast response (within 3s). The amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor developed had a linear relationship from 0.01mM to 3.0mM glucose and detection limit of 0.36μM. In the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, chloride and citrate ion and other carbohydrates, the interferences were negligible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of glucose concentration in real human blood samples. PMID:27524043

  20. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achievemore » high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.« less

  1. Electrocatalytic interface based on novel carbon nanomaterials for advanced electrochemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-07-17

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology provides new opportunities for the sustainable progress of nanoscale catalysts (i.e., nanocatalysts). The introduction of nanocatalysts into electronic devices implants their novel functions into electronic sensing systems, resulting in the testing of many advanced electrochemical sensors and the fabrication of some highly sensitive, selective, and stable sensing platforms. In this Review, we will summarize recent significant progress on exploring advanced carbon nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, highly ordered mesoporous carbons, and electron cyclotron resonance sputtered nanocarbon film) as nanoscale electrocatalysts (i.e., nanoelectrocatalysts) for constructing the catalytic nanointerfaces of electronic devices to achieve high-sensitivity and high-selectivity electrochemical sensors. Furthermore, different mechanisms for the extraordinary and unique electrocatalytic activities of these carbon nanomaterials will be also highlighted, compared and discussed. An outlook on the future trends and developments in this area will be provided at the end. Notably, to elaborate the nature of carbon nanomaterial, we will mainly focus on the electrocatalysis of single kind of carbon materials rather than their hybrid composite materials. As a result, we expect that advanced carbon nanomaterials with unique electrocatalytic activities will continue to attract increasing research interest and lead to new opportunities in various fields of research.

  2. Electrochemical performance, biocompatibility, and adhesion of new polymer matrices for solid-state ion sensors.

    PubMed

    Cha, G S; Liu, D; Meyerhoff, M E; Cantor, H C; Midgley, A R; Goldberg, H D; Brown, R B

    1991-09-01

    Ammonium and potassium ion-selective membranes formulated with PVC/hydroxylated PVC, polyurethane/hydroxylated PVC, and moisture-curable silicone rubber matrices are studied in an effort to extend the lifetime of solid-state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. The PVC/membranes exhibit electrochemical performance equivalent to that of conventional PVC membranes in terms of slope, detection limit, and selectivity. The polyurethane- and silicone-rubber-based membranes have better adhesion to silicon nitride than do PVC or hydroxylated PVC matrices. Incorporating a silanizing reagent (silicon tetrachloride) significantly improves the adhesion of the polyurethane matrix. The use of silicon tetrachloride in membrane matrices also enhances the electrochemical stability of the interfacial potential between ion-selective polymer-matrix membranes and silver epoxy inner reference electrodes of solid-state sensors. The biocompatibility of the polymer matrices is examined via radiotracer protein adsorption studies and whole blood clotting time measurements. The polyurethane- and silicone-rubber-based membranes exhibit less overall nonspecific protein adsorption than the PVC or hydroxylated PVC matrices. PMID:1789437

  3. Electrochemical DNA sensor-based strategy for sensitive detection of DNA demethylation and DNA demethylase activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingming; Fan, Mengxing; Yang, Yin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-31

    DNA demethylation and demethylase activity play important roles in DNA self-repair, and their detection is key to early diagnosis of fatal diseases. Herein, a facile electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor was developed for the sensitive detection of DNA demethylation and demethylase activity based on an enzyme cleavage strategy. The thiol modified hemi-methylated hairpin probe DNA (pDNA) was self-assembled on a Au electrode surface through the formation of AuS bonds. The hemi-methylated pDNA served as the substrate of DNA demethylase (using methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) as an example). Following demethylation, the hairpin stem was then recognized and cleaved by BstUI endonuclease. The ferrocene carboxylic acid (FcA)-tagged pDNA strands were released into the buffer solution from the electrode surface, resulting in a significant decrease of electrochemical signal and providing a means to observe DNA demethylation. The activity of DNA demethylase was analyzed in the concentration ranging from 0.5 to 500 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection as low as 0.17 ng mL(-1). With high specificity and sensitivity, rapid response, and low cost, this simple E-DNA sensor provides a unique platform for the sensitive detection of DNA demethylation, DNA demethylase activity, and related molecular diagnostics and drug screening. PMID:27506345

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid by metal-oxide-coated Ti electrodes.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Xu, Zesheng; Niu, Junfeng; Rao, Neti Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) over metal-oxide-coated Ti anodes, i.e., Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2, was examined. The degradation efficiency of over 90% was attained at 20 min at different initial concentrations (0.5-20 mg L(-1)) and initial pH values (3.1-11.2). The degradation efficiencies of 2,4,5-T on Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb and Ti/RuO2 anodes were higher than 99.9%, 97.2% and 91.5% at 30 min, respectively, and the respective total organic carbon removal ratios were 65.7%, 54.6% and 37.2%. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4,5-T in aqueous solution followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The compounds, i.e., 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone and 2,5-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone, have been identified as the main aromatic intermediates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the energy efficiencies of 2,4,5-T (20 mg L(-1)) degradation with Ti/SnO2-Sb/Ce-PbO2 anode at the optimal current densities from 2 to 16 mA cm(-2) ranged from 8.21 to 18.73 kWh m(-3). PMID:25981800

  5. DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Detection Tool

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Park, Su-Moon

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in label free DNA hybridization sensors employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a detection tool are reviewed. These sensors are based on the modulation of the blocking ability of an electrode modified with a probe DNA by an analyte, i.e., target DNA. The probe DNA is immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer, a conducting polymer film, or a layer of nanostructures on the electrode such that desired probe DNA would selectively hybridize with target DNA. The rate of charge transfer from the electrode thus modified to a redox indicator, e.g., [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−, which is measured by EIS in the form of charge transfer resistance (Rct), is modulated by whether or not, as well as how much, the intended target DNA is selectively hybridized. Efforts made to enhance the selectivity as well as the sensitivity of DNA sensors and to reduce the EIS measurement time are briefly described along with brief future perspectives in developing DNA sensors. PMID:22303136

  6. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration. PMID:27465437

  7. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles

    PubMed Central

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration. PMID:27465437

  8. Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrar, Md Abu; Dong, Yue; Lee, Paul Kyuheon; Kim, Woo Soo

    2016-07-01

    Here we report a flexible amperometric lactate biosensor using silver nanoparticle based conductive electrode. Mechanically bendable cross-serpentine-shaped silver electrode is generated on flexible substrate for the mechanical durability such as bending. The biosensor is designed and fabricated by modifying silver electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized by bovine serum albumin. The in-sensor pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode is fabricated by chloridization of silver electrode, which evinced its long-term potential stability against a standard commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The amperometric response of the sensor shows linear dependence with lactate concentration of 1~25 mM/L. Anionic selectivity is achieved by using drop-casted Nafion coated on silver electrode against anionic interferences such as ascorbate. This non-invasive electrochemical lactate sensor also demonstrates excellent resiliency against mechanical deformation and temperature fluctuation which leads the possibility of using it on human epidermis for continuous measurement of lactate from sweat. Near field communication based wireless data transmission is demonstrated to reflect a practical approach of the sensor to measure lactate concentration portably using human perspiration.

  9. Simultaneous electrochemical and 3D optical imaging of silver nanoparticle oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor-McAuley, Christopher; Martinez-Marrades, Ariadna; Tschulik, Kristina; Patel, Anisha N.; Combellas, Catherine; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Tessier, Gilles; Compton, Richard G.

    2014-03-01

    The oxidation of AgNPs at a thin-film gold electrode is simultaneously investigated via digital holography and electrochemistry. The use of holography allows, for the first time, the 3D visualization of the electrochemical interfacial region at a relatively high acquisition rate. It is demonstrated how the coupling of these two techniques provides complementary chemical information. The ensemble response of the oxidation of surface-adsorbed silver nanoparticles to AgCl is monitored electrochemically, whereas this process is difficult to observe optically. Conversely, the subsequent chemical dissolution of individual AgCl nanocrystals can be tracked optically due to the associated decrease in the scattered light intensity.

  10. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

  11. A new microplatform based on titanium dioxide nanofibers/graphene oxide nanosheets nanocomposite modified screen printed carbon electrode for electrochemical determination of adenine in the presence of guanine.

    PubMed

    Arvand, Majid; Ghodsi, Navid; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-15

    The current techniques for determining adenine have several shortcomings such as high cost, high time consumption, tedious pretreatment steps and the requirements for highly skilled personnel often restrict their use in routine analytical practice. This paper describes the development and utilization of a new nanocomposite consisting of titanium dioxide nanofibers (TNFs) and graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) for screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modification. The synthesized GONs and TNFs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The modified electrode (TNFs/GONs/SPCE) was used for electrochemical characterization of adenine. The TNFs/GONs/SPCE exhibited an increase in peak current and the electron transfer kinetics and decrease in the overpotential for the oxidation reaction of adenine. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the prepared sensor showed good sensitivity for determining adenine in two ranges from 0.1-1 and 1-10 μM, with a detection limit (DL) of 1.71 nM. Electrochemical studies suggested that the TNFs/GONs/SPCE provided a synergistic augmentation on the voltammetric behavior of electrochemical oxidation of adenine, which was indicated by the improvement of anodic peak current and a decrease in anodic peak potential. The amount of adenine in pBudCE4.1 plasmid was determined via the proposed sensor and the result was in good compatibility with the sequence data of pBudCE4.1 plasmid.

  12. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  13. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Xing; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Park, Jae Yeong

    2016-09-01

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named “TRGO” was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for the detection of cadmium and lead-heavy metal ions in an acetic-acid buffered solution using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The fabricated micro-sensor exhibited a linear detection range of 1.0 μg L‑1 to 120.0 μg L‑1 for both of the metal ions, and detection limits of 0.4 μg L‑1 and 1.0 μg L‑1 were recorded for the lead and cadmium (S/N = 3), respectively. Drinking-water samples were used for the practical assessment of the fabricated micro-sensor, and it showed an acceptable detection performance regarding the metal ions.

  14. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xing; Hossain, Md Faruk; Park, Jae Yeong

    2016-09-12

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named "TRGO" was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for the detection of cadmium and lead-heavy metal ions in an acetic-acid buffered solution using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The fabricated micro-sensor exhibited a linear detection range of 1.0 μg L(-1) to 120.0 μg L(-1) for both of the metal ions, and detection limits of 0.4 μg L(-1) and 1.0 μg L(-1) were recorded for the lead and cadmium (S/N = 3), respectively. Drinking-water samples were used for the practical assessment of the fabricated micro-sensor, and it showed an acceptable detection performance regarding the metal ions.

  15. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Xing; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Park, Jae Yeong

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named “TRGO” was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for the detection of cadmium and lead-heavy metal ions in an acetic-acid buffered solution using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The fabricated micro-sensor exhibited a linear detection range of 1.0 μg L−1 to 120.0 μg L−1 for both of the metal ions, and detection limits of 0.4 μg L−1 and 1.0 μg L−1 were recorded for the lead and cadmium (S/N = 3), respectively. Drinking-water samples were used for the practical assessment of the fabricated micro-sensor, and it showed an acceptable detection performance regarding the metal ions. PMID:27616629

  16. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Xing; Hossain, Md Faruk; Park, Jae Yeong

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named "TRGO" was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for the detection of cadmium and lead-heavy metal ions in an acetic-acid buffered solution using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The fabricated micro-sensor exhibited a linear detection range of 1.0 μg L(-1) to 120.0 μg L(-1) for both of the metal ions, and detection limits of 0.4 μg L(-1) and 1.0 μg L(-1) were recorded for the lead and cadmium (S/N = 3), respectively. Drinking-water samples were used for the practical assessment of the fabricated micro-sensor, and it showed an acceptable detection performance regarding the metal ions. PMID:27616629

  17. Electrochemical studies on nanometal oxide-activated carbon composite electrodes for aqueous supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Mui Yen; Khiew, Poi Sim; Isa, Dino; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2014-11-01

    In present study, the electrochemical performance of eco-friendly and cost-effective titanium oxide (TiO2)-based and zinc oxide-based nanocomposite electrodes were studied in neutral aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these composite electrodes were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results reveal that these two nanocomposite electrodes achieve the highest specific capacitance at fairly low oxide loading onto activated carbon (AC) electrodes, respectively. Considerable enhancement of the electrochemical properties of TiO2/AC and ZnO/AC nanocomposite electrodes is achieved via synergistic effects contributed from the nanostructured metal oxides and the high surface area mesoporous AC. Cations and anions from metal oxides and aqueous electrolyte such as Ti4+, Zn2+, Na+ and SO32- can occupy some pores within the high-surface-area AC electrodes, forming the electric double layer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Additionally, both TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for SO32- anions which subsequently facilitate the faradaic processes for pseudocapacitive effect. These two systems provide the low cost material electrodes and the low environmental impact electrolyte which offer the increased charge storage without compromising charge storage kinetics.

  18. Integrating electrochemical oxidation into forward osmosis process for removal of trace antibiotics in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengxiao; Zhang, Hanmin; Feng, Yujie; Shen, Chao; Yang, Fenglin

    2015-10-15

    During the rejection of trace pharmaceutical contaminants from wastewater by forward osmosis (FO), disposal of the FO concentrate was still an unsolved issue. In this study, by integrating the advantages of forward osmosis and electrochemical oxidation, a forward osmosis process with the function of electrochemical oxidation (FOwEO) was established for the first time to achieve the aim of rejection of trace antibiotics from wastewater and treatment of the concentrate at the same time. Results demonstrated that FOwEO (current density J=1 mA cm(-2)) exhibited excellent rejections of antibiotics (>98%) regardless of different operation conditions, and above all, antibiotics in the concentrate were well degraded (>99%) at the end of experiment (after 3h). A synergetic effect between forward osmosis and electrochemical oxidation was observed in FOwEO, which lies in that antibiotic rejections by FO were enhanced due to the degradation of antibiotics in the concentrate, while the electrochemical oxidation capacity was improved in the FOwEO channel, of which good mass transfer and the assist of indirect oxidation owing to the reverse NaCl from draw solution were supposed to be the mechanism. This study demonstrated that the FOwEO has the capability to thoroughly remove trace antibiotics from wastewater.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a nanocomposite of goethite nanorods and reduced graphene oxide for electrochemical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shou Qingliang; Cheng Jipeng; Zhang Li; Nelson, Bradley J.; Zhang Xiaobin

    2012-01-15

    We report a one-step synthesis of a nanocomposite of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) nanorods and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using a solution method in which ferrous cations serve as a reducing agent of graphite oxide (GO) to graphene and a precursor to grow goethite nanorods. As-prepared goethite nanorods have an average length of 200 nm and a diameter of 30 nm and are densely attached on both sides of the RGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) charge-discharge tests. The results showed that goethite/RGO composites have a high electrochemical capacitance of 165.5 F g{sup -1} with an excellent recycling capability making the material promising for electrochemical capacitors. - Graphical abstract: The reduced graphene oxide sheets are decorated with goethite nanorods. The as-prepared composite exhibits a high electrochemical capacitance with good recycling capability, which is promising for supercapacitor applications. Higlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrous ions act as reductant of graphite oxide and precursor of goethite nanorods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Goethite nanorods are attached on both sides of the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite exhibits a high specific capacitance and a good recycling capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite is promising for supercapacitor applications.

  20. Porous nanoarchitectures of spinel-type transition metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-14

    Transition metal oxides possessing two kinds of metals (denoted as AxB3-xO4, which is generally defined as a spinel structure; A, B = Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.), with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, have recently attracted great interest in electrochemical energy storage systems (ESSs). The spinel-type transition metal oxides exhibit outstanding electrochemical activity and stability, and thus, they can play a key role in realising cost-effective and environmentally friendly ESSs. Moreover, porous nanoarchitectures can offer a large number of electrochemically active sites and, at the same time, facilitate transport of charge carriers (electrons and ions) during energy storage reactions. In the design of spinel-type transition metal oxides for energy storage applications, therefore, nanostructural engineering is one of the most essential approaches to achieving high electrochemical performance in ESSs. In this perspective, we introduce spinel-type transition metal oxides with various transition metals and present recent research advances in material design of spinel-type transition metal oxides with tunable architectures (shape, porosity, and size) and compositions on the micro- and nano-scale. Furthermore, their technological applications as electrode materials for next-generation ESSs, including metal-air batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, are discussed.

  1. Porous nanoarchitectures of spinel-type transition metal oxides for electrochemical energy storage systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Jong-Won; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-14

    Transition metal oxides possessing two kinds of metals (denoted as AxB3-xO4, which is generally defined as a spinel structure; A, B = Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc.), with stoichiometric or even non-stoichiometric compositions, have recently attracted great interest in electrochemical energy storage systems (ESSs). The spinel-type transition metal oxides exhibit outstanding electrochemical activity and stability, and thus, they can play a key role in realising cost-effective and environmentally friendly ESSs. Moreover, porous nanoarchitectures can offer a large number of electrochemically active sites and, at the same time, facilitate transport of charge carriers (electrons and ions) during energy storage reactions. In the design of spinel-type transition metal oxides for energy storage applications, therefore, nanostructural engineering is one of the most essential approaches to achieving high electrochemical performance in ESSs. In this perspective, we introduce spinel-type transition metal oxides with various transition metals and present recent research advances in material design of spinel-type transition metal oxides with tunable architectures (shape, porosity, and size) and compositions on the micro- and nano-scale. Furthermore, their technological applications as electrode materials for next-generation ESSs, including metal-air batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors, are discussed. PMID:26549729

  2. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability.

  3. Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrochemically Activated by Bis-Spiro Quaternary Alkyl Ammonium for Capacitors.

    PubMed

    He, Tieshi; Meng, Xiangling; Nie, Junping; Tong, Yujin; Cai, Kedi

    2016-06-01

    Thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrochemically activated by a quaternary alkyl ammonium-based organic electrolytes/activated carbon (AC) electrode asymmetric capacitor is proposed. The electrochemical activation process includes adsorption of anions into the pores of AC in the positive electrode and the interlayer intercalation of cations into RGO in the negative electrode under high potential (4.0 V). The EA process of RGO by quaternary alkyl ammonium was investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical measurements, and the effects of cation size and structure were extensively evaluated. Intercalation by quaternary alkyl ammonium demonstrates a small degree of expansion of the whole crystal lattice (d002) and a large degree of expansion of the partial crystal lattice (d002) of RGO. RGO electrochemically activated by bis-spiro quaternary alkyl ammonium in propylene carbonate/AC asymmetric capacitor exhibits good activated efficiency, high specific capacity, and stable cyclability. PMID:27180820

  4. Effect of nanostructured graphene oxide on electrochemical activity of its composite with polyaniline titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binh Phan, Thi; Thanh Luong, Thi; Mai, Thi Xuan; Thanh Thuy Mai, Thi; Tot Pham, Thi

    2016-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) significantly affects the electrochemical activity of its composite with polyanline titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work various composites with different GO contents have been successfully synthesized by chemical method to compare not only their material properties but also electrochemical characteristics with each other. The results of an electrochemical impedance study showed that their electrochemical property has been improved due to the presence of GO in a composite matrix. The galvanodynamic polarization explained that among them the composite with GO/Ani ratio in the range of 1-14 exhibits a better performance compared to the other due to yielding a higher current desity (280 μA cm-2). The TEM and SEM images which presented the fibres of a composite bundle with the presence of PANi and TiO2 were examined by IR-spectra and x-ray diffraction, respectively.

  5. Highly NO2 sensitive caesium doped graphene oxide conductometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Piloto, Carlo; Notarianni, Marco; Shafiei, Mahnaz; Taran, Elena; Galpaya, Dilini; Yan, Cheng; Motta, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    Here we report on the synthesis of caesium doped graphene oxide (GO-Cs) and its application to the development of a novel NO2 gas sensor. The GO, synthesized by oxidation of graphite through chemical treatment, was doped with Cs by thermal solid-state reaction. The samples, dispersed in DI water by sonication, have been drop-casted on standard interdigitated Pt electrodes. The response of both pristine and Cs doped GO to NO2 at room temperature is studied by varying the gas concentration. The developed GO-Cs sensor shows a higher response to NO2 than the pristine GO based sensor due to the oxygen functional groups. The detection limit measured with GO-Cs sensor is ≈90 ppb. PMID:25161842

  6. Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite as a new sensing layer for electrochemical determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, Fariba; Vahed, Saba; Bagheri, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    An Au-Pd/reduced graphene oxide composite was employed as a novel electrode material for the sensitive and simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, acetaminophen and tyrosine. The electrochemical response characteristics of the modified electrode toward the analytes were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The responses of the electrochemical sensor for the target analytes were found to be improved significantly in comparison with those obtained using a conventional carbon paste electrode (CPE) and reduced graphene oxide/CPE. The experimental conditions for simultaneous determination of these species have been established. Ternary mixtures of analytes can be determined in the ranges of 0.03-9.50μM. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection were 15.7, 7.6 and 11.1nM for ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, and tyrosine, respectively. The method was applied successfully to determine the analytes in urine, serum and pharmaceutical samples simultaneously. PMID:27524083

  7. Fabrication of electrochemical sensor for paracetamol based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan-copper complex by self-assembly technique.

    PubMed

    Mao, Airong; Li, Hongbo; Jin, Dangqin; Yu, Liangyun; Hu, Xiaoya

    2015-11-01

    An electrochemical sensor for paracetamol based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan-copper complex (MWCNTs/CTS-Cu) was fabricated by self-assembly technique. The MWCNTs/CTS-Cu modified GCE showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of paracetamol, and accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and paracetamol. Under optimal experimental conditions, the differential pulse peak current was linear with the concentration of paracetamol in the range of 0.1-200 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.024 μmol L(-1). The sensitivity was found to be 0.603 A/mol L(-1). The proposed sensor also showed a high selectivity for paracetamol in the presence of ascorbic acid and dopamine. Moreover, the proposed electrode revealed good reproducibility and stability. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of paracetamol in tablet and human serum samples.

  8. Electrochemical functionalization of polypyrrole through amine oxidation of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: Application to DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Miodek, Anna; Mejri-Omrani, Nawel; Khoder, Rabih; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical patterning method has been developed to fabricate composite based on polypyrrole (PPy) film and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of fourth generation (PAMAM G4). PPy layer was generated using electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on a gold electrode. PPy film was then modified with PAMAM G4 using amines electro-oxidation method. Covalent bonding of PAMAM G4 and the formation of PPy-PAMAM composite was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Ferrocenyl groups were then attached to such surface as a redox marker. Electrochemical properties of the modified nanomaterial (PPy-PAMAM-Fc) were studied using both amperometric and impedimetric methods to demonstrate the efficiency of electron transfer through the modified PPy layer. The obtained electrical and electrochemical properties were compared to a composite where PPy bearing carboxylic acid functions was chemically modified with PAMAM G4 by covalent attachment through formation of amid bond (PPy-CONH-PAMAM). The above mentioned studies showed that electrochemical patterning does not disturb the electronic properties of PPy. The effect of the number of functional groups introduced by the electrochemical patterning was demonstrated through the association of various compounds (ethylenediamine, PAMAM G2 and PAMAM G6). We demonstrated that such compounds could be applied in the biosensors technology. The modified PPy-PAMAM-Fc was evaluated as a platform for DNA sensing. High performance in the DNA detection by variation of the electrochemical signal of ferrocene was obtained with detection limit of 0.4 fM. Furthermore, such approach of electrochemical patterning by oxidation of amines could be applied for chemical modification of PPy and open a new way in various biosensing application involving functionalized PPy.

  9. Electrochemical functionalization of polypyrrole through amine oxidation of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: Application to DNA biosensor.

    PubMed

    Miodek, Anna; Mejri-Omrani, Nawel; Khoder, Rabih; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical patterning method has been developed to fabricate composite based on polypyrrole (PPy) film and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of fourth generation (PAMAM G4). PPy layer was generated using electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on a gold electrode. PPy film was then modified with PAMAM G4 using amines electro-oxidation method. Covalent bonding of PAMAM G4 and the formation of PPy-PAMAM composite was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Ferrocenyl groups were then attached to such surface as a redox marker. Electrochemical properties of the modified nanomaterial (PPy-PAMAM-Fc) were studied using both amperometric and impedimetric methods to demonstrate the efficiency of electron transfer through the modified PPy layer. The obtained electrical and electrochemical properties were compared to a composite where PPy bearing carboxylic acid functions was chemically modified with PAMAM G4 by covalent attachment through formation of amid bond (PPy-CONH-PAMAM). The above mentioned studies showed that electrochemical patterning does not disturb the electronic properties of PPy. The effect of the number of functional groups introduced by the electrochemical patterning was demonstrated through the association of various compounds (ethylenediamine, PAMAM G2 and PAMAM G6). We demonstrated that such compounds could be applied in the biosensors technology. The modified PPy-PAMAM-Fc was evaluated as a platform for DNA sensing. High performance in the DNA detection by variation of the electrochemical signal of ferrocene was obtained with detection limit of 0.4 fM. Furthermore, such approach of electrochemical patterning by oxidation of amines could be applied for chemical modification of PPy and open a new way in various biosensing application involving functionalized PPy. PMID:27154698

  10. Influence of the different carbon nanotubes on the development of electrochemical sensors for bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Lorena Athie; de Moraes, Fernando Cruz; Mascaro, Lucia Helena

    2016-01-01

    Different methods of functionalisation and the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotube sizes were investigated on the bisphenol A electrochemical determination. Samples with diameters of 20 to 170 nmwere functionalized in HNO3 5.0 mol L(-1) and a concentrated sulphonitric solution. The morphological characterisations before and after acid treatment were carried out by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The size and acid treatment affected the oxidation of bisphenol A. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes with a 20-40 nm diameter improved the method sensitivity and achieved a detection limit for determination of bisphenol A at 84.0 nmol L(-1).

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitance of long tungsten oxide nanorod arrays grown vertically on substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Young Heon; Lee, Tae Geol; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Jae Yong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Growth of long amorphous tungsten oxide nanorods on a substrate. ► Formation of single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods by a heat-treatment. ► High electrochemical pseudocapacitance of 2.8 mF cm{sup −2}. ► Excellent cyclability of psuedocapacitance up to 1000 cycles. -- Abstract: Long tungsten oxide nanorods are vertically grown on Al/W/Ti coated silicon substrates using a two-step anodization process. The first anodization of the Al film forms a mesh-like mask of anodic aluminum oxide, and the second anodization of the W film results in the formation of a buffer layer, a bottom nanorod, and a top nanorod of amorphous tungsten oxide. A pore-widening process prior to the second anodization leads to the enhancement of nanorod length above approximately 500 nm. After a heat-treatment, the tungsten oxide nanorods are crystallized to form a single crystalline structure while the buffer layer forms a polycrystalline structure. The crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods show a cyclic voltammogram retaining the quasi-rectangular shape of an electrochemically reversible faradaic redox reaction, i.e., a typical pseudocapacitive behavior. The maximum electrochemical capacitance per apparent surface area reaches approximately 2.8 mF cm{sup −2} at the voltage scan rate of 20 mV s{sup −1}, and the excellent cyclability of charge–discharge process is maintained up to 1000 cycles.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and electrochemical application of mesoporous copper oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Liang; Shao, Mingwang; Chen, Dayan; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous CuO was successfully synthesized via thermal decomposition of CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} precursors. These products had ring-like morphology, which was made up of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 40 nm. The electrochemical experiments showed that the mesoporous CuO decreased the overvoltage of the electrode and increased electron transference in the measurement of dopamine.

  13. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed.

  14. Nanostructured Mn-based oxides for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhe; Zhang, Xiaolong; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Batteries and supercapacitors as electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices are continuously serving for human life. The electrochemical performance of batteries and supercapacitors depends in large part on the active materials in electrodes. As an important family, Mn-based oxides have shown versatile applications in primary batteries, secondary batteries, metal-air batteries, and pseudocapacitors due to their high activity, high abundance, low price, and environmental friendliness. In order to meet future market demand, it is essential and urgent to make further improvements in energy and power densities of Mn-based electrode materials with the consideration of multiple electron reaction and low molecular weight of the active materials. Meanwhile, nanomaterials are favourable to achieve high performance by means of shortening the ionic diffusion length and providing large surface areas for electrode reactions. This article reviews the recent efforts made to apply nanostructured Mn-based oxides for batteries and pseudocapacitors. The influence of structure, morphology, and composition on electrochemical performance has been systematically summarized. Compared to bulk materials and notable metal catalysts, nanostructured Mn-based oxides can promote the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring at the solid-liquid or the solid-liquid-gas interface. In particular, nanostructured Mn-based oxides such as one-dimensional MnO2 nanostructures, MnO2-conductive matrix nanocomposites, concentration-gradient structured layered Li-rich Mn-based oxides, porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 nanorods, core-shell structured LiMnSiO4@C nanocomposites, spinel-type Co-Mn-O nanoparticles, and perovskite-type CaMnO3 with micro-nano structures all display superior electrochemical performance. This review should shed light on the sustainable development of advanced batteries and pseudocapacitors with nanostructured Mn-based oxides.

  15. An electrochemical impedimetric sensor based on biomimetic electrospun nanofibers for formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong; Gong, Lingshan; Xu, Guifang; Li, Xiuhua; Zhang, Shupei; Lin, Yanyu; Zeng, Baoshan; Yang, Caiping; Chen, Guonan

    2015-01-21

    Herein, simple molecular recognition sites for formaldehyde were designed on electrospun polymer nanofibers. In order to improve the conductivity of the electrospun polymer nanofibers, carbon nanotubes were introduced into the resulting nanofibers. By employing these functionalized nanocomposite fibers to fabricate a biomimetic sensor platform, an obvious change caused by recognition between recognition sites and formaldehyde molecules was monitored through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental conditions were optimized and then a quantitative method for formaldehyde sensing in low concentration was established. The relative results demonstrated that the sensor based on biomimetic recognition nanofibers displays an excellent recognition capacity toward formaldehyde. The linear response range of the sensor was between 1 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) and 1 × 10(-2) mol L(-1), with the detection limit of 8 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The presented research provided a fast, feasible and sensitive method for formaldehyde with good anti-interference capabilities and good stability, which could meet the practical requirement for formaldehyde assay.

  16. Mercury Underpotential Deposition to Determine Iridium and Iridium Oxide Electrochemical Surface Areas

    DOE PAGES

    Alia, Shaun M.; Hurst, Katherine E.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-06-02

    Determining the surface areas of electrocatalysts is critical for separating the key properties of area-specific activity and electrochemical surface area from mass activity. Hydrogen underpotential deposition and carbon monoxide oxidation are typically used to evaluate iridium (Ir) surface areas, but are ineffective on oxides and can be sensitive to surface oxides formed on Ir metals. Mercury underpotential deposition is presented in this study as an alternative, able to produce reasonable surface areas on Ir and Ir oxide nanoparticles, and able to produce similar surface areas prior to and following characterization in oxygen evolution. Reliable electrochemical surface areas allow for comparativemore » studies of different catalyst types and the characterization of advanced oxygen evolution catalysts. Lastly, they also enable the study of catalyst degradation in durability testing, both areas of increasing importance within electrolysis and electrocatalysis.« less

  17. Electrochemically induced oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) for As(III) oxidation and removal in synthetic groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tong, Man; Yuan, Songhu; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Peng; Alshawabkeh, Akram N; Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    Mobilization of Arsenic in groundwater is primarily induced by reductive dissolution of As-rich Fe(III) oxyhydroxides under anoxic conditions. Creating a well-controlled artificial environment that favors oxidative precipitation of Fe(II) and subsequent oxidation and uptake of aqueous As can serve as a remediation strategy. We reported a proof of concept study of a novel iron-based dual anode system for As(III) oxidation and removal in synthetic groundwater. An iron anode was used to produce Fe(II) under iron-deficient conditions, and another inert anode was used to generate O2 for oxidative precipitation of Fe(II). For 30 min's treatment, 6.67 μM (500 μg/L) of As(III) was completely oxidized and removed from the solution during the oxidative precipitation process when a total current of 60 mA was equally partitioned between the two anodes. The current on the inert anode determined the rate of O2 generation and was linearly related to the rates of Fe(II) oxidation and of As oxidation and removal, suggesting that the process could be manipulated electrochemically. The composition of Fe precipitates transformed from carbonate green rust to amorphous iron oxyhydroxide as the inert anode current increased. A conceptual model was proposed for the in situ application of the electrochemically induced oxidative precipitation process for As(III) remediation.

  18. Direct detection of Pb in urine and Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in natural waters using electrochemical sensors immobilized with DMSA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Choi, Daiwon; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2008-03-01

    Urine is universally recognized as one of the best non-invasive matrices for biomonitoring exposure to a broad range of xenobiotics including toxic metals. For direct, simple, and field-deployable monitoring of urinary Pb, electrochemical sensors employing superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a surface functionalization of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been developed. The metal detection involves rapid collection of dispersed metal-bound nanoparticles from a sample solution at a magnetic or electromagnetic electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetry of the metal in acidic medium. The sensors were evaluated as a function of solution pH, the binding affinity of Pb to DMSA-Fe3O4, the ratio of nanoparticles per sample volume, preconcentration time, and Pb concentrations. The effect of binding competitions between the DMSA-Fe3O4 and urine constituents for Pb on the sensor responses was studied. After 90s of preconcentration in samples containing 25 vol.% of rat urine and 0.1 g/L of DMSA-Fe3O4, the sensor could detect background level of Pb (< 1 ppb) and yielded linear responses from 0 to 50 ppb of Pb, excellent reproducibility (%R.S.D of 5.3 for seven measurements of 30 ppb Pb), and Pb concentrations comparable to those measured by ICP-MS. The sensor could also simultaneously detect background levels (< 1 ppb) of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in river and seawater.

  19. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical properties of ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale vertically aligned ZnO nanowires with high crystal qualities were fabricated on thin graphene oxide films via a low temperature hydrothermal method. Room temperature photoluminescence results show that the ultraviolet emission of nanowires grown on graphene oxide films was greatly enhanced and the defect-related visible emission was suppressed, which can be attributed to the improved crystal quality and possible electron transfer between ZnO and graphene oxide. Electrochemical property measurement results demonstrated that the ZnO nanowires/graphene oxide have large integral area of cyclic voltammetry loop, indicating that such heterostructure is promising for application in supercapacitors. PMID:23522184

  20. Continuous, real-time monitoring of cocaine in undiluted blood serum via a microfluidic, electrochemical aptamer-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Swensen, James S; Xiao, Yi; Ferguson, Brian S; Lubin, Arica A; Lai, Rebecca Y; Heeger, Alan J; Plaxco, Kevin W; Soh, H Tom

    2009-04-01

    The development of a biosensor system capable of continuous, real-time measurement of small-molecule analytes directly in complex, unprocessed aqueous samples has been a significant challenge, and successful implementation has been achieved for only a limited number of targets. Toward a general solution to this problem, we report here the Microfluidic Electrochemical Aptamer-based Sensor (MECAS) chip wherein we integrate target-specific DNA aptamers that fold, and thus generate an electrochemical signal, in response to the analyte with a microfluidic detection system. As a model, we demonstrate the continuous, real-time (approximately 1 min time resolution) detection of the small-molecule drug cocaine at near physiological, low micromolar concentrations directly in undiluted, otherwise unmodified blood serum. We believe our approach of integrating folding-based electrochemical sensors with miniaturized detection systems may lay the groundwork for the real-time, point-of-care detection of a wide variety of molecular targets.

  1. A microporous anionic metal-organic framework for a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensor of Cu(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Wu, Ju; Yang, Guo-Ping; Wu, Yun-Long; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2016-06-28

    We first reported an anionic metal-organic framework for electrode material for the electrochemical detection of Cu(2+). The modified electrode shows an excellent selectivity, high stability and sensitivity, wide linear range and lower detection limit. This strategy for generating new electrode materials will be useful for preparing new sensors and reporters for biological systems.

  2. Detection of IP-10 protein marker in undiluted blood serum via an electrochemical E-DNA scaffold sensor

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Andrew J.; Paden, Nicole G.; Ricci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical analog of fluorescence polarization that supports the quantitative measurement of a specific protein, the chemokine IP-10, directly in undiluted blood serum. The sensor is label-free, wash-free, and electronic, suggesting it could support point-of-care detection of diagnostic proteins in largely unprocessed clinical samples. PMID:23905162

  3. Electrochemically triggered release of human insulin from an insulin-impregnated reduced graphene oxide modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Teodorescu, Florina; Rolland, Laure; Ramarao, Viswanatha; Abderrahmani, Amar; Mandler, Daniel; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-09-28

    An electrochemical insulin-delivery system based on reduced graphene oxide impregnated with insulin is described. Upon application of a potential pulse of -0.8 V for 30 min, up to 70 ± 4% of human insulin was released into a physiological medium while preserving its biological activity.

  4. A hydrophobic three-dimensionally networked boron-doped diamond electrode towards electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    He, Yapeng; Lin, Haibo; Wang, Xue; Huang, Weimin; Chen, Rongling; Li, Hongdong

    2016-06-28

    A boron-doped diamond electrode with a three-dimensional network was fabricated on a mesh titanium substrate. Properties such as higher surface area, enhanced mass transfer and a hydrophobic surface endowed the prepared electrode with excellent electrochemical oxidation ability towards contaminants. PMID:27264247

  5. Intermediate stages of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystalline platinum revealed by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the atomistic details of how platinum surfaces are oxidized under electrochemical conditions is of importance for many electrochemical devices such as fuel cells and electrolysers. Here we use in situ shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to identify the intermediate stages of the electrochemical oxidation of Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals in perchloric acid. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to assist in assigning the experimental Raman bands by simulating the vibrational frequencies of possible intermediates and products. The perchlorate anion is suggested to interact with hydroxyl phase formed on the surface. Peroxo-like and superoxo-like two-dimensional (2D) surface oxides and amorphous 3D α-PtO2 are sequentially formed during the anodic polarization. Our measurements elucidate the process of the electrochemical oxidation of platinum single crystals by providing evidence for the structure-sensitive formation of a 2D platinum-(su)peroxide phase. These results may contribute towards a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of degradation of platinum electrocatalysts.

  6. Intermediate stages of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystalline platinum revealed by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Kooyman, Patricia J.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the atomistic details of how platinum surfaces are oxidized under electrochemical conditions is of importance for many electrochemical devices such as fuel cells and electrolysers. Here we use in situ shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to identify the intermediate stages of the electrochemical oxidation of Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals in perchloric acid. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to assist in assigning the experimental Raman bands by simulating the vibrational frequencies of possible intermediates and products. The perchlorate anion is suggested to interact with hydroxyl phase formed on the surface. Peroxo-like and superoxo-like two-dimensional (2D) surface oxides and amorphous 3D α-PtO2 are sequentially formed during the anodic polarization. Our measurements elucidate the process of the electrochemical oxidation of platinum single crystals by providing evidence for the structure-sensitive formation of a 2D platinum-(su)peroxide phase. These results may contribute towards a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of degradation of platinum electrocatalysts. PMID:27514695

  7. A hydrophobic three-dimensionally networked boron-doped diamond electrode towards electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    He, Yapeng; Lin, Haibo; Wang, Xue; Huang, Weimin; Chen, Rongling; Li, Hongdong

    2016-06-28

    A boron-doped diamond electrode with a three-dimensional network was fabricated on a mesh titanium substrate. Properties such as higher surface area, enhanced mass transfer and a hydrophobic surface endowed the prepared electrode with excellent electrochemical oxidation ability towards contaminants.

  8. Intermediate stages of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystalline platinum revealed by in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Kooyman, Patricia J; Koper, Marc T M

    2016-08-12

    Understanding the atomistic details of how platinum surfaces are oxidized under electrochemical conditions is of importance for many electrochemical devices such as fuel cells and electrolysers. Here we use in situ shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to identify the intermediate stages of the electrochemical oxidation of Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals in perchloric acid. Density functional theory calculations were carried out to assist in assigning the experimental Raman bands by simulating the vibrational frequencies of possible intermediates and products. The perchlorate anion is suggested to interact with hydroxyl phase formed on the surface. Peroxo-like and superoxo-like two-dimensional (2D) surface oxides and amorphous 3D α-PtO2 are sequentially formed during the anodic polarization. Our measurements elucidate the process of the electrochemical oxidation of platinum single crystals by providing evidence for the structure-sensitive formation of a 2D platinum-(su)peroxide phase. These results may contribute towards a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of degradation of platinum electrocatalysts.

  9. CO oxidation on stepped-Pt(111) under electrochemical conditions: insights from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Busó-Rogero, C; Herrero, E; Bandlow, J; Comas-Vives, A; Jacob, Timo

    2013-11-14

    The co-adsorption of CO and OH on two Pt stepped surfaces vicinal to the (111) orientation has been evaluated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Focusing on Pt(533) and Pt(221), which contain (100) and (111)-steps, respectively, we find that (111)-steps should be more reactive towards CO oxidation than surfaces containing (100)-steps. The DFT results are compared with electrochemical experiments on the CO adsorption and oxidation on these vicinal surfaces. PMID:24072258

  10. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Rui; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Xiuling; Fan, Xiaoping; Xue, Liqun; Lin, Xiuzhu; Chen, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (S/N = 3), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μA·μM−1·cm−2. PMID:25694783

  11. A novel rapid synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/graphene nanocomposite using ferrate(VI) and its application as a new kind of nanocomposite modified electrode as electrochemical sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Banifatemeh, Fatemeh; Hatefi-Mehrjardi, Abdolhamid; Tavallali, Hossein; Eshaghia, Zarrin; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A novel rapid synthesis of rGO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite was developed using Fe(VI). • Fe(VI) as an environmentally friendly oxidant was introduced for GO synthesis. • Synthesized rGO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite was applied as electrochemical sensor. • A non-enzymatic sensor was developed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: In this study, a novel, simple and sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor was developed using reduced graphene oxide/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. This nanocomposite was synthesized by reaction of sodium ferrate with graphene in alkaline media. This reaction completed in 5 min and the products were stable and its deposition on the surface of electrode is investigated. It has been found the apparent charge transfer rate constant (ks) is 0.52 and transfer coefficient (α) is 0.61 for electron transfer between the modifier and glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical behavior of this electrode and its ability to catalyze the electro-reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at different experimental conditions. The analytical parameters showed the good ability of electrode as a sensor for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amperometric reduction.

  12. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  13. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Hastir, Anita Singh, Onkar Anand, Kanika Singh, Ravi Chand

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400°C.

  14. Non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor based on NiMoO₄ nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Cai, Daoping; Huang, Hui; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Han; Wang, Yanrong; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2015-04-10

    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on the NiMoO4 nanorods has been fabricated for the first time. The electrocatalytic performance of the NiMoO4 nanorods' modified electrode toward glucose oxidation was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The NiMoO4 nanorods' modified electrode showed a greatly enhanced electrocatalytic property toward glucose oxidation, as well as an excellent anti-interference and a good stability. Impressively, good accuracy and high precision for detecting glucose concentration in human serum samples were obtained. These excellent sensing properties, combined with good reproducibility and low cost, indicate that NiMoO4 nanorods are a promising candidate for non-enzymatic glucose sensors. PMID:25772142

  15. Detection of Smoldering Fire Using Tin Oxide Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashino, Tsubasa; Sawada, Ayako; Oyabu, Takashi; Takei, Yoshinori; Nanto, Hidehito; Toko, Kiyoshi

    Detecting technique of smoldering fire was examined using tin oxide gas sensors. Eight sensors were installed in a room. They were same type. Four kinds of materials were adopted as a fire-source material. The materials were cotton cloth, wallpaper, curtain cloth and woodchip, which were main smoldering fire-source materials in an indoor environment. The sensor outputs to gases evolved upon the smoldering fire of the materials were measured. The differential characteristic of the output was derived to analyze. As for the results, it became obvious that the sensor locating at higher position had a higher sensitivity and it could sense the fire instantaneously. It is thought that the generated gases rise up directly toward the ceiling and reflect downward. A small type of electric cooking stove was used as a fire-source. The surface temperature of the stove plate arrived at 340 °C. A bar was adopted to set the sensors freely. In this experiment, three bars were adopted and the heights of the sensor position were 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm from the floor. It is effective to locate the sensor at higher position in detecting a smoldering fire. The sensor characteristics were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The system could discriminate source materials among wallpaper, woodchip and curtain for smoldering fire by utilizing the result of PCA. But, the smoldering fire of cotton cloth could not be distinguished from that of curtain by this system. Each fire could be identified in four minutes.

  16. Micro-Drilling of Polymer Tubular Ultramicroelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kafka, Jan; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver; Larsen, Niels B.

    2013-01-01

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 μm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 μm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM. PMID:23673674

  17. Micro-drilling of polymer tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays for electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Jan; Skaarup, Steen; Geschke, Oliver; Larsen, Niels B

    2013-05-14

    We present a reproducible fast prototyping procedure based on micro-drilling to produce homogeneous tubular ultramicroelectrode arrays made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), a conductive polymer. Arrays of Ø 100 µm tubular electrodes each having a height of 0.37 ± 0.06 µm were reproducibly fabricated. The electrode dimensions were analyzed by SEM after deposition of silver dendrites to visualize the electroactive electrode area. The electrochemical applicability of the electrodes was demonstrated by voltammetric and amperometric detection of ferri-/ferrocyanide. Recorded signals were in agreement with results from finite element modelling of the system. The tubular PEDOT ultramicroelectrode arrays were modified by prussian blue to enable the detection of hydrogen peroxide. A linear sensor response was demonstrated for hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.1 mM to 1 mM.

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS FOR THE DETECTION OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS FOR APPLICATIONS IN BIOMEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Özel, Rıfat Emrah; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are important biological molecules that are essential to many neurophysiological processes including memory, cognition, and behavioral states. The development of analytical methodologies to accurately detect neurotransmitters is of great importance in neurological and biological research. Specifically designed microelectrodes or microbiosensors have demonstrated potential for rapid, real-time measurements with high spatial resolution. Such devices can facilitate study of the role and mechanism of action of neurotransmitters and can find potential uses in biomedicine. This paper reviews the current status and recent advances in the development and application of electrochemical sensors for the detection of small-molecule neurotransmitters. Measurement challenges and opportunities of electroanalytical methods to advance study and understanding of neurotransmitters in various biological models and disease conditions are discussed. PMID:26973348

  19. Removal of the X-ray contrast media diatrizoate by electrochemical reduction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Flexer, Victoria; Donose, Bogdan C; Sedlak, David L; Keller, Jurg

    2013-01-01

    Due to their resistance to biological wastewater treatment, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) have been detected in municipal wastewater effluents at relatively high concentrations (i.e., up to 100 μg L(-1)), with hospitals serving as their main source. To provide a new approach for reducing the concentrations of ICMs in wastewater, electrochemical reduction at three-dimensional graphite felt and graphite felt doped with palladium nanoparticles was examined as a means for deiodination of the common ICM diatrizoate. The presence of palladium nanoparticles significantly enhanced the removal of diatrizoate and enabled its complete deiodination to 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid. When the system was employed in the treatment of hospital wastewater, diatrizoate was reduced, but the extent of electrochemical reduction decreased as a result of competing reactions with solutes in the matrix. Following electrochemical reduction of diatrizoate to 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, electrochemical oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes was employed. 3,5-Diacetamidobenzoic acid disappeared from solution at a rate that was similar to that of diatrizoate, but it was more readily mineralized than the parent compound. When electrochemical reduction and oxidation were coupled in a three-compartment reactor operated in a continuous mode, complete deiodination of diatrizoate was achieved at an applied cathode potential of -1.7 V vs SHE, with the released iodide ions electrodialyzed in a central compartment with 80% efficiency. The resulting BDD anode potential (i.e., +3.4-3.5 V vs SHE) enabled efficient oxidation of the products of the reductive step. The presence of other anions (e.g., chloride) was likely responsible for a decrease in I(-) separation efficiency when hospital wastewater was treated. Reductive deiodination combined with oxidative degradation provides benefits over oxidative treatment methods because it does not produce stable iodinated intermediates. Nevertheless

  20. An electrochemical DNA-sensor developed with the use of methylene blue as a redox indicator for the detection of DNA damage induced by endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyun; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-03-31

    An electrochemical biosensor capable of indirect detection of DNA damage induced by any one of the three endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) - bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-t-octylphenol (OP), has been researched and developed. The methylene blue (MB) dye was used as the redox indicator. The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by the assembled dsDNA/graphene oxide-chitosan/gold nano-particles to produce a dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs/GCE sensor. It was characterized with the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The loading/release of the MB dye by the dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs film was investigated, and the results showed that the process was reversible. Based on this, the sensor was used to measure the difference between the loading capabilities of intact and damaged dsDNA in the films. The sensor was then successfully applied to detect DNA damage electrochemically. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak current ratio for MB, observed before and after DNA damage, increased linearly in the presence the BPA, NP or OP compounds; the treatment range was 10-60 min, and the respective damage rates were 0.0069, 0.0044 and 0.0031 min(-1), respectively. These results were confirmed by the binding constants: 2.09×10(6) M(-1) (BPA-DNA), 1.28×10(6) M(-1) (NP-DNA) and 9.33×10(5) M(-1) (OP-DNA), all of which were obtained with the use of differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV).