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  1. Starvation of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol induces bradyzoite conversion in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lacking enzymes for sterol synthesis, the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii scavenges cholesterol from host cells to multiply. T. gondii has a complex life cycle consisting of two asexual stages; the proliferative stage (tachyzoite), and the latent stage characterized by tissue cysts (bradyzoite). In vitro, bradyzoite development can be induced by mimicking host immune response stressors through treatment with IFN-γ, heat shock, nitric oxide, and high pH. However, the extent to which host nutrients contribute to stage conversion in T. gondii is unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of host cholesterol levels on stage conversion in this parasite. Methods Growth of T. gondii tachyzoites (ME49 strain) was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using various concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), oleic acid, or glucose. Squalestatin, which is an inhibitor of squalene synthase and is, therefore, an inhibitor of sterol synthesis, was used to treat the CHO cells. Tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion rates were analyzed by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Results Parasite growth was significantly enhanced by addition of exogenous LDL, whereas no such enhancement occurred with oleic acids or glucose. In ME49, growth inhibition from squalestatin treatment was not obvious. Although growth of the RH strain was unaffected by squalestatin in the presence of lipoprotein, in its absence growth of this strain was suppressed. The frequency of BAG1-positive vacuoles in ME49 increased under lipoprotein-free conditions. However, addition of exogenous LDL did not increase tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion in this strain. Furthermore, treatment with squalestatin did not enhance stage conversion. Conclusion Our results suggest that LDL-derived cholesterol levels play a crucial role in bradyzoite conversion in T. gondii. PMID:24885547

  2. Identification of Tissue Cyst Wall Components by Transcriptome Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Toxoplasma gondii Bradyzoites ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Kerry R.; Fritz, Heather M.; Chen, Xiucui; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Rocke, David M.; Ferguson, David J.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Boothroyd, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite is essential to establish persistent infection, yet little is known about what factors this developmental form secretes to establish the cyst or interact with its host cell. To identify candidate bradyzoite-secreted effectors, the transcriptomes of in vitro tachyzoites 2 days postinfection, in vitro bradyzoites 4 days postinfection, and in vivo bradyzoites 21 days postinfection were interrogated by microarray, and the program SignalP was used to identify signal peptides indicating secretion. One hundred two putative bradyzoite-secreted effectors were identified by this approach. Two candidates, bradyzoite pseudokinase 1 and microneme adhesive repeat domain-containing protein 4, were chosen for further investigation and confirmed to be induced and secreted by bradyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we report the first analysis of the transcriptomes of in vitro and in vivo bradyzoites and identify two new protein components of the Toxoplasma tissue cyst wall. PMID:22021236

  3. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii Bradyzoites Has a Diminished Impact on Host Transcript Levels Relative to Tachyzoite Infection▿†

    PubMed Central

    Fouts, A. E.; Boothroyd, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular pathogen, has the potential to infect nearly every warm-blooded animal but rarely causes morbidity. The ability for the parasite to convert to the bradyzoite stage and live inside slow-growing cysts that can go unnoticed by the host immune system allows for parasite persistence for the life of the infected host. This intracellular survival likely necessitates host cell modulation, and tachyzoites are known to modify a number of signaling cascades within the host to promote parasite survival. Little is known, however, about how bradyzoites manipulate their host cell. Microarrays were used to profile the host transcriptional changes caused by bradyzoite infection and compared to those of tachyzoite-infected and uninfected hosts cells 2 days postinfection in vitro. Infection resulted in chemokine, cytokine, extracellular matrix, and growth factor transcript level changes. A small group of genes were specifically induced by tachyzoite infection, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, BCL2-related protein A1, and interleukin-24. Bradyzoite infection yielded only about half the changes seen with tachyzoite infection, and those changes that did occur were almost all of lower magnitude than those induced by tachyzoites. These results suggest that bradyzoites lead a more stealthy existence within the infected host cell. PMID:17088349

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase in Toxoplasma gondii controls virulence, bradyzoite differentiation, and chronic infection

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E.; Fox, Barbara A.; Karram, Mohamed H.; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R.; Bzik, David J.; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    In the asexual stages, Toxoplasma gondii stage converts between acute phase rapidly replicating tachyzoites and chronic phase slowly dividing bradyzoites. Correspondingly, T. gondii differentially expresses two distinct genes and isoforms of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, expressing LDH1 exclusively in the tachyzoite stage and LDH2 preferentially in the bradyzoite stage. LDH catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate in anaerobic growth conditions and is utilized for energy supply, however, the precise role of LDH1 and LDH2 in parasite biology in the asexual stages is still unclear. Here, we investigated the biological role of LDH1 and LDH2 in the asexual stages, and the vaccine strain potential of deletion mutants lacking LDH1, LDH2, or both genes (Δldh1, Δldh2 and Δldh1/2). Deletion of LDH1 reduced acute parasite virulence, impaired bradyzoite differentiation in vitro, and markedly reduced chronic stage cyst burdens in vivo. In contrast, deletion of LDH2 impaired chronic stage cyst burdens without affecting virulence or bradyzoite differentiation. Deletion of both LDH1 and LDH2 induced a more severe defect in chronic stage cyst burdens. These LDH mutant phenotypes were not associated with any growth defect. Vaccination of mice with a low dose of mutants deleted for LDH elicited effective protective immunity to lethal challenge infection, demonstrating the vaccine potential of LDH deletion mutants. These results suggest that lactate dehydrogenase in T. gondii controls virulence, bradyzoite differentiation, and chronic infection and reveals the potential of LDH mutants as vaccine strains. PMID:28323833

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase in Toxoplasma gondii controls virulence, bradyzoite differentiation, and chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Fox, Barbara A; Karram, Mohamed H; Abd Ellah, Mahmoud R; Bzik, David J; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    In the asexual stages, Toxoplasma gondii stage converts between acute phase rapidly replicating tachyzoites and chronic phase slowly dividing bradyzoites. Correspondingly, T. gondii differentially expresses two distinct genes and isoforms of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, expressing LDH1 exclusively in the tachyzoite stage and LDH2 preferentially in the bradyzoite stage. LDH catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate in anaerobic growth conditions and is utilized for energy supply, however, the precise role of LDH1 and LDH2 in parasite biology in the asexual stages is still unclear. Here, we investigated the biological role of LDH1 and LDH2 in the asexual stages, and the vaccine strain potential of deletion mutants lacking LDH1, LDH2, or both genes (Δldh1, Δldh2 and Δldh1/2). Deletion of LDH1 reduced acute parasite virulence, impaired bradyzoite differentiation in vitro, and markedly reduced chronic stage cyst burdens in vivo. In contrast, deletion of LDH2 impaired chronic stage cyst burdens without affecting virulence or bradyzoite differentiation. Deletion of both LDH1 and LDH2 induced a more severe defect in chronic stage cyst burdens. These LDH mutant phenotypes were not associated with any growth defect. Vaccination of mice with a low dose of mutants deleted for LDH elicited effective protective immunity to lethal challenge infection, demonstrating the vaccine potential of LDH deletion mutants. These results suggest that lactate dehydrogenase in T. gondii controls virulence, bradyzoite differentiation, and chronic infection and reveals the potential of LDH mutants as vaccine strains.

  6. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of Toxoplasma gondii expression datasets links cell cycle progression and the bradyzoite developmental program.

    PubMed

    Croken, Matthew McKnight; Qiu, Weigang; White, Michael W; Kim, Kami

    2014-06-24

    Large amounts of microarray expression data have been generated for the Apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in an effort to identify genes critical for virulence or developmental transitions. However, researchers' ability to analyze this data is limited by the large number of unannotated genes, including many that appear to be conserved hypothetical proteins restricted to Apicomplexa. Further, differential expression of individual genes is not always informative and often relies on investigators to draw big-picture inferences without the benefit of context. We hypothesized that customization of gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to T. gondii would enable us to rigorously test whether groups of genes serving a common biological function are co-regulated during the developmental transition to the latent bradyzoite form. Using publicly available T. gondii expression microarray data, we created Toxoplasma gene sets related to bradyzoite differentiation, oocyst sporulation, and the cell cycle. We supplemented these with lists of genes derived from community annotation efforts that identified contents of the parasite-specific organelles, rhoptries, micronemes, dense granules, and the apicoplast. Finally, we created gene sets based on metabolic pathways annotated in the KEGG database and Gene Ontology terms associated with gene annotations available at http://www.toxodb.org. These gene sets were used to perform GSEA analysis using two sets of published T. gondii expression data that characterized T. gondii stress response and differentiation to the latent bradyzoite form. GSEA provides evidence that cell cycle regulation and bradyzoite differentiation are coupled. Δgcn5A mutants unable to induce bradyzoite-associated genes in response to alkaline stress have different patterns of cell cycle and bradyzoite gene expression from stressed wild-type parasites. Extracellular tachyzoites resemble a transitional state that differs in gene expression from both replicating

  7. Toxoplasma gondii Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Subunit 3 Is Involved in the Switch from Tachyzoite to Bradyzoite Development.

    PubMed

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Ma, Yan Fen; Tomita, Tadakimi; Murakoshi, Fumi; Eaton, Michael S; Yakubu, Rama; Han, Bing; Tu, Vincent; Kato, Kentaro; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Gupta, Nishith; Suvorova, Elena S; White, Michael W; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M

    2016-05-31

    replicating bradyzoites that persist as a latent infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that T. gondii cAMP signaling can induce or suppress bradyzoite differentiation, depending on the strength and duration of cAMP signal. Here, we report that TgPKAc3 is responsible for cAMP-dependent tachyzoite maintenance while suppressing differentiation into bradyzoites, revealing one mechanism underlying how this parasite transduces cAMP signals during differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Sugi et al.

  8. Structures of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites, Bradyzoites, and Sporozoites and Biology and Development of Tissue Cysts†

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, J. P.; Lindsay, D. S.; Speer, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent worldwide in animals and humans. This paper reviews the life cycle; the structure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites, oocysts, sporocysts, sporozoites and enteroepithelial stages of T. gondii; and the mode of penetration of T. gondii. The review provides a detailed account of the biology of tissue cysts and bradyzoites including in vivo and in vitro development, methods of separation from host tissue, tissue cyst rupture, and relapse. The mechanism of in vivo and in vitro stage conversion from sporozoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites and from bradyzoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites is also discussed. PMID:9564564

  9. Induction of Autophagy interferes the tachyzoite to bradyzoite transformation of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangzhi; Chen, Di; Hua, Qianqian; Wan, Yujing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yangyang; Lin, Jiaxin; Pan, Changwang; Hu, Xin; Tan, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy process in Toxoplasma gondii plays a vital role in regulating parasite survival or death. Thus, once having an understanding of certain effects of autophagy on the transformation of tachyzoite to bradyzoite this will allow us to elucidate the function of autophagy during parasite development. Herein, we used three TgAtg proteins involved in Atg8 conjugation system, TgAtg3, TgAtg7 and TgAtg8 to evaluate the autophagy level in tachyzoite and bradyzoite of Toxoplasma in vitro based on Pru TgAtg7-HA transgenic strains. We showed that both TgAtg3 and TgAtg8 were expressed at a significantly lower level in bradyzoites than in tachyzoites. Importantly, the number of parasites containing fluorescence-labelled TgAtg8 puncta was significantly reduced in bradyzoites than in tachyzoites, suggesting that autophagy is downregulated in Toxoplasma bradyzoite in vitro. Moreover, after treatment with drugs, bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 levels decreased significantly in rapamycin-treated bradyzoites and increased significantly in 3-MA-treated bradyzoites in comparison with control bradyzoites, indicating that Toxoplasma autophagy is involved in the transformation of tachyzoite to bradyzoite in vitro. Together, it is suggested that autophagy may serve as a potential strategy to regulate the transformation.

  10. Novel Approaches Reveal that Toxoplasma gondii Bradyzoites within Tissue Cysts Are Dynamic and Replicating Entities In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Elizabeth; Zhao, Yihua; Dhara, Animesh; Eller, Becca; Patwardhan, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite their critical role in chronic toxoplasmosis, the biology of Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites is poorly understood. In an attempt to address this gap, we optimized approaches to purify tissue cysts and analyzed the replicative potential of bradyzoites within these cysts. In order to quantify individual bradyzoites within tissue cysts, we have developed imaging software, BradyCount 1.0, that allows the rapid establishment of bradyzoite burdens within imaged optical sections of purified tissue cysts. While in general larger tissue cysts contain more bradyzoites, their relative “occupancy” was typically lower than that of smaller cysts, resulting in a lower packing density. The packing density permits a direct measure of how bradyzoites develop within cysts, allowing for comparisons across progression of the chronic phase. In order to capture bradyzoite endodyogeny, we exploited the differential intensity of TgIMC3, an inner membrane complex protein that intensely labels newly formed/forming daughters within bradyzoites and decays over time in the absence of further division. To our surprise, we were able to capture not only sporadic and asynchronous division but also synchronous replication of all bradyzoites within mature tissue cysts. Furthermore, the time-dependent decay of TgIMC3 intensity was exploited to gain insights into the temporal patterns of bradyzoite replication in vivo. Despite the fact that bradyzoites are considered replicatively dormant, we find evidence for cyclical, episodic bradyzoite growth within tissue cysts in vivo. These findings directly challenge the prevailing notion of bradyzoites as dormant nonreplicative entities in chronic toxoplasmosis and have implications on our understanding of this enigmatic and clinically important life cycle stage. PMID:26350965

  11. Toxoplasma gondii AP2IX-4 Regulates Gene Expression during Bradyzoite Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sherri; Holmes, Michael J.; Radke, Joshua B.; Hong, Dong-Pyo; Liu, Ting-Kai; White, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted bradyzoites, and yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations in gene expression are not well defined. Here we show that AP2IX-4 is a nuclear protein exclusively expressed in tachyzoites and bradyzoites undergoing division. Knockout of AP2IX-4 had no discernible effect on tachyzoite replication but resulted in a reduced frequency of tissue cyst formation following alkaline stress induction—a defect that is reversible by complementation. AP2IX-4 has a complex role in regulating bradyzoite gene expression, as the levels of many bradyzoite mRNAs dramatically increased beyond those seen under conditions of normal stress induction in AP2IX-4 knockout parasites exposed to alkaline media. The loss of AP2IX-4 also resulted in a modest virulence defect and reduced cyst burden in chronically infected mice, which was reversed by complementation. These findings illustrate that the transcriptional mechanisms responsible for tissue cyst development operate across the intermediate life cycle from the dividing tachyzoite to the dormant bradyzoite. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite that persists in its host as a transmissible tissue cyst. How the parasite converts from its replicative form to the bradyzoites housed in tissue cysts is not well understood, but the process clearly involves changes in gene expression. Here we report that parasites lacking a cell cycle-regulated transcription factor called AP2IX-4 display reduced frequencies of tissue cyst formation in

  12. Toxoplasma gondii AP2IX-4 Regulates Gene Expression during Bradyzoite Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sherri; Holmes, Michael J; Radke, Joshua B; Hong, Dong-Pyo; Liu, Ting-Kai; White, Michael W; Sullivan, William J

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted bradyzoites, and yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations in gene expression are not well defined. Here we show that AP2IX-4 is a nuclear protein exclusively expressed in tachyzoites and bradyzoites undergoing division. Knockout of AP2IX-4 had no discernible effect on tachyzoite replication but resulted in a reduced frequency of tissue cyst formation following alkaline stress induction-a defect that is reversible by complementation. AP2IX-4 has a complex role in regulating bradyzoite gene expression, as the levels of many bradyzoite mRNAs dramatically increased beyond those seen under conditions of normal stress induction in AP2IX-4 knockout parasites exposed to alkaline media. The loss of AP2IX-4 also resulted in a modest virulence defect and reduced cyst burden in chronically infected mice, which was reversed by complementation. These findings illustrate that the transcriptional mechanisms responsible for tissue cyst development operate across the intermediate life cycle from the dividing tachyzoite to the dormant bradyzoite. IMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite that persists in its host as a transmissible tissue cyst. How the parasite converts from its replicative form to the bradyzoites housed in tissue cysts is not well understood, but the process clearly involves changes in gene expression. Here we report that parasites lacking a cell cycle-regulated transcription factor called AP2IX-4 display reduced frequencies of tissue cyst formation in culture and

  13. Sustained translational repression of lactate dehydrogenase 1 in Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites is conferred by a small regulatory RNA hairpin.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michael; Itaas, Vaunell; Ananvoranich, Sirinart

    2014-11-01

    In response to environmental stresses, Toxoplasma gondii induces a global translational repression which allows for the remodeling of its transcriptome. While some transcripts are preferentially translated, another subset is translationally repressed and maintained in bradyzoites. Although little is known of how transcripts are targeted for sustained translational repression, the targeting probably operates through an RNA-centric mechanism relying on the recognition of cis-acting elements. In this study, we sought to determine if the targeting of transcripts through recognizable cis-acting elements could be responsible for the transcript-specific sustained translational repression displayed by Toxoplasma bradyzoites. We examined the UTRs of a translationally repressed gene, lactate dehydrogenase 1, and found a 40 nucleotide regulatory element in its 5'UTR. This element specifically induces translational repression in otherwise constitutively expressed transcripts. Mutational studies revealed that the formation of a small 16 nucleotide regulatory RNA hairpin is essential for this activity. We suggest that this hairpin may act as the nucleation site for the binding of an as yet to be identified trans-acting factor that allows for the transcript to be targeted for translational repression removal from the active translational pool. To our knowledge, this is the first report characterizing a specific cis-acting element contributing to post-transcriptional gene regulation in Toxoplasma and suggests the presence of a pathway by which the parasites can recognize, identify and specifically target transcripts for sustained translational repression under stressful conditions.

  14. Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, H.; Barr, B.; Packham, A.; Melli, A.; Conrad, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Two major obstacles to conducting studies with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are the difficulty in reliably producing large numbers of this life stage and safety concerns because the oocyst is the most environmentally resistant stage of this zoonotic organism. Oocyst production requires oral infection of the definitive feline host with adequate numbers of T. gondii organisms to obtain unsporulated oocysts that are shed in the feces for 3-10 days after infection. Since the most successful and common mode of experimental infection of kittens with T. gondii is by ingestion of bradyzoite tissue cysts, the first step in successful oocyst production is to ensure a high bradyzoite tissue cyst burden in the brains of mice that can be used for the oral inoculum. We compared two methods for producing bradyzoite brain cysts in mice, by infecting them either orally or subcutaneously with oocysts. In both cases, oocysts derived from a low passage T. gondii Type II strain (M4) were used to infect eight-ten week-old Swiss Webster mice. First the number of bradyzoite cysts that were purified from infected mouse brains was compared. Then to evaluate the effect of the route of oocyst inoculation on tissue cyst distribution in mice, a second group of mice was infected with oocysts by one of each route and tissues were examined by histology. In separate experiments, brains from infected mice were used to infect kittens for oocyst production. Greater than 1.3 billion oocysts were isolated from the feces of two infected kittens in the first production and greater than 1.8 billion oocysts from three kittens in the second production. Our results demonstrate that oral delivery of oocysts to mice results in both higher cyst loads in the brain and greater cyst burdens in other tissues examined as compared to those of mice that received the same number of oocysts subcutaneously. The ultimate goal in producing large numbers of oocysts in kittens is to generate adequate amounts of starting material

  15. Methods to produce and safely work with large numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and bradyzoite cysts.

    PubMed

    Fritz, H; Barr, B; Packham, A; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

    2012-01-01

    Two major obstacles to conducting studies with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are the difficulty in reliably producing large numbers of this life stage and safety concerns because the oocyst is the most environmentally resistant stage of this zoonotic organism. Oocyst production requires oral infection of the definitive feline host with adequate numbers of T. gondii organisms to obtain unsporulated oocysts that are shed in the feces for 3-10 days after infection. Since the most successful and common mode of experimental infection of kittens with T. gondii is by ingestion of bradyzoite tissue cysts, the first step in successful oocyst production is to ensure a high bradyzoite tissue cyst burden in the brains of mice that can be used for the oral inoculum. We compared two methods for producing bradyzoite brain cysts in mice, by infecting them either orally or subcutaneously with oocysts. In both cases, oocysts derived from a low passage T. gondii Type II strain (M4) were used to infect eight-ten week-old Swiss Webster mice. First the number of bradyzoite cysts that were purified from infected mouse brains was compared. Then to evaluate the effect of the route of oocyst inoculation on tissue cyst distribution in mice, a second group of mice was infected with oocysts by one of each route and tissues were examined by histology. In separate experiments, brains from infected mice were used to infect kittens for oocyst production. Greater than 1.3 billion oocysts were isolated from the feces of two infected kittens in the first production and greater than 1.8 billion oocysts from three kittens in the second production. Our results demonstrate that oral delivery of oocysts to mice results in both higher cyst loads in the brain and greater cyst burdens in other tissues examined as compared to those of mice that received the same number of oocysts subcutaneously. The ultimate goal in producing large numbers of oocysts in kittens is to generate adequate amounts of starting material

  16. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jiapeng; Mouveaux, Thomas; Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Tomavo, Stanislas; Ngô, Huân M.

    2015-03-01

    The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  17. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  18. The Toxoplasma gondii Cyst Wall Protein CST1 Is Critical for Cyst Wall Integrity and Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in reduced cyst number and a fragile brain cyst phenotype characterized by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress, and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst critical for persistence of bradyzoite forms. PMID:24385904

  19. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Jiapeng; Mouveaux, Thomas; Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Tomavo, Stanislas; Ngô, Huân M.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts. PMID:25760592

  20. Sarcocystis neurona infection in gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice: comparative infectivity of sporocysts in two strains of KO mice, effect of trypsin digestion on merozoite viability, and infectivity of bradyzoites to KO mice and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Saville, W J A

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is the primary cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). EPM or EPM-like illness has been reported in horses, sea otters, and several other mammals. The gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse is often used as a model to study biology and discovery of new therapies against S. neurona because it is difficult to induce clinical EPM in other hosts, including horses. In the present study, infectivity of three life cycle stages (merozoites, bradyzoites, sporozoites) to KO mice and cell culture was studied. Two strains of KO mice (C57-black, and BALB/c-derived, referred here as black or white) were inoculated orally graded doses of S. neurona sporocysts; 12 sporocysts were infective to both strains of mice and all infected mice died or became ill within 70 days post-inoculation. Although there was no difference in infectivity of sporocysts to the two strains of KO mice, the disease was more severe in black mice. S. neurona bradyzoites were not infectious to KO mice and cell culture. S. neurona merozoites survived 120 min incubation in 0.25% trypsin, indicating that trypsin digestion can be used to recover S. neurona from tissues of acutely infected animals.

  1. Lipid oxidation induced oxidative degradation of cereal beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2016-04-15

    In food systems, lipid oxidation can cause oxidation of other molecules. This research for the first time investigated oxidative degradation of β-glucan induced by lipid oxidation using an oil-in-water emulsion system which simulated a multi-phased aqueous food system containing oil and β-glucan. Lipid oxidation was monitored using peroxide value and hexanal production while β-glucan degradation was evaluated by viscosity and molecular weight measurements. The study showed that while lipid oxidation proceeded, β-glucan degradation occurred. Emulsions containing β-glucan, oil and ferrous ion showed significant viscosity and molecular weight decrease after 1 week of oxidation at room temperature. Elevated temperature (40°C) enhanced the oxidation reactions causing higher viscosity drop. In addition, the presence of β-glucan appeared to retard the hexanal production in lipid oxidation. The study revealed that lipid oxidation may induce the degradation of β-glucan in aqueous food systems where β-glucan and lipids co-exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Deavall, Damian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Horner, Judith M.; Roberts, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a byproduct of normal metabolism and have roles in cell signaling and homeostasis. Species include oxygen radicals and reactive nonradicals. Mechanisms exist that regulate cellular levels of ROS, as their reactive nature may otherwise cause damage to key cellular components including DNA, protein, and lipid. When the cellular antioxidant capacity is exceeded, oxidative stress can result. Pleiotropic deleterious effects of oxidative stress are observed in numerous disease states and are also implicated in a variety of drug-induced toxicities. In this paper, we examine the nature of ROS-induced damage on key cellular targets of oxidative stress. We also review evidence implicating ROS in clinically relevant, drug-related side effects including doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage, azidothymidine-induced myopathy, and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:22919381

  3. Oxidants and antioxidants relevance in rats' pulmonary induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir, C; Eloaie Zugun, F; Cojocaru, E; Tocan, L

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Even if the reactive oxygen species were discovered, described and detailed a long time ago, there is still little data about the mechanisms of oxidative stress, their tissular effects and about an efficient antioxidant strategy, involving animal experimental models. It has been shown that the lung is one of the most exposed organs to the oxidative stress. The particular effects of different types of oxidative stress on lungs were investigated in this experimental study, in order to quantify the intensity and the extent of the pulmonary damage, featuring the antioxidant enzymatic protective role. Methods: The study of lung injury was performed on four distinct groups of Wistar rats: a control group versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation versus a group exposed to nitrofurantoin versus a group exposed to continuous light deprivation, to nitrofurantoin and vitamin C. Pulmonary samples were taken and treated for microscopic analysis. A qualitative immunohistochemical estimation of pulmonary superoxide dismutase 1(SOD 1) was performed. Blood tests were used in order to reveal the presence and intensity of oxidative stress. Results: Continuous light deprivation and the chronic administration of nitrofurantoin acted as oxidants with a certain involvement in lung damage– vascular and alveolar wall disturbances. Adding an antioxidant, such as vitamin C, considerably improved lung reactivity to oxidative stress. Conclusion: The chronic exposure to oxidants in the induced oxidative stress sustains the development of specific lung alterations. SOD 1 positive reaction underlines the complex enzymatic defense in oxidative stress. PMID:22567046

  4. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    DOE PAGES

    Ruan, Jiapeng; Mouveaux, Thomas; Light, Samuel H.; ...

    2015-03-01

    In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein inToxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops.more » The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated n vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Lastly, enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.« less

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Subunit 3 Is Involved in the Switch from Tachyzoite to Bradyzoite Development

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Ma, Yan Fen; Tomita, Tadakimi; Murakoshi, Fumi; Eaton, Michael S.; Yakubu, Rama; Han, Bing; Tu, Vincent; Kato, Kentaro; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Gupta, Nishith; Suvorova, Elena S.; White, Michael W.; Kim, Kami

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects warm-blooded vertebrates, including humans. Asexual reproduction in T. gondii allows it to switch between the rapidly replicating tachyzoite and quiescent bradyzoite life cycle stages. A transient cyclic AMP (cAMP) pulse promotes bradyzoite differentiation, whereas a prolonged elevation of cAMP inhibits this process. We investigated the mechanism(s) by which differential modulation of cAMP exerts a bidirectional effect on parasite differentiation. There are three protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunits (TgPKAc1 to -3) expressed in T. gondii. Unlike TgPKAc1 and TgPKAc2, which are conserved in the phylum Apicomplexa, TgPKAc3 appears evolutionarily divergent and specific to coccidian parasites. TgPKAc1 and TgPKAc2 are distributed in the cytomembranes, whereas TgPKAc3 resides in the cytosol. TgPKAc3 was genetically ablated in a type II cyst-forming strain of T. gondii (PruΔku80Δhxgprt) and in a type I strain (RHΔku80Δhxgprt), which typically does not form cysts. The Δpkac3 mutant exhibited slower growth than the parental and complemented strains, which correlated with a higher basal rate of tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite differentiation. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) treatment, which elevates cAMP levels, maintained wild-type parasites as tachyzoites under bradyzoite induction culture conditions (pH 8.2/low CO2), whereas the Δpkac3 mutant failed to respond to the treatment. This suggests that TgPKAc3 is the factor responsible for the cAMP-dependent tachyzoite maintenance. In addition, the Δpkac3 mutant had a defect in the production of brain cysts in vivo, suggesting that a substrate of TgPKAc3 is probably involved in the persistence of this parasite in the intermediate host animals. PMID:27247232

  6. Oxidative Stress Marker and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Draganovic, Dragica; Lucic, Nenad; Jojic, Dragica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. Hence, research and test of role and significance of oxidative stress in hypertensive disturbance in pregnancy is very important. Aim: Aims of this research were to determine a level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) as oxidative stress marker in blood of pregnant woman with pregnancy induced hypertension and to analyze correlation of TBARS values with blood pressure values in pregnancy induced hypertensive pregnant women. Patients and methods: Research has been performed at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Centre in the Republic of Srpska. It covered 100 pregnant women with hypertension and 100 healthy pregnant women of gestation period from 28 to 40 weeks. Level of TBARS is determined as an equivalent of malondialdehyde standard, in accordance with recommendations by producer (Oxi Select TBARS Analisa Kit). Results: Pregnancy induced hypertension is a state of extremely increased oxidative stress. All pregnant women experiencing hypertension had increased TBARS values in medium value interval over 20 µmol, 66%, whereas in group of healthy pregnant women, only 1% experienced increased TBARS value. Pregnant women with difficult preeclampsia (32%) had high TBARS values, over 40 µmol, and with mild PIH, only 4.9% pregnant women. Conclusion: Pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension have extremely increased degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. TBARS values are in positive correlation with blood pressure values, respectively the highest TBARS value were present in pregnant women with the highest blood pressure values. PMID:28210016

  7. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kayama, Yosuke; Raaz, Uwe; Jagger, Ann; Adam, Matti; Schellinger, Isabel N.; Sakamoto, Masaya; Suzuki, Hirofumi; Toyama, Kensuke; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF). HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease. PMID:26512646

  8. The Toxoplasma gondii cyst wall protein CST1 is critical for cyst wall integrity and promotes bradyzoite persistence

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, Tadakimi; Bzik, David J.; Ma, Yan Fen; Fox, Barbara A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-12-26

    Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world’s population. A key to the success of T.gondii is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a large mucin-like domain. CST1 is responsible for the Dolichos biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) lectin binding characteristic of T. gondii cysts. Deletion of CST1 results in a fragile brain cyst phenotype revealed by a thinning and disruption of the underlying region of the cyst wall. These defects are reversed by complementation of CST1. Additional complementation experiments demonstrate that the CST1-mucin domain is necessary for the formation of a normal cyst wall structure, the ability of the cyst to resist mechanical stress and binding of DBA to the cyst wall. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis demonstrated dysregulation of bradyzoite genes within the various cst1 mutants. These results indicate that CST1 functions as a key structural component that reinforces the cyst wall structure and confers essential sturdiness to the T. gondii tissue cyst.

  9. The oxidation induced formation of metallocarbohedrene ions

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H.T.; Kerns, K.P.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Oxidation reactions of titanium metallocarbohedrenes (Met{endash}Cars) and their derivatives are studied using a {ital SIDT}{endash}{ital LV} (selected ion drift tube with laser vaporization source) and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, both operated at near thermal energies. A surprising finding is the selective and sole production of Ti{sub 8}C{sup +}{sub 12} in the reactions of neutral metal{endash}carbon species with oxygen. However, no Met{endash}Car ions are formed when these neutral Met{endash}Cars derivatives are interacted with other potentially reactive neutral molecules, including N{sub 2}O and Cl{sub 2}. The mechanisms for this oxidation induced ionization are discussed in light of oxidation induced excitation and thermionic emission. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-07

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  11. Induced effects of advanced oxidation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Li, Chaolin; Zhao, Zhuanjun; Lu, Gang; Cui, Haibo; Zhang, Wenfang

    2014-02-01

    Hazardous organic wastes from industrial, military, and commercial activities represent one of the greatest challenges to human beings. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are alternatives to the degradation of those organic wastes. However, the knowledge about the exact mechanisms of AOPs is still incomplete. Here we report a phenomenon in the AOPs: induced effects, which is a common property of combustion reaction. Through analysis EDTA oxidation processes by Fenton and UV-Fenton system, the results indicate that, just like combustion, AOPs are typical induction reactions. One most compelling example is that pre-feeding easily oxidizable organic matter can promote the oxidation of refractory organic compound when it was treated by AOPs. Connecting AOPs to combustion, it is possible to achieve some helpful enlightenment from combustion to analyze, predict and understand AOPs. In addition, we assume that maybe other oxidation reactions also have induced effects, such as corrosion, aging and passivation. Muchmore research is necessary to reveal the possibilities of induced effects in those fields.

  12. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-01

    Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels' colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  13. Facile Access to Graphene Oxide from Ferro-Induced Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2016-01-01

    Methods allowing the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) are vital important for the production of graphene from GO. This oxidation reaction has mainly relied on strong acid strategy for 174 years, which circumvents issues associated with toxicity of reagent and product, complex post-treatment, high cost and waste generation. Here, we report a green route for performing this oxidization reaction via a ferro-induced strategy, with use of water, potassium ferrate (Fe(VI)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as reagents, to produce about 65% yield of GO (vs. 40% for Hummers’ method, the most commonly used concentrated acid strategy) and non-toxic by-products. Moreover, GO produced from this new method shows equivalent performance to those reported previously. This H2SO4-free strategy makes it possible to process graphite into GO in a safe, low-cost, time-saving, energy-efficient and eco-friendly pathway, opening a promising avenue for the large-scale production of GO and GO-based materials.

  14. Facile Access to Graphene Oxide from Ferro-Induced Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2016-01-28

    Methods allowing the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) are vital important for the production of graphene from GO. This oxidation reaction has mainly relied on strong acid strategy for 174 years, which circumvents issues associated with toxicity of reagent and product, complex post-treatment, high cost and waste generation. Here, we report a green route for performing this oxidization reaction via a ferro-induced strategy, with use of water, potassium ferrate (Fe(VI)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as reagents, to produce about 65% yield of GO (vs. 40% for Hummers' method, the most commonly used concentrated acid strategy) and non-toxic by-products. Moreover, GO produced from this new method shows equivalent performance to those reported previously. This H2SO4-free strategy makes it possible to process graphite into GO in a safe, low-cost, time-saving, energy-efficient and eco-friendly pathway, opening a promising avenue for the large-scale production of GO and GO-based materials.

  15. Facile Access to Graphene Oxide from Ferro-Induced Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2016-01-01

    Methods allowing the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) are vital important for the production of graphene from GO. This oxidation reaction has mainly relied on strong acid strategy for 174 years, which circumvents issues associated with toxicity of reagent and product, complex post-treatment, high cost and waste generation. Here, we report a green route for performing this oxidization reaction via a ferro-induced strategy, with use of water, potassium ferrate (Fe(VI)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as reagents, to produce about 65% yield of GO (vs. 40% for Hummers’ method, the most commonly used concentrated acid strategy) and non-toxic by-products. Moreover, GO produced from this new method shows equivalent performance to those reported previously. This H2SO4-free strategy makes it possible to process graphite into GO in a safe, low-cost, time-saving, energy-efficient and eco-friendly pathway, opening a promising avenue for the large-scale production of GO and GO-based materials. PMID:26818784

  16. Solid deposit-induced high temperature oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Keeyoung

    The present study is aimed at investigating the high temperature oxidation induced by ash deposition from use of alternative fuels. The alloys and coatings being studied are typical of those used in current power generating gas turbines, as well as those that may be used in advanced systems. To achieve this objective, the alloys Rene' N5, GTD 111, and IN 738 as well as these alloys coated with platinum aluminide and CoNiCrAlY were exposed to conditions relevant to corrosion induced by using alternative fuels. The test conditions representative of deposits from use of alternative fuels were selected based upon initial experiments that involved testing the alloy Rene' N5 with a platinum aluminide coating at 750°C, 950°C, and 1150°C in a variety of environments with deposits of CaO, CaSO4, and Na 2SO4. Based upon the results from such tests, a temperature (950°C) and a deposit (CaO) were selected for the further experiments to compare the corrosion characteristics of all of the alloys and coatings. At 950°C with deposits of CaO, which are the selected experimental conditions obtained from the preliminary tests, accelerated cyclic oxidation experiments were performed with all uncoated and coated superalloys in extra dry air and wet ( pH2O = 0.1 atm) air to compare corrosion characteristics of each with one another. Experimental details will be described followed by the presentation of experimental results and discussion. Additionally, uncoated GTD 111 specimens were exposed to different contaminants and moisture level environments to study the effect of contaminant level and water vapor pressure on CaO-induced degradation. Then, CaO deposits were coated on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and specimens with TBCs were exposed to the cyclic oxidation environments. The effects of deposits other than CaO, such as Fe2O3 and SiO2, on the oxidation characteristics of the specimens were also investigated. Finally, a mechanism for high temperature oxidation induced by Ca

  17. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Inducible nitric oxide synthase: Good or bad?

    PubMed

    Lind, Maggie; Hayes, Alan; Caprnda, Martin; Petrovic, Daniel; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Zulli, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of isoforms responsible for the synthesis of the potent dilator nitric oxide (NO). Expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) occurs in conditions of inflammation, and produces large amounts of NO. In pathological conditions iNOS is regarded as a harmful enzyme and is proposed to be a major contributor to diseases of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. In this review, we address the notion that iNOS is a detrimental enzyme in disease and discuss its potentially beneficial roles. Additionally, we describe other molecules associated with iNOS in diseases such as atherosclerosis, and current research on therapeutic inhibitors tested to reduced pathology associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of dual fluorescent stage specific reporter strain of Toxoplasma gondii to follow tachyzoite and bradyzoite development in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Santos, T.C.; Tomita, T.; Fen, M. Yan; de Souza, W.; Attias, M.; Vommaro, R.C.; Weiss, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan that infects 30% of humans as intermediate hosts. T Sexual reproduction can occur only within the intestinal tract of felines, however, infection in other mammals and birds is associated with asexual replication and interconversion between the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages. Bradyzoites are slow growing forms found in tissue cysts in latent infection. Recently, our group described the biological behavior of the EGS strain that forms thick walled cysts spontaneously in tissue culture, constituting a useful tool for examining the developmental biology of T. gondii. To further improve the usefulness of this model, we constructed genetically modified EGS parasites that express fluorescent tags under the control of stage specific promoters. The promoter regions for SAG-1 (tachyzoite specific), BAG-1 and LDH-2 (bradyzoite specific) were amplified by PCR and plasmids were constructed with mCherry (redT) and sfGFP (greenB) sequences, respectively. Strains of parasites were selected using FACS to arrive at single fluorescent and dual fluorescent strains of EGS expressing tags in a stage specific manner. In cell cultures, vacuoles labeled by immunofluorescence assay using anti-CST-1 a marker for T. gondii cyst wall contained parasites that were positive for BAG1-GFP and negative for SAG1-mCherry. Tachyzoites and bradyzoites harvested from the mice expressed stage specific mCherry and GFP proteins, respectively. These new dual fluorescent transgenic EGS strains are a promising tool to elucidate the mechanisms of Toxoplasma gondii differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26432517

  20. In vitro cultivation of Hammondia heydorni: Generation of tachyzoites, stage conversion into bradyzoites, and evaluation of serologic cross-reaction with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Gondim, L F P; Meyer, J; Peters, M; Rezende-Gondim, M M; Vrhovec, M G; Pantchev, N; Bauer, C; Conraths, F J; Schares, G

    2015-06-15

    Hammondia heydorni was in vitro isolated from oocysts shed by three dogs using a finite cell line from embryonal bovine heart (KH-R). The oocysts were purified and suspended in 2% potassium dichromate or 2% sulphuric acid for sporulation for 2-5 days at room temperature. The parasites were confirmed as H. heydorni by PCR using specific primers (JS4/JS5) and by negative reaction for Neospora caninum employing the primers Np6+/Np21+. H. heydorni sporulated oocysts (1 × 10(6)) from each dog were initially treated with sodium hypochlorite. For excystation of sporozoites, oocysts from one dog were lysed by ultrasound followed by incubation with 0.75% taurocholate. Excystation of sporozoites from the other two dogs was achieved by oocyst fragmentation with glass beads with no further chemical treatment. Tachyzoites were clearly seen in the cultures at three days post inoculation (dpi). Bradyzoite conversion and cyst formation were evaluated at different time points by using a polyclonal rabbit serum against a bradyzoite-specific antigen (anti-BAG1), and a rat monoclonal antibody (mAbCC2) against a cyst wall protein. Bradyzoites were firstly detected at 7 dpi. Between 18 and 21 dpi most of cultured parasites consisted of encysted bradyzoites. The H. heydorni cysts increased in size during cultivation and reached a length of up to 135 μm. The parasite was maintained in the bovine heart cells up to 4.5months. Sera from mice and sheep experimentally infected with H. heydorni oocysts reacted with H. heydorni by IFAT, but did not cross-react with N. caninum antigens using IFAT or immunoblot. These findings suggest that serological cross-reactivity between H. heydorni and N. caninum seems to be of minor importance.

  1. Voltage-induced reduction of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucett, Austin C.

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is being widely researched as a precursor for the mass production of graphene, and as a versatile material in its own right for flexible electronics, chemical sensors, and energy harvesting applications. Reduction of GO, an electrically insulating material, into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) restores electrical conductivity via removal of oxygen-containing functional groups. Here, a reduction method using an applied electrical bias, known as voltage-induced reduction, is explored. Voltage-induced reduction can be performed under ambient conditions and avoids the use of hazardous chemicals or high temperatures common with standard methods, but little is known about the reduction mechanisms and the quality of rGO produced with this method. This work performs extensive structural and electrical characterization of voltage-reduced GO (V-rGO) and shows that it is competitive with standard methods. Beyond its potential use as a facile and eco-friendly processing approach, V-rGO reduction also offers record high-resolution patterning capabilities. In this work, the spatial resolution limits of voltage-induced reduction, performed using a conductive atomic force microscope probe, are explored. It is shown that arbitrary V-rGO conductive features can be patterned into insulating GO with nanoscale resolution. The localization of voltage-induced reduction to length scales < 10 nm allows studies of reduction reaction kinetics, using electrical current obtained in-situ, with statistical robustness. Methods for patterning V-rGO nanoribbons are then developed. After presenting sub-10nm patterning of V-rGO nanoribbons in GO single sheets and films, the performance of V-rGO nanoribbon field effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated. Preliminary measurements show an increase in electrical current on/off ratios as compared to large-area rGO FETs, indicating transport gap modulation that is possibly due to quantum confinement effects.

  2. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, Jiapeng; Mouveaux, Thomas; Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Tomavo, Stanislas; Ngô, Huân M.

    2015-03-01

    In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein inToxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated n vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Lastly, enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  3. Insect-cell expression, crystallization and X-ray data collection of the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 from Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Grujic, Ognjen; Grigg, Michael E.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2008-05-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the bradyzoite-specific surface antigen BSR4 from T. gondii are described. Toxoplasma gondii is an important global pathogen that infects nearly one third of the world’s adult population. A family of developmentally expressed structurally related surface-glycoprotein adhesins (SRSs) mediate attachment to and are utilized for entry into host cells. The latent bradyzoite form of T. gondii persists for the life of the host and expresses a distinct family of SRS proteins, of which the bradyzoite-specific antigen BSR4 is a prototypical member. Structural studies of BSR4 were initiated by first recombinantly expressing BSR4 in insect cells, which was followed by crystallization and preliminary X-ray data collection to 1.95 Å resolution. Data processing showed that BSR4 crystallized with one molecule in the asymmetric unit of the P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 space group, with a solvent content of 60% and a corresponding Matthews coefficient of 2.98 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}.

  4. Radiation-induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Riewe, L.C.; Witczak, Schrimpf, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Capacitance-voltage and thermally stimulated current methods are used to investigate radiation induced charge trapping in bipolar base oxides. Results are compared with models of oxide and interface trap charge buildup at low electric fields.

  5. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  6. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathi-one peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway. PMID:26545251

  7. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  8. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of limonene oxide,. cap alpha. -pinene oxide, and. beta. -pinene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aikins, J.A.; Williams, F.

    1984-01-01

    After suitable drying, the subject monomers in the form of neat liquids undergo radiation-induced polymerization with no apparent side reactions and high conversions to precipitatable polymers of low molecular weight. A cationic mechanism is evidenced by the strongly retarding effect of tri-n-propylamine on the polymerization rate. At 25/sup 0/C, limonene oxide gives the highest polymerization rates, an average conversion of 36% per Mrad being obtained in comparison with values of 5.7 and 7.3% per Mrad for the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides, respectively. Similarly, the average anti DP/sub n/ decreases from 11.8 for the limonene oxide polymer to 5.6 and 4.0 for the ..cap alpha..-pinene oxide and ..beta..-pinene oxide polymers, respectively. A high frequency of chain transfer to monomer is indicated in each case by the fact that the kinetic chain lengths are estimated to be on the order of a hundred times larger than the anti DP/sub n/ values. Structural characterization of the limonene oxide polymer by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy provides conclusive evidence that the polymerization proceeds by the opening of the epoxide ring to yield a 1,2-trans polyether. Similar NMR studies on the polymers formed from the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides show that in the polymerization of these monomers, the opening of the epoxide ring is generally accompanied by the concomitant ring opening of the cyclobutane ring structure to yield a gem-dimethyl group in the main chain. The detection of isopropenyl end groups in the pinene oxide polymers is also consistent with this mode of propagation being followed by chain (proton) transfer to monomer.

  9. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  10. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Matthias; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2014-01-01

    Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ). This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control. PMID:28357247

  11. Oxidation inhibits iron-induced blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation under physiological conditions is activated by thrombin, which converts soluble plasma fibrinogen (FBG) into an insoluble clot. The structure of the enzymatically-generated clot is very characteristic being composed of thick fibrin fibers susceptible to the fibrinolytic degradation. However, in chronic degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurological disorders, fibrin clots are very different forming dense matted deposits (DMD) that are not effectively removed and thus create a condition known as thrombosis. We have recently shown that trivalent iron (ferric ions) generates hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently convert FBG into abnormal fibrin clots in the form of DMDs. A characteristic feature of DMDs is their remarkable and permanent resistance to the enzymatic degradation. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombotic incidences in the degenerative diseases it is essential to inhibit the iron-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. This can be achieved by the pretreatment with a direct free radical scavenger (e.g. salicylate), and as shown in this paper by the treatment with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, methylene blue, and sodium selenite. Although the actual mechanism of this phenomenon is not yet known, it is possible that hydroxyl radicals are neutralized by their conversion to the molecular oxygen and water, thus inhibiting the formation of dense matted fibrin deposits in human blood.

  12. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in the myocard.

    PubMed

    Buchwalow, I B; Schulze, W; Karczewski, P; Kostic, M M; Wallukat, G; Morwinski, R; Krause, E G; Müller, J; Paul, M; Slezak, J; Luft, F C; Haller, H

    2001-01-01

    Recognition of significance of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in cardiovascular regulations has led to intensive research and development of therapies focused on NOS as potential therapeutic targets. However, the NOS isoform profile of cardiac tissue and subcellular localization of NOS isoforms remain a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of an inducible NOS isoform (NOS2) in cardiomyocytes. Employing a novel immunocytochemical technique of a catalyzed reporter deposition system with tyramide and electron microscopical immunocytochemistry complemented with Western blotting and RT-PCR, we detected NOS2 both in rat neonatal and adult cultured cardiomyocytes and in the normal myocard of adult rats as well as in the human myocard of patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. NOS2 was targeted predominantly to a particulate component of the cardiomyocyte--along contractile fibers, in the plasma membrane including T-tubules, as well as in the nuclear envelope, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Our results point to an involvement of NOS2 in maintaining cardiac homeostasis and contradict to the notion that NOS2 is expressed in cardiac tissue only in response to various physiological and pathogenic factors. NOS2 targeting to mitochondria and contractile fibers suggests a relationship of NO with contractile function and energy production in the cardiac muscle.

  13. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination.

  14. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  15. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  16. High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) inducer dynamic design environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herda, D. A.; Gross, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic environment must be known to evaluate high pressure oxidizer turbopump inducer fatigue life. This report sets the dynamic design loads for the alternate turbopump inducer as determined by water-flow rig testing. Also, guidelines are given for estimating the dynamic environment for other inducer and impeller applications.

  17. Mechanical Ventilation-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Darin J.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Whidden, Melissa A.; Smuder, Ashley J.; McClung, Joseph M.; Hudson, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) results in a rapid onset of diaphragmatic atrophy that is primarily due to increased proteolysis. Although MV-induced protease activation can involve several factors, it is clear that oxidative stress is a required signal for protease activation in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. However, the oxidant-producing pathways in the diaphragm that contribute to MV-induced oxidative stress remain unknown. We have demonstrated that prolonged MV results in increased diaphragmatic expression of a key stress-sensitive enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Paradoxically, HO-1 can function as either a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant, and the role that HO-1 plays in MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that HO-1 acts as a pro-oxidant in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. Methods: To determine whether HO-1 functions as a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant in the diaphragm during MV, we assigned rats into three experimental groups: (1) a control group, (2) a group that received 18 h of MV and saline solution, and (3) a group that received 18 h of MV and was treated with a selective HO-1 inhibitor. Indices of oxidative stress, protease activation, and fiber atrophy were measured in the diaphragm. Results: Inhibition of HO-1 activity did not prevent or exacerbate MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress (as indicated by biomarkers of oxidative damage). Further, inhibition of HO-1 activity did not influence MV-induced protease activation or myofiber atrophy in the diaphragm. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HO-1 is neither a pro-oxidant nor an antioxidant in the diaphragm during MV. Furthermore, our findings reveal that HO-1 does not play an important role in MV-induced protease activation and diaphragmatic atrophy. PMID:21106654

  18. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of (+)-catechin on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Chen, Puqing; Yang, Qin; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support the role of heme proteins as major inducers of oxidative damage is increasingly present. Flavonoids have been widely used to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action was usually dependent on their anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of (+)-catechin, a polyphenol identified in tea, cocoa, and red wine, on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage. It was found that (+)-catechin had the capacities to act as a free radical scavenger and reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl hemoglobin, demonstrating apparent anti-oxidant activities. However, the presence of (+)-catechin surprisingly promoted hemoglobin-induced protein oxidation, which was probably due to the ability of this anti-oxidant to rapidly trigger the oxidative degradation of normal hemoglobin. In addition, hemoglobin-H2O2-induced protein carbonyl formation was significantly enhanced by (+)-catechin at lower concentrations, while it was efficiently inhibited when higher concentrations were used. These novel results showed that the dietary intake and therapeutic use of catechins might possess pro-oxidant activity through aggravating hemoglobin-related oxidative damage. The dual effects on hemoglobin redox reactions may provide new insights into the physiological implications of tea extract and wine (catechins) with cellular heme proteins.

  19. Acrylonitrile-Induced Oxidative Stress and Oxidative DNA Damage in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamendulis, Lisa M.; Klaunig, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in brain tumor induction in rats by acrylonitrile. The present study examined whether acrylonitrile induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats and whether blood can serve as a valid surrogate for the biomonitoring of oxidative stress induced by acrylonitrile in the exposed population. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 3, 30, 100, and 200 ppm acrylonitrile in drinking water for 28 days. One group of rats were also coadministered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (0.3% in diet) with acrylonitrile (200 ppm in drinking water) to examine whether antioxidant supplementation was protective against acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress. Direct DNA strand breakage in white blood cells (WBC) and brain was measured using the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (fpg)-modified comet assay and with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. No significant increase in direct DNA strand breaks was observed in brain and WBC from acrylonitrile-treated rats. However, oxidative DNA damage (fpg comet and 8′hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine) in brain and WBC was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in rats administered acrylonitrile. Dietary supplementation with NAC prevented acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in brain and WBC. A slight, but significant, decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio was seen in brain at acrylonitrile doses > 30 ppm. These results provide additional support that the mode of action for acrylonitrile-induced astrocytomas involves the induction of oxidative stress and damage. Significant associations were seen between oxidative DNA damage in WBC and brain, ROS formation in plasma, and the reported tumor incidences. Since oxidative DNA damage in brain correlated with oxidative damage in WBC, these results suggest

  20. Acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage in rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Klaunig, James E

    2006-10-01

    Chronic administration of acrylonitrile results in a dose-related increase in astrocytomas in rat brain, but the mechanism of acrylonitrile carcinogenicity is not fully understood. The potential of acrylonitrile or its metabolites to induce direct DNA damage as a mechanism for acrylonitrile carcinogenicity has been questioned, and recent studies indicate that the mechanism involves the induction of oxidative stress in rat brain. The present study examined the ability of acrylonitrile to induce DNA damage in the DI TNC1 rat astrocyte cell line using the alkaline Comet assay. Oxidized DNA damage also was evaluated using formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase treatment in the modified Comet assay. No increase in direct DNA damage was seen in astrocytes exposed to sublethal concentrations of acrylonitrile (0-1.0 mM) for 24 hr. However, acrylonitrile treatment resulted in a concentration-related increase in oxidative DNA damage after 24 hr. Antioxidant supplementation in the culture media (alpha-tocopherol, (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate, or trolox) reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage. Depletion of glutathione using 0.1 mM DL-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine increased acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (22-46%), while cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 2.5 mM L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, a precursor for glutathione biosynthesis, significantly reduced acrylonitrile-induced oxidative DNA damage (7-47%). Cotreatment of acrylonitrile with 0.5 mM 1-aminobenzotriazole, a suicidal inhibitor of cytochrome P450, prevented the oxidative DNA damage produced by acrylonitrile. Cyanide (0.1-0.5 mM) increased oxidative DNA damage (44-160%) in astrocytes. These studies demonstrate that while acrylonitrile does not directly damage astrocyte DNA, it does increase oxidative DNA damage. The oxidative DNA damage following acrylonitrile exposure appears to arise mainly through the P450 metabolic pathway; moreover, glutathione depletion may contribute to the

  1. Oxidant induced alteration of carbohydrate production and allocation in plants

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Heath

    1998-01-01

    Urban air basin produced oxidants, notably ozone, induce a decline in productivity in plants. This loss of productivity is manifested by slower growth, hindered development, lower reproduction rates, impaired ability to resist disease, and other stresses. While many metabolic events have been linked to oxidant exposure, three major shifts have been well-studied:...

  2. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  3. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J.; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress plays a key role in UV-induced cell and tissue injuries. • Quercitrin decreases ROS generation and restores antioxidants irradiated by UVB. • Quercitrin reduces UVB-irradiated oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. • Quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB-induced skin injuries.

  4. Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology. PMID:23872608

  5. Nitroxides protect against peroxynitrite-induced nitration and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Gajewska, Agnieszka; Skolimowski, Janusz; Szewczyk, Rafał; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Nitroxides are promising compounds for prevention of undesired protein modifications. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of 11 nitroxides, derivatives of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxide (TEMPO) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpirrolidine-1-oxyl (PROXYL) in prevention of nitration and oxidation of model compounds and human serum albumin (HSA). Most nitroxides were very efficient in preventing loss of fluorescein fluorescence induced by peroxynitrite (PN) (IC50 in the nanomolar range) and preventing HSA nitration. The loss of fluorescein fluorescence was demonstrated to be due to nitration. Nitroxides were more effective in prevention nitration than oxidation reactions. They showed a concentration window for preventing dihydrorhodamine (DHR) 123 oxidation but exerted a prooxidant effect at both high and low concentrations. No prooxidant effect of nitroxides was seen in prevention of DHR123 oxidation induced by SIN-1. In all essays hydrophobic nitroxides (especially 4-nonylamido-TEMPO and 3-carbamolyl-dehydroPROXYL) showed the lowest efficiency. An exception was the prevention of thiol group oxidation by PN and SIN-1 where hydrophobic nitroxides were the most effective, apparently due to binding to the protein. Nitroxides showed low toxicity to MCF-7 cells. Most nitroxides, except for the most hydrophobic ones, protected cells from the cytotoxic action of SIN-1 and SIN-1-induced protein nitration. These results point to potential usefulness of nitroxides for prevention of PN-induced oxidation and, especially, nitration.

  6. Acetaldehyde-induced mitochondrial dysfunction sensitizes hepatocytes to oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Farfán Labonne, Blanca Eugenia; Gutiérrez, Mario; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; Bucio, Leticia; Souza, Verónica; Flores, Oscar; Ortíz, Victor; Hernández, Elizabeth; Kershenobich, David; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción

    2009-12-01

    Acetaldehyde (Ac), the main metabolite of ethanol oxidation, is a very reactive compound involved in alcohol-induced liver damage. In the present work, we studied the effect of Ac in mitochondria functionality. Mitochondria from Wistar rats were isolated and treated with Ac. Ac decreased respiratory control by 50% which was associated with a decrease in adenosine triphosphate content (28.5%). These results suggested that Ac could be inducing changes in cell redox status. We determined protein oxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione ratio, indicating that Ac induced an enhanced oxidation of proteins and a decrease in SOD activity (90%) and glutathione/oxidized GSH ratio (36%). The data suggested that Ac-induced oxidative stress mediated by mitochondria dysfunction can lead to cell sensitization and to a second oxidative challenge. We pretreated hepatocytes with Ac followed by treatment with antimycin A, and this experiment revealed a noticeable decrease in cell viability, determined by neutral red assay, in comparison with cells treated with Ac alone. Our data demonstrate that Ac impairs mitochondria functionality generating oxidative stress that sensitizes cells to a second damaging signal contributing to the development of alcoholic liver disease.

  7. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  8. Aluminum Induces Oxidative Stress Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana1

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Keith D.; Schott, Eric J.; Sharma, Yogesh K.; Davis, Keith R.; Gardner, Richard C.

    1998-01-01

    Changes in gene expression induced by toxic levels of Al were characterized to investigate the nature of Al stress. A cDNA library was constructed from Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings treated with Al for 2 h. We identified five cDNA clones that showed a transient induction of their mRNA levels, four cDNA clones that showed a longer induction period, and two down-regulated genes. Expression of the four long-term-induced genes remained at elevated levels for at least 48 h. The genes encoded peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, blue copper-binding protein, and a protein homologous to the reticuline:oxygen oxidoreductase enzyme. Three of these genes are known to be induced by oxidative stresses and the fourth is induced by pathogen treatment. Another oxidative stress gene, superoxide dismutase, and a gene for Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor were also induced by Al in A. thaliana. These results suggested that Al treatment of Arabidopsis induces oxidative stress. In confirmation of this hypothesis, three of four genes induced by Al stress in A. thaliana were also shown to be induced by ozone. Our results demonstrate that oxidative stress is an important component of the plant's reaction to toxic levels of Al. PMID:9449849

  9. Photo-induced oxidation of Sb(III) on goethite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Ting-Ting; Cui, Xiao-Dan; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Goethite widely exists in soils and sediments, and plays a very important role in the environmental fate of toxic metal(loid)s. In the present study, photo-induced oxidation of antimonite [Sb(III)] on goethite was investigated with kinetic measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Effects of environmental factors including solution pH, the content of goethite as well as humic acid on the photo-induced oxidation of antimonite were tested. The results indicated that no oxidation of antimonite occurred in goethite suspension in the dark, but significant amounts of antimonite were transformed to antimonate when the suspension was exposed to light. Ferrous ions were found in the solution during the antimonite oxidation process, and its concentration decreased with increasing solution pH, which strongly affected the oxidation rate of antimonite. The initial solution pH has great impact on Sb oxidation. After 2h illumination, the highest oxidation rate was found at pH 3, while the initial oxidation rate was even higher at pH 9. In conclusion, the antimonite can be adsorbed and oxidized on goethite irradiated with light, which will greatly reduce its environmental risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phloroglucinol Attenuates Free Radical-induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    So, Mi Jung; Cho, Eun Ju

    2014-01-01

    The protective role of phloroglucinol against oxidative stress and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) was investigated in vitro and in cell culture. Phloroglucinol had strong and concentration-dependent radical scavenging effects against nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions (O2−), and hydroxyl radicals. In this study, free radical generators were used to induce oxidative stress in LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated the oxidative stress induced by peroxyl radicals, NO, O2−, and peroxynitrite. Phloroglucinol also increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. WI-38 human diploid fibroblast cells were used to investigate the protective effect of phloroglucinol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced SIPS. Phloroglucinol treatment attenuated H2O2-induced SIPS by increasing cell viability and inhibited lipid peroxidation, suggesting that treatment with phloroglucinol should delay the aging process. The present study supports the promising role of phloroglucinol as an antioxidative agent against free radical-induced oxidative stress and SIPS. PMID:25320709

  11. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces hematopoietic stem cell senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Gui-Hai; Wang, Yu-Ying; Liu, Jun; Wei, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Yan; Wang, Jian-Wei; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) induced senescence in hematopoietic stem cells (HCs). Mouse Sca-1+ HCs were separated and purified using the magnetic activated cell sorting technique. Ox-LDL induced significant senescence in HCs measured by SA-β-Gal staining, and reduced CFU-Mix colony-forming capacity, arresting cells at G0/G1 phase. In agreement with the cell cycle arrest, ox-LDL markedly reduced the expression of CDK4, cyclin D, and cyclin E. As possible contributing factors for cell senescence, ox-LDL also induced cellular oxidative stress and reduced telomerase activity.

  12. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of limonene oxide,. cap alpha. -pinene oxide, and. beta. -pinene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Aikins, J.A.; Williams, F.

    1985-01-01

    After suitable drying, the subject monomers in the form of neat liquids undergo radiation-induced polymerization with no apparent side reactions and high conversions to precipitatable polymers of low molecular weights. A high frequency of chain (proton) transfer to monomer is indicated by the fact that the kinetic chain lengths are estimated to be several hundred times larger than the range of DP/sub n/ values (12-4). Structural characterization of the limonene oxide polymer by /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy provides conclusive evidence that the polymerization proceeds by the opening of the epoxide ring to yield a 1,2-trans polyether. Similar NMR studies on the polymers formed from the ..cap alpha..-pinene and ..beta..-pinene oxides show that the opening of the epoxide ring for these monomers is generally accompanied by the concomitant ring opening of the cyclobutane ring structure to yield a gem-di-methyl group in the main chain.

  13. Oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat parotid sialadenosis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sara Cristina Gonçalves; Moreira, Denise Aparecida Corrêa; Nunes, Terezinha D'Avila e Silva; Colepicolo, Pio; Brigagão, Maísa Ribeiro Pereira Lima

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the oxidative status of rat parotid and submandibular glands. To identify the endogenous response to ethanol ingestion, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. In addition, the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol was supplied to the animals in order to estimate its action in ethanol-associated glandular damage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the protein carbonyl (PC) content, both markers of cellular oxidative stress on lipid and protein structures, respectively, were recorded. Animals subjected to alcohol ingestion showed a low body growth rate with concomitant enlargement of absolute and relative parotid wet weight, compared with pair-fed calorie-controlled rats. Parotid glands of ethanol-treated animals showed increased SOD and GPx activity, and alpha-tocopherol was able to reduce their activities to the control levels. TBARS and PC were enhanced after chronic ethanol treatment in rat parotids. Supplemental alpha-tocopherol suppressed the oxidative ethanol-induced damage in lipid without affecting induced protein oxidation. Submandibular glands revealed no alterations in the weight, enzymatic and oxidative parameters tested due to ethanol and/or alpha-tocopherol ingestion. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress in parotid gland sialadenosis due to ethanol consumption and the capability of alpha-tocopherol to halt lipid damage, although this low-molecular antioxidant compound leads to neither increased glandular weight nor protein oxidation in ethanol-induced parotid alterations.

  14. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B.T.

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  15. (+)-Catechin protects dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mechanism underlying skin aging, as it triggers apoptosis in various cell types, including fibroblasts, which play important roles in the preservation of healthy, youthful skin. Catechins, which are antioxidants contained in green tea, exert various actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer actions. In this study, we investigated the effect of (+)-catechin on apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in fibroblasts. Methods Fibroblasts (NIH3T3) under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM) were treated with either vehicle or (+)-catechin (0–100 μM). The effect of (+)-catechin on cell viability, apoptosis, phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinases (JNK) and p38, and activation of caspase-3 in fibroblasts under oxidative stress were evaluated. Results Hydrogen peroxide induced apoptotic cell death in fibroblasts, accompanied by induction of phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Pretreatment of the fibroblasts with (+)-catechin inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and reduced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 and activation of caspase-3. Conclusion (+)-Catechin protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. These results suggest that (+)-catechin has potential as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of skin aging. PMID:24712558

  16. Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress Modulation with Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Debevec, Tadej; Millet, Grégoire P.; Pialoux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, resulting in molecular damage and disruption of redox signaling, is associated with numerous pathophysiological processes and known to exacerbate chronic diseases. Prolonged systemic hypoxia, induced either by exposure to terrestrial altitude or a reduction in ambient O2 availability is known to elicit oxidative stress and thereby alter redox balance in healthy humans. The redox balance modulation is also highly dependent on the level of physical activity. For example, both high-intensity exercise and inactivity, representing the two ends of the physical activity spectrum, are known to promote oxidative stress. Numerous to-date studies indicate that hypoxia and exercise can exert additive influence upon redox balance alterations. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate physical activity can attenuate altitude/hypoxia-induced oxidative stress during long-term hypoxic exposure. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hypoxia-related oxidative stress modulation by different activity levels during prolonged hypoxic exposures and examine the potential mechanisms underlying the observed redox balance changes. The paper also explores the applicability of moderate activity as a strategy for attenuating hypoxia-related oxidative stress. Moreover, the potential of such moderate intensity activities used to counteract inactivity-related oxidative stress, often encountered in pathological, elderly and obese populations is also discussed. Finally, future research directions for investigating interactive effects of altitude/hypoxia and exercise on oxidative stress are proposed. PMID:28243207

  17. Nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammation in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert P

    2002-12-01

    Inflammation is a process consisting of a complex of cytological and chemical reactions which occur in and around affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury caused by a physical, chemical or biological insult. Much work has been performed in the past several years investigating inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS, EC 1.14.13.39) and nitric oxide in inflammation. This has resulted in a rapid increase in knowledge about iNOS and nitric oxide. Nitric oxide formation from inducible NOS is regulated by numerous inflammatory mediators, often with contradictory effects, depending upon the type and duration of the inflammatory insult. Equine medicine appears to have benefited the most from the increased interest in this small, inflammatory mediator. Most of the information on nitric oxide in traditional veterinary species has been produced using models or naturally occurring inflammatory diseases of this species.

  18. Characterization of an inducible oxidative stress system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bol, D K; Yasbin, R E

    1990-06-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis demonstrated inducible protection against killing by hydrogen peroxide when prechallenged with a nonlethal dose of this oxidative agent. Cells deficient in a functional recE+ gene product were as much as 100 times more sensitive to the H2O2 but still exhibited an inducible protective response. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide also induced the recE(+)-dependent DNA damage-inducible (din) genes, the resident prophage, and the product of the recE+ gene itself. Thus hydrogen peroxide is capable of inducing the SOS-like or SOB system of B. subtilis. However, the induction of this DNA repair system by other DNA-damaging agents is not sufficient to activate the protective response to hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, at least one more regulatory network (besides the SOB system) that responds to oxidative stress must exist. Furthermore, the data presented indicate that a functional catalase gene is necessary for this protective response.

  19. Role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by metal mixture.

    PubMed

    Martín, Silva-Aguilar; Emilio, Rojas; Mahara, Valverde

    2011-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  20. Sensory experience induced by nitrous oxide analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, E.; Galili, D.; Furer, R.; Steiner, J.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary findings on a group of 15 dental patients, treated with nitrous oxide indicated frequent occurrence of several, well-defined sensory experiences related to various modalities. A subsequent controlled experiment carried out on 44 volunteers, inhaling a 35% N2O + 65% O2 sedative gas-mixture as well as O2 alone in two different sessions confirmed a large variety of sensations not related to external stimuli. Taste and/or odor and thermal sensations were often reported as well as changes in auditory or visual perception of the environment in addition to reports of general heaviness, relaxation or tingling. PMID:2097907

  1. New Approach to Chemically Induced Silicon Oxidation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Kim, C.H. Wolowodiuk, R.J. Jaccodine, F.A. Stevie , and P.M. Kohora, to be published in J. Electrochem. Society. 4. "Effect of NF3 Addition on Point...Defect Generation at the Oxidizing Interface", U.S. Kim, R.J. Jaccodine, F.A. Stevie , and T. Kook, to be published in J. Electrochem. Society. 5...Macfarlane, R.J. Jaccodine and F.A. Stevie , presented at the 180th Meeting of the Electro- chemical Society, Phoenix, AZ, October 13-18, 1991. 15

  2. Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly influences atherogenic risk and cytokine-induced oxidant production.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Corey M; Pompilius, Melissa; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis. However, no studies have determined whether altered mitochondrial oxidant production directly influences atherogenic susceptibility and response in primary cells to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We undertook this study to determine whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic lesion development associated with CVD risk factor exposure and endothelial cell response to TNF-α. We assessed atherosclerotic lesion formation, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage in male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice with normal and decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2; apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-), respectively) exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or filtered air. Atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial damage were significantly higher in apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) controls. Furthermore, experiments with small interfering RNA in endothelial cells revealed that decreased SOD2 activity increased TNF-α-mediated cellular oxidant levels compared with controls. Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic factors, increasing disease susceptibility.

  3. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liying

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP) make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed. PMID:24027766

  4. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2017-01-01

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty. PMID:28106721

  5. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Deli, Chariklia K; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Leontsini, Diamanda; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Mastorakos, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-01-17

    Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  6. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Cytotoxicity in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Baher; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2009-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts and elevated levels of these particles have been clearly demonstrated at sites surrounding factories. To date, limited toxicity data on metal oxide nanoparticles are available. To understand the impact of these airborne pollutants on the respiratory system, airway epithelial (HEp-2) cells were exposed to increasing doses of silicon oxide (SiO2), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles, the leading metal oxides found in ambient air surrounding factories. CuO induced the greatest amount of cytotoxicity in a dose dependent manner; while even high doses (400 µg/cm2) of SiO2 and Fe2O3 were non-toxic to HEp-2 cells. Although all metal oxide nanoparticles were able to generate ROS in HEp-2 cells, CuO was better able to overwhelm antioxidant defenses (e.g. catalase and glutathione reductase). A significant increase in the level of 8-isoprostanes and in the ratio of GSSG to total glutathione in cells exposed to CuO suggested that ROS generated by CuO induced oxidative stress in HEp-2 cells. Co-treatment of cells with CuO and the antioxidant resveratrol increased cell viability suggesting that oxidative stress may be the cause of the cytotoxic effect of CuO. These studies demonstrated that there is a high degree of variability in the cytotoxic effects of metal oxides, that this variability is not due to the solubility of the transition metal, and that this variability appears to involve sustained oxidative stress possibly due to redox cycling. PMID:19699289

  7. Radiation induced oxidation of liquid alkanes as a polymer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soebianto, Yanti S.; Katsumura, Yosuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Kubo, Junichi; Hamakawa, Satoshi; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Seguchi, Tadao

    1996-10-01

    Radiation induced oxidation of liquid n-hexadecane ( n-C 16H 34) and squalene (C 30H 62) as a polymer model has been investigated by the measurements of the gas evolution and O 2 uptake, and analyses of the oxidation products. Low O 2 uptake [G(-O 2 ≈ 6.0] in liquid alkanes, indicates in solid oxidation reaction does not exhibit chain kinetics, which is a big contrast to the process observed in solid, G(-O 2) ≫ 10. H 2 is the main gas product. More than 90% of the consumed O 2 are converted into the oxidation products in liquid phase, mainly carboxylic acids, which is also a big contrast to the results of the radiolysis of liquid cyclohexane in the presence of O 2 and thermal oxidation of hexadecene at elevated temperatures, where ketones and alcohols are major products at the initial stage. In the presence of aromatic additives, energy and charge transfer to the additives taking place despite the presence of O 2 reduce the H 2 evolution and the acid formation in parallel. Although hydroaromatic compounds act as an energy and charge scavenger, the are selectively oxidized through the donation of hydrogen in cyclic alkyl part attached to the phenyl ring, leading to large O 2 uptake and corresponding ketone formation. From the comparison of the G-values of the O 2 uptake, it was found that the oxidation reactions of liquid alkanes reflect well the oxidation of amorphous part in polymers.

  8. Oxidant-induced intramolecular triazole formation.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Maria L; Schulze, A Carina; Korthaus, Alexander; Oppel, Iris M

    2013-12-07

    C3-symmetric ligands carrying a rigid triaminoguanidinium backbone are important building blocks for the preparation of supramolecular coordination cages as tetrahedra or trigonal bipyramides. Coordination of Eu(III)- or Gd(III)-ions leads to 1,2,4-triazole formation, which has been reported only rarely. Using Pd(II)-complexes as a model system, this triazole formation could be analyzed in more detail. The preparation of Pd(II)-coordination compounds can be easily done under stoichiometric control. These complexes could be transformed into 1,2,4-triazoles using O2 or H2O2 as an oxidation reagent. The steric demand of the PR3-coligand seems to play a key role in the cyclisation reaction.

  9. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, T.H.; Butler, D.G.; Gartley, C.J.; Dohoo, I.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). The mean percent dry matter content of the cattle feces changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (15.6-8.1) and MgSO4 (17.0-8.7) but there was no significant difference between treatments. The mean rumen pH values changed significantly (P<0.001) following administration of both MgO (7.-8.7) and MgSO4 (7.3-8.3) but there was no significant difference between treatments. However, use of the MgO product caused a more severe (P<0.001) metabolic alkalosis as determined by base excess values. The base excess values remained elevated for 24 hours in the MgO treated group compared to only 12 hours after MgSO4 administration. Following MgO administration, mean hydrogen ion concentration (pH), bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3-]) and base excess were 7.44, 33.3 mmol/L and +8.0 respectively compared to 7.38, 27 mmol/L and +3.0 after MgSO4. Since the oral use of MgO in normal cattle causes a greater and more prolonged metabolic alkalosis compared to MgSO4, MgO is contraindicated as a cathartic in normal cattle or in cattle with abomasal abnormalities characterized by pyloric obstruction and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6883181

  10. Oxidative UO2 dissolution induced by soluble Mn(III).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zimeng; Xiong, Wei; Tebo, Bradley M; Giammar, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    The stability of UO2 is critical to the success of reductive bioremediation of uranium. When reducing conditions are no longer maintained, Mn redox cycling may catalytically mediate the oxidation of UO2 and remobilization of uranium. Ligand-stabilized soluble Mn(III) was recently recognized as an important redox-active intermediate in Mn biogeochemical cycling. This study evaluated the kinetics of oxidative UO2 dissolution by soluble Mn(III) stabilized by pyrophosphate (PP) and desferrioxamine B (DFOB). The Mn(III)-PP complex was a potent oxidant that induced rapid UO2 dissolution at a rate higher than that by a comparable concentration of dissolved O2. However, the Mn(III)-DFOB complex was not able to induce oxidative dissolution of UO2. The ability of Mn(III) complexes to oxidize UO2 was probably determined by whether the coordination of Mn(III) with ligands allowed the attachment of the complexes to the UO2 surface to facilitate electron transfer. Systematic investigation into the kinetics of UO2 oxidative dissolution by the Mn(III)-PP complex suggested that Mn(III) could directly oxidize UO2 without involving particulate Mn species (e.g., MnO2). The expected 2:1 reaction stoichiometry between Mn(III) and UO2 was observed. The reactivity of soluble Mn(III) in oxidizing UO2 was higher at lower ratios of pyrophosphate to Mn(III) and lower pH, which is probably related to differences in the ligand-to-metal ratio and/or protonation states of the Mn(III)-pyrophosphate complexes. Disproportionation of Mn(III)-PP occurred at pH 9.0, and the oxidation of UO2 was then driven by both MnO2 and soluble Mn(III). Kinetic models were derived that provided excellent fits of the experimental results.

  11. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  12. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  13. OXIDATIVE STRESS PARTICIPATES IN PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INDUCED LUNG INJURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidative stress participates in particulate matter (PM) induced acute lung injury.
    Elizabeth S. Roberts1, Judy L. Richards2, Kevin L. Dreher2. 1College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 2US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTP, NC.
    Epidemiol...

  14. Soy protein reduces paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hisa; Otaka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Kiharu; Takenaka, Asako

    2002-08-01

    The effect of soy protein, soy isoflavones and saponins on paraquat (PQ)-induced oxidative stress was investigated in rats. Rats were fed experimental diets containing casein (CAS), soy protein (SPI), and casein with soy isoflavones and saponins (CAS + IS). The diets were supplemented or not with 0.025% paraquat (CAS + PQ, SPI + PQ, and CAS + IS + PQ). The protective effects of soy protein, soy isoflavones, and saponins on paraquat-induced oxidative stress were examined. Ingestion of soy protein generally mitigated the lung enlargement (P = 0.076), loss of body weight (P = 0.051) and oxidation of liver lipid (P = 0.043) and glutathione (P = 0.035) induced by paraquat, although soy isoflavones and saponins did not. To determine whether soy protein exerted its antioxidative effects by preventing paraquat absorption from digestive organs, rats were fed CAS or SPI diets and orally administered a 12.5 g/L paraquat solution. Plasma, urine, and fecal paraquat concentrations did not differ between the two groups, indicating that soy protein did not prevent paraquat absorption. The present study suggests that intake of soy protein itself, but not soy isoflavones and saponins, reduces paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats, although this effect was not due to reduced absorption of paraquat from digestive organs.

  15. Quercitrin protects skin from UVB-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuanqin; Li, Wenqi; Son, Young-Ok; Sun, Lijuan; Lu, Jian; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Xin; Yao, Hua; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Hitron, Andrew J; Luo, Jia; Gao, Ning; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-06-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes oxidative damage to skin, resulting in sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancer. It is generally believed that the skin damage induced by UV irradiation is a consequence of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there is an increased interest in the use of natural products as chemopreventive agents for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Quercitrin, glycosylated form of quercetin, is the most common flavonoid in nature with antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the possible beneficial effects of quercitrin to inhibit UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that quercitrin decreased ROS generation induced by UVB irradiation in JB6 cells. Quercitrin restored catalase expression and GSH/GSSG ratio reduced by UVB exposure, two major antioxidant enzymes, leading to reductions of oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis and protection of the skin from inflammation caused by UVB exposure. The present study demonstrated that quercitrin functions as an antioxidant against UVB irradiation-induced oxidative damage to skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strain induced by functional oxides for silicon photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaud, Guillaume; Matzen, Sylvia; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Le Roux, Xavier; Berciano, Mathias; Damas, Pedro; Maroutian, Thomas; Agnus, Guillaume; Largeau, Ludovic; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Lecoeur, Philippe; Vivien, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore an alternative approach for high speed and low power consumption optical modulation based on the use of the Pockels effect in silicon. Unfortunately, silicon is a centro-symmetric crystal leading to a vanishing of the second order nonlinear coefficient, i.e. no Pockels effect. To overcome this limitation, on possibility would be to break the crystal symmetry by straining the silicon lattice with the epitaxial growth of crystalline functional oxides. Indeed, the induced strain due to lattice parameter mismatch and the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between oxides and silicon are strong and may induce strong strain into silicon. Furthermore, functional oxides can exhibit very interesting multiferroicity and piezoelectricity properties that pave the way to a new route to implement silicon photonic circuits with unprecedented functionalities.

  17. Does aspirin-induced oxidative stress cause asthma exacerbation?

    PubMed Central

    Kacprzak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by severe asthma exacerbations after ingestion of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact pathomechanism of AIA remains unknown, though ongoing research has shed some light. Recently, more and more attention has been focused on the role of aspirin in the induction of oxidative stress, especially in cancer cell systems. However, it has not excluded the similar action of aspirin in other inflammatory disorders such as asthma. Moreover, increased levels of 8-isoprostanes, reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress in expired breath condensate in steroid-naïve patients with AIA compared to AIA patients treated with steroids and healthy volunteers, has been observed. This review is an attempt to cover aspirin-induced oxidative stress action in AIA and to suggest a possible related pathomechanism. PMID:26170841

  18. Statins lower calcium-induced oxidative stress in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Parihar, A; Parihar, M S; Zenebe, W J; Ghafourifar, P

    2012-04-01

    Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering agents that exert cholesterol-independent effects including antioxidative. The present study delineates the effects of statins, atorvastatin, and simvastatin on oxidative stress and functions of mitochondria that are the primary cellular sources of oxidative stress. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, both the statins prevented calcium-induced cytochrome c release, lipid peroxidation, and opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT). Both the statins decreased the activity of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), lowered the intramitochondrial ionized calcium, and increased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Our findings suggest that statins lower intramitochondrial ionized calcium that decreases mtNOS activity, lowers oxidative stress, prevents MPT opening, and prevents the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. These results provide a novel framework for understanding the antioxidative properties of statins and their effects on mitochondrial functions.

  19. Microbially Induced Iron Oxidation: What, Where, How

    SciTech Connect

    SCHIERMEYER,ELISA M.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; NORTHUP,DIANA E.

    2000-08-15

    From the results of the different bacterial cells seen, it is fairly certain that Gallionella is present because of the bean-shaped cells and twisted stalks found with the TEM. The authors cannot confirm, though, what other iron-oxidizing genera exist in the tubes, since the media was only preferential and not one that isolated a specific genus of bacteria. Based on the environment in which they live and the source of the water, they believe their cultures contain Gallionella, Leptothrix, and possibly Crenothrix and Sphaerotilus. They believe the genus Leptothrix rather than Sphaerotilus exist in the tubes because the water source was fresh, unlike the polluted water in which Sphaerotilus are usually found. The TEM preparations worked well. The cryogenic method rapidly froze the cells in place and allowed them to view their morphology. The FAA method, as stated previously, was the best of the three methods because it gave the best contrast. The gluteraldehyde samples did not come out as well. It is possible that the gluteraldehyde the authors prepared was still too concentrated and did not mix well. Although these bacteria were collected from springs and then cultured in an environment containing a presumably pure iron-bearing metal, it seems the tube already containing Manganese Gradient Medium could be used with a piece of metal containing these bacteria. A small piece of corroding metal could then be inserted into the test tube and cultured to study the bacteria.

  20. Enhanced Oxidative Stress Is Responsible for TRPV4-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Yuan, Yibiao; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) has been reported to be responsible for neuronal injury in pathological conditions. Excessive oxidative stress can lead to neuronal damage, and activation of TRPV4 increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in many types of cells. The present study explored whether TRPV4-induced neuronal injury is mediated through enhancing oxidative stress. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A increased the content of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and NO in the hippocampus, which was blocked by administration of the TRPV4 specific antagonist HC-067047. The activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were decreased by GSK1016790A, whereas the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) remained unchanged. Moreover, the protein level and activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were increased by GSK1016790A, and the GSK1016790A-induced increase in NO content was blocked by an nNOS specific antagonist ARL-17477. The GSK1016790A-induced modulations of CAT, GSH-Px and nNOS activities and the protein level of nNOS were significantly inhibited by HC-067047. Finally, GSK1016790A-induced neuronal death and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 area were markedly attenuated by administration of a ROS scavenger Trolox or ARL-17477. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 enhances oxidative stress by inhibiting CAT and GSH-Px and increasing nNOS, which is responsible, at least in part, for TRPV4-induced neurotoxicity.

  1. N-acetylcysteine attenuates dimethylnitrosamine induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Priya; Paramasivan, Vijayalakshmi; Palani, Vivekanandan; Sivanesan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-05

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various hepatic disorders and hence screening for a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent is the need of the hour. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in male Wistar albino rats. Administration of single dose of DMN (5mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) resulted in significant elevation in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, indicating hepatocellular damage. Oxidative stress induced by DMN treatment was confirmed by an elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase and in the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants, reduced glutathione, vitamin-C and vitamin-E in the liver tissue. DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular membrane instability was further substantiated by a decline in the status of the membrane bound ATPases in the liver tissue. Post-treatment with NAC (50mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) for 7days effectively protected against the DMN induced insult to liver by preventing the elevation in the status of the serum marker enzymes and LPO, and restoring the activities of both the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases towards normalcy. These results demonstrate that NAC acts as a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in attenuating DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage.

  2. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brandl, Anita; Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  3. Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, Stephane; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Favier, Alain; Margaritis, Irene

    2003-08-01

    We hypothesized that overloaded training (OT) in triathlon would induce oxidative stress and damage on muscle and DNA. Nine male triathletes and 6 male sedentary subjects participated in this study. Before and after a 4-week OT, triathletes exercised for a duathlon. Blood ratio of reduced vs. oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), leukocyte DNA damage, creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB mass in plasma, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, erythrocyte and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured before and after OT in pre- and postexercise situations. Triathletes were overloaded in response to OT. In rest conditions, OT induced plasma GSH-Px activity increase and plasma TAS decrease (both p < 0.05). In exercise conditions, OT resulted in higher exercise-induced variations of blood GSH/GSSG ratio, TBARS level (both p < 0.05), and CK-MB mass (p < 0.01) in plasma; and decreased TAS response (p < 0.05). OT could compromise the antioxidant defense mechanism with respect to exercise-induced response. The resulting increased exercise-induced oxidative stress and further cellular susceptibility to damage needs more study.

  4. H₂O Dissociation-Induced Aluminum Oxide Growth on Oxidized Al(111) Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianqian; Tong, Xiao; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-12-08

    The interaction of water vapor with amorphous aluminum oxide films on Al(111) is studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate the passivation mechanism of the oxidized Al(111) surfaces. Exposure of the aluminum oxide film to water vapor results in self-limiting Al2O3/Al(OH)3 bilayer film growth via counter-diffusion of both ions, Al outward and OH inward, where a thinner starting aluminum oxide film is more reactive toward H2O dissociation-induced oxide growth because of the thickness-dependent ionic transport in the aluminum oxide film. The aluminum oxide film exhibits reactivity toward H2O dissociation in both low-vapor pressure [p(H2O) = 1 × 10(-6) Torr] and intermediate-vapor pressure [p(H2O) = 5 Torr] regimes. Compared to the oxide film growth by exposure to a p(H2O) of 1 × 10(-6) Torr, the exposure to a p(H2O) of 5 Torr results in the formation of a more open structure of the inner Al(OH)3 layer and a more compact outer Al2O3 layer, demonstrating the vapor-pressure-dependent atomic structure in the passivating layer.

  5. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Rex Gaskins, H.

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  6. Gentamicin induced nitric oxide-related oxidative damages on vestibular afferents in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Sook Kyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Ki Ryung; Kim, Myung Gu; Chung, Won-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Gentamicin is a well-known ototoxic aminoglycoside. However, the mechanism underlying this ototoxicity remains unclear. One of the mechanisms which may be responsible for this ototoxicity is excitotoxic damage to hair cells. The overstimulation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors increases the production of nitric oxide (NO), which induces oxidative stress on hair cells. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this excitotoxicity, we treated guinea pigs with gentamicin by placing gentamicin (0.5 mg) pellets into a round window niche. After the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at 3, 7 and 14 days after the treatment, the numbers of hair cells in the animals were counted with a scanning electron microscope. We then performed immunostaining using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine antibodies. The number of hair cells in the animals was found to decrease significantly after 7 days. nNOS and iNOS expression levels were observed to have increased 3 days after treatment. Nitrotyrosine was expressed primarily at the calyceal afferents of the type I hair cells 3 days after treatment. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining revealed positive hair cells 3 days after treatment. Our results suggest that inner ear treatment with gentamicin may upregulate nNOS and iNOS to induce oxidative stress in the calyceal afferents of type I hair cells, via nitric oxide overproduction.

  7. Obesity Exacerbates Sepsis-Induced Oxidative Damage in Organs.

    PubMed

    Petronilho, Fabricia; Giustina, Amanda Della; Nascimento, Diego Zapelini; Zarbato, Graciela Freitas; Vieira, Andriele Aparecida; Florentino, Drielly; Danielski, Lucinéia Gainski; Goldim, Mariana Pereira; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Barichello, Tatiana

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis progression is linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes. Sepsis affects multiple organs, but when associated with a chronic inflammatory disease, such as obesity, it may be exacerbated. We hypothesized that obesity could aggravate the oxidative damage to peripheral organs of rats submitted to an animal model of sepsis. Male Wistar rats aged 8 weeks received hypercaloric nutrition for 2 months to induce obesity. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, and sham-operated rats were considered as control group. The experimental groups were divided into sham + eutrophic, sham + obese, CLP + eutrophic, and CLP + obese. Twelve and 24 h after surgery, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were evaluated in the liver, lung, kidney, and heart. The data indicate that obese rats subjected to sepsis present oxidative stress mainly in the lung and liver. This alteration reflected an oxidative damage to lipids and proteins and an imbalance of SOD and CAT levels, especially 24 h after sepsis. It follows that obesity due to its pro-inflammatory phenotype can aggravate sepsis-induced damage in peripheral organs.

  8. Nitric oxide inhibition sustains vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Carnochan, P.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal vasoconstriction increases cytotoxic drug uptake into hepatic metastases by increasing the tumour to liver blood flow ratio. Prolonged infusion of the vasoconstrictor vasopressin does not result in sustained vasoconstriction, and this may limit the benefit of vasopressin in infusional chemotherapy. We have assessed whether loss of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by nitric oxide. Hepatic and tumour blood flow were continuously monitored, in an animal hepatic tumour model, by laser Doppler flowmetry. The response to regionally infused vasopressin and the nitric oxide inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were assessed over a 30 min infusion period. The vasopressin-induced vasoconstrictor effect diminished after 15 min despite continued infusion. Vasoconstriction was significantly prolonged when L-NAME was infused in addition to vasopressin. The increase in tumour to normal blood flow ratio was greater over the infusion period when L-NAME was co-administered with vasopressin. Our results suggest that the loss of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction seen in liver parenchyma after regional infusion is prevented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-name and may be mediated by nitric oxide. PMID:7734317

  9. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  10. Effects of polyphenolic antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ruiz, J M; Villegas García, J A; López, F J; Vidal-Guevara, M L; Zafrilla, P

    2006-06-01

    Polyphenols are of increasing interest to consumers and food manufacturers for several reasons. Commonly referred to as antioxidants (they are the most abundant antioxidants in our diets), they may prevent various oxidative stress-related diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammation and others. Physical activity is known to induce oxidative stress in individuals after intensive exercise. In this study, the effect of the flavonoid contents (which are the most abundant polyphenols) was investigated, as the only antioxidant in a replacement drink designed for sportsmen on various oxidative stress biomarkers after two identical trials of sub-maximal aerobic exercise, in a group of 30 sportsmen. In one of the trials, the cyclists consumed the antioxidant supplement (with 2.3g polyphenols/trial), and in another they consumed a placebo. Blood samples were collected both at rest and after exercise immediately and 45 minutes (min) later, for measurements of plasmatic indices of oxidative stress: lipid oxidation (TBARS), total antioxidant status (TAS); protein oxidation (carbonyl groups, CO) and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) enzymes for each trial. All values were adjusted for changes in plasma volume. No changes were detected in plasma TAS and LDH after exercise or after the polyphenolic supplement. CK and TBARS increased after exercise in both tests. However, in response to strenuous exercise, the polyphenol-supplemented test showed a smaller increase in plasma TBARS and CK than the placebo test. CO increased by 12% in response to the placebo test, whereas it decreased by 23% in the polyphenol-supplement test. This may indicate that the antioxidant supplement offered protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Oxidatively Induced C-H Activation at High Valent Nickel.

    PubMed

    Chong, Eugene; Kampf, Jeff W; Ariafard, Alireza; Canty, Allan J; Sanford, Melanie S

    2017-05-03

    This communication describes a series of oxidatively induced intramolecular arene C-H activation reactions of Ni(II) model complexes to yield Ni(IV) σ-aryl products. These reactions proceed within 10 min at room temperature, which represents among the mildest conditions reported for C-H cleavage at a Ni center. A combination of density functional theory and preliminary experimental mechanistic studies implicate a pathway involving initial 2e(-) oxidation of the Ni(II) starting materials by the F(+) transfer reagent N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium triflate followed by triflate-assisted C-H cleavage at Ni(IV) to yield the products.

  12. Ultraviolet-induced erasable photochromism in bilayer metal oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakado, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Keiji; Nakazawa, Akira

    2011-09-01

    We demonstrate that the optical transmittance of bilayer samples consisting of pyrolytically coated amorphous Mg-Sn-O and metal oxide films such as In 2O 3 and SnO 2 decreases upon ultraviolet illumination, but can be recovered by annealing in air at ˜300 ∘C. Spectral, structural, and compositional studies suggest that this photochromic phenomenon is induced by photoelectronic excitation in the Mg-Sn-O film, electron injection into the metal oxide, which becomes negatively charged, and subsequent formation of metallic particles, which absorb and/or scatter visible light.

  13. Role of Oxidative Stress in Drug-Induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hosohata, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The kidney plays a primary role in maintaining homeostasis and detoxification of numerous hydrophilic xenobiotics as well as endogenous compounds. Because the kidney is exposed to a larger proportion and higher concentration of drugs and toxins than other organs through the secretion of ionic drugs by tubular organic ion transporters across the luminal membranes of renal tubular epithelial cells, and through the reabsorption of filtered toxins into the lumen of the tubule, these cells are at greater risk for injury. In fact, drug-induced kidney injury is a serious problem in clinical practice and accounts for roughly 20% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) among hospitalized patients. Therefore, its early detection is becoming more important. Usually, drug-induced AKI consists of two patterns of renal injury: acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN). Whereas AIN develops from medications that incite an allergic reaction, ATN develops from direct toxicity on tubular epithelial cells. Among several cellular mechanisms underlying ATN, oxidative stress plays an important role in progression to ATN by activation of inflammatory response via proinflammatory cytokine release and inflammatory cell accumulation in tissues. This review provides an overview of drugs associated with AKI, the role of oxidative stress in drug-induced AKI, and a biomarker for drug-induced AKI focusing on oxidative stress. PMID:27809280

  14. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara . E-mail: dario.ghigo@unito.it

    2006-05-01

    Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in a significant way, an increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and a decrease of the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, accompanied by augmented efflux of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Apocynin induced the activation of both pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which was blocked when the cells were incubated with glutathione together with apocynin. The cell incubation with glutathione prevented also the apocynin-induced increase of malonyldialdehyde generation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Apocynin exerted an oxidant effect also in a cell-free system: indeed, in aqueous solution, it evoked a faster oxidation of the thiols glutathione and dithiothreitol, and elicited the generation of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide anions. Our results suggest that apocynin per se can induce an oxidative stress and exert a cytotoxic effect in N11 cells and other cell types, and that some effects of apocynin in in vitro and in vivo experimental models should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Oxidant-induced DNA damage of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufstätter, I; Hyslop, P A; Jackson, J H; Cochrane, C G

    1988-01-01

    In this study we examined the leukocytic oxidant species that induce oxidant damage of DNA in whole cells. H2O2 added extracellularly in micromolar concentrations (10-100 microM) induced DNA strand breaks in various target cells. The sensitivity of a specific target cell was inversely correlated to its catalase content and the rate of removal of H2O2 by the target cell. Oxidant species produced by xanthine oxidase/purine or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes induced DNA breakage of target cells in proportion to the amount of H2O2 generated. These DNA strand breaks were prevented by extracellular catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase. Cytotoxic doses of HOCl, added to target cells, did not induce DNA strand breakage, and myeloperoxidase added extracellularly in the presence of an H2O2-generating system, prevented the formation of DNA strand breaks in proportion to its H2O2 degrading capacity. The studies also indicated that H2O2 formed hydroxyl radical (.OH) intracellularly, which appeared to be the most likely free radical responsible for DNA damage: .OH was detected in cells exposed to H2O2; the DNA base, deoxyguanosine, was hydroxylated in cells exposed to H2O2; and intracellular iron was essential for induction of DNA strand breaks. PMID:2843565

  16. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  17. Tamoxifen inhibits mitochondrial oxidative stress damage induced by copper orthophenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Buelna-Chontal, Mabel; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Correa, Francisco; Díaz-Ruiz, Jorge Luis; Chávez, Edmundo

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of tamoxifen and cyclosporin A on mitochondrial permeability transition caused by addition of the thiol-oxidizing pair Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline. The findings indicate that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A circumvent the oxidative membrane damage manifested by matrix Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial swelling, and transmembrane electrical gradient collapse. Furthermore, it was found that tamoxifen and cyclosporin A prevent the generation of TBARs promoted by Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline, as well as the inactivation of the mitochondrial enzyme aconitase and disruption of mDNA. Electrophoretic analysis was unable to demonstrate a cross-linking reaction between membrane proteins. Yet, it was found that Cu(2+) -orthophenanthroline induced the generation of reactive oxygen species. It is thus plausible that membrane leakiness is due to an oxidative stress injury.

  18. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Su, Haibin

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local Density Approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which is generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  19. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local density approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which are generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  20. Nitric oxide-donor SNAP induces Xenopus eggs activation.

    PubMed

    Jeseta, Michal; Marin, Matthieu; Tichovska, Hana; Melicharova, Petra; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Martoriati, Alain; Lescuyer-Rousseau, Arlette; Beaujois, Rémy; Petr, Jaroslav; Sedmikova, Marketa; Bodart, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is identified as a signaling molecule involved in many cellular or physiological functions including meiotic maturation and parthenogenetic activation of mammalian oocytes. We observed that nitric oxide donor SNAP was potent to induce parthenogenetic activation in Xenopus eggs. NO-scavenger CPTIO impaired the effects of SNAP, providing evidence for the effects of the latter to be specific upon NO release. In Xenopus eggs, SNAP treatment induced pigment rearrangement, pronucleus formation and exocytosis of cortical granules. At a biochemical level, SNAP exposure lead to MAPK and Rsk inactivation within 30 minutes whereas MPF remained active, in contrast to calcium ionophore control where MPF activity dropped rapidly. MAPK inactivation could be correlated to pronuclear envelope reformation observed. In SNAP-treated eggs, a strong increase in intracellular calcium level was observed. NO effects were impaired in calcium-free or calcium limited medium, suggesting that that parthenogenetic activation of Xenopus oocytes with a NO donor was mainly calcium-dependent.

  1. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

  2. [Research of antioxidant defence system under alimentary induced oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Iu V; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Vasil'ev, A V

    2004-01-01

    Alimentary induced oxidative stress and its corrections in children and adults with homocysteine metabolism disorder are urgent problems for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease prophylactics. For determination antioxidant status GSH-Px, SOD, GSH-reductase, catalase activities were detected. Effectiveness of Se-contained antioxidant complex "Selenec" was determined in experimental model with pubertal male Wistar rats. Including high value of methionine to semipurified diet with pyridoxine and folate deficiency induced oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation substances were increased in blood, liver, intestine mucous tunic, aortal endothelium and myocardium. GSH-Px, SOD, GSH-reductase, catalase activities decreased significant compared to control. "Selenec" supplementation caused a decrease of thiobarbituric-reactive substances level, increasing SOD and catalase activity and decreasing GSH-Px and GSH-reductase activity in blood, liver, intestine mucous tunic, aorta and myocardium.

  3. OXIDANT CONDITIONING PROTECTS CARTILAGE FROM MECHANICALLY-INDUCED DAMAGE

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Prem; Hecht, Benjamin; Pedersen, Doug; Lavery, Matthew; Maynard, Jerry; Buckwalter, Joseph; Martin, James

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritis has been linked to abnormal mechanical stresses that are known to cause chondrocyte apoptosis and metabolic derangement in in vitro models. Evidence implicating oxidative damage as the immediate cause of these harmful effects suggests that the anti-oxidant defenses of chondrocytes might influence their tolerance for mechanical injury. Based on evidence that anti-oxidant defenses in many cell types are stimulated by moderate oxidant exposure, we hypothesized that oxidant pre-conditioning would reduce acute chondrocyte death and proteoglycan depletion in cartilage explants after exposure to abnormal mechanical stresses. Porcine cartilage explants were treated every 48 hours with tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide (tBHP) at non-lethal concentrations (25, 100, 250, 500 µM) for a varying number of times (1, 2 or 4) prior to a bout of unconfined axial compression (5 MPa, 1 Hz, 1800 cycles). When compared with untreated controls, tBHP had significant positive effects on post-compression viability, lactate production, and proteoglycan losses. Overall, the most effective regime was 100 µM tBHP applied 4 times. RNA analysis revealed significant effects of 100 µM tBHP on gene expression. Catalase, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and glyceraldehyde 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were significantly increased relative to untreated controls in explants treated 4 times with 100 µM tBHP, a regime that also resulted in a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression. These findings demonstrate that repeated exposure of cartilage to sub-lethal concentrations of peroxide can moderate the acute effects of mechanical stress, a conclusion supported by evidence of peroxide-induced changes in gene expression that could render chondrocytes more resistant to oxidative damage. PMID:20058262

  4. THz-Pulse-Induced Selective Catalytic CO Oxidation on Ru.

    PubMed

    LaRue, Jerry L; Katayama, Tetsuo; Lindenberg, Aaron; Fisher, Alan S; Öström, Henrik; Nilsson, Anders; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2015-07-17

    We demonstrate the use of intense, quasi-half-cycle THz pulses, with an associated electric field component comparable to intramolecular electric fields, to direct the reaction coordinate of a chemical reaction by stimulating the nuclear motions of the reactants. Using a strong electric field from a THz pulse generated via coherent transition radiation from an ultrashort electron bunch, we present evidence that CO oxidation on Ru(0001) is selectively induced, while not promoting the thermally induced CO desorption process. The reaction is initiated by the motion of the O atoms on the surface driven by the electric field component of the THz pulse, rather than thermal heating of the surface.

  5. Increasing mitochondrial muscle fatty acid oxidation induces skeletal muscle remodeling toward an oxidative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hénique, Carole; Mansouri, Abdelhak; Vavrova, Eliska; Lenoir, Véronique; Ferry, Arnaud; Esnous, Catherine; Ramond, Elodie; Girard, Jean; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Prip-Buus, Carina; Cohen, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a dynamic, remarkably plastic tissue, which allows myofibers to switch from fast/glycolytic to slow/oxidative types and to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (mFAO) capacity and vascularization in response to exercise training. mFAO is the main muscle energy source during endurance exercise, with carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) being the key regulatory enzyme. Whether increasing muscle mFAO affects skeletal muscle physiology in adulthood actually remains unknown. To investigate this, we used in vivo electrotransfer technology to express in mouse tibialis anterior (TA), a fast/glycolytic muscle, a mutated CPT1 form (CPT1mt) that is active but insensitive to malonyl-CoA, its physiologic inhibitor. In young (2-mo-old) adult mice, muscle CPT1mt expression enhanced mFAO (+40%), but also increased the percentage of oxidative fibers (+28%), glycogen content, and capillary-to-fiber density (+45%). This CPT1mt-induced muscle remodeling, which mimicked exercise-induced oxidative phenotype, led to a greater resistance to muscle fatigue. In the context of aging, characterized by sarcopenia and reduced oxidative capacity, CPT1mt expression in TAs from aged (20-mo-old) mice partially reversed aging-associated sarcopenia and fiber-type transition, and increased muscle capillarity. These findings provide evidence that mFAO regulates muscle phenotype and may be a potential target to combat age-related decline in muscle function.

  6. Rutin inhibits amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lin; Li, Ya-Nan; Zhang, He; Su, Ya-Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Shao-Wei; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence showed that amylin deposition is not only found in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, but also in other peripheral organs, such as kidneys, heart and brain. Circulating amylin oligomers that cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain may be an important contributor to diabetic cerebral injury and neurodegeneration. Moreover, increasing epidemiological studies indicate that there is a significant association between T2DM and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amylin and β-amyloid (Aβ) may share common pathophysiology and show strikingly similar neurotoxicity profiles in the brain. To explore the potential effects of rutin on AD, we here investigated the effect of rutin on amylin aggregation by thioflavin T dyeing, evaluated the effect of rutin on amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity by the MTT assay, and assessed oxidative stress, as well as the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuronal cells. Our results showed that the flavonoid antioxidant rutin inhibited amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity, decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, attenuated mitochondrial damage and increased the GSH/GSSG ratio. These protective effects of rutin may have resulted from its ability to inhibit amylin aggregation, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. These in vitro results indicate that rutin is a promising natural product for protecting neuronal cells from amylin-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, and rutin administration could be a feasible therapeutic strategy for preventing AD development and protecting the aging brain or slowing neurodegenerative processes.

  7. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-03-15

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA.

  8. Dimethyl sulfoxide induces oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela; Pączka, Aleksandra; Mołoń, Mateusz; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2013-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used as a cryoprotectant for the preservation of cells, including yeast, and as a solvent for chemical compounds. We report that DMSO induces oxidative stress in the yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae wt strain EG-103 and its mutants Δsod1, Δsod2, and Δsod1 Δsod2 were used. Yeast were subjected to the action of 1-14% DMSO for 1 h at 28 °C. DMSO induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of yeast growth, the effect being more pronounced for mutants devoid of SOD (especially Δsod1 Δsod2). Cell viability was compromised. DMSO-concentration-dependent activity loss of succinate dehydrogenase, a FeS enzyme sensitive to oxidative stress, was observed. DMSO enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species, estimated with dihydroethidine in a concentration-dependent manner, the effect being again more pronounced in mutants devoid of superoxide dismutases. The content of cellular glutathione was increased with increasing DMSO concentrations, which may represent a compensatory response. Membrane fluidity, estimated by fluorescence polarization of DPH, was decreased by DMSO. These results demonstrate that DMSO, although generally considered to be antioxidant, induces oxidative stress in yeast cells.

  9. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E; Othman, Mohamed S; Aref, Ahmed M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.

  10. Azadirachta indica Attenuates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.; Othman, Mohamed S.; Aref, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of methanolic leaves extract of Azadirachta indica (MLEN, 500 mg/kg bwt) on cisplatin- (CP-) induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. CP (5 mg/kg bwt) was injected intraperitoneally and MLEN was given by gastric gavage for 5 days before or after CP injection. After 5 days of CP injection, CP-induced injury of the renal tissue was evidenced (i) as histopathological damage of the renal tissue, (ii) as increases in serum uric acid, urea, and creatinine, (iii) as increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), (iv) as decreases in the level of glutathione and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase, and (v) as increase in the expression of nuclear factor kappa B and apoptosis in kidney tissues. However, the oral administration of MLEN to CP-intoxicated rats for 5 days brought back MDA, NO production, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants to near normalcy. Moreover, the histological observations evidenced that neem extract effectively rescues the kidney from CP-mediated oxidative damage. Furthermore, PCR results for caspase-3 and caspase-9 and Bax genes showed downregulation in MLEN treated groups. Therefore, Azadirachta indica can be considered a potential candidate for protection of nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. PMID:25162019

  11. Oxidation-Induced Degradable Nanogels for Iron Chelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan; Purro, Max; Xiong, May P.

    2016-02-01

    Iron overload can increase cellular oxidative stress levels due to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); untreated, it can be extremely destructive to organs and fatal to patients. Since elevated oxidative stress levels are inherent to the condition in such patients, oxidation-induced degradable nanogels for iron chelation were rationally designed by simultaneously polymerizing oxidation-sensitive host-guest crosslinkers between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ferrocene (Fc) and iron chelating moieties composed of deferoxamine (DFO) into the final gel scaffold in reverse emulsion reaction chambers. UV-Vis absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to verify iron chelating capability of nanogels. These materials can degrade into smaller chelating fragments at rates proportional to the level of oxidative stress present. Conjugating DFO reduces the cytotoxicity of the chelator in the macrophage cells. Importantly, the nanogel can effectively reduce cellular ferritin expression in iron overloaded cells and regulate intracellular iron levels at the same time, which is important for maintaining a homeostatic level of this critical metal in cells.

  12. Oxidative-stress-induced epigenetic changes in chronic diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Feng, Biao; Ruiz, Michael Anthony; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications. Diabetes causes mitochondrial superoxide overproduction in the endothelial cells of both large and small vessels. This increased superoxide production causes the activation of several signal pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic complications. In particular, endothelial cells are major targets of glucose-induced oxidative damage in the target organs. Oxidative stress activates cellular signaling pathways and transcription factors in endothelial cells including protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), forkhead box O (FOXO), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Oxidative stress also causes DNA damage and activates DNA nucleotide excision repair enzymes including the excision repair cross complimenting 1(ERCC1), ERCC4, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Augmented production of histone acetyltransferase p300, and alterations of histone deacetylases, including class III deacetylases sirtuins, are also involved in this process. Recent research has found that small noncoding RNAs, like microRNA, are a new kind of regulator associated with chronic diabetic complications. There are extensive and complicated interactions and among these molecules. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetic complications in relation to epigenetic changes such as acetylation and microRNA alterations.

  13. Oxidation-Induced Degradable Nanogels for Iron Chelation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Yan; Purro, Max; Xiong, May P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload can increase cellular oxidative stress levels due to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); untreated, it can be extremely destructive to organs and fatal to patients. Since elevated oxidative stress levels are inherent to the condition in such patients, oxidation-induced degradable nanogels for iron chelation were rationally designed by simultaneously polymerizing oxidation-sensitive host-guest crosslinkers between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and ferrocene (Fc) and iron chelating moieties composed of deferoxamine (DFO) into the final gel scaffold in reverse emulsion reaction chambers. UV-Vis absorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to verify iron chelating capability of nanogels. These materials can degrade into smaller chelating fragments at rates proportional to the level of oxidative stress present. Conjugating DFO reduces the cytotoxicity of the chelator in the macrophage cells. Importantly, the nanogel can effectively reduce cellular ferritin expression in iron overloaded cells and regulate intracellular iron levels at the same time, which is important for maintaining a homeostatic level of this critical metal in cells. PMID:26868174

  14. Contaminant-induced oxidative stress in fish: a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-04-01

    The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living organisms was described more than 60 years ago and virtually immediately it was suggested that ROS were involved in various pathological processes and aging. The state when ROS generation exceeds elimination leading to an increased steady-state ROS level has been called "oxidative stress." Although ROS association with many pathological states in animals is well established, the question of ROS responsibility for the development of these states is still open. Fish represent the largest group of vertebrates and they inhabit a broad range of ecosystems where they are subjected to many different aquatic contaminants. In many cases, the deleterious effects of contaminants have been connected to induction of oxidative stress. Therefore, deciphering of molecular mechanisms leading to such contaminant effects and organisms' response may let prevent or minimize deleterious impacts of oxidative stress. This review describes general aspects of ROS homeostasis, in particular highlighting its basic aspects, modification of cellular constituents, operation of defense systems and ROS-based signaling with an emphasis on fish systems. A brief introduction to oxidative stress theory is accompanied by the description of a recently developed classification system for oxidative stress based on its intensity and time course. Specific information on contaminant-induced oxidative stress in fish is covered in sections devoted to such pollutants as metal ions (particularly iron, copper, chromium, mercury, arsenic, nickel, etc.), pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) and oil with accompanying pollutants. In the last section, certain problems and perspectives in studies of oxidative stress in fish are described.

  15. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

  16. Soyasaponin Bb Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Stress by Inducing Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Lijie, Zhu; Ranran, Fu; Xiuying, Liu; Yutang, He; Bo, Wang; Tao, Ma

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been known that oxidative stress induced by alcohol played a crucial role in the formation of alcoholic liver disease. Although the formation mechanisms underlying liver injury induced by alcohol still remained largely unknown, it has been considered that oxidative stress played a core role in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte damage. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soyasaponin Bb (Ss-Bb) on oxidative stress in alcohol-induced rat hepatocyte injury. Results: It has been shown that the administration of Ss-Bb could significantly restore antioxidant activity in BRL 3A cells. Moreover, the impaired liver function and morphology changes resulting from ethanol exposure were improved by Ss-Bb treatment. Treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) indicated a critical role of HO-1 in mediating the protective role. Finally, we found that pretreatment with Ss-Bb to ethanol exposure cells increased the expression level of HO-1. Conclusion: It was suggested that Ss-Bb may protect against alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury through ameliorating oxidative stress, and the induction of HO-1 was an important protective mechanism. SUMMARY Effects of soyasaponin Bb was investigated on oxidative stress in rat hepatocytesCell viability and antioxidant capacities were evaluated to determine the effectsThe expression level of HO-1 was measured to reveal the proptective mechanisms PMID:27867273

  17. Nitric oxide synthases and cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, A B; Malave, A; Cubeddu, L X

    2001-03-01

    The role of inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS) synthases and of tachykinin NK1 receptors on the pathogenesis of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis was investigated, in rats. CYP-induced cystitis was characterized by large increases in bladder-protein plasma extravasation (PPE), increases in the urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and histological evidences of urothelial damage, edema, extensive white blood cell infiltrates and vascular congestion of the bladder. The specific iNOS inhibitor, S-methylthiourea (MITU), produced marked inhibition (>90%) of CYP-induced increases in PPE associated with amelioration of tissue inflammatory changes. Treatment with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg), a selective nNOS inhibitor, did not significantly reduce CYP-induced increases in PPE and failed to produce histological improvement. In addition, treatment with MITU, but not with 7-NI, inhibited the increases in the urinary excretion of NO metabolites induced by CYP treatment. WIN 51,708 (17-beta-hydroxy-17-alpha-ethynyl-androstano[3,2-b]pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole; WIN), a selective NK1-receptor antagonist, reduced the increases in EPP and ameliorated the inflammatory changes in the bladder induced by CYP. However, the maximal degree of protection achieved with WIN was significantly less than that produced by MITU. Combined treatment with the iNOS inhibitor and the NK1 antagonist produced no greater effect than that produced by the iNOS inhibitor alone. Our results suggest that NO plays a fundamental role in the production of the cystitis associated with CYP treatment. The iNOS, and not nNOS, seems responsible for the inflammatory changes. Part of the increases in NO may due to activation of NK1 receptors by neuropeptides such as substance P possibly released from primary afferent fibers.

  18. Expression of inducible nitric oxide in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R A; Barnes, P J; Springall, D R; Warren, J B; Kwon, O J; Buttery, L D; Wilson, A J; Geller, D A; Polak, J M

    1994-08-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) is increased in the exhaled air of subjects with several airway disorders. To determine if cytokines could stimulate epithelial cells accounting for the increased NO, the capacity of the proinflammatory cytokines (cytomix: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interferon-gamma) to increase inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was investigated in A549 and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Cytomix induced a time-dependent increase in nitrite levels in culture supernatant fluids (p < 0.05). Increased numbers of cells stained for iNOS and increased iNOS mRNA was detected in the cytokine-stimulated cells compared to control (p < 0.05). Dexamethasone diminished the cytokine-induced increase in nitrite, iNOS by immunocytochemistry, and iNOS mRNA. These data demonstrate that cytokines, such as those released by mononuclear cells, can induce lung epithelial iNOS expression and NO release, and that this is attenuated by dexamethasone.

  19. Visible light induced oxidation of water by rare earth manganites, cobaltites and related oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, B. S.; Gupta, Uttam; Maitra, Urmimala; Rao, C. N. R.

    2014-01-01

    A study of the visible light induced oxidation of water by perovskite oxides of the formula LaMO3 (M = transition metal) has revealed the best activity with LaCoO3 which contains Co3+ in the intermediate-spin (IS) with one eg electron. Among the rare earth manganites, only orthorhombic manganites with octahedral Mn3+ ions exhibit good catalytic activity, but hexagonal manganites are poor catalysts. Interestingly, not only the perovskite rare earth cobaltites but also solid solutions of Co3+ in cubic rare earth sesquioxides exhibit catalytic activity comparable to LaCoO3, the Co3+ ion in all these oxides also being in the IS t2g5 e g 1 state.

  20. Impaired Mitochondrial Fat Oxidation Induces FGF21 in Muscle.

    PubMed

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D; Wicks, Shawna E; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S; Mendoza, Tamra M; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C; Mynatt, Randall L

    2016-05-24

    Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities, and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1b(m-/-)). Cpt1b(m-/-) mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent of the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but it does not contribute to the resistance to diet-induced obesity.

  1. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces FGF21 in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Wicks, Shawna E.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J. Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1bm−/−). Cpt1bm−/− mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet induced obesity. Here we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent on the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but does not contribute to the resistance to diet induced obesity. PMID:27184848

  2. Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles against lead-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Asieh; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Najafi, Rezvan; Baeeri, Maryam; Rayegan, Samira; Cheshmehnour, Jamshid; Hassani, Shokoufeh; Bayrami, Zahra; Safa, Majid

    2015-03-01

    Due to numerous industrial applications, lead has caused widespread pollution in the environment; it seems that the central nervous system (CNS) is the main target for lead in the human body. Oxidative stress and programmed cell death in the CNS have been assumed as two mechanisms related to neurotoxicity of lead. Cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles have recently shown antioxidant effects, particularly when used together, through scavenging the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) required for cell apoptosis. We looked into the neuroprotective effects of the combinations of these nanoparticles against acute lead-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus. We used five groups in this study: control, lead, CeO2 nanoparticles + lead, Y2O3 nanoparticles + lead, and CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles + lead. Nanoparticles of CeO2 (1000 mg/kg) and Y2O3 (230 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally during 2 days prior to intraperitoneal injection of the lead (25 mg/kg for 3 days). At the end of the treatments, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes activity, and apoptosis indexes were investigated. The results demonstrated that pretreatments with CeO2 and/or Y2O3 nanoparticles recovered lead-caused oxidative stress markers (ROS, lipid peroxidation, and total thiol molecules) and apoptosis indexes (Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 protein expression). Besides, these nanoparticles reduced the activities of lead-induced superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as the ADP/ATP ratio. Interestingly, the best recovery resulted from the compound of these nanoparticles. Based on these outcomes, it appears that this combination may potentially be beneficial for protection against lead-caused acute toxicity in the brain through improving the oxidative stress-mediated programmed cell death pathway.

  3. Pressure-overload-induced heart failure induces a selective reduction in glucose oxidation at physiological afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Gandhi, Manoj; Mori, Jun; Basu, Ratnadeep; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Clanachan, Alexander; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2013-03-15

    Development of heart failure is known to be associated with changes in energy substrate metabolism. Information on the changes in energy substrate metabolism that occur in heart failure is limited and results vary depending on the methods employed. Our aim is to characterize the changes in energy substrate metabolism associated with pressure overload and ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to induce pressure overload-induced heart failure. Metabolic rates were measured in isolated working hearts perfused at physiological afterload (80 mmHg) using (3)H- or (14)C-labelled substrates. As a result of pressure-overload injury, murine hearts exhibited: (i) hypertrophy, systolic, and diastolic dysfunctions; (ii) reduction in LV work, (iii) reduced rates of glucose and lactate oxidations, with no change in glycolysis or fatty acid oxidation and a small decrease in triacylglycerol oxidation, and (iv) increased phosphorylation of AMPK and a reduction in malonyl-CoA levels. Sham hearts produced more acetyl CoA from carbohydrates than from fats, whereas TAC hearts showed a reverse trend. I/R in sham group produced a metabolic switch analogous to the TAC-induced shift to fatty acid oxidation, whereas I/R in TAC hearts greatly exacerbated the existing imbalance, and was associated with a poorer recovery during reperfusion. Pressure overload-induced heart failure and I/R shift the preference of substrate oxidation from glucose and lactate to fatty acid due to a selective reduction in carbohydrate oxidation. Normalizing the balance between metabolic substrate utilization may alleviate pressure-overload-induced heart failure and ischaemia.

  4. Nitric oxide mitigates arsenic-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, A K

    2015-09-01

    The protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) against arsenic (As)-induced structural disturbances in Vicia faba have been investigated. As treatment (0.25, 0.50, and 1 mM) resulted in a declined growth of V. faba seedlings. Arsenic treatment stimulates the activity of SOD and CAT while the activities of APX and GST content were decreased. The oxidative stress markers such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) contents were enhanced by As. Overall results revealed that significant accumulation of As suppressed growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX, and GST activity), mitotic index, and induction of different chromosomal abnormalities, hence led to oxidative stress. The concentration of SNP (0.02 mM) was very effective in counteracting the adverse effect of As toxicity. These abnormalities use partially or fully reversed by a simultaneous application of As and NO donor and sodium nitroprusside and has an ameliorating effect against As-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in V. faba roots.

  5. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease.

    PubMed

    Jomova, Klaudia; Valko, Marian

    2011-05-10

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  6. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Ola Ali

    2009-11-27

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  7. Electrotransport-induced unmixing and decomposition of ternary oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jakyu; Yoo, Han-Ill; Martin, Manfred

    2015-03-28

    A general expectation is that in a uniform oxygen activity atmosphere, cation electrotransport induces a ternary or higher oxide, e.g., AB{sub 1+ξ}O{sub 3+δ}, to kinetically unmix unless the electrochemical mobilities of, say, A{sup 2+}and B{sup 4+} cations are identically equal, and eventually to decompose into the component oxides AO and BO{sub 2} once the extent of unmixing exceeds the stability range of its nonmolecularity ξ. It has, however, earlier been reported [Yoo et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 252103 (2008)] that even a massive cation electrotransport induces BaTiO{sub 3} to neither unmix nor decompose even at a voltage far exceeding the so-called decomposition voltage U{sub d}, a measure of the standard formation free energy of the oxide (|ΔG{sub f}{sup o}| = nFU{sub d}). Here, we report that as expected, NiTiO{sub 3} unmixes at any voltage and even decomposes if the voltage applied exceeds seemingly a threshold value larger than U{sub d}. We demonstrate experimentally that the electrochemical mobilities of Ni{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} should be necessarily unequal for unmixing. Also, we show theoretically that equal cation mobilities appear to be a sufficiency for BaTiO{sub 3} only for a thermodynamic reason.

  8. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Methods Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. Results TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. Conclusion The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment. PMID:19943946

  9. Pro-oxidant and antioxidant potential of catecholestrogens against ferrylmyoglobin-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Rosa; Quintana, Kristina; Navarro, Rosaura; Martín, César; Hernández, M Luisa; Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Lacort, Mercedes; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2002-07-11

    Ferryl heme proteins may play a major role in vivo under certain pathological conditions. Catecholestrogens, the estradiol-derived metabolites, can act either as antioxidants or pro-oxidants in iron-dependent systems. The aim of the present work was (1) to determine the effects of ferrylmyoglobin on hepatocyte cytotoxicity, and (2) to assess the pro/antioxidant potential of a series of estrogens (phenolic, catecholic and stilbene-derived) against ferrylmyoglobin induced lipid peroxidation in rat hepatocytes. Cells were exposed to metmyoglobin plus hydrogen peroxide to form ferrylmyoglobin in the presence of the transition metal chelator diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid. Results showed that ferrylmyoglobin induced an initial oxidative stress, mainly reflected in an early lipid peroxidation and further decrease in GSH and ATP. However, cells gradually adapted to this situation, by recovering the endogenous ATP and GSH levels at longer incubation times. Phenolic and stilbene-derived estrogens inhibited ferrylmyoglobin-induced lipid peroxidation to different degrees: diethylstilbestrol>estradiol>resveratrol. Catecholestrogens at concentrations higher than 1 microM also inhibited lipid peroxidation with similar efficacy. The ability of estrogens to reduce ferrylmyoglobin to metmyoglobin may account for their antioxidant activity. In contrast, physiological concentrations (100 pM-100 nM) of the catecholestrogens exerted pro-oxidant activities, 4-hydroxyestradiol being more potent than 2-hydroxyestradiol. The implications of these interactions should be considered in situations where local myoglobin or hemoglobin microbleeding takes place.

  10. Oxidative DNA damage induced by activation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): implications for PCB-induced oxidative stress in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakley, G G; Devanaboyina, U; Robertson, L W; Gupta, R C

    1996-12-01

    We have previously reported that mono- and dichlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be metabolized to dihydroxy compounds and further oxidized to reactive metabolites which form adducts with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles including DNA [Amaro et al. (1966) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 9, 623-629; Oakley et al. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 109-114]. The former studies also demonstrated that during the metabolism of PCBs superoxide may be produced. We have therefore examined the abilities of PCB metabolites to induce free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage using a newly developed, highly sensitive, 32P-postlabeling assay for 8-oxode-oxyguanosine (8-oxodG) [Devanaboyina, U., and Gupta, R. (1996) Carcinogenesis 17, 917-924]. The incubation of 3,4-dichloro-2'5'-dihydroxybiphenyl (100 microM) with calf thymus DNA (300 micrograms/microL) in the presence of the breast tissue and milk-associated enzyme, lactoperoxidase (10 mU/mL), and H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in a significant increase in free radical-induced DNA damage (253 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides) as compared to vehicle-treated DNA (118 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). Substituting CuCl(2) (100 microM) for lactoperoxidase/H2O2, however, resulted in a substantial increase in 8-oxodG content (2669 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides). FeCl(3) was ineffective, suggesting that CuCl(2) but not FeCl(3) mediates oxidation of PCB dihydroxy metabolites, resulting in oxidative DNA damage. The addition of catalase (100 U/mL) and sodium azide (0.1 M) reduced the effect of CuCl(2) (849 and 896 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively), while superoxide dismutase (600 U/mL) moderately stimulated and glutathione (100 microM) substantially stimulated 8-oxodG formation (3014 and 4415 8-oxodG/10(6) nucleotides, respectively). The effect of various buffers as well as the effects of PCB structure on Cu(II)-mediated oxidative DNA damage were examined. These results demonstrate that free radicals and oxidative DNA damage are produced during oxidation of lower chlorinated

  11. Assessment of Eccentric Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Using Oxidation-Reduction Potential Markers

    PubMed Central

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Ntontou, Amalia-Maria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Deli, Chariklia K.; Poulios, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Bar-Or, David; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of static (sORP) and capacity ORP (cORP) oxidation-reduction potential markers as measured by the RedoxSYS Diagnostic System in plasma, for assessing eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen volunteers performed eccentric exercise with the knee extensors. Blood was collected before, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Moreover, common redox biomarkers were measured, which were protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and catalase activity and glutathione levels in erythrocytes. When the participants were examined as one group, there were not significant differences in any marker after exercise. However, in 11 participants there was a high increase in cORP after exercise, while in 8 participants there was a high decrease. Thus, the participants were divided in low cORP group exhibiting significant decrease in cORP after exercise and in high cORP group exhibiting significant increase. Moreover, only in the low cORP group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation after exercise suggesting induction of oxidative stress. The results suggested that high decreases in cORP values after exercise may indicate induction of oxidative stress by eccentric exercise, while high increases in cORP values after exercise may indicate no existence of oxidative stress. PMID:25874019

  12. Assessment of eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress using oxidation-reduction potential markers.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Ntontou, Amalia-Maria; Kafantaris, Ioannis; Deli, Chariklia K; Poulios, Athanasios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Bar-Or, David; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of static (sORP) and capacity ORP (cORP) oxidation-reduction potential markers as measured by the RedoxSYS Diagnostic System in plasma, for assessing eccentric exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen volunteers performed eccentric exercise with the knee extensors. Blood was collected before, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Moreover, common redox biomarkers were measured, which were protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and catalase activity and glutathione levels in erythrocytes. When the participants were examined as one group, there were not significant differences in any marker after exercise. However, in 11 participants there was a high increase in cORP after exercise, while in 8 participants there was a high decrease. Thus, the participants were divided in low cORP group exhibiting significant decrease in cORP after exercise and in high cORP group exhibiting significant increase. Moreover, only in the low cORP group there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation after exercise suggesting induction of oxidative stress. The results suggested that high decreases in cORP values after exercise may indicate induction of oxidative stress by eccentric exercise, while high increases in cORP values after exercise may indicate no existence of oxidative stress.

  13. Chromium picolinate attenuates hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Bhuvaneshwari; Aggarwal, Aanchal; Sandhir, Rajat

    2013-04-01

    Chromium picolinate is advocated as an anti-diabetic agent for impaired glycemic control. It is a transition metal that exists in various oxidation states and may thereby act as a pro-oxidant. The present study has been designed to examine the effect of chromium picolinate supplementation on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight) and chromium was administered orally as chromium picolinate (1mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of four weeks after the induction of diabetes. As is characteristic of diabetic condition, hyperglycemia was associated with an increase in oxidative stress in liver in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione levels. The activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were significantly reduced in liver of diabetic animals. Levels of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid were found to be considerably lower in plasma of diabetic rats. Chromium picolinate administration on the other hand was found to have beneficial effect in normalizing glucose levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. The results from the present study demonstrate potential of chromium picolinate to attenuate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes.

  14. Bee Products Prevent Agrichemical-Induced Oxidative Damage in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; Santos da Rosa, João Gabriel; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L−1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased. PMID:24098336

  15. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Radak, Zsolt; Ji, Li Li

    2016-09-15

    The existence of free radicals in living cells was first reported in 1954 and this important finding helped launch the field of free radical biology. However, the discovery that muscular exercise is associated with increased biomarkers of oxidative stress did not occur until 1978. Following the initial report that exercise promotes oxidative stress in humans, many studies have confirmed that prolonged or short-duration high intensity exercise results in increased radical production in active skeletal muscles resulting in the formation of oxidized lipids and proteins in the working muscles. Since these early descriptive studies, the investigation of radicals and redox biology related to exercise and skeletal muscle has grown as a discipline and the importance of this research in the biomedical sciences is widely recognized. This review will briefly summarize the history of research in exercise-induced oxidative stress and will discuss the major paradigm shifts that the field has undergone and continues to experience. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in the hope of stimulating additional research in this important field. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  16. Exercise‐induced oxidative stress: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Radak, Zsolt; Ji, Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The existence of free radicals in living cells was first reported in 1954 and this important finding helped launch the field of free radical biology. However, the discovery that muscular exercise is associated with increased biomarkers of oxidative stress did not occur until 1978. Following the initial report that exercise promotes oxidative stress in humans, many studies have confirmed that prolonged or short‐duration high intensity exercise results in increased radical production in active skeletal muscles resulting in the formation of oxidized lipids and proteins in the working muscles. Since these early descriptive studies, the investigation of radicals and redox biology related to exercise and skeletal muscle has grown as a discipline and the importance of this research in the biomedical sciences is widely recognized. This review will briefly summarize the history of research in exercise‐induced oxidative stress and will discuss the major paradigm shifts that the field has undergone and continues to experience. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in the hope of stimulating additional research in this important field. PMID:26893258

  17. Controllably Inducing and Modeling Optical Response from Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Nicholas; Naumov, Anton

    Graphene, a novel 2-dimensional sp2-hybridized allotrope of Carbon, has unique electrical and mechanical properties. While it is naturally a highly conductive zero band gap semiconductor, graphene does not exhibit optical emission. It has been shown that functionalization with oxygen-containing groups elicits an opening of band gap in graphene. In this work, we aim to induce an optical response in graphene via controlled oxidation, and then explore potential origins of its photoluminescence through mathematical modeling. We employ timed ozone treatment of initially non-fluorescent reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to produce graphene oxide (GO) with specific optical properties. Oxidized material exhibits substantial changes in the absorption spectra and a broad photoluminescence feature, centered at 532 nm, which suggests the appearance of a band gap. We then explore a number of possible mechanisms for the origin of GO photoluminescence via PM3 and ab initio calculations on a functionalized single sheet of graphene. By adjusting modeling parameters to fit experimentally obtained optical transition energies we estimate the size of the sp2 graphitic regions in GO and the arrangement of functional groups that could be responsible for the observed emission.

  18. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1) of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased.

  19. Tyrosol attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury via inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengqi; Zhu, Qingjun; Wu, Nan; Siow, Yaw L; Aukema, Harold; O, Karmin

    2013-04-17

    Tyrosol is a natural phenolic antioxidant compound. Oxidative stress represents one of the important mechanisms underlying ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tyrosol against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. The left kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats was subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion for 6 h. Ischemia-reperfusion caused an increase in peroxynitrite formation and lipid peroxidation. The level of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and the mRNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were elevated in ischemia-reperfused kidneys. Administration of tyrosol (100 mg/kg body weight) to rats prior to the induction of ischemia significantly reduced peroxynitrite formation, lipid peroxidation, and the level of NO metabolites. Tyrosol administration also attenuated ischemia-reperfusion-induced NF-κB activation and iNOS expression. Such a treatment improved kidney function. Results suggest that tyrosol may have a protective effect against acute kidney injury through inhibition of iNOS-mediated oxidative stress.

  20. Oxidation-induced contraction and strengthening of boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicarlo, J. A.; Wagner, T. C.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to measure and understand the physical and mechanical effects that occur in boron fibers during and after thermal treatment in a controlled oxygen argon gaseous mixture. Of principal concern was the optimization of this treatment as a secondary processing method for significantly improving fiber tensile strength. Strengthening was accomplished by an oxidation induced axial contraction of the fiber and a resulting axial compression of strength limiting flaws within the fiber's tungsten boride core. Various physical observations were used to develop mechanistic models for oxidation, contraction, and flow formation. Processing guidelines are discussed for possibly exceeding the 5.5 GN/sq m strength limit and also for achieving fiber strengthening during application of boron containing diffusion barrier coatings.

  1. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Shawna E; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R; Fuller, Scott E; Warfel, Jaycob D; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C; Mynatt, Randall L

    2015-06-23

    The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Perhaps more importantly, inhibition of mitochondrial FAO also initiates a local, adaptive response in muscle that invokes mitochondrial biogenesis, compensatory peroxisomal fat oxidation, and amino acid catabolism. Loss of its major fuel source (lipid) induces an energy deprivation response in muscle coordinated by signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) to maintain energy supply for locomotion and survival. At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity.

  2. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Shawna E.; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R.; Fuller, Scott E.; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2015-01-01

    The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Perhaps more importantly, inhibition of mitochondrial FAO also initiates a local, adaptive response in muscle that invokes mitochondrial biogenesis, compensatory peroxisomal fat oxidation, and amino acid catabolism. Loss of its major fuel source (lipid) induces an energy deprivation response in muscle coordinated by signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) to maintain energy supply for locomotion and survival. At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity. PMID:26056297

  3. The role of oxidative stress in antipsychotics induced ovarian toxicity.

    PubMed

    Elmorsy, Ekramy; Al-Ghafari, Ayat; Aggour, Amal Misbah; Khan, Raheela; Amer, Saad

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress could be an underlying mechanism for APs-induced ovarian cytotoxicity and reproductive dysfunction. Rat ovarian theca interstitial cells (TICs) were isolated and treated with four APs [chlorpromazine (CPZ), haloperidol (HAL), risperidone (RIS) and clozapine (CLZ)]. MTT assay was used to test the effects of these antipsychotics on TICs viability and to estimate their 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). The effects of APs (IC50s and 1μM concentrations) on the activities of caspases-3, -8 and -9, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, total intracellular glutathione and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in TICs were assessed. The effect of antioxidants (reduced glutathione (GSH) and quercetin) on the APs-induced cytotoxicity on TICs was investigated. MTT assay showed all APs to reduce TICs viability. CPZ, HAL and CLZ significantly increased the activity of caspases-3, -8 and -9 (P<0.0001, <0.0001 and <0.01, respectively). All APs at IC50s significantly (P<0.0001) increased ROS production, decreased total intracellular glutathione and increased LPO. MTT assay in the presence of antioxidants (reduced GSH (5mM) or quercetin (50mM)) showed each antioxidant to significantly inhibit the effects of APs at their IC50s on TICs viability. In conclusion, oxidative stress seems to be a possible mechanism for APs-induced ovarian and reproductive toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Acute hypertension induces oxidative stress in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Poulet, Roberta; Gentile, Maria T; Vecchione, Carmine; Distaso, Maria; Aretini, Alessandra; Fratta, Luigi; Russo, Giovanni; Echart, Cinara; Maffei, Angelo; De Simoni, Maria G; Lembo, Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Arterial hypertension is not only a major risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents, such as stroke and cerebral hemorrhage, but is also associated to milder forms of brain injury. One of the main causes of neurodegeneration is the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is also a common trait of hypertensive conditions, thus suggesting that such a mechanism could play a role even in the onset of hypertension-evoked brain injury. To investigate this issue, we have explored the effect of acute-induced hypertensive conditions on cerebral oxidative stress. To this aim, we have developed a mouse model of transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) between the two carotid arteries, which imposes acutely on the right brain hemisphere a dramatic increase in blood pressure. Our results show that hypertension acutely induced by aortic coarctation induces a breaking of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reactive astrocytosis through hyperperfusion, and evokes trigger factors of neurodegeneration such as oxidative stress and inflammation, similar to that observed in cerebral hypoperfusion. Moreover, the derived brain injury is mainly localized in selected brain areas controlling cognitive functions, such as the cortex and hippocampus, and could be a consequence of a defect in the BBB permeability. It is noteworthy to emphasize that, even if these latter events are not enough to produce ischemic/hemorrhagic injury, they are able to alter mechanisms fundamental for maintaining normal brain function, such as protein synthesis, which has a prominent role for memory formation and cortical plasticity.

  5. Endothelial dysfunction is induced by proinflammatory oxidant hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Patel, R; Eiserich, J P; Zhou, F; Kelpke, S; Ma, W; Parks, D A; Darley-Usmar, V; White, C R

    2001-10-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) plays a role in tissue injury under inflammatory conditions. The present study tests the hypothesis that HOCl decreases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in the vasculature of Sprague-Dawley rats. Aortic ring segments were pretreated with HOCl (1-50 microM) followed by extensive washing. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was then assessed by cumulative addition of acetylcholine (ACh) or the calcium ionophore A23187. HOCl treatment significantly impaired both ACh- and A23187-mediated relaxation. In contrast, endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected. The inhibitory effect of HOCl on ACh-induced relaxation was reversed by exposure of ring segments to L-arginine but not D-arginine. In cellular studies, HOCl did not alter endothelial NO synthase (NOS III) protein or activity, but inhibited formation of the NO metabolites nitrate (NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-). The reduction in total NO metabolite production in bovine aortic endothelial cells was also reversed by addition of L-arginine. These data suggest that HOCl induces endothelial dysfunction via modification of L-arginine.

  6. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to both microgravity and space radiation, and are at risk for increased skeletal fragility due to bone loss. Evidence from rodent experiments demonstrates that both microgravity and ionizing radiation can cause bone loss due to increased bone-resorbing osteoclasts and decreased bone-forming osteoblasts, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for these changes are not fully understood. We hypothesized that excess reactive oxidative species (ROS), produced by conditions that simulate spaceflight, alter the tight balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activities, leading to accelerated skeletal remodeling and culminating in bone loss. To test this, we used the MCAT mouse model; these transgenic mice over-express the human catalase gene targeted to mitochondria, the major organelle contributing free radicals. Catalase is an anti-oxidant that converts reactive species, hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. This animal model was selected as it displays extended lifespan, reduced cardiovascular disease and reduced central nervous system radio-sensitivity, consistent with elevated anti-oxidant activity conferred by the transgene. We reasoned that mice overexpressing catalase in mitochondria of osteoblast and osteoclast lineage cells would be protected from the bone loss caused by simulated spaceflight. Over-expression of human catalase localized to mitochondria caused various skeletal phenotypic changes compared to WT mice; this includes greater bone length, decreased cortical bone area and moment of inertia, and indications of altered microarchitecture. These findings indicate mitochondrial ROS are important for normal bone-remodeling and skeletal integrity. Catalase over-expression did not fully protect skeletal tissue from structural decrements caused by simulated spaceflight; however there was significant protection in terms of cellular oxidative damage (MDA levels) to the skeletal tissue. Furthermore, we

  7. Radiation induced leakage current and stress induced leakage current in ultra-thin gate oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A. |; Cester, A.; Scarpa, A.; Ghidini, G.

    1998-12-01

    Low-field leakage current has been measured in thin oxides after exposure to ionizing radiation. This Radiation Induced Leakage Current (RILC) can be described as an inelastic tunneling process mediated by neutral traps in the oxide, with an energy loss of about 1 eV. The neutral trap distribution is influenced by the oxide field applied during irradiation, thus indicating that the precursors of the neutral defects are charged, likely being defects associated to trapped holes. The maximum leakage current is found under zero-field condition during irradiation, and it rapidly decreases as the field is enhanced, due to a displacement of the defect distribution across the oxide towards the cathodic interface. The RILC kinetics are linear with the cumulative dose, in contrast with the power law found on electrically stressed devices.

  8. Oxidative damage and neurodegeneration in manganese-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Milatovic, Dejan; Yu, Yingchun

    2009-10-15

    Exposure to excessive manganese (Mn) levels results in neurotoxicity to the extrapyramidal system and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD)-like movement disorder, referred to as manganism. Although the mechanisms by which Mn induces neuronal damage are not well defined, its neurotoxicity appears to be regulated by a number of factors, including oxidative injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation. To investigate the mechanisms underlying Mn neurotoxicity, we studied the effects of Mn on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, changes in high-energy phosphates (HEP), neuroinflammation mediators and associated neuronal dysfunctions both in vitro and in vivo. Primary cortical neuronal cultures showed concentration-dependent alterations in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes (F{sub 2}-IsoPs) and mitochondrial dysfunction (ATP), as early as 2 h following Mn exposure. Treatment of neurons with 500 {mu}M Mn also resulted in time-dependent increases in the levels of the inflammatory biomarker, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}). In vivo analyses corroborated these findings, establishing that either a single or three (100 mg/kg, s.c.) Mn injections (days 1, 4 and 7) induced significant increases in F{sub 2}-IsoPs and PGE{sub 2} in adult mouse brain 24 h following the last injection. Quantitative morphometric analyses of Golgi-impregnated striatal sections from mice exposed to single or three Mn injections revealed progressive spine degeneration and dendritic damage of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). These findings suggest that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroinflammation are underlying mechanisms in Mn-induced neurodegeneration.

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tyrosine-dependent oxidative DNA damage induced by carcinogenic tetranitromethane.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Kurimoto, Saori; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2006-10-01

    Tetranitromethane (TNM) is used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants and explosives and as an additive to increase the cetane number of diesel fuel. TNM was reported to induce pulmonary adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in mice and rats. However, the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis induced by TNM has not yet been clarified. We previously revealed that nitroTyr and nitroTyr-containing peptides caused Cu(II)-dependent DNA damage in the presence of P450 reductase, which is considered to yield nitroreduction. Since TNM is a reagent for nitration of Tyr in proteins and peptides, we have hypothesized that TNM-treated Tyr and Tyr-containing peptides induce DNA damage by the modification of Tyr. We examined DNA damage induced by TNM-treated amino acids or peptides using (32)P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p53 tumor suppressor gene and the c-Ha-ras-1 protooncogene. TNM-treated Tyr and Lys-Tyr-Lys induced DNA damage including the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. DNA damage was inhibited by catalase and bathocuproine, indicating the involvement of H(2)O(2) and Cu(I). The cytosine residue of the ACG sequence complementary to codon 273, well-known hotspots of the p53 gene, was cleaved with piperidine and Fpg treatments. On the other hand, nitroTyr and Lys-nitroTyr-Lys did not induce DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry confirmed that reactions between Lys-Tyr-Lys and TNM yielded not only Lys-nitroTyr-Lys but also Lys-nitrosoTyr-Lys. Therefore, it is speculated that the nitrosotyrosine residue can induce oxidative DNA damage in the presence of Cu(II) and NADH. It is concluded that Tyr-dependent DNA damage may play an important role in the carcinogenicity of TNM. TNM is a new type of carcinogen that induces DNA damage not by itself but via Tyr modification.

  11. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and hypoxic exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; McGinnis, Graham; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Dumke, Charles; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia due to altitude diminishes performance and alters exercise oxidative stress responses. While oxidative stress and exercise are well studied, the independent impact of hypoxia on exercise recovery remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated hypoxic recovery effects on post-exercise oxidative stress. Physically active males (n = 12) performed normoxic cycle ergometer exercise consisting of ten high:low intensity intervals, 20 min at moderate intensity, and 6 h recovery at 975 m (normoxic) or simulated 5,000 m (hypoxic chamber) in a randomized counter-balanced cross-over design. Oxygen saturation was monitored via finger pulse oximetry. Blood plasma obtained pre- (Pre), post- (Post), 2 h post- (2Hr), 4 h post- (4Hr), and 6 h (6Hr) post-exercise was assayed for Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), Lipid Hydroperoxides (LOOH), and Protein Carbonyls (PC). Biopsies from the vastus lateralis obtained Pre and 6Hr were analyzed by real-time PCR quantify expression of Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2), and Nuclear factor (euthyroid-derived2)-like factor (NFE2L2). PCs were not altered between trials, but a time effect (13 % Post-2Hr increase, p = 0.044) indicated exercise-induced blood oxidative stress. Plasma LOOH revealed only a time effect (p = 0.041), including a 120 % Post-4Hr increase. TEAC values were elevated in normoxic recovery versus hypoxic recovery. FRAP values were higher 6Hr (p = 0.045) in normoxic versus hypoxic recovery. Exercise elevated gene expression of NFE2L2 (20 % increase, p = 0.001) and SOD2 (42 % increase, p = 0.003), but hypoxic recovery abolished this response. Data indicate that recovery in a hypoxic environment, independent of exercise, may alter exercise adaptations to oxidative stress and metabolism.

  12. Monosodium urate crystals induce oxidative stress in human synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Martínez-Flores, Karina; Fernández-Torres, Javier; Loissell-Baltazar, Yahir A; Medina-Luna, Daniel; López-Macay, Ambar; Camacho-Galindo, Javier; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Santamaría-Olmedo, Mónica G; López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Cerna-Cortés, Jorge Francisco; Gutierrez, Marwin; Pineda, Carlos; López-Reyes, Alberto

    2016-05-21

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthropathy of metabolic origin and it is characterized by intense inflammation, the underlying mechanisms of which are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) exposed to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which trigger an inflammatory process. Human FLS isolated from synovial tissue explants were stimulated with MSU crystals (75 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cellular viability was evaluated by crystal violet staining, apoptosis was assessed using Annexin V, and the cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) (O2 (-), H2O2, NO) was assessed with image-based cytometry and fluorometric methods. In order to determine protein oxidation levels, protein carbonyls were detected through oxyblot analysis, and cell ultrastructural changes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The viability of FLS exposed to MSU crystals decreased by 30 % (P < 0.05), while apoptosis increased by 42 % (P = 0.01). FLS stimulated with MSU crystals exhibited a 2.1-fold increase in H2O2 content and a 1.5-fold increase in O2 (-) and NO levels. Oxyblots revealed that the spots obtained from FLS protein lysates exposed to MSU crystals exhibited protein carbonyl immunoreactivity, which reflects the presence of oxidatively modified proteins. Concomitantly, MSU crystals triggered the induction of changes in the morphostructure of FLS, such as the thickening and discontinuity of the endoplasmic reticulum, and the formation of vacuoles and misfolded glycoproteins. Our results prove that MSU crystals induce the release of ROS and RNS in FLS, subsequently oxidizing proteins and altering the cellular oxidative state of the endoplasmic reticulum, which results in FLS apoptosis.

  13. Photoexcited riboflavin induces oxidative damage to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Yoshioka, Takuto

    2015-08-01

    Photoexcited riboflavin induced damage of human serum albumin (HSA), a water soluble protein, resulting in the diminishment of fluorescence from the tryptophan residue. Because riboflavin hardly photosensitized singlet oxygen generation and sodium azide, a singlet oxygen quencher, did not inhibit protein damage, electron transfer-mediated oxidation of HSA was speculated. Fluorescence lifetime of riboflavin was not affected by HSA, suggesting that the excited triplet state of riboflavin is responsible for protein damage through electron transfer. In addition, the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives, triplet quenchers, on photosensitized protein damage could be evaluated using this photosensitized reaction system of riboflavin and HSA.

  14. Inducible repair of oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Demple, B; Halbrook, J

    Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to many cell types, including the bacterium Escherichia coli. Peroxides yield transient radical species that can damage DNA and cause mutations. Such partially reduced oxygen species are occasionally released during cellular respiration and are generated by lethal and mutagenic ionizing radiation. Because cells live in an environment where the threat of oxidative DNA damage is continual, cellular mechanisms may have evolved to avoid and repair this damage. Enzymes are known which evidently perform these functions. We report here that resistance to hydrogen peroxide toxicity can be induced in E. coli, that this novel induction is specific and occurs, in part, at the level of DNA repair.

  15. Proliferation of macrophages due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Monika; Gruber, Miriam; Schmid, Diethart; Baran, Halina; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is assumed to be a major causal agent in hypercholesteraemia-induced atherosclerosis. Because the proliferation of lipid-loaden macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions has been described, we investigated the dependence of macrophage proliferation on the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by hypochlorite oxidized LDL. Ox-LDL induces a dose dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-interferon stimulated mouse macrophages (J774.A1) with concomitant macrophage proliferation as assayed by cell counting, tritiated-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cell protein. Native LDL did not influence macrophage proliferation and inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein and mRNA was reduced by HOCl-oxidized LDL (0-40 µg/ml) as revealed by immunoblotting and competitive semiquantitative PCR. Macrophage proliferation was increased by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The addition of ox-LDL to L-NAME containing incubations induced no further statistically significant increase in cell number. Nitric oxide donors decreased ox-LDL induced macrophage proliferation and nitric oxide scavengers restored macrophage proliferation to the initial values achieved by ox-LDL. The decrease of cytosolic DNA fragments in stimulated macrophages incubated with ox-LDL demonstrates that the proliferative actions of ox-LDL are associated with a decrease of NO-induced apoptosis. Our data show that inhibition of iNOS dependent nitric oxide production caused by hypochlorite oxidized LDL enhances macrophage proliferation. This might be a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26600745

  16. Role of inducible nitrogen oxide synthase in benzene-induced oxidative DNA damage in the bone marrow of mice.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, Sys; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the interaction of BZ and lipolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known inflammation-promoting agent, in wild-type and inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) knockout mice. BZ generated DNA strand breaks (SB) in the liver of both wild-type and iNOS-deficient mice. In the bone marrow (BM) BZ and LPS generated SB only in wild-type mice. The effects were additive, suggesting that both a redox cycling and an iNOS-dependent pathway may be involved. Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase sensitive sites were elevated by BZ in the BM in both types of mice, whereas endonuclease III sensitive sites were not affected by any treatment. Since BZ is associated with leukemia in humans, it suggests that oxidative DNA base damage rather than SB may be important in the development of leukemia.

  17. Oxidation-induced loss of the ability of HDL to counteract the inhibitory effect of oxidized LDL on vasorelaxation.

    PubMed

    Perségol, Laurence; Brindisi, Marie-Claude; Rageot, David; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Monier, Serge; Vergès, Bruno; Duvillard, Laurence

    2015-11-01

    Several current diseases are associated with an increase in the oxidation of HDL, which is likely to impair their functionality. Our aim was to identify whether oxidation could change the protective effect of HDL against the deleterious effect on vasoreactivity induced by oxidative stress. HDL from healthy subjects were oxidized in vitro by Cu(2+), and the ability of oxidized HDL to counteract the inhibitory effect of oxidized LDL on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was tested on isolated rabbit aorta rings. Oxidation of HDL was evidenced by the increase in the 7-oxysterols/cholesterol ratio (3.20 ± 1.12 vs 0.02 ± 0.01 % in native HDL, p < 0.05). Oxidized LDL inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation (E max = 50.2 ± 5.0 vs 92.5 ± 1.7 % for incubation in Kreb's buffer, p < 0.05) and native HDL counteracted this inhibition (E max = 72.4 ± 4.8 vs 50.2 ± 5.0 % p < 0.05). At the opposite, oxidized HDL had no effect on oxidized LDL-induced inhibition on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation (E max = 53.7 ± 4.8 vs 50.2 ± 5.0 %, NS). HDL oxidation is associated with a decreased ability of HDL to remove 7-oxysterols from oxidized LDL. In conclusion, these results show that oxidation of HDL induces the loss of their protective effect against endothelial dysfunction, which could promote atherosclerosis in diseases associated with increased oxidative stress.

  18. SCO2 Mediates Oxidative Stress-Induced Glycolysis to Oxidative Phosphorylation Switch in Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Wilson, Andrew F; Pang, Qishen

    2016-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome, presumably resulting from defects in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Normal HSCs depend more on glycolysis than on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for energy production. Here, we show that FA HSCs are more sensitive to the respiration inhibitor NaN3 treatment than to glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), indicating more dependence on OXPHOS. FA HSCs undergo glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch in response to oxidative stress through a p53-dependent mechanism. Metabolic stresses induce upregulation of p53 metabolic targets in FA HSCs. Inactivation of p53 in FA HSCs prevents glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch. Furthermore, p53-deficient FA HSCs are more sensitive to 2-DG-mediated metabolic stress. Finally, oxidative stress-induced glycolysis-to-OXPHOS switch is mediated by synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2). These findings demonstrate p53-mediated OXPHOS function as a compensatory alteration in FA HSCs to ensure a functional but mildly impaired energy metabolism and suggest a cautious approach to manipulating p53 signaling in FA. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Manganese-induced oxidative stress in two ontogenetic stages of chamomile and amelioration by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kováčik, Jozef; Babula, Petr; Hedbavny, Josef; Švec, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Impact of manganese (Mn(2+)) excess (100, 500 and 1000 μM over 7 days) on two ontogenetic stages (7-week-old plants and 7-day-old seedlings) of Matricaria chamomilla was compared. Mn excess depressed growth of seedlings (but not germination) and stimulated oxidative stress (ROS and lipid peroxidation) in both plants and seedlings. Growth inhibition could be evoked by higher Mn uptake and higher translocation factor in seedlings than in plants. Total thiols staining revealed elevation in almost all treatments. In 7-week-old plants, activity of peroxidases increased slightly and rather decreased under high Mn doses. Superoxide rather than hydrogen peroxide contributed to visualized ROS presence. Fluorescence of nitric oxide (NO) showed stimulation in plants but decrease in seedlings. Impact of exogenous nitric oxide donor (sodium nitroprusside/SNP) was therefore tested and results showed amelioration of 1000 μM Mn-induced oxidative stress in seedlings (decrease in H2O2 and increase in NO content while antioxidative enzyme activities were variably affected) concomitantly with depleted Mn accumulation. It is concluded that NO participates in tolerance to Mn excess but negative effects of the highest SNP dose were also observed. Extensive fluorescence microscopy is also explanatively discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. p53 as a retrovirus-induced oxidative stress modulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Wong, Paul K Y

    2015-01-01

    Infection of astrocytes by the neuropathogenic mutant of Moloney murine leukemia virus, ts1, exhibits increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signs of oxidative stress compared with uninfected astrocytes. Previously, we have demonstrated that ts1 infection caused two separate events of ROS upregulation. The first upregulation occurs during early viral establishment in host cells and the second during the virus-mediated apoptotic process. In this study, we show that virus-mediated ROS upregulation activates the protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated, which in turn phosphorylates serine 15 on p53. This activation of p53 however, is unlikely associated with ts1-induced cell death. Rather p53 appears to be involved in suppressing intracellular ROS levels in astrocytes under oxidative stress. The activated p53 appears to delay retroviral gene expression by suppressing NADPH oxidase, a superoxide-producing enzyme. These results suggest that p53 plays a role as a retrovirus-mediated oxidative stress modulator. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Junlai; Ma, Tao; Chai, Qiongxia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups, i.e., one control group and three LBP treated groups. The animals received an oral administration of physiological saline or LBP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. On the day of the exercise test, rats were required to run to exhaustion on the treadmill. Body weight, endurance time, malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) level of rats were measured. The results showed that the body weight of rats in LBP treated groups were not significantly different from that in the normal control group before and after the experiment (P > 0.05). After exhaustive exercise, the mean endurance time of treadmill running to exhaustion of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly prolonged compared with that in the normal control group. MDA levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly decreased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). SOD and GPX levels of rats in LBP treated groups were significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). Together, these results indicate that LBP was effective in preventing oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. PMID:21541044

  2. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes.

  3. Aniline Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis of Primary Cultured Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Hong; Na, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Shu-Ying; Dong, Hong-Wei; Yu, Jia; Jia, Li; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected. Levels of ROS and MDA were significantly increased and levels of GSH and CAT, activity of SOD, and mitochondrial membrane potential in hepatocytes were significantly decreased by aniline compared with the negative control group. The tail moment and DNA content of the tail in exposed groups were significantly higher than those in the negative control group. Cell viability was reduced and apoptotic death was induced by aniline in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of ROS generation, oxidative damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage and apoptosis could be prevented if ROS inhibitor NAC was added. ROS generation is involved in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA injury, which may play a role in aniline-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. Our study provides insight into the mechanism of aniline-induced toxicity and apoptosis of hepatocytes. PMID:27916916

  4. Live-cell Imaging Approaches for the Investigation of Xenobiotic-Induced Oxidant Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is arguably a universal feature in toxicology. Research studies on the role of oxidant stress induced by xenobiotic exposures have typically relied on the identification of damaged biomolecules using a variety of conventional biochemical and molecular t...

  5. Live-cell Imaging Approaches for the Investigation of Xenobiotic-Induced Oxidant Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is arguably a universal feature in toxicology. Research studies on the role of oxidant stress induced by xenobiotic exposures have typically relied on the identification of damaged biomolecules using a variety of conventional biochemical and molecular t...

  6. Production of nitric oxide and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in ovarian cystic tumors.

    PubMed

    Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; de Abreu Ribeiro, Lívia Carolina; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-01-01

    Tumor sections from nonneoplastic (n = 15), benign (n = 28), and malignant ovarian tumors (n = 20) were obtained from 63 women. Immunohistochemistry of the tumor sections demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was increased in ovarian cancer samples compared to nonneoplastic or benign tumor samples. Using the Griess method, nitric oxide (NO) metabolite levels were also found to be elevated in malignant tumor samples compared to benign tumor samples (P < .05). For stage I ovarian cancer, intracystic NO levels >80 microM were more frequent than NO levels <80 microM, and iNOS expression in well-differentiated carcinomas was greater than in moderately/poorly differentiated carcinomas (P < .05). These data suggest an important role for NO in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  7. Production of Nitric Oxide and Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Ovarian Cystic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nomelini, Rosekeila Simões; Ribeiro, Lívia Carolina de Abreu; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-01-01

    Tumor sections from nonneoplastic (n = 15), benign (n = 28), and malignant ovarian tumors (n = 20) were obtained from 63 women. Immunohistochemistry of the tumor sections demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was increased in ovarian cancer samples compared to nonneoplastic or benign tumor samples. Using the Griess method, nitric oxide (NO) metabolite levels were also found to be elevated in malignant tumor samples compared to benign tumor samples (P < .05). For stage I ovarian cancer, intracystic NO levels >80 μM were more frequent than NO levels <80 μM, and iNOS expression in well-differentiated carcinomas was greater than in moderately/poorly differentiated carcinomas (P < .05). These data suggest an important role for NO in ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:19132106

  8. Ascorbate-induced oxidative inactivation of Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Sok, D E

    1998-03-01

    Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase, responsible for the conversion of glycerophosphocholine into glycerol and phosphocholine, was inactivated during incubation with ascorbic acid at 38 degrees C. The inclusion of copper ions or Fe2+ accelerated the ascorbate-induced inactivation, with Cu2+ or Cu+ being much more effective than Fe2+, suggestive of ascorbate-mediated oxidation. Dehydroascorbic acid had no effect on the phosphodiesterase, but H2O2 inactivated the enzyme in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, the enzyme was inactivated partially by a superoxide anion-generating system but not an HOCl generator. In support of involvement of H2O2 in the ascorbate action, catalase and superoxide dismutase expressed a complete and a partial protection, respectively. However, hydroxy radical scavengers such as mannitol, benzoate, or dimethyl sulfoxide were incapable of preventing the ascorbate action, excluding the participation of extraneous .OH. Although p-nitrophenylphosphocholine exhibited a modest protection against the ascorbate action, a remarkable protection was expressed by amino acids, especially by histidine. In addition, imidazole, an electron donor, showed a partial protection. Separately, when Cu2+-induced inactivation of the phosphodiesterase was compared with the ascorbate-mediated one, the protection and pH studies indicate that the mechanism for the ascorbate action is different from that for the Cu2+ action. Here, it is proposed that Zn2+-glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase is one of brain membrane proteins susceptible to oxidative inactivation.

  9. The role of nitric oxide in experimental cerulein induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Um, Soon Ho; Kwon, Yong Dae; Kim, Chang Duck; Lee, Hong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Jae Hyun; Ryu, Ho Sang; Hyun, Jin Hai

    2003-08-01

    An enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO), due to the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of shock and inflammation, but its role in acute pancreatitis still remains controversial. To clarify the role of NO in acute pancreatitis, the present experiment investigated the expression of iNOS and the effect of NOS inhibition on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Group I received intraperitoneal (ip) injection of normal saline. Group II received two ip injections of cerulein (20 microgram/kg). Group III received injections of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (30 mg/kg) with cerulein. Group IV received L-arginine (250 mg/kg) with cerulein and L-NAME. The expression of iNOS in the pancreas was examined by western blot analysis. The plasma concentration of NO metabolites was measured. The severity of pancreatitis was assessed by measuring serum amylase, pancreas water content and histopathological examination. Compared with controls, the cerulein group displayed significantly increased expression of iNOS and raised plasma NO metabolites. Treatment with L-NAME significantly decreased hyperamylasemia, plasma NO level, and the extent of pancreatic injury. Treatment with L-arginine reversed the effects of L-NAME. These findings suggest that an enhanced formation of NO by iNOS plays an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis, and inhibition of NO production has the beneficial effects in reducing pancreas injury.

  10. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Abbas; Javadi, Maryam; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during physical exercise, exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant supplementation is interesting and controversial concepts that have been considered during the past decades. In this review, we aimed to summarize current evidence in relation to antioxidant supplementation outcomes during exercise and physical activity. For this aim, we obtained relevant articles through searches of the Medline and PubMed databases between 1980 to 2013. Although major studies have indicated that antioxidants could attenuate biomarkers of exercise-induced oxidative stress and the use of antioxidant supplement is a common phenomenon among athletes and physically active people, there are some doubts regarding the benefits of these. It seems that the best recommendations regarding antioxidants and exercise are having a balanced diet rich in natural antioxidants and phytochemicals. Regular consumption of various fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and beans, sprouts and seeds is an effective and safe way to meet all antioxidant requirements in physically active persons and athletes.

  11. The basic chemistry of exercise-induced DNA oxidation: oxidative damage, redox signaling, and their interplay.

    PubMed

    Cobley, James N; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Malone, John K

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. This phenomenon is associated with two major outcomes: (1) redox signaling and (2) macromolecule damage. Mechanistic knowledge of how exercise-induced redox signaling and macromolecule damage are interlinked is limited. This review focuses on the interplay between exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage, using hydroxyl radical ((·)OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as exemplars. It is postulated that the biological fate of H2O2 links the two processes and thus represents a bifurcation point between redox signaling and damage. Indeed, H2O2 can participate in two electron signaling reactions but its diffusion and chemical properties permit DNA oxidation following reaction with transition metals and (·)OH generation. It is also considered that the sensing of DNA oxidation by repair proteins constitutes a non-canonical redox signaling mechanism. Further layers of interaction are provided by the redox regulation of DNA repair proteins and their capacity to modulate intracellular H2O2 levels. Overall, exercise-induced redox signaling and DNA damage may be interlinked to a greater extent than was previously thought but this requires further investigation.

  12. Nitric oxide protects carbon assimilation process of watermelon from boron-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Najeeb, Ullah; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Fang, Zhang Ming

    2017-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) mediates plant response to a variety of abiotic stresses; however, limited information is available on its effect on boron (B)-stressed watermelon plants. The present study investigates the mechanism through which NO protects watermelon seedlings from B deficiency and toxicity stresses. Five days old watermelon seedlings were exposed to B (0, 0.5 and 10 mg L(-1)) alone or with 75 μmole of NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 30 days. Both low and high B concentrations in the media altered nutrient accumulation and impaired various physiological processes of watermelon seedlings, leading to a significant reduction in biomass production. The plants exposed to B deficient or toxic concentrations had 66 and 69% lower shoot dry weight, respectively compared with optimum B levels. B toxicity-induced growth inhibition of watermelon seedlings was associated with high B translocation to shoot tissues, which caused lipid membrane peroxidation (12% increase) and chlorophyll destruction (25% reduction). In contrast, B deficiency accelerated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), specifically OH(-1) and induced cellular oxidative injury. Exogenously applied SNP promoted leaf chlorophyll, photosynthesis and consequently biomass production in B-stressed watermelon seedlings by reducing B accumulation, lipid membrane peroxidation and ROS generation. It also activated antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, POD and APX, and protected the seedlings from ROS-induced cellular burst.

  13. Anti-oxidative effects of safranal on immobilization-induced oxidative damage in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Samini, Fariborz; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-09-01

    Safranal, a major constituent of saffron, possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties showing considerable neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of safranal against restraint stress induced oxidative damage in the rat brain. For inducing the chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days, then, the animals received systemic administrations of vehicle (0.1% DMSO) acted as the control group or safranal daily for 21days. Results indicated that the rats submitted to restraint stress showed an increase in the immobility time versus the non-stress rats. In addition, stress decreased number of crossing in the rats submitted to restraint stress versus the non-stress animals. Treatment with safranal (0.75mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the immobility time compared to the non-treated stress group, while, the treatment improved the number of crossing in rats submitted to restraint stress versus the vehicle-treated stress rats. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the non-stressed rats. Safranal ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups. The present findings indicate that safranal might be effective against depressant-like effects induced by chronic stress via modulating brain oxidative response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Uraninite oxidation and dissolution induced by manganese oxide: A redox reaction between two insoluble minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zimeng; Lee, Sung-Woo; Kapoor, Pratyul; Tebo, Bradley M.; Giammar, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    The longevity of subsurface U(IV) produced by reduction of U(VI) during in situ bioremediation can be limited by reoxidation to more mobile U(VI) species. Coupling of the biogeochemical cycles of U and Mn may affect the fate and transport of uranium. Manganese oxides can act as a powerful oxidant that accelerates the oxidative dissolution of UO2. This study investigated the physical and chemical factors controlling the interaction between UO2 and MnO2, which are both poorly soluble minerals. A multi-chamber reactor with a permeable membrane was used to eliminate direct contact of the two minerals while still allowing transport of aqueous species. The oxidation of UO2 was not significantly enhanced by MnO2 if the two solids were physically separated. Complete mixing of MnO2 with UO2 led to a much greater extent and rate of U oxidation. When direct contact is not possible, the reaction slowly progresses through release of soluble U(IV) with its adsorption and oxidation on MnO2. Continuously-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were used to quantify the steady-state rates of UO2 dissolution induced by MnO2. MnO2 dramatically promoted UO2 dissolution, but the degree of promotion leveled off once the MnO2:UO2 ratio exceeded a critical value. Substantial amounts of U(VI) and Mn(II) were retained on MnO2 surfaces. The total production of Mn(II) was less than that of U(VI), indicating that the fate of Mn products and their impact on UO2-MnO2 reaction kinetics were complicated and may involve formation of Mn(III) phases. At higher dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, UO2 oxidation by MnO2 was faster and less U(VI) was adsorbed to MnO2. Such an inverse relationship suggested that U(VI) may passivate MnO2 surfaces. A conceptual model was developed to describe the oxidation rate of UO2 by MnO2. This model is potentially applicable to a broad range of water chemistry conditions and is relevant to other environmental redox processes involving two poorly soluble minerals.

  15. Specific histone modification responds to arsenic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Li, Jun; Zhan, Zhengbao; Chen, Liping; Li, Daochuan; Bai, Qing; Gao, Chen; Li, Jie; Zeng, Xiaowen; He, Zhini; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Yongmei; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Aihua

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether specific histone modifications are associated with arsenic-induced oxidative damage, we recruited 138 arsenic-exposed and arsenicosis subjects from Jiaole Village, Xinren County of Guizhou province, China where the residents were exposed to arsenic from indoor coal burning. 77 villagers from Shang Batian Village that were not exposed to high arsenic coal served as the control group. The concentrations of urine and hair arsenic in the arsenic-exposure group were 2.4-fold and 2.1-fold (all P<0.001) higher, respectively, than those of the control group. Global histone modifications in human peripheral lymphocytes (PBLCs) were examined by ELISA. The results showed that altered global levels of H3K18ac, H3K9me2, and H3K36me3 correlated with both urinary and hair-arsenic levels of the subjects. Notably, H3K36me3 and H3K18ac modifications were associated with urinary 8-OHdG (H3K36me3: β=0.16; P=0.042, H3K18ac: β=-0.24; P=0.001). We also found that the modifications of H3K18ac and H3K36me3 were enriched in the promoters of oxidative stress response (OSR) genes in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and HaCaT cells, providing evidence that H3K18ac and H3K36me3 modifications mediate transcriptional regulation of OSR genes in response to NaAsO2 treatment. Particularly, we found that reduced H3K18ac modification correlated with suppressed expression of OSR genes in HEK cells with long term arsenic treatment and in PBLCs of all the subjects. Taken together, we reveal a critical role for specific histone modification in response to arsenic-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA vaccine encoding the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific surface antigens SAG2CDX protect BALB/c mice against type II parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lingxiao; Song, Jing; Li, Ying; Zhao, Qunli; He, Shenyi; Cong, Hua

    2013-09-23

    The surface antigens SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X, which expressed specifically on bradyzoite stage of Toxoplasma gondii, have been demonstrated to be important for persistence of cyst in the brain. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X of T. gondii were constructed and their protective efficacy were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Mice vaccinated with pVAX1-SAG2C (pSAG2C), pVAX1-2D (pSAG2D) or pVAX1-2X (pSAG2C) showed higher levels of serum IgG antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation response compared to PBS and pVAX1 treated mice (p<0.05). The immune response was characterized by a strong Th1 response and increased cytokine production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. Vaccinated mice displayed significant protection against the challenge with the cyst of T. gondii genotype II strain of PRU (cyst-forming in mouse). A significant reduction in the brain cyst burden was detected in the mice immunized with pSAG2C (72%), pSAG2D (23%), pSAG2X (69%) alone and even more reduction rate, 77%, was achieved in the combination group compared to PBS treated mice. The results implied that immunization with DNA vaccines expressing SAG2C, SAG2D, and SAG2X, and, in particular, a combination of all three DNA plasmids, could effectively protect the mice against T. gondii chronic infection.

  17. Strain-induced phenomenon in complex oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haislmaier, Ryan

    Complex oxide materials wield an immense spectrum of functional properties such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, magnetoelectricity, optoelectricity, optomechanical, magnetoresistance, superconductivity, etc. The rich coupling between charge, spin, strain, and orbital degrees of freedom makes this material class extremely desirable and relevant for next generation electronic devices and technologies which are trending towards nanoscale dimensions. Development of complex oxide thin film materials is essential for realizing their integration into nanoscale electronic devices, where theoretically predicted multifunctional capabilities of oxides could add tremendous value. Employing thin film growth strategies such as epitaxial strain and heterostructure interface engineering can greatly enhance and even unlock novel material properties in complex oxides, which will be the main focus of this work. However, physically incorporating oxide materials into devices remains a challenge. While advancements in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of thin film oxide materials has led to the ability to grow oxide materials with atomic layer precision, there are still major limitations such as controlling stoichiometric compositions during growth as well as creating abrupt interfaces in multi-component layered oxide structures. The work done in this thesis addresses ways to overcome these limitations in order to harness intrinsic material phenomena. The development of adsorption-controlled stoichiometric growth windows of CaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin film materials grown by hybrid MBE where Ti is supplied using metal-organic titanium tetraisopropoxide material is thoroughly outlined. These growth windows enable superior epitaxial strain-induced ferroelectric and dielectric properties to be accessed as demonstrated by chemical, structural, electrical, and optical characterization techniques. For tensile strained CaTiO3 and compressive strained SrTiO 3 films, the critical effects of

  18. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase is induced in sporulation of Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Golderer, Georg; Werner, Ernst R.; Leitner, Stefan; Gröbner, Peter; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum expresses a calcium-independent nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) resembling the inducible NOS isoenzyme in mammals. We have now cloned and sequenced this, the first nonanimal NOS to be identified, showing that it shares < 39% amino acid identity with known NOSs but contains conserved binding motifs for all NOS cofactors. It lacks the sequence insert responsible for calcium dependence in the calcium-dependent NOS isoenzymes. NOS expression was strongly up-regulated in Physarum macroplasmodia during the 5-day starvation period needed to induce sporulation competence. Induction of both NOS and sporulation competence were inhibited by glucose, a growth signal and known repressor of sporulation, and by l-N6–(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (NIL), an inhibitor of inducible NOS. Sporulation, which is triggered after the starvation period by light exposure, was also prevented by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylate cyclase. In addition, also expression of lig1, a sporulation-specific gene, was strongly attenuated by NIL or ODQ. 8-Bromo-cGMP, added 2 h before the light exposure, restored the capacity of NIL-treated macroplasmodia to express lig1 and to sporulate. This indicates that the second messenger used for NO signaling in sporulation of Physarum is cGMP and links this signaling pathway to expression of lig1. PMID:11358872

  20. Nitric Oxide-Induced Conformational Changes in Soluble Guanylate Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Underbakke, Eric S.; Iavarone, Anthony T.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Novick, Scott; Griffin, Patrick R.; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the primary mediator of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. NO binds the sGC heme cofactor stimulating synthesis of the second messenger cyclic-GMP (cGMP). As the central hub of NO/cGMP signaling pathways, sGC is important in diverse physiological processes such as vasodilation and neurotransmission. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying NO-induced cyclase activation in sGC remain unclear. Here, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was employed to probe the NO-induced conformational changes of sGC. HDX-MS revealed NO-induced effects in several discrete regions. NO binding to the heme-NO/O2-binding (H-NOX) domain perturbs a signaling surface implicated in Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain interactions. Furthermore, NO elicits striking conformational changes in the junction between the PAS and helical domains that propagate as perturbations throughout the adjoining helices. Ultimately, NO-binding stimulates the catalytic domain by contracting the active site pocket. Together, these conformational changes delineate an allosteric pathway linking NO-binding to activation of the catalytic domain. PMID:24560804

  1. Wound-induced Oxidative Responses in Mountain Birch Leaves

    PubMed Central

    RUUHOLA, TEIJA; YANG, SHIYONG

    2006-01-01

    • Aims The aim of the study was to examine oxidative responses in subarctic mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, induced by herbivory and manual wounding. • Methods Herbivory-induced changes in polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities in birch leaves were determined. A cytochemical dye, 3,3-diaminobenzidine, was used for the in situ and in vivo detection of H2O2 accumulation as a response to herbivory and wounding. To localize peroxidase activity in leaves, 10 mm H2O2 was applied to the dye reagent. • Key Results Feeding by autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, larvae caused an induction in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities within 24 h, and a concomitant decrease in the activity of antioxidative catalases in wounded leaves. Wounding also induced H2O2 accumulation, which may have both direct and indirect defensive properties against herbivores. Wound sites and guard cells showed a high level of peroxidase activity, which may efficiently restrict invasion by micro-organisms. • Conclusion Birch oxidases together with their substrates may form an important front line in defence against herbivores and pathogens. PMID:16254021

  2. Expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase correlate with ethanol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guang-Jin; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Gong, Zuo-Jiong; Zhang, Pin; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Shi-Hua

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury and their relation with liver damage, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the liver. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given fish oil (0.5 mL) along with ethanol or isocaloric dextrose daily via gastrogavage for 4 or 6 wk. Liver injury was assessed using serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and pathological analysis. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide contents, iNOS and eNOS activity were determined. NF-κB p65,iNOS, eNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression in the liver were detected by immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Chronic ethanol gavage for 4 wk caused steatosis, inflammation and necrosis in the liver, and elevated serum ALT activity. Prolonged ethanol administration (6 wk) enhanced the liver damage. These responses were accompanied with increased lipid peroxidation, NO contents, iNOS activity and reduced eNOS activity. NF-κB p65, iNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression were markedly induced after chronic ethanol gavage, whereas eNOS mRNA expression remained unchanged. The enhanced iNOS activity and expression were positively correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB, and TNF-α mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: iNOS expression and activity are induced in the liver after chronic ethanol exposure in rats, which are correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB and TNF-α expression. eNOS activity is reduced, but its mRNA expression is not affected. PMID:16688828

  3. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  4. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  5. Nitric oxide alleviates oxidative damage induced by high temperature stress in wheat.

    PubMed

    Bavita, A; Shashi, B; Navtej, S B

    2012-05-01

    Effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide (NO) was examined in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, C 306 (heat tolerant) and PBW 550 (comparatively heat susceptible) to study the extent of oxidative injury and activities of antioxidant enzyme in relation to high temperature (HT) stress. HT stress resulted in a marked decrease in membrane thermostability (MTS) and 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) cell viability whereas content of lipid peroxide increased in both the cultivars. The tolerant cultivar C 306 registered less damage to cellular membranes compared to PBW 550 under HT stress. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaicol peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased with HT in both the cultivars. Following treatment with SNP, activities of all antioxidant enzymes further increased in correspondence with an increase in MTS and TTC. Apparently, lipid peroxide content was reduced by SNP more in shoots of heat tolerant cultivar C 306 indicating better protection over roots under HT stress. The up-regulation of the antioxidant system by NO possibly contributed to better tolerance against HT induced oxidative damage in wheat.

  6. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Human Skin Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Daoud; Alarifi, Saud; Alkahtani, Saad; AlKahtane, Abdullah A; Almalik, Abdulaziz

    2015-04-01

    Extensive applications of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles require a better understanding of their possible effects on human health. However, data demonstrating the effect of CeO2 nanoparticles on the human skin melanoma cell remain scanty. In the current study, we determined the mechanism through which CeO2 nanoparticles (APS <25 nm) induce toxicity in human skin melanoma cells (A375). The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and neutral red uptake assays showed concentration and time-dependent cytotoxicity of CeO2 nanoparticles in A375 cells. CeO2 nanoparticles significantly induced the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and decreased glutathione levels in A375 cells. It was also observed that the CeO2 nanoparticles induced chromosomal condensation and caspase-3 activity. CeO2 nanoparticles exposed cells revealed the formation of DNA double-strand breakage as measured by percent tail DNA and olive tail moment through comet assay. The decline of cell viability, production of ROS, and DNA damage in A375 cells specifies that CeO2 nanoparticles have less capable to induce cyto and genotoxicity.

  7. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin induces nitric oxide synthesis via oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2008-05-01

    We have recently shown that apocynin elicits an oxidative stress in N11 mouse glial cells and other cell types. Here we report that apocynin increased the accumulation of nitrite, the stable derivative of nitric oxide (NO), in the extracellular medium of N11 cell cultures, and the NO synthase (NOS) activity in cell lysates. The increased synthesis of NO was associated with increased expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA, increased nuclear translocation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and decreased intracellular level of its inhibitor IkB{alpha}. These effects, accompanied by increased production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were very similar to those observed after incubation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and were inhibited by catalase. These results suggest that apocynin, similarly to LPS, induces increased NO synthesis by eliciting a generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn causes NF-{kappa}B activation and increased expression of iNOS. Therefore, the increased bioavailability of NO reported in the literature after in vivo or in vitro treatments with apocynin might depend, at least partly, on the drug-elicited induction of iNOS, and not only on the inhibition of NADPH oxidase and the subsequent decreased scavenging of NO by oxidase-derived ROS, as it is often supposed.

  8. Carotid body chemosensory excitation induced by nitric oxide: involvement of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Matias; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2002-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produces a dual effect on carotid body (CB) oxygen chemoreception. At low concentration, NO inhibits chemosensory response to hypoxia, while in normoxia, medium and high [NO] increases the frequency of carotid chemosensory discharges (f(x)). Since NO and peroxynitrite inhibit mitochondrial respiration, it is plausible that the NO-induced excitation may depend on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of oligomycin, FCCP and antimycin A that produce selective blockade of hypoxic and NaCN-induced chemosensory responses, leaving nicotinic response less affected. CBs excised from pentobarbitone-anaesthetised cats were perfused in vitro with Tyrode (P(O(2)) approximately 125 Torr, pH 7.40 at 38 degrees C). Hypoxia (P(O(2)) approximately equal 30 Torr), NaCN and nicotine (1-100 microg) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide (SNAP, 300-600 microg) increased f(x). Oligomycin (12.5-25 microg), antimycin A (10 microg) and FCCP (5 microM) transiently increased f(x). Subsequently, chemosensory responses to hypoxia, NaCN and SNAP were reduced or abolished, while the response to nicotine was less affected. The electron donor system tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamide and ascorbate that bypasses the electron chain blockade produced by antimycin A, restores the excitatory responses to NaCN and SNAP. Present results suggest that the chemoexcitatory effect of NO depends on the integrity of mitochondrial metabolism.

  9. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide in rats with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Andican, Gülnur; Gelisgen, Remisa; Unal, Ethem; Tortum, Osman Baran; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Karahasanoglu, Tayfun; Burçak, Gülden

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Oxygen free radical mediated tissue damage is well established in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a deleterious or a protective role is unknown. In alcohol-induced AP, we studied NO, lipooxidative damage and glutathione in pancreas, lung and circulation. METHODS: AP was induced in rats (n = 25) by injection of ethyl alcohol into the common biliary duct. A sham laparatomy was performed in controls (n = 15). After 24 h the animals were killed, blood and tissue sampling were done. RESULTS: Histopathologic evidence confirmed the development of AP. Marked changes were observed in the pulmonary tissue. Compared with controls, the AP group displayed higher values for NO metabolites in pancreas and lungs, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation. Glutathione was lower in pancreas and in circulation. Glutathione and NO were positively correlated in pancreas and lungs of controls but negatively correlated in circulation of experimental group. In the experimental group, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were negatively correlated with pancreas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances but positively correlated with pancreas NO. CONCLUSION: NO increases in both pancreas and lungs in AP and NO contributes to the pathogenesis of AP under oxidative stress. PMID:15818750

  10. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Bakkal, B H; Gultekin, F A; Guven, B; Turkcu, U O; Bektas, S; Can, M

    2013-09-01

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  11. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Glutamate and Aspartate on Diquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects. PMID:25875335

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation with glutamate and aspartate on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Liu, Mingfeng; Ren, Wenkai; Duan, Jielin; Yang, Guan; Zhao, Yurong; Fang, Rejun; Chen, Lixiang; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects.

  13. Xanthine oxidase contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Melissa A; McClung, Joseph M; Falk, Darin J; Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Powers, Scott K

    2009-02-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness resulting from both diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction and atrophy has been hypothesized to contribute to the weaning difficulties associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV). While it is clear that oxidative injury contributes to MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness, the source(s) of oxidants in the diaphragm during MV remain unknown. These experiments tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to MV-induced oxidant production in the rat diaphragm and that oxypurinol, a XO inhibitor, would attenuate MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress, contractile dysfunction, and atrophy. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six experimental groups: 1) control, 2) control with oxypurinol, 3) 12 h of MV, 4) 12 h of MV with oxypurinol, 5) 18 h of MV, or 6) 18 h of MV with oxypurinol. XO activity was significantly elevated in the diaphragm after MV, and oxypurinol administration inhibited this activity and provided protection against MV-induced oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction. Specifically, oxypurinol treatment partially attenuated both protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm during MV. Further, XO inhibition retarded MV-induced diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction at stimulation frequencies >60 Hz. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidant production by XO contributes to MV-induced oxidative injury and contractile dysfunction in the diaphragm. Nonetheless, the failure of XO inhibition to completely prevent MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative damage suggests that other sources of oxidant production are active in the diaphragm during prolonged MV.

  14. Xanthine oxidase contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; McClung, Joseph M.; Falk, Darin J.; Hudson, Matthew B.; Smuder, Ashley J.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Powers, Scott K.

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness resulting from both diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction and atrophy has been hypothesized to contribute to the weaning difficulties associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV). While it is clear that oxidative injury contributes to MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness, the source(s) of oxidants in the diaphragm during MV remain unknown. These experiments tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase (XO) contributes to MV-induced oxidant production in the rat diaphragm and that oxypurinol, a XO inhibitor, would attenuate MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress, contractile dysfunction, and atrophy. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of six experimental groups: 1) control, 2) control with oxypurinol, 3) 12 h of MV, 4) 12 h of MV with oxypurinol, 5) 18 h of MV, or 6) 18 h of MV with oxypurinol. XO activity was significantly elevated in the diaphragm after MV, and oxypurinol administration inhibited this activity and provided protection against MV-induced oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction. Specifically, oxypurinol treatment partially attenuated both protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm during MV. Further, XO inhibition retarded MV-induced diaphragmatic contractile dysfunction at stimulation frequencies >60 Hz. Collectively, these results suggest that oxidant production by XO contributes to MV-induced oxidative injury and contractile dysfunction in the diaphragm. Nonetheless, the failure of XO inhibition to completely prevent MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative damage suggests that other sources of oxidant production are active in the diaphragm during prolonged MV. PMID:18974366

  15. Nitric oxide reduces hydrogen peroxide accumulation involved in water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant defense in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jianrong; Jiang, Mingyi; Lin, Fan; Xu, Shucheng; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu

    2008-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as pro-oxidant as well as anti-oxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subcellular activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress induced defense increases in the generation of NO in maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced defense increases in the production of NO were blocked by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water stress-induced NO production and NOS is the major source of NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of a subcellular anti-oxidant defense.

  16. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  17. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; English, D.

    1985-01-01

    Chemotactic factors can cause polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release the contents of azurophilic granules, including the enzymes beta-glucuronidase and myeloperoxidase. In the presence of aqueous humor from the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye, the supernatant from stimulated leukocytes contains beta-glucuronidase, but myeloperoxidase is not detectable. Studies with aqueous humor and partially purified human myeloperoxidase suggest that this phenomenon is not due to a failure of enzyme release. The factor responsible for the inability to detect MPO in the assay system is heat-labile, dialyzable, and reversed by ascorbate oxidase. Comparable assay inhibition is produced by ascorbic acid at a concentration present in either human or rabbit aqueous humor. The ability of aqueous humor to protect against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation may contribute to several diverse phenomena, including the susceptibility of the eye to Candida infection and a prolonged half-life for several inflammatory mediators in the anterior chamber. PMID:2992283

  18. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mari, Emanuela; Mardente, Stefania; Morgante, Emanuela; Tafani, Marco; Lococo, Emanuela; Fico, Flavia; Valentini, Federica; Zicari, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS), mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells. PMID:27916824

  19. Cadmium-induced oxidative stress in two potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, J F; Tabaldi, L A; Cargnelutti, D; Pereira, L B; Maldaner, J; Becker, A G; Rossato, L V; Rauber, R; Bagatini, M D; Bisognin, D A; Schetinger, M R C; Nicoloso, F T

    2009-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to characterize the oxidative stress responses of two potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs. Asterix and Macaca) to cadmium (Cd). Plantlets were exposed to four Cd levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microM) for 7 days. Cd concentration was increased in both roots and shoot. Number of sprouts and roots was not decreased, whereas Cd treatment affected the number of nodal segments. Chlorophyll content and ALA-D activity were decreased in both cultivars, whereas carotenoids content was decreased only in Macaca. Cd caused lipid peroxidation in roots and shoot of both cultivars. Protein oxidation was only verified at the highest Cd level. H(2)O(2) content was increased in roots and shoot of Asterix, and apparently, a compensatory response between roots and shoot of Macaca was observed. SOD activity was inhibited in roots of Asterix at all Cd treatments, whereas in Macaca it was only increased at two highest Cd levels. Shoot SOD activity increased in Asterix and decreased in Macaca. Root CAT activity in Asterix decreased at 100 and 150 microM, whereas in Macaca it decreased only at 50 microM. Shoot CAT activity was decreased in Macaca. Root AsA content in Macaca was not affected, whereas in shoot it was reduced at 100 microM and increased at 200 microM. Cd caused increase in NPSH content in roots and shoot. Our results suggest that Cd induces oxidative stress in both potato cultivars and that of the two cultivars, Asterix showed greater sensitivity to Cd levels.

  20. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Mari, Emanuela; Mardente, Stefania; Morgante, Emanuela; Tafani, Marco; Lococo, Emanuela; Fico, Flavia; Valentini, Federica; Zicari, Alessandra

    2016-11-29

    Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO) nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS), mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells.

  1. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Jozi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO) are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur) against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold), ALT (2.7-fold) and ALP (1.97-fold) activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01). Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%), increased SOD (156%) and GPx (26%) activities, and attenuated ALT (47%), AST (41%) and ALP (30%) activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  2. Oxide nanoparticles synthesis via laser-induced plasma in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Taku; Weihs, Hansel; Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kulinich, Sergei; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Ito, Tsuyohito

    2014-10-01

    Laser ablation in fluids has recently attracted a lot of attention as one of synthetic techniques to prepare new attractive nanomaterials, with the ability to control both product chemistry and morphology in many systems. In this study, we generated laser-induced plasma in H2O - ethanol mixtures, while ablating metal targets to produce oxide nanoparticles and to study the effect of the medium on their properties. The ablated targets used in this study were Zn or Sn plates. A nanosecond Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 532 nm (10 Hz, 20--30 mJ/pulse) was applied to irradiate the targets. The liquid media were maintained at 0.1 to 30 MPa to study the effect of pressure. We found that the H2O/ethanol ratio (at atmospheric pressure) can control the properties of the produced ZnO nanoparticles, such as defects and oxidation degree. The properties were examined by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopies, and so on. More details will be presented at the symposium.

  3. Strain-induced topological quantum phase transition in phosphorene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seoung-Hun; Park, Jejune; Woo, Sungjong; Kwon, Young-Kyun

    Using ab initio density functional theory, we investigate the structural stability and electronic properties of phosphorene oxides (POx) with different oxygen compositions x. A variety of configurations are modeled and optimized geometrically to search for the equilibrium structure for each x value. Our electronic structure calculations on the equilibrium configuration obtained for each x reveal that the band gap tends to increase with the oxygen composition of x < 0.5, and then to decrease with x > 0.5. We further explore the strain effect on the electronic structure of the fully oxidized phosphorene, PO, with x = 1. At a particular strain without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is observed a band gap closure near the Γ point in the k space. We further find the strain in tandem with SOC induces an interesting band inversion with a reopened very small band gap (5 meV), and thus gives rise to a topological quantum phase transition from a normal insulator to a topological insulator. Such a topological phase transition is confirmed by the wave function analysis and the band topology identified by the Z2 invariant calculation.

  4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase as a possible target in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2014-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilator produced by vascular endothelium. Its enzymatic formation is derived from three different synthases: neuronal (nNOS), endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) synthases. While relatively small amounts of NO produced by eNOS are important to cardiovascular homeostasis, high NO levels produced associated with iNOS activity may have detrimental consequences to the cardiovascular system and contribute to hypertension. In this article, we reviewed current literature and found mounting evidence indicating that increased iNOS expression and activity contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its complications. Excessive amounts of NO produced by iNOS up-regulation can react with superoxide anions forming peroxynitrite, thereby promoting nitrosative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, abnormal iNOS activity can up-regulate arginase activity, allowing it to compete with eNOS for L-arginine, thereby resulting in reduced NO bioavailability. This may also lead to eNOS uncoupling with enhanced production of superoxide anions instead of NO. All these alterations mediated by iNOS apparently contribute to hypertension and its complications. We also reviewed current evidence showing the effects of iNOS inhibitors on different animal models of hypertension. iNOS inhibition apparently exerts antihypertensive effects, decreases oxidative and nitrosative stress, and improves vascular function. Together, these studies highlight the possibility that iNOS is a potential pharmacological target in hypertension.

  5. Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypergravity-Induced Neuronal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to identify the neurons and circuits in the vestibular nuclei and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi that utilize nitric oxide (NO) for intercellular signaling during gravity-induced plasticity. This objective was pursued using histochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to localize NO-producing neurons and characterize the fine morphology of the cells in ground-based studies of normal rats, rats adapted to hypergravity, and rats adapted to hypergravity and then re-adapted to the 1G environment. NO-producing neurons were identified and studied using four methodologies: i) immunocytochemistry employing polyclonal antibodies directed against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to provide an indication of the capacity of a cell for NO production; ii) immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody directed against L-citrulline, to provide an indirect index of the enzyme's activity; iii) histochemistry based on the NADPH-diaphorase reaction, for fuI1 cytological visualization of neurons; and iv) double immunofluorescence to co-localize nNOS and L-citrulline in individual vestibular nuclei (VN) and neurons.

  6. Transparent conducting oxide induced by liquid electrolyte gating

    PubMed Central

    ViolBarbosa, Carlos; Karel, Julie; Kiss, Janos; Gordan, Ovidiu-dorin; Altendorf, Simone G.; Utsumi, Yuki; Samant, Mahesh G.; Wu, Yu-Han; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Optically transparent conducting materials are essential in modern technology. These materials are used as electrodes in displays, photovoltaic cells, and touchscreens; they are also used in energy-conserving windows to reflect the infrared spectrum. The most ubiquitous transparent conducting material is tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), a wide-gap oxide whose conductivity is ascribed to n-type chemical doping. Recently, it has been shown that ionic liquid gating can induce a reversible, nonvolatile metallic phase in initially insulating films of WO3. Here, we use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the metallic phase produced by the electrolyte gating does not result from a significant change in the bandgap but rather originates from new in-gap states. These states produce strong absorption below ∼1 eV, outside the visible spectrum, consistent with the formation of a narrow electronic conduction band. Thus WO3 is metallic but remains colorless, unlike other methods to realize tunable electrical conductivity in this material. Core-level photoemission spectra show that the gating reversibly modifies the atomic coordination of W and O atoms without a substantial change of the stoichiometry; we propose a simple model relating these structural changes to the modifications in the electronic structure. Thus we show that ionic liquid gating can tune the conductivity over orders of magnitude while maintaining transparency in the visible range, suggesting the use of ionic liquid gating for many applications. PMID:27647884

  7. Oxidative Stress Mediates Radiation Lung Injury by Inducing Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yu; Zhang Xiuwu; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Jackson, Isabel L.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis in irradiated normal lung tissue has been observed several weeks after radiation. However, the signaling pathway propagating cell death after radiation remains unknown. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 15 Gy to the whole thorax. Pro-apoptotic signaling was evaluated 6 weeks after radiation with or without administration of AEOL10150, a potent catalytic scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Results: Apoptosis was observed primarily in type I and type II pneumocytes and endothelium. Apoptosis correlated with increased PTEN expression, inhibition of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling, and increased p53 and Bax protein levels. Transforming growth factor-{beta}1, Nox4, and oxidative stress were also increased 6 weeks after radiation. Therapeutic administration of AEOL10150 suppressed pro-apoptotic signaling and dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion: Increased PTEN signaling after radiation results in apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells. We hypothesize that upregulation of PTEN is influenced by Nox4-derived oxidative stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the role of PTEN in radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity.

  8. Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection against Oxidant-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Suntres, Zacharias E.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radical, can be formed as normal products of aerobic metabolism and can be produced at elevated rates under pathophysiological conditions. Overproduction and/or insufficient removal of ROS result in significant damage to cell structure and functions. In vitro studies showed that antioxidants, when applied directly and at relatively high concentrations to cellular systems, are effective in conferring protection against the damaging actions of ROS, but results from animal and human studies showed that several antioxidants provide only modest benefit and even possible harm. Antioxidants have yet to be rendered into reliable and safe therapies because of their poor solubility, inability to cross membrane barriers, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance from cells. There is considerable interest towards the development of drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. This paper focus on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. PMID:21876690

  9. Transparent conducting oxide induced by liquid electrolyte gating.

    PubMed

    ViolBarbosa, Carlos; Karel, Julie; Kiss, Janos; Gordan, Ovidiu-Dorin; Altendorf, Simone G; Utsumi, Yuki; Samant, Mahesh G; Wu, Yu-Han; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-10-04

    Optically transparent conducting materials are essential in modern technology. These materials are used as electrodes in displays, photovoltaic cells, and touchscreens; they are also used in energy-conserving windows to reflect the infrared spectrum. The most ubiquitous transparent conducting material is tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), a wide-gap oxide whose conductivity is ascribed to n-type chemical doping. Recently, it has been shown that ionic liquid gating can induce a reversible, nonvolatile metallic phase in initially insulating films of WO3 Here, we use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the metallic phase produced by the electrolyte gating does not result from a significant change in the bandgap but rather originates from new in-gap states. These states produce strong absorption below ∼1 eV, outside the visible spectrum, consistent with the formation of a narrow electronic conduction band. Thus WO3 is metallic but remains colorless, unlike other methods to realize tunable electrical conductivity in this material. Core-level photoemission spectra show that the gating reversibly modifies the atomic coordination of W and O atoms without a substantial change of the stoichiometry; we propose a simple model relating these structural changes to the modifications in the electronic structure. Thus we show that ionic liquid gating can tune the conductivity over orders of magnitude while maintaining transparency in the visible range, suggesting the use of ionic liquid gating for many applications.

  10. Transparent conducting oxide induced by liquid electrolyte gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ViolBarbosa, Carlos; Karel, Julie; Kiss, Janos; Gordan, Ovidiu-dorin; Altendorf, Simone G.; Utsumi, Yuki; Samant, Mahesh G.; Wu, Yu-Han; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Optically transparent conducting materials are essential in modern technology. These materials are used as electrodes in displays, photovoltaic cells, and touchscreens; they are also used in energy-conserving windows to reflect the infrared spectrum. The most ubiquitous transparent conducting material is tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), a wide-gap oxide whose conductivity is ascribed to n-type chemical doping. Recently, it has been shown that ionic liquid gating can induce a reversible, nonvolatile metallic phase in initially insulating films of WO3. Here, we use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the metallic phase produced by the electrolyte gating does not result from a significant change in the bandgap but rather originates from new in-gap states. These states produce strong absorption below ˜1 eV, outside the visible spectrum, consistent with the formation of a narrow electronic conduction band. Thus WO3 is metallic but remains colorless, unlike other methods to realize tunable electrical conductivity in this material. Core-level photoemission spectra show that the gating reversibly modifies the atomic coordination of W and O atoms without a substantial change of the stoichiometry; we propose a simple model relating these structural changes to the modifications in the electronic structure. Thus we show that ionic liquid gating can tune the conductivity over orders of magnitude while maintaining transparency in the visible range, suggesting the use of ionic liquid gating for many applications.

  11. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    PubMed

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100 mg L(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60 % of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000 mg L(-1)of urea.

  12. Oxalomalate affects the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Irace, Carlo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Maffettone, Carmen; Rossi, Antonietta; Festa, Michela; Iuvone, Teresa; Santamaria, Rita; Sautebin, Lidia; Carnuccio, Rosa; Colonna, Alfredo

    2007-03-13

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an homodimeric enzyme which produces large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in response to inflammatory stimuli. Several factors affect the synthesis and catalytic activity of iNOS. Particularly, dimerization of NOS monomers is promoted by heme, whereas an intracellular depletion of heme and/or L-arginine considerably decreases NOS resistance to proteolysis. In this study, we found that oxalomalate (OMA, oxalomalic acid, alpha-hydroxy-beta-oxalosuccinic acid), an inhibitor of both aconitase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, inhibited nitrite production and iNOS protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774 macrophages, without affecting iNOS mRNA content. Furthermore, injection of OMA precursors to LPS-stimulated rats also decreased nitrite production and iNOS expression in isolated peritoneal macrophages. Interestingly, alpha-ketoglutarate or succinyl-CoA administration reversed OMA effect on NO production, thus correlating NO biosynthesis with the anabolic capacity of Krebs cycle. When protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide in LPS-activated J774 cells treated with OMA, iNOS protein levels, evaluated by Western blot analysis and (35)S-metabolic labelling, were decreased, suggesting that OMA reduces iNOS biosynthesis and induces an increase in the degradation rate of iNOS protein. Moreover, we showed that OMA inhibits the activity of the iNOS from lung of LPS-treated rats by enzymatic assay. Our results, demonstrating that OMA acts regulating synthesis, catalytic activity and degradation of iNOS, suggest that this compound might have a potential role in reducing the NO overproduction occurring in some pathological conditions.

  13. Methylmalonate-induced seizures are attenuated in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigo; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Oliveira, Mauro Schneider; Furian, Ana Flávia; Rambo, Leonardo Magno; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Saraiva, André Luiz Lopes; Souza, Mauren Assis; Lima, Frederico Diniz; Magni, Danieli Valnes; Dezengrini, Renata; Flores, Eduardo Furtado; Butterfield, D Allan; Ferreira, Juliano; dos Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2009-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemias consist of a group of inherited neurometabolic disorders caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity clinically and biochemically characterized by neurological dysfunction, methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulation, mitochondrial failure and increased reactive species production. Although previous studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the neurotoxicity of MMA, the involvement of NO-induced nitrosative damage from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in MMA-induced seizures are poorly understood. In the present study, we showed a decrease of time spent convulsing induced by intracerebroventricular administration of MMA (2 micromol/2 microL; i.c.v.) in iNOS knockout (iNOS(-/-)) mice when compared with wild-type (iNOS(+/+)) littermates. Visual analysis of electroencephalographic recordings (EEG) showed that MMA injection induced the appearance of high-voltage synchronic spike activity in the ipsilateral cortex which spreads to the contralateral cortex while quantitative electroencephalographic analysis showed larger wave amplitude during MMA-induced seizures in wild-type mice when compared with iNOS knockout mice. We also report that administration of MMA increases NOx (NO(2) plus NO(3) content) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels in a greater extend in iNOS(+/+) mice than in iNOS(-/-) mice, indicating that NO overproduction and NO-mediated damage to proteins are attenuated in iNOS knockout mice. In addition, the MMA-induced decrease in Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, but not in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, was less pronounced in iNOS(-/-) when compared with iNOS(+/+) mice. These results reinforce the assumption that metabolic collapse contributes for the secondary toxicity elicited by MMA and suggest that oxidative attack by NO derived from iNOS on selected target such as Na(+), K(+)-ATPase enzyme might represent an important role in this excitotoxicity induced by MMA. Therefore, these results may be

  14. Role of oxidative stress in multiparity-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Huda E; Cena, Jonathan; Schulz, Richard; Kaufman, Susan

    2008-10-01

    Multiparity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We tested whether multiparity induces oxidative stress in rat vascular tissue. Coronary arteries and thoracic aorta were isolated from multiparous and age-matched virgin rats. Relaxation to ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was measured by wire myography. We also tested the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTE2PyP (30 microM), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 microM), and the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPs (10 microM) on ACh-mediated relaxation in coronary arteries. Vascular superoxide anion was measured using the luminol derivative L-012 and nitric oxide (NO) generation by the Griess reaction. Multiparity reduced maximal response and sensitivity to ACh in coronary arteries [maximal relaxation (E(max)): multiparous 49+/-3% vs. virgins 95%+/-3%; EC(50): multiparous 135+/-1 nM vs. virgins 60+/-1 nM], and in aortic rings (E(max): multiparous 38+/-3% vs. virgins 79+/-4%; EC(50): multiparous 160+/-2 nM vs. virgins 90+/-3 nM). Coronary arteries from the two groups relaxed similarly to SNP. Superoxide anions formation was significantly higher in both coronary arteries (2.8-fold increase) and aorta (4.1-fold increase) from multiparous rats compared with virgins. In multiparous rats, incubation with MnTE2PyP, apocynin, and FeTPPs improved maximal relaxation to ACh (MnTE2PyP: 74+/-5%; vehicle: 41+/-5%; apocynin: 73+/-3% vs. vehicle: 41+/-3%; FeTPPs: 72+/-3% vs. vehicle: 46+/-3%) and increased sensitivity (EC(50): MnTE2PyP: 61+/-0.5 nM vs. vehicle: 91+/-1 nM; apocynin: 45+/-3 nM vs. vehicle: 91+/-6 nM; FeTPP: 131 +/- 2 nM vs. vehicle: 185+/-1 nM). Multiparity also reduced total nitrate/nitrite levels (multiparous: 2.5+/-2 micromol/mg protein vs. virgins: 7+/-1 micromol/mg protein) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein levels (multiparous: 0.53+/-0.1 protein/actin vs. virgins: 1.0+/-0.14 protein/actin). These data suggest that multiparity induces endothelial dysfunction through

  15. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress by capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Abdel-Rahman, Rehab Fawzy; Sleem, Amany A; Farrag, Abdel Razik

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of capsaicin (the active principle of hot red pepper and a sensory excitotoxin) on oxidative stress after systemic administration of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg, i.p.) in rats. Capsaicin (15, 150 or 1,500 μg/kg; 10, 100 or 400 μg/mL) was given via intragastric (i.g.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes at time of endotoxin administration. Rats were killed 4 h later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in brain, liver, and lungs. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), nitric oxide, and glucose were measured in serum. In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. In LPS-treated rats, hepatic GSH increased significantly by 40.8% after i.p. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg. Liver MDA increased significantly by 32.9% after the administration of i.g. capsaicin at 1,500 μg/kg and by 27.8 and 37.6% after the administration of i.p. capsaicin at 150 and 1,500 μg/kg, respectively. In lung tissue, both MDA and GSH were decreased by capsaicin administration. MDA decreased by 19-20.8% after i.g. capsaicin and by 17.5-23.2% after i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. GSH decreased by 39.3-64.3% and by 35.7-41.1% after i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (150-1,500 μg/kg), respectively. Brain GSH increased significantly after the highest dose of i.g. or i.p. capsaicin (by 20.6 and 15.9%, respectively). The increase in serum ALT and ALP after endotoxin administration was decreased by oral or i.p. capsaicin. Serum nitric oxide showed marked increase after LPS injection, but was markedly decreased after capsaicin (1,500 μg/kg, i.p.). Serum glucose increased markedly after the administration of LPS, and was normalized by capsaicin treatment. It is suggested that in the presence of mild systemic inflammation, acute capsaicin administration might alter oxidative status in some tissues and exert an anti-inflammatory effect

  16. Oats supplementation prevents alcohol-induced gut leakiness in rats by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Banan, Ali; Fields, Jeremy Z; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-06-01

    We reported previously that oats supplementation prevents gut leakiness and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in our rat model of alcoholic liver disease. Because oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of both alcohol-induced gut leakiness and ASH, and because oats have antioxidant properties, we tested the hypothesis that oats protect by preventing alcohol-induced oxidative damage to the intestine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged for 12 weeks with alcohol (starting dose of 1 g/kg increasing to 6 g/kg/day over the first 2 weeks) or dextrose, with or without oats supplementation (10 g/kg/day). Oxidative stress and injury were assessed by measuring colonic mucosal inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) (by immunohistochemistry), nitric oxide (colorimetric assay), and protein carbonylation and nitrotyrosination (immunoblotting). Colonic barrier integrity was determined by assessing the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton (immunohistochemistry) and the integrity of tight junctions (electron microscopy). Oats supplementation prevented alcohol-induced up-regulation of iNOS, nitric oxide overproduction in the colonic mucosa, and increases in protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels. This protection was associated with prevention of ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and disruption of tight junctions. We conclude that oats supplementation attenuates EtOH-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, at least in part, by inhibiting EtOH-induced increases in oxidative stress and oxidative tissue damage. This inhibition prevents alcohol-induced disruption of the cytoskeleton and tight junctions. This study suggests that oats may be a useful therapeutic agent--a nutraceutical--for the prevention of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and organ dysfunction.

  17. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  18. Vitiligo: How do oxidative stress-induced autoantigens trigger autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Xie, Heng; Zhou, Fubo; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Guannan; Li, Qiang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder characterized by a loss of functional melanocytes and melanin from epidermis, in which the autoantigens and subsequent autoimmunity caused by oxidative stress play significant roles according to hypotheses. Various factors lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in the melanocytes of vitiligo: the exogenous and endogenous stimuli that cause ROS production, low levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, disturbed antioxidant pathways and polymorphisms of ROS-associated genes. These factors synergistically contribute to the accumulation of ROS in melanocytes, finally leading to melanocyte damage and the production of autoantigens through the following ways: apoptosis, accumulation of misfolded peptides and cytokines induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as the sustained unfolded protein response, and an 'eat me' signal for phagocytic cells triggered by calreticulin. Subsequently, autoantigens presentation and dendritic cells maturation occurred mediated by the release of antigen-containing exosomes, adenosine triphosphate and melanosomal autophagy. With the involvement of inducible heat shock protein 70, cellular immunity targeting autoantigens takes the essential place in the destruction of melanocytes, which eventually results in vitiligo. Several treatments, such as narrow band ultraviolet, quercetin and α-melanophore-stimulating hormone, are reported to be able to lower ROS thereby achieving repigmentation in vitiligo. In therapies targeting autoimmunity, restore of regulatory T cells is absorbing attention, in which narrow band ultraviolet also plays a role.

  19. Oxidized low density lipoprotein suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in microglia: Oxidative stress acts through control of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ohn Soon; Lee, Chang Seok; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo . E-mail: jouilo@ajou.ac.kr

    2006-03-31

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is readily oxidized under certain conditions, resulting in the formation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Despite numerous in vitro reports that reveal the pathogenic role of oxidative stress, anti-oxidative strategies have underperformed in the clinic. In this study, we examine the role of oxLDL in brain inflammatory responses using cultured rat brain microglia. We demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in these cells. It also decreases LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide, and reduces LPS-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Oxysterols, known components of oxLDL and endogenous agonists of liver X receptor, can simulate the inhibitory effects of oxLDL in LPS-activated microglia. In addition, their inhibitory effects were mimicked by liver X receptor (LXR) agonists and potentiated by a retinoid X receptor agonist, suggesting these molecules heterodimerize to function as oxysterol receptors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that oxLDL inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses in brain microglia and that these inhibitory effects are mediated by oxysterols and, at least in part, by the nuclear receptor LXR. Our results suggest an additional mechanism of action for oxidative stress that acts indirectly via modulation of inflammatory responses. Although further studies are needed, these results answer in part the question of why anti-oxidative strategies have not been successful in clinical situations. Moreover, as brain inflammation participates in the initiation and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, the present data provide information that should prove a useful guide for designing therapeutic strategies to combat oxidative brain diseases.

  20. Growth of silicon bump induced by swift heavy ion at the silicon oxide-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect

    Carlotti, J.-F.; Touboul, A.D.; Ramonda, M.; Caussanel, M.; Guasch, C.; Bonnet, J.; Gasiot, J.

    2006-01-23

    Thin silicon oxide layers on silicon substrates are investigated by scanning probe microscopy before and after irradiation with 210 MeV Au+ ions. After irradiation and complete chemical etching of the silicon oxide layer, silicon bumps grown on the silicon surface are observed. It is shown that each impinging ion induces one silicon bump at the interface. This observation is consistent with the thermal spike theory. Ion energy loss is transferred to the oxide and induces local melting. Silicon-bump formation is favored when the oxide and oxide-silicon interface are silicon rich.

  1. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  2. Expression and Activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Dopamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Danielle M.; Son, Jong H.; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is implicated in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity; however, the source of the nitric oxide has not been identified. Previous work has also revealed that animals with partial dopamine loss induced by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine fail to exhibit further decreases in striatal dopamine when re-exposed to methamphetamine 7–30 days later. The current study examined nitric oxide synthase expression and activity and protein nitration in striata of animals administered saline or neurotoxic regimens of methamphetamine at postnatal days 60 and/or 90, resulting in four treatment groups: Saline:Saline, METH:Saline, Saline:METH, and METH:METH. Acute administration of methamphetamine on postnatal day 90 (Saline:METH and METH:METH) increased nitric oxide production, as evidenced by increased protein nitration. Methamphetamine did not, however, change the expression of endothelial or inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, nor did it change the number of cells positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression or the amount of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA per cell. However, nitric oxide synthase activity in striatal interneurons was increased in the Saline:METH and METH:METH animals. These data suggest that increased nitric oxide production after a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine results from increased nitric oxide synthase activity, rather than an induction of mRNA, and that constitutively expressed neuronal nitric oxide synthase is the most likely source of nitric oxide after methamphetamine administration. Of interest, animals rendered resistant to further methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions still show equivalent degrees of methamphetamine-induced nitric oxide production, suggesting that nitric oxide production alone in response to methamphetamine is not sufficient to induce acute neurotoxic injury. PMID:23230214

  3. [The effects of oxidative damage induced by organic oxidant t-BHP on cochlear hair cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-mei; Guo, Xiao; Li, Xu-dong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yi-min

    2012-03-01

    To establish the oxidative damage model of cochlea hair cells using organic oxidant t-BHP in vitro. HEI-OC1 cells were exposed to t-BHP at 8 doses (30~4000 µmol/L) for 12 h. Trypan blue test was used to detected the cellular viability and MTT assay was utilized to measured the cellular proliferation. The intracellular ROS levels were determined by 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The survival rates of HEI-OC1 cells started decrease significantly at the dose of 100 µmol/L t-BHP, the peak of decreased survival rates appeared at the doses of 200~800 µmol/L. The results of MTT assay demonstrated that 30 µmol/L t-BHP could promote cellular proliferation ability, when t-BHP concentrations were higher than 200 µmol/L, the cellular proliferation ability was inhibited. The results of DCFH-DA assay showed that there was no fluorescence in control group, the strong fluorescence was observed in positive control group, the weak fluorescence was observed in 30~50 µmol/L t-BHP groups, the bright fluorescence was observed in 100 µmol/L t-BHP group, still the stronger fluorescence was observed in 200~1000 µmol/L groups, but the cellular number decreased with the doses because of the lower cellular viability. The exposure to 100 µmol/L t-BHP for 12 h could simulate the oxidative damage induced by noise in cochlear hair cells.

  4. Hypergravity upregulates renal inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun; Oh, Choong Sik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to hypergravity severely decreases renal blood flow, potentially causing renal dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO), which is endogenously synthesized by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), plays an important role in the regulation of renal function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of hypergravity exposure on the production of NO in kidneys. To determine whether hypergravity induces renal hypoxia and alters renal iNOS expression and NO production, mice were exposed to short-term hypergravity at +3Gz for 1 h. The time course of iNOS mRNA expression, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression, and NO production was examined. Renal HIF-1α levels were significantly elevated immediately after centrifugation, and this increase was sustained for 3 h post-exposure. iNOS mRNA levels were also significantly increased immediately after exposure and were maintained during the reoxygenation period. Immunohistochemical staining for iNOS revealed that the cortical tubular epithelium exhibited moderate to strong cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity immediately after hypergravity exposure and during the reoxygenation period. The time course of NO production was similar to that of iNOS expression. Our results suggest that both hypoxia and reoxygenation might be involved in the upregulation of HIF-1α in the kidneys of mice exposed to hypergravity. Significant increases in renocortical iNOS expression immediately after centrifugation and during the reoxygenation period suggest that iNOS expression induced by hypergravity exposure might play a protective role against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in the renal cortex. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the role of iNOS and NO in kidneys exposed to hypergravity. PMID:27174912

  5. Indium and indium tin oxide induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brun, Nadja Rebecca; Christen, Verena; Furrer, Gerhard; Fent, Karl

    2014-10-07

    Indium and indium tin oxide (ITO) are extensively used in electronic technologies. They may be introduced into the environment during production, use, and leaching from electronic devices at the end of their life. At present, surprisingly little is known about potential ecotoxicological implications of indium contamination. Here, molecular effects of indium nitrate (In(NO3)3) and ITO nanoparticles were investigated in vitro in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) cells and in zebrafish embryos and novel insights into their molecular effects are provided. In(NO3)3 led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of transcripts of pro-apoptotic genes and TNF-α in vitro at a concentration of 247 μg/L. In(NO3)3 induced the ER stress key gene BiP at mRNA and protein level, as well as atf6, which ultimately led to induction of the important pro-apoptotic marker gene chop. The activity of In(NO3)3 on ER stress induction was much stronger than that of ITO, which is explained by differences in soluble free indium ion concentrations. The effect was also stronger in ZFL cells than in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides first evidence of ER stress and oxidative stress induction by In(NO3)3 and ITO indicating a critical toxicological profile that needs further investigation.

  6. Susceptibility to cerulein-induced pancreatitis in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Qui, B; Mei, Q B; Ma, J J; Korsten, M A

    2001-07-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in acute pancreatitis, but its role has still not been fully examined. The present study explored the role of iNOS in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis using iNOS-deficient mice. Twelve- to 14-week-old male mice (C57B1/6 and iNOS-deficient) were administered cerulein by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at hourly intervals for 7 hours and killed 24 hours later after the first dose. Pancreatic wet weight, pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of plasma nitrite and serum amylase were measured. In another experiment isosorbide dinitrate (an NO donor) was given by oral gavage every 6 hours for 24 hours beginning simultaneously with cerulein injections in iNOS-deficient mice. Cerulein administration dose-dependently increased pancreatic wet weight, myeloperoxidase activity, and levels of nitrite and amylase in C57B1/6 mice. These parameters (except nitrite levels) were significantly intensified in iNOS-deficient mice. At the dose employed, cerulein failed to increase nitrite levels in iNOS-deficient mice. The susceptibility to cerulein toxicity in iNOS-deficient mice was abolished by NO donor treatment. NO release from an iNOS source appears to play a protective role in cerulein-induced pancreatitis. At least in part, NO may prevent neutrophil accumulation after cerulein administration.

  7. Anti-oxidative effects of curcumin on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz

    2017-03-01

    Restraint stress has been indicated to induce oxidative damage in tissues. Several investigations have reported that curcumin (CUR) may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of CUR on restraint stress induced oxidative stress damage in the brain, liver and kidneys. For chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days. The animals received systemic administrations of CUR daily for 21days. In order to evaluate the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following restraint stress, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were measured in the brain, liver and kidney of rats after the end of restraint stress. The restraint stress significantly increased MDA level, but decreased the level of GSH and activists of SOD, GPx, GR, and CAT the brain, liver and kidney of rats in comparison to the normal rats (P<0.001). Intraperitoneal administration of CUR significantly attenuated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, prevented apoptosis, and increased antioxidant defense mechanism activity in the tissues versus the control group (P<0.05). This study shows that CUR can prevent restraint stress-induced oxidative damage in the brain, liver and kidney of rats and propose that CUR may be useful agents against oxidative stress in the tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation: a reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Charrière, N; Miles-Chan, J L; Montani, J-P; Dulloo, A G

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Drinking large amounts of water is often recommended for weight control. Whether water intake stimulates energy and fat metabolism is, however, controversial with some studies reporting that drinking half a litre or more of water increases resting energy expenditure (REE) by 10–30% and decreases respiratory quotient (RQ), whereas others report no significant changes in REE or RQ. The aim here was to reassess the concept of water-induced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in humans, with particular focus on interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses, comparison with a time-control Sham drink, and on the potential impact of gender, body composition and abdominal adiposity. Subjects/Methods: REE and RQ were measured in healthy young adults (n=27; body mass index range: 18.5–33.9 kg m−2), by ventilated hood indirect calorimetry for at least 30 min before and 130 min after ingesting 500 ml of purified (distilled) water at 21–22 °C or after Sham drinking, in a randomized cross-over design. Body composition and abdominal fat were assessed by bioimpedance techniques. Results: Drinking 500 ml of distilled water led to marginal increases in REE (<3% above baseline), independently of gender, but which were not significantly different from Sham drinking. RQ was found to fall after the water drink, independently of gender, but it also diminished to a similar extent in response to sham drinking. Interindividual variability in REE and RQ responses was not associated with body fatness, central adiposity or fat-free mass. Conclusions: This study conducted in young men and women varying widely in adiposity, comparing the ingestion of distilled water to Sham drinking, suggests that ingestion of purified water per se does not result in the stimulation of thermogenesis or fat oxidation. PMID:26690288

  9. Orchiectomy attenuates oxidative stress induced by aluminum in rats.

    PubMed

    Contini, María Del Carmen; Millen, Néstor; González, Marcela; Benmelej, Adriana; Fabro, Ana; Mahieu, Stella

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study whether the increase in antioxidant defenses associated with orchiectomy may account for the reduced susceptibility to aluminum (Al) in male kidney and also to examine whether the reduced antioxidant defenses are associated with androgen levels in orchiectomized (ORX) rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP). Rats were divided into nine groups, namely, intact males (without treatment, treated with sodium lactate, and treated with Al), sham males, ORX males (without treatment, treated with sodium lactate, treated with TP, treated with Al, and treated with TP and Al). Al groups were chronically treated with aluminum lactate for 12 weeks (0.575 mg Al/100 g of body weight, intraperitoneally, three times per week). We reported that ORX rats treated with Al had significantly less lipid peroxidation and an increased level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio in the kidney when compared with intact and TP-treated ORX rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in ORX rats was much greater than in intact or TP-administered ORX rats. Castration reduced the glomerular alterations caused by Al as well as the number of necrotic tubular cells and nuclear abnormalities. However, we observed a slight alteration in brush border, dilation of proximal tubules, mononuclear infiltrates, and interstitial fibrosis. Castrated males treated with TP showed that this intervention cancels the protective effect of the ORX. This finding suggests that androgens contribute to the development of renal alterations and proteinuria in rats treated with Al. Our results showed that ORX rats are protected against the induction of oxidative stress by Al, but the morphological damage to the kidney tissue induced by the cation was only reduced. Male intact rats treated with Al had more severe glomerulosclerosis, tubular damage, and proteinuria than ORX rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  11. Acidosis induces reprogramming of cellular metabolism to mitigate oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of oncogenic and environmental factors alter tumor metabolism to serve the distinct cellular biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs present during oncogenesis. Extracellular acidosis is a common microenvironmental stress in solid tumors, but little is known about its metabolic influence, particularly when present in the absence of hypoxia. In order to characterize the extent of tumor cell metabolic adaptations to acidosis, we employed stable isotope tracers to examine how acidosis impacts glucose, glutamine, and palmitate metabolism in breast cancer cells exposed to extracellular acidosis. Results Acidosis increased both glutaminolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, which contribute metabolic intermediates to drive the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and ATP generation. Acidosis also led to a decoupling of glutaminolysis and novel glutathione (GSH) synthesis by repressing GCLC/GCLM expression. We further found that acidosis redirects glucose away from lactate production and towards the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). These changes all serve to increase nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production and counter the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) present under acidosis. The reduced novel GSH synthesis under acidosis may explain the increased demand for NADPH to recycle existing pools of GSH. Interestingly, acidosis also disconnected novel ribose synthesis from the oxidative PPP, seemingly to reroute PPP metabolites to the TCA cycle. Finally, we found that acidosis activates p53, which contributes to both the enhanced PPP and increased glutaminolysis, at least in part, through the induction of G6PD and GLS2 genes. Conclusions Acidosis alters the cellular metabolism of several major metabolites, which induces a significant degree of metabolic inflexibility. Cells exposed to acidosis largely rely upon mitochondrial metabolism for energy generation to the extent that metabolic intermediates are

  12. A neurovascular transmission model for acupuncture-induced nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Hsiung; Tsai, Li-Jen

    2008-09-01

    Acupuncture is the practice of inserting needles into the body to reduce pain or induce anesthesia. More broadly, acupuncture is a family of procedures involving the stimulation of anatomical locations on or in the skin by a variety of techniques. Employing acupuncture to treat human disease or maintain bodily condition has been practiced for thousands of years. However, the mechanism(s) of action of acupuncture at the various meridians are poorly understood. Most studies have indicated that acupuncture is able to increase blood flow. The acupuncture points have high electrical conductance and a relationship of the acupuncture points and meridians with the connective tissue planes and the perivascular space has also been suggested. Several studies employing the human and animal models have shown that acupuncture enhances the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and increases local circulation. Specifically, electroacupuncture (EA) seems to prevent the reduction in NO production from endothelial NO synthetase (eNOS) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) that is associated with hypertension and this process involves a stomach-meridian organ but not a non-stomach-meridian organ such as the liver. How can we explain the phenomena of EA and meridian effect? Here, we proposed a neurovascular transmission model for acupuncture induced NO. In this proposed model, the acupuncture stimulus is able to influence connective tissue via mechanical force transfer to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Through the ECM, the mechanotransduction stimulus can be translated or travel from the acupuncture points, which involve local tissue and cells. Cells in the local tissue that have received mechanotransduction induce different types of NO production that can induce changes in blood flow and local circulation. The local mechanical stress produced is coupled to a cyclic strain of the blood vessels and this could then change the frequency of resonance. According to the resonance theory, an oscillatory

  13. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Chao; Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system.

  14. Aloin Protects Skin Fibroblasts from Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress Damage by Regulating the Oxidative Defense System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Ren; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is commonly involved in the pathogenesis of skin damage induced by environmental factors, such as heat stress. Skin fibroblasts are responsible for the connective tissue regeneration and the skin recovery from injury. Aloin, a bioactive compound in Aloe vera, has been reported to have various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of aloin against heat stress-mediated oxidative stress in human skin fibroblast Hs68 cells. Hs68 cells were first incubated at 43°C for 30 min to mimic heat stress. The study was further examined if aloin has any effect on heat stress-induced oxidative stress. We found that aloin protected Hs68 cells against heat stress-induced damage, as assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Aloin protected Hs68 cells by regulating reactive oxygen species production and increasing the levels of glutathione, cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase. Aloin also prevented the elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the reduction of 8-OH-dG induced by heat stress. These results indicated that aloin protected human skin fibroblasts from heat stress-induced oxidative stress damage by regulating the oxidative defense system. PMID:26637174

  15. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qun; Ge, Kun; Duan, Jianlei; Chen, Shizhu; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Cuimiao; Wang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Jinchao

    2014-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have been widely used in industries and biomedical fields due to its unique properties. Previous biodistribution studies of nanoceria in vivo have shown that they are accumulated in the bone of mice after intravenous administration, about 20 % of the total intake, however, the potential effect and the mechanism of nanoceria on bone metabolism are not well-understood. Our results showed that both 25 and 50 nm nanceria decreased the damage of cell viability induced by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptosis ratio of pre-incubated group with nanoceria was lower than the H2O2 group. The cellular uptake studies indicated that there was a dose-dependent accumulation of both two size nanoparticles in bone marrow stromal cells. Nanoceria could be uptaken by cells due to the synergistic effect of multiple endocytosis mechanisms, and then evenly distributed in the cytoplasm without entering the nucleus. Our results suggest that nanoceria could reduce intracellular ROS level induced by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner, moreover, maintain the normal function of mitochondria, suggesting nanoceria may have potent applications for preventing or treating osteoporosis.

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase suppresses the development of allograft arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shears, L L; Kawaharada, N; Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Watkins, S C; Kovesdi, I; Lizonova, A; Pham, S M

    1997-01-01

    In cardiac transplantation, chronic rejection takes the form of an occlusive vasculopathy. The mechanism underlying this disorder remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role nitric oxide (NO) may play in the development of allograft arteriosclerosis. Rat aortic allografts from ACI donors to Wistar Furth recipients with a strong genetic disparity in both major and minor histocompatibility antigens were used for transplantation. Allografts collected at 28 d were found to have significant increases in both inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein as well as in intimal thickness when compared with isografts. Inhibiting NO production with an iNOS inhibitor increased the intimal thickening by 57.2%, indicating that NO suppresses the development of allograft arteriosclerosis. Next, we evaluated the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on iNOS expression and allograft arteriosclerosis. CsA (10 mg/kg/d) suppressed the expression of iNOS in response to balloon-induced aortic injury. Similarly, CsA inhibited iNOS expression in the aortic allografts, associated with a 65% increase in intimal thickening. Finally, we investigated the effect of adenoviral-mediated iNOS gene transfer on allograft arteriosclerosis. Transduction with iNOS using an adenoviral vector suppressed completely the development of allograft arteriosclerosis in both untreated recipients and recipients treated with CsA. These results suggest that the early immune-mediated upregulation in iNOS expression partially protects aortic allografts from the development of allograft arteriosclerosis, and that iNOS gene transfer strategies may prove useful in preventing the development of this otherwise untreatable disease process. PMID:9329968

  17. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-03-30

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi{sub 5}Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 18} layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO{sub 2}, which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO{sub 2} at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO{sub 2}, the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties.

  18. Cytokines induce nitric oxide production in mouse osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Damoulis, P D; Hauschka, P V

    1994-06-15

    MC3T3-E1 mouse clonal osteogenic cells were incubated with interferon-gamma, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and E. coli lipopolysaccharide. TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and LPS caused a dose- and time-dependent increase of nitrite (NO2-), the stable metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), in conditioned media over 48 hours, while IFN gamma had a minimal effect. Different combinations of the same factors caused a synergistic enhancement of NO2- accumulation, except for IL-1 beta with LPS. The earliest detectable NO2- production was at 6-9 hours, with continued accumulation over 48 hours. NO2- production was inhibited dose-dependently by three arginine analogs known to be specific inhibitors of NO synthase, as well as by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and dexamethasone; EGTA or indomethacin had a small inhibitory effect. It is concluded that osteoblast-like cells can be induced by proinflammatory cytokines and bacterial endotoxin to produce NO, which can play an important role in bone pathophysiology.

  19. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis.

  20. Role of oxidative stress in thuringiensin-induced pulmonary toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.-F. . E-mail: sftsai@tactri.gov.tw; Yang Chi; Liu, B.-L.; Hwang, J.-S.; Ho, S.-P. . E-mail: spho@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2006-10-15

    To understand the effect of thuringiensin on the lungs tissues, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with thuringiensin by intratracheal instillation at doses 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after treatment, and lungs were isolated and examined. Subsequently, an effective dose of 1.6 mg/kg was selected for the time course study (4, 8, 12, and 24 h). Intratracheal instillation of thuringiensin resulted in lung damage, as evidenced by increase in lung weight and decrease in alkaline phosphatase (10-54%), an enzyme localized primarily in pulmonary alveolar type II epithelial cells. Furthermore, the administration of thuringiensin caused increases in lipid peroxidation (21-105%), the indices of lung injury. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities of lung tissue extracts were measured to evaluate the effect of thuringiensin on antioxidant defense system. The SOD activity and GSH content in lung showed significant decreases in a dose-related manner with 11-21% and 15-37%, respectively. Those were further supported by the release of proinflammatory cytokines, as indicated by increases in IL-1{beta} (229-1017%) and TNF-{alpha} (234%) levels. Therefore, the results demonstrated that changes in the pulmonary oxidative-antioxidative status might play an important role in the thuringiensin-induced lung injury.

  1. Resveratrol protects mouse oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; He, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Xin; Ding, Lu; Xu, Lin; Shen, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Fei; Zhu, Mao-Bi; Xu, Bai-Hui; Qi, Zhong-Quan; Wang, Hai-Long

    2013-01-01

    Methylglyoxal, a reactive dicarbonyl compound, is mainly formed from glycolysis. Methylglyoxal can lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria, the depletion of cellular anti-oxidation enzymes and the formation of advanced glycation ends. Previous studies showed that the accumulation of methylglyoxal and advanced glycation ends can impair the oocyte maturation and reduce the oocyte quality in aged and diabetic females. In this study, we showed that resveratrol, a kind of phytoalexin found in the skin of grapes, red wine and other botanical extracts, can alleviate the adverse effects caused by methylglyoxal, such as inhibition of oocyte maturation and disruption of spindle assembly. Besides, methylglyoxal-treated oocytes displayed more DNA double strands breaks and this can also be decreased by treatment of resveratrol. Further investigation of these processes revealed that methylglyoxal may affect the oocyte quality by resulting in excessive reactive oxygen species production, aberrant mitochondrial distribution and high level lipid peroxidation, and resveratrol can block these cytotoxic changes. Collectively, our results showed that resveratrol can protect the oocytes from methylglyoxal-induced cytotoxicity and this was mainly through the correction of the abnormity of cellular reactive oxygen species metabolism.

  2. Protective effect of thymoquinone against testicular torsion induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Ayan, M; Tas, U; Sogut, E; Caylı, S; Kaya, H; Esen, M; Erdemir, F; Uysal, M

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to determine the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in the testis tissue of rats. Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: Group I, sham group; Group II, torsion group; and Group III, torsion + thymoquinone group. The ischaemia period was 2 h, and orchiectomy was performed after 30 min of detorsion. Testis tissue sections were analysed with the terminal transferase mediated dUTP-nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay to determine in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Additionally, Caspase 3 and Bax proteins were analysed immunohistochemically. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity levels in the testis tissue were also measured. The superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the torsion group were significantly higher than those of the sham group (P < 0.05). Thymoquinone administration significantly reduced these levels. Torsion significantly increased active-Caspase 3 and Bax expression, which was decreased by thymoquinone. The apoptotic index of the torsion group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, thymoquinone significantly reduced the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that thymoquinone plays a protective role in oxidative stress induced ischaemia-reperfusion in the testis tissue of rats.

  3. Oxidatively induced DNA damage and its repair in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dizdaroglu, Miral

    2015-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by endogenous and exogenous reactive species. DNA lesions resulting from this type of damage are mutagenic and cytotoxic and, if not repaired, can cause genetic instability that may lead to disease processes including carcinogenesis. Living organisms possess DNA repair mechanisms that include a variety of pathways to repair multiple DNA lesions. Mutations and polymorphisms also occur in DNA repair genes adversely affecting DNA repair systems. Cancer tissues overexpress DNA repair proteins and thus develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions before they become toxic is a major mechanism for development of resistance to therapy, affecting patient survival. Accumulated evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker for patient response to therapy. Thus, knowledge of DNA protein expressions in normal and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. DNA repair proteins constitute targets for inhibitors to overcome the resistance of tumors to therapy. Inhibitors of DNA repair for combination therapy or as single agents for monotherapy may help selectively kill tumors, potentially leading to personalized therapy. Numerous inhibitors have been developed and are being tested in clinical trials. The efficacy of some inhibitors in therapy has been demonstrated in patients. Further development of inhibitors of DNA repair proteins is globally underway to help eradicate cancer.

  4. Improved Photo-Induced Stability in Amorphous Metal-Oxide Based TFTs for Transparent Displays.

    PubMed

    Koo, Sang-Mo; Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the origin of photo-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) by exploring threshold voltage (Vth) shift in transfer characteristics. The combination of photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress enhanced the shift in Vth in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs. Such results stem from the extended trapped charges at the localized defect states related to oxygen vacancy which play a role in a screening effect on the electric field induced by gate voltage. We also demonstrate the chemically clean interface in oxide-TFTs by employing oxygen annealing which reduces the density of trap states, thereby resulting in improved photo-induced stability. We believe that this work stimulates the research society of transparent electronics by providing a promising approach to suppress photo-induced instability in metal-oxide TFTs.

  5. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Liu, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ai-Wu; Gu, Ning

    2016-08-09

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL), one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone1) (NQO1). However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  6. Mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase are not resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced death.

    PubMed Central

    Laubach, V E; Shesely, E G; Smithies, O; Sherman, P A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide produced by cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of septic shock. To further our understanding of the role of iNOS in normal biology and in a variety of inflammatory disorders, including septic shock, we have used gene targeting to generate a mouse strain that lacks iNOS. Mice lacking iNOS were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in appearance and histology. Upon treatment with lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma, peritoneal macrophages from the mutant mice did not produce nitric oxide measured as nitrite in the culture medium. In addition, lysates of these cells did not contain iNOS protein by immunoblot analysis or iNOS enzyme activity. In a Northern analysis of total RNA, no iNOS transcript of the correct size was detected. No increases in serum nitrite plus nitrate levels were observed in homozygous mutant mice treated with a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide, but the mutant mice exhibited no significant survival advantage over wild-type mice. These results show that lack of iNOS activity does not prevent mortality in this murine model for septic shock. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479866

  7. Lycopene inhibits LPS-induced proinflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Yadav, Prem Narayan; Reyes, Marynell

    2007-01-01

    Lycopene is a fat-soluble red-orange carotenoid found primarily in tomatoes and tomato-derived products, including tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, and other dietary sources, including dried apricots, guava, watermelon, papaya, and pink grapefruit. In this study, we have demonstrated the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene using a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Treatment with lycopene (10 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production (40% compared with the control). Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that lycopene treatment decreased LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. These results suggest that lycopene has anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting iNOS proteins and mRNA expressions in mouse macrophage cell lines. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression were not affected by treatment with lycopene.

  8. Oxidative DNA damage is a preliminary step during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Sandra Regina; Noguti, Juliana; Carvalho, Juliana Gonçalves; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oxidative DNA damage during 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO)-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were distributed into three groups of 10 animals each and treated with 50 ppm 4NQO solution through their drinking water for 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Ten animals were used as negative control. The alkaline Comet assay modified with lesion-specific enzymes was used to detect single and double strand breaks, labile sites (SBs), and oxidised purines and pyrimidines. Although no histopathological abnormalities were induced in the epithelium after 4 weeks of carcinogen exposure, oxidative DNA damage was detected in the 'normal' oral epithelium. In pre-neoplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinomas induced after 12 and 20 weeks following carcinogen exposure, respectively, oxidative DNA damage was also increased (P < 0.05) when compared to negative control. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxidative DNA damage is an early event during multistep carcinogenesis assay induced by 4NQO. This kind of approach should be considered to persons with high risk of oral cancer, such as in smokers or alcohol consumers.

  9. Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone) shields human keratinocytes from ultraviolet B-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Madduma Hewage, Susara Ruwan Kumara; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Cha, Ji Won; Han, Xia; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-03-01

    Most skin damage caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is owing to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Phytochemicals can act as antioxidants against UVB-induced oxidative stress. This study investigated the protective effects of the flavone galangin against UVB-induced oxidative damage in human keratinocytes. Galangin efficiently scavenged free radicals and reduced UVB-induced damage to cellular macromolecules, such as DNA, lipids, and proteins. Furthermore, galangin rescued cells undergoing apoptosis induced by UVB radiation via recovering mitochondrial polarization and down-regulating apoptotic proteins. These results showed that galangin protects human keratinocytes against UVB radiation-induced cellular damage and apoptosis via its antioxidant effects.

  10. Oxidative stress is required for mechanical ventilation-induced protease activation in the diaphragm

    PubMed Central

    Smuder, Ashley J.; Wu, Min; Hudson, Matthew B.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) results in diaphragmatic weakness due to fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Recent work reveals that activation of the proteases calpain and caspase-3 is required for MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for activation of these proteases remains unknown. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is essential for the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Cause-and-effect was established by prevention of MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress using the antioxidant Trolox. Treatment of animals with Trolox prevented MV-induced protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. Importantly, the Trolox-mediated protection from MV-induced oxidative stress prevented the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Furthermore, the avoidance of MV-induced oxidative stress not only averted the activation of these proteases but also rescued the diaphragm from MV-induced diaphragmatic myofiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these findings support the prediction that oxidative stress is required for MV-induced activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm and are consistent with the concept that antioxidant therapy can retard MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness. PMID:20203072

  11. Correlation between oxidative stress and alteration of intracellular calcium handling in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Alvarez-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Yáñez, Lucía; Vidrio, Susana; Martínez, Lidia; Rosas, Gisele; Yáñez, Mario; Ramírez, Sotero; de Sánchez, Victoria Chagoya

    2006-09-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) overload and oxidative stress are well documented effects associated to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis, but information correlating these two issues is scarce. Using an ISO-induced myocardial infarction model, 3 stages of myocardial damage were defined: pre-infarction (0-12 h), infarction (12-24 h) and post-infarction (24-96 h). Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative stress were studied in mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and plasmalemma by measuring the Ca(2+) content, the activity of Ca(2+) handling proteins, and by quantifying TBARs, nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative protein damage (changes in carbonyl and thiol groups). Free radicals generated system, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress (GSH/GSSG ratio) were also monitored at different times of ISO-induced cardiotoxicity. The Ca(2+) overload induced by ISO was counterbalanced by a diminution in the ryanodine receptor activity and the Na(+)-Ca(+2) exchanger as well as by the increase in both calcium ATPases activities (vanadate- and thapsigargine-sensitive) and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake during pre-infarction and infarction stages. Pro-oxidative reactions and antioxidant defences during the 3 stages of cardiotoxicity were observed, with maximal oxidative stress during the infarction. Significant correlations were found among pro-oxidative reactions with plasmalemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases, and ryanodine receptor activities at the onset and development of ISO-induced infarction. These findings could be helpful in the design of antioxidant therapies in this pathology.

  12. Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rachana D; Katkar, Gajanan D; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2017-05-01

    Snakebite is a neglected health hazard. Its patho-physiology has largely been focused on systemic and local toxicities; whereas, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has long been ignored. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives, remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D. russelli and E. carinatus venoms induce strong oxidative stress that persists even after antivenom administration in mice model. Additionally, antivenoms also induce oxidative stress. Polyvalent antivenom induce more oxidative stress than monovalent antivenom. Strikingly, antivenom and melatonin together not only inhibit venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress but also significantly reduce the neutralizing antivenom dose. This study provides a therapeutic potential for enhancing the existing snakebite therapy. The combined treatment of antivenom+melatonin would prevent the upsurge of oxidative stress as well as minimize the antivenom load. Thus the investigation offers immense scope for physicians and toxinologists to reinvestigate, design new strategies and think beyond the conventional mode of antivenom therapy.

  13. Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

  14. Castration induces Parkinson disease pathologies in young male mice via inducible nitric-oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Khasnavis, Saurabh; Ghosh, Anamitra; Roy, Avik; Pahan, Kalipada

    2013-07-19

    Although Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, available animal models do not exhibit irreversible neurodegeneration, and this is a major obstacle in finding out an effective drug against this disease. Here we delineate a new irreversible model to study PD pathogenesis. The model is based on simple castration of young male mice. Levels of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), glial markers (glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD11b), and α-synuclein were higher in nigra of castrated male mice than normal male mice. On the other hand, after castration, the level of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) markedly decreased in the nigra of male mice. Accordingly, castration also induced the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the nigra and decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers and neurotransmitters in the striatum. Reversal of nigrostriatal pathologies in castrated male mice by subcutaneous implantation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone pellets validates an important role of male sex hormone in castration-induced nigrostriatal pathology. Interestingly, castration was unable to cause glial activation, decrease nigral GDNF, augment the death of nigral dopaminergic neurons, induce the loss of striatal fibers, and impair neurotransmitters in iNOS(-/-) male mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that iNOS-derived NO is responsible for decreased expression of GDNF in activated astrocytes. Together, our results suggest that castration induces nigrostriatal pathologies via iNOS-mediated decrease in GDNF. These results are important because castrated young male mice may be used as a simple, toxin-free, and nontransgenic animal model to study PD-related nigrostriatal pathologies, paving the way for easy drug screening against PD.

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Oleszak, E L; Katsetos, C D; Kuzmak, J; Varadhachary, A

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of susceptible (SJL) and resistant (C57BL/6 [B6]) strains of mice. TMEV is an excellent model of virus-induced demyelinating disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies of others have suggested that NO may play a role in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease. The presence and level of iNOS were determined in the brains and spinal cords of SJL and B6 TMEV-infected mice by the following methods: (i) PCR amplification of iNOS transcripts, followed by Southern blotting with an iNOS-specific probe, and (ii) immunohistochemical staining with an anti-iNOS-specific affinity-purified rabbit antibody. iNOS-specific transcripts were determined in the brains and spinal cord of both SJL and B6 TMEV-infected mice on days 0 (control), days 3, 6, and 10 (encephalitic stage of disease), and days 39 to 42, 66, and 180 (demyelinating phase) postinfection (p.i.). iNOS-specific transcripts were found in the brains and spinal cords of both SJL and B6 TMEV-infected mice at 6, 10, and 39 (SJL) days p.i., but they were absent in mock-infected mice and in TMEV-infected SJL and B6 mice at 0, 3, 66, and 180 days p.i. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of iNOS protein in both TMEV-infected SJL and B6 mice at days 6 and 10 p.i., but not at days 0, 3, 66, and 180 days p.i. Weak iNOS staining was also observed in TMEV-infected SJL mice at 42 days p.i. iNOS-positive staining was found in reactive astrocytes surrounding areas of necrotizing inflammation, particularly in the midbrain. Weak iNOS staining was also observed in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in areas of parenchymal inflammation and necrosis (mesencephalon) and in leptomeningeal and white matter perivascular infiltrates of the spinal cord. Rod-shaped microglia-like cells and foamy macrophages (myelin-laden) were iNOS negative. These results suggest that NO does not

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase haplotype associated with migraine and aura.

    PubMed

    de O S Mansur, Thiago; Gonçalves, Flavia M; Martins-Oliveira, Alisson; Speciali, Jose G; Dach, Fabiola; Lacchini, Riccardo; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-05-01

    Migraine is a complex neurological disorder with a clear neurogenic inflammatory component apparently including enhanced nitric oxide (NO) formation. Excessive NO amounts possibly contributing to migraine are derived from increased expression and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). We tested the hypothesis that two functional, clinically relevant iNOS genetic polymorphisms (C(-1026)A-rs2779249 and G2087A-rs2297518) are associated with migraine with or without aura. We studied 142 healthy women without migraine (control group) and 200 women with migraine divided into two groups: 148 with migraine without aura (MWA) and 52 with aura (MA). Genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using the Taqman(®) allele discrimination assays. The PHASE 2.1 software was used to estimate the haplotypes. The A allele for the G2087A polymorphism was more commonly found in the MA group than in the MWA group (28 vs. 18%; P < 0.05). No other significant differences in the alleles or genotypes distributions were found (P > 0.05). The haplotype combining both A alleles for the two polymorphisms was more commonly found in the MA group than in the control group or in the MWA group (19 vs. 10 or 8%; P = 0.0245 or 0.0027, respectively). Our findings indicate that the G2087A and the C(-1026)A polymorphism in the iNOS gene affect the susceptibility to migraine with aura when their effects are combined within haplotypes, whereas the G2087A affects the susceptibility to aura in migraine patients. These finding may have therapeutic implications when examining the effects of selective iNOS inhibitors.

  17. PKCη promotes senescence induced by oxidative stress and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zurgil, U; Ben-Ari, A; Atias, K; Isakov, N; Apte, R; Livneh, E

    2014-01-01

    Senescence is characterized by permanent cell-cycle arrest despite continued viability and metabolic activity, in conjunction with the secretion of a complex mixture of extracellular proteins and soluble factors known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Cellular senescence has been shown to prevent the proliferation of potentially tumorigenic cells, and is thus generally considered a tumor suppressive process. However, some SASP components may act as pro-tumorigenic mediators on premalignant cells in the microenvironment. A limited number of studies indicated that protein kinase C (PKC) has a role in senescence, with different isoforms having opposing effects. It is therefore important to elucidate the functional role of specific PKCs in senescence. Here we show that PKCη, an epithelial specific and anti-apoptotic kinase, promotes senescence induced by oxidative stress and DNA damage. We further demonstrate that PKCη promotes senescence through its ability to upregulate the expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 and enhance transcription and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Moreover, we demonstrate that PKCη creates a positive loop for reinforcing senescence by increasing the transcription of both IL-6 and IL-6 receptor, whereas the expression of IL-8 is specifically suppressed by PKCη. Thus, the presence/absence of PKCη modulates major components of SASP. Furthermore, we show that the human polymorphic variant of PKCη, 374I, that exhibits higher kinase activity in comparison to WT-374V, is also more effective in IL-6 secretion, p21Cip1 expression and the promotion of senescence, further supporting a role for PKCη in senescence. As there is now considerable interest in senescence activation/elimination to control tumor progression, it is first crucial to reveal the molecular regulators of senescence. This will improve our ability to develop new strategies to harness senescence as a potential cancer therapy in the

  18. DISSECTING STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC EFFECTS IN INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Page, Richard C.; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Bolisetty, Karthik; Yu, Zhihao; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are haem-thiolate enzymes that catalyse the conversion of L-Arginine (LArg) into NO and citrulline. Inducible NOS (iNOS) is responsible for delivery of NO in response to stressors during inflammation. The catalytic performance of iNOS is proposed to rely mainly on the haem midpoint potential and the ability of the substrate L-Arg to provide an H-bond for oxygen activation (O-O scission). We present a comparative study of native iNOS versus iNOS-mesohaem, and investigate the formation of a low-spin ferric haem-aquo or -hydroxo species (P) in iNOS mutant W188H substituted with mesohaem. iNOS-mesohaem and W188H-mesohaem were stable and dimeric, and presented substrate-binding affinities comparable to their native counterparts. Single turnover reactions catalysed by iNOSoxy with LArg (first reaction step) or N-hydroxyarginine (second reaction step) showed that mesohaem substitution triggered faster rates of FeIIO2 conversion and altered other key kinetic parameters. We elucidated the first crystal structure of a NOS substituted with mesohaem and found essentially identical features compared to the structure of iNOS carrying native haem. This facilitated the dissection of structural and electronic effects. Mesohaem substitution substantially reduced the build-up of species P in W188H iNOS during catalysis, thus increasing its proficiency toward NO synthesis. The marked structural similarities of iNOSoxy containing native haem or mesohaem indicate that the kinetic behaviour observed in mesohaem-substituted iNOS is most heavily influenced by electronic effects rather than structural alterations. PMID:25608846

  19. Cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment ameliorates peritonitis-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Asano, Shinichi; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Manne, Nandini D P K; Maheshwari, Mani; Ma, Bing; Rice, Kevin M; Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Blough, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv), sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg) directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased sepsis-associated impairments in diaphragmatic contractile (P(o)) function (sham: 25.6±1.6 N/cm(2) vs CeO2: 23.4±0.8 N/cm(2) vs Sep: 15.9±1.0 N/cm(2) vs Sep+CeO2: 20.0±1.0 N/cm(2), P<0.05). These improvements in diaphragm contractile function were accompanied by a normalization of protein translation signaling (Akt, FOXO-1, and 4EBP1), diminished proteolysis (caspase 8 and ubiquitin levels), and decreased inflammatory signaling (Stat3 and iNOS). Histological analysis suggested that nanoparticle treatment was associated with diminished sarcolemma damage and diminished inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate CeO2 nanoparticles may improve diaphragmatic function in the septic laboratory rat.

  20. Resveratrol-loaded Nanoparticles Induce Antioxidant Activity against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jo, Chan-Mi; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549) against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value) compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds. PMID:26732454

  1. Protective effects of berberine against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced cytotoxicity on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chang, Horng-Rong; Lin, Teseng-His; Chen, Pei-Ni; Chu, Shu-Chen

    2007-12-12

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to have a central role in the pathogenesis of atherogenesis. Berberine, a natural constituent of plants of the genera Coptis and Berberis, has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biological effects. However, its protective effects on LDL oxidation and endothelial injury induced by oxLDL remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative activity of berberine and how berberine rescues human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-mediated dysfunction. The antioxidative activity of berberine was defined by the relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL, fragmentation of ApoB, and malondialdehyde production via the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL. Berberine also inhibited the generation of ROS and the subsequent mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, chromosome condensation, cytochrome C release, and caspase-3 activation induced by oxLDL in HUVECs. Our results suggest that berberine may protect LDL oxidation and prevent oxLDL-induced cellular dysfunction.

  2. H2S Protects Against Methionine–Induced Oxidative Stress in Brain Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Neetu; Moshal, Karni S.; Sen, Utpal; Vacek, Thomas P.; Kumar, Munish; Hughes, William M.; Kundu, Soumi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Homocysteine (Hcy) causes cerebrovascular dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress. However, to date, there are no strategies to prevent Hcy-induced oxidative damage. Hcy is an H2S precursor formed from methionine (Met) metabolism. We aimed to investigate whether H2S ameliorated Met-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to Met treatment in the presence or absence of NaHS (donor of H2S). Met-induced cell toxicity increased the levels of free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Met increased NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression and mitigated thioredxion-1(Trx-1) expression. Pretreatment of bEnd3 with NaHS (0.05 mM) attenuated the production of free radicals in the presence of Met and protected the cells from oxidative damage. Furthermore, NaHS enhanced inhibitory effects of apocynin, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on ROS production and redox enzymes levels induced by Met. In conclusion, the administration of H2S protected the cells from oxidative stress induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which suggested that NaHS/H2S may have therapeutic potential against Met-induced oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 25–33. PMID:18837652

  3. H2S protects against methionine-induced oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neetu; Moshal, Karni S; Sen, Utpal; Vacek, Thomas P; Kumar, Munish; Hughes, William M; Kundu, Soumi; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2009-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) causes cerebrovascular dysfunction by inducing oxidative stress. However, to date, there are no strategies to prevent Hcy-induced oxidative damage. Hcy is an H2S precursor formed from methionine (Met) metabolism. We aimed to investigate whether H2S ameliorated Met-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3). The bEnd3 cells were exposed to Met treatment in the presence or absence of NaHS (donor of H2S). Met-induced cell toxicity increased the levels of free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Met increased NADPH-oxidase-4 (NOX-4) expression and mitigated thioredxion-1(Trx-1) expression. Pretreatment of bEnd3 with NaHS (0.05 mM) attenuated the production of free radicals in the presence of Met and protected the cells from oxidative damage. Furthermore, NaHS enhanced inhibitory effects of apocynin, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on ROS production and redox enzymes levels induced by Met. In conclusion, the administration of H2S protected the cells from oxidative stress induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), which suggested that NaHS/H2S may have therapeutic potential against Met-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Cadmium-Induced Pathologies: Where Is the Oxidative Balance Lost (or Not)?

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ambily Ravindran; DeGheselle, Olivier; Smeets, Karen; Van Kerkhove, Emmy; Cuypers, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, anthropogenic factors have led to cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the environment causing various health problems in humans. Although Cd is not a Fenton-like metal, it induces oxidative stress in various animal models via indirect mechanisms. The degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress depends on the dose, duration and frequency of Cd exposure. Also the presence or absence of serum in experimental conditions, type of cells and their antioxidant capacity, as well as the speciation of Cd are important determinants. At the cellular level, the Cd-induced oxidative stress either leads to oxidative damage or activates signal transduction pathways to initiate defence responses. This balance is important on how different organ systems respond to Cd stress and ultimately define the pathological outcome. In this review, we highlight the Cd-induced oxidant/antioxidant status as well as the damage versus signalling scenario in relation to Cd toxicity. Emphasis is addressed to Cd-induced pathologies of major target organs, including a section on cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, attention is paid to Cd-induced oxidative stress in undifferentiated stem cells, which can provide information for future therapies in preventing Cd-induced pathologies. PMID:23507750

  5. Red blood cells protect albumin from cigarette smoke-induced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Graziano; Rossi, Ranieri; Gagliano, Nicoletta; Portinaro, Nicola; Clerici, Marco; Annibal, Andrea; Giustarini, Daniela; Colombo, Roberto; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Different studies reported the presence of oxidized (carbonylated) albumin in the extravascular pool, but not in the intravascular one of cigarette smokers. In this study we attempted to explain this apparent discrepancy exposing human serum albumin (HSA) to aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE). CSE induces HSA carbonylation and oxidation of the HSA Cys34 sulfhydryl group. An antioxidant action of glutathione, cysteine, and its synthetic derivative N-acetylcysteine was observed only at supra-physiological concentrations, suggesting that physiological (plasma) concentrations of glutathione and cysteine in the low micromolar range are ineffective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced oxidation of HSA. Differently, human erythrocytes resulted to be protective towards CSE-induced oxidation (carbonylation and thiol oxidation) of both HSA and total human plasma proteins.

  6. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, N.B.R.; Rangel, M.P.; Martins, V.; Hage, M.; Gelain, D.P.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Grisolia, C.K.; Parra, E.R.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26200231

  7. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  8. Ubiquinone-1 Induces External Deamino-NADH Oxidation in Potato Tuber Mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Moller, I. M.; Roberts, T. H.; Rasmusson, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    The addition of ubiquinone-1 (UQ-1) induced Ca2+-independent oxidation of deamino-NADH and NADH by intact potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Bintje) tuber mitochondria. The induced oxidation was coupled to the generation of a membrane potential. Measurements of NAD+-malate dehydrogenase activity indicated that the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to NADH and deamino-NADH was not altered by the addition of UQ-1. We conclude that UQ-1-induced external deamino-NADH oxidation is due to a change in specificity of the external rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase. The addition of UQ-1 also induced rotenone-insensitive oxidation of deamino-NADH by inside-out submitochondrial particles, but whether this was due to a change in the specificity of the internal rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenase or to a bypass in complex I could not be determined. PMID:12226375

  9. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  10. NRF2 Oxidative Stress Induced by Heavy Metals is Cell Type Dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to metallic environmental toxicants has been demonstrated to induce a variety of oxidative stress responses in mammalian cells. The transcription factor Nrf2 is activated in response to oxidative stress and coordinates the expression of antioxidant gene products. In this...

  11. NRF2 Oxidative Stress Induced by Heavy Metals is Cell Type Dependent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to metallic environmental toxicants has been demonstrated to induce a variety of oxidative stress responses in mammalian cells. The transcription factor Nrf2 is activated in response to oxidative stress and coordinates the expression of antioxidant gene products. In this...

  12. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (p<0.001) brain- reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) significantly increased (p<0.001) the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide and the activity of cytokines in the brain. MEAR supplementation resulted in normalization of brain GSH and CAT and SOD and decreases in the levels of MDA with reduction of nitric oxide and cytokines in the brain. The action of the extract at dose of 200 mg/kg was almost similar to the standard drug, quercetin (100mg/kg, p.o.). These present study conclude that MEAR administration significantly (P<0.05) reduced LPS- induced oxidative-stress and intensely suggest that Asparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  13. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  14. Dysregulated autophagy increased melanocyte sensitivity to H2O2-induced oxidative stress in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuanmin; Li, Shuli; Zhang, Weigang; Dai, Wei; Cui, Tingting; Wang, Gang; Gao, Tianwen; Li, Chunying

    2017-01-01

    In vitiligo, melanocytes are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress owing to the pro-oxidant state generated during melanin synthesis and to the genetic antioxidant defects. Autophagy is a controlled self-digestion process which can protect cells against oxidative damage. However, the exact role of autophagy in vitiligo melanocytes in response to oxidative stress and the mechanism involved are still not clear. To determine the implications of autophagy for melanocyte survival in response to oxidative stress, we first detected the autophagic flux in normal melanocytes exposure to H2O2, and found that autophagy was significantly enhanced in normal melanocytes, for protecting cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage. Nevertheless, vitiligo melanocytes exhibited dysregulated autophagy and hypersensitivity to H2O2-induced oxidative injury. In addition, we confirmed that the impairment of Nrf2-p62 pathway is responsible for the defects of autophagy in vitiligo melanocytes. Noteworthily, upregulation of the Nrf2-p62 pathway or p62 reduced H2O2-induced oxidative damage of vitiligo melanocytes. Therefore, our data demonstrated that dysregulated autophagy owing to the impairment of Nrf2-p62 pathway increase the sensitivity of vitiligo melanocytes to oxidative stress, thus promote the development of vitiligo. Upregulation of p62-dependent autophagy may be applied to vitiligo treatment in the future. PMID:28186139

  15. [A experiment research of beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP in rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Qingfeng; Wang, Yao; Wei, Conghui; Yan, Qing; Gong, Aihong; Guo, Xiong

    2015-07-01

    To explore beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP. Intoxication of animals were induced by once intratracheal injection and LBP intervention by intragastric administration. The content of HIF-1, VEGF and HO-1 of lung tissues were measured by kits. The pathological changes of lung tissue were showed by pathological section. The changes of lung ultrastructure were observed by electron microscope. Pathological changes of the lung tissue in beryllium oxide exposure group rats were in line with the characteristics of beryllium disease in human. Compared with the control group, HO-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 40 d group and low doses of LBP group, compared with the control group, HO-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 80d group and LBP treatment groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, HIF-1 was increased in beryllium oxide exposure 40 d group, LBP treatment groups, beryllium oxide exposure 60 d and 80 d groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, VEGF was increased of all phases, especially in beryllium oxide exposure 40d and 80 groups, LBP treatment groups and beryllium oxide exposure 60 d (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The content of HO-1 of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than the LBP treatment for 40d group but below LBP treatment for 80 d group (P < 0.05). The content of HIF1 of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than high dose of LBP treatment for 60d group and LBP treatment for 80 d group (P < 0.01). The content of VEGF of beryllium oxide exposure group was higher than LBP treatment for 40 d group and high dose of LBP treatment for 60 d (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). BeO can cause abnormal expression of related genes of lung tissue in rats, LBP has protective effects on BeO caused lung injury.

  16. S-Nitrosation and regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Douglas A; Erwin, Phillip A; Michel, Thomas; Marletta, Michael A

    2005-03-29

    The inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and three zinc tetrathiolate mutants (C104A, C109A, and C104A/C109A) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The mutants were found by ICP-AES and the zinc-specific PAR colorimetric assay to be zinc free, whereas the wild-type iNOS zinc content was 0.38 +/- 0.01 mol of Zn/mol of iNOS dimer. The cysteine mutants (C104A and C109A) had an activity within error of wild-type iNOS (2.24 +/- 0.12 micromol of NO min(-1) mg(-1)), but the double cysteine mutant had a modestly decreased activity (1.75 +/- 0.14 micromol of NO min(-1) mg(-1)). To determine if NO could stimulate release of zinc and dimer dissociation, wild-type protein was allowed to react with an NO donor, DEA/NO, followed by buffer exchange. ICP-AES of samples treated with 10 microM DEA/NO showed a decrease in zinc content (0.23 +/- 0.01 to 0.09 +/- 0.01 mol of Zn/mol of iNOS dimer) with no loss of heme iron. Gel filtration of wild-type iNOS treated similarly resulted in approximately 20% more monomeric iNOS compared to a DEA-treated sample. Only wild-type iNOS had decreased activity (42 +/- 2%) after reaction with 50 microM DEA/NO compared to a control sample. Using the biotin switch method under the same conditions, only wild-type iNOS had increased levels of S-biotinylation. S-Biotinylation was mapped to C104 and C109 on wild-type iNOS using LysC digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Immunoprecipitation of iNOS from the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW-264.7, and the biotin switch method were used to confirm endogenous S-nitrosation of iNOS. The data show that S-nitrosation of the zinc tetrathiolate cysteine results in zinc release from the dimer interface and formation of inactive monomers, suggesting that this mode of inhibition might occur in vivo.

  17. Moderate treadmill exercise prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Salim, Samina; Sarraj, Nada; Taneja, Manish; Saha, Kaustuv; Tejada-Simon, Maria Victoria; Chugh, Gaurav

    2010-04-02

    Recent work has suggested correlation of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior. There also is evidence for anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. However, a direct role of oxidative stress in anxiety is not clear and a protective role of physical exercise in oxidative stress-mediated anxiety has never been addressed. In this study, we have utilized rats to test direct involvement of oxidative stress with anxiety-like behavior and have identified oxidative stress mechanisms likely involved in anxiolytic effects of physical exercise. Intraperitoneal injections at non-toxic dose of l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an agent that increases oxidative stress markers, increased anxiety-like behavior of rats compared to vehicle-treated control rats. Prior 2 weeks treatment with the antioxidant, tempol attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats suggesting a role of oxidative stress in this phenomenon. Moreover, moderate treadmill exercise prevented BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior of rats and also prevented BSO-mediated increase in oxidative stress markers in serum, urine and brain tissue homogenates from hippocampus, amygdala and locus coeruleus. Thus increasing oxidative stress increases anxiety-like behavior of rats. Moreover, antioxidant or treadmill exercise training both reduce oxidative stress in the rat brain regions implicated in anxiety response and prevent anxiety-like behavior of rats.

  18. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  19. Taurine chloramine-induced inactivation of cofilin protein through methionine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shen; Uehara, Hiroshi; Shacter, Emily

    2014-10-01

    Cofilin regulates reorganization of actin filaments (F-actin) in eukaryotes. A recent finding has demonstrated that oxidation of cofilin by taurine chloramine (TnCl), a physiological oxidant derived from neutrophils, causes cofilin to translocate to the mitochondria inducing apoptosis (F. Klamt et al. Nat. Cell Biol.11:1241-1246; 2009). Here we investigated the effect of TnCl on biological activities of cofilin in vitro. Our data show that TnCl-induced oxidation of recombinant human cofilin-1 inhibits its F-actin-binding and depolymerization activities. Native cofilin contains four free Cys and three Met residues. Incubation of oxidized cofilin with DTT does not lead to its reactivation. A double Cys to Ala mutation on the two C-terminal Cys shows similar biological activities as the wild type, but does not prevent the TnCl-induced inactivation. In contrast, incubation of oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases results in its reactivation. Phosphorylation is known to inhibit cofilin activities. We found that Met oxidation also prevents phosphorylation of cofilin, which is reversed by incubating oxidized cofilin with methionine sulfoxide reductases. Interestingly, intact protein mass spectrometry of the oxidized mutant indicated one major oxidation product with an additional mass of 16 Da, consistent with oxidation of one specific Met residue. This residue was identified as Met-115 by peptide mapping and tandem mass spectrometry. It is adjacent to Lys-114, a known residue on globular-actin-binding site, implying that oxidation of Met-115 disrupts the globular-actin-binding site of cofilin, which causes TnCl-induced inactivation. The findings identify Met-115 as a redox switch on cofilin that regulates its biological activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-06-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  1. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY PROJECT BULLETIN: LASER INDUCED PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The process developed by Energy and Environmental Engineering, Incorporated, is designed to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an Excimer laser. The photochemical reactor can destroy low to moderate concentrations...

  2. Initial oxidation of brass induced by humidified air

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ping; Leygraf, Christofer

    2011-01-01

    Complementary surface and near-surface analytical techniques have been used to explore a brass (Cu–20Zn) surface before, during, and after exposure in air at 90% relative humidity. Volta potential variations along the unexposed surface are attributed to variations in surface composition and resulted in an accelerated localized growth of ZnO and a retarded more uniform growth of an amorphous Cu2O-like oxide. After 3 days the duplex oxide has a total mass of 1.3 μg/cm2, with improved corrosion protective properties compared to the oxides grown on pure Cu or Zn. A schematic model for the duplex oxide growth on brass is presented. PMID:23471205

  3. Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Myoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS. PMID:25230212

  4. Cordyceps militaris extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Myoung; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Ki Rim; Ha, Suk-Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-09-16

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the major cause of degenerative disorders including aging and disease. In this study, we investigated whether Cordyceps militaris extract (CME) has in vitro protective effects on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Our results showed that the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of CME was increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hydrogen peroxide treatment in HDFs increased ROS generation and cell death as compared with the control. However, CME improved the survival of HDFs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress via inhibition of intracellular ROS production. CME treatment inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation in HDFs. In addition, CME prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced SA-β-gal-positive cells suggesting CME could inhibit oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Therefore, these results suggest that CME might have protective effects against oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via scavenging ROS.

  5. Protective effect of wheat peptides against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hong; Pan, Xingchang; Song, Zhixiu; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Ligang; Sun, Guiju

    2014-01-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that wheat peptides protected rats against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-induced small intestinal epithelial cells damage, but the mechanism of action is unclear. In the present study, an indomethacin-induced oxidative stress model was used to investigate the effect of wheat peptides on the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB)-inducible nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide signal pathway in intestinal epithelial cells-6 cells. IEC-6 cells were treated with wheat peptides (0, 125, 500 and 2000 mg/L) for 24 h, followed by 90 mg/L indomethacin for 12 h. Wheat peptides significantly attenuated the indomethacin-induced decrease in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity. Wheat peptides at 2000 mg/L markedly decreased the expression of the NF-κB in response to indomethacin-induced oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that the addition of wheat peptides to a culture medium significantly inhibited the indomethacin-induced release of malondialdehyde and nitrogen monoxide, and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in IEC-6 cells, thereby providing a possible explanation for the protective effect proposed for wheat peptides in the prevention of indomethacin-induced oxidative stress in small intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Vitamin D3 pretreatment alleviates renal oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Xu, De-Xiang; Yu, De-Xin

    2015-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that reactive oxygen species plays important roles in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. This study investigated the effects of VitD3 pretreatment on renal oxidative stress in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2.0mg/kg) to establish an animal model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. In VitD3+LPS group, mice were orally pretreated with three doses of VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 1, 24 and 48 h before LPS injection. As expected, oral pretreatment with three daily recommended doses of VitD3 markedly elevated serum 25(OH)D concentration and efficiently activated renal VDR signaling. Interestingly, LPS-induced renal GSH depletion and lipid peroxidation were markedly alleviated in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced serum and renal nitric oxide (NO) production was obviously suppressed by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced renal protein nitration, as determined by 3-nitrotyrosine residue, was obviously attenuated by VitD3 pretreatment. Further analysis showed that LPS-induced up-regulation of renal inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) was repressed in VitD3-pretreated mice. LPS-induced up-regulation of renal p47phox and gp91phox, two NADPH oxidase subunits, were normalized by VitD3 pretreatment. In addition, LPS-induced down-regulation of renal superoxide dismutase (sod) 1 and sod2, two antioxidant enzyme genes, was reversed in VitD3-pretreated mice. Finally, LPS-induced tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL, was alleviated by VitD3 pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that VitD3 pretreatment alleviates LPS-induced renal oxidative stress through regulating oxidant and antioxidant enzyme genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualization of Oxidative Stress Induced by Experimental Periodontitis in Keap1-Dependent Oxidative Stress Detector-Luciferase Mice.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kota; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-11-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Keap1-dependent oxidative stress detector-luciferase (OKD-LUC) mouse model would be useful for the visualization of oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis. A ligature was placed around the mandibular first molars for seven days to induce periodontitis. Luciferase activity was measured with an intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin on days 0, 1, and 7. The luciferase activity in the periodontitis group was significantly greater than that in the control group at seven days. The expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and malondialdehyde in periodontal tissue were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the control group. Immunofluorescent analysis confirmed that the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) occurred more frequently in the periodontitis group than in the control group. This study found that under oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis, the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway was activated and could be visualized from the luciferase activity in the OKD-LUC model. Thus, the OKD-LUC mouse model may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying the relationship between the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway and periodontitis by enabling the visualization of oxidative stress over time.

  8. Visualization of Oxidative Stress Induced by Experimental Periodontitis in Keap1-Dependent Oxidative Stress Detector-Luciferase Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kota; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Keap1-dependent oxidative stress detector-luciferase (OKD-LUC) mouse model would be useful for the visualization of oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis. A ligature was placed around the mandibular first molars for seven days to induce periodontitis. Luciferase activity was measured with an intraperitoneal injection of d-luciferin on days 0, 1, and 7. The luciferase activity in the periodontitis group was significantly greater than that in the control group at seven days. The expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and malondialdehyde in periodontal tissue were significantly higher in the periodontitis group than in the control group. Immunofluorescent analysis confirmed that the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) occurred more frequently in the periodontitis group than in the control group. This study found that under oxidative stress induced by experimental periodontitis, the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway was activated and could be visualized from the luciferase activity in the OKD-LUC model. Thus, the OKD-LUC mouse model may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying the relationship between the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathway and periodontitis by enabling the visualization of oxidative stress over time. PMID:27854327

  9. [Biological consequences of oxidative stress induced by pesticides].

    PubMed

    Grosicka-Maciąg, Emilia

    2011-06-17

    Pesticides are used to protect plants and numerous plant products. They are also utilized in several industrial branches. These compounds are highly toxic to living organisms. In spite of close supervision in the use of pesticides there is a serious risk that these agents are able to spread into the environment and contaminate water, soil, food, and feedstuffs. Recently, more and more studies have been focused on understanding the toxic mechanisms of pesticide actions. The data indicate that the toxic action of pesticides may include the induction of oxidative stress and accumulation of free radicals in the cell. Long-lasting or acute oxidative stress disturbs cell metabolism and is able to produce permanent changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The proteins that are oxidized may lose or enhance their activity. Moreover, the proteins oxidized are able to form aggregates that inhibit the systems responsible for protein degradation and lead to alterations of proteins in the cell. Once oxidized, lipids have the capacity to damage and depolarize cytoplasmic membranes. Free oxygen radicals are harmful to DNA including damage to single nitric bases, DNA strand breaks and adduct production. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress may accelerate development of numerous diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and may also be responsible for infertility.

  10. Plasma levels of oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP) in rats subjected to physicochemical oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Yao, Takako; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Seko, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various disorders including atherosclerosis, aging and especially ischaemia/reperfusion injury. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis. However, the precise mechanism has been uncertain. Recently, we identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in a hypoxia/reoxygenated medium of cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally modified secreted form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) as oxidative stress-responsive apoptosis inducing protein (ORAIP). We developed a sandwich ELISA and confirmed that myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma levels of ORAIP. To investigate whether the role of ORAIP is common to various types of oxidative stress, we measured plasma ORAIP levels in rats subjected to three physicochemical models of oxidative stress including N2/O2 inhalation, cold/warm-stress (heat shock) and blood acidification. In all three models, plasma ORAIP levels significantly increased and reached a peak level at 10-30 min after stimulation, then decreased within 60 min. The (mean±S.E.M.) plasma ORAIP levels before and after (peak) stimulation were (16.4±9.6) and (55.2±34.2) ng/ml in N2/O2 inhalation, (14.1±12.4) and (34.3±14.6) ng/ml in cold/warm-stress, and (18.9±14.3) and (134.0±67.2) ng/ml in blood acidification study. These data strongly suggest that secretion of ORAIP in response to oxidative stress is universal mechanism and plays an essential role. ORAIP will be an important novel biomarker as well as a specific therapeutic target of these oxidative stress-induced cell injuries. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Aminoguanidine inhibits reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, and oxidant-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Giardino, I; Fard, A K; Hatchell, D L; Brownlee, M

    1998-07-01

    Aminoguanidine (AG) treatment, like nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment, prevents diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal Müller cells in the rat eye, but the mechanism involved is unknown. In this study, the effects of preincubation with AG on oxidant-induced apoptosis, oxidant-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation were determined in rat retinal Müller cells and compared with the effects of NGF, a protein that protects neuronal cells from oxidative stress. The effect of AG on rabbit vitreous lipid peroxide levels was also determined. After exposure to increasing concentrations of H2O2, there was a corresponding increase in the percentage of apoptotic Müller cells. Preincubation with AG for 48 h completely inhibited oxidant-induced apoptosis in response to 10 micromol/l H2O2 (+AG 0 vs. 10 micromol/l, NS), and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells in response to 50 micromol/l H2O2 by 50% (+AG vs. -AG, P < 0.01). Longer preincubation did not increase the antiapoptotic effect of AG. The effect of AG was dose-dependent. Similar results were obtained after preincubation with NGF. Both AG and NGF preincubation prevented the twofold increase in oxidant-induced lipid peroxides. The fivefold increase in oxidant-induced ROS production was decreased 100% by NGF, but only 61% by AG preincubation. The twofold increase in vitreous lipid peroxide level in diabetic rabbits was completely prevented by AG treatment. AG reduced H2O2-induced benzoate hydroxylation in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular glutathione content was unchanged. These data demonstrate that AG can act as an antioxidant in vivo, quenching hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxidation in cells and tissues and preventing oxidant-induced apoptosis.

  12. Carvedilol inhibits pressure-induced increase in oxidative stress in coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2002-05-01

    The cellular mechanisms by which hypertension enhances atherosclerosis are still not known in detail. Recently, evidence has been obtained that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pressure-induced atherosclerosis. We examined the effects of pressure on oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Application of increased pressure (+100 mmHg) with He gas for 48 h increased oxidative stress of measured by flow cytometry by 71% and F2-isopretane by 77%. Increased pressure also increased the activities of phospholipase D (PLD), and particulate protein kinase C (PKC). The PLD inhibitor suramin 100 micromol/l, 1-butanol 40 mmol/l, and the PKC inhibitors chelerythrine 1 micromol/l and calphostin C 100 nmol/l and completely blocked the increase in oxidative stress induced by pressure. Carvedilol 1 micromol/l but not propranolol 1 micromol/l blocked pressure-induced increases in oxidative stress in cultured SMCs. These findings suggest that pressure increases oxidative stress and that carvedilol significantly inhibits pressure-induced increase in oxidative stress in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells.

  13. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 inhibits the monocyte transmigration induced by mildly oxidized LDL.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K; Navab, M; Leitinger, N; Fogelman, A M; Lusis, A J

    1997-09-01

    Heme catabolic processes produce the antioxidants biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as the potent prooxidant free iron. Since these products have opposing effects on oxidative stress, it is not clear whether heme catabolism promotes or inhibits inflammatory processes, including atherosclerotic lesion formation. Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of heme catabolism. We used cocultures of human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to examine the possible role of HO in early atherosclerosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isoform of HO, was highly induced by mildly oxidized LDL, and augmented induction was observed with hemin pretreatment. This augmented HO-1 induction resulted in the reduction of monocyte chemotaxis in response to LDL oxidation. Conversely, inhibition of HO by a specific inhibitor, Sn-protoporphyrin IX, enhanced chemotaxis. Furthermore, pretreatment with biliverdin or bilirubin, the products of HO, reduced chemotaxis. Oxidized phospholipids in the mildly oxidized LDL appear to be responsible for HO-1 induction, since oxidized but not native arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids also induced HO-1. These results suggest that HO-1 induced by mildly oxidized LDL may protect against the induction of inflammatory responses in artery wall cells through the production of the antioxidants biliverdin and bilirubin.

  14. Mechanism for the Protective Effect of Resveratrol against Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Death

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Masayuki; Choi, Hye Joung; Zhu, Bao Ting

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress can induce cytotoxicity in neurons, which plays an important role in the etiology of neuronal damage and degeneration. The present study seeks to determine the cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying resveratrol’s protective effect against oxidative neuronal death. The cultured HT22 cells, an immortalized mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line, were used as an in vitro model, and the oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in these neuronal cells were induced by exposure to high concentrations of glutamate. Resveratrol strongly protected HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative cell death. Resveratrol’s neuroprotective effect was independent of its direct radical-scavenging property, but instead was dependent on its ability to selectively induce the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and subsequently, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage. The induction of the mitochondrial SOD2 by resveratrol was mediated through the activation of the PI3K/Akt and GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathways. Taken together, the results of this study show that up-regulation of the mitochondrial SOD2 by resveratrol represents an important mechanism for its protection of neuronal cells against oxidative cytotoxicity resulting form mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:20542495

  15. Angiotensin II induces the aggregation of native and oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Ueda, Chiemi; Kimura, Ryu; Kobayashi, Chisato; Yamazaki, Yoji; Ebina, Keiichi

    2017-04-11

    Modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), such as oxidation and aggregation, and angiotensin (Ang) peptides are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the relationship between one of the Ang peptides, AngII, and two LDL modifications, oxidation and aggregation. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and aggregation assays, we noted that AngII markedly induced the aggregation of LDL and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), and bound to both the aggregated and non-aggregated forms. In contrast, a peptide (AngIII) formed by deletion of N-terminal Asp of AngII induced the aggregation of Ox-LDL but not LDL. From tyrosine fluorescence measurements, we noted that AngII interacted with two major lipid components in LDL and Ox-LDL, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and oxidized PC, while AngIII interacted with oxidized PC, but not with PC and lysophosphatidylcholine. Moreover, results from thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay proved that AngII did not induce oxidation of LDL. These results suggest that AngII can be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by binding to LDL and Ox-LDL-especially to the major lipid components, PC and oxidized PC-followed by inducing the aggregation of LDL and Ox-LDL and that the N-terminal Asp of AngII is important for the binding and aggregation specificity of LDL and Ox-LDL.

  16. Ethanol and nitrous oxide produce withdrawal-induced convulsions by similar mechanisms in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Belknap, J.K.; Laursen, S.E.; Crabbe, J.C.

    1987-10-26

    Twenty generations of selective breeding were used to produce lines (strains) of mice which differ markedly from one another in ethanol physical dependence development as indexed by handling-induced convulsions (HIC) induced by withdrawal from ethanol. These withdrawal seizure prone (WSP) and withdrawal seizure resistant (WSR) selection lines now differ by over 10-fold in HIC scores after equivalent exposure to intoxicating levels of ethanol via inhalation. Since handling-induced convulsions can be readily elicited following withdrawal from nitrous oxide, the authors sought to determine if the very large differences in ethanol withdrawal-induced HIC bred into these selection lines would generalize to nitrous oxide. Following a 60 min exposure to 75% nitrous oxide (in O/sub 2/), a greater than 10-fold difference in HIC scores, and a 2-fold difference in tremor incidence was seen upon withdrawal in WSP vs. WSR mice. These finding closely parallel those seen with ethanol, and demonstrate that a large degree of commonality exists in the genes and the mechanisms determining these withdrawal signs. HIC elicited by nitrous oxide withdrawal were readily suppressed by ethanol, and HIC elicited by ethanol withdrawal were promptly suppressed by 75% nitrous oxide in WSP mice. Nitrous oxide also suppressed HIC and tremor associated with nitrous oxide withdrawal. 19 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Visible light-induced photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide by tungsten oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choobtashani, M.; Akhavan, O.

    2013-07-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films (deposited by thermal evaporation or sol gel method) were used for photocatalytic reduction of graphene oxide (GO) platelets (synthesized through a chemical exfoliation method) on surface of the films under UV or visible light of the environment, in the absence of any aqueous ambient at room temperature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was employed to characterize surface morphology of the GO sheets and the tungsten oxide films. Moreover, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical state of the tungsten oxide films and the photocatalytic reduction of the GO platelets were quantitatively investigated. The better performance of the sol-gel tungsten oxide films in photocatalytic reduction of GO platelets as compared to the evaporated tungsten oxide films was assigned to lower W5+/W6+ ratio (i.e., a better stoichiometry) and higher surface water content of the sol-gel film. The GO reduction level achieved after 24 h UV-assisted photocatalytic reduction on surface of the sol-gel tungsten oxide film was comparable with the reduction level usually obtainable by hydrazine. The sol-gel tungsten oxide film even showed an efficient photocatalytic reduction of the GO platelets after exposure to the visible light of the environment for 2 days.

  18. Anomalous effect of trench-oxide depth on alpha-particle-induced charge collection

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.; Kim, N.M.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of trench-oxide depth on the alpha-particle-induced charge collection is analyzed for the first time. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of trench oxide has a considerable influence on the amount of collected charge. The confining of generated charge by the trench oxide was identified as a cause of this anomalous effect. Therefore, the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell to cell isolation characteristics should be considered in optimizing the depth of trench oxide.

  19. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhupesh Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  20. Protective effects of propolis on inorganic mercury induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Quan; Wen, Yi-Fei; Bhadauria, Monika; Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Sharma, Abhilasha; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Shukla, Sangeeta; Agrawal, Om Prakash; Mathur, Ramesh

    2009-04-01

    Protective potential of propolis was evaluated against mercury induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic alterations in mice liver. Exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl2; 5 mg/kg; ip) induced oxidative stress by increasing lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level along with concomitant decrease in glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes. Mercury intoxication deviated the activity of liver marker enzymes in serum. Conjoint treatment of propolis (200 mg/kg; po) inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione level, whereas increased glutathione level. Activities of antioxidants enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also restored concomitantly towards control after propolis administration. Release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and y-glutamyl transpeptidase were significantly restored towards control after propolis treatment. Results suggest that propolis augments the antioxidants defense against mercury induced toxicity and provides evidence that it has therapeutic potential as hepatoprotective agent.

  1. Hexyl glucoside and hexyl maltoside inhibit light-induced oxidation of tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Adem, Yilma T; Molina, Patricia; Liu, Hongbin; Patapoff, Thomas W; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Esue, Osigwe

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the photo-protective effect of sugar-based surfactants--hexyl glucoside and hexyl maltoside--against light-induced oxidation of a monoclonal antibody. Reactive oxygen species are generated in solutions in the presence of light; these reactive species readily oxidize amino acids such as tryptophan. Hexyl glucosides and hexyl maltosides scavenge these reactive species and protect tryptophan residues from light-induced oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. As a result of the scavenging process, hydrogen peroxide is formed, especially at high (millimolar) concentrations of the alkyl glycoside surfactants. These results suggest that hexyl glucoside and hexyl maltoside have the potential to protect tryptophan residues against light-induced oxidation.

  2. Oxidative stress contributes to cobalt oxide nanoparticles-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human hepatocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Alarifi, Saud; Ali, Daoud; Y, Al Omar Suliman; Ahamed, Maqusood; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2013-01-01

    Background Cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4NPs) are increasingly recognized for their utility in biological applications, magnetic resonance imaging, and drug delivery. However, little is known about the toxicity of Co3O4NPs in human cells. Methods We investigated the possible mechanisms of genotoxicity induced by Co3O4NPs in human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, apoptosis, and DNA damage were assessed in HepG2 cells after Co3O4NPs and Co2+ exposure. Results Co3O4NPs elicited a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in glutathione with a concomitant increase in lipid hydroperoxide, ROS generation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity after 24- and 48-hour exposure. Co3O4NPs had a mild cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells; however, it induced ROS and oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage, a probable mechanism of genotoxicity. The comet assay showed a statistically significant (P < 0.01) dose- and time-related increase in DNA damage for Co3O4NPs, whereas Co2+ induced less change than Co3O4NPs but significantly more than control. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that Co3O4NPs induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in HepG2 cells through ROS and oxidative stress. PMID:23326189

  3. Cr(OH)₃(s) Oxidation Induced by Surface Catalyzed Mn(II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Namgung, Seonyi; Kwon, M.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Lee, Gie Hyeon

    2014-09-16

    This study examined the feasibility of Cr(OH)₃(s) oxidation mediated by surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation under common groundwater pH conditions as a potential pathway of natural Cr(VI) contaminations. Dissolved Mn(II) (50 μM) was reacted with or without synthesized Cr(OH)₃(s) (1.0 g/L) at pH 7 – 9 under oxic or anoxic conditions. In the absence of Cr(OH)₃(s), homogeneous Mn(II) oxidation by dissolved O₂ was not observed at pH ≤ 8.0 for 50 d. At pH 9.0, by contrast, dissolved Mn(II) was completely removed within 8 d and precipitated as hausmannite. When Cr(OH)₃(s) was present, this solid was oxidized and released substantial amounts of Cr(VI) as dissolved Mn(II) was added into the suspension at pH ≥ 8.0 under oxic conditions. Our results suggest that Cr(OH)₃(s) was readily oxidized by a newly formed Mn oxide as a result of Mn(II) oxidation catalyzed on Cr(OH)₃(s) surface. XANES analysis of the residual solids after the reaction between 1.0 g/L Cr(OH)₃(s) and 204 μM Mn(II) at pH 9.0 for 22 d revealed that the product of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation resembled birnessite. The rate and extent of Cr(OH)₃(s) oxidation was likely controlled by those of surface catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation as the production of Cr(VI) increased with increasing pH and initial Mn(II) concentrations. This study evokes the potential environmental hazard of sparingly soluble Cr(OH)₃(s) that can be a source of Cr(VI) in the presence of dissolved Mn(II).

  4. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  5. Changes in magmatic oxidation state induced by degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brounce, M. N.; Stolper, E. M.; Eiler, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Temporal variations in the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the mantle may have been transmitted to Earth's atmosphere and oceans by volcanic degassing. However, it is unclear how redox states of volatiles relate to their source magmas because degassing and assimilation can impact fO2 before or during eruption. To explore this, we present µ-XANES measurements of the oxidation states of Fe and S and laser fluorination measurements of 18O/16O ratios in submarine glasses from two settings where degassing is recorded: 1) submarine glasses from the Reykjanes Ridge as it shoals to Iceland, including subglacial glasses from the Reykjanes Peninsula; and 2) submarine glasses from Mauna Kea recovered by the Hawaii Shield Drilling Program (HSDP). Glasses from both settings are basalts with 5.5-9.9 wt% MgO and 350-1790 ppm S. Submarine Reykjanes glasses are sulfide saturated. Subglacial Reykjanes and HSDP glasses are not sulfide saturated, and S and H2O contents are consistent with S+H2O degassing. Submarine Reykjanes glasses have 18O/16O indistinguishable from MORB and become progressively 18O-depleted as MgO decreases. Subglacial glasses have lower 18O/16O than submarine glasses at a given MgO, but both sample types project to a common 18O/16O near 10 wt% MgO, suggesting that 18O-depletion in these lavas is generated by fractional crystallization and assimilation of an 18O-depleted crustal component. The oxidation state of Fe increases only slightly as 18O/16O decrease, suggesting that the assimilant is not oxidized enough to change magmatic fO2. Fe and S do not oxidize or reduce with decreasing S or H2O, suggesting that relatively reduced magmas at depth degassed S+H2O without changing magmatic fO2, and that the fO2 of these lavas reflect the fO2of their mantle source. The oxidation states of Fe and S in HSDP glasses are broadly correlated and samples with the highest S concentrations are the most oxidized. Both Fe and S reduce with decreasing S and H2O contents. This suggests

  6. Nitrous oxide plus isoflurane induces apoptosis and increases β-amyloid protein levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Yu; Dong, Yuanlin; Wu, Xu; Xu, Zhipeng; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yiying; Norton, David; Tian, Ming; Li, Shuren; Xie, Zhongcong

    2009-01-01

    Background Some anesthetics have been suggested to induce neurotoxicity including promotion of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathogenesis. Nitrous oxide and isoflurane are common anesthetics. Here, we set out to assess effects of nitrous oxide and/or isoflurane on apoptosis and β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in H4 human neuroglioma cells and primary neurons from naïve mice. Methods The cells or neurons were exposed to 70% nitrous oxide and/or 1% isoflurane for six hours. The cells or neurons and conditioned media were harvested at the end of the treatment. Caspase-3 activation, apoptosis, processing of amyloid precursor protein, and Aβ levels were determined. Results Treatment with a combination of 70% nitrous oxide and 1% isoflurane for six hours induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in H4 naïve cells and primary neurons from naïve mice. The 70% nitrous oxide plus 1% isoflurane, but neither alone, for six hours induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, and increased levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme and Aβ in H4-amyloid precursor protein cells. In addition, the nitrous oxide plus isoflurane-induced Aβ generation was reduced by a broad caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Finally, the nitrous oxide plus isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation was attenuated by γ-secretase inhibitor L-685,458, but potentiated by exogenously added Aβ. Conclusion These results suggest that common anesthetics nitrous oxide plus isoflurane may promote neurotoxicity by inducing apoptosis and increasing Aβ levels. The generated Aβ may further potentiate apoptosis to form another round of apoptosis and Aβ generation. More studies, especially the in vivo confirmation of these in vitro findings, are needed. PMID:19741497

  7. Acetyl-L-carnitine protects neuronal function from alcohol-induced oxidative damage in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rump, Travis J; Abdul Muneer, P M; Szlachetka, Adam M; Lamb, Allyson; Haorei, Catherine; Alikunju, Saleena; Xiong, Huangui; Keblesh, James; Liu, Jianuo; Zimmerman, Matthew C; Jones, Jocelyn; Donohue, Terrence M; Persidsky, Yuri; Haorah, James

    2010-11-30

    The studies presented here demonstrate the protective effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against alcohol-induced oxidative neuroinflammation, neuronal degeneration, and impaired neurotransmission. Our findings reveal the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of alcohol-induced oxidative damage in various types of brain cells. Chronic ethanol administration to mice caused an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine adduct formation in frontal cortical neurons but not in astrocytes from brains of these animals. Interestingly, alcohol administration caused a rather selective activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), which, in turn, enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-hydroxynonenal, but these were predominantly localized in astrocytes and microglia. Oxidative damage in glial cells was accompanied by their pronounced activation (astrogliosis) and coincident neuronal loss, suggesting that inflammation in glial cells caused neuronal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry studies indicated that alcohol consumption induced different oxidative mediators in different brain cell types. Thus, nitric oxide was mostly detected in iNOS-expressing neurons, whereas ROS were predominantly generated in NOX-expressing glial cells after alcohol ingestion. Assessment of neuronal activity in ex vivo frontal cortical brain tissue slices from ethanol-fed mice showed a reduction in long-term potentiation synaptic transmission compared with slices from controls. Coadministration of ALC with alcohol showed a significant reduction in oxidative damage and neuronal loss and a restoration of synaptic neurotransmission in this brain region, suggesting that ALC protects brain cells from ethanol-induced oxidative injury. These findings suggest the potential clinical utility of ALC as a neuroprotective agent that prevents alcohol-induced brain damage and development of neurological disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kiran D K; Kunde, Dale A; Ball, Madeleine J; Geraghty, Dominic P

    2006-08-23

    The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to be the initiating factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The active ingredients of spices such as chili and turmeric (capsaicin and curcumin, respectively) have been shown to reduce the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation. One of the techniques used to study the oxidation of LDL is to isolate LDL and subject it to metal-induced (copper or iron) oxidation. However, whole serum may represent a closer situation to in vivo conditions than using isolated LDL. We investigated the effects of different concentrations (0.1-3 microM) of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of serum lipoproteins. The lag time (before initiation of oxidation) and rate of oxidation (slope of propagation phase) were calculated. The lag time increased, and the rate of oxidation decreased with increasing concentrations of the tested antioxidants (p < 0.05). A 50% increase in lag time (from control) was observed at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 microM for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin. This study shows that oxidation of serum lipids is reduced by capsaicinoids and curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner.

  9. Metallothionein protects against oxidative stress-induced lysosomal destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Sarah K.; Kurz, Tino; Brunk, Ulf T.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of apo-ferritin or the iron chelator DFO (desferrioxamine) conjugated to starch into the lysosomal compartment protects cells against oxidative stress, lysosomal rupture and ensuing apoptosis/necrosis by binding intralysosomal redox-active iron, thus preventing Fenton-type reactions and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal membranes. Because up-regulation of MTs (metallothioneins) also generates enhanced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, including X-irradiation, and MTs were found to be capable of iron binding in an acidic and reducing lysosomal-like environment, we propose that these proteins might similarly stabilize lysosomes following autophagocytotic delivery to the lysosomal compartment. Here, we report that Zn-mediated MT up-regulation, assayed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, results in lysosomal stabilization and decreased apoptosis following oxidative stress, similar to the protection afforded by fluid-phase endocytosis of apo-ferritin or DFO. In contrast, the endocytotic uptake of an iron phosphate complex destabilized lysosomes against oxidative stress, but this was suppressed in cells with up-regulated MT. It is suggested that the resistance against oxidative stress, known to occur in MT-rich cells, may be a consequence of autophagic turnover of MT, resulting in reduced iron-catalysed intralysosomal peroxidative reactions. PMID:16236025

  10. Brain oxidative stress induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Chroni, Elisabeth; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Karageorgos, Nikolaos; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Georgiou, Christos

    2006-02-01

    The effect of experimental obstructive jaundice on the oxidative status of brain tissues in rats was examined. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Group I was the control, group II was the sham operated, and groups III and IV were bile duct ligated and killed on the 5th and the 10th day, respectively. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the thiol redox state (protein and nonprotein components) and lipid peroxidation level variations in samples from the cerebral cortex, midbrain, and cerebellar tissue in all animals. Results indicated the presence of oxidative stress in the jaundiced animals that was more pronounced on the 10th day as indicated by a decrease in reduced glutathione and protein thiol and an increase in protein disulphide and lipid peroxidation. A dramatic elevation of the level of total nonprotein mixed disulphide level was found specifically in the midbrain in the 10th day group. This suggests an accumulation of nonprotein disulfides other than oxidized glutathione, which remained unchanged, in this particular brain area. This study showed a correlation between experimental obstructive jaundice and the oxidative stress in the rats' brain, implying that a similar pathogenetic mechanism may play a key role in cholestatic liver disease, resulting in hepatic encephalopathy in humans.

  11. [The role of oxidative/nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced toxic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Radosavljević, Tatjana; Mladenović, Dusan; Vucević, Danijela; Vukićević, Rada Jesić

    2010-01-01

    Paracetamol is an effective analgesic/antipyretic drug when used at therapeutic doses. However, the overdose of paracetamol can cause severe liver injury and liver necrosis. The mechanism of paracetamol-induced liver injury is still not completely understood. Reactive metabolite formation, depletion of glutathione and alkylation of proteins are the triggers of inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, adenosine triphosphate depletion and mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to hepatocellular necrosis. ROLE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY: The importance of oxidative stress in paracetamol hepatotoxicity is controversial. Paracetamol-induced liver injury cause the formation of reactive oxygen species. The potent sources of reactive oxygen are mitochondria, neutrophils. Kupffer cells and the enzyme xatnine oxidase. Free radicals lead to lipid peroxidation, enzymatic inactivation and protein oxidation. ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIA IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS: The production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is increased, and the glutathione content is decreased in paracetamol overdose. Oxidative stress in mitochondria leads to mitochondrial dysfunction with adenosine triphosphate depletion, increase mitochondrial permeability transition, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation which contribute to the development of hepatocellular necrosis in the liver after paracetamol overdose. ROLE OF KUPFFER CELLS IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY: Paracetamol activates Kupffer cells, which then release numerous cytokines and signalling molecules, including nitric oxide and superoxide. Kupffer cells are important in peroxynitrite formation. On the other hand, the activated Kupffer cells release anti-inflammatory cytokines. ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY: Paracetamol-induced liver injury leads to the accumulation of neutrophils, which release lysosomal enzymes and generate superoxide anion radicals through the enzyme

  12. Protective effects of curcumin on amyloid-β-induced neuronal oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Han-Chang; Chang, Ping; Dai, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of curcumin against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuronal damage. Primary rat cortical neurons were cultured with different treatments of Aβ and curcumin. Neuronal morphologies, viability and damage were assessed. Neuronal oxidative stress was assessed, including extracellular hydrogen peroxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit Aβ aggregation and β-sheeted formation are further assessed and discussed. Curcumin preserves cell viability, which is decreased by Aβ. The results of changed morphology, released Lactate dehydrogenases and cell viability assays indicate that curcumin protects Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin depresses Aβ-induced up-regulation of neuronal oxidative stress. The treatment sequence impacts the protective effect of curcumin on Aβ-induced neuronal damage. Curcumin shows a more protective effect on neuronal oxidative damage when curcumin was added into cultured neurons not later than Aβ, especially prior to Aβ. The abilities of curcumin to scavenge free radicals and to inhibit the formation of β-sheeted aggregation are both beneficial to depress Aβ-induced oxidative damage. Curcumin prevents neurons from Aβ-induced oxidative damage, implying the therapeutic usage for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients.

  13. Protective effect of bioactive peptide carnosine against lead-induced oxidative stress in kidney of rats.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, P; Teimuri-Far, M

    2015-08-05

    Oxidative stress is among the mechanisms involved in renal injury. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of bioactive peptide carnosine on lead induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals received an aqueous solution of lead acetate (500 mg Pb/L in the drinking water) and/or carnosine (10 mg/kg, i.g.) for eight weeks. Then rats were weighed and used for biochemical, histological and oxidant/antioxidant evaluations. Lead-induced oxidative stress in renal tissue was indicated by a significant increase in the renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P's < 0.001). Carnosine treatment decreased MDA whereas it increased the contents of GSH, TAC, CAT and SOD in both lead and control groups. Carnosine prevented the increased kidney weight and lead-induced deleterious effects on serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, albumin and total protein in lead group. It also attenuated lead induced abnormal renal structure. The present study showed that carnosine protected against lead induced oxidative stress and renal injury in rat. Therefore, carnosine represents a potential therapeutic option against the deleterious effect of lead induced nephrotoxicity which deserves consideration and further examination.

  14. Protective effects of Korean mistletoe lectin on radical-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Mi Jin; Park, Kun Young; Cho, Eun Ju

    2010-01-01

    The radical scavenging effects and protective activities against oxidative stress of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) lectin were investigated in vitro and with a cellular system using LLC-PK(1) renal epithelial cells. The Korean mistletoe lectin (KML) showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity with an IC(50) value of 42.6 microg/ml. It also exerted nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in concentration-dependent manners. These results suggest that KML is a promising antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. Furthermore, under the LLC-PK(1) cellular model, the cells showed declines in viability and increases in lipid peroxidation through oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and pyrogallol, generators of NO and O(2)(-), respectively. However, KML significantly and dose-dependently inhibited cell cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, 3-morpholinosydnonimnie (SIN-1), a generator of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formed by simultaneously releases of NO and O(2)(-), caused cytotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and NO overproduction in the LLC-PK(1) cells while KML ameliorated ONOO(-)-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, overexpressions of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase induced by SIN-1 were observed, but KML down-regulated the expression levels of both genes. KML also reduced SIN-1-induced nuclear factor kappa B expression and the phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B alpha in LLC-PK(1) cells. These results indicate that KML has protective activities against oxidative damage induced by free radicals.

  15. Effect of dietary phenolic compounds on apoptosis of human cultured endothelial cells induced by oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia; Escargueil-Blanc, Isabelle; Meilhac, Olivier; Basile, Jean-Pierre; Laranjinha, Joao; Almeida, Leonor; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) are toxic to cultured endothelial cells. Mildly oxidized LDL, characterized by relatively low levels of TBARS and only minor modifications of apoB, were obtained by using 2 experimental model systems of oxidation, namely oxidation by u.v. radiation or ferrylmyoglobin (a two electron oxidation product from the reaction of metmyoglobin with H2O2). Toxic concentrations of mildly oxidized LDL induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) of cultured endothelial cells, as shown by typical morphological features, by the in situ TUNEL procedure and by DNA fragmentation revealed on gel electrophoresis. This apoptosis is calcium-dependent and subsequent to the intense and sustained cytosolic [Ca2+]i peak elicited by oxidized LDL. Five naturally occurring phenolic compounds present in food and beverages were able to prevent, in a concentration-dependent manner, the apoptosis of endothelial cells induced by oxidized LDL. Among the compounds tested, caffeic acid was the most effective. Under the conditions used, the protective effect of caffeic acid (IC50 8.3±2.1 μmol  l−1) in the prevention of apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL was significantly higher than that of the other compounds tested (IC50s were 12.4±3.2, 14.1±4.1, 20.4±4.4 and 72.6±9.2 μmol  l−1 for ferulic, protocatechuic, ellagic and p-coumaric acids, respectively). The anti-apoptotic effect of caffeic acid results from the addition of two effects, (i) the antioxidant effect which prevents LDL oxidation and subsequent toxicity (‘indirect' protective effect); (ii) a ‘direct' cytoprotective effect, acting at the cellular level. Effective concentrations of caffeic acid acted at the cellular level by blocking the intense and sustained cytosolic [Ca2+]i rise elicited by oxidized LDL. In conclusion, phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids being the most potent of the compounds tested under the conditions used) exhibit a potent cytoprotective effect of

  16. Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurtén, Theo; Otkjær, Rasmus V; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael

    2016-12-02

    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

  17. Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurtén, Theo; Otkjær, Rasmus V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere. PMID:27910849

  18. Modeling Oxidation Induced Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, B. L.; Freborg, A. M.; Petrus, G. J.; Brindley, William J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) in gas turbines has increased dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the need for component protection from ever increasing service temperatures. Oxidation of the bond coat has been identified as an important contributing factor to spallation of the ceramic top coat during service. Additional variables found to influence TBC thermal cycle life include bond coat coefficient of thermal expansion, creep behavior of both the ceramic and bond coat layers, and modulus of elasticity. The purpose of this work was to characterize the effects of oxidation on the stress states within the TBC system, as well as to examine the interaction of oxidation with other factors affecting TBC life.

  19. Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, Torsten; Richters, Stefanie; Jokinen, Tuija; Hyttinen, Noora; Kurtén, Theo; Otkjær, Rasmus V.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    Explaining the formation of secondary organic aerosol is an intriguing question in atmospheric sciences because of its importance for Earth's radiation budget and the associated effects on health and ecosystems. A breakthrough was recently achieved in the understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation from ozone reactions of biogenic emissions by the rapid formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds via autoxidation. However, the important daytime hydroxyl radical reactions have been considered to be less important in this process. Here we report measurements on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene applying improved mass spectrometric methods. Our laboratory results prove that the formation of highly oxidized products from hydroxyl radical reactions proceeds with considerably higher yields than previously reported. Field measurements support these findings. Our results allow for a better description of the diurnal behaviour of the highly oxidized product formation and subsequent secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

  20. Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Perera, Lalith; Shock, David D.; Kim, Taejin; Schlick, Tamar; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, which is found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate Escherichia coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerases discriminate between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities, nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine and 8-oxo-dGTP(syn) uses its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine. Here we use time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite adenine or cytosine with human pol β, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen-bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxo-dGTP uses charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate.

  1. Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide

    DOE PAGES

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Perera, Lalith; ...

    2014-11-17

    Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate E. coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerase discriminates between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities,more » nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine (Cy) and 8-oxodGTP(syn) utilizes its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine (Ad). Here in this paper we utilized time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite Ad or Cy with human DNA pol β, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxodGTP utilizes charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate.« less

  2. Uncovering the polymerase-induced cytotoxicity of an oxidized nucleotide

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Perera, Lalith; Shock, David D.; Kim, Taejin; Schlick, Tamar; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2014-11-17

    Oxidative stress promotes genomic instability and human diseases. A common oxidized nucleoside is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2’-deoxyguanosine found both in DNA (8-oxo-G) and as a free nucleotide (8-oxo-dGTP). Nucleotide pools are especially vulnerable to oxidative damage. Therefore cells encode an enzyme (MutT/MTH1) that removes free oxidized nucleotides. This cleansing function is required for cancer cell survival and to modulate E. coli antibiotic sensitivity in a DNA polymerase (pol)-dependent manner. How polymerase discriminates between damaged and non-damaged nucleotides is not well understood. This analysis is essential given the role of oxidized nucleotides in mutagenesis, cancer therapeutics, and bacterial antibiotics. Even with cellular sanitizing activities, nucleotide pools contain enough 8-oxo-dGTP to promote mutagenesis. This arises from the dual coding potential where 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) base pairs with cytosine (Cy) and 8-oxodGTP(syn) utilizes its Hoogsteen edge to base pair with adenine (Ad). Here in this paper we utilized time-lapse crystallography to follow 8-oxo-dGTP insertion opposite Ad or Cy with human DNA pol β, to reveal that insertion is accommodated in either the syn- or anti-conformation, respectively. For 8-oxo-dGTP(anti) insertion, a novel divalent metal relieves repulsive interactions between the adducted guanine base and the triphosphate of the oxidized nucleotide. With either templating base, hydrogen bonding interactions between the bases are lost as the enzyme reopens after catalysis, leading to a cytotoxic nicked DNA repair intermediate. Combining structural snapshots with kinetic and computational analysis reveals how 8-oxodGTP utilizes charge modulation during insertion that can lead to a blocked DNA repair intermediate.

  3. Progesterone modulates the LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone-receptor independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Schander, Julieta Aylen; Bariani, María Victoria; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2015-12-15

    Genital tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria induce miscarriage and are one of the most common complications of human pregnancy. LPS administration to 7-day pregnant mice induces embryo resorption after 24h, with nitric oxide playing a fundamental role in this process. We have previously shown that progesterone exerts protective effects on the embryo by modulating the inflammatory reaction triggered by LPS. Here we sought to investigate whether the in vivo administration of progesterone modulated the LPS-induced nitric oxide production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pregnant and non-pregnant mice. We found that progesterone downregulated LPS-induced nitric oxide production by a progesterone receptor-independent mechanism. Moreover, our results suggest a possible participation of glucocorticoid receptors in at least some of the anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone.

  4. [Studies on the oxidation of tyrosine induced by hydroxyl radical with fluorescence spectroscopic method].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-hui; Wang, Wei-long; Wu, Lin-sheng; Jia, Xiao-li

    2011-07-01

    Dityrosine is a marker of tyrosine oxidation. To study effecting factors of hydroxyl radical on tyrosine oxidation, synchronous fluorescence spectra with two dimensional correlation was used. The results showed that the peak position and intensity of dityrosine changed while pH value varied. In the system of tyrosine oxidation, with the increment of tyrosine concentration, the concentration of dityrosine decreased. With the increment of hydrogen peroxide concentration, the concentration of dityrosine increased. The oxidation reaction was prone to taking place in acid conditions while difficult to develop in basic conditions. With the development of oxidation reaction, the fluorescence intensity of dityrosine increased and then decreased. Two dimentional correlation synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the variation in the intensity at 292 nm preceded that of 281, 300 and 374 nm. Thus, fluorescence spectroscopy was simple and easy for studying tyrosine oxidation induced by hydroxyl radical.

  5. Ethyl pyruvate protects rats from phosgene-induced pulmonary edema by inhibiting cyclooxygenase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-li; Bai, Hua; Xi, Miao-miao; Liu, Riu; Qin, Xu-jun; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-di; Li, Wen-li; Hai, Chun-xu

    2013-01-01

    Phosgene is a poorly water-soluble gas penetrating the lower respiratory tract which can induce acute lung injury characterized by a latent phase of fatal pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema caused by phosgene is believed to be a consequence of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in vivo and in vitro. The potential therapeutic role of EP in phosgene-induced pulmonary edema has not been addressed so far. In the present study, we aim to investigate the protective effects of EP on phosgene-induced pulmonary edema and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were administered with EP (40 mg kg(-1)) and RAW264.7 cells were also incubated with it (0, 2, 5 or 10 µm) immediately after phosgene (400 ppm, 1 min) or air exposure. Wet-to-dry lung weight ratio (W:D ratio), nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production, cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinases activities (MAPKs) were measured. Our results showed that EP treatment attenuated phosgene-induced pulmonary edema and decreased the level of NO and PGE(2) dose-dependently. Furthermore, EP significantly reduced COX-2 expression, iNOS expression and MAPK activation induced by phosgene. Moreover, specific inhibitors of MAPKs reduced COX-2 and iNOS expression induced by phosgene. These findings suggested that EP has a protective role against phosgene-induced pulmonary edema, which is mediated in part by inhibiting MAPK activation and subsequently down-regulating COX-2 and iNOS expression as well as decreasing the production of NO and PGE(2). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  7. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDUCED OXIDENT GENERATION AND ASTHMA SEVERITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of oxygen radicals is implicated in many disease processes, including asthma. There is evidence that elevated oxidant status is associated with airway hyper responsiveness, however it is less clear whether increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species are assoc...

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDUCED OXIDENT GENERATION AND ASTHMA SEVERITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of oxygen radicals is implicated in many disease processes, including asthma. There is evidence that elevated oxidant status is associated with airway hyper responsiveness, however it is less clear whether increased levels of circulating reactive oxygen species are assoc...

  10. Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Javeed, Aqeel; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amounts of zinc, copper, chromium, iron, arsenic and mercury in industrial effluent. Ames test with/without enzyme activation and MTT assay showed strong association of industrial effluent with mutagenicity and cytotoxicity respectively. In-vitro comet assay revealed evidence of high oxidative DNA damage. When Wistar rats were exposed to industrial effluent in different dilutions for 60 days, then activities of total superoxide dismutase and catalase and hydrogen peroxide concentration were found to be significantly lower in kidney, liver and blood/plasma of effluent exposed rats than control. Vitamin C in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day significantly reduced oxidative effects of effluent in rats. On the basis of this study it is concluded that industrial effluent may cause mutagenicity, in-vitro oxidative stress-related DNA damage and cytotoxicity and may be associated with oxidative stress in rats. Vitamin C may have ameliorating effect when exposed to effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Blockade of Drp1 rescues oxidative stress-induced osteoblast dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Xueqi; Huang, Shengbin; Yu, Qing; Yu, Haiyang; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2015-12-25

    Osteoblast dysfunction, induced by oxidative stress, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclarified. Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics has been closely linked to oxidative stress. Here, we reveal an unexplored role of dynamic related protein 1(Drp1), the major regulator in mitochondrial fission, in the oxidative stress-induced osteoblast injury model. We demonstrate that levels of phosphorylation and expression of Drp1 significantly increased under oxidative stress. Blockade of Drp1, through pharmaceutical inhibitor or gene knockdown, significantly protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced osteoblast dysfunction, as shown by increased cell viability, improved cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization and restored mitochondrial function. The protective effects of blocking Drp1 in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced osteoblast dysfunction were evidenced by increased mitochondrial function and suppressed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings provide new insights into the role of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial pathway in the pathology of osteoporosis, indicating that the Drp1 pathway may be targetable for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress is an early pathological event in osteoporosis. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics are linked to oxidative stress in osteoporosis. • The role of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial pathway in osteoporosis.

  12. Differences in antibiotic-induced oxidative stress responses between laboratory and clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Dridi, Bédis; Lupien, Andréanne; Bergeron, Michel G; Leprohon, Philippe; Ouellette, Marc

    2015-09-01

    Oxidants were shown to contribute to the lethality of bactericidal antibiotics in different bacterial species, including the laboratory strain Streptococcus pneumoniae R6. Resistance to penicillin among S. pneumoniae R6 mutants was further shown to protect against the induction of oxidants upon exposure to unrelated bactericidal compounds. In the work described here, we expanded on these results by studying the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the context of antibiotic sensitivity and resistance by including S. pneumoniae clinical isolates. In S. pneumoniae R6, penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and kanamycin but not the bacteriostatic linezolid, erythromycin, or tetracycline induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. For the three bactericidal compounds, resistance to a single molecule prevented the accumulation of oxidants upon exposure to unrelated bactericidal antibiotics, and this was accompanied by a reduced lethality. This phenomenon does not involve target site mutations but most likely implicates additional mutations occurring early during the selection of resistance to increase survival while more efficient resistance mechanisms are being selected or acquired. Bactericidal antibiotics also induced oxidants in sensitive S. pneumoniae clinical isolates. The importance of oxidants in the lethality of bactericidal antibiotics was less clear than for S. pneumoniae R6, however, since ciprofloxacin induced oxidants even in ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates. Our results provide a clear example of the complex nature of the mode of action of antibiotics. The adaptive approach to oxidative stress of S. pneumoniae is peculiar, and a better understanding of the mechanism implicated in response to oxidative injury should also help clarify the role of oxidants induced by antibiotics.

  13. Differential inhibition of oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells treated with different flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yean-Jung; Kwon, Hyang-Mi; Kang, Sang-Wook; Park, Hyoung-Sook; Lee, Myungsook; Kang, Young-Hee

    2005-05-01

    High plasma level of cholesterol is a well-known risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases. Oxidized LDL induces cellular and nuclear damage that leads to apoptotic cell death. We tested the hypothesis that flavonoids may function as antioxidants with regard to LDL incubated with 5 microm-Cu(2+) alone or in combination with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity and formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances induced by Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL were examined in the presence of various subtypes of flavonoid. Flavanols, flavonols and flavanones at a non-toxic dose of 50 microm markedly inhibited LDL oxidation by inhibiting the formation of peroxidative products. In contrast, the flavones luteolin and apigenin had no such effect, with >30 % of cells killed after exposure to 0.1 mg LDL/ml. Protective flavonoids, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, rutin and hesperetin, inhibited HUVEC nuclear condensation and fragmentation induced by Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL. In addition, immunochemical staining and Western blot analysis revealed that anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression was enhanced following treatment with these protective flavonoids. However, Bax expression and caspase-3 cleavage stimulated by 18 h incubation with oxidized LDL were reduced following treatment with these protective flavonoids. The down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of caspase-3 activation were reversed by the cytoprotective flavonoids, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin and hesperetin, at >/=10 microm. These results suggest that flavonoids may differentially prevent Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis and promote cell survival as potent antioxidants. Survival potentials of certain flavonoids against cytotoxic oxidized LDL appeared to stem from their disparate chemical structure. Furthermore, dietary flavonoids may have therapeutic potential for protecting the endothelium from oxidative stress and oxidized LDL-triggered atherogenesis.

  14. Permethrin-induced oxidative stress and toxicity and metabolism. A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Martínez, María-Aránzazu; Dai, Menghong; Chen, Dongmei; Ares, Irma; Romero, Alejandro; Castellano, Victor; Martínez, Marta; Rodríguez, José Luis; Martínez-Larrañaga, María-Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-08-01

    Permethrin (PER), the most frequently used synthetic Type I pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used in the world because of its high activity as an insecticide and its low mammalian toxicity. It was originally believed that PER exhibited low toxicity on untargeted animals. However, as its use became more extensive worldwide, increasing evidence suggested that PER might have a variety of toxic effects on animals and humans alike, such as neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, reproductive, genotoxic, and haematotoxic effects, digestive system toxicity, and cytotoxicity. A growing number of studies indicate that oxidative stress played critical roles in the various toxicities associated with PER. To date, almost no review has addressed the toxicity of PER correlated with oxidative stress. The focus of this article is primarily to summarise advances in the research associated with oxidative stress as a potential mechanism for PER-induced toxicity as well as its metabolism. This review summarises the research conducted over the past decade into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress as a consequence of PER treatments, and ultimately their correlation with the toxicity and the metabolism of PER. The metabolism of PER involves various CYP450 enzymes, alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases for oxidation and the carboxylesterases for hydrolysis, through which oxidative stress might occur, and such metabolic factors are also reviewed. The protection of a variety of antioxidants against PER-induced toxicity is also discussed, in order to further understand the role of oxidative stress in PER-induced toxicity. This review will throw new light on the critical roles of oxidative stress in PER-induced toxicity, as well as on the blind spots that still exist in the understanding of PER metabolism, the cellular effects in terms of apoptosis and cell signaling pathways, and finally strategies to help to protect against its oxidative

  15. Special Issue: Environmental Chemicals and Neurotoxicity Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Marcelo; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  16. Oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes associated with malignant transformation of human kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2017-02-14

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in humans is positively influenced by oxidative stress status in kidneys. We recently reported that adaptive response to low level of chronic oxidative stress induces malignant transformation of immortalized human renal tubular epithelial cells. Epigenetic alterations in human RCC are well documented, but its role in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of kidney cells is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of epigenetic changes in chronic oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of HK-2, human renal tubular epithelial cells. The results revealed aberrant expression of epigenetic regulatory genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3a and MBD4) and histone modifications (HDAC1, HMT1 and HAT1) in HK-2 cells malignantly transformed by chronic oxidative stress. Additionally, both in vitro soft agar assay and in vivo nude mice study showing decreased tumorigenic potential of malignantly transformed HK-2 cells following treatment with DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza 2' dC further confirmed the crucial role of DNA hypermethyaltion in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation. Changes observed in global histone H3 acetylation (H3K9, H3K18, H3K27 and H3K14) and decrease in phospho-H2AX (Ser139) also suggest potential role of histone modifications in increased survival and malignant transformation of HK-2 cells by oxidative stress. In summary, the results of this study suggest that epigenetic reprogramming induced by low levels of oxidative stress act as driver for malignant transformation of kidney epithelial cells. Findings of this study are highly relevant in potential clinical application of epigenetic-based therapeutics for treatments of kidney cancers.

  17. Oxidation induced decomposition of ethylene carbonate from DFT calculations--importance of explicitly treating surrounding solvent.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lidan; Borodin, Oleg

    2012-10-05

    The oxidation induced reactions of the common lithium battery electrolyte solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) have been investigated for EC(2) using density functional theory and for selected reaction paths using Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP4). The importance of explicitly treating at least one solvent molecule interacting with EC during oxidation (removal of an electron) on the EC oxidation potential and decomposition reactions was shown by comparing oxidation of EC and EC(2). Accuracy of DFT results was evaluated by comparing with MP4 and G4 values for oxidation of EC. The polarized continuum model (PCM) was used to implicitly include the rest of the surrounding solvent. The oxidation potentials of EC(2) and EC(4) were found to be significantly lower than the intrinsic oxidation potential of an isolated EC and also lower than the oxidation potential of EC-BF(4)(-). The exothermic proton abstraction from the ethylene group of EC by the carbonyl group of another EC was responsible for the decreased oxidative stability of EC(2) and EC(4) compared to EC. The most exothermic path with the smallest barrier for EC(2) oxidation yielded CO(2) and an ethanol radical cation. The reaction paths with the higher barrier yielded oligo(ethylene carbonate) suggesting a pathway for the experimentally observed poly(ethylene carbonate) formation of EC-based electrolytes at cathode surfaces.

  18. Allicin protects spinal cord neurons from glutamate-induced oxidative stress through regulating the heat shock protein 70/inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Guang; Ren, Peng-Yu; Wang, Guo-Yu; Yao, Shu-Xin; He, Xi-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Allicin, the main biologically active compound derived from garlic, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many neurological disorders. Using an in vitro spinal cord injury model induced by glutamate treatment, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of allicin in primary cultured spinal cord neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly attenuated glutamate-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, loss of cell viability and apoptotic neuronal death. This protection was associated with reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reduced lipid peroxidation and preservation of antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of western blot analysis showed that allicin decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), but had no effects on the expression of neuronal NOS (nNOS) following glutamate exposure. Moreover, allicin treatment significantly increased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of HSP70 by specific targeted small interfere RNA (siRNA) not only mitigated allicin-induced protective activity, but also partially nullified its effects on the regulation of iNOS. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury, and that the potential underlying mechanism involves HSP70/iNOS pathway-mediated inhibition of oxidative stress.

  19. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alleviate oxidative stress and decreases Nrf-2/HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Reem M; Rashd, Laila A; Hashem, Khalid S; Soliman, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Translocation of the master regulator of antioxidant-response element-driven antioxidant gene, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf-2) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and triggering the transcription of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) to counteract the oxidative stress is a key feature in D-galactoseamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GALN/LPS) induced hepatotoxicity. We mainly aimed to study the effect of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles on Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway whereas; it has previously shown to have an antioxidant effect in liver models. Administration of CeO2 nanoparticles significantly decreased the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 with a concomitant decrement in the gene expression of HO-1 as it reveals a powerful antioxidative effect as indicated by the significant increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In synchronization, a substantial decrement in the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TBARS and percentage of DNA fragmentation was established. These results were confirmed by histopathology examination which showed a severe degeneration, haemorrhages, widened sinusoids and focal leukocyte infiltration in D-GALN/LPS treatment and these features were alleviated with CeO2 administration. In conclusion, CeO2 is a potential antioxidant that can effectively decrease the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 into the nucleus and decrease HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

  20. The effect of HDL-bound and free PON1 on copper-induced LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Ahmet; Bayrak, Tülin; Bodur, Ebru; Kılınç, Kamer; Demirpençe, Ediz

    2016-09-25

    Oxidative modification of LDL plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) confers protection against atherosclerosis and the antioxidative properties of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been suggested to contribute to this effect of HDL. The PON1 exist in two major polymorphic forms (Q and R), which regulate the concentration and activity of the enzyme and alter its ability to prevent lipid oxidation. However, the association of Q192R polymorphism with PON1's capacity to protect against LDL lipoperoxidation is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the purified PON1 Q192R and the partially purified HDL-bound PON1 Q192R isoenzymes (HDL-PON1 Q192R) on LDL oxidation, with respect to their arylesterase/homocysteine thiolactonase (HTLase) activities. Cupric ion-induced LDL oxidation was reduced up to 48% by purified PON1 Q192, but only 33% by an equivalent activity of PON1 R192. HDL-PON1 Q192 isoenzyme caused a 65% reduction, whereas HDL-PON1 R192 isoenzyme caused only 46% reduction in copper ion-induced LDL oxidation. These findings reflect the fact that PON1 Q and PON1 R allozymes may have different protective characteristics against LDL oxidation. The protection against LDL oxidation provided by HDL-PON1 Q192R isoenzymes is more prominent than the purified soluble enzymes. Inhibition of the Ca(+2)-dependent PON1 Q192R arylesterase/HTLase by the metal chelator EDTA, did not alter PON1's ability to inhibit LDL oxidation. These studies indicate that the active site involvement of the purified enzyme is not similar to the HDL-bound one, in terms of both PON1 arylesterase/HTLase activity and the protection of LDL from copper ion-induced oxidation. Moreover, PON1's ability to protect LDL from oxidation does not seem to require calcium.

  1. In vitro investigation of ultrasound-induced oxidative stress on human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rwei, Patrick; Alex Gong, Cihun-Siyong; Luo, Li-Jyuan; Lin, Meng-Bo; Lai, Jui-Yang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2017-01-22

    The effect of ultrasound exposure on human lens epithelial cells (HLE-B3) was investigated in vitro, specifically on the generation of oxidative stress upon ultrasound application using various clinically-relevant settings. In addition to ultrasound-induced heat effects, oxidative stress has been recently proposed as one of the main mechanisms for ultrasound-induced effects on human cells. In this work, the levels of biocompatibility and generation of oxidative stress by exposure of ultrasound to HLE-B3 were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium level. Oxidative stress induction is traditionally achieved through administrations of H2O2 and thus the administration of H2O2 was used as the positive control group for comparison herein. Concerning the administrations of H2O2 are considered invasive and may potentially have side effects, ultrasound as physical stimulation could be a safer and non-invasive method to induce similar oxidative stress environments. The effect of ultrasound on cell viability and induction of oxidative stress increases with ultrasound intensity. The result reveals that the continuous ultrasound has a positive impact on the oxidative stress levels but does negatively on the cell viability, as compared to the pulsed ultrasound. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that the exposure of 58 kPa continuous ultrasound without microbubbles can maintain acceptable cell viability and produce oxidative stress effects similar to the traditional administrations of H2O2. In summary, exposure of ultrasound can generate oxidative stress comparable to traditional administrations of H2O2. The effect of generating oxidative stress is adjustable through ultrasound parameters, including the pulsed or continuous wave, the intensity of ultrasound and addition of microbubbles.

  2. Blockade of cyclophilin D rescues dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in gingival tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Xiao, Anqi; Yu, Haiyang; Gan, Xueqi

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used for the suppression of inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases. Excessive GCs usage is greatly associated with several side effects, including gingival ulceration, the downward migration of the epithelium, attachment loss and disruption of transeptal fibers. The mechanisms underlying GCs-induced impairments in gingival tissue remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various oral diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury in gingival. Here, we reported an unexplored role of cyclophilin D (CypD), the major component of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced oxidative stress accumulation and cell dysfunctions in gingival tissue. We demonstrated that the expression level of CypD significantly increased under Dex treatment. Blockade of CypD by pharmaceutical inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly protected against Dex-induced oxidative stress accumulation in gingival tissue. And the protective effects of blocking CypD in Dex-induced gingival fibroblasts dysfunction were evidenced by rescued mitochondrial function and suppressed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, blockade of CypD by pharmaceutical inhibitor CsA or gene knockdown also restored Dex-induced cell toxicity in HGF-1 cells, as shown by suppressed mitochondrial ROS production, increased CcO activity and decreased apoptosis. We also suggested a role of oxidative stress-mediated p38 signal transduction in this event, and antioxidant N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) could obviously blunted Dex-induced oxidative stress. These findings provide new insights into the role of CypD-dependent mitochondrial pathway in the Dex-induced gingival injury, indicating that CypD may be potential therapeutic strategy for preventing Dex-induced oxidative stress and cell injury in gingival tissue. PMID:28273124

  3. The antioxidant tempol decreases acute pulmonary thromboembolism-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Santos, Ozelia; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Ferraz, Karina C; Sertório, Jonas T; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2013-11-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APT) is a critical condition associated with acute pulmonary hypertension. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and hemolysis contribute to APT-induced pulmonary hypertension, possibly as a result of increased nitric oxide (NO) consumption. We hypothesized that the antioxidant tempol could attenuate APT-induced hemolysis, and therefore attenuate APT-induced increases in plasma NO consumption. APT was induced in anesthetized sheep with autologous blood clots. The hemodynamic effects of tempol infused at 1.0mg/kg/min 30 min after APT were determined. Hemodynamic measurements were carried out every 15 min. To assess oxidative stress, serum 8-isoprostanes levels were measured by ELISA. Plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations and NO consumption by plasma samples were determined. An in vitro oxidative AAPH-induced hemolysis assay was used to further validate the in vivo effects of tempol. APT caused pulmonary hypertension, and increased pulmonary vascular resistance in proportion with the increases in 8-isoprostanes, plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and NO consumption by plasma (all P<0.05). Tempol attenuated the hemodynamic alterations by approximately 15-20% and blunted APT-induced increases in 8-isoprostanes, in cell-free hemoglobin concentrations, and the increases in NO consumption by plasma (P<0.05). Tempol dose-dependently attenuated AAPH-induced in vitro hemolysis (P<0.05). Our findings are consistent with the idea that antioxidant properties of tempol decrease APT-induced hemolysis and nitric oxide consumption, thus attenuating APT-induced pulmonary hypertension. © 2013.

  4. Evidence That the Capacity of Nongenotoxic Carcinogens to Induce Oxidative Stress Is Subject to Marked Variability

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Colin J.; Cameron, Amy R.; Chatham, Lynsey; Stanley, Lesley A.; Wolf, Charles Roland

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs and environmental chemicals which are not directly mutagenic have the capacity to increase the incidence of tumors in the liver and other tissues. For this reason, such compounds are known as nongenotoxic carcinogens. The mechanisms underlying their effects remain unclear; however, their capacity to induce oxidative stress is considered to be a critical step in the carcinogenic process, although the evidence that this is actually the case remains equivocal and sparse. We have exploited a novel heme oxygenase-1 reporter mouse to evaluate the capacity of nongenotoxic carcinogens with different mechanisms of action to induce oxidative stress in the liver in vivo. When these compounds were administered at doses reported to cause liver tumors, marked differences in activation of the reporter were observed. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene and nafenopin were strong inducers of oxidative stress, whereas phenobarbital, piperonyl butoxide, cyproterone acetate, and WY14,643 were, at best, only very weak inducers. In the case of phenobarbital and thioacetamide, the number of LacZ-positive hepatocytes increased with time, and for the latter also with dose. The data obtained demonstrate that although some nongenotoxic carcinogens can induce oxidative stress, it is not a dominant feature of the response to these compounds. Therefore in contrast to the current models, these data suggest that oxidative stress is not a key determinant in the mechanism of nongenotoxic carcinogenesis but may contribute to the effects in a compound-specific manner. PMID:25690736

  5. Nano rare-earth oxides induced size-dependent vacuolization: an independent pathway from autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Chenguang; Huang, Guanyi; Wang, Changli; Wen, Longping

    2010-01-01

    Four rare earth oxides have been shown to induce autophagy. Interestingly, we often noticed plentiful vacuolization, which was not always involved in this autophagic process. In this study, we investigated three other rare-earth elements, including Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lanthanum (La). Autophagic effect could be induced by all of them but only Y2O3 and Yb2O3 could cause massive vacuolization. Y2O3 and Yb2O3 treated by sonication or centrifugation to reduce particle size were used to test vacuolization level in HeLa cell lines. The results showed that rare earth oxides-induced vacuolization is size-dependent and differs from autophagic pathway. To further clarify the characteristics of this autophagic process, we used MEF Atg-5 (autophagy associated gene 5) knockout cell line, and the result showed that the autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides is Atg-5-dependent and the observed vacuolization was independent from autophagy. Similar results could also be observed in our tests on 3-methyladenine(3-MA), a well-known autophagy inhibitor. In conclusion, for the first time, we clarified the relationship between massive vacuolization and autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides and pointed out the size effect of rare earth oxides on the formation of vacuoles, which give clues to further investigation on the mechanisms underlying their biological effects. PMID:20856835

  6. Hesperidin attenuates cisplatin-induced acute renal injury by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Sindhura, G Jeevana; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2013-03-15

    Nephrotoxicity is an important complication in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin therapy. Oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis/necrosis are the major patho-mechanisms of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. In the present study, hesperidin, a naturally-occurring bioflavonoid has been demonstrated to have protective effect on cisplatin-induced renal injury in rats. Cisplatin intoxication resulted in structural and functional renal impairment which was revealed by massive histopathological changes and elevated blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels, respectively. Renal injury was associated with oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation as evident by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation with decreased levels of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, vitamin C, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase. Cisplatin administration also triggered inflammatory response in rat kidneys by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, with the increased expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO). Furthermore, cisplatin increased the activity of caspase-3 and DNA damage with decreased tissue nitric oxide levels. Hesperidin treatment significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation, inflammation (infiltration of leukocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokine), apoptosis/necrosis (caspase-3 activity with DNA damage) as well as increased expression of nitric oxide in the kidney and improved renal function. Thus, our results suggest that hesperidin co-administration may serve as a novel and promising preventive strategy against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Nano rare-earth oxides induced size-dependent vacuolization: an independent pathway from autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Chenguang; Huang, Guanyi; Wang, Changli; Wen, Longping

    2010-09-07

    Four rare earth oxides have been shown to induce autophagy. Interestingly, we often noticed plentiful vacuolization, which was not always involved in this autophagic process. In this study, we investigated three other rare-earth elements, including Yttrium (Y), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lanthanum (La). Autophagic effect could be induced by all of them but only Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) could cause massive vacuolization. Y(2)O(3) and Yb(2)O(3) treated by sonication or centrifugation to reduce particle size were used to test vacuolization level in HeLa cell lines. The results showed that rare earth oxides-induced vacuolization is size-dependent and differs from autophagic pathway. To further clarify the characteristics of this autophagic process, we used MEF Atg-5 (autophagy associated gene 5) knockout cell line, and the result showed that the autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides is Atg-5-dependent and the observed vacuolization was independent from autophagy. Similar results could also be observed in our tests on 3-methyladenine(3-MA), a well-known autophagy inhibitor. In conclusion, for the first time, we clarified the relationship between massive vacuolization and autophagic process induced by rare earth oxides and pointed out the size effect of rare earth oxides on the formation of vacuoles, which give clues to further investigation on the mechanisms underlying their biological effects.

  8. Effects of olive leaves extract on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO(4) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmadvand, Hassan; Bagheri, Shahrokh; Khosrobeigi, Ali; Boshtam, Maryam; Abdolahpour, Foad

    2012-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of some natural antioxidant and herbal medicine may lead to the inhibition of production of oxidized LDL and may decrease both the development and the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Olive leaves ethanol extract (OLE) on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO(4) quantitatively in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein was incubated with CuSO(4) and the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Inhibition of this Cu-induced oxidation was studied in the presence of vitamin E and various concentration of OLE. It was demonstrated that OLE reduced the formation of conjugated dienes and TBARS of LDL against oxidation in vitro (p<0.05). The inhibitory effects of the OLE on LDL oxidation were dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from (2μg/ml) to (200μg/ml). Moreover, we compared effects of OLE on LDL oxidation with vitamin E as positive control. This study showed that OLE is a source of potent antioxidants and prevented the oxidation of LDL in vitro and it may be suitable for use in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  9. Evaluation of UVA-induced oxidative stress using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin

    2005-02-01

    Oxidative stress is mainly mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evaluation of oxidative stress is helpful for choosing an appropriate method to protect the organism from the oxidative damage. In this study, a highly sensitive and simple chemiluminescence method is presented for the evaluation of radiation-induced oxidative stress in human peripheral lymphocytes. The lymphocytes were irradiated by ultraviolet radiation (320-400nm, UVA) with different doses. The ROS generated by the lymphocytes was detected by chemiluminescence method, using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence probe 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-α] pyrazin-3-one (MCLA). The cell viability was detected with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). The malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress, and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), a parameter that is taken as evidence of oxidative stress, were measured too. The results show that both chemiluminescence intensity, cell mortality and MDA concentration of lymphocytes grow with the increase of UVA dose range from 0.5 to 8 J/cm2, while the TAC decreases. There exists a positive relationship between cell oxidative damage degree and the chemiluminescence intensity of lymphocytes. This highly sensitive chemiluminescence method would potentially provide an easy way to evaluate the level of UVA-induced oxidative stress readily, sensitively and rapidly

  10. Anti-Oxidative Defences Are Modulated Differentially in Three Freshwater Teleosts in Response to Ammonia-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Giblen, Terri; Zinta, Gaurav; De Rop, Michelle; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and the antioxidant response induced by high environmental ammonia (HEA) were investigated in the liver and gills of three freshwater teleosts differing in their sensitivities to ammonia. The highly ammonia-sensitive salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), the less ammonia sensitive cyprinid Cyprinus carpio (common carp) and the highly ammonia-resistant cyprinid Carassius auratus (goldfish) were exposed to 1 mM ammonia (as NH4HCO3) for 0 h (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h. Results show that HEA exposure increased ammonia accumulation significantly in the liver of all the three fish species from 24 h–48 h onwards which was associated with an increment in oxidative stress, evidenced by elevation of xanthine oxidase activity and levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Unlike in trout, H2O2 and MDA accumulation in carp and goldfish liver was restored to control levels (84 h–180 h); which was accompanied by a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbate content. Many of these defence parameters remained unaffected in trout liver, while components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) enhanced to a greater extent. The present findings suggest that trout rely mainly on glutathione dependent defensive mechanism while carp utilize SOD, CAT and ascorbate as anti-oxidative sentinels. Hepatic cells of goldfish appear to utilize each of these protective systems, and showed more effective anti-oxidative compensatory responses towards HEA than carp, while trout were least effective. The present work also indicates that HEA exposure resulted in a relatively mild oxidative stress in the gills of all three species. This probably explains the almost complete lack of anti-oxidative responses in branchial tissue. This research suggests that oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant

  11. Lewis acid catalysis and Green oxidations: sequential tandem oxidation processes induced by Mn-hyperaccumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Escande, Vincent; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Among the phytotechnologies used for the reclamation of degraded mining sites, phytoextraction aims to diminish the concentration of polluting elements in contaminated soils. However, the biomass resulting from the phytoextraction processes (highly enriched in polluting elements) is too often considered as a problematic waste. The manganese-enriched biomass derived from native Mn-hyperaccumulating plants of New Caledonia was presented here as a valuable source of metallic elements of high interest in chemical catalysis. The preparation of the catalyst Eco-Mn1 and reagent Eco-Mn2 derived from Grevillea exul exul and Grevillea exul rubiginosa was investigated. Their unusual polymetallic compositions allowed to explore new reactivity of low oxidative state of manganese-Mn(II) for Eco-Mn1 and Mn(IV) for Eco-Mn2. Eco-Mn1 was used as a Lewis acid to catalyze the acetalization/elimination of aldehydes into enol ethers with high yields; a new green and stereoselective synthesis of (-)-isopulegol via the carbonyl-ene cyclization of (+)-citronellal was also performed with Eco-Mn1. Eco-Mn2 was used as a mild oxidative reagent and controlled the oxidation of aliphatic alcohols into aldehydes with quantitative yields. Oxidative cleavage was interestingly noticed when Eco-Mn2 was used in the presence of a polyol. Eco-Mn2 allowed direct oxidative iodination of ketones without using iodine, which is strongly discouraged by new environmental legislations. Finally, the combination of the properties in the Eco-Mn catalysts and reagents gave them an unprecedented potential to perform sequential tandem oxidation processes through new green syntheses of p-cymene from (-)-isopulegol and (+)-citronellal; and a new green synthesis of functionalized pyridines by in situ oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  12. Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aruna, K; Rukkumani, R; Varma, P Suresh; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-05-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs, increasing lipid levels in humans and experimental animals. Heating of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) produces various lipid peroxidative end products that can aggravate the pathological changes produced by ethanol. In the present communication, the effect of Cuminum cyminum was investigated on alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hyperlipidaemia. The results showed increased activity of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in the plasma of rats given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control group. The levels of tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol and triglycerides were increased significantly in rats groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The levels were decreased when cumin was given along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The level of phospholipids decreased significantly in the liver and kidney of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oridized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The level increased when cumin was administered along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The activity of phospholipase A and C increased significantly in the liver of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats, whereas the activity was decreased with the cumin treatment. The results obtained indicate that cumin can decrease the lipid levels in alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hepatotoxicity.

  13. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-19

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  14. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-12-01

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other materials showing persistent photo conduction.

  15. Mechanisms of Sb(III) oxidation by pyrite-induced hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2015-03-17

    Antimony (Sb) is an element of growing interest, and its toxicity and mobility are strongly influenced by redox processes. Sb(III) oxidation mechanisms in pyrite suspensions were comprehensively investigated by kinetic measurements in oxic and anoxic conditions and simulated sunlight. Sb(III) was oxidized to Sb(V) in both solution and on pyrite surfaces in oxic conditions; the oxidation efficiency of Sb(III) was gradually enhanced with the increase of pH. The pyrite-induced hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are the oxidants for Sb(III) oxidation. ·OH is the oxidant for Sb(III) oxidation in acidic solutions, and H2O2 becomes the main oxidant in neutral and alkaline solutions. ·OH and H2O2 can be generated by the reaction of previously existing FeIII(pyrite) and H2O on pyrite in anoxic conditions. The oxygen molecule is the crucial factor in continuously producing ·OH and H2O2 for Sb(III) oxidation. The efficiency of Sb(III) oxidation was enhanced in surface-oxidized pyrite (SOP) suspension, more ·OH formed through Fenton reaction in acidic solutions, but Fe(IV) and H2O2 were formed in neutral and alkaline solutions. Under the illumination of simulated sunlight, more ·OH and H2O2 were produced in the pyrite suspension, and the oxidation efficiency of Sb(III) was remarkably enhanced. In conclusion, Sb(III) can be oxidized to Sb(V) in the presence of pyrite, which will greatly influence the fate of Sb(III) in the environment.

  16. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada; Quaroni, Andrea; Autore, Giuseppina; Severino, Lorella; Marzocco, Stefania

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine potentiates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Khan, H A; Al Deeb, S; Al Moutaery, K

    1999-11-26

    This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity in rats. The dyskinetic syndrome was produced in male Wistar rats by i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. Aminoguanidine was administered orally in the doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN in three different groups. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of aminoguanidine alone (without IDPN). Our results showed that aminoguanidine significantly and dose dependently exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements. Aminoguanidine potentiated IDPN-induced loss of air righting reflex. The histopathological examination of inner ear showed aggravation of IDPN-induced degeneration of sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris by aminoguanidine. These results suggest the role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity.

  18. Acute hypoxia and exercise-induced blood oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Graham; Kliszczewiscz, Brian; Barberio, Matthew; Ballmann, Christopher; Peters, Bridget; Slivka, Dustin; Dumke, Charles; Cuddy, John; Hailes, Walter; Ruby, Brent; Quindry, John

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxic exercise is characterized by workloads decrements. Because exercise and high altitude independently elicit redox perturbations, the study purpose was to examine hypoxic and normoxic steady-state exercise on blood oxidative stress. Active males (n = 11) completed graded cycle ergometry in normoxic (975 m) and hypoxic (3,000 m) simulated environments before programing subsequent matched intensity or workload steady-state trials. In a randomized counterbalanced crossover design, participants completed three 60-min exercise bouts to investigate the effects of hypoxia and exercise intensity on blood oxidative stress. Exercise conditions were paired as such; 60% normoxic VO(2)peak performed in a normoxic environment (normoxic intensity-normoxic environment, NI-NE), 60% hypoxic VO(2)peak performed in a normoxic environment (HI-NE), and 60% hypoxic VO(2)peak performed in a hypoxic environment (HI-HE). Blood plasma samples drawn pre (Pre), 0 (Post), 2 (2HR) and 4 (4HR) hr post exercise were analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers including ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and protein carbonyls (PCs). Repeated-measures ANOVA were performed, a priori significance of p ≤ .05. Oxygen saturation during the HI-HE trial was lower than NI-NE and HI-NE (p < .05). A Time × Trial interaction was present for LOOH (p = .013). In the HI-HE trial, LOOH were elevated for all time points post while PC (time; p = .001) decreased post exercise. As evidenced by the decrease in absolute workload during hypoxic VO(2)peak and LOOH increased during HI-HE versus normoxic exercise of equal absolute (HI-NE) and relative (NI-NE) intensities. Results suggest acute hypoxia elicits work decrements associated with post exercise oxidative stress.

  19. Cranberries inhibit LDL oxidation and induce LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Liu, Rui Hai

    2005-08-26

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Cranberries were evaluated for their potential roles in dietary prevention of CVD. Cranberry extracts were found to have potent antioxidant capacity preventing in vitro LDL oxidation with increasing delay and suppression of LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of 100 g cranberries against LDL oxidation was equivalent to 1000 mg vitamin C or 3700 mg vitamin E. Cranberry extracts also significantly induced expression of hepatic LDL receptors and increased intracellular uptake of cholesterol in HepG2 cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. This suggests that cranberries could enhance clearance of excessive plasma cholesterol in circulation. We propose that additive or synergistic effects of phytochemicals in cranberries are responsible for the inhibition of LDL oxidation, the induced expression of LDL receptors, and the increased uptake of cholesterol in hepatocytes.

  20. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage.

    PubMed

    Hernández, José A; López-Sánchez, Rosa C; Rendón-Ramírez, Adela

    2016-01-01

    The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms.

  1. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms. PMID:26949445

  2. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (–/–) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (–/–) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (–/–) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22512859

  3. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (-/-) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative Hemolysis of Erythrocytes Induced by Various Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. H.; Sallam, S. M.; Omar, H.; Rizk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hemolytic effect of some water-soluble vitamins (niacin B5, pyridoxine B6, thiamine B1 and ascorbic and acid C) on erythrocytes was studied spectrophotometrically at relatively high concentration. The oxidation mechanism of hemoglobin was the same for the used vitamins. Vitamin C was the strongest hemolytic agent in comparison with the other vitamins, while vitamin B1 is the weakest one. The results were confirmed by studying the variation in conductivity of erythrocytes with temperature in the range 20-40°C for the used vitamins at a concentration of 2 mM and after two hours from adding each vitamin to the erythrocytes suspension. The conductivity measurements show that the conductivity for the used vitamins is lower than that for control (without adding vitamin) due to hemoglobin oxidation, also may be due to the electrical reorganization of the erythrocyte membrane after the interaction of the used vitamin with it. The obtained results insure the oxidizing effect of the used vitamins on hemoglobin and consequently their hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. PMID:23674994

  5. Oxidative stress induces overgrowth of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Milton, Valerie J.; Jarrett, Helen E.; Gowers, Kate; Chalak, Salma; Briggs, Laura; Robinson, Iain M.; Sweeney, Sean T.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic terminals are known to expand and contract throughout an animal's life. The physiological constraints and demands that regulate appropriate synaptic growth and connectivity are currently poorly understood. In previous work, we identified a Drosophila model of lysosomal storage disease (LSD), spinster (spin), with larval neuromuscular synapse overgrowth. Here we identify a reactive oxygen species (ROS) burden in spin that may be attributable to previously identified lipofuscin deposition and lysosomal dysfunction, a cellular hallmark of LSD. Reducing ROS in spin mutants rescues synaptic overgrowth and electrophysiological deficits. Synapse overgrowth was also observed in mutants defective for protection from ROS and animals subjected to excessive ROS. ROS are known to stimulate JNK and fos signaling. Furthermore, JNK and fos in turn are known potent activators of synapse growth and function. Inhibiting JNK and fos activity in spin rescues synapse overgrowth and electrophysiological deficits. Similarly, inhibiting JNK, fos, and jun activity in animals with excessive oxidative stress rescues the overgrowth phenotype. These data suggest that ROS, via activation of the JNK signaling pathway, are a major regulator of synapse overgrowth. In LSD, increased autophagy contributes to lysosomal storage and, presumably, elevated levels of oxidative stress. In support of this suggestion, we report here that impaired autophagy function reverses synaptic overgrowth in spin. Our data describe a previously unexplored link between oxidative stress and synapse overgrowth via the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:21987827

  6. Oxytocin induced oxidative stress in lactating Bubalis bubalis (Nili Ravi)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxytocin has been reported for a wide range of adverse effects in different species of lactating animals. The present study was aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of oxytocin on biomarkers of oxidative stress in buffaloes. Lactating buffaloes (n = 40) were randomly selected from a commercial dairy farm located in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan and divided into two equal groups viz. treatment and control groups, each containing 20 buffaloes. Buffaloes in treatment group were injected with oxytocin before each milking (morning and evening) for milk let down; whereas, animals in control group were milked naturally without oxytocin injection. Both the groups were assessed for oxidative stress biomarkers. Results Results showed significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of TOS, tHcy and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity in lactating buffaloes injected with oxytocin as compared to those of control group. On the other hand, serum levels of TAS, PON1 and arylesterase were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the buffaloes of treatment group. Conclusions Oxytocin injection in lactating buffaloes resulted in elevated oxidative stress by increasing the total homocysteine and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity and decreasing enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes including paraoxonase-1 and arylesterase; that might render the animals to poor productive and reproductive potential. PMID:23981231

  7. Wet air oxidation induced enhanced biodegradability of distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Malik, S N; Saratchandra, T; Tembhekar, P D; Padoley, K V; Mudliar, S L; Mudliar, S N

    2014-04-01

    The present study reports the feasibility of Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a pretreatment option for enhanced biodegradation of complex distillery effluent. Initially, the distillery effluent was pretreated by WAO at different process conditions (pressure, temperature and time) to facilitate enhancement in the biodegradability index (BI = BOD5: COD ratio). The biodegradability of WAO pretreated effluent was evaluated by subjecting it to aerobic biodegradation and anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation. Aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent with enhanced biodegradability index (BI = 0.4-0.8) showed enhanced COD reduction of up to 67.7%, whereas the untreated effluent (BI = 0.17) indicated poor COD reduction of only 22.5%. Anaerobic followed by aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent has shown up to 87.9% COD reduction, while the untreated effluent has shown only 43.1% COD reduction. Bio-kinetic parameters also confirmed the increased rate of bio-oxidation at enhanced BIs. The results indicate that the WAO pretreatment facilitates enhanced bio-oxidation/bio-degradation of complex effluents like the distillery spent wash.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-10-17

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK){zeta}, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGK{zeta} siRNA transfection decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGK{zeta} also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGK{zeta} rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGK{zeta}, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells.

  9. Involvement of endothelium/nitric oxide in vasorelaxation induced by purified green tea (-)epicatechin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Chan, N W; Lau, C W; Yao, X Q; Chan, F L; Chen, Z Y

    1999-04-19

    The present study investigated the involvement of endothelial nitric oxide in relaxation induced by purified green tea (-)epicatechin in rat isolated mesenteric arteries. (-)Epicatechin caused both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) and methylene blue (10 microM) significantly attenuated (-)epicatechin-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact tissues. L-Arginine (1 mM) partially antagonized the effect of L-NAME. (-)Epicatechin-induced relaxation was inhibited by Rp-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate triethylamine. In contrast, indomethacin and glibenclamide had no effect. (-)Epicatechin (100 microM) significantly increased the tissue content of cyclic GMP and NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) or removal of the endothelium abolished this increase. (-)Epicatechin (100 microM) induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Iberiotoxin at 100 nM attenuated (-)epicatechin-induced relaxation in endothelium-intact arteries and this effect was absent in the presence of 100 microM L-NAME. In summary, (-)epicatechin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation is primarily mediated by nitric oxide and partially through nitric oxide-dependent activation of iberiotoxin-sensitive K+ channels. In addition, there may be a causal link between increased Ca2+ levels and nitric oxide release in response to (-)epicatechin.

  10. The Endogenous Nitric Oxide Mediates Selenium-Induced Phytotoxicity by Promoting ROS Generation in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

  11. Oxidative stress–dependent phosphorylation activates ZNRF1 to induce neuronal/axonal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wakatsuki, Shuji; Furuno, Akiko; Ohshima, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a well-known inducer of neuronal apoptosis and axonal degeneration. We previously showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 promotes Wallerian degeneration by degrading AKT to induce GSK3B activation. We now demonstrate that oxidative stress serves as an activator of the ubiquitin ligase activity of ZNRF1 by inducing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mediated phosphorylation at the 103rd tyrosine residue and that the up-regulation of ZNRF1 activity by oxidative stress leads to neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. We also show that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate–reduced oxidase activity is required for the EGFR-dependent phosphorylation-induced activation of ZNRF1 and resultant AKT degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system to induce Wallerian degeneration. These results indicate the pathophysiological significance of the EGFR–ZNRF1 pathway induced by oxidative stress in the regulation of neuronal apoptosis and Wallerian degeneration. A deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanism for ZNRF1 catalytic activity via phosphorylation will provide a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegeneration. PMID:26572622

  12. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P M

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate & brain GSH levels along with increase in serum & brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. © 2013.

  13. Effects of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin on heterocyclic amines-induced oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Haza, Ana Isabel; Morales, Paloma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin against 2-amino-3,8- dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (8-MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (4,8-diMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced DNA damage in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. Increasing concentrations of 8-MeIQx, 4,8-diMeIQx and PhIP induced a significant increase in DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines in a dose-dependent manner. Among those, PhIP (300 µm) exerted the highest genotoxicity. (+)-Catechin exerted protection against oxidized purines induced by 8-MeIQx, 4,8-diMeIQx and PhIP. Oxidized pyrimidines and DNA strand breaks induced by PhIP were also prevented by (+)-catechin. Otherwise, (-)-epicatechin protected against the oxidized pyrimidines induced by PhIP and the oxidized purines induced by 8-MeIQx and 4,8-diMeIQx. One feasible mechanism by which (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin exert their protective effect towards heterocyclic amines-induced oxidative DNA damage may be by modulation of phase I and II enzyme activities. The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (CYP1A1) activity was moderately inhibited by (+)-catechin, while little effect was observed by (-)-epicatechin. However, (+)-catechin showed the greatest increase in UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity. In conclusion, our results clearly indicate that (+)-catechin was more efficient than (-)-epicatechin in preventing DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) induced by PhIP than that induced by 8-MeIQx and 4,8-diMeIQx. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Anti-oxidative effects of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on immobilization-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Sun; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea's ability to (i) reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA), (ii) prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO), (iii) restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD), (iv) regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio), and (v) modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT).

  15. Anti-Oxidative Effects of Rooibos Tea (Aspalathus linearis) on Immobilization-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to chronic psychological stress may be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) or free radicals, and thus, long-term exposure to high levels of oxidative stress may cause the accumulation of oxidative damage and eventually lead to many neurodegenerative diseases. Compared with other organs, the brain appears especially susceptible to excessive oxidative stress due to its high demand for oxygen. In the case of excessive ROS production, endogenous defense mechanisms against ROS may not be sufficient to suppress ROS-associated oxidative damage. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to protect neurons against a variety of experimental neurodegenerative conditions. In particular, Rooibos tea might be a good source of antioxidants due to its larger proportion of polyphenolic compounds. An optimal animal model for stress should show the features of a stress response and should be able to mimic natural stress progression. However, most animal models of stress, such as cold-restraint, electric foot shock, and burn shock, usually involve physical abuse in addition to the psychological aspects of stress. Animals subjected to chronic restraint or immobilization are widely believed to be a convenient and reliable model to mimic psychological stress. Therefore, in the present study, we propose that immobilization-induced oxidative stress was significantly attenuated by treatment with Rooibos tea. This conclusion is demonstrated by Rooibos tea’s ability to (i) reverse the increase in stress-related metabolites (5-HIAA and FFA), (ii) prevent lipid peroxidation (LPO), (iii) restore stress-induced protein degradation (PD), (iv) regulate glutathione metabolism (GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio), and (v) modulate changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT). PMID:24466326

  16. Protective role of quercetin on PCBs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2012-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  17. Modulation of Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative/Nitrative Stress in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Sárközy, Márta; Pipicz, Márton; Dux, László; Csont, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a frequent metabolic disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition to its well-known proatherogenic effect, hypercholesterolemia may exert direct effects on the myocardium resulting in contractile dysfunction, aggravated ischemia/reperfusion injury, and diminished stress adaptation. Both preclinical and clinical studies suggested that elevated oxidative and/or nitrative stress plays a key role in cardiac complications induced by hypercholesterolemia. Therefore, modulation of hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress is a feasible approach to prevent or treat deleterious cardiac consequences. In this review, we discuss the effects of various pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, some novel potential pharmacological approaches, and physical exercise on hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative/nitrative stress and subsequent cardiac dysfunction as well as impaired ischemic stress adaptation of the heart in hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26788247

  18. Field-induced activation of metal oxide semiconductor for low temperature flexible transparent electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony; Haglund, Amada; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip

    Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as an active channel material in thin film transistors due to their high carrier mobility, and excellent large-area uniformity. Here, we report the athermal activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels by an electric field-induced oxygen migration via gating through an ionic liquid. Using field-induced activation, a transparent flexible thin film transistor is demonstrated on a polyamide substrate with transistor characteristics having a current ON-OFF ratio exceeding 108, and saturation field effect mobility of 8.32 cm2/(V.s) without a post-deposition thermal treatment. This study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as an athermal alternative to traditional post-deposition thermal annealing for metal oxide electronic devices suitable for transparent and flexible polymer substrates. Materials Science and Technology Division, ORBL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  19. Protective effects of Asian green vegetables against oxidant induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzyme inducing ability of green leaf vegetables consumed in Asia. METHODS: The antioxidant properties of six commonly consumed Asian vegetables were determined using the ABTS, DPPH, deoxyribose, PR bleaching and iron- ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation assay. Induce of phase II detoxification enzymes was also determined for each respective vegetable extract. Protection against authentic ONOO- and HOCl mediated cytotoxicity in human colon HCT116 cells was determined using the MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide) viability assay. RESULTS: All of the extracts derived from green leaf vegetables exhibited antioxidant properties, while also having cytoprotective effects against ONOO- and HOCl mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, evaluation of the phase II enzyme inducing ability of each extract, as assessed by quinone reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, showed significant variation between the vegetables analyzed. CONCLUSION: Green leaf vegetables are potential sources of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzyme inducers in the Asian diet. It is likely that consumption of such vegetables is a major source of beneficial phytochemical constituents that may protect against colonic damage. PMID:16437686

  20. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition induces leukocyte adhesion via superoxide and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kubes, P; Kanwar, S; Niu, X F; Gaboury, J P

    1993-10-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that inhibition of nitric oxide production with various nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors (L-NAME, L-NMMA) initiate leukocyte adhesion to postcapillary venules. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism (or mechanisms) that promote the L-NAME-induced leukocyte response. Intravital microscopy was used to examine 25-40 microns venules in the rat mesentery. Nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited with L-NAME and leukocyte adhesion was observed over the first 60 min. The fourfold increase in leukocyte adhesion was independent of alterations in venular red blood cell velocity. The adhesion was superoxide-mediated inasmuch as superoxide dismutase (SOD) abolished the rise in leukocyte adhesion associated with nitric oxide synthesis inhibition. Ketotifen, a mast cell stabilizer, also abolished the rise in leukocyte adhesion induced by L-NAME. Histology revealed that mast cell degranulation occurred only in animals treated with L-NAME but not in animals pretreated with SOD or ketotifen. This observation suggests that mast cells become activated in the absence of nitric oxide production and superoxide contributes to the mast cell activation. The L-NAME-induced leukocyte adhesion could be reproduced by infusing hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase (a superoxide generating system) or compound 48/80 (an activator of mast cells) and both responses were attenuated by ketotifen. These data suggest that inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis results in a superoxide and mast cell-dependent leukocyte adhesion.

  1. Oxidative Stress Induces Mouse Follicular Granulosa Cells Apoptosis via JNK/FoxO1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Qiannan; Liu, Zequn; Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays an important role in the regulation of cell apoptosis. Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors are involved in diverse biological processes, including cellular metabolism, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, the JNK/FoxO1 pathway involved in the process of apoptosis induced by oxidative stress remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that the JNK activity significantly increased in response to oxidative stress in mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs). SP600125, a selective JNK inhibitor, attenuated the oxidative stress-induced MGCs apoptosis. Oxidative stress enhanced the FoxO1 nuclear translocation by activating the JNK activity. Moreover, JNK mediated the dissociation of FoxO1 from 14-3-3 proteins in MGCs after the treatment with H2O2. Finally, oxidative stress up-regulated the expression of FoxO1 via JNK mediation of FoxO1 self-regulation in MGCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that JNK/FoxO1 is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis in MGCs. PMID:27936150

  2. Curcumin-Protected PC12 Cells Against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Hua-Xin; Yü, George

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter present in the central nervous system. The glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc– connects the antioxidant defense with neurotransmission and behaviour. Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces neuronal death, a pathway called excitotoxicity. Glutamate-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases including cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. Curcuma has a wide spectrum of biological activities regarding neuroprotection and neurocognition. By reducing the oxidative damage, curcumin attenuates a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury, seizures and hippocampal neuronal loss. The rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line exhibits many characteristics useful for the study of the neuroprotection and neurocognition. This investigation was carried out to determine whether the neuroprotective effects of curcumin can be observed via the glutamate-PC12 cell model. Results indicate that glutamate (20 mM) upregulated glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione disulphide, Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide production, cytochrome c release, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and downregulated glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, resulting in enhanced cell apoptosis. Curcumin alleviates all these adverse effects. Conclusively, curcumin can effectively protect PC12 cells against the glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity. Its mode of action involves two pathways: the glutathione-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway and the mitochondria-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway. PMID:27904320

  3. UVR-induced G-C to C-G transversions from oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kino, Katsuhito; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2005-04-01

    Many oxidizing agents induce G-C to T-A and G-C to C-G transversions, and the frequency largely depends on the oxidative conditions. Guanine is the most oxidizable base among natural bases. The typical oxidative lesion product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is responsible for G-C to T-A transversion but not for G-C to C-G transversion, and 8-oxoG is more readily oxidized than guanine because of its lowered ionization potential. Recently, imidazolone (Iz), guanidinohydantoin (Gh) and spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) have been demonstrated as oxidative lesion products of guanine and 8-oxoG, which could be responsible for G-C to C-G transversions by forming specific base pair formations.

  4. Effect of glucocorticoid-induced oxidative stress on the expression of Cbfa1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Ling; Tang, Xu-Lei

    2014-01-25

    Glucocorticoids therapy is strongly limited since extended glucocorticoids can cause serious side effects, including increased susceptibility to develop the bone disease osteoporosis. Despite its side effects recognized importance to clinicians, seldom is known about how glucocorticoids directly impact bone-forming osteoblasts. Previous studies showed that dexamethasone (DEX) induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and causes oxidative stress in rat hippocampal slice cultures. To assess the implications and investigate the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-elicited osteoporosis, we hypothesize that DEX exposure induces oxidative stress which leads to decreased Cbfa1 mRNA expression, and predict that the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mitigates the damaging effects of DEX. Oxidative stress is implicated in osteoporosis. Furthermore, the osteoblast transcriptional factor Cbfa1 is reported to play a protective role against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cells treated with (0.1, 1, 10μM) DEX exhibited signs of oxidative damages including depletion in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), increased ROS formation, and enhanced lipid peroxidation. Cbfa1 mRNA expression, by RT-PCR, was significantly reduced after exposure to (0.1, 1, 10μM) DEX. Pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC (2mM) prevented DEX-induced decrease in Cbfa1 mRNA. This study provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of high dose DEX-induced osteotoxicity. DEX (0.1, 1, 10μM) decreases the expression of Cbfa1 mRNA and inhibits differentiation and function of osteoblasts by inducing oxidative stress. The antioxidant NAC can mitigate the oxidative stress damaging effects of DEX. In addition, this study distinguishes itself by identifying Cbfa1 as a target for high dose DEX-induced osteotoxicity.

  5. Modification of radiation-induced oxidative damage in liposomal and microsomal membrane by eugenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B. N.; Lathika, K. M.; Mishra, K. P.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation-induced membrane oxidative damage, and their modification by eugenol, a natural antioxidant, was investigated in liposomes and microsomes. Liposomes prepared with DPH showed decrease in fluorescence after γ-irradiation, which was prevented significantly by eugenol and correlated with magnitude of oxidation of phospholipids. Presence of eugenol resulted in substantial inhibition in MDA formation in irradiated liposomes/microsomes, which was less effective when added after irradiation. Similarly, the increase in phospholipase C activity observed after irradiation in microsomes was inhibited in samples pre-treated with eugenol. Results suggest association of radio- oxidative membrane damage with alterations in signaling molecules, and eugenol significantly prevented these membrane damaging events.

  6. p38 MAP kinase mediates nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Chan, S L; Milhavet, O; Wang, S; Mattson, M P

    2001-11-16

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) can proliferate, differentiate into neurons or glial cells, or undergo a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Although death of NPC occurs during development of the nervous system and in the adult, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) can induce death of C17.2 NPC by a mechanism requiring activation of p38 MAP kinase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspase-3. Nitric oxide causes release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and Bcl-2 protects the neural progenitor cells against nitric oxide-induced death, consistent with a pivotal role for mitochondrial changes in controlling the cell death process. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 abolished NO-induced cell death, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3, indicating that p38 activation serves as an upstream mediator in the cell death process. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 protected NPC against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis and suppressed activation of p38 MAP kinase. The ability of nitric oxide to trigger death of NPC by a mechanism involving p38 MAP kinase suggests that this diffusible gas may regulate NPC fate in physiological and pathological settings in which NO is produced.

  7. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin‑induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells.

  8. A Topical Mitochondria-Targeted Redox-Cycling Nitroxide Mitigates Oxidative Stress-Induced Skin Damage.

    PubMed

    Brand, Rhonda M; Epperly, Michael W; Stottlemyer, J Mark; Skoda, Erin M; Gao, Xiang; Li, Song; Huq, Saiful; Wipf, Peter; Kagan, Valerian E; Greenberger, Joel S; Falo, Louis D

    2017-03-01

    Skin is the largest human organ, and it provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation-induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis caused by UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation-induced oxidative stress. Efforts to prevent or mitigate radiation damage have included development of antioxidants capable of reducing reactive oxygen species. Mitochondria are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis plays a major role in radiation-induced tissue damage. We reasoned that targeting a redox cycling nitroxide to mitochondria could prevent reactive oxygen species accumulation, limiting downstream oxidative damage and preserving mitochondrial function. Here we show that in both mouse and human skin, topical application of a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant prevents and mitigates radiation-induced skin damage characterized by clinical dermatitis, loss of barrier function, inflammation, and fibrosis. Further, damage mitigation is associated with reduced apoptosis, preservation of the skin's antioxidant capacity, and reduction of irreversible DNA and protein oxidation associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. C-phycocyanin prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity through inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Negrette-Guzmán, Mario; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antioxidant C-phycocyanin (C-PC, 5-30 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was able to prevent cisplatin (CP, 18 mg kg(-1) i.p.) induced nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress in CD-1 mice. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by measuring blood urea nitrogen, plasma glutathione peroxidase, plasma creatinine, the renal activity of N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, apoptosis and histopathological changes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the content of glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and oxidized proteins in renal tissue. C-PC prevented CP-induced renal damage and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, C-PC prevented the decrease in the renal activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase induced by cisplatin. In vitro assays showed that C-PC was an effective scavenger of the following reactive species: hypochlorous acid, peroxynitrite anions, peroxyl radicals, diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. It is concluded that the protective effect of the nutraceutical C-PC against CP-induced nephrotoxicity was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress and the preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Oxidative stress involvement in Physalis angulata-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, H-Z; Liu, W-Z; Hsieh, W-T; Tang, F-Y; Chung, J-G; Leung, Henry W-C

    2009-03-01

    In this report, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in Physalis angulata-induced apoptosis of human oral cancer cells. P. angulata-induced apoptosis was characterized by nuclear morphological changes, membrane blebbing and activation of caspase-9. Exposure of HSC-3 cells to P. angulata caused production of reactive oxygen species and up-regulation of oxidative stress markers heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and caspase-4. Down-regulation of HO-1, SOD and HSP70 proteins expression by attenuation of oxidative stress, pretreatment with glutathione or N-acetylcysteine, significantly decreased P. angulata-triggered cell death. The present study also demonstrated that the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum are the targets of P. angulata in HSC-3 cells. Our results revealed that: (1) reactive oxygen species may play a dominant role in this process, (2) P. angulata induces oxidative stress in HSC-3 cells, (3) P. angulata-initiated apoptosis is caused through oxidative stress-dependent induction of heme oxygenase-1, Cu/Zn SOD and HSP70 proteins expression and (4) antioxidants inhibited P. angulata-induced cell death through inhibition of the proteins expression of HO-1, Cu/Zn SOD and HSP70.

  11. URI prevents potassium dichromate-induced oxidative stress and cell death in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dongwei; Xu, Zhonghai; Hu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Fei; Bian, Huiqin; Li, Na; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yaojuan; Zheng, Qiping; Gu, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Chromium VI can provoke oxidative stress, DNA damage, cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Aberrantly high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been associated with oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. Notably, multiple previous studies have shown the increased level of ROS in chromium (VI) induced oxidative stress, but its effect on cell death and the underlying mechanism remain to be determined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of URI, an unconventional prefoldin RBP5 interactor, in potassium dichromate induced oxidative stress and cell death through in vitro loss-of-function studies. We have shown that knockdown of URI in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells by URI siRNA enhanced potassium dichromate-induced production of ROS. The level of rH2AX, a marker of DNA damage, was significantly increased, along with a reduced cell viability in URI siRNA treated cells that were also exposed to potassium dichromate. Comet assay showed that URI knockdown increased the tail moment in potassium dichromate-treated SGC-7901 cells. Accordingly, the cell rates of apoptosis and necrosis were also increased in URI knockdown cells treated with potassium dichromate at different concentrations. Together, these results suggest that URI is preventive for the oxidative stress and cell death induced by potassium dichromate, which potentially leads to cancer cell survival and therapeutic resistance. PMID:28078011

  12. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  13. Periostin expression induced by oxidative stress contributes to myocardial fibrosis in a rat model of high salt-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    WU, HAN; CHEN, LIANG; XIE, JUN; LI, RAN; LI, GUAN-NAN; CHEN, QIN-HUA; ZHANG, XIN-LIN; KANG, LI-NA; XU, BIAO

    2016-01-01

    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein involved in fibrosis. The present study investigated the importance of periostin in hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis. Rats were randomly divided into either the normal group (0.4% NaCl diet; n=8) or hypertension group (8% NaCl diet; n=8). For 36 weeks, the blood pressure and heart rate of the rats were monitored. At week 36, the hearts were extracted for further analysis. Masson's staining and western blotting were performed to determine the levels of periostin protein expression, oxidative stress and fibrosis. In addition, fibroblasts were isolated from adult rats and cultured in vitro, and following treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), western blotting, immunofluorescence and 2′,7′ dichlorodihydrofluorescin staining were performed to examine reactive oxygen species production, and periostin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression levels. The results demonstrated that periostin expression and oxidative stress were increased in hypertensive hearts compared with normal hearts. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that Ang II upregulated the expression levels of periostin and α-SMA compared with the control, whereas, pretreatment with NAC inhibited oxidative stress, periostin and α-SMA expression in fibroblasts. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggested that oxidative stress-induced periostin is involved in myocardial fibrosis and hypertension. The present study demonstrated that periostin inhibition may be a promising approach for the inhibition of hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. PMID:27220372

  14. Globally important nitrous oxide emissions from croplands induced by freeze-thaw cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Riddle, Claudia; Congreves, Katelyn A.; Abalos, Diego; Berg, Aaron A.; Brown, Shannon E.; Ambadan, Jaison Thomas; Gao, Xiaopeng; Tenuta, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Seasonal freezing induces large thaw emissions of nitrous oxide, a trace gas that contributes to stratospheric ozone destruction and atmospheric warming. Cropland soils are by far the largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide. However, the global contribution of seasonal freezing to nitrous oxide emissions from croplands is poorly quantified, mostly due to the lack of year-round measurements and difficulty in capturing short-lived pulses of nitrous oxide with traditional measurement methods. Here we present measurements collected with half-hourly resolution at two contrasting cropland sites in Ontario and Manitoba, Canada, over 14 and 9 years, respectively. We find that the magnitude of freeze-thaw-induced nitrous oxide emissions is related to the number of days with soil temperatures below 0 °C, and we validate these findings with emissions data from 11 additional sites from cold climates around the globe. Based on an estimate of cropland area experiencing seasonal freezing, reanalysis model estimates of soil temperature, and the relationship between cumulative soil freezing days and emissions that we derived from the cropland sites, we estimate that seasonally frozen cropland contributes 1.07 +/- 0.59 Tg of nitrogen as nitrous oxide annually. We conclude that neglecting freeze-thaw emissions would lead to an underestimation of global agricultural nitrous oxide emissions by 17 to 28%.

  15. Oxidants Induce a Corticosteroid-Insensitive Phosphorylation of Histone 3 at Serine 10 in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marwick, John A.; Tudor, Corina; Khorasani, Nadia; Michaeloudes, Charalambos; Bhavsar, Pankaj K.; Chung, Kian F.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress enhances inflammation and reduces the effectiveness of corticosteroids, but the inflammatory signalling pathways induced by oxidants remain ill-defined. Phosphorylation of histone 3 at serine 10 (H3-Pser10) marks out a subset of inflammatory genes for transcription, several of which are induced in oxidant-associated inflammation. However, the influence of oxidants or of corticosteroids on this modification remains unknown. We assessed the regulation of H3-Pser10 by oxidants and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human blood monocytes and lung macrophages and the effectiveness of its abolition in controlling inflammatory gene expression in cells from asthmatic subjects compared to corticosteroids alone. Both oxidants and LPS promoted the induction of H3-Pser10 which was unaffected by corticosteroids. The induction of H3-Pser10 was mediated through p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) signalling. Consequently, inhibitors of p38α MAPK or IKK-2 used in combination with dexamethasone were more effective at controlling inflammatory gene expression from monocytes and lung macrophages from asthmatic patients than the corticosteroid alone. Therefore, reduction of H3-Pser10 by inhibition of p38α MAPK or of IKK-2 may provide greater anti-inflammatory control than corticosteroids alone in oxidant-associated inflammation such as severe asthma. PMID:25905622

  16. Oxidants induce a corticosteroid-insensitive phosphorylation of histone 3 at serine 10 in monocytes.

    PubMed

    Marwick, John A; Tudor, Corina; Khorasani, Nadia; Michaeloudes, Charalambos; Bhavsar, Pankaj K; Chung, Kian F

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress enhances inflammation and reduces the effectiveness of corticosteroids, but the inflammatory signalling pathways induced by oxidants remain ill-defined. Phosphorylation of histone 3 at serine 10 (H3-Pser10) marks out a subset of inflammatory genes for transcription, several of which are induced in oxidant-associated inflammation. However, the influence of oxidants or of corticosteroids on this modification remains unknown. We assessed the regulation of H3-Pser10 by oxidants and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human blood monocytes and lung macrophages and the effectiveness of its abolition in controlling inflammatory gene expression in cells from asthmatic subjects compared to corticosteroids alone. Both oxidants and LPS promoted the induction of H3-Pser10 which was unaffected by corticosteroids. The induction of H3-Pser10 was mediated through p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and IκB kinase 2 (IKK-2) signalling. Consequently, inhibitors of p38α MAPK or IKK-2 used in combination with dexamethasone were more effective at controlling inflammatory gene expression from monocytes and lung macrophages from asthmatic patients than the corticosteroid alone. Therefore, reduction of H3-Pser10 by inhibition of p38α MAPK or of IKK-2 may provide greater anti-inflammatory control than corticosteroids alone in oxidant-associated inflammation such as severe asthma.

  17. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on copper induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Geetha, A; Surendran, R

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate copper (Cu++) induced oxidation state of LDL isolated from obstructive jaundice (OBJ) patients with hyperlipidemia and the effect of UDCA on the same. LDL was isolated and oxidation was induced by 5 mM CuSO4 with/without UDCA at different concentrations. LDL oxidation was assessed at different time intervals in terms of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and 'thiobarbituric acid reacting substances' (TBARS). The change in the level of endogenous LDL alpha-tocopherol was also monitored simultaneously. The oxidisability of LDL isolated from OBJ patients was significantly higher and showed a steep increase in the level of conjugated diene formation without any lag phase. In normal samples the oxidation proceeded slowly with a lag phase. This was also evidenced by the level of formation of hydroperoxides and TBARS. The basal level of LDL alpha-tocopherol was significantly low in OBJ samples. UDCA was found to delay the oxidation of LDL in a dose dependent manner. The consumption of alpha-tocopherol was found to be minimum in the presence of UDCA. The results of this investigation show that there is a high susceptibility of LDL to oxidation in OBJ cases and this may be due to low endogenous LDL alpha-tocopherol content. UDCA minimizes LDL oxidation in dose dependent manner, which is an additional evidence for its antioxidant nature.

  18. Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced oxidative stress differentially alters proteasome composition and activities in heart and aorta.

    PubMed

    Derouiche, Faouzia; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Naïmi, Dalila; Coëffier, Moïse

    2014-09-26

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with cardiovascular diseases and is thought to induce endogenous oxidative stress and causes many cellular damages. Proteasome that degrades oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins can regulate the cellular response to oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate whether hyperhomocysteinemia induces oxidative stress and alters proteasome function and composition in heart and aorta tissues of rat. To create hyperhomocysteinemia, male Wistar rats (Pasteur Institute-Algiers) were received daily intraperitoneal injections of dl-homocysteine (0.6-1.2μM/g body weight) for 3weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were first measured by biochemical methods and tissue damages by histological sections. Proteasome activities were quantitated using fluorogenic synthetic peptides; ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome subunits expression were then evaluated by SDS PAGE and Western blot analysis. We showed increased MDA and PC but decreased SOD and CAT levels both in plasma, heart and aorta accompanied by histological changes. A significant decrease of proteasome activities was observed in heart, whereas proteasome activity was not affected in aorta. However proteasome composition was altered in both tissues, as the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. Data demonstrated an alteration of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in hyperhomocysteinemia as a result of accumulating oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins in response to oxidative stress. Further studies must be conducted to better understanding mechanisms responsible of proteasome alterations in hyperhomocysteinemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of dietary carbohydrate on zinc-deficiency-induced changes in oxidative defense mechanisms and tissue oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Keen, C L

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary carbohydrate type on the expression of zinc (Zn) deficiency in rats with respect to tissue oxidative damage and defense mechanisms. Rats were fed diets containing adequate (+Zn) or low concentrations (-Zn) of Zn. Both fructose- and glucose-based diets were tested. Pair-fed controls were also studied to evaluate changes in the oxidative defense system which are secondary to Zn-deficiency-induced anorexia. Plasma and liver Zn concentrations and CuZn superoxide dismutase activities were lower in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats. Liver glutathione (GSH) and disulfide glutathione concentrations were higher in the -Zn rats than in the +Zn rats; this difference was most pronounced in the fructose groups. Liver and heart selenium glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) activities were lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in the +Zn-fructose group. Liver Se-GSH-Px activity was higher in the fructose groups than in the glucose groups. Liver GSH reductase (GSH-Red) activity was lower in the -Zn-fructose group than in its control group. Liver glutamine synthetase activity was lower in the -Zn-glucose group and in the fructose groups than in the glucose control group. Liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) production was similar among the groups. Collectively, these results support the concept that Zn deficiency can result in an impaired oxidant defense system. Based on the observation that pair-fed control animals also showed evidence of oxidative damage, we suggest that one factor that contributes to the effect of Zn deficiency is the reduction in caloric intake that occurs in these animals. Fructose feeding resulted in increased activities of several of the oxidant defense enzymes. Protein oxidative damage assessed by glutamine synthetase activity was increased by both Zn deficiency and fructose feeding.

  20. High-Frequency-Induced Cathodic Breakdown during Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Braithwaite, N. St. J.; Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.

    2017-09-01

    The present communication shows the possibility of observing microdischarges under cathodic polarization during plasma electrolytic oxidation at high frequency. Cathodic microdischarges can ignite beyond a threshold frequency found close to 2 kHz. The presence (respectively, absence) of an electrical double layer is put forward to explain how the applied voltage can be screened, which therefore prevents (respectively, promotes) the ignition of a discharge. Interestingly, in the conditions of the present study, the electrical double layer requires between 175 and 260 μ s to form. This situates the expected threshold frequency between 1.92 and 2.86 kHz, which is in good agreement with the value obtained experimentally.

  1. Friction-induced surface activity of some hydrocarbons with clean and oxide-covered iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Sliding friction studies were conducted on a clean and oxide-covered iron surface with exposure of that surface to various hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbons included ethane, ethylene ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and vinyl chloride. Auger cylindrical mirror analysis was used to follow interactions of the hydrocarbon with the iron surface. Results with vinyl chloride indicate friction induced surface reactivity, adsorption to surface oxides, friction sensitivity to concentration and polymerization. Variation in the loads employed influence adsorption and accordingly friction. In contrast with ethyl and vinyl chloride, friction induced surface reactivity was not observed with ethane and ethylene.

  2. Effect of Kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W

    2000-07-01

    The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Hot-carrier-induced on-resistance degradation of step gate oxide NLDMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Han; Bin, Zhang; Koubao, Ding; Shifeng, Zhang; Chenggong, Han; Jiaxian, Hu; Dazhong, Zhu

    2010-12-01

    The hot-carrier-induced on-resistance degradations of step gate oxide NLDMOS (SG-NLDMOS) transistors are investigated in detail by a DC voltage stress experiment, a TCAD simulation and a charge pumping test. For different stress conditions, degradation behaviors of SG-NLDMOS transistors are analyzed and degradation mechanisms are presented. Then the effect of various doses of n-type drain drift (NDD) region implant on Ron degradation is investigated. Experimental results show that a lower NDD dosage can reduce the hot-carrier induced Ron degradation effectively, which is different from uniform gate oxide NLDMOS (UG-NLDMOS) transistors.

  4. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  5. Oxidative stress is involved in Dasatinib-induced apoptosis in rat primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Tao; Luo, Peihua; Zhu, Hong; Zhao, Yuqin; Wu, Honghai; Gai, Renhua; Wu, Youping; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xiaochun; He, Qiaojun

    2012-06-15

    Dasatinib, a multitargeted inhibitor of BCR–ABL and SRC kinases, exhibits antitumor activity and extends the survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, some patients suffer from hepatotoxicity, which occurs through an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we found that Dasatinib could induce hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Dasatinib reduced the cell viability of rat primary hepatocytes, induced the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vitro, and triggered the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo. Apoptotic markers (chromatin condensation, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP) were detected to indicate that the injury induced by Dasatinib in hepatocytes in vitro was mediated by apoptosis. This result was further validated in vivo using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. Here we found that Dasatinib dramatically increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hepatocytes, reduced the intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, attenuated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), generated malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) related to oxidative stress and survival. These results confirm that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Dasatinib-mediated hepatotoxicity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a typical antioxidant, can scavenge free radicals, attenuate oxidative stress, and protect hepatocytes against Dasatinib-induced injury. Thus, relieving oxidative stress is a viable strategy for reducing Dasatinib-induced hepatotoxicity. -- Highlights: ►Dasatinib shows potential hepatotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. ►Apoptosis plays a vital role in Dasatinib-induced

  6. Roles of oxidative stress in synchrotron radiation X-ray-induced testicular damage of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingxin; Nie, Hui; Sheng, Caibin; Chen, Heyu; Wang, Ban; Liu, Tengyuan; Shao, Jiaxiang; He, Xin; Zhang, Tingting; Zheng, Chaobo; Xia, Weiliang; Ying, Weihai

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has characteristic properties such as coherence and high photon flux, which has excellent potential for its applications in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, there is little information regarding the mechanisms underlying the damaging effects of SR X-ray on biological tissues. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the tissue damage induced by conventional X-ray, while the role of oxidative stress in the tissue injury induced by SR X-ray remains unknown. In this study we used the male gonads of rats as a model to study the roles of oxidative stress in SR X-ray-induced tissue damage. Exposures of the testes to SR X-ray at various radiation doses did not significantly increase the lipid peroxidation of the tissues, assessed at one day after the irradiation. No significant decreases in the levels of GSH or total antioxidation capacity were found in the SR X-ray-irradiated testes. However, the SR X-ray at 40 Gy induced a marked increase in phosphorylated H2AX – a marker of double-strand DNA damage, which was significantly decreased by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). NAC also attenuated the SR X-ray-induced decreases in the cell layer number of seminiferous tubules. Collectively, our observations have provided the first characterization of SR X-ray-induced oxidative damage of biological tissues: SR X-ray at high doses can induce DNA damage and certain tissue damage during the acute phase of the irradiation, at least partially by generating oxidative stress. However, SR X-ray of various radiation doses did not increase lipid peroxidation. PMID:22837810

  7. 4-Acetoxyphenol Prevents RPE Oxidative Stress–Induced Necrosis by Functioning as an NRF2 Stabilizer

    PubMed Central

    Hanus, Jakub; Kolkin, Alexander; Chimienti, Julia; Botsay, Sara; Wang, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oxidative stress has been suggested to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of AMD. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are essential for maintaining the homeostasis of the retina, and RPE cell death and the resultant photoreceptor apoptosis have been observed in dry AMD, especially in geographic atrophy. The purpose of this article was to identify and repurpose the Food and Drug Administration–approved natural compound 4-Acetoxyphenol (4-AC), and to evaluate its effect and mechanism in protecting against oxidative stress–induced RPE necrosis. Methods We exposed ARPE-19 cells to tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) after pretreatment with 4-AC, and measured cell viability by MTT assay. Aggregation of RIPK3 and HMGB1 nuclear release were analyzed by transfected reporter genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a commercially available ROS detection system. The importance of the NRF2/NQO1/HO-1 pathway in mediating 4-AC function was corroborated by siRNA studies, qRT-PCR, and immunostaining. Results We have identified a natural antioxidant, 4-AC, which demonstrates strong abilities to protect RPE cells from oxidative stress–induced necrosis. Mechanistically, 4-AC blocked the increase of cellular ROS induced by oxidative stress, and upregulated NQO1 and HO-1 genes by stabilizing and inducing the nuclear translocation of NRF2 transcription factor. The NQO1, HO-1, and NRF2 were further shown to be required for 4-AC protection of RPE cells from death induced by tBHP. The tBHQ, an NRF2 stabilizer, consistently mimicked the protective effect of 4-AC against tBHP-induced RPE death. Conclusions The compound 4-AC protects ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress–induced necrosis through upregulation of NQO1 and HO-1 genes by stabilization of NRF2. PMID:26241392

  8. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  9. Zinc inhibits oxidative stress-induced iron signaling and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Pullakhandam, Raghu; Nair, K Madhavan

    2010-04-01

    Studies in humans and animals have suggested negative interactions of iron and zinc during their intestinal absorption. Further, zinc seems to prevent iron-induced oxidative damage in rats, which was hypothesized to be through the modulation of the intracellular iron signaling pathway. The aim of this study was, therefore, to understand the effects of zinc on oxidant-induced iron signaling and cell death in human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. We demonstrate that zinc decreases glucose/glucose oxidase (H(2)O(2)-generating system)-induced iron uptake and inhibits iron-regulatory protein 1 activation and divalent metal ion transporter 1 expression. There was also a concomitant decrease in oxidant-induced intracellular labile iron and restoration of ferritin and metallothionein expression. Further, zinc enhanced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and reduced caspase-3 activity, leading to inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, bathophenanthroline disulfonic acid, an extracellular iron chelator, emulated the effects of zinc except for the reduced ferritin levels. These results suggest that zinc inhibits apoptosis by reducing oxidant-induced iron signaling in Caco-2 cells.

  10. Nicotine and oxidative stress induced exomic variations are concordant and overrepresented in cancer-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Bavarva, Jasmin H.; Tae, Hongseok; McIver, Lauren; Garner, Harold R.

    2014-01-01

    Although the connection between cancer and cigarette smoke is well established, nicotine is not characterized as a carcinogen. Here, we used exome sequencing to identify nicotine and oxidative stress-induced somatic mutations in normal human epithelial cells and its correlation with cancer. We identified over 6,400 SNVs, indels and microsatellites in each of the stress exposed cells relative to the control, of which, 2,159 were consistently observed at all nicotine doses. These included 429 nsSNVs including 158 novel and 79 cancer-associated. Over 80% of consistently nicotine induced variants overlap with variations detected in oxidative stressed cells, indicating that nicotine induced genomic alterations could be mediated through oxidative stress. Nicotine induced mutations were distributed across 1,585 genes, of which 49% were associated with cancer. MUC family genes were among the top mutated genes. Analysis of 591 lung carcinoma tumor exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that 20% of non-small-cell lung cancer tumors in smokers have mutations in at least one of the MUC4, MUC6 or MUC12 genes in contrast to only 6% in non-smokers. These results indicate that nicotine induces genomic variations, promotes instability potentially mediated by oxidative stress, implicating nicotine in carcinogenesis, and establishes MUC genes as potential targets. PMID:24947164

  11. Coenzyme Q10 prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sekizaki, Naoto; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Wada, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kimura, Ikuko; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2007-07-02

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. Although some clinical evidences suggest the use of an antioxidant reagent coenzyme Q10 in diabetes with hypertension, the direct effect of coenzyme Q10 on the endothelial functions has not been examined. In the present study, we therefore investigated the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) exhibited abnormal properties, including the morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, activation of protein kinase Cbeta2, and increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 strongly inhibited these changes in HUVEC under high glucose condition. In addition, coenzyme Q10 inhibited high glucose-induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an endogenous caspase-3 substrate. These results suggest that coenzyme Q10 prevents reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, consistent with previous reports, high glucose caused upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVEC, and promoted the adhesion of U937 monocytic cells. Coenzyme Q10 displayed potent inhibitory effects against these endothelial abnormalities. Thus, we provide the first evidence that coenzyme Q10 has a beneficial effect in protecting against the endothelial dysfunction by high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

  12. Nanoscale structural oscillations in perovskite oxides induced by oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Binghong; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Gamalski, Andrew D.; Stach, Eric A.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. Here, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF. SrCoO3-δ was found to exhibit small oscillations, while none were observed for La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ and LaCoO3. The structural oscillations of BSCF can be attributed to the fact that its oxygen 2p-band centre is close to the Fermi level, which leads to a low energy penalty for oxygen vacancy formation, high ion mobility, and high water uptake. This work provides surprising insights into the interaction between water and oxides under electron-beam irradiation.

  13. Nanoscale structural oscillations in perovskite oxides induced by oxygen evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Binghong; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Gamalski, Andrew  D.; Stach, Eric A.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-10-03

    Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. In this paper, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3$-$δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF. SrCoO3$-$δ was found to exhibit small oscillations, while none were observed for La0.5Sr0.5CoO3$-$δ and LaCoO3. The structural oscillations of BSCF can be attributed to the fact that its oxygen 2p-band centre is close to the Fermi level, which leads to a low energy penalty for oxygen vacancy formation, high ion mobility, and high water uptake. This work provides surprising insights into the interaction between water and oxides under electron-beam irradiation.

  14. Nanoscale structural oscillations in perovskite oxides induced by oxygen evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Binghong; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Tileli, Vasiliki; ...

    2016-10-03

    Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. In this paper, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3$-$δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF. SrCoO3$-$δ was found to exhibit small oscillations, while none were observed for La0.5Sr0.5CoO3$-$δ and LaCoO3. The structural oscillations ofmore » BSCF can be attributed to the fact that its oxygen 2p-band centre is close to the Fermi level, which leads to a low energy penalty for oxygen vacancy formation, high ion mobility, and high water uptake. This work provides surprising insights into the interaction between water and oxides under electron-beam irradiation.« less

  15. Bisphenol A Induces Hepatotoxicity through Oxidative Stress in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Zeinab K.; Elobeid, Mai A.; Virk, Promy; Omer, Sawsan A.; ElAmin, Maha; Daghestani, Maha H.; AlOlayan, Ebtisam M.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cytotoxic agents that lead to significant oxidative damage. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a contaminant with increasing exposure to it and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells. Due to limited information concerning the effect of BPA on liver, this study investigates whether BPA causes hepatotoxicity by induction of oxidative stress in liver. Rats were divided into five groups: The first four groups, BPA (0.1, 1, 10, 50 mg/kg/day) were administrated orally to rats for four weeks. The fifth group was taken water with vehicle. The final body weights in the 0.1 mg group showed a significant decrease compared to control group. Significant decreased levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase activity were found in the 50 mg BPA group compared to control groups. High dose of BPA (50 mg/kg) significantly increased the biochemical levels of ALT, ALP and total bilirubin. BPA effect on the activity of antioxidant genes was confirmed by real time PCR in which the expression levels of these genes in liver tissue were significantly decrease compared to control. Data from this study demonstrate that BPA generate ROS and reduce the antioxidant gene expression that causes hepatotoxicity. PMID:22888396

  16. Nanoscale structural oscillations in perovskite oxides induced by oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Han, Binghong; Stoerzinger, Kelsey A; Tileli, Vasiliki; Gamalski, Andrew D; Stach, Eric A; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between water and oxides is critical for many technological applications, including energy storage, surface wetting/self-cleaning, photocatalysis and sensors. Here, we report observations of strong structural oscillations of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) in the presence of both H2O vapour and electron irradiation using environmental transmission electron microscopy. These oscillations are related to the formation and collapse of gaseous bubbles. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy provides direct evidence of O2 formation in these bubbles due to the incorporation of H2O into BSCF. SrCoO3-δ was found to exhibit small oscillations, while none were observed for La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ and LaCoO3. The structural oscillations of BSCF can be attributed to the fact that its oxygen 2p-band centre is close to the Fermi level, which leads to a low energy penalty for oxygen vacancy formation, high ion mobility, and high water uptake. This work provides surprising insights into the interaction between water and oxides under electron-beam irradiation.

  17. Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant roles of different doses of melatonin (5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) ) against gamma-irradiation-caused oxidative damage in liver tissue after total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.0 Gy. Fifty adult rats were divided into 5 equal groups, 10 rats each. Groups I and II were injected with 5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin, and group III was injected with an isotonic NaCl solution. Group IV was injected with only 5 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin. Group V was reserved as a sham control. Following a 30-min-period, 6.0 Gy TBI was given to groups 1, 2 and 3 in a single fraction. The liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in all groups. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the liver tissue MDA levels and a decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities. The results demonstrated that the liver tissue MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg x kg (