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Sample records for oxide semiconductor field-effect

  1. Spin dependent charge pumping in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittel, B. C.; Lenahan, P. M.; Ryan, J. T.; Fronheiser, J.; Lelis, A. J.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate a very powerful electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) technique, spin dependent charge pumping (SDCP) and apply it to 4H SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. SDCP combines a widely used electrical characterization tool with the most powerful analytical technique for providing atomic scale structure of point defects in electronic materials. SDCP offers a large improvement in sensitivity over the previously established EDMR technique called spin dependent recombination, offering higher sensitivity and accessing a wider energy range within the bandgap.

  2. Influence of the semiconductor oxidation potential on the operational stability of organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Bobbert, P. A.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2011-09-01

    During prolonged application of a gate bias, organic field-effect transistors show a gradual shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias voltage. The shift follows a stretched-exponential time dependence governed by a relaxation time. Here, we show that a thermodynamic analysis reproduces the observed exponential dependence of the relaxation time on the oxidation potential of the semiconductor. The good fit with the experimental data validates the underlying assumptions. It demonstrates that this operational instability is a straightforward thermodynamically driven process that can only be eliminated by eliminating water from the transistor.

  3. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor humidity sensor using surface conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seok-Ho; Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Ko, Seung-Deok; Lee, Seok-Hee; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2012-03-01

    This letter presents a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based humidity sensor which does not use any specific materials to sense the relative humidity. We simply make use of the low pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) silicon dioxide's surface conductance change. When the gate is biased and then floated, the electrical charge in the gate is dissipated through the LPCVD silicon dioxide's surface to the surrounding ground with a time constant depending on the surface conductance which, in turn, varies with humidity. With this method, extremely high sensitivity was achieved—the charge dissipation speed increased thousand times as the relative humidity increased.

  4. Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

    1998-10-14

    GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

  5. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature.

  6. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-08-22

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm(2)/Vs, respectively, at room temperature.

  7. Inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with normally off characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiromitsu; Oyama, Kazuhiro; Makino, Toshiharu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated inversion channel diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with normally off characteristics. At present, Si MOSFETs and insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with inversion channels are widely used because of their high controllability of electric power and high tolerance. Although a diamond semiconductor is considered to be a material with a strong potential for application in next-generation power devices, diamond MOSFETs with an inversion channel have not yet been reported. We precisely controlled the MOS interface for diamond by wet annealing and fabricated p-channel and planar-type MOSFETs with phosphorus-doped n-type body on diamond (111) substrate. The gate oxide of Al2O3 was deposited onto the n-type diamond body by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. The drain current was controlled by the negative gate voltage, indicating that an inversion channel with a p-type character was formed at a high-quality n-type diamond body/Al2O3 interface. The maximum drain current density and the field-effect mobility of a diamond MOSFET with a gate electrode length of 5 μm were 1.6 mA/mm and 8.0 cm2/Vs, respectively, at room temperature. PMID:27545201

  8. Extended-Gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor for Detection of Deoxynivalenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Insu; Lee, Hee-Ho; Choi, Jinhyeon; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Seo, Sang-Ho; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we present an extended-gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-based biosensor for the detection of deoxynivalenol using a null-balancing circuit. An extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor was fabricated by a standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and its characteristics were measured. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly, instead of measuring the drain current of the sensor. Au was used as the gate metal, which has a chemical affinity with thiol, which leads to the immobilization of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA). The SAM was used to immobilize the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The carboxyl group of the SAM was bound to the anti-deoxynivalenol antibody. The anti-deoxynivalenol antibody and deoxynivalenol were bound by their antigen-antibody reaction. The measurements were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) solution. A standard Ag/AgCl electrode was employed as a reference electrode. The bindings of a SAM, anti-deoxynivalenol antibody, and deoxynivalenol caused a variation in the output voltage of the extended-gate MOSFET-based biosensor. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement was performed to verify the interaction among the SAM, deoxynivalenol-antibody, and deoxynivalenol.

  9. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with a vacuum channel.

    PubMed

    Srisonphan, Siwapon; Jung, Yun Suk; Kim, Hong Koo

    2012-08-01

    High-speed electronic devices rely on short carrier transport times, which are usually achieved by decreasing the channel length and/or increasing the carrier velocity. Ideally, the carriers enter into a ballistic transport regime in which they are not scattered. However, it is difficult to achieve ballistic transport in a solid-state medium because the high electric fields used to increase the carrier velocity also increase scattering. Vacuum is an ideal medium for ballistic transport, but vacuum electronic devices commonly suffer from low emission currents and high operating voltages. Here, we report the fabrication of a low-voltage field-effect transistor with a vertical vacuum channel (channel length of ~20 nm) etched into a metal-oxide-semiconductor substrate. We measure a transconductance of 20 nS µm(-1), an on/off ratio of 500 and a turn-on gate voltage of 0.5 V under ambient conditions. Coulombic repulsion in the two-dimensional electron system at the interface between the oxide and the metal or the semiconductor reduces the energy barrier to electron emission, leading to a high emission current density (~1 × 10(5) A cm(-2)) under a bias of only 1 V. The emission of two-dimensional electron systems into vacuum channels could enable a new class of low-power, high-speed transistors.

  10. Optimal design of an electret microphone metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor preamplifier.

    PubMed

    van der Donk, A G; Bergveld, P

    1992-04-01

    A theoretical noise analysis of the combination of a capacitive microphone and a preamplifier containing a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and a high-value resistive bias element is given. It is found that the output signal-to-noise ratio for a source follower and for a common-source circuit is almost the same. It is also shown that the output noise can be reduced by making the microphone capacitance as well as the bias resistor as large as possible, and furthermore by keeping the parasitic gate capacitances as low as possible and finally by using an optimum value for the gate area of the MOSFET. The main noise source is the thermal noise of the gate leakage resistance of the MOSFET. It is also shown that short-channel MOSFETs produce more thermal channel noise than longer channel devices.

  11. Experimental characterization of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor-based Coulter counter

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Manoj; Xu, Dongyan; Kang, Yuejun; Hmelo, Anthony B.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Li, Dongqing; Li, Deyu

    2008-01-01

    We report the detailed characterization of an ultrasensitive microfluidic device used to detect the translocation of small particles through a sensing microchannel. The device connects a fluidic circuit to the gate of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and detects particles by monitoring the MOSFET drain current modulation instead of the modulation in the ionic current through the sensing channel. The minimum volume ratio of the particle to the sensing channel detected is 0.006%, which is about ten times smaller than the lowest detected volume ratio previously reported in the literature. This volume ratio is detected at a noise level of about 0.6% of the baseline MOSFET drain current, clearly showing the amplification effects from the fluidic circuits and the MOSFETs. We characterize the device sensitivity as a function of the MOSFET gate potential and show that its sensitivity is higher when the MOSFET is operating below its threshold gate voltage than when it is operating above the threshold voltage. In addition, we demonstrate that the device sensitivity linearly increases with the applied electrical bias across the fluidic circuit. Finally, we show that polystyrene beads and glass beads with similar sizes can be distinguished from each other based on their different translocation times, and the size distribution of microbeads can be obtained with accuracy comparable to that of direct scanning electron microscopy measurements. PMID:19479001

  12. Influence of extrinsic factors on accuracy of mobility extraction in graphene metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon Lee, Young; Ji Kim, Yun; Goo Kang, Chang; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Sangchul; Jun Hwang, Hyeon; Jung, Ukjin; Hun Lee, Byoung

    2013-03-01

    Graphene has attracted attention because of its extraordinarily high mobility. However, procedures to extract mobility from graphene metal-oxide semiconductor transistors have not been systematically established because the accuracy of mobility value is affected by many extrinsic parameters. In this work, the influence of extrinsic parameters, such as contact resistance, transient charging effect, measurement temperature, and ambient on mobility are examined in order to provide a protocol capable of accurately assessing the mobility of graphene metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. Using a well controlled test protocol, the mobility of graphene is found to be temperature independent up to 450 K.

  13. Characteristics of Superjunction Lateral-Double-Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor and Degradation after Electrical Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh‑Ling; Lin, Ming‑Jang; Lin, Li‑Jheng

    2006-04-01

    The superjunction lateral double diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect has recently received considerable attention. Introducing heavily doped p-type strips to the n-type drift region increases the horizontal depletion capability. Consequently, the doping concentration of the drift region is higher and the conduction resistance is lower than those of conventional lateral-double-diffusion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (LDMOSFETs). These characteristics may increase breakdown voltage (\\mathit{BV}) and reduce specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). In this study, we focus on the electrical characteristics of conventional LDMOSFETs on silicon bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) LDMOSFETs and superjunction LDMOSFETs after bias stress. Additionally, the \\mathit{BV} and Ron,sp of superjunction LDMOSFETs with different N/P drift region widths and different dosages are discussed. Simulation tools, including two-dimensional (2-D) TSPREM-4/MEDICI and three-dimensional (3-D) DAVINCI, were employed to determine the device characteristics.

  14. Zinc tin oxide metal semiconductor field effect transistors and their improvement under negative bias (illumination) temperature stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, G. T.; Kawaharamura, T.; Furuta, M.; Allen, M. W.

    2017-02-01

    Metal-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors (MESFETs) with silver oxide Schottky gates on zinc tin oxide (ZTO) channels showed fundamental differences in stability compared to conventional amorphous-oxide semiconductor thin-film-transistors (AOS-TFTs). The most severe negative-bias-temperature and negative-bias-illumination-temperature stress conditions, which usually degrade the performance of AOS-TFTs, significantly improved the switching characteristic of these ZTO MESFETs, producing devices with on:off current ratios, mobilities, and subthreshold swings of 8 × 106, 12 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 180 mV/dec, respectively. Further analysis confirmed that both negative bias and temperature (65 °C) were simultaneously required to produce this permanent effect that was linked to the electromigration of ionized donors from the MESFET depletion-region.

  15. An oxide/silicon core/shell nanowire metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Ning; He, Jin; Zhou, Wang; Chen, Lin; Xu, Yi-Wen

    2010-04-01

    This paper studies an oxide/silicon core/shell nanowire MOSFET (OS-CSNM). Through three-dimensional device simulations, we have demonstrated that the OS-CSNM has a lower leakage current and higher Ion/Ioff ratio after introducing the oxide core into a traditional nanowire MOSFET (TNM). The oxide/silicon OS-CSNM structure suppresses threshold voltage roll-off, drain induced barrier lowering and subthreshold swing degradation. Smaller intrinsic device delay is also observed in OS-CSNM in comparison with that of TNM.

  16. New Performance Indicators of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for High-Frequency Power-Conscious Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Kosuke; Fujishima, Minoru

    2012-02-01

    With the progress of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process technology, it is possible to apply CMOS devices to millimeter-wave amplifier design. However, the power consumption of the system becomes higher in proportion to its target frequency. Moreover, CMOS devices are biased at a point where the device achieves the highest gain and consumes much power. In order to reduce the power consumption without any compromise, we introduce two types of indicator. One works towards achieving the highest gain with the lowest power consumption. The other works towards achieving the highest linearity with consideration of the power consumption. In this work, we have shown the effectiveness of those indicators by applying measured data of the fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to cascade common-source amplifiers.

  17. Theoretical Analyses of Oxide-Bypassed Superjunction Power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Liang, Yung C.; Samudra, Ganesh S.

    2005-02-01

    The performance merit of silicon unipolar power devices is best described by a trade-off relationship between specific on-state resistance (Ron,sp) and breakdown voltage (Vbr), which leads to the establishment of an ideal unipolar limit on device performance. Recently, engineering the electric field in the device drift region to break this unipolar silicon limit for superior performance has become an important research topic. The superjunction (SJ) structure achieves this by paralleling precisely matched higher doping alternate p--n layers to replace the typically low doping drift region. Alternatively, for fabrication simplicity in an oxide-bypassed (OB) structure, an oxide layer of predetermined thickness together with a polycontact is used to replace the p-column of the SJ structure to modulate the electric field. The further improved gradient OB (GOB) structure with slanted oxide sidewalls delivers a performance similar to ideal SJ devices. In this paper, detailed theoretical analyses in closed-form equations on OB and GOB devices are made for the first time to model the performance in various operating regions. The theoretical analyses were also carefully verified through two-dimensional numerical simulations.

  18. Characterization of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters for application in clinical mammography.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Luis A; Hintenlang, David E

    2006-02-01

    Five high-sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor dosimeters in the TN-502 and 1002 series (Thomson Nielsen Electronics Ltd., 25B, Northside Road, Ottawa, ON K2H8S1, Canada) were evaluated for use in the mammography x-ray energy range (22-50 kVp) as a tool to assist in the documentation of patient specific average glandular dose. The dosimeters were interfaced with the Patient Dose Verification System, model No. TN-RD 15, which consisted of a dosimeter reader and up to four dual bias power supplies. Two different dual bias power supplies were evaluated in this study, model No. TN-RD 22 in high-sensitivity mode and a very-high sensitivity prototype. Each bias supply accommodates up to five dosimeters for 20 dosimeters per system. Sensitivity of detectors, defined as the mV/C kg(-1), was measured free in air with the bubble side of the dosimeter facing the x-ray field with a constant exposure. All dosimeter models' angular response showed a marked decrease in response when oriented between 120 degrees and 150 degrees and between at 190 degrees and 220 degrees relative to the incident beam. Sensitivity was evaluated for Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and Rh/Rh target-filter combinations. The individual dosimeter model sensitiVity was 4.45 x 10(4) mV/C kg(-1) (11.47 mV R(-1)) for TN-502RDS(micro); 5.93 x 10(4) mV per C kg(-1) (15.31 mV R(-1)) for TN-1002RD; 6.06 x 10(4) mV/C kg(-1) (15.63 mV R(-1)) for TN-1002RDI; 9.49 x 10(4) mV per C kg(-1) (24.49 mV R(-1)) for TN-1002RDM (micro); and 11.20 x 10(4) mV/C kg(-1) (28.82 mV R(-1)) for TN-1002RDS (micro). The energy response is presented and is observed to vary with dosimeter model, generally increasing with tube potential through the mammography energy range. An intercomparison of the high-sensitivity mode of TN-RD-22 was made to the very-high sensitivity bias power supply using a Mo/Mo target-filter. The very-high sensitivity-bias power supply increased dosimeter response by 1.45 +/- 0.04 for dosimeter models TN

  19. Models of second-order effects in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benumof, Reuben; Zoutendyk, John; Coss, James

    1988-01-01

    Second-order effects in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are important for devices with dimensions of 2 microns or less. The short and narrow channel effects and drain-induced barrier lowering primarily affect threshold voltage, but formulas for drain current must also take these effects into account. In addition, the drain current is sensitive to channel length modulation due to pinch-off or velocity saturation and is diminished by electron mobility degradation due to normal and lateral electric fields in the channel. A model of a MOSFET including these considerations and emphasizing charge conservation is discussed.

  20. Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, D.; Gilbert, M. J.; Register, L. F.; Banerjee, S. K.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Results of quantum mechanical simulations of the influence of edge disorder on transport in graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are reported. The addition of edge disorder significantly reduces ON-state currents and increases OFF-state currents, and introduces wide variability across devices. These effects decrease as ribbon widths increase and as edges become smoother. However, the band gap decreases with increasing width, thereby increasing the band-to-band tunneling mediated subthreshold leakage current even with perfect nanoribbons. These results suggest that without atomically precise edge control during fabrication, MOSFET performance gains through use of graphene will be difficult to achieve in complementary MOS applications.

  1. Models of second-order effects in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benumof, Reuben; Zoutendyk, John; Coss, James

    1988-01-01

    Second-order effects in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are important for devices with dimensions of 2 microns or less. The short and narrow channel effects and drain-induced barrier lowering primarily affect threshold voltage, but formulas for drain current must also take these effects into account. In addition, the drain current is sensitive to channel length modulation due to pinch-off or velocity saturation and is diminished by electron mobility degradation due to normal and lateral electric fields in the channel. A model of a MOSFET including these considerations and emphasizing charge conservation is discussed.

  2. Monolithic integration of GaN-based light-emitting diodes and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Yang, Zu-Po; Chen, Pin-Guang; Hsieh, Yung-An; Yao, Yung-Chi; Liao, Ming-Han; Lee, Min-Hung; Wang, Mei-Tan; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2014-10-20

    In this study, we report a novel monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Without additionally introducing complicated epitaxial structures for transistors, the MOSFET is directly fabricated on the exposed n-type GaN layer of the LED after dry etching, and serially connected to the LED through standard semiconductor-manufacturing technologies. Such monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device is able to circumvent undesirable issues that might be faced by other kinds of integration schemes by growing a transistor on an LED or vice versa. For the performances of resulting device, our monolithically integrated LED/MOSFET device exhibits good characteristics in the modulation of gate voltage and good capability of driving injected current, which are essential for the important applications such as smart lighting, interconnection, and optical communication.

  3. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Masafumi; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al2O3. Using Al2O3 as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  4. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Masafumi Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-07-18

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  5. Preparation of ferroelectric field effect transistor based on sustainable strongly correlated (Fe,Zn)3O4 oxide semiconductor and their electrical transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaobushi, Junichi; Kanki, Teruo; Kawai, Tomoji; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2011-03-01

    We have constructed a field effect transistor structure composed of the sustainable oxide semiconductor (Fe,Zn)3O4 with high Curie temperature and ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. Electric field control of (Fe2.5Zn0.5)O4 channel resistance was achieved in the heterostructures though modulation of their carrier concentration. The results will lead to the significant development of sustainable oxide semiconductor spintronics devices working at room temperature.

  6. Probing Electronic, Structural, and Charge Transfer Properties of Organic Semiconductor/Inorganic Oxide Interfaces Using Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalenka, Josef Wade

    Interfaces between organic semiconductors and inorganic oxides provide the functionality for devices including field-effect transistors (FETs) and organic photovoltaics. Organic FETs are sensitive to the physical structure and electronic properties of the few molecular layers of material at the interface between the semiconducting channel and the gate dielectric, and provide quantitative information such as the field-effect mobility of charge carriers and the concentration of trapped charge. In this thesis, FET interfaces between organic small-molecule semiconductors and SiO2, and donor/acceptor interfaces between organic small-molecules and the wide bandgap semiconductor ZnO are studied using electrical measurements of field-effect transistor devices. Monolayer-scale films of dihexyl sexithiophene are shown to have higher hole mobility than other monolayer organic semiconductors, and the origin of the high mobility is discussed. Studies of the crystal structure of the monolayer using X-ray structural probes and atomic force microscopy reveal the crystal structure is different in the monolayer regime compared to thicker films and bulk crystals. Progress and remaining challenges are discussed for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of the dynamic changes in the local crystal structure in organic monolayers due to charge carriers generated during the application of electric fields from the gate electrode in working FETs. Studies were conducted of light sensitive organic/inorganic interfaces that are modified with organic molecules grafted to the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and thin films. These interfaces are models for donor/acceptor interfaces in photovoltaics. The process of exciton dissociation at the donor/acceptor interface was sensitive to the insulating or semiconducting molecules grafted to the ZnO, and the photoinduced charge transfer process is measured by the threshold voltage shift of FETs during illumination. Charge transfer between light sensitive donor

  7. Anomalous degradation of low-field mobility in short-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, Kenji; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki

    2015-12-01

    The anomalous degradation of the low-field mobility observed in short-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors is analyzed by collating various reported data in experiments and simulations. It is inferred that the degradation is not caused by the channel scattering of the carriers. The origin is proposed to be the backscattering of channel carriers on injection into the drain. The expression of the low-field mobility, including the backscattering effect, is derived. The inverse of the low-field mobility is a linear function of the inverse of channel length, the expression of which reproduces that empirically derived by Bidal's group. By fitting the expression to simulated as well as experimental data, we can estimate the value of parameters related to the channel scattering and also to the backscattering from the drain. We find that these values are in reasonable magnitude.

  8. Experimental study on vertical scaling of InAs-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, SangHyeon E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko

    2014-06-30

    We have investigated effects of the vertical scaling on electrical properties in extremely thin-body InAs-on-insulator (-OI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). It is found that the body thickness (T{sub body}) scaling provides better short channel effect (SCE) control, whereas the T{sub body} scaling also causes the reduction of the mobility limited by channel thickness fluctuation (δT{sub body}) scattering (μ{sub fluctuation}). Also, in order to achieve better SCEs control, the thickness of InAs channel layer (T{sub channel}) scaling is more favorable than the thickness of MOS interface buffer layer (T{sub buffer}) scaling from a viewpoint of a balance between SCEs control and μ{sub fluctuation} reduction. These results indicate necessity of quantum well channel structure in InAs-OI MOSFETs and these should be considered in future transistor design.

  9. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Spathis, C. Birbas, A.; Georgakopoulou, K.

    2015-08-15

    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices.

  10. Modeling of graphene metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with gapless large-area graphene channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiele, S. A.; Schaefer, J. A.; Schwierz, F.

    2010-05-01

    A quasianalytical modeling approach for graphene metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with gapless large-area graphene channels is presented. The model allows the calculation of the I-V characteristics, the small-signal behavior, and the cutoff frequency of graphene MOSFETs. It applies a correct formulation of the density of states in large-area graphene to calculate the carrier-density-dependent quantum capacitance, a steady-state velocity-field characteristics with soft saturation to describe the carrier transport, and takes the source/drain series resistances into account. The modeled drain currents and transconductances show very good agreement with experimental data taken from the literature {Meric et al., [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 654 (2008)] and Kedzierski et al., [IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 745 (2009)]}. In particular, the model properly reproduces the peculiar saturation behavior of graphene MOSFETs with gapless channels.

  11. SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector based on single-hole counting.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Inokawa, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    In this Letter, a scaled-down silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is characterized as a photon detector, where photogenerated individual holes are trapped below the negatively biased gate and modulate stepwise the electron current flowing in the bottom channel induced by the positive substrate bias. The output waveforms exhibit clear separation of current levels corresponding to different numbers of trapped holes. Considering this capability of single-hole counting, a small dark count of less than 0.02 s(-1) at room temperature, and low operation voltage of 1 V, SOI MOSFET could be a unique photon-number-resolving detector if the small quantum efficiency were improved.

  12. A compact quantum correction model for symmetric double gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Edward Namkyu; Shin, Yong Hyeon; Yun, Ilgu

    2014-11-07

    A compact quantum correction model for a symmetric double gate (DG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is investigated. The compact quantum correction model is proposed from the concepts of the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM}) and the gate capacitance (C{sub g}) degradation. First of all, ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM} induced by quantum mechanical (QM) effects is modeled. The C{sub g} degradation is then modeled by introducing the inversion layer centroid. With ΔV{sub TH}{sup QM} and the C{sub g} degradation, the QM effects are implemented in previously reported classical model and a comparison between the proposed quantum correction model and numerical simulation results is presented. Based on the results, the proposed quantum correction model can be applicable to the compact model of DG MOSFET.

  13. Nanowire Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Small Subthreshold Swing Driven by Body-Bias Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Akira

    2012-08-01

    We demonstrate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with small subthreshold swing (SS). The MOSFETs have a nanowire channel and three gates. A parasitic bipolar transistor formed in a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFET applies body bias to the MOSFET's channel and thus reduces the SS. Additionally, triple-gate operation makes the drain voltage smaller and provides current characteristics with a high on/off ratio and small hysteresis. As a result, SSs of the n- and p-type MOSFETs reach 6.6 and 5.2 mV/dec, respectively, in the range of current of six orders of magnitude. These features promise MOSFETs with low power consumption.

  14. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spathis, C.; Birbas, A.; Georgakopoulou, K.

    2015-08-01

    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices.

  15. Transport properties of silicon complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor quantum well field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naquin, Clint Alan

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into silicon (Si) transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has proven challenging, yet has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated Si devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary MOS processing. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (VG) spacing between NDTCs. The VG spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background. A folding amplifier frequency multiplier circuit using a single QW NMOS transistor to generate a folded current-voltage transfer function via a NDTC was demonstrated. Time domain data shows frequency doubling in the kHz range at room temperature, and Fourier analysis confirms that the output is dominated by the second harmonic of the input. De-embedding the circuit response characteristics from parasitic cable and contact impedances suggests that in the absence of parasitics the doubling bandwidth could be as high as 10 GHz in a monolithic integrated circuit, limited by the transresistance magnitude of the QW NMOS. This is the first example of a QW device fabricated by mainstream Si CMOS technology being used in a circuit application and establishes the feasibility

  16. Vertical InAs/InGaAs Heterostructure Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors on Si.

    PubMed

    Kilpi, Olli-Pekka; Svensson, Johannes; Wu, Jun; Persson, Axel R; Wallenberg, Reine; Lind, Erik; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2017-09-14

    III-V compound semiconductors offer a path to continue Moore's law due to their excellent electron transport properties. One major challenge, integrating III-V's on Si, can be addressed by using vapor-liquid-solid grown vertical nanowires. InAs is an attractive material due to its superior mobility, although InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) typically suffer from band-to-band tunneling caused by its narrow band gap, which increases the off-current and therefore the power consumption. In this work, we present vertical heterostructure InAs/InGaAs nanowire MOSFETs with low off-currents provided by the wider band gap material on the drain side suppressing band-to-band tunneling. We demonstrate vertical III-V MOSFETs achieving off-current below 1 nA/μm while still maintaining on-performance comparable to InAs MOSFETs; therefore, this approach opens a path to address not only high-performance applications but also Internet-of-Things applications that require low off-state current levels.

  17. Tunneling-injection-induced turnaround behavior of threshold voltage in thermally nitrided oxide n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z. J.; Lai, P. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Fleischer, S.; Cheng, Y. C.

    1990-12-01

    The threshold voltage (VT) degradation metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with thermally nitrided oxide or pure oxide as gate dielectric was determined under Fowler-Nordheim (FN) stressing. A typical VT turnaround behavior was observed for both kinds of devices. The VT for nitrided oxide MOSFETs shifts more negatively than that for pure oxide MOSFETs during the initial period of FN stressing whereas the opposite is true for the positive shift after the critical time at turnaround point. The discovery that the shift of substrate current peak exhibits similar turnaround behavior reinforces the above results. In the meantime, the field-effect electron mobility and the maximum transconductance in the channel for nitrided oxide MOSFETs are only slightly degraded by stressing as compared to that for pure oxide MOSFETs. The VT turnaround behavior can be explained as follows: Net trapped charges in the oxide are initially positive (due to hole traps in the oxide) and result in the negative shift of VT. With increasing injection time, trapped electrons in the oxide as well as acceptortype interface states increase. This results in the positive shift in VT. It is revealed that VT degradation in MOSFETs is dominated by the generation of acceptortype interface states rather than electron trapping in the oxide after the critical time.

  18. Single Event Effects (SEE) for Power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Single-event gate rupture (SEGR) continues to be a key failure mode in power MOSFETs. (1) SEGR is complex, making rate prediction difficult SEGR mechanism has two main components: (1) Oxide damage-- Reduces field required for rupture (2) Epilayer response -- Creates transient high field across the oxide.

  19. Theoretical Study of Triboelectric-Potential Gated/Driven Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; He, Yongning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-26

    Triboelectric nanogenerator has drawn considerable attentions as a potential candidate for harvesting mechanical energies in our daily life. By utilizing the triboelectric potential generated through the coupling of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, the "tribotronics" has been introduced to tune/control the charge carrier transport behavior of silicon-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Here, we perform a theoretical study of the performances of tribotronic MOSFET gated by triboelectric potential in two working modes through finite element analysis. The drain-source current dependence on contact-electrification generated triboelectric charges, gap separation distance, and externally applied bias are investigated. The in-depth physical mechanism of the tribotronic MOSFET operations is thoroughly illustrated by calculating and analyzing the charge transfer process, voltage relationship to gap separation distance, and electric potential distribution. Moreover, a tribotronic MOSFET working concept is proposed, simulated and studied for performing self-powered FET and logic operations. This work provides a deep understanding of working mechanisms and design guidance of tribotronic MOSFET for potential applications in micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), human-machine interface, flexible electronics, and self-powered active sensors.

  20. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-10-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  1. Study of Strain Induction for Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors using Transparent Dummy Gates and Stress Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosemura, Daisuke; Takei, Munehisa; Nagata, Kohki; Akamatsu, Hiroaki; Kohno, Masayuki; Nishita, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Toshio; Ogura, Atsushi

    2009-06-01

    Strain induction was studied on a sample that had a dummy gate tetraethyl orthosilicate-silicon dioxide (TEOS-SiO2) and SiN film by UV-Raman spectroscopy with high spatial and high wave-number resolution. The UV laser penetrated through the dummy gate that was transparent to UV light, which enabled us to evaluate strain in the channel of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) model. Furthermore, we compared stress profiles obtained by finite element (FE) calculations with those obtained by UV-Raman measurements. There was a difference between the stress profiles in the line-and-space pattern sample and in the dummy-gate sample; large compressive (tensile) strains were concentrated at the channel edges in the dummy-gate sample with the compressive (tensile) stress liner, although both tensile and compressive strains existed at the channel edge in the line-and-space pattern sample. The results from UV-Raman spectroscopy were consistent with those obtained by the FE calculation.

  2. Impact of boron diffusion on oxynitrided gate oxides in 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, M.; Soler, V.; Montserrat, J.; Rebollo, J.; Rafí, J. M.; Godignon, P.

    2017-07-01

    An alternative gate oxide configuration is proposed to enhance the SiO2/SiC interface quality, enabling high mobility 4H-SiC lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). The gate oxide is prepared by the combination of rapid thermal oxidation in N2O ambient, boron diffusion into SiO2, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of tetraethyl orthosilicate oxide. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements on fabricated capacitors reveal a reduction of both interface trap and near interface oxide trap densities. The fabrication of MOSFETs with very high field-effect mobility (μfe) values, up to 160 cm2/V s, is enabled. Several channel orientations, with respect to the wafer flat {11 2 ¯ 0}, have been studied to check μfe values and isotropy. Higher μfe values are obtained for a channel orientation of 90°. Boron distribution is studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and time of flight SIMS. We propose that the combination of boron and nitrogen induces changes in the structure of the gate oxide which are positive in terms of the SiO2/SiC interface quality.

  3. High mobility indium zinc oxide thin film field-effect transistors by semiconductor layer engineering.

    PubMed

    Walker, Daniel E; Major, Marton; Yazdi, Mehrdad Baghaie; Klyszcz, Andreas; Haeming, Marc; Bonrad, Klaus; Melzer, Christian; Donner, Wolfgang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2012-12-01

    Indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors are fabricated via a precursor in solution route on silicon substrates with silicon dioxide gate dielectric. It is found that the extracted mobility rises, peaks, and then decreases with increasing precursor concentration instead of rising and saturating. Investigation with scanning probe techniques reveals full thickness variations within the film which are assumed to adversely affect charge transport. Additional layers are coated, and the extracted mobility is observed to increase up to 19.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The reasons for this are examined in detail by direct imaging with scanning tunneling microscopy and extracting electron density profiles from X-ray reflection measurements. It is found that the optimal concentration for single layer films is suboptimal when coating multiple layers and in fact using many layers of very low concentrations of precursor in the solution, leading to a dense, defect and void free film, affording the highest mobilities. A consistent qualitative model of layer formation is developed explaining how the morphology of the film develops as the concentration of precursor in the initial solution is varied.

  4. Are dangling bond centers important interface traps in 4H-SiC metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. A.; Lenahan, P. M.; Lelis, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have great promise in high power and high temperature applications. Unfortunately, effective channel mobilities remain disappointingly low, typically about 30 cm2/Vs. A major contributor to the disappointing effective channel mobilities is the presence of substantial densities of interface traps at the SiC/SiO2 interface. Many investigators have invoked silicon or carbon dangling bonds to be the dominating source of these interface defects, but very little, if any, direct experimental evidence exists to support this assumption in the SiC/SiO2 system. Cantin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 1 (2004)] have used conventional electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on porous oxidized SiC structures to measure the g tensor for the SiC/SiO2 interface carbon dangling bond. These results provide a particularly straightforward means to search for the presence of carbon dangling bonds in fully processed SiC MOSFETs using electrically detected magnetic resonance. Additionally, simple theory provides guidance to search for silicon dangling bond defects. In this study, we utilize K band electrically detected magnetic resonance via spin dependent charge pumping measurements in which almost all of the SiC band gap at the SiC/SiO2 interface is accessed. Although quite high signal to noise measurements are achieved, we are unable to detect any trace of the carbon dangling bond spectra. However, in very poor quality p-channel devices, we observe a spectrum which could be consistent with silicon dangling bonds. Other defect centers are clearly present and we conclude that these other centers dominate the interface trap density of states.

  5. Verification of the plan dosimetry for high dose rate brachytherapy using metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Zhenyu; Deng Xiaowu; Huang Shaomin; Lu Jie; Lerch, Michael; Cutajar, Dean; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2007-06-15

    The feasibility of a recently designed metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system for dose verification of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment planning was investigated. MOSFET detectors were calibrated with a 0.6 cm{sup 3} NE-2571 Farmer-type ionization chamber in water. Key characteristics of the MOSFET detectors, such as the energy dependence, that will affect phantom measurements with HDR {sup 192}Ir sources were measured. The MOSFET detector was then applied to verify the dosimetric accuracy of HDR brachytherapy treatments in a custom-made water phantom. Three MOSFET detectors were calibrated independently, with the calibration factors ranging from 0.187 to 0.215 cGy/mV. A distance dependent energy response was observed, significant within 2 cm from the source. The new MOSFET detector has a good reproducibility (<3%), small angular effect (<2%), and good dose linearity (R{sup 2}=1). It was observed that the MOSFET detectors had a linear response to dose until the threshold voltage reached approximately 24 V for {sup 192}Ir source measurements. Further comparison of phantom measurements using MOSFET detectors with dose calculations by a commercial treatment planning system for computed tomography-based brachytherapy treatment plans showed that the mean relative deviation was 2.2{+-}0.2% for dose points 1 cm away from the source and 2.0{+-}0.1% for dose points located 2 cm away. The percentage deviations between the measured doses and the planned doses were below 5% for all the measurements. The MOSFET detector, with its advantages of small physical size and ease of use, is a reliable tool for quality assurance of HDR brachytherapy. The phantom verification method described here is universal and can be applied to other HDR brachytherapy treatments.

  6. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  7. Flatband voltage control in p-metal gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor by insertion of TiO2 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, W. J.; Kim, Woo-Hee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Lim, S. J.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Taeyoon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2010-02-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) layer was used to control the flatband voltage (VFB) of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. TiO2 was deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) on hafnium oxide (HfO2) gate dielectrics. Comparative studies between TiO2 and Al2O3 as capping layer have shown that improved device properties with lower capacitance equivalent thickness (CET), interface state density (Dit), and flatband voltage (VFB) shift were achieved by PE-ALD TiO2 capping layer.

  8. Investigation of Device Performance and Negative Bias Temperature Instability of Plasma Nitrided Oxide in Nanoscale p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, In-Shik; Ji, Hee-Hwan; Goo, Tae-Gyu; Yoo, Ook-Sang; Choi, Won-Ho; Na, Min-Ki; Kim, Yong-Goo; Park, Sung-Hyung; Lee, Heui-Seung; Kang, Young-Seok; Kim, Dae-Byung; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we investigated the device performance and negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) degradation for thermally nitrided oxide (TNO) and plasma nitrided oxide (PNO) in nanoscale p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET). PNOs show the improvement of dielectric performance compared to TNO with no change of the device performance. PNOs also show the improvement of NBTI immunity than TNO at low temperature stress, whereas NBTI immunity of PNO with high N concentration can be worse than TNO at high temperature stress. Recovery effect of NBTI degradation of PNO is lower than that of TNO and it is increased as the N concentration is increased in PNO because the dissociated Si dangling bonds and generated positive oxide charges are repassivated and neutralized, respectively. Moreover, complete recovery of ΔVth is dominated by neutralization of positive oxide charges. Therefore, N contents at polycrystalline Si/SiO2 interface as well as N contents at Si/SiO2 interface can affect significantly on NBTI degradation and recovery effect.

  9. AlGaN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors with 4 nm thick Al2O3 gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregušová, D.; Stoklas, R.; Čičo, K.; Lalinský, T.; Kordoš, P.

    2007-08-01

    AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOSHFETs) with 4 nm thick Al2O3 gate oxide were prepared and their performance was compared with that of AlGaN/GaN HFETs. The MOSHFETs yielded ~40% increase of the saturation drain current compared with the HFETs, which is larger than expected due to the gate oxide passivation. Despite a larger gate-channel separation in the MOSHFETs, a higher extrinsic transconductance than that of the HFETs was measured. The drift mobility of the MOSHFETs, evaluated on large-gate FET structures, was significantly higher than that of the HFETs. The zero-bias mobility for MOSHFETs and HFETs was 1950 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1630 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These features indicate an increase of the drift velocity and/or a decrease of the parasitic series resistance in the MOSHFETs. The current collapse, evaluated from pulsed I-V measurements, was highly suppressed in the MOSHFETs with 4 nm thick Al2O3 gate oxide. This result, together with the suppressed frequency dispersion of the capacitance, indicates that the density of traps in the Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MOSHFETs was significantly reduced.

  10. An electrically detected magnetic resonance study of performance limiting defects in SiC metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C. J.; Lenahan, P. M.; Lelis, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we utilize electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) techniques and electrical measurements to study defects in SiC based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). We compare results on a series of SiC MOSFETs prepared with significantly different processing parameters. The EDMR is detected through spin dependent recombination (SDR) in most cases. However, in some devices at a fairly high negative bias, the EDMR likely also involves spin dependent trap-assisted tunneling (SDT) between defects on both sides of the SiC/SiO2 interface. At least three different defects have been detected in the magnetic resonance measurements. The defects observed include two at the SiC/SiO2 interface or on the SiC side of the SiC/SiO2 interface: one is very likely a vacancy center with a distribution which extends into the bulk of the SiC and the other is likely a "dangling bond" defect. A third defect, located on the SiO2 side of the SiC/SiO2 interface, has a spectrum very similar to that previously reported for an oxygen deficient silicon coupled to a hydrogen atom. In nearly all cases, we observe a strong dominating single line EDMR spectrum with an isotropic g≈2.0027. In some samples, this strong central line is accompanied by two pairs of considerably weaker side peaks which we link to hyperfine interactions with nearby Si and C atoms. The pattern is physically reasonable for a silicon vacancy in SiC. We therefore tentatively assign it to a silicon vacancy or silicon vacancy associated defect in the SiC. In one set of devices with very high interface trap density we observe another dominating spectrum with g∥=2.0026 and g⊥=2.0010 with the symmetry axis coincident with the [0001] and nearly the SiC/SiO2 interface normal. We ascribe this EDMR spectrum to a "dangling bond" defect. A third EDMR spectrum shows up in some devices at a fairly large negative gate bias. The phase of this spectrum is quite consistently opposite to that of the

  11. A New Analytical Subthreshold Behavior Model for Single-Halo, Dual-Material Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Te-Kuang

    2008-11-01

    On the basis of the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical subthreshold behavior model consisting of the two-dimensional potential, threshold voltage, and subthreshold current for the single-halo, dual-material gate (SHDMG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is developed. The model is verified by the good agreement with a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers a physical insight into device physics but is also an efficient device model for the circuit simulation.

  12. Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-02-28

    We study the transport properties of monolayer MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs.

  13. Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2014-02-01

    We study the transport properties of monolayer MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX2 MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX2 MOSFETs.

  14. Detailed investigation of InSb p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor prepared by photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Biing-Der; Lee, Si-Chen; Sun, Tai-Ping; Yang, Sheng-Jenn

    1995-05-01

    The InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with three different channel lengths 5, 15, and 30 micron were fabricated successfully. The SiO2 prepared by photo-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used both as the gate insulator and the source/drain passivation layer to reduce the source/drain pn junction surface leakage current. The common-source current-voltage characteristics show a breakdown voltage exceeding 2 V indicating an excellent pn junction reverse characteristics. The capacitance-voltage and the transferred current versus gate voltage characteristics are discussed in detail to explain the geometry effect on the device performance.

  15. Stress Characterization of 4H-SiC Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) using Raman Spectroscopy and the Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Kosaka, Kenichi; Seki, Hirohumi; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2016-07-01

    We measured the depolarized and polarized Raman spectra of a 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and found that compressive stress of approximately 20 MPa occurs under the source and gate electrodes and tensile stress of approximately 10 MPa occurs between the source and gate electrodes. The experimental result was in close agreement with the result obtained by calculation using the finite element method (FEM). A combination of Raman spectroscopy and FEM provides much data on the stresses in 4H-SiC MOSFET.

  16. A Novel Gate Electrode Structure for Reduction of Gate Resistance of Sub-0.1 µm RF/Mixed-Signal Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akira; Umeda, Kyoko; Watanabe, Takashi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    To reduce noise and enhance gain for scaled-down metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), a novel gate electrode structure “direct finger contact (DFC)” is proposed. The DFC structure reduces the gate electrode resistance by 40%. NF50 (noise figure when the input impedance is 50 Ω) is reduced by 4% with the gate length L = 48 nm, the gate width Wfinger =1 µm, and the number of finger N =20. This structure is suitable for low-noise sub-0.1 µm RF/mixed-signal system on chips (SoCs).

  17. Evaluation of Interface Property and DC Characteristics Enhancement in Nanoscale n-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Using Stress Memorization Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Po Chin; Lein Wu, San; Jinn Chang, Shoou; Huang, Yao Tsung; Kuo, Cheng Wen; Chang, Ching Yao; Cheng, Yao Chin; Cheng, Osbert

    2010-09-01

    In this letter, the advanced 40 nm technology n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices using the stress memorization technique (SMT) are presented. We demonstrate that SMT process would not affect the electrical characteristics of devices and can introduce higher tensile stress on channels, which enhances drive current. Through charge pumping measurement, it can be verified that SMT does not affect Si/SiO2 interface quality. Moreover, SMT-induced higher tensile stress decreases not only scattering coefficient but also tunneling attenuation length, resulting in smaller input-referred noise, which represents an intrinsic advantage of low-frequency noise performance.

  18. Improvement of charge-pumping electrically detected magnetic resonance and its application to silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki; Ono, Yukinori

    2017-01-01

    Charge-pumping electrically detected magnetic resonance (CP EDMR), or EDMR in the CP mode, is improved and applied to a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Real-time monitoring of the CP process reveals that high-frequency transient currents are an obstacle to signal amplification for EDMR. Therefore, we introduce cutoff circuitry, leading to a detection limit for the number of spins as low as 103 for Si MOS interface defects. With this improved method, we demonstrate that CP EDMR inherits one of the most important features of the CP method: the gate control of the energy window of the detectable interface defects for spectroscopy.

  19. Spin-dependent transport properties of a GaMnAs-based vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaki, Toshiki Asahara, Hirokatsu; Ohya, Shinobu Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-12-14

    We fabricate a vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (spin-MOSFET) structure, which is composed of an epitaxial single-crystal heterostructure with a ferromagnetic-semiconductor GaMnAs source/drain, and investigate its spin-dependent transport properties. We modulate the drain-source current I{sub DS} by ∼±0.5% with a gate-source voltage of ±10.8 V and also modulate I{sub DS} by up to 60% with changing the magnetization configuration of the GaMnAs source/drain at 3.5 K. The magnetoresistance ratio is more than two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained in the previous studies on spin MOSFETs. Our result shows that a vertical structure is one of the hopeful candidates for spin MOSFET when the device size is reduced to a sub-micron or nanometer scale.

  20. New Compact and Time-Efficient Reliability Physics Model for p-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Chorng-Jye

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new compact and time-efficient reliability physics model of drain, substrate, and gate currents for p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs). The pre-stress drain current and channel electric field are first calculated, and the spatial distribution of electron temperature along the channel is then derived using a simplified energy balance equation. Having calculated the nonlocal impact ionization coefficient and electron temperature, and modified the lucky-electron concept, the nonlocal electron substrate and gate currents can be derived. We use an oxide-trapping mechanism for calculating the spatial distribution of oxide-trapping charges, which are substituted into the damaged pMOSFETs drain current model; then we can model the hot-carrier-damaged drain current. This model is a time-saving computer-aided-design (CAD) model and is physics transparent for pMOSFETs.

  1. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han

    2016-04-25

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  2. Polymer/metal oxide hybrid dielectrics for low voltage field-effect transistors with solution-processed, high-mobility semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Martin; Schießl, Stefan P.; Gannott, Florentina; Miehler, Dominik; Zaumseil, Jana

    2015-08-24

    Transistors for future flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display backplanes should operate at low voltages and be able to sustain high currents over long times without degradation. Hence, high capacitance dielectrics with low surface trap densities are required that are compatible with solution-processable high-mobility semiconductors. Here, we combine poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and atomic layer deposition hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) into a bilayer hybrid dielectric for field-effect transistors with a donor-acceptor polymer (DPPT-TT) or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the semiconductor and demonstrate substantially improved device performances for both. The ultra-thin PMMA layer ensures a low density of trap states at the semiconductor-dielectric interface while the metal oxide layer provides high capacitance, low gate leakage and superior barrier properties. Transistors with these thin (≤70 nm), high capacitance (100–300 nF/cm{sup 2}) hybrid dielectrics enable low operating voltages (<5 V), balanced charge carrier mobilities and low threshold voltages. Moreover, the hybrid layers substantially improve the bias stress stability of the transistors compared to those with pure PMMA and HfO{sub x} dielectrics.

  3. Correlations between structural and electrical properties of nitrided SiOx thin films used as power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Camalleri, G. Curró M.; Calí, D.

    2008-11-01

    Correlations between the interface states and trap densities, in particular, the defect types that may be more or less strongly involved in power vertically diffused metal oxide semiconductor reliability performances, and the fine interface chemistry of the Ox-N-Siy bonds have been studied. The oxide preparation process is extracted from an STMicroelectronics proprietary standard for low voltage vertically diffused power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors with logic level gate driving. The oxynitride films were grown in N2O environment at temperatures equal to or higher than 900 °C and optionally subjected to a 1000 °C short annealing. Informations about the sample stoichiometry and the nitrogen bonding configurations were obtained by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that some peculiar linear and antilinear correlations exist between carrier traps across the oxide or at its interface and the amount of specific nitrogen bonding configurations. In particular, the role of the substitutional N(-SiO3)x bond as a marker of the electrical quality of Si/SiO2 interface is highlighted.

  4. New Analytical Model for Short-Channel Fully Depleted Dual-Material-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te-Kuang Chiang,

    2010-07-01

    Using the exact solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation, a new analytical model comprising two-dimensional potential and threshold voltage for short-channel fully depleted dual-material-gate silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. The model shows that the minimum acceptable channel length can be sustained while repressing the short-channel effects if a thin gate oxide and a thin silicon body are employed in the device. Moreover, by increasing the ratio of the screen gate length to control gate length, the threshold voltage roll-off can be more effectively reduced. The model is verified by the close agreement of its results with those of a numerical simulation using the device simulator MEDICI. The model not only offers an insight into the device physics but is also an efficient model for circuit simulation.

  5. Evaluation of a gate-first process for AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors with low ohmic annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuan, Li; Jiaqi, Zhang; Yang, Liu; Jin-Ping, Ao

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, TiN/AlOx gated AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs) were fabricated for gate-first process evaluation. By employing a low temperature ohmic process, ohmic contact can be obtained by annealing at 600 °C with the contact resistance approximately 1.6 Ω·mm. The ohmic annealing process also acts as a post-deposition annealing on the oxide film, resulting in good device performance. Those results demonstrated that the TiN/AlOx gated MOS-HFETs with low temperature ohmic process can be applied for self-aligned gate AlGaN/GaN MOS-HFETs. Project supported by the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260).

  6. Quasi-two-dimensional threshold voltage model for junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with dual-material gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong; Zhuang, Yi-Qi; Zhang, Li; Jin, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) solution of Poisson's equation in two continuous channel regions, an analytical threshold voltage model for short-channel junctionless dual-material cylindrical surrounding-gate (JLDMCSG) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is developed. Using the derived model, channel potential distribution, horizontal electrical field distribution, and threshold voltage roll-off of JLDMCSG MOSFET are investigated. Compared with junctionless single-material CSG (JLSGCSG) MOSFET, JLDMCSG MOSFET can effectively suppress short-channel effects and simultaneously improve carrier transport efficiency. It is also revealed that threshold voltage roll-off of JLDMCSG can be significantly reduced by adopting both a small oxide thickness and a small silicon channel radius. The model is verified by comparing its calculated results with that obtained from three-dimensional (3D) numerical device simulator ISE.

  7. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Quantum-Mechanical Study on Surrounding-Gate Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guang-Xi; Wang, Ling-Li; Liu, Ran; Tang, Ting-Ao; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

    2010-10-01

    As the channel length of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) scales into the nanometer regime, quantum mechanical effects are becoming more and more significant. In this work, a model for the surrounding-gate (SG) nMOSFET is developed. The Schrödinger equation is solved analytically. Some of the solutions are verified via results obtained from simulations. It is found that the percentage of the electrons with lighter conductivity mass increases as the silicon body radius decreases, or as the gate voltage reduces, or as the temperature decreases. The centroid of inversion-layer is driven away from the silicon-oxide interface towards the silicon body, therefore the carriers will suffer less scattering from the interface and the electrons effective mobility of the SG nMOSFETs will be enhanced.

  8. Single carrier trapping and de-trapping in scaled silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuo; Khaled Husain, Muhammad; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kazuki; Sasago, Yoshitaka; Hisamoto, Digh; Fletcher, Jonathan David; Kataoka, Masaya; Tsuchiya, Yoshishige; Saito, Shinichi

    2017-07-01

    The scaling of Silicon (Si) technology is approaching the physical limit, where various quantum effects such as direct tunnelling and quantum confinement are observed, even at room temperatures. We have measured standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (CMOSFETs) with wide and short channels at low temperatures to observe single electron/hole characteristics due to local structural disturbances such as roughness and defects. In fact, we observed Coulomb blockades in sub-threshold regimes of both p-type and n-type Si CMOSFETs, showing the presence of quantum dots in the channels. The stability diagrams for the Coulomb blockade were explained by the potential minima due to poly-Si grains. We have also observed sharp current peaks at narrow bias windows at the edges of the Coulomb diamonds, showing resonant tunnelling of single carriers through charge traps.

  9. 0.5 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor for RF Power Amplifier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Kenneth; Chen, Kevin J.; Lam, Sang; Chan, Mansun

    2003-08-01

    0.5 μm thin-film silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated for applications in RF power amplifiers. Detailed static and pulsed I-V characteristics are measured to distinguish between fully depleted and partially depleted SOS MOSFETs. We have performed the first detailed large-signal load-pull characterization of SOS MOSFETs at 2 GHz with a Maury load-pull system with automated tuners. The maximum output power (Pout) of 18 dBm, maximum gain (G) of 12.5 dB and maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 55% were achieved. Third-order intermodulation (IM3) and adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) were measured to characterize the linearity of an SOS MOSFET power amplifier. For the optimum design of RF power amplifiers, impedance matching information is essential as revealed by the large-signal load-pull measurements.

  10. A reliable extraction method for source and drain series resistances in silicon nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) based on radio-frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Jae Hwa; Yoon, Young Jun; Lee, Hwan Gi; Yoo, Gwan Min; Cho, Eou-Sik; Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, In Man

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a new extraction method for source and drain (S/D) series resistances of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on small-signal radio-frequency (RF) analysis. The proposed method can be applied to the extraction of S/D series resistances for SNW MOSFETs with finite off-state channel resistance as well as gate bias-dependent on-state resistive components realized by 3-dimensional (3-D) device simulation. The series resistances as a function of frequency and gate voltage are presented and compared with the results obtained by an existing method with infinite off-state channel resistance model. The accuracy of the newly proposed parameter extraction method has been successfully verified by Z22- and Y-parameters up to 100 GHz operation frequency.

  11. Radio Frequency Performance Improvement with Drain Bias and Limiting Factors of 65-nm-Node Radio Frequency Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Hsuan-ling; Lu, Chia-Ling; Chang, Yung-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    With the continuous down scaling of radio frequency metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (RF MOSFETs) into a 65 nm node, the RF performance of unity-gain cutoff frequency ( fT), the maximum frequency of oscillation ( fmax), and the minimum noise figure (NFmin) show much smaller dependences on short-channel effects due to increases in drain current and transconductance (gm), which originate from the short-channel effects. We have studied the effect of drain bias on the RF performance of 65-nm-node MOSFETs. Both the fT and NFmin improve linearly with increasing drain voltage, in contrast with their independence on drain bias in longer-channel devices. Additionally, although fT improves continuously in sub-65-nm node devices, fmax and NFmin deteriorate more in 65-nm-node transistors than in 90-nm-node devices owing to a limiting parasitic effect.

  12. P-Channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based on polarization-induced two-dimensional hole gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexiong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen

    2016-03-29

    The concept of p-channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (FET) using a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced by polarization effect is demonstrated. The existence of 2DHG near the lower interface of InGaN/GaN heterostructure is verified by theoretical simulation and capacitance-voltage profiling. The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) with Al2O3 gate dielectric shows a drain-source current density of 0.51 mA/mm at the gate voltage of -2 V and drain bias of -15 V, an ON/OFF ratio of two orders of magnitude and effective hole mobility of 10 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. The normal operation of MOSFET without freeze-out at 8 K further proves that the p-channel behavior is originated from the polarization-induced 2DHG.

  13. Normally-off AlGaN/GaN-on-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistor with nitrogen-incorporated silicon oxide gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Seung-Hyun; Eom, Su-Keun; Choi, Gwang-Ho; Kang, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Il-Hwan; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jae-Gil; Byun, Young-Chul; Cha, Ho-Young

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a nitrogen-incorporated silicon oxide (SiOxNy) deposition process using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) for the gate insulator of recessed-gate Al-GaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors. The SiOxNy film deposited on a recessed GaN surface exhibited a breakdown field of 13.2 MV/cm and a conduction band offset of 3.37 eV, which are the highest values reported for GaN MIS structures to the best of our knowledge. The fabricated normally-off transistor exhibited very promising characteristics such as a threshold voltage of 2.2 V, a maximum drain current density of 428 mA/mm, and a breakdown voltage of 928 V.

  14. Multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping for charge separation and mobility analysis in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Djara, V.; Cherkaoui, K.; Negara, M. A.; Hurley, P. K.

    2015-11-28

    An alternative multi-frequency inversion-charge pumping (MFICP) technique was developed to directly separate the inversion charge density (N{sub inv}) from the trapped charge density in high-k/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach relies on the fitting of the frequency response of border traps, obtained from inversion-charge pumping measurements performed over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature on a single MOSFET, using a modified charge trapping model. The obtained model yielded the capture time constant and density of border traps located at energy levels aligned with the InGaAs conduction band. Moreover, the combination of MFICP and pulsed I{sub d}-V{sub g} measurements enabled an accurate effective mobility vs N{sub inv} extraction and analysis. The data obtained using the MFICP approach are consistent with the most recent reports on high-k/InGaAs.

  15. Interface trap density and mobility extraction in InGaAs buried quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors by gated Hall method

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambaram, Thenappan; Madisetti, Shailesh; Greene, Andrew; Yakimov, Michael; Tokranov, Vadim; Oktyabrsky, Serge; Veksler, Dmitry; Hill, Richard

    2014-03-31

    In this work, we are using a gated Hall method for measurement of free carrier density and electron mobility in buried InGaAs quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor channels. At room temperature, mobility over 8000 cm{sup 2}/Vs is observed at ∼1.4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. Temperature dependence of the electron mobility gives the evidence that remote Coulomb scattering dominates at electron density <2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}. Spectrum of the interface/border traps is quantified from comparison of Hall data with capacitance-voltage measurements or electrostatic modeling. Above the threshold voltage, gate control is strongly limited by fast traps that cannot be distinguished from free channel carriers just by capacitance-based methods and can be the reason for significant overestimation of channel density and underestimation of carrier mobility from transistor measurements.

  16. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  17. Operation of the GaSb p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on (111)A surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, H.; Hoshi, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the operation of GaSb p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on (111)A surfaces with Al2O3 gate dielectrics formed by atomic-layer deposition at 150 °C. The p-MOSFETs on (111)A surfaces exhibit higher drain current and lower subthreshold swing than those on (100) surfaces. We find that the interface-state density (Dit) values at the Al2O3/GaSb MOS interfaces on the (111)A surfaces are lower than those on the (100) surfaces, which can lead to performance enhancement of the GaSb p-MOSFETs on (111)A surfaces. The mobility of the GaSb p-MOSFETs on (111)A surfaces is 80% higher than that on (100) surfaces.

  18. III-V-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by top-down nanowire release process: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J. J.; Koybasi, O.; Wu, Y. Q.; Ye, P. D.

    2011-09-01

    III-V-on-nothing (III-VON) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are experimentally demonstrated with In0.53Ga0.47As as channel and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as gate dielectric. A hydrochloric acid based release process has been developed to create an air gap beneath the InGaAs channel layer, forming the nanowire channel with width down to 40 nm. III-VON MOSFETs with channel lengths down to 50 nm are fabricated and show promising improvement in drain-induced barrier lowering, due to suppressed short-channel effects. The top-down processing technique provides a viable pathway towards fully gate-all-around III-V MOSFETs.

  19. Device and Circuit Codesign Strategy for Application to Low-Noise Amplifier Based on Silicon Nanowire Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seongjae Cho,; Hee-Sauk Jhon,; Jung Hoon Lee,; Se Hwan Park,; Hyungcheol Shin,; Byung-Gook Park,

    2010-04-01

    In this study, a full-range approach from device level to circuit level design is performed for RF application of silicon nanowire (SNW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). Both DC and AC analyses have been conducted to confirm the advantages of an SNW MOSFET over the conventional planar (CPL) MOSFET device having dimensional equivalence. Besides the intrinsic characteristic parameters, the extrinsic resistance and capacitance caused by wiring components are extracted from each device. On the basis of these intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, a multi-fingered 5.8 GHz low-noise amplifier (LNA) design adopting SNW MOSFETs has been achieved, which shows an improved gain of 17.5 dB and a noise figure of 3.1 dB over a CPL MOSFET LNA.

  20. Achieving low parasitic resistance in Ge p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by ion implantation after germanidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin Chang, Wen; Ota, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Tatsuro

    2015-05-01

    The parasitic resistance (Rpara) of Ge p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) fabricated by ion implantation after germanidation (IAG) has been investigated by varying the drive-in annealing temperature. The lowest Rpara of 835 Ω µm was achieved after 450 °C drive-in annealing for 1 min. Boron segregation between NiGe and Ge induced by drive-in annealing has advantages in forming an abrupt metallic source/drain (S/D) junction and contributes to the decrease in Rpara. The appropriate process window for fabricating Ge p-MOSFETs by IAG was also given. IAG, a pathway for introducing a Ge channel into CMOS technology beyond the 10 nm node, was proved to be effective for reducing Rpara.

  1. Performance enhancement of multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated using self-aligned and laser interference photolithography techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The simple self-aligned photolithography technique and laser interference photolithography technique were proposed and utilized to fabricate multiple-gate ZnO metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Since the multiple-gate structure could improve the electrical field distribution along the ZnO channel, the performance of the ZnO MOSFETs could be enhanced. The performance of the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs was better than that of the conventional single-gate ZnO MOSFETs. The higher the drain-source saturation current (12.41 mA/mm), the higher the transconductance (5.35 mS/mm) and the lower the anomalous off-current (5.7 μA/mm) for the multiple-gate ZnO MOSFETs were obtained. PMID:24948884

  2. Investigation of Stress Memorization Process on Low-Frequency Noise Performance for Strained Si n-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Wen; Wu, San-Lein; Lin, Hau-Yu; Huang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Hong, De-Gong; Wu, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Yao-Chin; Cheng, Osbert

    2011-04-01

    The use of low-frequency (1/f) noise to evaluate low-cost stress-memorization technique (SMT) induced-stress in n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors has been investigated. As compared to device without SMT process, the comparable 1/f noise level obtained for strained Si devices with the low-cost SMT process indicates that adding the low-cost SMT process will not affect the Si/SiO2 interface quality. Moreover, through observing experiment result and Hooge's parameter αH, the mechanism of 1/f noise in the both devices can be properly interpreted by the carrier number fluctuations correlated mobility fluctuations (unified model).

  3. Fabrication and characterization of the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Wen, Song; Xiao-Yan, Tang; Yan-Jing, He; Guan-Nan, Tang; Yue-Hu, Wang; Yi-Meng, Zhang; Hui, Guo; Ren-Xu, Jia; Hong-Liang, Lv; Yi-Men, Zhang; Yu-Ming, Zhang

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the normally-off N-channel lateral 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFFETs) have been fabricated and characterized. A sandwich- (nitridation-oxidation-nitridation) type process was used to grow the gate dielectric film to obtain high channel mobility. The interface properties of 4H-SiC/SiO2 were examined by the measurement of HF I-V, G-V, and C-V over a range of frequencies. The ideal C-V curve with little hysteresis and the frequency dispersion were observed. As a result, the interface state density near the conduction band edge of 4H-SiC was reduced to 2 × 1011 eV-1·cm-2, the breakdown field of the grown oxides was about 9.8 MV/cm, the median peak field-effect mobility is about 32.5 cm2·V-1·s-1, and the maximum peak field-effect mobility of 38 cm2·V-1·s-1 was achieved in fabricated lateral 4H-SiC MOSFFETs. Projcet supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404098, 61176070, and 61274079), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 20110203110010 and 20130203120017), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB759600), and the Key Specific Projects of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 625010101).

  4. Characteristics of flexographic printed indium-zinc-oxide thin films as an active semiconductor layer in thin film field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilfer, Stefan; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Dörsam, Edgar

    2014-11-01

    Characteristics of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors prepared by flexographic printing technique have been studied. The device was a field-effect transistor substrate (15 mm × 15 mm, n-doped silicon, 90 nm SiO2 layer) with pre-structured gold electrodes and a printed active layer. The active layer was printed with a indium-zinc-oxide precursor solution and then annealed at 450 °C for 4 min on a hotplate. Influences of typographical parameters, i.e. printing pressure, anilox roller pressure, ink supply rate, printing velocity and printing plate (cliché) properties were studied. Reference active layers were produced by spin coating. The printed IZO ceramic layer with a dry film thickness between 3 and 8 nm, deposited onto the substrate for field-effect transistors provided a good performance with charge carrier mobilities (μ) up to 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off current ratios (Ion/off ratio) up to 5.2 × 107 and mean threshold voltages (Vth) of +4 V. The characterization of the printed and annealed IZO layer by AFM revealed the amorphous nature of the printed active layer films with a root-mean square roughness of 0.8 nm.

  5. Novel Bulk Silicon Lateral Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Using Step Thickness Technology in Drift Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi; Guo, Yufeng; Yao, Jiafei; Hua, Tingting; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Changchun; Ji, Xincun

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a novel bulk silicon lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (LDMOS) using step thickness technology in drift region is proposed. The drift region is divided into several zones with different thicknesses increasing from source to drain. Owing to modulation effect of the step thickness drift region, new additional electric field peaks are introduced in the drift region, thus leading to the reduction of the surface electric fields and the increase of the breakdown voltage. The influences of device parameters on breakdown voltage and specific on-resistance are investigated using semiconductor device simulator, MEDICI. The simulation results indicate that an 18.4% increase in the breakdown voltage and a 42.5% increase in the figure of merit (FOM) are obtained in the novel device in comparison with the conventional LDMOS. Furthermore, single step can lead to approximately ideal FOM in comparison with the multiple steps, so that can obtain a suitable trade-off between fabrication costs and performance.

  6. An accurate simulation study on capacitance-voltage characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in novel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Eunseon; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-09-01

    An essential and important method for physical and electrical characterization of a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure is the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. Judging from the C-V characteristics of a MOS structure, we are allowed to predict the DC and AC behaviors of the field-effect transistor and extract a set of primary parameters. The MOS field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology has evolved to enhance the gate controllability over the channel in order for effectively suppressing the short-channel effects (SCEs) unwantedly taking place as device scaling progresses. For the goal, numerous novel structures have been suggested for the advanced MOSFET devices. However, the C-V characteristics of such novel MOS structures have not been seldom studied in depth. In this work, we report the C-V characteristics of ultra-thin-body (UTB) MOSFETs on the bulk Si and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates by rigorous technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. For higher credibility and accuracy, quantum-mechanical models are activated and empirical material parameters are employed from the existing literature. The MOSFET structure and the material configurations are schemed referring advanced logic technology suggested by the most recent technology roadmap. The C-V characteristics of UTB MOSFETs having a floating body with extremely small volume are closely investigated.

  7. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device.

    PubMed

    Sanctis, Shawn; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Eiben, Sabine; Schneider, Jörg J

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET). A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  8. Dual Metal/High-k Gate-Last Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor with SiBN Film and Characteristic Behavior In Sub-1-nm Equivalent Oxide Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Nagashima, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    For the first time, dual metal/high-k gate-last complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (CMOSFETs) with low-dielectric-constant-material offset spacers and several gate oxide thicknesses were fabricated to improve CMOSFETs characteristics. Improvements of 23 aF/µm in parasitic capacitances were confirmed with a low-dielectric-constant material, and drive current improvements were also achieved with a thin gate oxide. The drive currents at 100 nA/µm off leakages in n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) were improved from 830 to 950 µA/µm and that in p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (PMOS) were from 405 to 450 µA/µm with a reduction in gate oxide thickness. The thin gate oxide in PMOS was thinner than that in NMOS and the gate leakage was increased. However the gate leakage did not affect the off leakage below a gate length of about 44 nm. On the basis of this result, in these gate-last CMOSFETs, it is concluded that the transistors have potential for further reduction of the equivalent oxide thickness without an increase in off leakages at short gate lengths for high off leakage CMOSFETs. For low off leakage CMOSFETs, the optimization of wet process condition is needed to prevent the reduction of the 2 nm HfO2 thickness in PMOS during a wet process.

  9. Pattern dependency in selective epitaxy of B-doped SiGe layers for advanced metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hâllstedt, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Ghandi, R.; Radamson, H. H.; Wise, R.

    2008-03-01

    This study presents investigations about the physical mechanisms, origin, and methods to control the pattern dependency in selective epitaxial growth of Si1-xGex (x=0.14-0.32) layers. It is shown with a comprehensive experimental study that the local Si coverage of individual chips on patterned wafers is the main parameter for the layer profile in the epitaxial growth. This was explained by the gas depletion of the growth species in the low velocity boundary layer over the wafer. The gas depletion radius around each oxide opening was in the centimeter range which is related to the boundary layer thickness. The results from these experiments were applied to grow Si0.75Ge0.25 layers with B concentration of 4×1020cm-3 selectively for elevated source and drains in fully depleted ultrathin body silicon on insulator p metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (p-MOSFET) devices. The epitaxy control was maintained over a wide range of device sizes by optimized process parameters in combination with a wafer pattern design consisting of dummy features causing a uniform gas depletion over the chips on the wafer.

  10. Electron valence-band tunneling-induced Lorentzian noise in deep submicron silicon-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanchikova, N. B.; Petrichuk, M. V.; Garbar, N.; Mercha, A.; Simoen, E.; Claeys, C.

    2003-10-01

    In this article, the impact of several electrical and technological parameters on a particular type of Lorentzian noise, occurring in deep submicron silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with an ultrathin gate dielectric is described and a semi-empirical model is proposed that captures the main features of the experimental behavior. It is shown that the noise takes place in both n- and p-channel partially depleted SOI transistors. The excess Lorentzians are also found in the n-channel fully depleted devices studied, whereby the noise plateau amplitude [SI(0)] increases for a more negative back-gate bias, putting the back interface into stronger accumulation. The dependence of the characteristic time constant τ and SI(0) on transistor length, drain, front- and back-gate bias is reported, where from a first-order model is derived. The latter is based on the idea that the excess Lorentzian noise originates from filtered shot noise induced by majority carriers, that are injected in the floating body of the transistors by electron valence-band tunneling across the ultrathin (2.5 nm) gate oxide.

  11. Negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect/bipolar hybrid transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2014-11-24

    Introducing explicit quantum transport into Si transistors in a manner amenable to industrial fabrication has proven challenging. Hybrid field-effect/bipolar Si transistors fabricated on an industrial 45 nm process line are shown to demonstrate explicit quantum transport signatures. These transistors incorporate a lateral ion implantation-defined quantum well (QW) whose potential depth is controlled by a gate voltage (V{sub G}). Quantum transport in the form of negative differential transconductance (NDTC) is observed to temperatures >200 K. The NDTC is tied to a non-monotonic dependence of bipolar current gain on V{sub G} that reduces drain-source current through the QW. These devices establish the feasibility of exploiting quantum transport to transform the performance horizons of Si devices fabricated in an industrially scalable manner.

  12. Additional-Body Effects in a Self-Aligned Deca-Nanometer Ultrathin-Body and Buried Oxide Silicon-on-Insulator Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor: A Three-Dimensional Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Eng, Yi-Chuen; Chen, Cheng-Hsin; Fan, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the additional-body effects (ABEs) created by the isolation-last fabrication process of a self-aligned deca-nanometer ultrathin-body and buried oxide (UTBB) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). The reasons for the device's new electrical characteristics are also explained in detail. The additional silicon body volumes of the UTBB SOI MOSFET are found to improve the subthreshold swing and the on/off current ratio. The additional body has a negative effect, however, upon both the gate leakage current and the total gate capacitance, when compared with a standard UTBB SOI MOSFET.

  13. P-Channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based on polarization-induced two-dimensional hole gas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kexiong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    The concept of p-channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (FET) using a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced by polarization effect is demonstrated. The existence of 2DHG near the lower interface of InGaN/GaN heterostructure is verified by theoretical simulation and capacitance-voltage profiling. The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) with Al2O3 gate dielectric shows a drain-source current density of 0.51 mA/mm at the gate voltage of −2 V and drain bias of −15 V, an ON/OFF ratio of two orders of magnitude and effective hole mobility of 10 cm2/Vs at room temperature. The normal operation of MOSFET without freeze-out at 8 K further proves that the p-channel behavior is originated from the polarization-induced 2DHG. PMID:27021054

  14. Ultrathin body GaSb-on-insulator p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si fabricated by direct wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, Masafumi Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Haruki

    2015-02-16

    We have realized ultrathin body GaSb-on-insulator (GaSb-OI) on Si wafers by direct wafer bonding technology using atomic-layer deposition (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and have demonstrated GaSb-OI p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on Si. A 23-nm-thick GaSb-OI p-MOSFET exhibits the peak effective mobility of ∼76 cm{sup 2}/V s. We have found that the effective hole mobility of the thin-body GaSb-OI p-MOSFETs decreases with a decrease in the GaSb-OI thickness or with an increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD temperature. The InAs passivation of GaSb-OI MOS interfaces can enhance the peak effective mobility up to 159 cm{sup 2}/V s for GaSb-OI p-MOSFETs with the 20-nm-thick GaSb layer.

  15. Impact of mechanical stress on gate tunneling currents of germanium and silicon p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and metal gate work function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Youn Sung; Numata, Toshinori; Nishida, Toshikazu; Harris, Rusty; Thompson, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Uniaxial four-point wafer bending stress-altered gate tunneling currents are measured for germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with HfO2/SiO2 gate dielectrics and TiN/P+ poly Si electrodes. Carrier separation is used to measure electron and hole currents. The strain-altered hole tunneling current from the p-type inversion layer of Ge is measured to be ˜4 times larger than that for the Si channel MOSFET, since the larger strain-induced valence band-edge splitting in Ge results in more hole repopulation into a subband with a smaller out-of-plane effective mass and a lower tunneling barrier height. The strain-altered electron tunneling current from the metal gate is measured and shown to change due to strain altering the metal work function as quantified by flatband voltage shift measurements of Si MOS capacitors with TaN electrodes.

  16. Modeling of anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jiwon

    2015-06-07

    Ballistic transport characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene are explored through quantum transport simulations. We focus on the effects of the channel crystal orientation and the channel length scaling on device performances. Especially, the role of degenerate conduction band (CB) valleys in monolayer HfS{sub 2} is comprehensively analyzed. Benchmarking monolayer HfS{sub 2} with phosphorene MOSFETs, we predict that the effect of channel orientation on device performances is much weaker in monolayer HfS{sub 2} than in phosphorene due to the degenerate CB valleys of monolayer HfS{sub 2}. Our simulations also reveal that at 10 nm channel length scale, phosphorene MOSFETs outperform monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs in terms of the on-state current. However, it is observed that monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs may offer comparable, but a little bit degraded, device performances as compared with phosphorene MOSFETs at 5 nm channel length.

  17. Mechanical Stress Evaluation of Si Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Structure Using Polarized Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy Measurements and Calibrated Technology-Computer-Aided-Design Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Akira; Tada, Tetsuya; Poborchii, Vladimir; Kanayama, Toshihiko; Satoh, Shigeo; Arimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical stresses in Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were evaluated by polarized UV Raman spectroscopy measurements and stress simulations. To calibrate stress parameters of the materials used in the Si MOSFETs, we compared measured and simulated Raman frequency shifts on the cleaved Si(110) surfaces of the MOSFETs. Consequently, we extracted intrinsic stress values of -400 MPa for a SiO2, -200 MPa for polycrystalline Si (poly-Si), 700 MPa for Ni silicide, 1250 MPa for a SiN tensile stress liner, and -3500 MPa for a SiN compressive stress liner by finding good agreement between the measured and simulated Raman shift distributions. To verify our stress simulation, we investigated the source/drain width dependences of Raman frequency shifts near the channel regions of Si MOSFETs by top-view Raman measurements. The calculated Raman frequency shifts agreed well with the results of polarized Raman measurements in terms of not only relative tendencies but also absolute Raman shift values.

  18. A Compact Half Select Disturb Free Static Random Access Memory Cell with Stacked Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyoungjun; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a half select disturb free compact static random access memory (SRAM) cell with the stacked vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is proposed, and the impacts on its cell size, stability and speed performance are evaluated. The proposed SRAM cell has a small cell size, which is 67% of the conventional eight-transistor (8T) SRAM cell, because of its stacked vertical MOSFET structure. It realizes a half select disturb free SRAM operation; therefore, a larger static noise margin of 5.9 times is achieved in comparison with the conventional 8T SRAM cell. It suppresses the degradation of the write margin, thus its write margin is 84.2% of the conventional 8T SRAM cell. Furthermore, it suppresses the degradation of the write time by 39% (0.249 ns). The proposed compact SRAM cell with the stacked vertical MOSFET is a suitable SRAM cell with a small cell size, immunity to the half select disturb, wide write margin and fast write time.

  19. Effects of substrate voltage on noise characteristics and hole lifetime in SOI metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor photon detector.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Dedy Septono Catur; Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Hartanto, Djoko; Du, Wei; Satoh, Hiroaki; Ono, Atsushi; Inokawa, Hiroshi

    2014-09-08

    Low-frequency noise and hole lifetime in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are analyzed, considering their use in photon detection based on single-hole counting. The noise becomes minimum at around the transition point between front- and back-channel operations when the substrate voltage is varied, and increases largely on both negative and positive sides of the substrate voltage showing peculiar Lorentzian (generation-recombination) noise spectra. Hole lifetime is evaluated by the analysis of drain current histogram at different substrate voltages. It is found that the peaks in the histogram corresponding to the larger number of stored holes become higher as the substrate bias becomes larger. This can be attributed to the prolonged lifetime caused by the higher electric field inside the body of SOI MOSFET. It can be concluded that, once the inversion channel is induced for detection of the photo-generated holes, the small absolute substrate bias is favorable for short lifetime and low noise, leading to high-speed operation.

  20. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  1. Structural Dependence of Source-and-Drain Series Resistance on Saturation Drain Current for Sub-20 nm Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, JongChul; Hiroki, Akira; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi

    2013-07-01

    The structural dependence of series-resistance effects on the saturation current is investigated in sub-20 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). For planer bulk, silicon-on-insulator (SOI), and multi gate (MG) MOSFETs, the reduction rate of the saturation current is calculated using an analytical current model in high-performance (HP), low-operating-power (LOP), and low-standby-power (LSTP) technologies. In HP technology, the reduction rates are 29.0, 25.3, and 22.1% for bulk, SOI, and MG MOSFETs, respectively. In LOP technology, the reduction rates are 23.8, 21.5, and 20.7% for bulk, SOI, and MG MOSFETs, respectively. In LSTP technology, the reduction rates are about 17% for all devices. In HP technology, the ratio of the series resistance to the channel resistance is the dominant factor for the reduction rate. In LOP technology, the ratio of the over drive voltage to the supply voltage is the dominant factor. In LSTP technology, both the resistance and voltage ratios are the dominant factors.

  2. Anomalous Increase in Effective Channel Mobility on Gamma-Irradiated p-Channel SiC Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Containing Step Bunching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; Ohshima, Takeshi; Ohi, Akihiko; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Pensl, Gerhard

    2006-09-01

    The influence of gamma-radiation on the electrical characteristics of 6H-SiC p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) containing step bunching is reported. The formation of step bunching perpendicular to the channel inhibited the current flow, whereas such an effect was not seen in devices with step bunching formed parallel to the channel. The effective channel mobility in the latter devices increases with gamma-radiation. This improvement of the hole mobility is attributed partially to the positively trapped charges screened the holes from approaching too close to the surface and partially to the effect of position of these charges, resulting in a reduction of scattering and capture of holes. No enhancement in the effective channel mobility was observed for devices with no step bunching or with root mean square roughness in the channel region less than 4 nm. Further irradiation leads to a decrease in the effective channel mobility due to both the formation of latent interface traps and electrostatics repulsion of holes.

  3. Achievement of low parasitic resistance in Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor using an embedded TiN-source/drain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomi, Y.; Tateyama, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the source/drain (S/D) parasitic resistance (R P) of a Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) with TiN-S/D. The R P was as high as ˜1400 Ω, which is attributed to a very thin amorphous interlayer (a-IL) at a TiN/Ge interface. To solve this problem, n-MOSFETs with an embedded S/D structure were fabricated, of which the S/D was formed by the etching of a Ge layer using 0.03%-H2O2 solution followed by TiN sputter deposition. The electrical performances were investigated for devices with etching depths in the range of 2-22 nm. The devices with etching depths of 2-5 nm did not work. The devices with etching depths of 12-15 nm showed a quite normal transistor operation, and the R P was as low as ˜130 Ω, which is comparable to that of a p-MOSFET with PtGe-S/D. However, R Ps of the devices with etching depths of ˜22 nm was considerably high. The reason for these results is discussed on the basis of an a-IL formation at the sidewall of the engraved S/D region.

  4. Electron Substrate and Gate Current Modeling for Single-Drain Buried-Channel p-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Including Tunneling Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Chorng-Jye

    2008-11-01

    A model of nonlocal electron substrate and gate currents is presented for single-drain (SD) buried-channel (BC) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs). A nonlocal impact ionization coefficient with characteristic length dependence both in the exponential term and the pre-exponential factor is used in the electron substrate current model. The gate current model is developed by originating a modified lucky electron concept that includes quantum-mechanical tunneling effects in parallel. The channel electric field is first calculated by using an analytical pseudo-two-dimensional MOSFET model, and the spatial distribution of electron temperature along the channel is then derived using a simplified energy balance equation. Having calculated the nonlocal impact ionization coefficient and electron temperature, and modified the lucky electron concept, the nonlocal electron substrate and gate currents can be derived. This model is a time-saving computer-aided-design (CAD) model and is physics transparent for SD BC pMOSFETs.

  5. Monolithic Integration of a Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors Array on a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Chip for Biochemical Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I−V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs. PMID:26348408

  6. Systematical Study of Reliability Issues in Plasma-Nitrided and Thermally Nitrided Oxides for Advanced Dual-Gate Oxide p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Shien-Yang; Chang, Sun-Jay; Chiang, Mu-Chi; Lin, Chih-Yung; Chao, Tien-Sheng; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) and hot-carrier injection (HCI) on the core and input/output (I/O) p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (PMOSFET) fabricated using the different gate dielectrics of plasma nitrided oxide (PNO) and thermally nitrided oxide (TNO). The mobility and constant overdrive current of the PMOSFETs fabricated using PNO as a gate oxide material are about 30 and 23% higher than those of the devices fabricated using TNO, respectively. The core PMOSFETs fabricated using PNO show a better NBTI and HCI immunity than those fabricated using TNO owing to the lower nitrogen concentration at the SiO2/Si-substrate interface. However, the I/O PMOSFETs fabricated using PNO show a higher HCI-induced degradation rate because of a higher oxide bulk trap density but a better NBTI than the devices fabricated using TNO at a normal stressed bias due to a low interface trap density.

  7. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  8. A methodology to identify and quantify mobility-reducing defects in 4H-silicon carbide power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ettisserry, D. P. Goldsman, N.; Lelis, A.

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we present a methodology for the identification and quantification of defects responsible for low channel mobility in 4H-Silicon Carbide (SiC) power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). To achieve this, we use an algorithm based on 2D-device simulations of a power MOSFET, density functional simulations, and measurement data. Using physical modeling of carrier mobility and interface traps, we reproduce the experimental I-V characteristics of a 4H-SiC doubly implanted MOSFET through drift-diffusion simulation. We extract the position of Fermi level and the occupied trap density as a function of applied bias and temperature. Using these inputs, our algorithm estimates the number of possible trap types, their energy levels, and concentrations at 4H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} interface. Subsequently, we use density functional theory (DFT)-based ab initio simulations to identify the atomic make-up of defects causing these trap levels. We study silicon vacancy and carbon di-interstitial defects in the SiC side of the interface. Our algorithm indicates that the D{sub it} spectrum near the conduction band edge (3.25 eV) is composed of three trap types located at 2.8–2.85 eV, 3.05 eV, and 3.1–3.2 eV, and also calculates their densities. Based on DFT simulations, this work attributes the trap levels very close to the conduction band edge to the C di-interstitial defect.

  9. Ultra-low specific on-resistance high-voltage vertical double diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor with continuous electron accumulation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da, Ma; Xiao-Rong, Luo; Jie, Wei; Qiao, Tan; Kun, Zhou; Jun-Feng, Wu

    2016-04-01

    A new ultra-low specific on-resistance (R on,sp) vertical double diffusion metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (VDMOS) with continuous electron accumulation (CEA) layer, denoted as CEA-VDMOS, is proposed and its new current transport mechanism is investigated. It features a trench gate directly extended to the drain, which includes two PN junctions. In on-state, the electron accumulation layers are formed along the sides of the extended gate and introduce two continuous low-resistance current paths from the source to the drain in a cell pitch. This mechanism not only dramatically reduces the R on,sp but also makes the R on,sp almost independent of the n-pillar doping concentration (N n). In off-state, the depletion between the n-pillar and p-pillar within the extended trench gate increases the N n, and further reduces the R on,sp. Especially, the two PN junctions within the trench gate support a high gate-drain voltage in the off-state and on-state, respectively. However, the extended gate increases the gate capacitance and thus weakens the dynamic performance to some extent. Therefore, the CEA-VDMOS is more suitable for low and medium frequencies application. Simulation indicates that the CEA-VDMOS reduces the R on,sp by 80% compared with the conventional super-junction VDMOS (CSJ-VDMOS) at the same high breakdown voltage (BV). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176069 and 61376079) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. ZYGX2014Z006).

  10. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO® head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). Results: The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; −5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; −14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; −16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Conclusions: Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region. PMID:25143020

  11. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of LaAlO3/Al2O3/hydrogenated-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Oosato, H.; Watanabe, E.; Tanaka, A.; Iwai, H.; Koide, Y.

    2013-08-01

    In order to search a gate dielectric with high permittivity on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond), LaAlO3 films with thin Al2O3 buffer layers are fabricated on the H-diamond epilayers by sputtering-deposition (SD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques, respectively. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with gate lengths of 10, 20, and 30 μm have been investigated. The valence and conduction band offsets of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3 structure are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The valence band discontinuity between H-diamond and LaAlO3 is evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 eV, showing that the MOS structure acts as the gate which controls a hole carrier density. The leakage current density of the SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOS diode is smaller than 10-8 A cm-2 at gate bias from -4 to 2 V. The capacitance-voltage curve in the depletion mode shows sharp dependence, small flat band voltage, and small hysteresis shift, which implies low positive and trapped charge densities. The MOSFETs show p-type channel and complete normally off characteristics with threshold voltages changing from -3.6 ± 0.1 to -5.0 ± 0.1 V dependent on the gate length. The drain current maximum and the extrinsic transconductance of the MOSFET with gate length of 10 μm are -7.5 mA mm-1 and 2.3 ± 0.1 mS mm-1, respectively. The enhancement mode SD-LaAlO3/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFET is concluded to be suitable for the applications of high power and high frequency electrical devices.

  12. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, J; Schulze, D; Wolff, J; Rottke, D

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Organ and effective dose measurements were performed using 40 TLD and 20 MOSFET dosemeters that were alternately placed in 20 different locations in 1 anthropomorphic RANDO(®) head phantom (the Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The phantom was exposed to four different CBCT default maxillofacial protocols using small (4 × 5 cm) to full face (20 × 17 cm) fields of view (FOVs). The TLD effective doses ranged between 7.0 and 158.0 µSv and the MOSFET doses between 6.1 and 175.0 µSv. The MOSFET and TLD effective doses acquired using four different (FOV) protocols were as follows: face maxillofacial (FOV 20 × 17 cm) (MOSFET, 83.4 µSv; TLD, 87.6 µSv; -5%); teeth, upper jaw (FOV, 8.5 × 5.0 cm) (MOSFET, 6.1 µSv; TLD, 7.0 µSv; -14%); tooth, mandible and left molar (FOV, 4 × 5 cm) (MOSFET, 10.3 µSv; TLD, 12.3 µSv; -16%) and teeth, both jaws (FOV, 10 × 10 cm) (MOSFET, 175 µSv; TLD, 158 µSv; +11%). The largest variation in organ and effective dose was recorded in the small FOV protocols. Taking into account the uncertainties of both measurement methods and the results of the statistical analysis, the effective doses acquired using MOSFET dosemeters were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using TLD dosemeters. The MOSFET dosemeters constitute a feasible alternative for TLDs for the effective dose assessment of CBCT devices in the maxillofacial region.

  13. Temperature-Independent Switching Rates for a Random Telegraph Signal in a Silicon Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Nick; Fleetwood, D.M.; Scofield, John H.

    1999-07-19

    We have observed discrete random telegraph signals (RTS'S) in the drain voltages of three, observed above 30 K were thermally activated. The switching rate for the only RTS observed below 30 K was thermally activated above 30 K but temperature-independent below 10 K. To our knowledge, this cross-over from thermal activation to tunneling behavior has not been previously observed for RTS's Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MCEWETS) often exhibit relatively large levels of low-frequency (1/fl noise) [1,2]. Much evidence suggests that this noise is related to the capture all cases, switching rates have been thermally activated, often with different activation energies for capture and/or emission is accompanied by lattice relaxation. Though thermally activated behavior has sufficiently low temperatures [7,9]. While not observed in MOSFETS, cross-over from thermal activation to configurational tunneling has been observed for RTS's in junctions [13]. drain voltage was observed to randomly switch between two discrete levels, designated as Vup and Vdn, similar to RTS's reported by others [2,7'- 11 ]. We have characterized six RTS `S for temperatures above 30 K where thermally activated switching rates are observed. The properties of five of these have been the trap, i.e., the mean time a captured charge carrier spends in the trap before it is emitted. Similarly, we identify the mean time in the low resistance state ( trup in state Vup) as the capture time rc. F@ure 1 shows a typical time trace of the drain-voltage fluctuation &d(t)= Vd(t)+Vd>. This indicate that both the mean capture and emission times become independent of Tat low temperatures and where a= capture or emission, is temperature independent. The solid curve in Figure 3(a) (mean capture time) was obtained using a weighted nonlinear charge carriers are not in thermal equilibrium with the lattice, i.e., that while the lattice is being cooled Instead, we believe that the transition from thermally

  14. Comparison between chemical vapor deposited and physical vapor deposited WSi{sub 2} metal gate for InGaAs n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, B. S.; Pey, K. L.; Ong, C. Y.; Tan, C. S.; Antoniadis, D. A.; Fitzgerald, E. A.

    2011-05-02

    We compare chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) WSi{sub 2} metal gate process for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using 10 and 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dielectric layer. The CVD-processed metal gate device with 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows enhanced transistor performance such as drive current, maximum transconductance and maximum effective mobility. These values are relatively better than the PVD-processed counterpart device with improvement of 51.8%, 46.4%, and 47.8%, respectively. The improvement for the performance of the CVD-processed metal gate device is due to the fluorine passivation at the oxide/semiconductor interface and a nondestructive deposition process.

  15. Single crystal growth of organic semiconductors for field effect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloc, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Organic semiconductors attract considerable attention due to promising applications in organic light emitting diodes, field effect transistors, and organic solar cells. Moreover, solubility of some organic semiconductors in organic solvents favors them for printed large area OLED displays and inexpensive printed microelectronics. However, low mobility of carriers in organic semiconductors limits usability of organic semiconductors in integrated circuits and need to be overcome. For this reason, the knowledge of intrinsic properties achievable in very pure and perfect crystals is important. Therefore, we have carried out a program to grow high quality single crystals of organics. Solution growth, melt growth, solvothermal method and vapor transport crystal growth have been applied and will be reported. For research purpose, using a gas phase transport method, we have produced millimeter - sized crystals of numerous organic semiconductors with higher quality and purity. Structure quality has been evaluated by x-ray topography methods. Field effect transistors have been prepared on surfaces of single crystals. Some of organic semiconductors like rubrene, pentacene, copper phthalocyanine exhibit carrier mobilities comparable or even higher than amorphous silicon. However, characterization of starting materials, crystals, thin films and resulting devices remains the crucial issue. The relation between organic semiconductor properties, used device fabrication technologies and resulting device characteristics is the object of presented here studies.

  16. Charge trapping induced drain-induced-barrier-lowering in HfO2/TiN p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistors under hot carrier stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Dai, Chih-Hao; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Hua-Mao; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung

    2012-04-01

    This letter studies the channel hot carrier stress (CHCS) behaviors on high dielectric constant insulator and metal gate HfO2/TiN p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors. It can be found that the degradation is associated with electron trapping, resulting in Gm decrease and positive Vth shift. However, Vth under saturation region shows an insignificant degradation during stress. To compare that, the CHC-induced electron trapping induced DIBL is proposed to demonstrate the different behavior of Vth between linear and saturation region. The devices with different channel length are used to evidence the trapping-induced DIBL behavior.

  17. Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dib, E.; Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Cavassilas, N.; Bescond, M.

    2016-01-28

    Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation. Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations.

  18. Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films in field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Koshi Dehm, Simone; Hahn, Horst

    2013-12-16

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid thin films consisting of an amorphous oxide semiconductor and a number of aluminum dots in different diameters and arrangements are formed by electron beam lithography and employed for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Experimental and computational demonstrations systematically reveal that the field-effect mobility of the TFTs enhances but levels off as the dot density increases, which originates from variations of the effective channel length that strongly depends on the electric field distribution in a transistor channel.

  19. Fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate by applying low-temperature layer transfer of a single-crystalline silicon layer by meniscus force

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaike, Kohei; Akazawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Shogo; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2013-12-02

    A low-temperature local-layer technique for transferring a single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) film by using a meniscus force was proposed, and an n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. It was demonstrated that it is possible to transfer and form c-Si films in the required shape at the required position on PET substrates at extremely low temperatures by utilizing a meniscus force. The proposed technique for layer transfer was applied for fabricating high-performance c-Si MOSFETs on a PET substrate. The fabricated MOSFET showed a high on/off ratio of more than 10{sup 8} and a high field-effect mobility of 609 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  20. Near interface traps in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-01

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO2/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in "gate-controlled-diode" configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (VG > |20 V|) through the SiO2/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (Ntrap ˜ 2 × 1011 cm-2).

  1. Temperature-independent switching rates for a random telegraph signal in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, John H.; Borland, Nick; Fleetwood, D. M.

    2000-05-29

    We have observed discrete random telegraph signals (RTSs) in the drain voltages of three, nominally 1.25 {mu}mx1.25 {mu}m, enhancement-mode p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors operated in strong inversion in their linear regimes with constant drain-current and gate-voltage bias, for temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 300 K. The switching rates for all RTSs observed above 30 K were thermally activated. The switching rate for the only RTS observed below 30 K was thermally activated above 30 K but temperature independent below 10 K. This response is consistent with a crossover from thermal activation to tunneling at low temperatures. Implications are discussed for models of change exchange between the Si and the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Bulk and interface trap generation under negative bias temperature instability stress of p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with nitrogen and silicon incorporated HfO2 gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changhwan; Lee, Jack C.

    2011-02-01

    Negative bias temperature instabilities (NBTIs) of p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor with HfO2, HfOxNy, and HfSiON were investigated. Higher bulk trap generation (ΔNot) is mainly attributed to threshold voltage shift rather than interface trap generation (ΔNit). ΔNit, ΔNot, activation energy (Ea), and lifetime were exacerbated with incorporated nitrogen while improved with adding Si into gate dielectrics. Compared to HfO2, HfOxNy showed worse NBTI due to nitrogen pile-up at Si interface. However, adding Si into HfOxNy placed nitrogen peak profile away from Si/oxide interface and NBTI was reduced. This improvement is ascribed to reduced ΔNot and ΔNit, resulting from less nitrogen at Si interface.

  3. Multifunctional phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides as dielectrics, interface modification layers and semiconductors for low-voltage high-performance organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong; Acton, Orb; Hutchins, Daniel O; Cernetic, Nathan; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-07

    Insulating and semiconducting molecular phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been developed for applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) for low-power, low-cost flexible electronics. Multifunctional SAMs on ultrathin metal oxides, such as hafnium oxide and aluminum oxide, are shown to enable (1) low-voltage (sub 2 V) OFETs through dielectric and interface engineering on rigid and plastic substrates, (2) simultaneous one-component modification of source-drain and dielectric surfaces in bottom-contact OFETs, and (3) SAM-FETs based on molecular monolayer semiconductors. The combination of excellent dielectric and interfacial properties results in high-performance OFETs with low-subthreshold slopes down to 75 mV dec(-1), high I(on)/I(off) ratios of 10(5)-10(7), contact resistance down to 700 Ω cm, charge carrier mobilities of 0.1-4.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and general applicability to solution-processed and vacuum-deposited n-type and p-type organic and polymer semiconductors.

  4. Gate length and temperature dependence of negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Introducing quantum transport into silicon transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated silicon devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (VG) spacing between NDTCs. The VG spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background.

  5. Gate length and temperature dependence of negative differential transconductance in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, Clint; Lee, Mark; Edwards, Hal; Mathur, Guru; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Maggio, Ken

    2015-09-28

    Introducing quantum transport into silicon transistors in a manner compatible with industrial fabrication has the potential to transform the performance horizons of large scale integrated silicon devices and circuits. Explicit quantum transport as evidenced by negative differential transconductances (NDTCs) has been observed in a set of quantum well (QW) transistors fabricated using industrial silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing. Detailed gate length and temperature dependence characteristics of the NDTCs in these devices have been measured. The QW potential was formed via lateral ion implantation doping on a commercial 45 nm technology node process line, and measurements of the transfer characteristics show NDTCs up to room temperature. Gate length dependence of NDTCs shows a correlation of the interface channel length with the number of NDTCs formed as well as with the gate voltage (V{sub G}) spacing between NDTCs. The V{sub G} spacing between multiple NDTCs suggests a quasi-parabolic QW potential profile. The temperature dependence is consistent with partial freeze-out of carrier concentration against a degenerately doped background.

  6. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel

    2016-01-25

    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  7. Investigation of an anomalous hump in gate current after negative-bias temperature-instability in HfO2/metal gate p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wu, Chi-Wei; Lo, Wen-Hung; Chen, Ching-En; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Guan-Ru; Chen, Hua-Mao; Lu, Ying-Shin; Wang, Bin-Wei; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Sze, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter investigates a hump in gate current after negative-bias temperature-instability (NBTI) in HfO2/metal gate p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Measuring gate current at initial through body floating and source/drain floating shows that hole current flows from source/drain. The fitting of gate current (Ig)-gate voltage (Vg) characteristic curves demonstrates that the Frenkel-Poole mechanism dominates the conduction. Next, by fitting the gate current after NBTI, in the order of Frenkel-Poole then tunneling, the Frenkel-Poole mechanism can be confirmed. These phenomena can be attributed to hole trapping in high-k bulk and the electric field formula Ehigh-k ɛhigh-k = Q + Esio2ɛsio2.

  8. Analysis of an anomalous hump in gate current after dynamic negative bias stress in HfxZr1-xO2/metal gate p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chang, Ting-Chang; Wu, Chi-Wei; Lo, Wen-Hung; Chen, Ching-En; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Luo, Hung-Ping; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Sze, Simon M.

    2012-07-01

    This letter investigates a hump in gate current after dynamic negative bias stress (NBS) in HfxZr1-xO2/metal gate p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. By measuring gate current under initial through body floating and source/drain floating, it shows that hole current flows from source/drain. The fitting of gate current-gate voltage characteristic curve demonstrates that Frenkel-Poole mechanism dominates the conduction. Next, by fitting the gate current after dynamic NBS, in the order of Frenkel-Poole then tunneling, the Frenkel-Poole mechanism can be confirmed. These phenomena can be attributed to hole trapping in high-k bulk and the electric field formula Ehigh-k ɛhigh-k = Q + Esio2ɛsio2.

  9. Investigation of trap properties in high-k/metal gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with aluminum ion implantation using random telegraph noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Shoou-Jinn Fang, Yean-Kuen; Huang, Po-Chin; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wu, San-Lein

    2014-08-11

    In this study, the impact of aluminum ion implantation (Al I/I) on random telegraph noise (RTN) in high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (pMOSFETs) was investigated. The trap parameters of HK/MG pMOSFETs with Al I/I, such as trap energy level, capture time and emission time, activation energies for capture and emission, and trap location in the gate dielectric, were determined. The configuration coordinate diagram was also established. It was observed that the implanted Al could fill defects and form a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and thus increase the tunneling barrier height for holes. It was also observed that the trap position in the Al I/I samples was lower due to the Al I/I-induced dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  10. Tinv Scaling and Gate Leakage Reduction for n-Type Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor with HfSix/HfO2 Gate Stack by Interfacial Layer Formation Using Ozone-Water-Last Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiyama, Itaru; Tai, Kaori; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Hagimoto, Yoshiya; Uemura, Takayuki; Ando, Takashi; Watanabe, Koji; Yamamoto, Ryo; Kanda, Saori; Wang, Junli; Tateshita, Yasushi; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Tagawa, Yukio; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Iwamoto, Hayato; Saito, Masaki; Oshima, Masaharu; Toyoda, Satoshi; Nagashima, Naoki; Kadomura, Shingo

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a wet treatment for the HfSix/HfO2 gate stack of n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (nMOSFET) fabricated by a gate-last process in order to scale down the electrical thickness at inversion state Tinv value and reduce the gate leakage Jg. As a result, we succeeded in scaling down Tinv to 1.41 nm without mobility or Jg degradation by ozone-water-last treatment. We found that a high-density interfacial layer (IFL) is formed owing to the ozone-water-last treatment, and Hf diffusion to the IFL is suppressed, which was analyzed by high-resolution angle-resolved spectroscopy.

  11. Field-effect-modulated Seebeck coefficient in organic semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Pernstich, K P; Rössner, B; Batlogg, B

    2008-04-01

    Central to the operation of organic electronic and optoelectronic devices is the transport of charge and energy in the organic semiconductor, and to understand the nature and dynamics of charge carriers is at the focus of intense research efforts. As a basic transport property of solids, the Seebeck coefficient S provides deep insight as it is given by the entropy transported by thermally excited charge carriers and involves in the simplest case only electronic contributions where the transported entropy is determined by details of the band structure and scattering events. We have succeeded for the first time to measure the temperature- and carrier-density-dependent thermopower in single crystals and thin films of two prototypical organic semiconductors by a controlled modulation of the chemical potential in a field-effect geometry. Surprisingly, we find the Seebeck coefficient to be well within the range of the electronic contribution in conventional inorganic semiconductors, highlighting the similarity of transport mechanisms in organic and inorganic semiconductors. Charge and entropy transport is best described as band-like transport of quasiparticles that are subjected to scattering, with exponentially distributed in-gap trap states, and without further contributions to S.

  12. Near interface traps in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors monitored by temperature dependent gate current transient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Patrick; La Magna, Antonino; Vivona, Marilena; Roccaforte, Fabrizio

    2016-07-04

    This letter reports on the impact of gate oxide trapping states on the conduction mechanisms in SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The phenomena were studied by gate current transient measurements, performed on n-channel MOSFETs operated in “gate-controlled-diode” configuration. The measurements revealed an anomalous non-steady conduction under negative bias (V{sub G} > |20 V|) through the SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC interface. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunnelling. A semi-empirical modified FN model with a time-depended electric field is used to estimate the near interface traps in the gate oxide (N{sub trap} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}).

  13. Investigation of DC Hot-Carrier Degradation at Elevated Temperatures for n-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor of 0.13 μm Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung‑Chun; Chen, Shuang‑Yuan; Chen, Hung‑Wen; Jhou, Ze‑Wei; Lin, Hung‑Chuan; Chou, Sam; Ko, Joe; Lei, Tien‑Fu; Haung, Heng‑Sheng

    2006-04-01

    In this study, n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs) having 20 and 32 Å gate oxide thicknesses of 0.13 μm technology were used to investigate DC hot-carrier reliability at elevated temperatures up to 125 °C. The research also focused on the degradation of analog properties after hot-carrier injection. On the basis of the results of experiments, the hot-carrier degradation of Id,op (drain current defined on the basis of analog applications) is found to be the worst case among those of three types of drain current from room temperature to 125 °C. This result should provide valuable insight to analog circuit designers. As to the reverse temperature effect, the substrate current (Ib) commonly accepted as the parameter for monitoring the drain-avalanche-hot-carrier (DAHC) effect should be modified since the drain current (Id) degradation and Ib variations versus temperature have different trends. For the devices having a gate oxide thinner than 20 Å, we suggest that the worst condition in considering hot-carrier reliability should be placed at elevated temperatures.

  14. Modeling of Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duen Ho, Fat; Macleod, Todd C.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics for a MFSFET (metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistor) is very different than a conventional MOSFET and must be modeled differently. The drain current has a hysteresis shape with respect to the gate voltage. The position along the hysteresis curve is dependent on the last positive or negative polling of the ferroelectric material. The drain current also has a logarithmic decay after the last polling. A model has been developed to describe the MFSFET drain current for both gate voltage on and gate voltage off conditions. This model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay. The model is based on the shape of the Fermi-Dirac function which has been modified to describe the MFSFET's drain current. This is different from the model proposed by Chen et. al. and that by Wu.

  15. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ettisserry, D. P. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Goldsman, N. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Akturk, A.; Lelis, A. J.

    2015-07-28

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the “amorphousness” of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The “permanently electrically active” centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (V{sub th}) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the “electrically inactive” defects could be transformed into various “electrically active” configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of V{sub th} instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  16. Low Threshold Voltage and High Mobility N-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Using Hf-Si/HfO2 Gate Stack Fabricated by Gate-Last Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Takashi; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Tai, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Shinpei; Yoshida, Shinichi; Iwamoto, Hayato; Kadomura, Shingo; Watanabe, Heiji

    2010-01-01

    Systematic characterization of Hf-Si/HfO2 gate stacks revealed two mobility degradation modes. One is carrier scattering by fixed charges and/or trapped charges induced by the crystallization in the thick HfO2 case (inversion oxide thickness, Tinv> 1.6 nm). The other is the Hf penetration into the interfacial layer with the Si substrate in the thin HfO2 case (Tinv< 1.6 nm) for the Hf-rich electrode. It was demonstrated that careful optimization of the HfO2 thickness and the Hf-Si composition can suppress both modes. As a result, a high electron mobility equivalent to that of n+polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)/SiO2 (248 cm2 V-1 s-1 at Eeff=1 MV/cm) was obtained at Tinv of 1.47 nm. Moreover, the effective work function of the optimized Hf-Si/HfO2 gate stack is located within 50 mV from the Si band edge (Ec). An extremely high Ion of 1165 µA/µm (at Ioff = 81 nA/µm) at Vdd=1.0 V was demonstrated for a 45 nm gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) without strain enhanced technology.

  17. Biomolecular detection using a metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Buzatu, Petre; Aulombard, Roger; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla; Cloitre, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    In this work, our attention was drawn towards developing affinity-based electrical biosensors, using a MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Semiconductor (SC) surfaces must be prepared before the incubations with biomolecules. The peptides route was adapted to exceed and bypass the limits revealed by other types of surface modification due to the unwanted unspecific interactions. As these peptides reveal specific recognition of materials, then controlled functionalization can be achieved. Peptides were produced by phage display technology using a library of M13 bacteriophage. After several rounds of bio-panning, the phages presenting affinities for GaAs SC were isolated; the DNA of these specific phages were sequenced, and the peptide with the highest affinity was synthesized and biotinylated. To explore the possibility of electrical detection, the MESFET fabricated with the GaAs SC were used to detect the streptavidin via the biotinylated peptide in the presence of the bovine Serum Albumin. After each surface modification step, the IDS (current between the drain and the source) of the transistor was measured and a decrease in the intensity was detected. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used in order to prove the specificity of this peptide and the specific localisation of biomolecules. In conclusion, the feasibility of producing an electrical biosensor using a MESFET has been demonstrated. Controlled placement, specific localization and detection of biomolecules on a MESFET transistor were achieved without covering the drain and the source. This method of functionalization and detection can be of great utility for biosensing application opening a new way for developing bioFETs (Biomolecular Field-Effect Transistor).

  18. Current-mode deep level transient spectroscopy of a semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, Ivan; Sourribes, Marion J. L.; Warburton, Paul A.

    2017-09-01

    One of the main limiting factors in the carrier mobility in semiconductor nanowires is the presence of deep trap levels. While deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has proved to be a powerful tool in analysing traps in bulk semiconductors, this technique is ineffective for the characterisation of nanowires due to their very small capacitance. Here, we introduce a new technique for measuring the spectrum of deep traps in nanowires. In current-mode DLTS ("I-DLTS"), the temperature-dependence of the transient current through a nanowire field-effect transistor in response to an applied gate voltage pulse is measured. We demonstrate the applicability of I-DLTS to determine the activation energy and capture cross-sections of several deep defect states in zinc oxide nanowires. In addition to characterising deep defect states, we show that I-DLTS can be used to measure the surface barrier height in semiconductor nanowires.

  19. Nanoelectronics in oxides and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanglei

    The success of silicon industry lies on three major properties of silicon, an easily formed oxide layer to allow field effect operation, tunability of carrier density and high device scalability. All these features exist in oxides, together with some novel properties such as ferroelectricity, magnetic effects and metal-insulator transition. With the recent development in material growth method including molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (REED), atomically engineered oxide interfaces become available, thus opening the door to the novel oxide nanoelectronics. In this dissertation we create and study nanoelectronics in oxides, semiconductors and hybrid of these two. We used a conductive atomic force microscope tip to write single electron transistors in the 3-unit-cell-LaAlO 3/SrTiO3 heterostructure and observed ferroelectric tunneling behaviors. We also fabricated ferroelectric field transistors directly on silicon using strained SrTiO3 ferroelectric film and further confirmed the ferroelectric properties of this device. Meanwhile, we developed an ultrasensitive microwave capacitance sensor to study the electronic properties of self-assembled quantum dots and the switching mechanism of memristive devices. The integration of this sensor to a home made atomic force microscope provides an important tool to study the dielectric properties at nanoscale.

  20. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H. S.; Yum, J. H.; Johnson, D. W.; Harris, H. R.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Oh, J.; Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, H. D.

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  1. High-performance self-aligned inversion-channel In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors by in-situ atomic-layer-deposited HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. D.; Chang, W. H.; Chu, R. L.; Chang, Y. C.; Chang, Y. H.; Lee, M. Y.; Hong, P. F.; Chen, Min-Cheng; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    2013-12-01

    Self-aligned inversion-channel In0.53Ga0.47As metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated using the gate dielectrics of in-situ directly atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) HfO2 followed by ALD-Al2O3. There were no surface pretreatments and no interfacial passivation/barrier layers prior to the ALD. TiN/Al2O3 (4 nm)/HfO2 (1 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP MOS capacitors exhibited well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics with true inversion behavior, low leakage current densities of ˜10-8 A/cm2 at ±1 MV/cm, and thermodynamic stability at high temperatures. Al2O3 (3 nm)/HfO2 (1 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As MOSFETs of 1 μm gate length, with 700 °C-800 °C rapid thermal annealing in source/drain activation, have exhibited high extrinsic drain current (ID) of 1.5 mA/μm, transconductance (Gm) of 0.84 mS/μm, ION/IOFF of ˜104, low sub-threshold swing of 103 mV/decade, and field-effect electron mobility of 1100 cm2/V . s. The devices have also achieved very high intrinsic ID and Gm of 2 mA/μm and 1.2 mS/μm, respectively.

  2. Phosphorus and boron diffusion paths in polycrystalline silicon gate of a trench-type three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor investigated by atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Bin Takamizawa, Hisashi Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Fumiko; Kunimune, Yorinobu; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio

    2015-07-13

    The dopant (P and B) diffusion path in n- and p-types polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type three-dimensional (3D) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated using atom probe tomography, based on the annealing time dependence of the dopant distribution at 900 °C. Remarkable differences were observed between P and B diffusion behavior. In the initial stage of diffusion, P atoms diffuse into deeper regions from the implanted region along grain boundaries in the n-type polycrystalline-Si gate. With longer annealing times, segregation of P on the grain boundaries was observed; however, few P atoms were observed within the large grains or on the gate/gate oxide interface distant from grain boundaries. These results indicate that P atoms diffuse along grain boundaries much faster than through the bulk or along the gate/gate oxide interface. On the other hand, in the p-type polycrystalline-Si gate, segregation of B was observed only at the initial stage of diffusion. After further annealing, the B atoms became uniformly distributed, and no clear segregation of B was observed. Therefore, B atoms diffuse not only along the grain boundary but also through the bulk. Furthermore, B atoms diffused deeper than P atoms along the grain boundaries under the same annealing conditions. This information on the diffusion behavior of P and B is essential for optimizing annealing conditions in order to control the P and B distributions in the polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type 3D MOSFETs.

  3. Phosphorus and boron diffusion paths in polycrystalline silicon gate of a trench-type three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor investigated by atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bin; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Yano, Fumiko; Kunimune, Yorinobu; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio

    2015-07-01

    The dopant (P and B) diffusion path in n- and p-types polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type three-dimensional (3D) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were investigated using atom probe tomography, based on the annealing time dependence of the dopant distribution at 900 °C. Remarkable differences were observed between P and B diffusion behavior. In the initial stage of diffusion, P atoms diffuse into deeper regions from the implanted region along grain boundaries in the n-type polycrystalline-Si gate. With longer annealing times, segregation of P on the grain boundaries was observed; however, few P atoms were observed within the large grains or on the gate/gate oxide interface distant from grain boundaries. These results indicate that P atoms diffuse along grain boundaries much faster than through the bulk or along the gate/gate oxide interface. On the other hand, in the p-type polycrystalline-Si gate, segregation of B was observed only at the initial stage of diffusion. After further annealing, the B atoms became uniformly distributed, and no clear segregation of B was observed. Therefore, B atoms diffuse not only along the grain boundary but also through the bulk. Furthermore, B atoms diffused deeper than P atoms along the grain boundaries under the same annealing conditions. This information on the diffusion behavior of P and B is essential for optimizing annealing conditions in order to control the P and B distributions in the polycrystalline-Si gates of trench-type 3D MOSFETs.

  4. Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors: Impact of sulfur passivation on gate stack quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Dian; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Tok, Eng-Soon

    2016-01-14

    The effect of room temperature sulfur passivation of the surface of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} prior to high-k dielectric (HfO{sub 2}) deposition is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the chemical bonding at the interface of HfO{sub 2} and Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}. Sulfur passivation is found to be effective in suppressing the formation of both Ge oxides and Sn oxides. A comparison of XPS results for sulfur-passivated and non-passivated Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} samples shows that sulfur passivation of the GeSn surface could also suppress the surface segregation of Sn atoms. In addition, sulfur passivation reduces the interface trap density D{sub it} at the high-k dielectric/Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} interface from the valence band edge to the midgap of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}, as compared with a non-passivated control. The impact of the improved D{sub it} is demonstrated in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs with sulfur passivation show improved subthreshold swing S, intrinsic transconductance G{sub m,int}, and effective hole mobility μ{sub eff} as compared with the non-passivated control. At a high inversion carrier density N{sub inv} of 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, sulfur passivation increases μ{sub eff} by 25% in Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} p-MOSFETs.

  5. Threshold voltage modeling under size quantization for ultra-thin silicon double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medury, Aditya Sankar; Bhat, K. N.; Bhat, Navakanta

    2012-07-01

    We report on the threshold voltage modeling of ultra-thin (1 nm-5 nm) silicon body double-gate (DG) MOSFETs using self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger solver (SCHRED). We define the threshold voltage (Vth) of symmetric DG MOSFETs as the gate voltage at which the center potential (Φc) saturates to Φc(sat), and analyze the effects of oxide thickness (tox) and substrate doping (NA) variations on Vth. The validity of this definition is demonstrated by comparing the results with the charge transition (from weak to strong inversion) based model using SCHRED simulations. In addition, it is also shown that the proposed Vth definition, electrically corresponds to a condition where the inversion layer capacitance (Cinv) is equal to the oxide capacitance (Cox) across a wide-range of substrate doping densities. A capacitance based analytical model based on the criteria Cinv=Cox is proposed to compute Φc(sat), while accounting for band-gap widening. This is validated through comparisons with the Poisson-Schrodinger solution. Further, we show that at the threshold voltage condition, the electron distribution (n(x)) along the depth ("x") of the silicon film makes a transition from a strong single peak at the center of the silicon film to the onset of a symmetric double-peak away from the center of the silicon film.

  6. Electrically detected magnetic resonance study of defects created by hot carrier stress at the SiC/SiO2 interface of a SiC n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, G.; Hadley, P.; Koch, M.; Aichinger, T.

    2014-07-01

    This Letter reports electrical measurements as well as electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) studies of defects created at the SiC/SiO2 interface of a lateral 4H-SiC n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) by hot carrier stress (HCS). Both charge pumping (CP) and mobility measurements indicate severe device degradation due to the electrical stress. In accordance with the electrical measurements, a large increase in the EDMR amplitude by a factor of 27 was observed after 106 s of HCS. The defect observed in the unstressed device is anisotropic with gB||c = 2.0045(4) and gB⊥c = 2.0020(4). After the stress, the g-value changes to gB||c = 2.0059(4) and gB⊥c = 2.0019(4). During HCS, most defects are created near the n-doped drain region of the device. In this region, the crystalline structure of the SiC is distorted due to incorporation of N close to the amorphous dose. The distortion could explain the slight change in the g-value with the dominating defect or defect family remaining the same before and after stress. Although the precise structure of the defect could not be identified due to overlapping spectra and limited measurement resolution, the strong hyperfine side peaks suggest a N related defect.

  7. Perfecting the Al2O3/In0.53Ga0.47As interfacial electronic structure in pushing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor device limits using in-situ atomic-layer-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.; Wan, H. W.; Lin, K. Y.; Chang, Y. C.; Chen, M. H.; Lin, Y. H.; Lin, T. D.; Pi, T. W.; Kwo, J.

    2017-09-01

    We performed interfacial electric and electronic studies of both in-situ and ex-situ atomic-layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films on InGaAs. Self-aligned inversion-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) with a 1 μm gate length (Lg) from the in-situ sample have extrinsic drain currents (Id) of 1.8 mA/μm, transconductances (Gm) of 0.98 mS/μm, and an effective mobility (μeff) of 1250 cm2/V s. MOSFETs that employ ex-situ ALD-Al2O3 have an Id of 0.56 mA/μm, Gm of 0.28 mS/μm, and μeff of 410 cm2/V s. Synchrotron radiation photoemission reveals no AsOx residue at the Al2O3/InGaAs interface using the in-situ approach, whereas some AsOx residue is detected using the ex-situ method.

  8. Assessment of radiation exposure in dental cone-beam computerized tomography with the use of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, J; Kiljunen, T; Tapiovaara, M; Wolff, J; Kortesniemi, M

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the organ and effective dose (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 103) resulting from dental cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging using a novel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter device, and to assess the reliability of the MOSFET measurements by comparing the results with Monte Carlo PCXMC simulations. Organ dose measurements were performed using 20 MOSFET dosimeters that were embedded in the 8 most radiosensitive organs in the maxillofacial and neck area. The dose-area product (DAP) values attained from CBCT scans were used for PCXMC simulations. The acquired MOSFET doses were then compared with the Monte Carlo simulations. The effective dose measurements using MOSFET dosimeters yielded, using 0.5-cm steps, a value of 153 μSv and the PCXMC simulations resulted in a value of 136 μSv. The MOSFET dosimeters placed in a head phantom gave results similar to Monte Carlo simulations. Minor vertical changes in the positioning of the phantom had a substantial affect on the overall effective dose. Therefore, the MOSFET dosimeters constitute a feasible method for dose assessment of CBCT units in the maxillofacial region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High quality PECVD SiO2 process for recessed MOS-gate of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Gil; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Cha, Ho-Young

    2016-08-01

    A high quality SiO2 deposition process using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system has been developed for the gate insulator process of normally-off recessed-gate AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor-heterostructure field-effect transistors (MOS-HFETs). SiO2 films were deposited by using SiH4 and N2O mixtures as reactant gases. The breakdown field increased with increasing the N2O flow rate. The optimum SiH4/N2O ratio was 0.05, which resulted in a maximum breakdown field of 11 MV/cm for the SiO2 film deposited on recessed GaN surface. The deposition conditions were optimized as follows; a gas flow rate of SiH4/N2O (=27/540 sccm), a source RF power of 100 W, a pressure of 2 Torr, and a deposition temperature of 350 °C. A fabricated normally-off MOS-HFET exhibited a threshold voltage of 3.2 V, a specific on-resistance of 4.46 mΩ cm2, and a breakdown voltage of 810 V.

  10. Effect of barrier recess on transport and electrostatic interface properties of GaN-based normally-off and normally-on metal oxide semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capriotti, M.; Bahat Treidel, E.; Fleury, C.; Bethge, O.; Ostermaier, C.; Rigato, M.; Lancaster, S. L. C.; Brunner, F.; Detz, H.; Hilt, O.; Würfl, J.; Pogany, D.; Strasser, G.

    2016-11-01

    We perform a comprehensive electrical transport and physical characterization of metal oxide semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors with ZrO2 gate dielectrics, having partially (referred here as MOS-HFET) and fully (here called true-MOS-FET) recessed GaN/AlGaN/GaN barrier, giving normally-on and normally-off behavior, respectively. The mobility of the MOS-HFETs decreases with the proximity of the Coulomb scattering centers, situated at the ZrO2/AlGaN interface. The effect of the etching procedure and ZrO2 deposition on the formation of the interfacial charges, Nint, is evaluated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and by fitting the threshold voltage values to numerical model. For the both device types, the extracted value of Nint lies within 15% around 2.8 × 1013 cm-2, which is of the order of polarization charge, showing that our low-damage three step etching procedure does not introduce extra interface states.

  11. Ultra-low temperature radio-frequency performance of partially depleted silicon-on-insulator n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with tunnel diode body contact structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yuping; Liu, Jun; Luo, Jiexin; Wang, Xi

    2016-11-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) characteristics under ultra-low temperature of multi-finger partially depleted silicon-on-insulator (PD SOI) n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs) with tunnel diode body-contact (TDBC) structure and T-gate body-contact (TB) structure are investigated in this paper. When operating at 77 K, TDBC device suppresses floating-body effect (FBE) as well as the TB device. For TB device and TDBC device, cut-off frequency (f T) improves as the temperature decreases to liquid-helium temperature (77 K) while that of the maximum oscillation frequency (f MAX) is opposite due to the decrease of the unilateral power gain. While operating under 77 K, f T and f MAX of TDBC device reach to 125 GHz and 77 GHz, representing 8% and 15% improvements compared with those of TB device, respectively, which is mainly due to the lower parasitic resistances and capacitances. The results indicate that TDBC SOI MOSFETs could be considered as promising candidates for analog and RF applications over a wide range of temperatures and there is immense potential for the development of RF CMOS integrated circuits for cryogenic applications.

  12. Substrate-affected instability in accumulation-mode InP metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.Z.; Chang, H.L.; Meiners, L.G.

    1988-06-15

    The mechanism for drain current drift in accumulation-type InP metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor has in the past several years been attributed to oxide traps, interface states, and bulk traps. In this study we have found that deep levels in the semi-insulating InP substrate material can in some cases dominate the current drift of the accumulation-mode metal-insultor-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Iron, which is a deep-level acceptor, when present in large concentrations in semi-insulating InP substrate material, appears to provide poor transistor properties and a large long-term current drift.

  13. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J. G.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; van der Laan, G.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; Yu, S. W.; Bagus, P. S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Nordlund, D.

    2015-07-06

    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  14. Novel Epitaxy Between Oxides and Semiconductors - Growth and Interfacial Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-16

    applications in high-temperature, high- power electronics because of their wide band gaps, high breakdown fields and high saturation velocity in high...semiconductor field-effect-transistors ( MOSFETs ) because of their relatively low leakage currents, power consumption and capability of greater voltage swings...Novel epitaxy between oxides and semiconductors – Growth and Interfacial Structures Professor Minghwei HONG Department of Materials Science

  15. Reduction in the interface-states density of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors fabricated on high-index Si (114) surfaces by using an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, J. De La Hidalga, J.; Gutierrez, E.

    2014-08-14

    After fabrication of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices on high-index silicon (114) surfaces, their threshold voltage (Vth) and interface-states density (Dit) characteristics were measured under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field of B = 6 μT at room temperature. The electron flow of the MOSFET's channel presents high anisotropy on Si (114), and this effect is enhanced by using an external magnetic field B, applied parallel to the Si (114) surface but perpendicular to the electron flow direction. This special configuration results in the channel electrons experiencing a Lorentzian force which pushes the electrons closer to the Si (114)-SiO{sub 2} interface and therefore to the special morphology of the Si (114) surface. Interestingly, Dit evaluation of n-type MOSFETs fabricated on Si (114) surfaces shows that the Si (114)-SiO{sub 2} interface is of high quality so that Dit as low as ∼10{sup 10 }cm{sup −2}·eV{sup −1} are obtained for MOSFETs with channels aligned at specific orientations. Additionally, using both a small positive Vds ≤ 100 mV and B = 6 μT, the former Dit is reduced by 35% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned parallel to row-like nanostructures formed atop Si (114) surfaces (channels having a 90° rotation), whereas Dit is increased by 25% in MOSFETs whose channels are aligned perpendicular to these nanostructures (channels having a 0° rotation). From these results, the special morphology of a high-index Si (114) plane having nanochannels on its surface opens the possibility to reduce the electron-trapping characteristics of MOSFET devices having deep-submicron features and operating at very high frequencies.

  16. Gate-Leakage and Carrier-Transport Mechanisms for Plasma-PH3 Passivated InGaAs N-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzah Bte Suleiman, Sumarlina; Lee, Sungjoo

    2012-02-01

    Gate leakage mechanism of the HfAlO plasma-PH3 passivated and non-passivated In0.53Ga0.47As N-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (N-MOSFETs) have been evaluated, in order to correlate the quality of the oxide deposited with the gate leakage mechanisms observed. At temperatures higher than 300 K, trap-free space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism dominates the gate leakage of passivated device but non-passivated device consists of exponentially distributed SCLC mechanism at low electric field and Frenkel-Poole emission at high electric field. This Frenkel-Poole emission is associated with energy trap levels of ˜0.95 to 1.3 eV and is responsible for the increased gate leakage of non-passivated device. In addition, the electrical properties of the non-passivated device has also been extracted from the SCLC mechanism, with the average trap concentration of the shallow traps given as 1.3×1019 cm-3 and the average activation energy given as ˜0.22 to 0.27 eV. The existence of these defect levels in non-passivated device can be attributed to the interdiffusion of Ga/As/O elements across the HfAlO/In0.53Ga0.47As interface. On the other hand, passivated device does not contain Frenkel-Poole emission nor exponentially distributed SCLC mechanism, indicating a reduction in traps in the bulk of the oxide. In addition, the temperature dependent characteristics of off-state leakage have also been evaluated to provide insight into the off-state mechanism. The off-state leakage of both passivated and non-passivated device is determined by junction leakage, with Shockley-Read-Hall mechanism being its main contributor, and has activation energy of 0.38 eV for passivated device and 0.4 eV for non-passivated device. From Id∝T-0.37 observed for passivated device, in comparison to Id∝T-0.18 for non-passivated device, we have further confirmed the phonon scattering dominance of the passivated device at high electric field.

  17. Gate-Leakage and Carrier-Transport Mechanisms for Plasma-PH3 Passivated InGaAs N-Channel Metal--Oxide--Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, Sumarlina Azzah Bte; Lee, Sungjoo

    2012-02-01

    Gate leakage mechanism of the HfAlO plasma-PH3 passivated and non-passivated In0.53Ga0.47As N-channel metal--oxide--semiconductor field-effect transistors (N-MOSFETs) have been evaluated, in order to correlate the quality of the oxide deposited with the gate leakage mechanisms observed. At temperatures higher than 300 K, trap-free space charge limited conduction (SCLC) mechanism dominates the gate leakage of passivated device but non-passivated device consists of exponentially distributed SCLC mechanism at low electric field and Frenkel--Poole emission at high electric field. This Frenkel--Poole emission is associated with energy trap levels of ˜0.95 to 1.3 eV and is responsible for the increased gate leakage of non-passivated device. In addition, the electrical properties of the non-passivated device has also been extracted from the SCLC mechanism, with the average trap concentration of the shallow traps given as 1.3× 1019 cm-3 and the average activation energy given as ˜0.22 to 0.27 eV. The existence of these defect levels in non-passivated device can be attributed to the interdiffusion of Ga/As/O elements across the HfAlO/In0.53Ga0.47As interface. On the other hand, passivated device does not contain Frenkel--Poole emission nor exponentially distributed SCLC mechanism, indicating a reduction in traps in the bulk of the oxide. In addition, the temperature dependent characteristics of off-state leakage have also been evaluated to provide insight into the off-state mechanism. The off-state leakage of both passivated and non-passivated device is determined by junction leakage, with Shockley--Read--Hall mechanism being its main contributor, and has activation energy of 0.38 eV for passivated device and 0.4 eV for non-passivated device. From Id\\propto T-0.37 observed for passivated device, in comparison to Id\\propto T-0.18 for non-passivated device, we have further confirmed the phonon scattering dominance of the passivated device at high electric field.

  18. EDITORIAL: Oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Makino, T.

    2005-04-01

    growth of p-type layers, ferromagnetic behaviour in transition-metal doped oxide is also fuelling renewed interest from the spintronic point of view. Since some of the related reports remain controversial, a critical discussion of the magnetic properties of these doped oxides is made by Fukumura et al. Before the observation of electro-luminescence from the ZnO p-n homojunction reported by Tsukazaki et al (2005 Nature Mater. 4 42), the afore-mentioned advantages have been explored and exploited by alternative methods, such as heteroepitaxy in which p-n heterostructures can be obtained by depositing n-type ZnO films on other p-type oxides while still utilizing ZnO as their active layer. Researchers in Hosono's group observed the high-intensity band-edge emission from such heterostructures for the first time (Ohta H et al 2000 Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 475). They have also successfully extended their research fields to the development of a transparent oxide transistor based on homologous compounds, which is reviewed by Kamiya and Hosono in this special issue. As can be seen from these demonstrations, the advantage of oxides is, of course, based on the fact that many elements in the periodic table can form compounds with oxygen. Since the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, these multi-component oxides have exploited the new field known as the science of strongly correlated-electron materials, whose recent progress is reviewed by Inoue. Although the collection of papers included in this special issue covers a good cross-section of the development of oxide semiconductors and correlated-electron oxides to date, this is not meant to be exhaustive. There are a number of unavoidable omissions, such as theoretical studies except for some theoretical predictions on the room-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons found in the article by Chichibu et al. We hope this issue promotes further development of this exciting field. The guest editors would like to

  19. Oxide-on-graphene field effect biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei; Liddell, Kristi; Wang, Junjie; Koger, Brandon; Keating, Christine; Zhu, J.

    2013-03-01

    Nanoelectronics-based detection schemes offer fast and label-free alternatives to bioanalysis. Here we report on the design, fabrication, and operation of ion-sensitive field-effect biosensors using large-area graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The graphene transducer channel has a high carrier mobility of approximately 5000cm2/Vs. Our oxide-on-graphene design uses thin HfO2 and SiO2 films to passivate the graphene channel and electrodes from electrolyte and uses the top SiO2 surface for sensing and linker chemistry. The pH sensitivity of the bare SiO2 is measured to be 46mV/pH, in good agreement with literature results. We demonstrate the silanization of the SiO2 surface with aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS). The pH sensitivity of the APTMS-functionalized SiO2 is measured to be 43mV/pH. By applying the solution gate voltage in pulse, we eliminate hysteresis in the transfer curve of the graphene channel, which is a common challenge in achieving high-solution detection using nanostructure-based field effect sensors. The amine-functionalized SiO2 surface can be further functionalized with bio-probes to perform the detection of specific binding events such as DNA hybridization.

  20. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of LaAlO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/hydrogenated-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Oosato, H.; Watanabe, E.; Tanaka, A.; Iwai, H.; Koide, Y.

    2013-08-28

    In order to search a gate dielectric with high permittivity on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond), LaAlO{sub 3} films with thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layers are fabricated on the H-diamond epilayers by sputtering-deposition (SD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques, respectively. Interfacial band configuration and electrical properties of the SD-LaAlO{sub 3}/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with gate lengths of 10, 20, and 30 μm have been investigated. The valence and conduction band offsets of the SD-LaAlO{sub 3}/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} structure are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to be 1.1 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The valence band discontinuity between H-diamond and LaAlO{sub 3} is evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 eV, showing that the MOS structure acts as the gate which controls a hole carrier density. The leakage current density of the SD-LaAlO{sub 3}/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond MOS diode is smaller than 10{sup −8} A cm{sup −2} at gate bias from −4 to 2 V. The capacitance-voltage curve in the depletion mode shows sharp dependence, small flat band voltage, and small hysteresis shift, which implies low positive and trapped charge densities. The MOSFETs show p-type channel and complete normally off characteristics with threshold voltages changing from −3.6 ± 0.1 to −5.0 ± 0.1 V dependent on the gate length. The drain current maximum and the extrinsic transconductance of the MOSFET with gate length of 10 μm are −7.5 mA mm{sup −1} and 2.3 ± 0.1 mS mm{sup −1}, respectively. The enhancement mode SD-LaAlO{sub 3}/ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H-diamond MOSFET is concluded to be suitable for the applications of high power and high frequency electrical devices.

  1. High temperature behavior of multi-region direct current current-voltage spectroscopy and relationship with shallow-trench-isolation-based high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yandong; Zhang, Ganggang; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the process compatibility with the mainstream standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), shallow trench isolation (STI) based laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) devices have become popular for its better tradeoff between breakdown voltage and performance, especially for smart power applications. A multi-region direct current current-voltage (MR-DCIV) technique with spectroscopic features was demonstrated to map the interface state generation in the channel, accumulation and STI drift regions. High temperature behavior of MR-DCIV spectroscopy was analyzed and a physical model was verified. Degradation of STI-based LDMOS transistors under high temperature reverse bias (HTRB) stress is experimentally studied by MR-DCIV spectroscopy. The impact of interface state location on device electrical characteristics was investigated. Our results show that the major contribution to HTRB degradation, in term of the on-resistance degradation, was attributed to interface state generation under STI drift region.

  2. The Effect of Bulk Traps on the InP (Indium Phosphide) Accumulation Type MISFET (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    S. Blakemore , Semiconductor Statistics , p. 118, Pergamon Press, New York, 1962. 18. E.W. Williams, W. Elder, M.G. Astles, M. Wehh, J.R. Mullin, B...the fabrication of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) field-effect transistor (FET) because of its large saturated drift velocity for electrons and the...favorable conditions present at its oxide- semiconductor interface. While efforts to construct MISFETs on gallium arsenide were unsuccessful due to

  3. Laboratory Experiment in Semiconductor Surface-Field Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, F. R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory instructional program involving metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices is described. In the first of a two-part experiment, students become familiar with the important parameters of a simple MIS device and learn measurement techniques; in the second part, device fabrication procedures are learned. (DT)

  4. Laboratory Experiment in Semiconductor Surface-Field Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, F. R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory instructional program involving metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices is described. In the first of a two-part experiment, students become familiar with the important parameters of a simple MIS device and learn measurement techniques; in the second part, device fabrication procedures are learned. (DT)

  5. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Hamilton, Allister B.

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  6. A new era of semiconductor genetics using ion-sensitive field-effect transistors: the gene-sensitive integrated cell.

    PubMed

    Toumazou, Christofer; Thay, Tan Sri Lim Kok; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2014-03-28

    Semiconductor genetics is now disrupting the field of healthcare owing to the rapid parallelization and scaling of DNA sensing using ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) fabricated using commercial complementary metal -oxide semiconductor technology. The enabling concept of DNA reaction monitoring introduced by Toumazou has made this a reality and we are now seeing relentless scaling with Moore's law ultimately achieving the $100 genome. In this paper, we present the next evolution of this technology through the creation of the gene-sensitive integrated cell (GSIC) for label-free real-time analysis based on ISFETs. This device is derived from the traditional metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and has electrical performance identical to that of a MOSFET in a standard semiconductor process, yet is capable of incorporating DNA reaction chemistries for applications in single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA sequencing. Just as application-specific integrated circuits, which are developed in much the same way, have shaped our consumer electronics industry and modern communications and memory technology, so, too, do GSICs based on a single underlying technology principle have the capacity to transform the life science and healthcare industries.

  7. New Material Transistor with Record-High Field-Effect Mobility among Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng Wei; Chin, Albert

    2016-08-03

    At an ultrathin 5 nm, we report a new high-mobility tin oxide (SnO2) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) exhibiting extremely high field-effect mobility values of 279 and 255 cm(2)/V-s at 145 and 205 °C, respectively. These values are the highest reported mobility values among all wide-band-gap semiconductors of GaN, SiC, and metal-oxide MOSFETs, and they also exceed those of silicon devices at the aforementioned elevated temperatures. For the first time among existing semiconductor transistors, a new device physical phenomenon of a higher mobility value was measured at 45-205 °C than at 25 °C, which is due to the lower optical phonon scattering by the large SnO2 phonon energy. Moreover, the high on-current/off-current of 4 × 10(6) and the positive threshold voltage of 0.14 V at 25 °C are significantly better than those of a graphene transistor. This wide-band-gap SnO2 MOSFET exhibits high mobility in a 25-205 °C temperature range, a wide operating voltage of 1.5-20 V, and the ability to form on an amorphous substrate, rendering it an ideal candidate for multifunctional low-power integrated circuit (IC), display, and brain-mimicking three-dimensional IC applications.

  8. L{sub g} = 100 nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, D. E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Kwon, H. M.; Kim, T.-W. E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D.; Kim, D.-H.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Maszara, W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2014-04-21

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100 mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/μm, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7 nm technology node and/or beyond.

  9. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  10. Effect of Nitrogen Concentration on Low-Frequency Noise and Negative Bias Temperature Instability of p-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors with Nitrided Gate Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, In-Shik; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Bok, Jung-Deuk; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jung, Yi-Jung; Choi, Woon-il; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lim, Min-Gyu; Chung, Yi-Sun; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the dependence of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and low-frequency noise characteristics on the various nitrided gate oxides is reported. The threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) under NBTI stress for thermally nitrided oxide (TNO) was greater than that of plasma nitrided oxide (PNO), whereas the slopes of ΔVT versus stress time for PNO were similar to those for TNO. The flicker noise (1/f noise) characteristic of PNO was better than that of TNO by about 1 order of magnitude, although the 1/f noise of PNO showed almost the same dependence on the frequency as that of TNO. The carrier number fluctuation model due to the trapping and detrapping of electrons in oxide traps was found to be a dominant mechanism of flicker noise. The probability of the generation of drain current random telegraph signal (ID-RTS) noise shows similar values (70-78%) for all nitrided oxides, which shows that the generation of RTS noise is not greatly affected by the nitridation method or nitrogen concentration.

  11. Germanium Metal - Insulator - Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors Utilizing a Germanium Nitride Gate Insulator.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, James Jordan

    The work presented in this thesis provides new information on three distinct but related topics. Firstly, it describes a technique for growing thin films of germanium nitride on germanium--a previously unexplored semiconductor -insulator system. Secondly, it describes electrical measurements made on metal-Ge(,3)N(,4)-Ge capacitors which demonstrate that this metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) system is of high quality. Thirdly, it describes a process by which n-channel germanium metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs) have been fabricated. The motivations for exploring this new MIS system (e.g. basic physics of germanium inversion layers, higher performance MISFETs, etc.) are also described. The growth technique described here and the films produced by it possess several distinct advantages over previous methods of obtaining insulating films on germanium. The growth technique itself is simple. It involves no elaborate or expensive equipment, and is essentially identical in its execution (although not in its chemical process) to conventional techniques for obtaining an insulator on silicon (i.e. thermal oxidation of silicon). The film growth technique yields very reproducible results (in terms of film thickness and refractive index) from wafer to wafer. The physical properties of the film itself are also attractive. It is far more chemically stable than germanium oxide, and is quite process compatible. It is resistant to many chemicals encountered in typical processing cycles, but also can be readily patterned in hot phosphoric acid, which does not appreciably attack germanium. Electrical measurements on MIS capacitors indicate that the density of fast states at the germanium-germanium nitride interface is quite low. The interface state density is less than or equal to 1 x 10('11)/cm('2)-eV from midgap to within 0.15 eV of the conduction band edge, as determined by variable frequency capacitance measurements. The MISFETs fabricated for this

  12. Ambipolar Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Semiconductors for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minji; Hwang, Hansu; Park, Won-Tae; Khim, Dongyoon; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Yunseul; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2017-01-25

    We report on the fabrication of an organic thin-film semiconductor formed using a blend solution of soluble ambipolar small molecules and an insulating polymer binder that exhibits vertical phase separation and uniform film formation. The semiconductor thin films are produced in a single step from a mixture containing a small molecular semiconductor, namely, quinoidal biselenophene (QBS), and a binder polymer, namely, poly(2-vinylnaphthalene) (PVN). Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on QBS/PVN blend semiconductor are then assembled using top-gate/bottom-contact device configuration, which achieve almost four times higher mobility than the neat QBS semiconductor. Depth profile via secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy images indicate that the QBS domains in the films made from the blend are evenly distributed with a smooth morphology at the bottom of the PVN layer. Bias stress test and variable-temperature measurements on QBS-based OFETs reveal that the QBS/PVN blend semiconductor remarkably reduces the number of trap sites at the gate dielectric/semiconductor interface and the activation energy in the transistor channel. This work provides a one-step solution processing technique, which makes use of soluble ambipolar small molecules to form a thin-film semiconductor for application in high-performance OFETs.

  13. All-electric all-semiconductor spin field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Pojen; Ho, Sheng-Chin; Smith, L. W.; Sfigakis, F.; Pepper, M.; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Chen, Tse-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spin field-effect transistor envisioned by Datta and Das opens a gateway to spin information processing. Although the coherent manipulation of electron spins in semiconductors is now possible, the realization of a functional spin field-effect transistor for information processing has yet to be achieved, owing to several fundamental challenges such as the low spin-injection efficiency due to resistance mismatch, spin relaxation and the spread of spin precession angles. Alternative spin transistor designs have therefore been proposed, but these differ from the field-effect transistor concept and require the use of optical or magnetic elements, which pose difficulties for incorporation into integrated circuits. Here, we present an all-electric and all-semiconductor spin field-effect transistor in which these obstacles are overcome by using two quantum point contacts as spin injectors and detectors. Distinct engineering architectures of spin-orbit coupling are exploited for the quantum point contacts and the central semiconductor channel to achieve complete control of the electron spins (spin injection, manipulation and detection) in a purely electrical manner. Such a device is compatible with large-scale integration and holds promise for future spintronic devices for information processing.

  14. One-volt operation of high-current vertical channel polymer semiconductor field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Danvers E; Yager, Kevin G; Nam, Chang-Yong; Ocko, Benjamin M; Black, Charles T

    2012-08-08

    We realize a vertical channel polymer semiconductor field effect transistor architecture by confining the organic material within gratings of interdigitated trenches. The geometric space savings of a perpendicular channel orientation results in devices sourcing areal current densities in excess of 40 mA/cm(2), using a one-volt supply voltage, and maintaining near-ideal device operating characteristics. Vertical channel transistors have a similar electronic mobility to that of planar devices using the same polymer semiconductor, consistent with a molecular reorientation within confining trenches we understand through X-ray scattering measurements.

  15. Heteroatom substituted organic/polymeric semiconductors and their applications in field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Liu, Yunqi; Yu, Gui

    2014-10-29

    Organic/polymeric semiconductors are mainly composed of aromatic systems including phenyl, vinyl, alkynyl, thienyl, and other isoelectric groups, which are constructed of carbon, hydrogen, and so-called 'hereroatoms' including chalcogen, nitrogen, and halogen atoms etc. The introduction of heteroatoms could yield different electronic properties by influencing the molecular geometry, the HOMO and LUMO energy levels, intermolecular interactions and so on. In this Research News article, we provide a brief review of the effect of heteroatoms and recent developments in heteroatom substituted organic/polymeric semiconductors, focusing especially on their application in field-effect transistors.

  16. High performance field-effect ammonia sensors based on a structured ultrathin organic semiconductor film.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiang; Gao, Peng; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus; Lu, Nan; Fuchs, Harald; Chi, Lifeng

    2013-07-05

    High performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based ammonia sensors are demonstrated with ultrathin (4-6 molecular layers) dendritic microstripes of an organic semiconductor prepared via dip-coating. These sensors exhibit high sensitivity, fast response/recovery rate, good selectivity, low concentration detection ability, and reliable reversibility, as well as stability. Such a performance represents great progress in the field of OFET-based sensors.

  17. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  18. Passivation of GaSb using molecular beam epitaxy Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to achieve low interfacial trap density and high-performance self-aligned inversion-channel p-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, R. L.; Chiang, T. H.; Hsueh, W. J.; Chyi, J. I.; Chen, K. H.; Lin, K. Y.; Hong, M. E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Brown, G. J.; Kwo, J. E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2014-11-03

    Molecular beam epitaxy deposited rare-earth oxide of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has effectively passivated GaSb, leading to low interfacial trap densities of (1–4) × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} across the energy bandgap of GaSb. A high saturation drain current density of 130 μA/μm, a peak transconductance of 90 μS/μm, a low subthreshold slope of 147 mV/decade, and a peak field-effect hole mobility of 200 cm{sup 2}/V-s were obtained in 1 μm-gate-length self-aligned inversion-channel GaSb p-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors (MOSFETs). In this work, high-κ/GaSb interfacial properties were better in samples with a high substrate temperature of 200 °C than in those with high κ's deposited at room temperature, in terms of the interfacial electrical properties, particularly, the reduction of interfacial trap densities near the conduction band and the MOSFET device performance.

  19. Carrier Mobilities at Crystalline Oxide/Semiconductor Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Fred; McKee, Rodney; Holland, Wayne

    2001-03-01

    The field dependence and magnitude of carrier mobility at the interface of a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) are sensitive to details of the physical and electrical structure of the interface. This physics of the semiconductor-insulator interface has been investigated extensively for silicon dioxide and much less extensively for amorphous and polycrystalline insulators. We have grown crystalline oxides of the form (AO)_n(ABO_3)m on silicon. 'A' stands for the alkaline earth metals Ca, Sr, or Ba and 'B' stands for a group four metal like Ti, 'n' stands for the number of monolayers of alkaline earth oxide at the oxide-silicon interface and 'm' the number of subsequent perovskite ABO3 layers. These oxides are epitaxial and crystalline at the oxide/semiconductor interface. By changing the composition and thickness of the alkaline earth layer and perovskite, we can manipulate the physical and electrical structure of the interface in order to investigate their effects on the underlying semiconductor carriers. This has been done by fabricating MOSFETs with a lattice-matched alkaline earth oxide having n=2. The measured mobility was as high as 250 cm^2/V-sec with a high field mobility comparable to those observed for silicon dioxide on silicon. In this talk we present these measurements and compare them to measurements on films with n=6 while keeping the perovskite composition constant.

  20. Effects of Photowashing Treatment on Gate Leakage Current of GaAs Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyoung Jin; Moon, Jae Kyoung; Park, Min; Kim, Haechon; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2002-05-01

    Effects of photowashing treatment on gate leakage current (IGD) of a GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor were studied by observing changes in atomic composition and band bending at the surface of GaAs through X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The photowashing treatment produces Ga2O3 on the surface of GaAs, leaving acceptor-type Ga antisites behind under the oxide. The Ga antisites played a role in reducing the maximum electric field at the drain edge of the gate, leading to the decrease of IGD. The longer photowashing time produced thicker oxide on the surface of GaAs, acting as a conducting pass for electrons, leading to the increase of IGD.

  1. All-Graphene Planar Self-Switching MISFEDs, Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Hossain, Faruque M.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-01-01

    Graphene normally behaves as a semimetal because it lacks a bandgap, but when it is patterned into nanoribbons a bandgap can be introduced. By varying the width of these nanoribbons this band gap can be tuned from semiconducting to metallic. This property allows metallic and semiconducting regions within a single Graphene monolayer, which can be used in realising two-dimensional (2D) planar Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor field effect devices. Based on this concept, we present a new class of nano-scale planar devices named Graphene Self-Switching MISFEDs (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Diodes), in which Graphene is used as the metal and the semiconductor concurrently. The presented devices exhibit excellent current-voltage characteristics while occupying an ultra-small area with sub-10 nm dimensions and an ultimate thinness of a single atom. Quantum mechanical simulation results, based on the Extended Huckel method and Nonequilibrium Green's Function Formalism, show that a Graphene Self-Switching MISFED with a channel as short as 5 nm can achieve forward-to-reverse current rectification ratios exceeding 5000. PMID:24496307

  2. n-Type reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (FETs) from photoactive metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Heejoun; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Hyemi; Yoon, Yeoheung; Kim, Giyoun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2012-04-16

    Graphene is of considerable interest as a next-generation semiconductor material to serve as a possible substitute for silicon. For real device applications with complete circuits, effective n-type graphene field effect transistors (FETs) capable of operating even under atmospheric conditions are necessary. In this study, we investigated n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) FETs of photoactive metal oxides, such as TiO(2) and ZnO. These metal oxide doped FETs showed slight n-type electric properties without irradiation. Under UV light these photoactive materials readily generated electrons and holes, and the generated electrons easily transferred to graphene channels. As a result, the graphene FET showed strong n-type electric behavior and its drain current was increased. These n-doping effects showed saturation curves and slowly returned back to their original state in darkness. Finally, the n-type rGO FET was also highly stable in air due to the use of highly resistant metal oxides and robust graphene as a channel.

  3. Integrated materials design of organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L; Fang, Lei; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications.

  4. Controlled deposition or organic semiconductor single crystals and its application in field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuhong

    The search for low-cost, large area, flexible devices has led to a remarkable increase in the research and development of organic semiconductors. Single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are ideal device structures for studying fundamental science associated with charge transport in organic materials and have demonstrated high mobility and outstanding electrical characteristics. For example, an exceptionally high carrier mobility of 20 cm2/Vs has been demonstrated for rubrene single crystal field effect transistors. However, it remains a technical challenge to integrate single-crystal devices into practical electronic applications. A key difficulty is that organic single-crystal devices are usually fabricated one device at a time by handpicking a single crystal and placing it onto the device substrate. This makes it impossible to mass-produce at high density with reasonable throughput. Therefore, there is a great need for a high-throughput method for depositing large arrays of organic semiconductor single crystals directly onto device structures. In this dissertation, I develop several approaches towards realizing this goal. The first approach is a solution-processing technique, which relies on solvent wetting and de-wetting on substrates with patterned wettability to selectively direct the deposition or removal of organic crystals. The assembly of different organic crystals over centimeter-squared areas on Au, SiO 2 and flexible plastic substrates is demonstrated. By designing line features on the substrate, alignment of needle-like crystals is also achieved. As a demonstration of the potential application of this approach, arrays of organic single crystal FETs are fabricated by patterning organic single crystals directly onto and between transistor source and drain electrodes. Besides organic single crystals, this self-assembly strategy is also applicable for patterning other objects such as metallic nanowires. In the second technique, organic

  5. Method for manufacturing compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with improved DC and high frequency performance

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Sherwin, Marc E.; Baca, Albert G.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making compound semiconductor devices including the use of a p-type dopant is disclosed wherein the dopant is co-implanted with an n-type donor species at the time the n-channel is formed and a single anneal at moderate temperature is then performed. Also disclosed are devices manufactured using the method. In the preferred embodiment n-MESFETs and other similar field effect transistor devices are manufactured using C ions co-implanted with Si atoms in GaAs to form an n-channel. C exhibits a unique characteristic in the context of the invention in that it exhibits a low activation efficiency (typically, 50% or less) as a p-type dopant, and consequently, it acts to sharpen the Si n-channel by compensating Si donors in the region of the Si-channel tail, but does not contribute substantially to the acceptor concentration in the buried p region. As a result, the invention provides for improved field effect semiconductor and related devices with enhancement of both DC and high-frequency performance.

  6. Crystal field effect induced topological crystalline insulators in monolayer IV-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Qian, Xiaofeng; Fu, Liang

    2015-04-08

    Two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) were recently predicted in thin films of the SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors, which can host metallic edge states protected by mirror symmetry. As thickness decreases, quantum confinement effect will increase and surpass the inverted gap below a critical thickness, turning TCIs into normal insulators. Surprisingly, based on first-principles calculations, here we demonstrate that (001) monolayers of rocksalt IV-VI semiconductors XY (X = Ge, Sn, Pb and Y = S, Se, Te) are 2D TCIs with the fundamental band gap as large as 260 meV in monolayer PbTe. This unexpected nontrivial topological phase stems from the strong crystal field effect in the monolayer, which lifts the degeneracy between p(x,y) and p(z) orbitals and leads to band inversion between cation pz and anion px,y orbitals. This crystal field effect induced topological phase offers a new strategy to find and design other atomically thin 2D topological materials.

  7. Design and synthesis of organic semiconductors for use in organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Amanda Ruth

    In the past ten years, much progress has been made in producing organic semiconductors with properties that rival amorphous silicon. Organic semiconductors are sought for low-cost or large-area electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, sensors, and radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. Low temperature processing options and the ductility of organic materials also allow flexible plastics or fabrics to be used as substrates. However, the majority of the newly developed materials are insoluble requiring the use of thermal evaporation to obtain thin films. In order for these organic semiconductors to compete as 'low cost' alternatives to silicon, manufacturers must be able to use large-area, continuous, reel-to-reel methods for production, which would likely involve the solution-based deposition methods such as spin coating, stamping, or printing. Therefore, our work has focused on methods for solubilizing and controlling the self-assembly of conjugated oligomers in order to maximize the semiconducting properties from solution-based processes. Chapter 1 gives a general overview of charge transfer in organic semiconductors, and describes how devices are fabricated and tested. An extensive review of the literature on solution processed p- and n-type oligomers is also given. Chapter 2 and 3 discuss our initial attempts to produce soluble oligothiophenes capable of self-assembly. Chapter 2 focuses on beta-functionalized heptathiophene oligomers, while Chapter 3 deals with (x-(x'-substituted oligothiophene derivatives. A synthetic method for incorporating thermally removable solubilizing groups into organic semiconductors is outlined in Chapter 4, and demonstrated using a sexithiophene oligomer. The synthesis, chemical characterization, as well as an in-depth characterization of solution-processed films of this oligomer using AFM and NEXAFS spectroscopy is given. This theme is carried over

  8. Ferroelectric-field-effect-enhanced electroresistance in metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zheng; Li, Chen; Wu, Di; Li, Aidong; Ming, Naiben

    2013-07-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs), composed of two metal electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric barrier, have attracted much attention as promising candidates for non-volatile resistive memories. Theoretical and experimental works have revealed that the tunnelling resistance switching in FTJs originates mainly from a ferroelectric modulation on the barrier height. However, in these devices, modulation on the barrier width is very limited, although the tunnelling transmittance depends on it exponentially as well. Here we propose a novel tunnelling heterostructure by replacing one of the metal electrodes in a normal FTJ with a heavily doped semiconductor. In these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs, not only the height but also the width of the barrier can be electrically modulated as a result of a ferroelectric field effect, leading to a greatly enhanced tunnelling electroresistance. This idea is implemented in Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructures, in which an ON/OFF conductance ratio above 10(4), about one to two orders greater than those reported in normal FTJs, can be achieved at room temperature. The giant tunnelling electroresistance, reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention observed in these metal/ferroelectric/semiconductor FTJs suggest their great potential in non-destructive readout non-volatile memories.

  9. Graphene-graphite oxide field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Standley, Brian; Mendez, Anthony; Schmidgall, Emma; Bockrath, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Graphene's high mobility and two-dimensional nature make it an attractive material for field-effect transistors. Previous efforts in this area have used bulk gate dielectric materials such as SiO(2) or HfO(2). In contrast, we have studied the use of an ultrathin layered material, graphene's insulating analogue, graphite oxide. We have fabricated transistors comprising single or bilayer graphene channels, graphite oxide gate insulators, and metal top-gates. The graphite oxide layers show relatively minimal leakage at room temperature. The breakdown electric field of graphite oxide was found to be comparable to SiO(2), typically ~1-3 × 10(8) V/m, while its dielectric constant is slightly higher, κ ≈ 4.3. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Admittance and subthreshold characteristics of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As in surface and buried channel flatband metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Bentley, S. J.; Holland, M. C.; Thayne, I. G.; Ahn, J.; Long, R. D.; McIntyre, P. C.; Long, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The admittances and subthreshold characteristics of capacitors and MOSFETs on buried and surface In0.53Ga0.47As channel flatband wafers, with a dielectric of Al2O3 deposited on In0.53Ga0.47As, are reported. The admittance characteristics of both wafers indicate the presence of defect states within the oxide, in common with a number of other oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As. The two wafers studied have not been hydrogen annealed, but do show some similar features to FGA treated oxides on n+ substrates. We discuss how the possible presence of residual hydroxyl ions in as-grown Al2O3 may explain these similarities and also account for many of the changes in the properties of FGA treated n+ samples. The issues around the comparison of subthreshold swing (SS) results and the impact of transistor design parameters on the energy portion of the defect state distribution affecting efficient device switching are discussed. The interface state model is applied to low source-drain voltage SS data to extract an effective interface state density (Dit) that includes interface and oxide traps. The logarithmic gate voltage sweep rate dependence of the SS Dit is used to extract an oxide trap density (Dot) and a simple method is used to estimate the Fermi level position within the band gap, Et. The Al2O3 Dit(Et) and Dot(Et) distributions are found to be similar to each other and to the results of our analysis of Gd0.25Ga0.15O0.6/Ga2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As, adding weight to the suggestion of there being a common defect state distribution and perhaps a common cause of defects states for a number of oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As.

  11. Recent progress on ZnO-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors and their application in transparent integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Heiko; Lajn, Alexander; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Schein, Friedrich; Zhang, Zhipeng; Grundmann, Marius

    2010-12-14

    Metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) are widely known from opaque high-speed GaAs or high-power SiC and GaN technology. For the emerging field of transparent electronics, only metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were considered so far. This article reviews the progress of high-performance MESFETs in oxide electronics and reflects the recent advances of this technique towards transparent MESFET circuitry. We discuss design prospects as well as limitations regarding device performance, reliability and stability. The presented ZnO-based MESFETs and inverters have superior properties compared to MISFETs, i.e., high channel mobilities and on/off-ratios, high gain, and low uncertainty level at comparatively low operating voltages. This makes them a promising approach for future low-cost transparent electronics.

  12. A Novel Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Memory Cell Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; Bailey, Mark; Ho, Fat Duen

    2004-01-01

    The use of a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MFSFET) in a resistive-load SRAM memory cell has been investigated A typical two-transistor resistive-load SRAM memory cell architecture is modified by replacing one of the NMOS transistors with an n-channel MFSFET. The gate of the MFSFET is connected to a polling voltage pulse instead of the other NMOS transistor drain. The polling voltage pulses are of sufficient magnitude to saturate the ferroelectric gate material and force the MFSFET into a particular logic state. The memory cell circuit is further modified by the addition of a PMOS transistor and a load resistor in order to improve the retention characteristics of the memory cell. The retention characteristics of both the "1" and "0" logic states are simulated. The simulations show that the MFSFET memory cell design can maintain both the "1" and "0" logic states for a long period of time.

  13. Unraveling the temperature and voltage dependence of magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Paul; Wouters, Steinar H. W.; Cox, Matthijs; Koopmans, Bert

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, it was discovered that the current through an organic semiconductor, sandwiched between two non-magnetic electrodes, can be changed significantly by applying a small magnetic field. This surprisingly large magnetoresistance effect, often dubbed as organic magnetoresistance (OMAR), has puzzled the young field of organic spintronics during the last decade. Here, we present a detailed study on the voltage and temperature dependence of OMAR, aiming to unravel the lineshapes of the magnetic field effects and thereby gain a deeper fundamental understanding of the underlying microscopic mechanism. Using a full quantitative analysis of the lineshapes, we are able to extract all linewidth parameters and the voltage and temperature dependencies are explained with a recently proposed trion mechanism. Moreover, explicit microscopic simulations show a qualitative agreement to the experimental results.

  14. Influence of oxygen-plasma treatment on AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors with HfO2 by atomic layer deposition: leakage current and density of states reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoklas, R.; Gregušová, D.; Blaho, M.; Fröhlich, K.; Novák, J.; Matys, M.; Yatabe, Z.; Kordoš, P.; Hashizume, T.

    2017-04-01

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN MOSHFETs with HfO2 prepared by atomic layer deposition with and w/o oxygen-plasma treatment (further referred to as PHf-MOS and Hf-MOS) were investigated. The sub-threshold slope of the MOSHFETs (350 and 150 mV dec-1 for Hf-MOS and PHf-MOS, respectively) were lower than that for HFET (450 mV dec-1), which also correspond with lower leakage current of the MOSHFETs (˜10-8 A mm-1 at -9 V for PHf-MOS). In addition, the density of the interface states at the oxide/GaN-cap layer near the conduction band edge and mid-gap (˜5 × 1012 and 2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1, respectively) after PHf-MOS was lower than that for Hf-MOS (˜3 × 1013 and 2 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1, respectively). From the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis we observed a shift in the Auger Ga LMM peaks (0.6 eV) and an increase of the intensity area of the Ga-O bond in the Ga2p3 spectrum after the oxygen-plasma treatment, mainly because the GaN-cap layer was oxidized and Ga2O3 was formed.

  15. Adaptation of the pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor technique to ultrathin silicon-on-insulator wafers characterization: Improved set-up, measurement procedure, parameter extraction, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Daele, W.; Malaquin, C.; Baumel, N.; Kononchuk, O.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper revisits and adapts of the pseudo-MOSFET (Ψ-MOSFET) characterization technique for advanced fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI) wafers. We review the current challenges for standard Ψ-MOSFET set-up on ultra-thin body (12 nm) over ultra-thin buried oxide (25 nm BOX) and propose a novel set-up enabling the technique on FDSOI structures. This novel configuration embeds 4 probes with large tip radius (100-200 μm) and low pressure to avoid oxide damage. Compared with previous 4-point probe measurements, we introduce a simplified and faster methodology together with an adapted Y-function. The models for parameters extraction are revisited and calibrated through systematic measurements of SOI wafers with variable film thickness. We propose an in-depth analysis of the FDSOI structure through comparison of experimental data, TCAD (Technology Computed Aided Design) simulations, and analytical modeling. TCAD simulations are used to unify previously reported thickness-dependent analytical models by analyzing the BOX/substrate potential and the electrical field in ultrathin films. Our updated analytical models are used to explain the results and to extract correct electrical parameters such as low-field electron and hole mobility, subthreshold slope, and film/BOX interface traps density.

  16. Highly strained channel with low-resistivity carbon-doped source/drain formed by cascade C7Hx implantation followed by rapid solid-phase epitaxy and laser annealing for n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Yoji; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Nishida, Yukio; Mizuo, Mariko; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Fujisawa, Masahiko

    2015-03-01

    We show the systematical investigation results of the effects of the implanted ion dose of P or As under various solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) conditions on the local stress in channel regions in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structures, and on sheet resistance and strain in carbon-doped source/drain (Si:C-S/D) layers. P or As substitution is in conflict with C substitution in Si:C layers during SPE. Furthermore, the amount of P incorporated instead of C into the Si lattice site is larger than that of As incorporated instead of C. Therefore, low-resistivity Si:C layers with low stress in the case of using P and high-resistivity Si:C layers with high stress in the case of using As are formed by single-step C7Hx implantation with rapid thermal annealing and nonmelt laser annealing, respectively. As a countermeasure, we demonstrate that cascade C7Hx implantation to control the C profiles in Si:C layers is effective for achieving high-strain channels and low-resistivity Si:C-S/D layers. Control of C profiles is a key technology for state-of-the-art complementary MOS devices with Si:C-S/D.

  17. Velocity overshoot decay mechanisms in compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with a submicron characteristic length

    SciTech Connect

    Jyegal, Jang

    2015-06-15

    Velocity overshoot is a critically important nonstationary effect utilized for the enhanced performance of submicron field-effect devices fabricated with high-electron-mobility compound semiconductors. However, the physical mechanisms of velocity overshoot decay dynamics in the devices are not known in detail. Therefore, a numerical analysis is conducted typically for a submicron GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms. It is found that there exist three different mechanisms, depending on device bias conditions. Specifically, at large drain biases corresponding to the saturation drain current (dc) region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid decrease of the momentum relaxation time, not the mobility, arising from the effect of velocity-randomizing intervalley scattering. It then continues to drop rapidly and decays completely by severe mobility reduction due to intervalley scattering. On the other hand, at small drain biases corresponding to the linear dc region, the velocity overshoot suddenly begins to drop very sensitively due to the onset of a rapid increase of thermal energy diffusion by electrons in the channel of the gate. It then continues to drop rapidly for a certain channel distance due to the increasing thermal energy diffusion effect, and later completely decays by a sharply decreasing electric field. Moreover, at drain biases close to a dc saturation voltage, the mechanism is a mixture of the above two bias conditions. It is suggested that a large secondary-valley energy separation is essential to increase the performance of submicron devices.

  18. Crystalline ZrTiO{sub 4} gated p-metal–oxide–semiconductor field effect transistors with sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness featuring good electrical characteristics and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chao-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Heng; Lee, Ching-Wei; Wu, Yung-Hsien

    2015-02-02

    ZrTiO{sub 4} crystallized in orthorhombic (o-) phase was stacked with an amorphous Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer as the gate dielectric for Si-based p-MOSFETs. With thermal annealing after gate electrode, the gate stack with equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 0.82 nm achieves high dielectric quality by showing a low interface trap density (D{sub it}) of 2.75 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} near the midgap and low oxide traps. Crystallization of ZrTiO{sub 4} and post metal annealing are also proven to introduce very limited amount of metal induced gap states or interfacial dipole. The p-MOSFETs exhibit good sub-threshold swing of 75 mV/dec which is ascribed to the low D{sub it} value and small EOT. Owing to the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layer and smooth interface with Si substrate that, respectively, suppress phonon and surface roughness scattering, the p-MOSFETs also display high hole mobility of 49 cm{sup 2}/V-s at 1 MV/cm. In addition, I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio larger than 10{sup 6} is also observed. From the reliability evaluation by negative bias temperature instability test, after stressing with an electric field of −10 MV/cm at 85 °C for 1000 s, satisfactory threshold voltage shift of 12 mV and sub-threshold swing degradation of 3% were obtained. With these promising characteristics, the Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}/o-ZrTiO{sub 4} gate stack holds the great potential for next-generation electronics.

  19. N-channel field-effect transistors with an organic-inorganic layered perovskite semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Mathevet, Fabrice; Heinrich, Benoît; Terakawa, Shinobu; Fujihara, Takashi; Qin, Chuanjiang; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    Large electron injection barriers and electrode degradation are serious issues that need to be overcome to obtain n-channel operation in field-effect transistors with an organic-inorganic layered perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2SnI4 semiconductor. By employing low-work-function Al source/drain electrodes and by inserting C60 layers between the perovskite semiconductor and the Al electrodes to reduce the injection barrier and to suppress the electrode degradation, we demonstrate n-channel perovskite transistors with electron mobilities of up to 2.1 cm2/V s, the highest value ever reported in spin-coated perovskite transistors. The n-channel transport properties of these transistors are relatively stable in vacuum but are very sensitive to oxygen, which works as electron traps in perovskite and C60 layers. In addition, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and thermally stimulated current measurements revealed that crystallite size and electron traps largely affect the n-channel transport properties.

  20. Vacuum-and-solvent-free fabrication of organic semiconductor layers for field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Esaki, Yu; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that cold and hot isostatic pressing (CIP and HIP) is a novel, alternative method for organic semiconductor layer fabrication, where organic powder is compressed into a layer shape directly on a substrate with 200 MPa pressure. Spatial gaps between powder particles and the other particles, substrates, or electrodes are crushed after CIP and HIP, making it possible to operate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing the compressed powder as the semiconductor. The CIP-compressed powder of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) had a hole mobility of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10–2 cm2/Vs. HIP of C8-BTBT powder increased the hole mobility to an amorphous silicon-like value (0.22 ± 0.07 cm2/Vs) because of the growth of the C8-BTBT crystallites and the improved continuity between the powder particles. The vacuum and solution processes are not involved in our CIP and HIP techniques, offering a possibility of manufacturing OFETs at low cost. PMID:26416434

  1. Vacuum-and-solvent-free fabrication of organic semiconductor layers for field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Esaki, Yu; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate that cold and hot isostatic pressing (CIP and HIP) is a novel, alternative method for organic semiconductor layer fabrication, where organic powder is compressed into a layer shape directly on a substrate with 200 MPa pressure. Spatial gaps between powder particles and the other particles, substrates, or electrodes are crushed after CIP and HIP, making it possible to operate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing the compressed powder as the semiconductor. The CIP-compressed powder of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) had a hole mobility of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10-2 cm2/Vs. HIP of C8-BTBT powder increased the hole mobility to an amorphous silicon-like value (0.22 ± 0.07 cm2/Vs) because of the growth of the C8-BTBT crystallites and the improved continuity between the powder particles. The vacuum and solution processes are not involved in our CIP and HIP techniques, offering a possibility of manufacturing OFETs at low cost.

  2. Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Miriam S; Coquillat, Dominique; Viti, Leonardo; Ercolani, Daniele; Teppe, Frederic; Pitanti, Alessandro; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia; Knap, Wojciech; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2012-01-11

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has recently opened new paths to silicon integration of device families such as light-emitting diodes, high-efficiency photovoltaics, or high-responsivity photodetectors. It is also offering a wealth of new approaches for the development of a future generation of nanoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate that semiconductor nanowires can also be used as building blocks for the realization of high-sensitivity terahertz detectors based on a 1D field-effect transistor configuration. In order to take advantage of the low effective mass and high mobilities achievable in III-V compounds, we have used InAs nanowires, grown by vapor-phase epitaxy, and properly doped with selenium to control the charge density and to optimize source-drain and contact resistance. The detection mechanism exploits the nonlinearity of the transfer characteristics: the terahertz radiation field is fed at the gate-source electrodes with wide band antennas, and the rectified signal is then read at the output in the form of a DC drain voltage. Significant responsivity values (>1 V/W) at 0.3 THz have been obtained with noise equivalent powers (NEP) < 2 × 10(-9) W/(Hz)(1/2) at room temperature. The large existing margins for technology improvements, the scalability to higher frequencies, and the possibility of realizing multipixel arrays, make these devices highly competitive as a future solution for terahertz detection.

  3. Vacuum-and-solvent-free fabrication of organic semiconductor layers for field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Esaki, Yu; Adachi, Chihaya

    2015-09-29

    We demonstrate that cold and hot isostatic pressing (CIP and HIP) is a novel, alternative method for organic semiconductor layer fabrication, where organic powder is compressed into a layer shape directly on a substrate with 200 MPa pressure. Spatial gaps between powder particles and the other particles, substrates, or electrodes are crushed after CIP and HIP, making it possible to operate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) containing the compressed powder as the semiconductor. The CIP-compressed powder of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) had a hole mobility of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(-2) cm(2)/Vs. HIP of C8-BTBT powder increased the hole mobility to an amorphous silicon-like value (0.22 ± 0.07 cm(2)/Vs) because of the growth of the C8-BTBT crystallites and the improved continuity between the powder particles. The vacuum and solution processes are not involved in our CIP and HIP techniques, offering a possibility of manufacturing OFETs at low cost.

  4. Bipolar transport in organic field-effect transistors: organic semiconductor blends versus contact modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Andreas; Kraus, Michael; Bronner, Markus; Wagner, Julia; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The achievement of bipolar transport is an important feature of organic semiconductors, both for a fundamental understanding of transport properties and for applications such as complementary electronic devices. We have investigated two routes towards organic field-effect transistors exhibiting bipolar transport characteristics. As a first step, ambipolar field-effect transistors are realized by mixtures of p-conducting copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-conducting buckminsterfullerene (C60). As a second step, bipolar transport in copper-phthalocyanine is achieved by a modification of the gate dielectric in combination with a controlled variation of the electrode materials used for carrier injection. The analysis involves the determination of charge-carrier mobilities and contact resistances by a single curve analysis and by the transfer length method. Comparison of both types of samples indicates that percolation is a crucial feature in mixtures of both materials to achieve ambipolar carrier flow, whereas in neat films of one single material suitable contact modification allows for bipolar charge-carrier transport. In the latter case, the obtained electron and hole mobilities differ by less than one order of magnitude.

  5. Photon-number discrimination using a semiconductor quantum dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansen, Eric J.; Rowe, Mary A.; Greene, Marion B.; Rosenberg, Danna; Harvey, Todd E.; Su, Mark Y.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate photon-number discrimination using a novel semiconductor detector that utilizes a layer of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) as an optically addressable floating gate in a GaAs/AlGaAs δ-doped field-effect transistor. When the QDOGFET (quantum dot, optically gated, field-effect transistor) is illuminated, the internal gate field directs the holes generated in the dedicated absorption layer of the structure to the QDs, where they are trapped. The positively charged holes are confined to the dots and screen the internal gate field, causing a persistent change in the channel current that is proportional to the total number of holes trapped in the QD ensemble. We use highly attenuated laser pulses to characterize the response of the QDOGFET cooled to 4 K. We demonstrate that different photon-number states produce well resolved changes in the channel current, where the responses of the detector reflect the Poisson statistics of the laser light. For a mean photon number of 1.1, we show that decision regions can be defined such that the QDOGFET determines the number (0, 1, 2, or >=3) of detected photons with a probability of accuracy >=83 % in a single-shot measurement.

  6. Magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors and their applications in displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeraraghavan, Govindarajan

    Organic semiconductors have been widely expected to replace inorganic semiconductors in the field of display electronics since the advent of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Organic pi-conjugated materials have also been used to manufacture photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors. Recent years have seen a surge in interest in the magnetotransport properties of these materials because they show great potential for such applications as magnetic field sensors and spintronics devices. In this thesis, I experimentally characterize a large magnetoresistance effect, which was recently discovered at the University of Iowa and was dubbed organic magnetoresistance (OMAR). We focus on two materials that show particularly great promise; one a macromolecular polymer called polyfluorene, the other a prototypical small molecule called Alq3. Building on the work of a prior student; in this thesis I report on the magnetic field dependence of current, photocurrent and electroluminescence in OLEDs made from Alq3 and polyfluorene. We provide a comprehensive overview of all these three types of magnetic field effects. In particular, we show that they are all caused by the same mechanism, in contrast to some claims by others. To the best of our knowledge, the mechanism causing OMAR and the other magnetic field effects is currently not known with certainty. Moreover, we show that experiments in bipolar, electroluminescent devices do not allow determination whether the mechanism acts on the carrier density or carrier mobility. This is a crucial gap in knowledge since it makes any attempt of explaining it ambiguous. As a remedy, we performed magnetoresistance measurements in hole-only polyfluorene devices and show that the mechanism acts on the carrier mobility rather than carrier recombination. We present an outline of a possible explanation which will be studied in more detail in another thesis. In my thesis I focus on possible applications of OMAR. I present the design

  7. Solution-Processed Donor-Acceptor Polymer Nanowire Network Semiconductors For High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yanlian; Deng, Ping; Li, Jun; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Furong; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Ong, Beng S.

    2016-04-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) represent a low-cost transistor technology for creating next-generation large-area, flexible and ultra-low-cost electronics. Conjugated electron donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have surfaced as ideal channel semiconductor candidates for OFETs. However, high-molecular weight (MW) D-A polymer semiconductors, which offer high field-effect mobility, generally suffer from processing complications due to limited solubility. Conversely, the readily soluble, low-MW D-A polymers give low mobility. We report herein a facile solution process which transformed a lower-MW, low-mobility diketopyrrolopyrrole-dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (I) into a high crystalline order and high-mobility semiconductor for OFETs applications. The process involved solution fabrication of a channel semiconductor film from a lower-MW (I) and polystyrene blends. With the help of cooperative shifting motion of polystyrene chain segments, (I) readily self-assembled and crystallized out in the polystyrene matrix as an interpenetrating, nanowire semiconductor network, providing significantly enhanced mobility (over 8 cm2V‑1s‑1), on/off ratio (107), and other desirable field-effect properties that meet impactful OFET application requirements.

  8. Solution-Processed Donor-Acceptor Polymer Nanowire Network Semiconductors For High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yanlian; Deng, Ping; Li, Jun; Lin, Ming; Zhu, Furong; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Lee, Chun-Sing; Ong, Beng S.

    2016-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) represent a low-cost transistor technology for creating next-generation large-area, flexible and ultra-low-cost electronics. Conjugated electron donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have surfaced as ideal channel semiconductor candidates for OFETs. However, high-molecular weight (MW) D-A polymer semiconductors, which offer high field-effect mobility, generally suffer from processing complications due to limited solubility. Conversely, the readily soluble, low-MW D-A polymers give low mobility. We report herein a facile solution process which transformed a lower-MW, low-mobility diketopyrrolopyrrole-dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene (I) into a high crystalline order and high-mobility semiconductor for OFETs applications. The process involved solution fabrication of a channel semiconductor film from a lower-MW (I) and polystyrene blends. With the help of cooperative shifting motion of polystyrene chain segments, (I) readily self-assembled and crystallized out in the polystyrene matrix as an interpenetrating, nanowire semiconductor network, providing significantly enhanced mobility (over 8 cm2V−1s−1), on/off ratio (107), and other desirable field-effect properties that meet impactful OFET application requirements. PMID:27091315

  9. Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofiber Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Johnson, A. T.; MacDiarmid, A. G.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Robinson, D. C.; Miranda, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the observation of field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun camphorsulfonic acid doped polyaniline(PANi)/polyethylene oxide(PE0) nanofibers. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages. The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4 x 10(exp -4) sq cm/V s while the 1-D charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx. 10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating 1-D polymer FET's.

  10. Automated semiconductor diffusion and oxidation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A semiconductor diffusion and oxidation facility (totally automated) was developed. Wafers arrived on an air track, automatically loaded into a furnace tube, processed, returned to track, and sent on to the next process. The entire process was controlled by a computer.

  11. Self-aligned inversion n-channel In 0.2Ga 0.8As/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with TiN gate and Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. P.; Lin, T. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Chang, Y. C.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2008-10-01

    A self-aligned process for fabricating inversion n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFET's) of strained In 0.2Ga 0.8As on GaAs using TiN as gate metal and Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) as high κ gate dielectric has been developed. A MOSFET with a 4 μm gate length and a 100 μm gate width exhibits a drain current of 1.5 mA/mm at Vg = 4 V and Vd = 2 V, a low gate leakage of <10 -7 A/cm 2 at 1 MV/cm, an extrinsic transconductance of 1.7 mS/mm at Vg = 3 V, Vd = 2 V, and an on/off ratio of ˜10 5 in drain current. For comparison, a TiN/Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3)/In 0.2Ga 0.8As MOS diode after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) to high temperatures of 750 °C exhibits excellent electrical and structural performances: a low leakage current density of 10 -8-10 -9 A/cm 2, well-behaved capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics giving a high dielectric constant of ˜16 and a low interfacial density of state of ˜(2˜6) × 10 11 cm -2 eV -1, and an atomically sharp smooth Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3)/In 0.2Ga 0.8As interface.

  12. Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate Switching Time Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; Macleod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research investigated the modeling of a N Wga te constructed of Metal-Ferroelectric- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MFSFETs) to obtain voltage transfer curves. The NAND gate was modeled using n-channel MFSFETs with positive polarization for the standard CMOS n-channel transistors and n-channel MFSFETs with negative polarization for the standard CMOS p-channel transistors. This paper investigates the MFSFET NAND gate switching time propagation delay, which is one of the other important parameters required to characterize the performance of a logic gate. Initially, the switching time of an inverter circuit was analyzed. The low-to-high and high-to-low propagation time delays were calculated. During the low-to-high transition, the negatively polarized transistor pulls up the output voltage, and during the high-to-low transition, the positively polarized transistor pulls down the output voltage. The MFSFETs were simulated by using a previously developed model which utilized a partitioned ferroelectric layer. Then the switching time of a 2-input NAND gate was analyzed similarly to the inverter gate. Extension of this technique to more complicated logic gates using MFSFETs will be studied.

  13. Modeling of a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed by several organizations in the use of the Metal- Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MFSFET) in memory circuits. However, research has been limited in expanding the use of the MFSFET to other electronic circuits. This research project investigates the modeling of a NAND gate constructed from MFSFETs. The NAND gate is one of the fundamental building blocks of digital electronic circuits. The first step in forming a NAND gate is to develop an inverter circuit. The inverter circuit was modeled similar to a standard CMOS inverter. A n-channel MFSFET with positive polarization was used for the n-channel transistor, and a n-channel MFSFET with negative polarization was used for the p-channel transistor. The MFSFETs were simulated by using a previously developed current model which utilized a partitioned ferroelectric layer. The inverter voltage transfer curve was obtained over a standard input of zero to five volts. Then a 2-input NAND gate was modeled similar to the inverter circuit. Voltage transfer curves were obtained for the NAND gate for various configurations of input voltages. The resultant data shows that it is feasible to construct a NAND gate with MFSFET transistors.

  14. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  15. Integrating Partial Polarization into a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    The ferroelectric channel in a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MFSFET) can partially change its polarization when the gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. This causes the MFSFET Drain current to change with repeated pulses of the same gate voltage near the polarization threshold voltage. A previously developed model [11, based on the Fermi-Dirac function, assumed that for a given gate voltage and channel polarization, a sin-le Drain current value would be generated. A study has been done to characterize the effects of partial polarization on the Drain current of a MFSFET. These effects have been described mathematically and these equations have been incorporated into a more comprehensive mathematical model of the MFSFET. The model takes into account the hysteresis nature of the MFSFET and the time dependent decay as well as the effects of partial polarization. This model defines the Drain current based on calculating the degree of polarization from previous gate pulses, the present Gate voltage, and the amount of time since the last Gate volta-e pulse.

  16. AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor on Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sanghyun; Ghose, Kaustav; Zhao, Guang Yuan; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFETs) were designed, simulated and fabricated. DC, S-parameter and power measurements were also performed. Drift-diffusion simulations using DESSIS compared AlN/GaN MISFETs and Al32Ga68N/GaN Heterostructure FETs (HFETs) with the same geometries. The simulation results show the advantages of AlN/GaN MISFETs in terms of higher saturation current, lower gate leakage and higher transconductance than AlGaN/GaN HFETs. First results from fabricated AlN/GaN devices with 1μm gate length and 200μm gate width showed a maximum drain current density of ˜380mA/mm and a peak extrinsic transconductance of 85mS/mm. S-parameter measurements showed that currentgain cutoff frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) were 5.85GHz and 10.57GHz, respectively. Power characteristics were measured at 2GHz and showed output power density of 850mW/mm with 23.8% PAE at VDS=15V. To the authors knowledge this is the first report of a systematic study of AlN/GaN MISFETs addressing their physical modeling and experimental high-frequency characteristics including the power performance.

  17. Diamond logic inverter with enhancement-mode metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Watanabe, E.; Oosato, H.; Koide, Y.

    2014-08-25

    A diamond logic inverter is demonstrated using an enhancement-mode hydrogenated-diamond metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistor (MISFET) coupled with a load resistor. The gate insulator has a bilayer structure of a sputtering-deposited LaAlO{sub 3} layer and a thin atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer. The source-drain current maximum, extrinsic transconductance, and threshold voltage of the MISFET are measured to be −40.7 mA·mm{sup −1}, 13.2 ± 0.1 mS·mm{sup −1}, and −3.1 ± 0.1 V, respectively. The logic inverters show distinct inversion (NOT-gate) characteristics for input voltages ranging from 4.0 to −10.0 V. With increasing the load resistance, the gain of the logic inverter increases from 5.6 to as large as 19.4. The pulse response against the high and low input voltages shows the inversion response with the low and high output voltages.

  18. Modeling of a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor NAND Gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    2005-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed by several organizations in the use of the Metal- Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MFSFET) in memory circuits. However, research has been limited in expanding the use of the MFSFET to other electronic circuits. This research project investigates the modeling of a NAND gate constructed from MFSFETs. The NAND gate is one of the fundamental building blocks of digital electronic circuits. The first step in forming a NAND gate is to develop an inverter circuit. The inverter circuit was modeled similar to a standard CMOS inverter. A n-channel MFSFET with positive polarization was used for the n-channel transistor, and a n-channel MFSFET with negative polarization was used for the p-channel transistor. The MFSFETs were simulated by using a previously developed current model which utilized a partitioned ferroelectric layer. The inverter voltage transfer curve was obtained over a standard input of zero to five volts. Then a 2-input NAND gate was modeled similar to the inverter circuit. Voltage transfer curves were obtained for the NAND gate for various configurations of input voltages. The resultant data shows that it is feasible to construct a NAND gate with MFSFET transistors.

  19. Semiconductor-oxide heterostructured nanowires using postgrowth oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Jesper; Ek, Martin; Vainorious, Neimantas; Mergenthaler, Kilian; Samuelson, Lars; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Reine Wallenberg, L; Borgström, Magnus T

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor-oxide heterointerfaces have several electron volts high-charge carrier potential barriers, which may enable devices utilizing quantum confinement at room temperature. While a single heterointerface is easily formed by oxide deposition on a crystalline semiconductor, as in MOS transistors, the amorphous structure of most oxides inhibits epitaxy of a second semiconductor layer. Here, we overcome this limitation by separating epitaxy from oxidation, using postgrowth oxidation of AlP segments to create axial and core-shell semiconductor-oxide heterostructured nanowires. Complete epitaxial AlP-InP nanowire structures were first grown in an oxygen-free environment. Subsequent exposure to air converted the AlP segments into amorphous aluminum oxide segments, leaving isolated InP segments in an oxide matrix. InP quantum dots formed on the nanowire sidewalls exhibit room temperature photoluminescence with small line widths (down to 15 meV) and high intensity. This optical performance, together with the control of heterostructure segment length, diameter, and position, opens up for optoelectrical applications at room temperature.

  20. Magnetic field effect in non-magnetic organic semiconductor thin film devices and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermer, Omer

    Organic pi-conjugated materials have been used to manufacture devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors. Recently there has been growing interest in spin and magnetic field effects in these materials. In this thesis, I report on the discovery and experimental characterization of a large and intriguing magnetoresistance effect, which we dubbed organic magnetoresistance (OMAR), in various pi-conjugated polymer and small molecular OLEDs. OMAR may find application in magnetic field sensors in OLED interactive displays (patent pending). We discovered OMAR originally in devices made from the pi-conjugated polymer polyfluorene. We found ≈ 10% magnetoresistance at 10 mT fields at room temperature. The effect is independent of the field direction, and is only weakly temperature dependent. We show that OMAR is a bulk effect related to the majority carrier transport. Studying polymer films with different amount of disorder we found that low disorder/large mobility is not a necessary prerequisite for large OMAR response. We also studied a possible interrelation between spin-orbit coupling and the OMAR effect in platinum-containing polymers. We found that spin-orbit coupling has apparently little effect on OMAR. A large OMAR effect was also observed in devices made from the prototypical small molecule, Alq3 that is similar in size to that in the polyfluorene devices. Our study shows that the basic properties are equivalent to polymer devices. To the best of our knowledge, OMAR is not adequately described by any of the magnetoresistance mechanisms known to date. A future explanation for this effect may lead to a breakthrough in the scientific understanding of organic semiconductors. In a largely unrelated effort, we also modelled spin-dependent exciton formation in OLEDs. Our work leads to the following picture of exciton formation: Since the triplet exciton states lie lower in energy than singlets, more phonons must

  1. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  3. Field-effect and frequency dependent transport in semiconductor-enriched single-wall carbon nanotube network device.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manu; Sangeeth, C S Suchand; Wang, Wei; Sun, Ya-Ping; Menon, Reghu

    2009-11-01

    The electrical and optical response of a field-effect device comprising a network of semiconductor-enriched single-wall carbon nanotubes, gated with sodium chloride solution is investigated. Field-effect is demonstrated in a device that uses facile fabrication techniques along with a small-ion as the gate electrolyte-and this is accomplished as a result of the semiconductor enhancement of the tubes. The optical transparency and electrical resistance of the device are modulated with gate voltage. A time-response study of the modulation of optical transparency and electrical resistance upon application of gate voltage suggests the percolative charge transport in the network. Also the ac response in the network is investigated as a function of frequency and temperature down to 5 K. An empirical relation between onset frequency and temperature is determined.

  4. The Photoresponse of the Gallium Arsenide Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolella, Arthur

    The combining of optical and microwave technology is imminent, especially the integration of optical and microwave circuit functions on the same circuit or chip. Exploring the properties of the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) as an optical detector for the detection of microwave and control signals in fiber optic links make sense because the MESFET is the main active component of GaAs MMICs. In this thesis, photocurrents and photovoltages of three MESFETs were measured as a function of the optical input (wavelength, intensity and modulation frequency), electrical input (gate voltage and gate resistance), and device characteristics. A model of the photoresponse, based on the drift and diffusion equations for the current density was developed, which established the internal photovoltaic effect at the channel-substrate interface as the dominant mechanism for the generation of photocurrent in the MESFET. The gain, bandwidth and gain-bandwidth products for each of the major photoeffects were determined mathematically. A maximum photocurrent of 16 mA, and an internal photovoltage of -0.5 volts was measured at 3.5 mW of optical power. The addition of a resistance in the gate circuit enhanced the photoresponse. With a resistor of 1 MOmega, the maximum photocurrent produced was 84.0 mA, resulting from an external photovoltage of 3.07 volts. The dynamic photoresponse of the MESFET as measured, showed a strong dependence with the intensity of the optical signal as well as with bias. The low frequency response varied from -15 dB to -41 dB, and the bandwidth changed from 50 MHz to 5 MHz as the optical signal decreased 18 dB. The low frequency response and bandwidth also showed strong dependence of bias. The low frequency response varied over a 7 dB range and the bandwidth changed from 45 MHz to 100 MHz as the gate was reversed biased (0 to -3.0 volts). Used as an optical detector, the MESFET function successfully in controlling the gain (15 dB) and phase

  5. III-V-semiconductor-on-insulator n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors with buried Al2O3 layers and sulfur passivation: Reduction in carrier scattering at the bottom interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Masafumi; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Takagi, Hideki; Miyata, Noriyuki; Urabe, Yuji; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Hisashi; Fukuhara, Noboru; Hata, Masahiko; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-04-01

    We have developed III-V-semiconductor-on-insulator (III-V-OI) structures on Si wafers with excellent bottom interfaces between In0.53Ga0.47As-OI channel layers and atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 (ALD-Al2O3) buried oxides (BOXs). A surface activated bonding process and the sulfur passivation pretreatment have realized the excellent In0.53Ga0.47As-OI/ALD-Al2O3 BOX bottom interface properties. As a result, the III-V-OI n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors under the back-gate configuration showed the peak mobility of 1800 cm2/V s and the higher electron mobility than the Si universal one even in the high effective electric field range because of the reduction in the surface roughness and fixed charges.

  6. Study of Ferromagnetic and Field Effect Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Daxue

    Spintronics (spin transport electronics), in which both spm and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is perceived to be a candidate to extend and possibly to become the next-generation electronics. Its advantages include nonvolatility (data retention without electrical power), lower energy consumption, faster processing speed, and higher integration densities in comparison with the current semiconductor devices relying solely on electron charge. To realize a spin-field effect transistor, two respects are prerequisite. On the one hand, the mechanism of ferromagnetism should be addressed before one could prepare magnetic semiconductor films in a controllable way. On the other hand, excellent field effect properties should be sought through a convenient and low-cost strategy for manufacturing future nano-scale spintronic devices. This thesis is comprised of two parts. Firstly, it deals with the synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped or un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. Secondly, it focuses on the field effect properties of solution processable ZnO thin films, which are not only of great interest for current charge-carrier based thin film transistors, but also of fundamental importance in future spin-based transistors. A facile spin-coating technique has been developed to fabricate ZnO thin films. Even without magnetic element doping, the film is found to show room temperature ferromagnetism. A broad series of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are utilized to characterize the thin films properties. Oxygen vacancy defects are tentatively attributed to the observed ferromagnetism. Following the similar method, Ga doped or Ga, Co co-doped ZnO thin films are prepared. The ferromagnetism is enhanced with Ga doping, providing more carriers. It is discovered that room temperature ferromagnetism can exist in both highly conductive regime and the less conductive or near insulating regime. Transition metal

  7. Development of solution-processable high performance organic semiconductors for field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junying

    Conjugated polymers are potential active components in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and have received considerable attention due to their promise of high efficiency, low-cost, and mechanically flexible fabrication. This thesis describes the development of novel conjugated polymers for a high performance OFET application and the morphology and molecular packing effect on charge transport properties. We have developed highly disordered N-alkyl dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole (DTP) and thiophene based copolymers with high charge carrier mobilities. Due to the comparatively high level of highest occupied molecular orbital, these polymers are readily oxided in air. To address this problem, we further developed environmentally stable, low temperature, solution processable DTP and bithiazole-based copolymers with reproducible high charge carrier mobilities. The morphology study revealed that unlike most conjugated polymers that have high charge carrier mobilities, these polymers are highly isotropic and have "amorphous" like microstructures. To expand the toolbox of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes)(rr-P3HT), we designed and synthesized diblock copolymers composed of P3HT as rod block and the fluorinated methacrylate as coil block. These blockpolymers not only showed high hydrophobicity in thin films but also exhibited charge carrier mobility as high as P3HT homopolymer.

  8. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  9. Low-temperature processed Schottky-gated field-effect transistors based on amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, M.; Lajn, A.; Frenzel, H.; v. Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.; Barquinha, P.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the electrical properties of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET) based on amorphous oxide semiconductor channels. All functional parts of the devices were sputter-deposited at room temperature. The influence on the electrical properties of a 150 °C annealing step of the gallium-indium-zinc-oxide channel is investigated. The MESFET technology offers a simple route for processing of the transistors with excellent electrical properties such as low subthreshold swing of 112 mV/decade, gate sweep voltages of 2.5 V, and channel mobilities up to 15 cm2/V s.

  10. Interface chemistry between complex oxides and semiconductors: where chemistry and physics meet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Chiara

    2010-03-01

    Even though heavily based on semiconductors, microelectronics CMOS technology would not exist without the integration of thin oxide films which enable the exploitation of the semiconductor properties. Indeed, working principle of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, the main building block of such a technology, is the modulation of charges at the oxide/semiconductor interface. The quality of this interface is of fundamental importance for device performance. For over four decades, SiO2 was the gate dielectric of choice and device scaling meant improving performance while lowering production costs. However, as scaling is approaching fundamental limits, direct tunneling across the dielectric becomes unacceptable. At this point, the integration of more complex and higher dielectric constant oxides - ``high-K dielectrics''- with Si or even more complex semiconductors (Ge, III-V) is the key enabler of performance gain. I will review critical issues related to the oxide/semiconductor interfaces, starting with SiO2/Si. Then, I will discuss how the level of complexity increases with the introduction of high-K dielectrics and other semiconductors in the stack. Among the issues to be addressed to fabricate high-performance devices, I will discuss the role played by: 1) interfacial chemistry and thermodynamical stability, 2) band alignment and surface band bending, 3) presence of defects at the interface and in the oxide bulk, 4) evolution of the gate stack properties upon post-deposition treatments. The impact of these parameters on electrical performance of devices will be discussed in detail. Finally, epitaxial oxide on Si will be explored as a promising approach for ultimate EOT scaling and the parameters governing the epitaxial growth of complex crystalline oxides on Si will be addressed. I will show that the development performed in this area might enable the integration of epitaxial oxides for monolithic integration, paving the way to technological

  11. Anomalous optical diffraction by a phase grating induced by a local field effect in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Watanuki, Tetsuya; Sato, Yuki; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser-induced phase gratings to control the emission characteristics of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots. The microscopic Coulomb interaction between the photoinduced charge densities in a dot, referred to as the local field effect, affects the macroscopic optical properties of a dot ensemble even with inhomogeneous broadening, and forms a phase grating by spatially modulating the exciton resonant frequency. In the low excitation regime, the diffracted light intensity (observed using photon echoes) gradually rose with time delay—a result very different from the conventional instantaneous response to pulse excitation. With increasing excitation intensity, the response of the diffracted signal became more immediate and exhibited a biexponential decay. The change in the temporal profile can be systematically explained by analyzing the dynamics of the phase grating. Our findings suggest an optical switching mechanism using this intrinsic property of semiconductor quantum dots.

  12. Standard CMOS Fabrication of a Sensitive Fully Depleted Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Gil; Cohen, Ariel; Doron, Amihood; Machauf, Andrew; Horesh, Moran; Virobnik, Udi; Ullien, Daniela; Levy, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated semiconductor devices are becoming increasingly relevant for detection of biological and chemical components. The integration of active biological materials together with sensitive transducers offers the possibility of generating highly sensitive, specific, selective and reliable biosensors. This paper presents the fabrication of a sensitive, fully depleted (FD), electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (EISFET) made with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer of a thin 10-30 nm active SOI layer. Initial results are presented for device operation in solutions and for bio-sensing. Here we report the first step towards a high volume manufacturing of a CMOS-based biosensor that will enable various types of applications including medical and environmental sensing. PMID:22408530

  13. Standard CMOS Fabrication of a Sensitive Fully Depleted Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor for Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Gil; Cohen, Ariel; Doron, Amihood; Machauf, Andrew; Horesh, Moran; Virobnik, Udi; Ullien, Daniela; Levy, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    Microfabricated semiconductor devices are becoming increasingly relevant for detection of biological and chemical components. The integration of active biological materials together with sensitive transducers offers the possibility of generating highly sensitive, specific, selective and reliable biosensors. This paper presents the fabrication of a sensitive, fully depleted (FD), electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (EISFET) made with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer of a thin 10-30 nm active SOI layer. Initial results are presented for device operation in solutions and for bio-sensing. Here we report the first step towards a high volume manufacturing of a CMOS-based biosensor that will enable various types of applications including medical and environmental sensing.

  14. Bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline derivatives: synthesis, physical properties and applications as semiconductors for n-channel field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenhua; Chang, Jingjing; Tan, Jun Min; Dai, Gaole; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chan, Hardy Sze On; Chi, Chunyan

    2013-09-14

    Several bisacenaphthopyrazinoquinoxaline (BAPQ) based derivatives 1-3 were synthesized by condensation between the acenaphthenequinones and 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene tetrahydrochloride. Their optical, electrochemical and self-assembling properties are tuned by different substituents. Among them, compound 3 possesses a homogeneously distributed low-lying LUMO due to the peripheral substitution with four cyano groups. The corresponding n-channel field effect transistors showed a field effect electron mobility of 5 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of phosphamidon on semiconductor oxides.

    PubMed

    Rabindranathan, Sandhya; Devipriya, Suja; Yesodharan, Suguna

    2003-08-29

    The photocatalytic degradation of a small concentration of an organo-phosphorous (OP) insecticide phosphamidon, in water, on ZnO and TiO(2) is investigated. Of the two semiconductor oxides, TiO(2) is found to be more effective as a photocatalyst for this reaction. Several factors such as concentration of phosphamidon, pH of the system, catalyst loading and presence of anions are found to influence the degradation rate. The reaction follows apparent first-order kinetics, though at higher concentrations, there is a reduction in the order of the reaction. There is a simultaneous formation and decomposition of H(2)O(2) in the system, resulting in a periodic increase and decrease in its concentration. The catalyst TiO(2) is effective for the degradation of phosphamidon in direct sunlight and thus opens the possibility of solar decontamination of wastewater containing small amounts of OP pesticides.

  16. Crystalline oxides on semiconductors: a future for the nanotransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Walker, F. J.; McKee, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we will broadly review the promises and advantages that crystalline-oxides-on-semiconductors will bring to semiconductor technology. The central issue in the epitaxial oxide semiconductor system is the role of the interface. Preparation of the semiconductor surface is essential to successful, high quality, crystalline oxide formation. Furthermore, the chemical nature of the surface then controls such fundamental properties of the system as band offsets, band bending and transport. Drawing on recent accomplishments in determining key features in the structural and electronic properties of prototype Si/(Sr,Ba)O interfaces [R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, M. Buongiorno Nardelli, W. A. Shelton, and G. M. Stocks, Science 300, 1726 (2003)], we will then illustrate how high-performance simulations combined with experiments have been able to characterize an interface phase whose structure-specific chemical bonding is fundamental in determining the properties of the semiconductor/crystalline oxide system.

  17. Field-effect transistors fabricated from diluted magnetic semiconductor colloidal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2012-02-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co(2+)-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory.

  18. Device Model for Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors with Organic Semiconductor Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ruden, P. P.; Smith, Darryl L.

    2007-04-05

    We present a device model for light-emitting, ambipolar, organic field-effect transistors based on the gradual channel approximation. The model results are in very good agreement with recent experimental data. Trapping of injected carriers in localized states in the channel region is shown to be an important mechanism that can strongly affect the transfer characteristics and the light emission of these devices.

  19. Moving Space Charge Field Effects in Photoconductive Semiconductors and Their Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia

    1995-01-01

    Internal electric space charge fields are formed inside photoconductive semiconductors when they are illuminated by an optical interference pattern. This Thesis focuses on the effects of such space charge fields formed inside semiconductor materials which contain both donors and deep level traps for photo-excited charge carriers. The photon energies are less than the band gap of the photoconductive semiconductor. The space charge field arises from the migration of photo-excited charges from the brighter to darker regions of the optical interference pattern where they become trapped. If the center frequencies of the two mutually coherent optical fields which form the interference pattern are unequal, the interference pattern and consequently the internal space charge field move with identical velocity. The moving space charge field results in a net photocurrent output from the material even when no external electric bias field is present. The short-circuit photocurrents contain a wealth of information about the material characteristics of the photoconductive semiconductor which, once known, can be used to deduce information about the optical frequency spectrum of the optical fields which form the interference pattern. An approximate but very accurate mathematical characterization of the short-circuit photocurrents and their properties are presented. These properties were verified by direct experimental measurements performed in the photoconductive semiconductors InP:Fe, GaAs, GaAs:Cr, CdTe:V, and CdTe:V:Mn. If the two interfering optical fields are plane waves with negligible linewidth, a DC short-circuit photocurrent results whose properties can be used to determine the sign of the pre-dominant species of photo-excited charge carriers, their mobility-lifetime products, and some information about donor and trap concentrations if the mobilities are known. All experiments were performed with laser diode pumped Nd:YAG unidirectional ring oscillator lasers whose optical

  20. Microscopic modeling of magnetic-field effects on charge transport in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. J.; Wagemans, W.; Kersten, S. P.; Bobbert, P. A.; Koopmans, B.

    2011-08-01

    The stochastic Liouville equation is applied to the field of organic magnetoresistance to perform detailed microscopic calculations on the different proposed models. By adapting this equation, the influence of a magnetic field on the current in bipolaron, electron-hole pair, and triplet models is calculated. The simplicity and wide applicability of the stochastic Liouville equation makes it a powerful tool for interpreting experimental results on magnetoresistance measurements in organic semiconductors. New insights are gained on the influence of hopping rates and disorder on the magnetoresistance.

  1. Optical investigations of nanostructured oxides and semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvin, Patrick Richard

    This work is motivated by the prospect of building a quantum computer: a device that would allow physicists to explore quantum mechanics more deeply, and allow everyone else to keep their credit card numbers safe on the Internet. In this thesis we explore two classes of materials that are relevant to a proposed quantum computer architecture: oxides and semiconductors. Systems with a ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in the vicinity of room temperature are useful for devices. We investigate strained-SrTiO 3, which is ferroelectric at room-temperature, and a composite material of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and MgO. We present optical techniques to measure electron spin dynamics with GHz dynamical bandwidth, transform-limited spectral selectivity, and phase-sensitive detection. We demonstrate this technique by measuring GHz-spin precession in n-GaAs. We also describe our efforts to optically probe InAs/GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale devices with photonic properties have been the subject of intense research over the past decade. Potential nanophotonic applications include communications, polarization-sensitive detectors, and solar power generation. Here we show photosensitivity of a nanoscale detector written at the interface between two oxides.

  2. Wide band gap ferromagnetic semiconductors and oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, S. J.; Abernathy, C. R.; Overberg, M. E.; Thaler, G. T.; Norton, D. P.; Theodoropoulou, N.; Hebard, A. F.; Park, Y. D.; Ren, F.; Kim, J.; Boatner, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and experimental realization of ferromagnetic semiconductors give hope that a new generation of microelectronic devices based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron can be developed. This review focuses primarily on promising candidate materials (such as GaN, GaP and ZnO) in which there is already a technology base and a fairly good understanding of the basic electrical and optical properties. The introduction of Mn into these and other materials under the right conditions is found to produce ferromagnetism near or above room temperature. There are a number of other potential dopant ions that could be employed (such as Fe, Ni, Co, Cr) as suggested by theory [see, for example, Sato and Katayama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 39, L555 (2000)]. Growth of these ferromagnetic materials by thin film techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition, provides excellent control of the dopant concentration and the ability to grow single-phase layers. The mechanism for the observed magnetic behavior is complex and appears to depend on a number of factors, including Mn-Mn spacing, and carrier density and type. For example, in a simple Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida carrier-mediated exchange mechanism, the free-carrier/Mn ion interaction can be either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic depending on the separation of the Mn ions. Potential applications for ferromagnetic semiconductors and oxides include electrically controlled magnetic sensors and actuators, high-density ultralow-power memory and logic, spin-polarized light emitters for optical encoding, advanced optical switches and modulators and devices with integrated magnetic, electronic and optical functionality.

  3. Field-effect transistors fabricated from diluted magnetic semiconductor colloidal nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Du, Ai Jun; Sun, Qiao; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhu, Zhong Hua; Lu, Gao Qing (Max)

    2012-02-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co2+-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory.Field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated from undoped and Co2+-doped CdSe colloidal nanowires show typical n-channel transistor behaviour with gate effect. Exposed to microscope light, a 10 times current enhancement is observed in the doped nanowire-based devices due to the significant modification of the electronic structure of CdSe nanowires induced by Co2+-doping, which is revealed by theoretical calculations from spin-polarized plane-wave density functional theory. Z. Li gratefully acknowledges the support from Queensland Smart Futures Fellowship, UQ early-career-research grant and UQ new staff research startup grant. Support from the Australian Research Council (through its centres program) to the ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials is also gratefully acknowledged.

  4. External electric field effects on AAS oscillations in narrow gap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Davis, D. E.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2008-03-01

    We present experiments on quantum interference phenomena in semiconductors with strong spin-orbit interaction, using mesoscopic parallel ring arrays fabricated on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. A front gate modulates the spin-orbit interaction, which in turn affects the oscillatory interference phenomena. The experiments investigate the low temperature resistance of the ring arrays as a function of weak perpendicularly applied magnetic fields as well as applied gate voltage. The low field magnetoresistance in the arrays has the h/2e periodicity characteristic of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations. Despite reduced gate action typical of narrow-gap heterostructures (characterized by Hall measurements), we note an effect on the oscillatory magnetoresistance. The AAS oscillation magnitudes acquire a quasi-periodic modulation as function of gate voltage, and the localization background broadens at higher electron densities. The nature of these influences is examined. (NSF DMR-0618235, DMR-0080054, DMR-0209371)

  5. C-band superconductor/semiconductor hybrid field-effect transistor amplifier on a LaAlO3 substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, J. J.; Bhasin, K. B.; Toncich, S. S.; Subramanyam, G.; Kapoor, V. J.

    1992-01-01

    A single-stage C-band superconductor/semiconductor hybrid field-effect transistor amplifier was designed, fabricated, and tested at 77 K. The large area (1 inch x 0.5 inches) high temperature superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O (TBCCO) thin film was rf magnetron sputtered onto a LaAlO3 substrate. The film had a transition temperature of about 92 K after it was patterned and etched. The amplifier showed a gain of 6 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth of 100 MHz centered at 7.9 GHz. An identical gold amplifier circuit was tested at 77 K, and these results are compared with those from the hybrid amplifier.

  6. Particle simulation of electrolytic ion motions for noise in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, In-Young; Lee, Jungwoo; Seo, Munkyo; Park, Chan Hyeong

    2016-12-01

    We conduct particle simulation for drain current noise in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors, to simulate how the thermal motion of charged particles near the interface affects the electrical current noise in the channel. We consider three cases: bulk electrolytes without and with charged spheres located at two different distances from the electrolyte-dielectric interface. Our results show that the drain current noise from noise sources in the electrolyte can be modeled by the sum of Lorentzian spectra, whose corner frequencies are determined by the RC product of the resistances of the bulk electrolyte and the region between the charged spheres and the interface, and the capacitance of the dielectric. Also, as the charged spheres approach the electrolyte-dielectric interface, the noise level increases, in agreement with the published experimental results.

  7. Intense laser field effects on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a semiconductor quantum wire with triangle cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.; Duque, C. A.; Niculescu, E. C.; Radu, A.

    2014-02-01

    We study the laser field effects on the intersubband optical absorption and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wire with equilateral triangle cross section. The wire is under the action of a laser beam which is assumed to be non-resonant with the semiconductor structure and linearly polarized perpendicularly to the triangle side. In the effective mass approximation and for a finite potential barrier we calculate the subband states by using a finite element method. Linear, non linear and total absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are calculated as functions of the laser field for the allowed intersubband transitions. Two polarizations of the pump radiation, parallel and perpendicular to the laser field direction, are discussed.

  8. Modeling boron dose loss in sidewall spacer stacks of complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essa, Z.; Pelletier, B.; Morin, P.; Boulenc, P.; Pakfar, A.; Tavernier, C.; Wacquant, F.; Zechner, C.; Juhel, M.; Autran, J. L.; Cristiano, F.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of capping materials during annealing (activation for example) can substantially impact the silicon junction profiles of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (CMOSFET), depending on the nature of these layers. In this paper we specifically investigated the boron out-diffusion from a silicon junction into the silicon oxide in presence of a silicon oxide/silicon nitride capping bi-layer similar to the stacks used to form sidewall spacers. After 120 s anneal we observed with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) substantial boron dose loss in silicon and segregation at the silicon oxide interface related to oxide and nitride material properties, in particular to the hydrogen concentration. We then modeled the boron profiles in both silicon and oxide as a function of the hydrogen static and dynamic in the materials. The exponential-like boron diffusion profiles observed in oxide are reproduced by introducing a long hop mechanism mediated with hydrogen-related defects (HRDs).

  9. Time-resolved spin-dependent processes in magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qiming; Li, Xianjie; Li, Feng

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the time-resolved magnetic field effects (MFEs) in tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) through the transient electroluminescence (EL) method. The values of magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) decrease with the time, and the decreasing slope is proportional to the driving voltage. Specifically, negative MELs are seen when the driving voltage is high enough (V > 11 V). We propose a model to elucidate the spin-dependent processes and theoretically simulate the time-resolved MELs. In particular, this dynamic analysis of time-resolved MELs reveals that the intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet electron-hole pairs and the triplet-triplet annihilation are responsible for the time-resolved MELs at the beginning and enduring periods of the pulse, respectively.

  10. Compound Semiconductors for Low-Power p-Channel Field-Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    63 (1997). 8. J.H. Tsai, K.P. Zhu, Y.C. Chu, S.Y. Chiu, Electron. Lett. 39, 1611 (2003). 9. Y.J. Chan, D . Pavlidis , IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 39...diagram for p-channel field-effect transistor with a strained GaSb channel.22 S, source; G, gate; D , drain; EC, conduction band energy; EF, Fermi energy...EF EV In 0. 2A I 0 .8 S b A IA s 0 .2 5S b 0. 75 A IA s 0 .2 5S b 0. 75 300 K B e- do pe d b a S G D In0.2AI0.8Sb AIAs0.25Sb0.75 top barrier

  11. Epitaxy of Polar Oxides and Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Christopher Tyrel

    Integrating polar oxide materials with wide-bandgap nitride semiconductors offers the possibility of a tunable 2D carrier gas (2DCG) - provided defect densities are low and interfaces are abrupt. This dissertation investigates a portion of the synthesis science necessary to produce a "semiconductor-grade" interface between these highly dissimilar materials. A significant portion of this work is aligned with efforts to engineer a step-free GaN substrate to produce single in-plane oriented rocksalt oxide films. Initially, we explore the homoepitaxial MOCVD growth conditions necessary to produce highquality GaN films on ammonothermally grown substrates. Ammono substrates are only recently available for purchase and are the market leader in low-dislocation density material. Their novelty requires development of an understanding of morphology trade-offs in processing space. This includes preservation of the epi-polished surface in aggressive MOCVD environments and an understanding of the kinetic barriers affecting growth morphologies. Based on several factors, it was determined that GaN exhibits an 'uphill' diffusion bias that may likely be ascribed to a positive Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier. This barrier should have a stabilizing effect against step-bunching but, for many growth conditions, regular step bunching was observed. One possible explanation for the step-bunching instability is the presence of impurities. Experimentally, conditions which incorporate more carbon into GaN homoepitaxial layers are correlated with step-bunching while conditions that suppress carbon produce bilayer stepped morphologies. These observations lead us to the conclusion that GaN homoepitaxial morphology is a competition between impurity induced step-bunching and a stabilizing diffusion bias due to a positive ES barrier. Application of the aforementioned homoepitaxial growth techniques to discrete substrate regions using selected- and confined area epitaxy (SAE,CAE) produces some

  12. Field-induced activation of metal oxide semiconductor for low temperature flexible transparent electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony; Haglund, Amada; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip

    Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as an active channel material in thin film transistors due to their high carrier mobility, and excellent large-area uniformity. Here, we report the athermal activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels by an electric field-induced oxygen migration via gating through an ionic liquid. Using field-induced activation, a transparent flexible thin film transistor is demonstrated on a polyamide substrate with transistor characteristics having a current ON-OFF ratio exceeding 108, and saturation field effect mobility of 8.32 cm2/(V.s) without a post-deposition thermal treatment. This study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as an athermal alternative to traditional post-deposition thermal annealing for metal oxide electronic devices suitable for transparent and flexible polymer substrates. Materials Science and Technology Division, ORBL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  13. Improved Radio Frequency Power Characteristics of Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Compatible Asymmetric-Lightly-Doped-Drain Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsu; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Chen, Y. J.; Chin, Albert

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized and modeled the radio frequency (RF) power performance of a 0.18 µm asymmetric-lightly-doped-drain metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDD MOSFET). In comparison with the conventional 0.18 µm MOSFET, this asymmetric-LDD device shows a larger power density of 0.54 W/mm, and 8 dB better adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) linearity at 2.4 GHz from the improved twice DC breakdown voltage of 6.9 V. These significant improvements of RF power performance in the asymmetric-LDD transistor are important for the medium RF power amplifier application.

  14. Semiconductor neutron detectors using depleted uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, Craig A.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Schwellenbach, David; Meek, Thomas; Shaver, Brandon; Cunningham, Taylor; Auxier, Jerrad Philip

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on recent attempts to develop and test a new type of solid-state neutron detector fabricated from uranium compounds. It has been known for many years that uranium oxide (UO2), triuranium octoxide (U3O8) and other uranium compounds exhibit semiconducting characteristics with a broad range of electrical properties. We seek to exploit these characteristics to make a direct-conversion semiconductor neutron detector. In such a device a neutron interacts with a uranium nucleus, inducing fission. The fission products deposit energy-producing, detectable electron-hole pairs. The high energy released in the fission reaction indicates that noise discrimination in such a device has the potential to be excellent. Schottky devices were fabricated using a chemical deposition coating technique to deposit UO2 layers a few microns thick on a sapphire substrate. Schottky devices have also been made using a single crystal from UO2 samples approximately 500 microns thick. Neutron sensitivity simulations have been performed using GEANT4. Neutron sensitivity for the Schottky devices was tested experimentally using a 252Cf source.

  15. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  16. Field-effect transistors with vacuum-deposited organic-inorganic perovskite films as semiconductor channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    Films of the organic-inorganic layered perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2SnI4 were vacuum-deposited on substrates heated at various temperatures (Tsub) to investigate the influence of Tsub on their film quality and transistor performance (hole mobilities, threshold voltages, and current on/off ratios). Appropriate substrate heating at Tsub = 60 °C during vacuum deposition led to better-developed perovskite films with larger grains. These films exhibited the best transistor performance in comparison with films fabricated at the other Tsub. The transistor performance was further enhanced by reducing perovskite semiconductor thickness (t) because of a reduction of bulk resistance in a top-contact/bottom-gate transistor structure. By utilizing the optimized Tsub of 60 °C and t of 31 nm, we obtained the most improved hole mobility of 0.78 ± 0.24 cm2/V s, about 5000 times the hole mobilities of our initial transistors fabricated at Tsub = 24 °C and t = 50 nm.

  17. Fundamentals of zinc oxide as a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2009-12-01

    In the past ten years we have witnessed a revival of, and subsequent rapid expansion in, the research on zinc oxide (ZnO) as a semiconductor. Being initially considered as a substrate for GaN and related alloys, the availability of high-quality large bulk single crystals, the strong luminescence demonstrated in optically pumped lasers and the prospects of gaining control over its electrical conductivity have led a large number of groups to turn their research for electronic and photonic devices to ZnO in its own right. The high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, wide and direct band gap and large exciton binding energy make ZnO suitable for a wide range of devices, including transparent thin-film transistors, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes and laser diodes that operate in the blue and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. In spite of the recent rapid developments, controlling the electrical conductivity of ZnO has remained a major challenge. While a number of research groups have reported achieving p-type ZnO, there are still problems concerning the reproducibility of the results and the stability of the p-type conductivity. Even the cause of the commonly observed unintentional n-type conductivity in as-grown ZnO is still under debate. One approach to address these issues consists of growing high-quality single crystalline bulk and thin films in which the concentrations of impurities and intrinsic defects are controlled. In this review we discuss the status of ZnO as a semiconductor. We first discuss the growth of bulk and epitaxial films, growth conditions and their influence on the incorporation of native defects and impurities. We then present the theory of doping and native defects in ZnO based on density-functional calculations, discussing the stability and electronic structure of native point defects and impurities and their influence on the electrical conductivity and optical properties of ZnO. We pay special attention to the possible causes

  18. Coupling between electrolyte and organic semiconductor in electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, Fabio; Di Lauro, Michele; Berto, Marcello; Bortolotti, Carlo A.; Geerts, Yves H.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    Organic field effect transistors (OFET) operated in aqueous environments are emerging as ultra-sensitive biosensors and transducers of electrical and electrochemical signals from a biological environment. Their applications range from detection of biomarkers in bodily fluids to implants for bidirectional communication with the central nervous system. They can be used in diagnostics, advanced treatments and theranostics. Several OFET layouts have been demonstrated to be effective in aqueous operations, which are distinguished either by their architecture or by the respective mechanism of doping by the ions in the electrolyte solution. In this work we discuss the unification of the seemingly different architectures, such as electrolyte-gated OFET (EGOFET), organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) and dual-gate ion-sensing FET. We first demonstrate that these architectures give rise to the frequency-dependent response of a synapstor (synapse-like transistor), with enhanced or depressed modulation of the output current depending on the frequency of the time-dependent gate voltage. This behavior that was reported for OFETs with embedded metal nanoparticles shows the existence of a capacitive coupling through an equivalent network of RC elements. Upon the systematic change of ions in the electrolyte and the morphology of the charge transport layer, we show how the time scale of the synapstor is changed. We finally show how the substrate plays effectively the role of a second bottom gate, whose potential is actually fixed by the pH/composition of the electrolyte and the gate voltage applied.

  19. Device Model for Organic Semiconductor Light-Emitting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Darryl; Ruden, P. Paul

    2007-03-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate ambipolar channel conduction and light generation in polymer field effect transistors (FETs).^1,2 In the ambipolar mode of operation, the gate potential lies between those of the source and drain contacts, hence electrons are injected from one of these contacts and holes from the other. The carriers recombine in channel regions where both types of carriers are present, and the location of the resulting light emission is controlled by the voltages applied to the terminals. We describe a device model for ambipolar organic FETs based on the gradual channel approximation. Trapping of injected carriers in localized states within the polymer energy gap is shown to be important. A non-linear differential equation for the channel potential is derived and solved numerically. Carrier density and recombination profiles are determined. The calculations are in good agreement with experimental data^1,2. 1) J.S. Swensen, C. Soci, and A.J. Heeger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 253511 (2005). 2) J. Zaumseil, R.H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, Nature Materials 5, 69 (2006).

  20. Protection of inorganic semiconductors for sustained, efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Lichterman, Michael F.; Sun, Ke; Hu, Shu; ...

    2015-10-25

    Small-band-gap (E g < 2 eV) semiconductors must be stabilized for use in integrated devices that convert solar energy into the bonding energy of a reduced fuel, specifically H 2 (g) or a reduced-carbon species such as CH 3 OH or CH 4 . To sustainably and scalably complete the fuel cycle, electrons must be liberated through the oxidation of water to O 2 (g). Strongly acidic or strongly alkaline electrolytes are needed to enable efficient and intrinsically safe operation of a full solar-driven water-splitting system. But, under water-oxidation conditions, the small-band-gap semiconductors required for efficient cell operation are unstable,more » either dissolving or forming insulating surface oxides. Here, we describe herein recent progress in the protection of semiconductor photoanodes under such operational conditions. We specifically describe the properties of two protective overlayers, TiO 2 /Ni and NiO x , both of which have demonstrated the ability to protect otherwise unstable semiconductors for > 100 h of continuous solar-driven water oxidation when in contact with a highly alkaline aqueous electrolyte (1.0 M KOH(aq)). Furthermore, the stabilization of various semiconductor photoanodes is reviewed in the context of the electronic characteristics and a mechanistic analysis of the TiO 2 films, along with a discussion of the optical, catalytic, and electronic nature of NiO x films for stabilization of semiconductor photoanodes for water oxidation.« less

  1. Review on optical and electrical properties of oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2010-03-01

    Oxide semiconductors became one of the potential elements for large area electronics such as a channel for thin film transistors. Optical and electrical properties were modified by alloying or doping of several oxide materials; In2O3, ZnO, Ga2O3, and SnO2. The excellent properties achieved at the ternary or quaternary alloys could be explained by the role of each materials as a carrier controller, a conduction path, and etc. The metal oxide semiconductors were generally deposited by vacuum process but recently, alternative ways, like a sol-gel or an ink-jet printing, are suggested. In this review, diverse approaches on oxide semiconductors are shown, and an in-depth discussion of the optical and electrical properties alternation in metal oxide alloy fabricated by various methods is given.

  2. Determination of Insulator-to-Semiconductor Transition in Sol-Gel Oxide Semiconductors Using Derivative Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woobin; Choi, Seungbeom; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jingu; Park, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption (A') vs. wavelength (λ) plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.

  3. DNA detection using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor ring oscillator circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocanda, Martin; Abdel-Motaleb, Ibrahim

    2010-10-01

    A DNA detection scheme has been implemented that utilizes a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) ring oscillator circuit. The detector oscillates at a fundamental frequency when using a nonhybridized single-strand DNA probe layer. Upon hybridization with a complimentary DNA strand, the oscillator output exhibits an increased frequency shift, indicating a genetic match. The probe assembly consists of a p-GaAs substrate containing a pulsed laser deposition-applied barium strontium titanate layer and an overlying sodium dodecyl sulfate lipid layer that serves to anchor a functionalized oligonucleotide probe. The oscillator circuit consisting of cascaded discrete complimentary n-channel and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors was implemented using passive components arranged in a T-network to provide the associated fundamental time constant.

  4. Threshold voltage control of electrolyte solution gate field-effect transistor by electrochemical oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naramura, Takuro; Inaba, Masafumi; Mizuno, Sho; Igarashi, Keisuke; Kida, Eriko; Mohd Sukri, Shaili Falina; Shintani, Yukihiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Diamond electrolyte solution-gate-field effect transistors (SGFETs) are suitable for applications as chemical ion sensors because of their wide potential window and good physical and chemical stabilities. In this study, we fabricated an anodically oxidized diamond SGFET from a full hydrogen-terminated diamond SGFET and demonstrated control of the device threshold voltage by irreversible anodic oxidation. The applied anodic bias voltage (VAO) was varied gradually from low to high (1.1-1.7 V). As the anodic oxidation proceeded, the threshold voltage shifted to more negative values with no degradation of hole mobility. Thus, anodic oxidation is a useful method for controlling the threshold voltage of diamond SGFETs.

  5. Large Lateral Photovoltaic Effect in Metal-(Oxide-) Semiconductor Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chongqi; Wang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures. PMID:22163463

  6. Application of hydrogen injection and oxidation to low temperature solution-processed oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Masashi; Nakata, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Solution-processed oxide semiconductors are promising candidates for the low cost, large scale fabrication of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this work, a method using hydrogen injection and oxidation (HIO) that allows the low temperature solution processing of oxide semiconductors was demonstrated. We found that this method significantly decreases the concentration of residual species while improving the film densification. Additionally, enhanced TFT performance was confirmed following the use of processing temperatures as low as 300 °C. The proposed process is potentially applicable to the fabrication of a wide variety of solution-processed oxide semiconductors.

  7. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    SciTech Connect

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Hussain, Muhammad M.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.

    2015-10-26

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  8. CdSe Nanowire-Based Flexible Devices: Schottky Diodes, Metal-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors, and Inverters.

    PubMed

    Jin, Weifeng; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Zhiwei; Li, Yanping; Yao, Li; Wang, Yilun; Dai, Lun

    2015-06-24

    Novel CdSe nanowire (NW)-based flexible devices, including Schottky diodes, metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs), and inverters, have been fabricated and investigated. The turn-on voltage of a typical Schottky diode is about 0.7 V, and the rectification ratio is larger than 1 × 10(7). The threshold voltage, on/off current ratio, subthreshold swing, and peak transconductance of a typical MESFET are about -0.3 V, 4 × 10(5), 78 mV/dec, and 2.7 μS, respectively. The inverter, constructed with two MESFETs, exhibits clear inverting behavior with the gain to be about 28, 34, and 38, at the supply voltages (V(DD)) of 3, 5, and 7 V, respectively. The inverter also shows good dynamic behavior. The rising and falling times of the output signals are about 0.18 and 0.09 ms, respectively, under 1000 Hz square wave signals input. The performances of the flexible devices are stable and reliable under different bending conditions. Our work demonstrates these flexible NW-based Schottky diodes, MESFETs, and inverters are promising candidate components for future portable transparent nanoelectronic devices.

  9. Nanostructured lithium oxide-hematite magnetic oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorescu, Monica; Bushunow, Vasilii; Diamandescu, Lucian; Tolea, Felicia; Valeanu, Mihaela; Xu, Tianhong

    2015-03-01

    The study aims at exploring the formation of magnetic oxide semiconductors at the nanoscale, which is of crucial importance for catalysis, sensing and electrochemical applications. xLi2O-(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3(x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7) nanoparticle systems were successfully synthesized by mechanochemical activation of Li2O and alpha-Fe2O3 mixtures for 0-12 hours of ball milling time. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements were used to study the phase evolution. Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns yielded the values of the particle size as function of composition and milling times. The Mossbauer studies showed that the spectrum of the mechanochemically activated composites evolved from a sextet for hematite to sextets and a doublet upon duration of the milling process with lithium oxide. Magnetic measurements recorded at 5 K to room temperature (RT) in an applied magnetic field of 50,000 Oe showed that the magnetization of the milled samples is larger at low temperatures than at RT and increases with decreasing particle size. Zero field cooling measurements made possible the determination of the blocking temperatures of the specimens as function of ball milling time and evidenced the occurrence of superparamagnetism in the studied samples. NSF-DMR-0854794.

  10. Band-gap engineering at a semiconductor - crystalline oxide interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-03-01

    Abstract: The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to electrically coupling crystalline oxides with semiconductors to realize functional behavior is controlling the manner in which their bands align at interfaces. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1 -xO3 and Ge, in which the band-gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1 -xO3-Ge heterojunctions for x = 0.2 to 0.75 and demonstrate the band offset can be tuned from type-II to type-I, with the latter being verified using photoemission measurements. The type-I band offset provides a platform to integrate the dielectric, ferroelectric and ferromagnetic functionalities of oxides with semiconducting devices.

  11. Anisotropy-based crystalline oxide-on-semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney Allen; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor structure and device for use in a semiconductor application utilizes a substrate of semiconductor-based material, such as silicon, and a thin film of a crystalline oxide whose unit cells are capable of exhibiting anisotropic behavior overlying the substrate surface. Within the structure, the unit cells of the crystalline oxide are exposed to an in-plane stain which influences the geometric shape of the unit cells and thereby arranges a directional-dependent quality of the unit cells in a predisposed orientation relative to the substrate. This predisposition of the directional-dependent quality of the unit cells enables the device to take beneficial advantage of characteristics of the structure during operation. For example, in the instance in which the crystalline oxide of the structure is a perovskite, a spinel or an oxide of similarly-related cubic structure, the structure can, within an appropriate semiconductor device, exhibit ferroelectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, electro-optic, ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, magneto-optic or large dielectric properties that synergistically couple to the underlying semiconductor substrate.

  12. Low-frequency noise in AlTiO/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Son Phuong; Ui, Toshimasa; Nguyen, Tuan Quy; Shih, Hong-An; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2016-05-28

    Using aluminum titanium oxide (AlTiO, an alloy of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}) as a high-k gate insulator, we fabricated and investigated AlTiO/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction field-effect transistors. From current low-frequency noise (LFN) characterization, we find Lorentzian spectra near the threshold voltage, in addition to 1/f spectra for the well-above-threshold regime. The Lorentzian spectra are attributed to electron trapping/detrapping with two specific time constants, ∼25 ms and ∼3 ms, which are independent of the gate length and the gate voltage, corresponding to two trap level depths of 0.5–0.7 eV with a 0.06 eV difference in the AlTiO insulator. In addition, gate leakage currents are analyzed and attributed to the Poole-Frenkel mechanism due to traps in the AlTiO insulator, where the extracted trap level depth is consistent with the Lorentzian LFN.

  13. Quasi-Two-Dimensional h-BN/β-Ga2O3 Heterostructure Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janghyuk; Mastro, Michael A; Tadjer, Marko J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    β-gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure-based quasi-two-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were demonstrated by integrating mechanical exfoliation of (quasi)-two-dimensional materials with a dry transfer process, wherein nanothin flakes of β-Ga2O3 and h-BN were utilized as the channel and gate dielectric, respectively, of the MISFET. The h-BN dielectric, which has an extraordinarily flat and clean surface, provides a minimal density of charged impurities on the interface between β-Ga2O3 and h-BN, resulting in superior device performances (maximum transconductance, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and threshold voltage) compared to those of the conventional back-gated configurations. Also, double-gating of the fabricated device was demonstrated by biasing both top and bottom gates, achieving the modulation of the threshold voltage. This heterostructured wide-band-gap nanodevice shows a new route toward stable and high-power nanoelectronic devices.

  14. Amphoteric oxide semiconductors for energy conversion devices: a tutorial review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kalpana; Nowotny, Janusz; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2013-03-07

    In this tutorial review, we discuss the defect chemistry of selected amphoteric oxide semiconductors in conjunction with their significant impact on the development of renewable and sustainable solid state energy conversion devices. The effect of electronic defect disorders in semiconductors appears to control the overall performance of several solid-state ionic devices that include oxide ion conducting solid oxide fuel cells (O-SOFCs), proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs), batteries, solar cells, and chemical (gas) sensors. Thus, the present study aims to assess the advances made in typical n- and p-type metal oxide semiconductors with respect to their use in ionic devices. The present paper briefly outlines the key challenges in the development of n- and p-type materials for various applications and also tries to present the state-of-the-art of defect disorders in technologically related semiconductors such as TiO(2), and perovskite-like and fluorite-type structure metal oxides.

  15. Review paper: Transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Do-Joong; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2011-03-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with oxide semiconductors have drawn great attention in the last few years, especially for large area electronic applications, such as high resolution active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), because of their high electron mobility and spatial uniform property. This paper reviews and summarizes recent emerging reports that include potential applications, oxide semiconductor materials, and the impact of the fabrication process on electrical performance. We also address the stability behavior of such devices under bias/illumination stress and critical factors related to reliability, such as the gate insulator, the ambient and the device structure.

  16. Semiconductor photocatalysts for water oxidation: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-04-21

    Artificial photosynthesis is a highly-promising strategy to convert solar energy into hydrogen energy for the relief of the global energy crisis. Water oxidation is the bottleneck for its kinetic and energetic complexity in the further enhancement of the overall efficiency of the artificial photosystem. Developing efficient and cost-effective photocatalysts for water oxidation is a growing desire, and semiconductor photocatalysts have recently attracted more attention due to their stability and simplicity. This article reviews the recent advancement of semiconductor photocatalysts with a focus on the relationship between material optimization and water oxidation efficiency. A brief introduction to artificial photosynthesis and water oxidation is given first, followed by an explanation of the basic rules and mechanisms of semiconductor particulate photocatalysts for water oxidation as theoretical references for discussions of componential, surface structure, and crystal structure modification. O2-evolving photocatalysts in Z-scheme systems are also introduced to demonstrate practical applications of water oxidation photocatalysts in artificial photosystems. The final part proposes some challenges based on the dynamics and energetics of photoholes which are fundamental to the enhancement of water oxidation efficiency, as well as on the simulation of natural water oxidation that will be a trend in future research.

  17. Protection of inorganic semiconductors for sustained, efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lichterman, Michael F.; Sun, Ke; Hu, Shu; Zhou, Xinghao; McDowell, Matthew T.; Shaner, Matthew R.; Richter, Matthias H.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Carim, Azhar I.; Saadi, Fadl H.; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2015-10-25

    Small-band-gap (E g < 2 eV) semiconductors must be stabilized for use in integrated devices that convert solar energy into the bonding energy of a reduced fuel, specifically H 2 (g) or a reduced-carbon species such as CH 3 OH or CH 4 . To sustainably and scalably complete the fuel cycle, electrons must be liberated through the oxidation of water to O 2 (g). Strongly acidic or strongly alkaline electrolytes are needed to enable efficient and intrinsically safe operation of a full solar-driven water-splitting system. But, under water-oxidation conditions, the small-band-gap semiconductors required for efficient cell operation are unstable, either dissolving or forming insulating surface oxides. Here, we describe herein recent progress in the protection of semiconductor photoanodes under such operational conditions. We specifically describe the properties of two protective overlayers, TiO 2 /Ni and NiO x , both of which have demonstrated the ability to protect otherwise unstable semiconductors for > 100 h of continuous solar-driven water oxidation when in contact with a highly alkaline aqueous electrolyte (1.0 M KOH(aq)). Furthermore, the stabilization of various semiconductor photoanodes is reviewed in the context of the electronic characteristics and a mechanistic analysis of the TiO 2 films, along with a discussion of the optical, catalytic, and electronic nature of NiO x films for stabilization of semiconductor photoanodes for water oxidation.

  18. Effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect in strongly correlated oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuegang; Xiao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Zhang, Le; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoshan; Hong, Xia

    We present a systematic study of the effect of charge on the ferroelectric field effect modulation of various strongly correlated oxide materials. We have fabricated high quality epitaxial heterostructures composed of a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) gate and a correlated oxide channel, including Sm0.5Nd0.5NiO3 (SNNO), La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO), SNNO/LSMO bilayers, and NiCo2O4 (NCO). The Hall effect measurements reveal a carrier density of ~4 holes/u.c. (0.4 cm2V-1s-1) for SNNO to ~2 holes/u.c. (27 cm2V-1s-1) for NCO. We find the magnitude of the field effect is closely related to both the intrinsic carrier density and carrier mobility of the channel material. For devices employing the SNNO/LSMO bilayer channel, we believe the charge transfer between the two correlated oxides play an important role in the observed resistance modulation. The screening capacitor of the channel materials and the interfacial defect states also have significant impact on the retention characteristics of the field effect. Our study reveals the critical role of charge in determining the interfacial coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic oxides, and has important implications in developing ferroelectric-controlled Mott memory devices.

  19. Characterization of GaN-based metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors by comparing electroluminescence, photoionization, and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, N.; Grillo, V.; Salviati, G.; Manfredi, M.; Pavesi, M.; Chini, A.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.

    2002-09-01

    We report on a methodological comparison between photocurrent (PC), electroluminescence (EL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) investigations on GaN metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The purpose of this work is to show the effectiveness and the complementarity of these experimental techniques and to investigate the presence and nature of electron traps which limit the performances of the devices. PC measurements reveal four distinct energy levels, located at 1.75, 2.32, 2.67, and 3.15 eV, responsible for current collapse. The 1.75 eV level has also been observed in low temperature EL curves. The 2.32 and 2.67 eV levels, on the basis of the comparison with CL and EL results, can be correlated with the so-called "yellow band," located at 2.2 eV. The origin of 1.75 and 3.15 eV levels is at present unknown, however a nonradiative nature has been attributed to the 3.15 eV level, due to the absence of this signature in both CL and EL spectra. The luminescence measurements also reveal the presence of the donor-acceptor pair emission at 3.27 eV and the near-band-edge transition at 3.45 eV. EL measurements show a series of emission peaks in the energy range between 1 and 1.4 eV, while the CL spectra reveal a broadband at 2.8 eV, which arises mainly from the semi-insulating layer. This result has been obtained by increasing the energy of the CL electron beam, allowing us to investigate both the conduction channel and the layers underneath it.

  20. Radiation hardening of metal-oxide semi-conductor (MOS) devices by boron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1974-01-01

    Technique using boron effectively protects metal-oxide semiconductor devices from ionizing radiation without using shielding materials. Boron is introduced into insulating gate oxide layer at semiconductor-insulator interface.

  1. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  2. Silicon dioxide with a silicon interfacial layer as an insulating gate for highly stable indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, V. J.; Shokrani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A novel gate insulator consisting of silicon dioxide (SiO2) with a thin silicon (Si) interfacial layer has been investigated for high-power microwave indium phosphide (InP) metal-insulator-semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs). The role of the silicon interfacial layer on the chemical nature of the SiO2/Si/InP interface was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the silicon interfacial layer reacted with the native oxide at the InP surface, thus producing silicon dioxide, while reducing the native oxide which has been shown to be responsible for the instabilities in InP MISFETs. While a 1.2-V hysteresis was present in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve of the MIS capacitors with silicon dioxide, less than 0.1 V hysteresis was observed in the C-V curve of the capacitors with the silicon interfacial layer incorporated in the insulator. InP MISFETs fabricated with the silicon dioxide in combination with the silicon interfacial layer exhibited excellent stability with drain current drift of less than 3 percent in 10,000 sec, as compared to 15-18 percent drift in 10,000 sec for devices without the silicon interfacial layer. High-power microwave InP MISFETs with Si/SiO2 gate insulators resulted in an output power density of 1.75 W/mm gate width at 9.7 GHz, with an associated power gain of 2.5 dB and 24 percent power added efficiency.

  3. Multinary wurtzite-type oxide semiconductors: present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-based optoelectronic devices have been limited in applicable wavelength to the near-UV region because there are few viable binary wurtzite-type oxides, but ternary wurtzite-type (β-NaFeO2-type) oxides are promising materials to expand the applicable wavelengths of these devices. In the past decade, many attractive properties of β-NaFeO2-type oxide semiconductors have been revealed, such as the band-engineering of ZnO by alloying with β-LiGaO2 and β-AgGaO2, the photocatalytic activities of β-AgGaO2 and β-AgAlO2, and the discovery that β-CuGaO2 is suitable for thin-film solar-cell absorbers. In this review article, we consider previous studies of β-NaFeO2-type oxide semiconductors—β-LiGaO2, β-AgGaO2, β-AgAlO2, β-CuGaO2—and their alloys with ZnO, and discuss their structural features, optical and electrical properties, and the relationship between their crystal structures and electronic band structures. We describe the outlook of β-NaFeO2-type oxide semiconductors and the remaining issues that hinder the development of optoelectronic devices made from β-NaFeO2-type oxide semiconductors.

  4. Detection of a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser with a semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistor coupled to a bow-tie antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaro, M. Locatelli, M.; Consolino, L.; Bartalini, S.; De Natale, P.; Viti, L.; Ercolani, D.; Sorba, L.; Vitiello, M. S.

    2014-02-24

    The use of a high-electron mobility semiconductor nanowire as transistor channel has recently allowed the extension of the spectral coverage of THz field-effect transistor detectors up to 1.5 THz. In this report, we demonstrate efficient operation of a field-effect transistor detector based on a semiconductor nanowire at a much higher frequency, 2.8 THz, with a responsivity ≈5 V/W in a bandwidth ≈100 kHz, thus proving the full potential of such approach for the detection of THz quantum cascade lasers. Finally, such a THz sensing system is exploited to perform raster scan transmission imaging, with high spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and acquisition rate.

  5. Integrated photo-responsive metal oxide semiconductor circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzban D. (Inventor); Dargo, David R. (Inventor); Lyons, John C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An infrared photoresponsive element (RD) is monolithically integrated into a source follower circuit of a metal oxide semiconductor device by depositing a layer of a lead chalcogenide as a photoresistive element forming an ohmic bridge between two metallization strips serving as electrodes of the circuit. Voltage from the circuit varies in response to illumination of the layer by infrared radiation.

  6. High-temperature Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrayer, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an investigation into the possibility of using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology for high temperature electronics are presented. A CMOS test chip was specifically developed as the test bed. This test chip incorporates CMOS transistors that have no gate protection diodes; these diodes are the major cause of leakage in commercial devices.

  7. Multilevel metallization method for fabricating a metal oxide semiconductor device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, B. R., Jr.; Feltner, W. R.; Bouldin, D. L.; Routh, D. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An improved method is described of constructing a metal oxide semiconductor device having multiple layers of metal deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low dc voltages and low substrate temperatures. The method provides multilevel interconnections and cross over between individual circuit elements in integrated circuits without significantly reducing the reliability or seriously affecting the yield.

  8. CMOS array design automation techniques. [metal oxide semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P.; Feller, A.; Noto, R.; Lombardi, T.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

  9. Ink-Jet Printed CMOS Electronics from Oxide Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Baby, Tessy Theres; Dehm, Simone; Hammad, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2015-08-05

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology with high transconductance and signal gain is mandatory for practicable digital/analog logic electronics. However, high performance all-oxide CMOS logics are scarcely reported in the literature; specifically, not at all for solution-processed/printed transistors. As a major step toward solution-processed all-oxide electronics, here it is shown that using a highly efficient electrolyte-gating approach one can obtain printed and low-voltage operated oxide CMOS logics with high signal gain (≈21 at a supply voltage of only 1.5 V) and low static power dissipation.

  10. Photovoltage response to temperature change at oxide semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichman, B.; Byvik, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out on single crystal electrodes of TiO2, SrTiO3, and alpha-Fe2O3 and polycrystalline WO3 to investigate the effect of cell temperature on the onset potential of n-type oxide semiconductor electrodes. It is found that the change of the onset potential with temperature is due to the potential change across the Helmholtz layer. The amount of this change depends on the point of zero zeta potential (pzzp) of the semiconductor electrode. The possibility of increasing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of a photochemical cell by increasing the cell temperature is discussed.

  11. Ligand field effect at oxide-metal interface on the chemical reactivity of ultrathin oxide film surface.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Yousoo; Kawai, Maki

    2012-06-27

    Ultrathin oxide film is currently one of the paramount candidates for a heterogeneous catalyst because it provides an additional dimension, i.e., film thickness, to control chemical reactivity. Here, we demonstrate that the chemical reactivity of ultrathin MgO film grown on Ag(100) substrate for the dissociation of individual water molecules can be systematically controlled by interface dopants over the film thickness. Density functional theory calculations revealed that adhesion at the oxide-metal interface can be addressed by the ligand field effect and is linearly correlated with the chemical reactivity of the oxide film. In addition, our results indicate that the concentration of dopant at the interface can be controlled by tuning the drawing effect of oxide film. Our study provides not only profound insight into chemical reactivity control of ultrathin oxide film supported by a metal substrate but also an impetus for investigating ultrathin oxide films for a wider range of applications.

  12. Selective etchant for oxide sacrificial material in semiconductor device fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Clews, Peggy J.; Mani, Seethambal S.

    2005-05-17

    An etching composition and method is disclosed for removing an oxide sacrificial material during manufacture of semiconductor devices including micromechanical, microelectromechanical or microfluidic devices. The etching composition and method are based on the combination of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4). These acids can be used in the ratio of 1:3 to 3:1 HF:H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to remove all or part of the oxide sacrificial material while providing a high etch selectivity for non-oxide materials including polysilicon, silicon nitride and metals comprising aluminum. Both the HF and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 can be provided as "semiconductor grade" acids in concentrations of generally 40-50% by weight HF, and at least 90% by weight H.sub.2 SO.sub.4.

  13. Improved Radio Frequency Power Characteristics of Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor-Compatible Asymmetric-Lightly-Doped-Drain Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu Chang,; Hsuan-ling Kao,; Y. J. Chen,; Albert Chin,

    2010-03-01

    We have characterized and modeled the radio frequency (RF) power performance of a 0.18 μm asymmetric-lightly-doped-drain metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDD MOSFET). In comparison with the conventional 0.18 μm MOSFET, this asymmetric-LDD device shows a larger power density of 0.54 W/mm, and 8 dB better adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) linearity at 2.4 GHz from the improved twice DC breakdown voltage of 6.9 V. These significant improvements of RF power performance in the asymmetric-LDD transistor are important for the medium RF power amplifier application.

  14. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, A. Diyana; Ruslinda, A. Rahim Fatin, M. F.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K.

    2016-07-06

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  15. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard; Münzenrieder, Niko; Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  16. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  17. Enhanced flexoelectric-like response in oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Narvaez, Jackeline; Vasquez-Sancho, Fabian; Catalan, Gustau

    2016-10-13

    Flexoelectricity is a property of all dielectric materials whereby they polarize in response to deformation gradients such as those produced by bending. Although it is generally thought of as a property of dielectric insulators, insulation is not a formal requirement: in principle, semiconductors can also redistribute their free charge in response to strain gradients. Here we show that bending a semiconductor not only generates a flexoelectric-like response, but that this response can in fact be much larger than in insulators. By doping single crystals of wide-bandgap oxides to increase their conductivity, their effective flexoelectric coefficient was increased by orders of magnitude. This large response can be explained by a barrier-layer mechanism that remains important even at the macroscale, where conventional (insulator) flexoelectricity otherwise tends to be small. Our results open up the possibility of using semiconductors as active ingredients in electromechanical transducer applications.

  18. Chitin Liquid-Crystal-Templated Oxide Semiconductor Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Chau, Trang The Lieu; Le, Dung Quang Tien; Le, Hoa Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Duc; Nguyen, Long Viet; Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh

    2017-09-13

    Chitin nanocrystals have been used as a liquid crystalline template to fabricate layered oxide semiconductor aerogels. Anisotropic chitin liquid crystals are transformed to sponge-like aerogels by hydrothermally cross-linked gelation and lyophilization-induced solidification. The hydrothermal gelation of chitin aqueous suspensions then proceeds with peroxotitanate to form hydrogel composites that recover to form aerogels after freeze-drying. The homogeneous peroxotitanate/chitin composites are calcined to generate freestanding titania aerogels that exhibit the nanostructural integrity of layered chitin template. Our extended investigations show that coassembling chitin nanocrystals with other metal-based precursors also yielded semiconductor aerogels of perovskite BaTiO3 and CuOx nanocrystals. The potential of these materials is great to investigate these chitin sponges for biomedicine and these semiconductor aerogels for photocatalysis, gas sensing, and other applications. Our results present a new aerogel templating method of highly porous, ultralight materials with chitin liquid crystals.

  19. Self-assembly of semiconductor/insulator interfaces in one-step spin-coating: a versatile approach for organic field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Li, Yun; Lee, Michael V; Kumatani, Akichika; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2013-06-07

    Self-assembly of interfaces is of great interest in physical and chemical domains. One of the most challenging targets is to obtain an optimal interface structure showing good electronic properties by solution-processing. Interfaces of semiconductor/semiconductor, semiconductor/insulator and insulator/insulator have been successfully manipulated to obtain high-performance devices. In this review we discuss a special class of interface, semiconductor/insulator interface, formed by vertical phase separation during spin-coating and focus on the versatile applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). The formation of such an interface can be finished within tens of seconds and its mechanism is related to the materials, surfaces and dynamics. Fascinatingly, such self-assembly could be used to simplify the fabrication procedure, improve film spreading, change interfacial properties, modify semiconductor morphology, and encapsulate thin films. These merits lead to OFETs with high performance and good reliability. Also, the method is very suitable for combining with other solution-processed techniques such as patterning and post-annealing, which leads to facile paper electronics, in situ purification and single crystal formation. Research on this topic not only provides an in-depth understanding of self-assembly in solution processing, but also opens new paths towards flexible organic electronics.

  20. Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor with MoS2/Conducting NiO(x) van der Waals Schottky Interface for Intrinsic High Mobility and Photoswitching Speed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Sung; Baik, Seung Su; Lee, Kimoon; Min, Sung-Wook; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Kim, Jin Sung; Choi, Kyujin; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Im, Seongil

    2015-08-25

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet, one of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, has recently been regarded as a promising material to break through the limit of present semiconductors. With an apparent energy band gap, it certainly provides a high carrier mobility, superior subthreshold swing, and ON/OFF ratio in field-effect transistors (FETs). However, its potential in carrier mobility has still been depreciated since the field-effect mobilities have only been measured from metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) FETs, where the transport behavior of conducting carriers located at the insulator/MoS2 interface is unavoidably interfered by the interface traps and gate voltage. Moreover, thin MoS2 MISFETs have always shown large hysteresis with unpredictable negative threshold voltages. Here, we for the first time report MoS2-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) using NiOx Schottky electrode which makes van der Waals interface with MoS2. We thus expect that the maximum mobilities or carrier transport behavior of the Schottky devices may hardly be interfered by interface traps or an on-state gate field. Our MESFETs with a few and ∼10 layer MoS2 demonstrate intrinsic-like high mobilities of 500-1200 cm(2)/(V s) at a certain low threshold voltage between -1 and -2 V without much hysteresis. Moreover, they work as a high speed and highly sensitive phototransistor with 2 ms switching and ∼5000 A/W, respectively, supporting their high intrinsic mobility results.

  1. Visible light water splitting using dye-sensitized oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Youngblood, W Justin; Lee, Seung-Hyun Anna; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2009-12-21

    Researchers are intensively investigating photochemical water splitting as a means of converting solar to chemical energy in the form of fuels. Hydrogen is a key solar fuel because it can be used directly in combustion engines or fuel cells, or combined catalytically with CO(2) to make carbon containing fuels. Different approaches to solar water splitting include semiconductor particles as photocatalysts and photoelectrodes, molecular donor-acceptor systems linked to catalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution, and photovoltaic cells coupled directly or indirectly to electrocatalysts. Despite several decades of research, solar hydrogen generation is efficient only in systems that use expensive photovoltaic cells to power water electrolysis. Direct photocatalytic water splitting is a challenging problem because the reaction is thermodynamically uphill. Light absorption results in the formation of energetic charge-separated states in both molecular donor-acceptor systems and semiconductor particles. Unfortunately, energetically favorable charge recombination reactions tend to be much faster than the slow multielectron processes of water oxidation and reduction. Consequently, visible light water splitting has only recently been achieved in semiconductor-based photocatalytic systems and remains an inefficient process. This Account describes our approach to two problems in solar water splitting: the organization of molecules into assemblies that promote long-lived charge separation, and catalysis of the electrolysis reactions, in particular the four-electron oxidation of water. The building blocks of our artificial photosynthetic systems are wide band gap semiconductor particles, photosensitizer and electron relay molecules, and nanoparticle catalysts. We intercalate layered metal oxide semiconductors with metal nanoparticles. These intercalation compounds, when sensitized with [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) derivatives, catalyze the photoproduction of hydrogen from sacrificial

  2. High mobility field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chulkwon; Kim, Useong; Ju, Chan Jong; Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Char, Kookrin

    2014-11-17

    We fabricated an n-type accumulation-mode field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} transparent perovskite semiconductor, taking advantage of its high mobility and oxygen stability. We used the conventional metal-insulator-semiconductor structures: (In,Sn){sub 2}O{sub 3} as the source, drain, and gate electrodes, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate insulator, and La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} as the semiconducting channel. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide was deposited by atomic layer deposition technique. At room temperature, we achieved the field effect mobility value of 17.8 cm{sup 2}/Vs and the I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio value higher than 10{sup 5} for V{sub DS} = 1 V. These values are higher than those previously reported on other perovskite oxides, in spite of the large density of threading dislocations in the BaSnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. However, a relatively large subthreshold swing value was found, which we attribute to the large density of charge traps in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as the threading dislocations.

  3. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  4. Characterization of reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistor and its application to biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Hirayama, Yuki; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We confirmed the specific detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE) using an aptamer-immobilized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) field effect transistor (FET). The detection limit and dynamic range were estimated to be 8.1 ng/ml and 104, respectively. These characteristics are comparable with these of current fluorescent markers. Although the mobility of rGO-FET was around 6 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is two to three orders lower than that of mechanically exfoliated pristine graphene FET, its sensitivity to IgE was only one order lower than that of pristine graphene FET.

  5. Multiparameter admittance spectroscopy for metal-oxide-semiconductor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscator, J.; Raeissi, B.; Engström, O.

    2009-09-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is extended for measuring capacitance and conductance on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as a function of gate voltage, frequency, and temperature. An automatic setup has been designed for collecting data along these dimensions in one measurement cycle. The theory for admittance spectroscopy has been developed by starting from basic charge carrier statistics. Using numerical integration of energy dependent parameters instead of the commonly used analytical solution, conductance dispersion curves are obtained which do not need to be adjusted by assuming lateral surface potential variations at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Also, we find that interface state densities extracted by using traditional methods are four times lower than those obtained by using our theory. Experimental data presented in three-dimensional plots are compared with theoretical calculations, revealing the possibilities and limitations of the conductance method.

  6. Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor Gas Sensors in Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Fine, George F.; Cavanagh, Leon M.; Afonja, Ayo; Binions, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are utilised in a variety of different roles and industries. They are relatively inexpensive compared to other sensing technologies, robust, lightweight, long lasting and benefit from high material sensitivity and quick response times. They have been used extensively to measure and monitor trace amounts of environmentally important gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. In this review the nature of the gas response and how it is fundamentally linked to surface structure is explored. Synthetic routes to metal oxide semiconductor gas sensors are also discussed and related to their affect on surface structure. An overview of important contributions and recent advances are discussed for the use of metal oxide semiconductor sensors for the detection of a variety of gases—CO, NOx, NH3 and the particularly challenging case of CO2. Finally a description of recent advances in work completed at University College London is presented including the use of selective zeolites layers, new perovskite type materials and an innovative chemical vapour deposition approach to film deposition. PMID:22219672

  7. Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for growing a crystalline oxide epitaxially upon the surface of a Group IV semiconductor, as well as a structure constructed by the process, is described. The semiconductor can be germanium or silicon, and the crystalline oxide can generally be represented by the formula (AO).sub.n (A'BO.sub.3).sub.m in which "n" and "m" are non-negative integer repeats of planes of the alkaline earth oxides or the alkaline earth-containing perovskite oxides. With atomic level control of interfacial thermodynamics in a multicomponent semiconductor/oxide system, a highly perfect interface between a semiconductor and a crystalline oxide can be obtained.

  8. Ambipolar behavior in MoS2 field effect transistors by using catalytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. H.; Jang, H.-K.; Jin, J. E.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, G.-T.

    2016-10-01

    Modulation of electrical properties in MoS2 flakes is an attractive issue from the point of view of device applications. In this work, we demonstrate that an ambipolar behavior in MoS2 field effect transistors (FETs) can be easily obtained by heating MoS2 flakes under air atmosphere in the presence of cobalt oxide catalyst (MoS2 + O2 → MoOx + SOx). The catalytic oxidation of MoS2 flakes between source-drain electrodes resulted in lots of MoOx nanoparticles (NPs) on MoS2 flakes with thickness reduction from 64 nm to 17 nm. Consequently, N-type behavior of MoS2 FETs was converted into ambipolar transport characteristics by MoOx NPs which inject hole carriers to MoS2 flakes.

  9. Switching Kinetics in Nanoscale Hafnium Oxide Based Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Mulaosmanovic, Halid; Ocker, Johannes; Müller, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Müller, Johannes; Polakowski, Patrick; Flachowsky, Stefan; van Bentum, Ralf; Mikolajick, Thomas; Slesazeck, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in thin hafnium oxide films has led to a resurgence of interest in ferroelectric memory devices. Although both experimental and theoretical studies on this new ferroelectric system have been undertaken, much remains to be unveiled regarding its domain landscape and switching kinetics. Here we demonstrate that the switching of single domains can be directly observed in ultrascaled ferroelectric field effect transistors. Using models of ferroelectric domain nucleation we explain the time, field and temperature dependence of polarization reversal. A simple stochastic model is proposed as well, relating nucleation processes to the observed statistical switching behavior. Our results suggest novel opportunities for hafnium oxide based ferroelectrics in nonvolatile memory devices.

  10. Work function engineering of graphene oxide via covalent functionalization for organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Seulki; Min, Bok Ki; Kim, Seong K.; Myung, Sung; Kang, Minseo; Shin, Hong-Suk; Song, Wooseok; Heo, Jungseok; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok; Lee, Ill-Young; Lee, Sun Sook

    2017-10-01

    We report a simple method to produce work-function-tuned graphene nanosheets based on the nucleophilic substitution of the epoxy groups on graphene oxide. The electrical property of the graphene oxide is controlled dramatically, which results in the apparent work functions in a broad range between 3.73 eV and 5.1 eV, by attaching various functional groups on the graphene surface. As a proof of concept, we successfully demonstrated organic field effect transistors incorporating the functionalized graphene nanosheet interlayers. Here, when nanosheets were applied in an organic transistor as the interlayer material between electrodes and organic channel, the device performance was significantly improved. Our approach can be utilized to increase the performance and the flexibility of various advanced carbon-material-based hybrid electrical devices.

  11. Delta-doped β-gallium oxide field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Xia, Zhanbo; Bajaj, Sanyam; Brenner, Mark; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-05-01

    We report silicon delta doping in gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using a shutter pulsing technique. We describe the growth procedures that can be used to realize high Si incorporation in an oxidizing oxygen plasma environment. Delta doping was adopted to realize thin (12 nm) low-resistance layers with a sheet resistance of 320 Ω/square (mobility of 83 cm2 V-1 s-1, integrated sheet charge of 2.4 × 1014 cm-2). A single delta-doped sheet of carriers was employed as a channel to realize a field-effect transistor with current I D,max = 236 mA/mm and transconductance g m = 26 mS/mm.

  12. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  13. Characterization of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajachidambaram, Jaana Saranya; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Varga, Tamas; Flynn, Brendan T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Herman, Gregory S.

    2012-06-12

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) was investigated to determine the effect of deposition and post annealing conditions on film structure, composition, surface contamination, and thin film transistor (TFT) device performance. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the ZTO films remain amorphous even after annealing to 600 °C. We found that the bulk Zn:Sn ratio of the sputter deposited films were slightly tin rich compared to the composition of the ceramic sputter target, and there was a significant depletion of zinc at the surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also indicated that residual surface contamination depended strongly on the sample post-annealing conditions where water, carbonate and hydroxyl species were absorbed to the surface. Electrical characterization of ZTO films, using TFT test structures, indicated that mobilities as high as 17 cm2/Vs could be obtained for depletion mode devices.

  14. Mathematical Models of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of the common-source and common-gate amplifiers using metal-ferroelectric- semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are developed in this paper. The models are compared against data collected with MOSFETs of varying channel lengths and widths, and circuit parameters such as biasing conditions are varied as well. Considerations are made for the capacitance formed by the ferroelectric layer present between the gate and substrate of the transistors. Comparisons between the modeled and measured data are presented in depth as well as differences and advantages as compared to the performance of each circuit using a MOSFET.

  15. Extended Characterization of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-01-01

    Collected data for both common-source and common-gate amplifiers is presented in this paper. Characterizations of the two amplifier circuits using metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistors (MFSFETs) are developed with wider input frequency ranges and varying device sizes compared to earlier characterizations. The effects of the ferroelectric layer's capacitance and variation load, quiescent point, or input signal on each circuit are discussed. Comparisons between the MFSFET and MOSFET circuit operation and performance are discussed at length as well as applications and advantages for the MFSFETs.

  16. Electrical characterization and hydrogen gas sensing properties of a n-ZnO /p-SiC Pt-gate metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, S.; Wlodarski, W.; Holland, A.; Nakagomi, S.; Kokubun, Y.

    2007-02-01

    A new hydrogen gas sensitive n-ZnO /p-SiC Pt-gate metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) is reported. The observed current-voltage curves for the source to drain region indicate that this MESFET operates in enhancement mode. A change in gate potential, due to different ambient atmospheres caused a change in the width of the depletion region, hence modulating the current in the n channel (ZnO layer). The H2 gas sensing mechanism of the presented MESFET structure is discussed using energy band diagrams.

  17. Energy-dependent relaxation time in quaternary amorphous oxide semiconductors probed by gated Hall effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socratous, Josephine; Watanabe, Shun; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Warwick, Christopher N.; Branquinho, Rita; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Despite the success of exploiting the properties of amorphous oxide semiconductors for device applications, the charge transport in these materials is still not clearly understood. The observation of a definite Hall voltage suggests that electron transport in the conduction band is free-electron-like. However, the temperature dependence of the Hall and field-effect mobilities cannot be explained using a simple bandlike model. Here, we perform gated Hall effect measurements in field-effect transistors, which allow us to make two independent estimates of the charge carrier concentration and determine the Hall factor providing information on the energy dependence of the relaxation time. We demonstrate that the Hall factor in a range of sputtered and solution-processed quaternary amorphous oxides, such as a-InGaZnO, is close to two, while in ternary oxides, such as InZnO, it is near unity. This suggests that quaternary elements like Ga act as strong ionized impurity scattering centers in these materials.

  18. High temperature operation of n-AlGaN channel metal semiconductor field effect transistors on low-defect AlN templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhtadi, S.; Hwang, S.; Coleman, A.; Asif, F.; Lunev, A.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Khan, A.

    2017-05-01

    We report room-temperature to 200 °C operation of n-Al0.65Ga0.35N channel metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFET) grown over high-quality AlN/sapphire templates. For this temperature range, the source-drain currents, threshold voltages, and dc-transconductance values remain nearly unchanged with an estimated field-effect mobility of ˜90 cm2/V-s at 200 °C and currents of >100 mA/mm. The analysis of the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of the gate-source Schottky barrier diode reveals that the leakage currents arise from Frenkel-Poole emission. The capacitance-voltage data show no hysteresis, indicating a high quality Schottky barrier interface. These MESFET's have excellent potential for use as a high temperature power electronic or a solar-blind ultraviolet sensing device.

  19. Dispersion of the Number of Charge Carriers in the Lax Approximation for Corpuscular-Field Effects on a Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, V. N.; Kharitonov, S. V.; Lugina, N. E.

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers the dispersion of charge carriers depending on the background noise and the electric field exposure. This dependence is obtained using the Lax equivalence theorem in terms of the step distribution of spectral density of extrinsic electronic defect states within the forbidden band of semiconductor. Instead of using quasi-Fermi levels, the paper describes the semiconductor density state under the background noise. This approach is based on `heating' the semiconductor with background noise allowing to correctly detect the Fermi energy-level within the wide range of the power of background noise. It is observed that the dispersion/voltage dependence continuously grows and saturates, while the background noise shifts this dependence to the lower values of voltage. Based on the results, it is shown that the noise minimum of n-CdSe photoresistor under the background noise and electric field exposure cannot be explained only by the assumed step distribution of spectral density of extrinsic electronic defect states within the forbidden band of semiconductor.

  20. X-ray Characterization of Oxide-based Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2008-05-01

    Although the evidence for magnetic semiconductors (not simply semiconductors which are ferromagnetic) is compelling, there is much uncertainty in the mechanism for the polarization of the carriers, suggesting that it must be quite novel. Recent experimental evidence suggests that this mechanism is similar to the polaron percolation theory proposed by Kaminski and Das Sarma,ootnotetextKaminski and S. Das Sarma, Physical Review Letters 88, 247202 (2002). which was recently applied specifically to doped oxides by Coey et al.ootnotetextJ. M. D. Coey, M. Venkatesan, and C. B. Fitzgerald, Nature Materials 4, 173 (2005). where the ferromagnetism is driven by the percolation of polarons generated by defects or dopants. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edges and K-edges for low concentrations transition metal (TM) doped magnetic oxides (including TiO2, La1-xSrxO3, HfO2, and In2O3). We have found that in most cases, the transition metal assumes a valence consistent with being at a substitutional, and not interstitial site. We have also measured the X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectra. Although these materials show strong bulk magnetization, we are unable to detect a robust dichroism feature associated with magnetic elements in the host semiconductor. In the cases where a dichroism signal was observed, it was very weak and could be ascribed to a distinct ferromagnetic phase (TM metal cluster, TM oxide particulate, etc.) separate from the host material. This fascinating absence of a dichroic signal and its significant substantiation of important features of the polaron percolation model may help to finally resolve the issue of ferromagnetism in magnetically doped oxides.

  1. Graphene field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Dharmendar; Register, Leonard F.; Carpenter, Gary D.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2011-08-01

    Owing in part to scaling challenges for metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic, the semiconductor industry is placing an increased emphasis on emerging materials and devices that may provide improved MOSFET performance beyond the 22 nm node, or provide novel functionality for, e.g. 'beyond CMOS' devices. Graphene, with its novel and electron-hole symmetric band structure and its high carrier mobilities and thermal velocities, is one such material that has garnered a great deal of interest for both purposes. Single and few layer carbon sheets have been fabricated by a variety of techniques including mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition, and field-effect transistors have been demonstrated with room-temperature mobilities as high as 10 000 cm2 V-1 s-1. But graphene is a gapless semiconductor and gate control of current is challenging, off-state leakage currents are high, and current does not readily saturate with drain voltage. However, various ways to overcome, adapt to, or even embrace this property are now being considered for device applications. In this work we explore through illustrative examples the potential of and challenges to graphene use for conventional and novel device applications.

  2. Metal oxide-graphene field-effect transistor: interface trap density extraction model

    PubMed Central

    Najam, Faraz; Lau, Kah Cheong; Lim, Cheng Siong; Yu, Yun Seop

    2016-01-01

    Summary A simple to implement model is presented to extract interface trap density of graphene field effect transistors. The presence of interface trap states detrimentally affects the device drain current–gate voltage relationship I ds–V gs. At the moment, there is no analytical method available to extract the interface trap distribution of metal-oxide-graphene field effect transistor (MOGFET) devices. The model presented here extracts the interface trap distribution of MOGFET devices making use of available experimental capacitance–gate voltage C tot–V gs data and a basic set of equations used to define the device physics of MOGFET devices. The model was used to extract the interface trap distribution of 2 experimental devices. Device parameters calculated using the extracted interface trap distribution from the model, including surface potential, interface trap charge and interface trap capacitance compared very well with their respective experimental counterparts. The model enables accurate calculation of the surface potential affected by trap charge. Other models ignore the effect of trap charge and only calculate the ideal surface potential. Such ideal surface potential when used in a surface potential based drain current model will result in an inaccurate prediction of the drain current. Accurate calculation of surface potential that can later be used in drain current model is highlighted as a major advantage of the model. PMID:27826511

  3. Metal oxide-graphene field-effect transistor: interface trap density extraction model.

    PubMed

    Najam, Faraz; Lau, Kah Cheong; Lim, Cheng Siong; Yu, Yun Seop; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2016-01-01

    A simple to implement model is presented to extract interface trap density of graphene field effect transistors. The presence of interface trap states detrimentally affects the device drain current-gate voltage relationship Ids-Vgs. At the moment, there is no analytical method available to extract the interface trap distribution of metal-oxide-graphene field effect transistor (MOGFET) devices. The model presented here extracts the interface trap distribution of MOGFET devices making use of available experimental capacitance-gate voltage Ctot-Vgs data and a basic set of equations used to define the device physics of MOGFET devices. The model was used to extract the interface trap distribution of 2 experimental devices. Device parameters calculated using the extracted interface trap distribution from the model, including surface potential, interface trap charge and interface trap capacitance compared very well with their respective experimental counterparts. The model enables accurate calculation of the surface potential affected by trap charge. Other models ignore the effect of trap charge and only calculate the ideal surface potential. Such ideal surface potential when used in a surface potential based drain current model will result in an inaccurate prediction of the drain current. Accurate calculation of surface potential that can later be used in drain current model is highlighted as a major advantage of the model.

  4. Probing top-gated field effect transistor of reduced graphene oxide monolayer made by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasu, K. S.; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Sampath, S.; Sood, A. K.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate a top-gated field effect transistor made of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayer (graphene) by dielectrophoresis. The Raman spectrum of RGO flakes of typical size of 5 μm×5 μm shows a single 2D band at 2687 cm -1, characteristic of single-layer graphene. The two-probe current-voltage measurements of RGO flakes, deposited in between the patterned electrodes with a gap of 2.5 μm using ac dielectrophoresis, show ohmic behavior with a resistance of ˜37 kΩ. The temperature dependence of the resistance (R) of RGO measured between 305 K and 393 K yields a temperature coefficient of resistance [dR/dT]/R˜-9.5×10-4/K, the same as that of mechanically exfoliated single-layer graphene. The field-effect transistor action was obtained by electrochemical top-gating using a solid polymer electrolyte (PEO+LiClO 4) and Pt wire. The ambipolar nature of graphene flakes is observed up to a doping level of ˜6×1012/cm and carrier mobility of ˜50 cm 2/V s. The source-drain current characteristics show a tendency of current saturation at high source-drain voltage which is analyzed quantitatively by a diffusive transport model.

  5. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gang; Tuttle, Blair R.; Dhar, Sarit

    2015-06-15

    A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy. Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. While SiC Schottky diode is a mature technology, SiC power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors are relatively novel and there is large room for performance improvement. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability. Both problems relate to the defects near the SiO{sub 2}/SiC interface, which have been the focus of intensive studies for more than a decade. Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results. Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed.

  6. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Tuttle, Blair R.; Dhar, Sarit

    2015-06-01

    A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy. Silicon carbide (4H-SiC) is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. While SiC Schottky diode is a mature technology, SiC power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors are relatively novel and there is large room for performance improvement. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability. Both problems relate to the defects near the SiO2/SiC interface, which have been the focus of intensive studies for more than a decade. Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results. Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed.

  7. Zinc oxide nanorod field effect transistor for long-time cellular force measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells are known to influence a vast range of cellular functions ranging from receptor signaling and transcription to differentiation and proliferation. We report a novel measurement approach using zinc oxide nanorods as a peeping transducer to monitor dynamic mechanical behavior of cellular traction on surrounding substrate. We develop a ZnO nanorod field effect transistor (FET) as an ultrasensitive force sensor to realize long-time, unstained, and in-situ detection of cell cycle phases, including attachment, spread, and mitosis. Excellent biocompatibility and ultra-sensitivity of the biomechanical measurement is ensured by coating a parylene film on the FET sensor as a concealment, which provides complete electronic isolation between the sensor and cell. With unique features of ultra-sensitivity, label-free, easy handling, and good biocompatibility, the force sensor allows feasible for tracking cellular dynamics in physiological contexts and understanding their contribution to biological processes. PMID:28272551

  8. Nonvolatile memory with graphene oxide as a charge storage node in nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, David J.; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Choi, Sung-Jin; Moon, Dong-Il; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2012-02-01

    Through the structural modification of a three-dimensional silicon nanowire field-effect transistor, i.e., a double-gate FinFET, a structural platform was developed which allowed for us to utilize graphene oxide (GO) as a charge trapping layer in a nonvolatile memory device. By creating a nanogap between the gate and the channel, GO was embedded after the complete device fabrication. By applying a proper gate voltage, charge trapping, and de-trapping within the GO was enabled and resulted in large threshold voltage shifts. The employment of GO with FinFET in our work suggests that graphitic materials can potentially play a significant role for future nanoelectronic applications.

  9. The MSFC complementary metal oxide semiconductor (including multilevel interconnect metallization) process handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouldin, D. L.; Eastes, R. W.; Feltner, W. R.; Hollis, B. R.; Routh, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The fabrication techniques for creation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits at George C. Marshall Space Flight Center are described. Examples of C-MOS integrated circuits manufactured at MSFC are presented with functional descriptions of each. Typical electrical characteristics of both p-channel metal oxide semiconductor and n-channel metal oxide semiconductor discrete devices under given conditions are provided. Procedures design, mask making, packaging, and testing are included.

  10. Patterned oxide semiconductor by electrohydrodynamic jet printing for transparent thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Jeonghyun; Choi, Junghyun; Park, Hyunjung; Ha, Jaehwan; Kim, Yongkwan; Rogers, John A.; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores transport in transparent thin film transistors formed using a liquid precursor to indium zinc oxide, delivered to target substrates by electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing. Under optimized conditions, we observe field effect mobilities as high as 32 cm2V-1s-1, with on/off current ratios of 103 and threshold voltages of 2 V. These results provide evidence that material manipulated in fine-jet, electric field induced liquid flows can yield semiconductor devices without any adverse effects of residual charge or unintentional doping. E-jet printing methods provide levels of resolution (˜1.5 μm) that provide a path to printed transistors with small critical dimensions.

  11. Atomic Layer Deposited Thin Films for Dielectrics, Semiconductor Passivation, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Runshen

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) utilizes sequential precursor gas pulses to deposit one monolayer or sub-monolayer of material per cycle based on its self-limiting surface reaction, which offers advantages, such as precise thickness control, thickness uniformity, and conformality. ALD is a powerful means of fabricating nanoscale features in future nanoelectronics, such as contemporary sub-45 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, photovoltaic cells, near- and far-infrared detectors, and intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. High dielectric constant, kappa, materials have been recognized to be promising candidates to replace traditional SiO2 and SiON, because they enable good scalability of sub-45 nm MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) without inducing additional power consumption and heat dissipation. In addition to high dielectric constant, high-kappa materials must meet a number of other requirements, such as low leakage current, high mobility, good thermal and structure stability with Si to withstand high-temperature source-drain activation annealing. In this thesis, atomic layer deposited Er2O3 doped TiO2 is studied and proposed as a thermally stable amorphous high-kappa dielectric on Si substrate. The stabilization of TiO2 in its amorphous state is found to achieve a high permittivity of 36, a hysteresis voltage of less than 10 mV, and a low leakage current density of 10-8 A/cm-2 at -1 MV/cm. In III-V semiconductors, issues including unsatisfied dangling bonds and native oxides often result in inferior surface quality that yields non-negligible leakage currents and degrades the long-term performance of devices. The traditional means for passivating the surface of III-V semiconductors are based on the use of sulfide solutions; however, that only offers good protection against oxidation for a short-term (i.e., one day). In this work, in order to improve the chemical passivation efficacy of III-V semiconductors

  12. Electrospun p-Type Nickel Oxide Semiconducting Nanowires for Low-Voltage Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ao; Meng, You; Zhu, Huihui; Noh, Yong-Young; Liu, Guoxia; Shan, Fukai

    2017-10-02

    One-dimensional metal-oxide nanowires are regarded as important building blocks in nanoscale electronics, because of their unique mechanical and electrical properties. In this work, p-type nickel oxide nanowires (NiO NWs) were fabricated by combining sol-gel and electrospinning processes. The poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with a molecular weight of 1 300 000 was used as the polymer matrix to increase the viscosity of a NiO precursor solution. The formation and properties of the as-spun NiO/PVP composite NWs before/after calcination treatment were investigated using various techniques. Because of the enhanced adhesion properties between ultraviolet (UV)-treated NiO NWs and the substrate, the field-effect transistors (FETs) based on NiO NWs were found to exhibit satisfying p-channel behaviors. For the fabrication of aligned NiO NW arrays, two parallel conducting Si strips were grounded as NW collector. The integrated FETs based on aligned NiO NWs were demonstrated to exhibit superior electrical performance, compared to the disordered counterparts with the comparable NW coverage. By employing high-k aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as a dielectric layer, instead of conventional SiO2, the devices with an aligned NiO NW array exhibit a high hole mobility of 2.8 cm(2)/(V s) with a low operating voltage of 5 V, fast switching speed, and successful modulation of light emission over external light-emitting diodes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating the low-voltage transistors based on p-type oxide NWs, which represents a great step toward the development of sensors and CMOS logic circuits.

  13. Field-effect transistor replaces bulky transformer in analog-gate circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor /MOSFET/ analog-gate circuit adapts well to integrated circuits. It provides better system isolation than a transformer, while size and weight are appreciably reduced.

  14. Energy levels and far-infrared optical absorption of impurity doped semiconductor nanorings: Intense laser and electric fields effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, M. G.

    2016-11-01

    The effects of electron-impurity interaction on energy levels and far-infrared absorption in semiconductor nanoring under the action of intense laser and lateral electric fields have been investigated. Numerical calculations are performed using exact diagonalization technique. It is found that the electron-impurity interaction and external fields change the energy spectrum dramatically, and also have significant influence on the absorption spectrum. Strong dependence on laser field intensity and electric field of lowest energy levels, also supported by the Coulomb interaction with impurity, is clearly revealed.

  15. Degradation properties in metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Eiichi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Yanai, Hisayoshi

    1981-10-01

    Degradation properties in metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) structures are investigated using mainly p-channel MNOS transistors. A model is proposed on the basis of various experimental results, attributing the degradation to the passage of hole current through the SiO2 layer, followed by creation of hole traps in the SiO2 layer, and creation of interface states at the Si-SiO2 interface. A theoretical treatment of the enhancement of hole conduction in the degraded SiO2 layer of the p-channel thick-oxide MNOS transistor is performed, and the hole traps created in the SiO2 layer appear to be E' centers when the experimental results are fitted to the theoretical calculations. The nature of the interface states created by write-erase (W/E) cycling is also discussed, comparing the experimental results using a p- and an n-channel MNOS transistor.

  16. NO2 sensitive Au gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippini, D.; Aragón, R.; Weimar, U.

    2001-08-01

    Au gate metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are sensitive to NO2 in air up to 200 ppm, depending on operating temperature (100 °C to 200 °C), gate thickness (50 to 900 nm), and morphology. In the absence of catalytic properties or lattice diffusivity, a model invoking molecular surface adsorption and grain boundary diffusion is proposed, which quantitatively describes the transient and steady state response of the devices. Sensitivity is given by the arrival of the diffusing species to the gate-dielectric interface, where capacitive coupling of the adsorbed molecules induces work function changes, which shift the flat band voltage positively, opposite that observed for H2 with Pd gates, consistently with an oxidizing, rather than reducing, character.

  17. Plasma-deposited germanium nitride gate insulators for indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gregory A.; Kapoor, Vik J.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-deposited germanium nitride was investigated for the first time as a possible gate insulator for InP compound semiconductor metal-insulator-semiconductor FET (MISFET) technology. The germanium nitride films were successfully deposited in a capacitively coupled parallel plate reactor at 13.56 MHz operation using GeH4/N2/NH3 and GeH4/N2 mixtures as reactant gases. The former process produced better quality films with enhanced uniformity, increased deposition rates, and increased resistivity. The breakdown field strength of the films was greater than 10 to the 6th V/cm. Auger electron spectroscopy did not indicate significant chemical composition differences between the two processes. For MISFETs with 2-micron channel lengths fabricated on InP, the device transconductance and threshold voltage for the GeH4/N2/NH3 process were 17 mS/mm and -3.6 V, respectively. The drain-source breakdown voltages were greater than 10 V.

  18. Plasma-deposited germanium nitride gate insulators for indium phosphide metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gregory A.; Kapoor, Vik J.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-deposited germanium nitride was investigated for the first time as a possible gate insulator for InP compound semiconductor metal-insulator-semiconductor FET (MISFET) technology. The germanium nitride films were successfully deposited in a capacitively coupled parallel plate reactor at 13.56 MHz operation using GeH4/N2/NH3 and GeH4/N2 mixtures as reactant gases. The former process produced better quality films with enhanced uniformity, increased deposition rates, and increased resistivity. The breakdown field strength of the films was greater than 10 to the 6th V/cm. Auger electron spectroscopy did not indicate significant chemical composition differences between the two processes. For MISFETs with 2-micron channel lengths fabricated on InP, the device transconductance and threshold voltage for the GeH4/N2/NH3 process were 17 mS/mm and -3.6 V, respectively. The drain-source breakdown voltages were greater than 10 V.

  19. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; Droubay, Timothy; Bowden, Mark; Chrysler, Matthew; Su, Dong; Chambers, Scott A.; Ngai, Joseph H.

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO₃ and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We present structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO₃-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.

  20. Band-Gap Engineering at a Semiconductor-Crystalline Oxide Interface

    DOE PAGES

    Jahangir-Moghadam, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar; Shen, Xuan; ...

    2015-02-09

    The epitaxial growth of crystalline oxides on semiconductors provides a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor devices. Key to integrating the functionalities of oxides onto semiconductors is controlling the band alignment at interfaces between the two materials. Here we apply principles of band gap engineering traditionally used at heterojunctions between conventional semiconductors to control the band offset between a single crystalline oxide and a semiconductor. Reactive molecular beam epitaxy is used to realize atomically abrupt and structurally coherent interfaces between SrZrxTi1-xO₃ and Ge, in which the band gap of the former is enhanced with Zr content x. We presentmore » structural and electrical characterization of SrZrxTi1-xO₃-Ge heterojunctions and demonstrate a type-I band offset can be achieved. These results demonstrate that band gap engineering can be exploited to realize functional semiconductor crystalline oxide heterojunctions.« less

  1. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenwei; Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Wei, Nini; Hedhili, M. N.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field. PMID:25892711

  2. Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on a Liquid-Crystalline Polymeric Semiconductor using SU-8 Gate Dielectrics on Flexible Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Tetzner, Kornelius; Bose, Indranil R.; Bock, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the insulating properties of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) and SU-8 (MicroChem, Westborough, MA, USA) dielectrics are analyzed and compared with each other. We further investigate the performance behavior of organic field-effect transistors based on a semiconducting liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) using both dielectric materials and evaluate the results regarding the processability. Due to the lower process temperature needed for the SU-8 deposition, the realization of organic transistors on flexible substrates is demonstrated showing comparable charge carrier mobilities to devices using PVP on glass. In addition, a µ-dispensing procedure of the LCP on SU-8 is presented, improving the switching behavior of the organic transistors, and the promising stability data of the SU-8/LCP stack are verified after storing the structures for 60 days in ambient air showing negligible irreversible degradation of the organic semiconductor. PMID:28788243

  3. Epitaxial growth of In-rich InGaN on yttria-stabilized zirconia and its application to metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Lye, Khe Shin; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-28

    We grew In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N films on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates at low temperatures by pulsed sputtering deposition. It was found that single-crystal In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.63 ≤ x ≤ 0.82) films can be prepared without significant compositional fluctuations at growth temperatures below 500 °C. It was also found that the electrical properties of InGaN are strongly dependent on In composition, growth temperature, and film polarity. N-channel operation of the metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) with an ultrathin InGaN channel on the YSZ substrates was successfully demonstrated. These results indicate that an InGaN-based MISFET is a promising device for next-generation high-speed electronics.

  4. Dependences of the electrical properties on the diameter and the doping concentration of the Si nanowire field effect transistors with a Schottky metal-semiconductor contact.

    PubMed

    You, Joo Hyung; Lee, Se Han; You, Chan Ho; Yu, Yun Seop; Kim, Tae Whan

    2010-05-01

    A compact model of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the Si nanowire field effect transistor (FET) taking into account dependence of the analytical electrical properties on the diameter and the concentration of the Si nanowire of the FETs with a Schottky metal-semiconductor contact has been proposed. I-V characteristics of the nanowire FETs were analytically calculated by using a quantum drift-diffusion current transport model taking into account an equivalent circuit together with the quantum effect of the Si nanowires and a Schottky model at Schottky barriers. The material parameters dependent on different diameters and concentrations of the Si nanowire were numerically estimated from the physical properties of the Si nanowire. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the doping density of the Si nanowire and the Schottky barrier height at a metal-Si nanowire heterointerface in the nanowire FET were estimated by using the theoretical model.

  5. High Electron Mobility Ge n-Channel Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Gate-Last Process with the Solid Source Diffusion Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Morita, Yukinori; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    We fabricate high-k/Ge n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) by the gate-last process with the thermal solid source diffusion to achieve both of high quality source/drain (S/D) and gate stack. The n+/p junction formed by solid source diffusion technique of Sb dopant shows the excellent diode characteristics of ˜1.5×105 on/off ratio between +1 and -1 V and the quite low reverse current density of ˜4.1×10-4 A/cm2 at +1 V after the fabrication of high-k/Ge n-channel MISFETs that enable us to observe well-behaved transistor performances. The extracted electron mobility with the peak of 891 cm2/(V.s) is high enough to be superior to the Si universal electron mobility especially in low Eeff.

  6. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors.

  7. Modeling the Effects of Heavy Charged Particles on MOSFETs (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Prefareace.P.e... e.a...........................................................................5 Listol oflag vsg ...energies from 2-16 MeV. The angle between the proton track and the electric field was varied, and data collected for the cases of 0, 45, and 80...anomaly, the data was replotted in a different format, shown in Figures 5, 6, and 7. Figure 5 shows the change in threshold voltage as a function of

  8. Fast 1 kV metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedman, C. J.; Roberts, E. H.; Gibson, S. T.; Lewis, B. R.

    2001-09-01

    A fast, high-voltage switch based on cheap and readily available components is described. This simple circuit can switch 1 kV to ground with a fall time of ˜2.5 ns, and has proved a cost-effective means of driving electrostatic gating and rereferencing devices in pulsed ion-beam experiments.

  9. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decisionmaking ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANi/PEO) nanofibers are of interest because they have electrical conductivities that can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have observed field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun PANi/PEO nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid. The nanofibers were deposited onto Au electrodes, which had been prepatterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The preceding scanning electron image shows the device used in the transistor measurements. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages (see the following graph). The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4x10(exp -4)sq cm/V sec, whereas the one-dimensional charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx.10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating one-dimensional polymer FET's.

  10. A high sensitivity field effect transistor biosensor for methylene blue detection utilize graphene oxide nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting-Chun; Li, Yan-Sheng; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Pei, Zingway

    2017-03-15

    In this work, we developed a field effect transistor (FET) biosensor utilizing solution-processed graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) for methylene blue (MB) sensing. MB is a unique material; one of its crucial applications is as a marker in the detection of biomaterials. Therefore, a highly sensitive biosensor with a low detection limit that can be fabricated simply in a noncomplex detection scheme is desirable. GONR is made by unzipping multiwall carbon nanotubes, which can be mass-produced at low temperature. The GONR-FET biosensor demonstrated a sensitivity of 12.5μA/mM (determined according to the drain current difference caused by the MB concentration change). The Raman spectra indicate that the materials quality of the GONR and the domain size for the C=C sp(2) bonding were both improved after MB detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the hydroxyl groups on the GONR were removed by the reductive MB. According to XPS and Raman, the positive charge is proposed to transfer from MB to GONR during sensing. This transfer causes charge in-neutrality in the GONR which is compensated by releasing •OH functional groups. With high sensitivity, a low detection limit, and a simple device structure, the GONR-FET sensor is suitable for sensing biomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved synthesis and growth of graphene oxide for field effect transistor biosensors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingfeng; Chen, Hu; Jing, Lin; Fam, Derrick; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2016-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has many advantages over graphene such as low-cost, aqueous processable and industrial-scalable. However, two main limitations that prevent the use of RGO in electronics are the high electrical resistance and large electrical resistance deviation between fabricated devices. This limits RGO's use in biosensors, capacitors and other electronic devices. Herein, we present (1) a modified Hummer's method to obtain large RGO flakes via in-situ size fractionation and (2) the novel growth of RGO which can bridge the gaps in-between existing RGO flakes. Together, these two processes reduced the electrical resistance drastically from 1.99E + 06 to 4.68E + 03 Ω/square and the standard deviation decreased from 80.5 % to 16.5 %. The RGO was then fabricated into a field-effect transistor biosensor. A 1 pmol to 100 nmol change in Cytochrome C protein corresponded to a 3 % change in electrical resistance. The reported improved RGO synthesis method and subsequent growth enable large-scale application of RGO in practical electronic devices such as biosensors.

  12. Metal oxide semiconductors in PEC splitting of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satsangi, Vibha R.

    2007-09-01

    With hydrogen being accepted as fuel for the future, the world is looking forward to development of clean and sustainable methods of its production from renewable energy. In this context, area of research in the PEC splitting of water assumes great significance and the challenge is to develop corrosion resistant, chemically stable semiconductor that absorbs sunlight in the visible region and also has the band edges matching to the redox level of water. The advent of nanotechnology has opened new vistas in the production of semiconductor with large surface area for solar energy absorption and other favourable properties, which has lead to restudy the old workhorses, viz α-Fe IIO 3 and TiO II in the PEC splitting of water. This communication reports the study on metal oxides, towards the photoelectrochemical splitting of water as function of material properties and characteristics of semiconductor- electrolyte junction, viz; particle size, suitable dopants, crystalline phase, surface morphology, resistivity, bandgap, donor density and flatband potential. Effect of sensitizers and surface modification has also been investigated. Both the techniques of surface modification: (i) depositing metal dots and (ii) swift heavy ion irradiation in α-Fe IIO 3 were observed to be much effective in improving the photoresponse of the material. α-Fe IIO 3 thin films prepared using spray pyrolysis having Zn dots (dot height: 260 Å) on its surface exhibited the best of photocurrent density (1.82 mA/cm2), at 0.6 V applied bias. Nitrogen doped nanostructured TiO II prepared by sol gel method exhibited much better photoresponse as compared to any other dopant.

  13. Metal-oxide-semiconductor plasmonic nanorod lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shangjr

    2017-02-01

    Scaling down semiconductor lasers in all three dimensions hold the key to the developments of compact, low-threshold, and ultrafast coherent light sources, as well as photonic integrated circuits. However, the minimum size of conventional semiconductor lasers utilizing dielectric cavity resonators (photonic cavities) is constrained to the diffraction limit. In the past few years, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the use of plasmonic cavities based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures can break this limit. In this presentation, I will report on the recent progress of plasmonic nanolasers using MOS structures. In particular, by using alloy-composition-varied indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN) core-shell nanorods as the nanolaser gain media in the full visible spectrum, we are able to demonstrate full-color nanolasers that can be operated with ultralow CW lasing thresholds and single lasing modes. Full-color lasing in these subdiffraction plasmonic cavities is achieved via a unique autotuning mechanism based on a property of weak size dependence inherent in plasmonic nanolasers. As for choice of metals in the MOS structures, epitaxial Ag films and giant colloidal Ag crystals have been shown by us to be the superior constituent materials for plasmonic cavities due to their low plasmonic losses in the visible spectral range. Recently, we have also succeeded in developing InGaN/GaN nanorod array plasmonic lasers based on a metal (Au)-all-around MOS structure, which can be fabricated easily on a wafer scale. I will present the latest results in these developments.

  14. Crystalline oxides on semiconductors: a future for the nanotransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buongiorno Nardelli, M.; Walker, F. J.; McKee, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    This issue's Editor's Choice [1] is a brief review on promises and advantages of crystalline oxides on semiconductors, especially the role of interfaces, for semiconductor technology.The cover picture shows at the top a Z-contrast image of the Si:SrSi2:SrO interface, where on the left side the positions of the atoms are highlighted, and on the right side a theoretical simulation of the image is overlayed, using the theoretical equilibrium geometry of the interface as obtained from first principles (bottom, green: Si, blue: O, orange: Sr). Purple isosurfaces show the electron density of the Si-O bonding state, and the arrows give the direction of the microscopic dipoles at the interface.The first author Marco Buongiorno Nardelli is Professor at the Department of Physics of North Carolina State University, where he heads a research group focusing on the application of ab-initio electronic structure calculation techniques for the study of important aspects of the physics of materials (ERMES).This paper is a presentation from the 5th Motorola Workshop on Computational Materials and Electronics (MWCME 2003), held in Austin, Texas, 13-14 November 2003. The proceedings were guest-edited, for the fourth time in this journal, by Alex Demkov (now Freescale Semiconductor).This issue of physica status solidi (b) also contains Original Papers presented at the XI Latin American Congress of Surface Science and Its Applications (XI CLACSA), Pucón, Chile, 7-12 December 2003. The Proceedings of this conference are to be continued in phys. stat. sol. (a) 201, No. 10 (2004) and in an online issue of phys. stat. sol. (c) 1, No. S1 (2004).

  15. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang, Affc; Roy, Vellaisamy A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  16. Recent progress in magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials as promising photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Changzhong Jiang; Roy, Vellaisamy A L

    2015-01-07

    Photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic pollutants is a challenging tasks in ecological and environmental protection. Recent research shows that the magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite photocatalytic system can effectively break through the bottleneck of single-component semiconductor oxides with low activity under visible light and the challenging recycling of the photocatalyst from the final products. With high reactivity in visible light, magnetic iron oxide-semiconductors can be exploited as an important magnetic recovery photocatalyst (MRP) with a bright future. On this regard, various composite structures, the charge-transfer mechanism and outstanding properties of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are sketched. The latest synthesis methods and recent progress in the photocatalytic applications of magnetic iron oxide-semiconductor composite nanomaterials are reviewed. The problems and challenges still need to be resolved and development strategies are discussed.

  17. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    PubMed Central

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  18. Plasma Deposited SiO2 for Planar Self-Aligned Gate Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on Semi-Insulating InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabory, Charles N.; Young, Paul G.; Smith, Edwyn D.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field effect transistors were fabricated on InP substrates using a planar self-aligned gate process. A 700-1000 A gate insulator of Si02 doped with phosphorus was deposited by a direct plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 mTorr, 275 C, 5 W, and power density of 8.5 MW/sq cm. High frequency capacitance-voltage measurements were taken on MIS capacitors which have been subjected to a 700 C anneal and an interface state density of lxl0(exp 11)/eV/cq cm was found. Current-voltage measurements of the capacitors show a breakdown voltage of 107 V/cm and a insulator resistivity of 10(exp 14) omega cm. Transistors were fabricated on semi-insulating InP using a standard planar self-aligned gate process in which the gate insulator was subjected to an ion implantation activation anneal of 700 C. MIS field effect transistors gave a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 23 mS/mm for a gate length of 3 microns. The drain current drift saturated at 87.5% of the initial current, while reaching to within 1% of the saturated value after only 1x10(exp 3). This is the first reported viable planar InP self-aligned gate transistor process reported to date.

  19. Low-temperature Fabrication Process for Integrated High-Aspect Ratio Metal Oxide Nanostructure Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, William P.

    This work presents a new low-temperature fabrication process of metal oxide nanostructures that allows high-aspect ratio zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires and nanotubes to be readily integrated with microelectronic devices for sensor applications. This process relies on a new method of forming a close-packed array of self-assembled high-aspect-ratio nanopores in an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template in a thin (2.5 microm) aluminum film deposited on a silicon and lithium niobate substrate (LiNbO3). This technique is in sharp contrast to traditional free-standing thick film methods and the use of an integrated thin aluminum film greatly enhances the utility of such methods. We have demonstrated the method by integrating ZnO nanowires, TiO2 nanowires, and multiwall TiO2 nanotubes onto the metal gate of a MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor), and the delay line of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to form an integrated ChemFET (Chemical Field-Effect Transistor) and a orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW gas sensor. The resulting metal oxide nanostructures of 1-1.7 microm in height and 40-100 nm in diameter offer an increase of up to 220X the surface area over a standard flat metal oxide film for sensing applications.

  20. The effect of nitric oxide anneals on silicon vacancies at and very near the interface of 4H SiC metal oxide semiconducting field effect transistors using electrically detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, C. J.; Lenahan, P. M.; Lelis, A. J.

    2013-05-01

    We use three electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) approaches to explore nitric oxide (NO) annealing in 4H SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). One approach is sensitive to defects at the interface and those extending into the SiC. Two of these approaches are particularly sensitive to SiC/SiO2 interface defects. They show that NO anneals decrease the EDMR response. Since this and earlier studies indicate the ubiquitous presence of silicon vacancy centers in SiC MOSFETs, our results provide strong circumstantial evidence that these defects play an important role in limiting device performance and that NO anneals are effective in reducing their populations.

  1. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-03-21

    Rare earth oxides are usually widegap insulators like Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} with closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. In this study, solid phase rock salt structure yttrium monoxide, YO, with unusual valence of Y{sup 2+} (4d{sup 1}) was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO has been recognized as gaseous phase in previous studies. In contrast with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, YO was dark-brown colored and narrow gap semiconductor. The tunable electrical conductivity ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 3} Ω{sup −1 }cm{sup −1} was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies serving as electron donor. Weak antilocalization behavior observed in magnetoresistance indicated significant role of spin-orbit coupling as a manifestation of 4d electron carrier.

  2. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors. PMID:22778599

  3. A divalent rare earth oxide semiconductor: Yttrium monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminaga, Kenichi; Sei, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Tajiri, Hiroo; Oka, Daichi; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Rare earth oxides are usually widegap insulators like Y2O3 with closed shell trivalent rare earth ions. In this study, solid phase rock salt structure yttrium monoxide, YO, with unusual valence of Y2+ (4d1) was synthesized in a form of epitaxial thin film by pulsed laser deposition method. YO has been recognized as gaseous phase in previous studies. In contrast with Y2O3, YO was dark-brown colored and narrow gap semiconductor. The tunable electrical conductivity ranging from 10-1 to 103 Ω-1 cm-1 was attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies serving as electron donor. Weak antilocalization behavior observed in magnetoresistance indicated significant role of spin-orbit coupling as a manifestation of 4d electron carrier.

  4. Exploration of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductors toward transparent spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Toyosaki, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Koinuma, H.; Kawasaki, M.

    2004-02-01

    A review is given for the recent progress of research in the field of oxide-based diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS), which was triggered by combinatorial discovery of transparent ferromagnet. The possible advantages of oxide semiconductor as a host of DMS are described in comparison with conventional compound semiconductors. Limits and problems for identifying novel ferromagnetic DMS are described in view of recent reports in this field. Several characterization techniques are proposed in order to eliminate unidentified ferromagnetism of oxide-based DMS unidentified ferromagnetic oxide (UFO). Perspectives and possible devices are also given.

  5. Spintronic effects in metallic, semiconductor, metal oxide and metal semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratkovsky, A. M.

    2008-02-01

    Spintronics is a rapidly growing field focusing on phenomena and related devices essentially dependent on spin transport. Some of them are already an established part of microelectronics. We review recent theoretical and experimental advances in achieving large spin injection efficiency (polarization of current) and accumulated spin polarization. These include tunnel and giant magnetoresistance, spin-torque and spin-orbit effects on electron transport in various heterostructures. We give a microscopic description of spin tunneling through oxide and modified Schottky barriers between a ferromagnet (FM) and a semiconductor (S). It is shown that in such FM-S junctions electrons with a certain spin projection can be efficiently injected into (or extracted from) S, while electrons with the opposite spin can accumulate in S near the interface. The criterion for efficient injection is opposite to a known Rashba criterion, since the barrier should be rather transparent. In degenerate semiconductors, extraction of spin can proceed at low temperatures. We mention a few novel spin-valve ultrafast devices with small dissipated power: a magnetic sensor, a spin transistor, an amplifier, a frequency multiplier, a square-law detector and a source of polarized radiation. We also discuss effects related to spin-orbital interactions, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE) and a recently predicted positive magnetoresistance accompanying SHE. Some esoteric devices such as 'spinFET', interacting spin logic and spin-based quantum computing are discussed and problems with their realization are highlighted. We demonstrate that the so-called 'ferroelectric tunnel junctions' are unlikely to provide additional functionality because in all realistic situations the ferroelectric barrier would be split into domains by the depolarizing field.

  6. Oxide semiconductors for organic opto-electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel, Ajaya K.

    In this dissertation, I have introduced various concepts on the modulations of various surface, interface and bulk opto-electronic properties of ZnO based semiconductor for charge transport, charge selectivity and optimal device performance. I have categorized transparent semiconductors into two sub groups depending upon their role in a device. Electrodes, usually 200 to 500 nm thick, optimized for good transparency and transporting the charges to the external circuit. Here, the electrical conductivity in parallel direction to thin film, i.e bulk conductivity is important. And contacts, usually 5 to 50 nm thick, are optimized in case of solar cells for providing charge selectivity and asymmetry to manipulate the built in field inside the device for charge separation and collection. Whereas in Organic LEDs (OLEDs), contacts provide optimum energy level alignment at organic oxide interface for improved charge injections. For an optimal solar cell performance, transparent electrodes are designed with maximum transparency in the region of interest to maximize the light to pass through to the absorber layer for photo-generation, plus they are designed for minimum sheet resistance for efficient charge collection and transport. As such there is need for material with high conductivity and transparency. Doping ZnO with some common elements such as B, Al, Ga, In, Ge, Si, and F result in n-type doping with increase in carriers resulting in high conductivity electrode, with better or comparable opto-electronic properties compared to current industry-standard indium tin oxide (ITO). Furthermore, improvement in mobility due to improvement on crystallographic structure also provide alternative path for high conductivity ZnO TCOs. Implementing these two aspects, various studies were done on gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) transparent electrode, a very promising indium free electrode. The dynamics of the superimposed RF and DC power sputtering was utilized to improve the

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of magnetic oxide semiconductors for spintronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Lucas

    2005-11-01

    Moore's law, which states that the number of transistor's per square inch on integrated circuits doubles every 18 months, has set the pace of progress for the electronics industry since the 1970's. This in turn has led to a significant reduction in the cost of computers and communications devices. However, because of quantum mechanic effects, a limit in the miniaturization of devices is rapidly approaching where any further reduction in size may hinder their operation. Taking advantage of the electron spin, a quantum effect, and integrating it with electronics design, a new field is emerging, known as spintronics. In this respect, a very active area of research is in dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In this work the author examines the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as a method for the preparation of magnetic oxide semiconductors for spintronic applications. CVD has been used extensively as an efficient and inexpensive method to deposit magnetic and semiconducting thin films. The author examined the chemical, structural, and morphological properties of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on silicon oxide (SiO2) substrates. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) it was determined that the films contain a alpha-Fe2O3 phase. The author also studied the deposition of SnO2 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and CVD. The effect of SnI4 pulse time was analyzed and it was determined that ALD growth was achieved after an 8 second pulse time. Ultimately, the preparation of cobalt oxide and Co-doped SnO2 films was the objective of this work. After several cobalt precursors were tried, the author found a suitable precursor, cobalt (II) acetylacetonate, to grow cobalt oxide and Co-doped SnO2 films. Sn1-XCO XO2+delta films were epitaxial for Co at% < 1 and indicated ferromagnetism on both SiO2 and sapphire substrate. In general, it was observed that higher magnetic moments were found for samples with lower cobalt

  8. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte multilayer assemblies on reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Esteban; Bliem, Christina; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Battaglini, Fernando; Azzaroni, Omar; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2017-06-15

    We present the construction of layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polyethylenimine and urease onto reduced-graphene-oxide based field-effect transistors (rGO FETs) for the detection of urea. This versatile biosensor platform simultaneously exploits the pH dependency of liquid-gated graphene-based transistors and the change in the local pH produced by the catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The use of an interdigitated microchannel resulted in transistors displaying low noise, high pH sensitivity (20.3µA/pH) and transconductance values up to 800 µS. The modification of rGO FETs with a weak polyelectrolyte improved the pH response because of its transducing properties by electrostatic gating effects. In the presence of urea, the urease-modified rGO FETs showed a shift in the Dirac point due to the change in the local pH close to the graphene surface. Markedly, these devices operated at very low voltages (less than 500mV) and were able to monitor urea in the range of 1-1000µm, with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1µm, fast response and good long-term stability. The urea-response of the transistors was enhanced by increasing the number of bilayers due to the increment of the enzyme surface coverage onto the channel. Moreover, quantification of the heavy metal Cu(2+)(with a LOD down to 10nM) was performed in aqueous solution by taking advantage of the urease specific inhibition.

  9. New Gate Dielectric Oxides for GaAs and Other Semiconductors*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.

    2000-03-01

    It is well known that electrons move much faster in GaAs than in Si, and this attribute makes the GaAs-based metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) very attractive for high-frequency, high-speed circuits applications. However, identifying a proper insulating oxide for GaAs has been a problem puzzling researchers over 35 years. Recently we discovered that the use of a mixed oxide dielectric Ga_2O_3(Gd_2O_3)^1 formed inversion and accumulation channels on GaAs surfaces, with a low interfacial density of states (D_it) of mid-10^10 cm-2eV-1. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the p- and n- inversion channel MOSFETs^2 and CMOS circuits^3. All oxides in this work were prepared by ultrahigh vacuum deposition from e-beam sources. The initial growth ( 10 Åof Ga_2O_3(Gd_2O_3) film on GaAs takes place from nucleating a thin epitaxial layer of pure Gd_2O_3. In fact, mono-domain, single crystalline Gd_2O3 films (ɛ =12) can be grown on GaAs (100) surface in the (110) Mn_2O3 structure, and that show leakage currents as low as 10-4 A/cm^2 at 10 MV/cm for a film only 25 Åthick^4. We have extended our studies to other rare earth oxides and other semiconductors. For example, low-D_it GaN MOS diodes and GaN MOSFETs operated at 400^circC were obtained. The GaN MOSFET has potential applications in high power switching and high temperature device operation. More remarkably, we have found recently that another rare earth oxide, Y_2O3 (ɛ = 18) showed excellent electrical properties as a gate dielectric for Si, to replace the current SiO_2, where the thickness is now approaching the quantum limit^5. *In collaboration with J. Kwo, A. R. Kortan, J. N. Baillargeon, J. P. Mannaerts, F. Ren, Y. C. Wang, T. S. Lay, H. Ng, R. Opila, K. L. Queeney, Y. J. Chabal, T. Boone, J. J. Krajewski, A. M. Sergent, J. M. Rosamilia, M. Passlack, D. W. Murphy, and A. Y. Cho. 1. M. Hong, et al, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14, 2297, (1996). 2. F. Ren et al, IEDM Technical Digest, p.943, (1996

  10. Resistive switching characteristic of electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hao; Sun, Gongchen; Ma, Xiaoyu; Gao, Jianguang; Wu, Wengang

    2017-08-01

    The resistive switching characteristic of SiO2 thin film in electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) structures under certain bias voltage is reported. To analyze the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, a batch of EOS structures were fabricated under various conditions and their electrical properties were measured with a set of three-electrode systems. A theoretical model based on the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide layer is proposed to reveal the mechanism of the resistive switching characteristic, followed by an experimental investigation of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to verify the proposed theoretical model. It is found that different threshold voltage, reverse leakage current and slope value features of the switching I-V characteristic can be observed in different EOS structures with different electrolyte solutions as well as different SiO2 layers made by different fabrication processes or in different thicknesses. With a simple fabrication process and significant resistive switching characteristic, the EOS structures show great potential for chemical/biochemical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274116) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB352100).

  11. Cu2O-based solar cells using oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Nishi, Yuki; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We describe significant improvements of the photovoltaic properties that were achieved in Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/n-type oxide semiconductor/p-type Cu2O heterojunction solar cells fabricated using p-type Cu2O sheets prepared by thermally oxidizing Cu sheets. The multicomponent oxide thin film used as the n-type semiconductor layer was prepared with various chemical compositions on non-intentionally heated Cu2O sheets under various deposition conditions using a pulsed laser deposition method. In Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells fabricated using various ternary compounds as the n-type oxide thin-film layer, the best photovoltaic performance was obtained with an n-ZnGa2O4 thin-film layer. In most of the Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells using multicomponent oxides composed of combinations of various binary compounds, the obtained photovoltaic properties changed gradually as the chemical composition was varied. However, with the ZnO-MgO and Ga2O3-Al2O3 systems, higher conversion efficiencies (η) as well as a high open circuit voltage (Voc) were obtained by using a relatively small amount of MgO or Al2O3, e.g., (ZnO)0.91-(MgO)0.09 and (Ga2O3)0.975-(Al2O3)0.025, respectively. When Cu2O-based heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using Al2O3-Ga2O3-MgO-ZnO (AGMZO) multicomponent oxide thin films deposited with metal atomic ratios of 10, 60, 10 and 20 at.% for the Al, Ga, Mg and Zn, respectively, a high Voc of 0.98 V and an η of 4.82% were obtained. In addition, an enhanced η and an improved fill factor could be achieved in AZO/n-type multicomponent oxide/p-type Cu2O heterojunction solar cells fabricated using Na-doped Cu2O (Cu2O:Na) sheets that featured a resistivity controlled by optimizing the post-annealing temperature and duration. Consequently, an η of 6.25% and a Voc of 0.84 V were obtained in a MgF2/AZO/n-(Ga2O3-Al2O3)/p-Cu2O:Na heterojunction solar cell fabricated using a Cu2O:Na sheet with a resistivity of approximately 10 Ω·cm and a (Ga0.975Al0

  12. Oxide Ferromagnetic Semiconductors for Spin-Electronic Transprt

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. R. K. Pandey, Cudworth Endowed Professor Ingram Endowed Professor, Ingram School of Engineering and Physics Department, Texas State University, San Marocs, TX78666

    2008-11-24

    The objective of this research was to investigate the viability of oxide magnetic semiconductors as potential materials for spintronics. We identified some members of the solid solution series of ilmenite (FeTiO3) and hematite (Fe2O3), abbreviated as (IH) for simplicity, for our investigations based on their ferromagnetic and semiconducting properties. With this objective in focus we limited our investigations to the following members of the modified Fe-titanates: IH33 (ilmenitehematite with 33 atomic percent hematite), IH45 (ilmenite-hematite with 45 atomic percent hematite), Mn-substituted ilmenite (Mn-FeTiO3), and Mn-substituted pseudobrookite (Mn- Fe2TiO5). All of them are: 1. wide bandgap semiconductors with band gaps ranging in values between 2.5 to 3.5 eV; 2. n-type semiconductors; 3.they exhibit well defined magnetic hysteresis loops and 4. their magnetic Curie points are greater than 400K. Ceramic, film and single crystal samples were studied and based on their properties we produced varistors (also known as voltage dependent resistors) for microelectronic circuit protection from power surges, three-terminal microelectronic devices capable of generating bipolar currents, and an integrated structured device with controlled magnetic switching of spins. Eleven refereed journal papers, three refereed conference papers and three invention disclosures resulted from our investigations. We also presented invited papers in three international conferences and one national conference. Furthermore two students graduated with Ph.D. degrees, three with M.S. degrees and one with B.S. degree. Also two post-doctoral fellows were actively involved in this research. We established the radiation hardness of our devices in collaboration with a colleague in an HBCU institution, at the Cyclotron Center at Texas A&M University, and at DOE National Labs (Los Alamos and Brookhaven). It is to be appreciated that we met most of our goals and expanded vastly the scope of research by

  13. Investigations on Substrate Temperature-Induced Growth Modes of Organic Semiconductors at Dielectric/semiconductor Interface and Their Correlation with Threshold Voltage Stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Padma, Narayanan; Maheshwari, Priya; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Tokas, Raj B; Sen, Shashwati; Honda, Yoshihide; Basu, Saibal; Pujari, Pradeep Kumar; Rao, T V Chandrasekhar

    2016-02-10

    Influence of substrate temperature on growth modes of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) thin films at the dielectric/semiconductor interface in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging at the interface reveals a change from 'layer+island' to "island" growth mode with increasing substrate temperatures, further confirmed by probing the buried interfaces using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and positron annihilation spectroscopic (PAS) techniques. PAS depth profiling provides insight into the details of molecular ordering while positron lifetime measurements reveal the difference in packing modes of CuPc molecules at the interface. XRR measurements show systematic increase in interface width and electron density correlating well with the change from layer + island to coalesced huge 3D islands at higher substrate temperatures. Study demonstrates the usefulness of XRR and PAS techniques to study growth modes at buried interfaces and reveals the influence of growth modes of semiconductor at the interface on hole and electron trap concentrations individually, thereby affecting hysteresis and threshold voltage stability. Minimum hole trapping is correlated to near layer by layer formation close to the interface at 100 °C and maximum to the island formation with large voids between the grains at 225 °C.

  14. A low-voltage alterable EEPROM with Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Semiconductor /MONOS/ structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, E.; Ishii, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Hiraishi, H.

    1983-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to obtain lower voltage Electrically Erasable and Programmable ROM's (EEPROM's) than conventional devices have been performed. The scaled-down Metal-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide semiconductor (MONOS) structure is proposed to realize an extremely low-voltage programmable device. The proposed scaled down MONOS devices enjoy several advantages over MNOS devices, e.g., enlargement of the memory window, elimination of degradation phenomena, and drastic improvement in device yield. Low voltage operation with + or - 6-V supplies is demonstrated by the fabricated scaled down MONOS transistors.

  15. Hydrogen multicenter bond in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janotti, Anderson

    2009-03-01

    Hydrogen is a very reactive atom, occurring in virtually all organic and in many inorganic compounds. It can form a purely covalent bond, in which two hydrogen atoms share a pair of electrons in a two-electron two-center bond, as well as polar covalent bonds, such as in an H2O molecule. In solids, hydrogen is usually considered as an interstitial impurity. In elemental semiconductors, such as silicon, hydrogen forms a three-center bond when located at the bond center. In compound semiconductors, hydrogen bonds to the anionic species in p-type material, and to the cationic species in n-type. Thus far, hydrogen in solids has been found to form chemical bonds with one, two, or at most three other atoms. Higher coordination numbers are exceedingly rare and have been reported only for clusters. In this talk we will show that hydrogen is capable of forming multicenter bonds in solids, occupying substitutional sites. As examples, we discuss substitutional hydrogen impurities in oxides (ZnO, MgO, SnO2, TiO2) [1,2] and nitrides (InN, AlN, GaN) [3]. Based on first-principles calculations we show that hydrogen replaces oxygen (nitrogen) and forms genuine chemical bonds with multiple metal atoms, in truly multicoordinated configurations. These multicenter bonds are surprisingly strong despite the large hydrogen-metal distances when compared to typical values in hydrogen two-center bonds. Hydrogen in the multicenter bond configuration is a shallow donor in a number of materials. In conducting oxides, it provides a consistent explanation for the observed dependence of electrical conductivity on oxygen partial pressure, thus resolving a long-standing controversy on the role of point defects in unintentional n-type conductivity [1,2]. [4pt] [1] A. Janotti and C. G Van de Walle, Nature Materials 6, 44 (2007). [0pt] [2] A. K. Singh, A. Janotti, M. Scheffler, and C. G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 055502 (2008). [0pt] [3] A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92

  16. Bismuth-based oxide semiconductors: Mild synthesis and practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmaji, Hari Krishna

    In this dissertation study, bismuth based oxide semiconductors were prepared using 'mild' synthesis techniques---electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. Potential environmental remediation and solar energy applications of the prepared oxides were evaluated. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was prepared by electrodeposition and solution combustion synthesis. A two step electrosynthesis strategy was developed and demonstrated for the first time. In the first step, a Bi film was first electrodeposited on a Pt substrate from an acidic BiCl3 medium. Then, this film was anodically stripped in a medium containing hydrolyzed vanadium precursor, to generate Bi3+, and subsequent BiVO4 formation by in situ precipitation. The photoelectrochemical data were consistent with the in situ formation of n-type semiconductor films. In the solution combustion synthesis procedure, BiVO4 powders were prepared using bismuth nitrate pentahydrate as the bismuth precursor and either vanadium chloride or vanadium oxysulfate as the vanadium precursor. Urea, glycine, or citric acid was used as the fuel. The effect of the vanadium precursor on the photocatalytic activity of combustion synthesized BiVO 4 was evaluated in this study. Methyl orange was used as a probe to test the photocatalytic attributes of the combustion synthesized (CS) samples, and benchmarked against a commercial bismuth vanadate sample. The CS samples showed superior activity to the commercial benchmark sample, and samples derived from vanadium chloride were superior to vanadium oxysulfate counterparts. The photoelectrochemical properties of the various CS samples were also studied and these samples were shown to be useful both for environmental photocatalytic remediation and water photooxidation applications. Silver bismuth tungstate (AgBiW2O8) nanoparticles were prepared for the first time by solution combustion synthesis by using silver nitrate, bismuth nitrate, sodium tungstate as precursors for Ag, Bi, and W

  17. Influence of Source/Drain Residual Implant Lattice Damage Traps on Silicon Carbide Metal Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Drain I-V Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adjaye, J.; Mazzola, M. S.

    4H-SiC n-channel power metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with nitrogen n+-implanted source/drain ohmic contact regions, with and without p-buffer layer fabricated on semi-insulating substrates exhibited hysteresis in the drain I-V characteristics of both types of devices at 300 K and 480 K due to traps. However, thermal spectroscopic measurements could detect the traps only in the devices without p-buffer. Device simulation and optical admittance spectroscopy (OAS) are used to resolve the discrepancy in the initial experimental characterization results. Device simulations and OAS suggest that, in addition to the semi-insulating (SI) substrate traps, acceptor traps due to source/drain residual implant lattice damage contribute to the hysteresis observed in the drain I-V characteristics of the devices. Simulations suggest these traps are contained in the lateral straggle of the implanted source and drain regions since the drain current largely flows between the un-gated edges of the source and drain through the volume of lateral straggle traps. Since hysteresis in I-V curves is a manifestation of the presence of defects in devices and since defects degrade carrier mobility and hence device performance, efforts should be made to minimize the source/drain lateral straggle implant damage.

  18. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors, through single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs. Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth. The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. PMID:24567470

  19. Plasmonic nanostructured metal-oxide-semiconductor reflection modulators.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Anthony; Chen, Chengkun; Hassan, Sa'ad; Lisicka-Skrzek, Ewa; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

    2015-04-08

    We propose a plasmonic surface that produces an electrically controlled reflectance as a high-speed intensity modulator. The device is conceived as a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on silicon with its metal structured as a thin patch bearing a contiguous nanoscale grating. The metal structure serves multiple functions as a driving electrode and as a grating coupler for perpendicularly incident p-polarized light to surface plasmons supported by the patch. Modulation is produced by charging and discharging the capacitor and exploiting the carrier refraction effect in silicon along with the high sensitivity of strongly confined surface plasmons to index perturbations. The area of the modulator is set by the area of the incident beam, leading to a very compact device for a strongly focused beam (∼2.5 μm in diameter). Theoretically, the modulator can operate over a broad electrical bandwidth (tens of gigahertz) with a modulation depth of 3 to 6%, a loss of 3 to 4 dB, and an optical bandwidth of about 50 nm. About 1000 modulators can be integrated over a 50 mm(2) area producing an aggregate electro-optic modulation rate in excess of 1 Tb/s. We demonstrate experimentally modulators operating at telecommunications wavelengths, fabricated as nanostructured Au/HfO2/p-Si capacitors. The modulators break conceptually from waveguide-based devices and belong to the same class of devices as surface photodetectors and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers.

  20. Optical evidence for quantization in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Katsumi; Nomura, Kenji; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-08-01

    We fabricated transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor superlattices composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) well layers and Ga2O3 (a-Ga2O3) barrier layers, and investigated their optical absorption properties to examine energy quantization in the a-IGZO well layer. The Tauc gap of a-IGZO well layers monotonically increases with decreasing well thickness at ≤5 nm. The thickness dependence of the Tauc gap is quantitatively explained by a Krönig-Penny model employing a conduction band offset of 1.2 eV between the a-IGZO and the a-Ga2O3, and the effective masses of 0.35m0 for the a-IGZO well layer and 0.5m0 for the a-Ga2O3 barrier layer, where m0 is the electron rest mass. This result demonstrates the quantization in the a-IGZO well layer. The phase relaxation length of the a-IGZO is estimated to be larger than 3.5 nm.

  1. Electrical properties of inalp native oxides for metal-oxide-semiconductor device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, X.; Kosel, T.H.; Fay, P.; Hall, D.C.; Zhang, X.B.; Dupuis, R.D.; Jasinski, J.B.; Liliental-Weber, Z.

    2004-09-01

    Data are presented on the insulating properties and capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device-thickness (below approx. 100 nm) native oxides formed by wet thermal oxidation of thin InAlP epilayers lattice matched to GaAs. Low leakage current densities of J=1.4 x 10-9 A/cm2 and J=8.7 x 10-11 A/cm2 are observed at an applied field of 1 MV/cm for MOS capacitors fabricated with 17 nm and 48 nm oxides, respectively. TEM images show that the In-rich interfacial particles which exist in 110 nm oxides are absent in 17 nm oxide films. Quasi-static capacitance-voltage measurements of MOS capacitors fabricated on both n-type and p-type GaAs show that the InAlP oxide-GaAs interface is sufficiently free of traps to support inversion, indicating an unpinned Fermi level. These data suggest that InAlP native oxides may be a viable insulator for GaAs MOS device applications.

  2. Radiation tolerant silicon nitride insulated gate field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.

    1969-01-01

    Metal-Insulated-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor /MISFET/ device uses a silicon nitride passivation layer over a thin silicon oxide layer to enhance the radiation tolerance. It is useful in electronic systems exposed to space radiation environment or the effects of nuclear weapons.

  3. Sustained hole inversion layer in a wide-bandgap metal-oxide semiconductor with enhanced tunnel current

    PubMed Central

    Shoute, Gem; Afshar, Amir; Muneshwar, Triratna; Cadien, Kenneth; Barlage, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Wide-bandgap, metal-oxide thin-film transistors have been limited to low-power, n-type electronic applications because of the unipolar nature of these devices. Variations from the n-type field-effect transistor architecture have not been widely investigated as a result of the lack of available p-type wide-bandgap inorganic semiconductors. Here, we present a wide-bandgap metal-oxide n-type semiconductor that is able to sustain a strong p-type inversion layer using a high-dielectric-constant barrier dielectric when sourced with a heterogeneous p-type material. A demonstration of the utility of the inversion layer was also investigated and utilized as the controlling element in a unique tunnelling junction transistor. The resulting electrical performance of this prototype device exhibited among the highest reported current, power and transconductance densities. Further utilization of the p-type inversion layer is critical to unlocking the previously unexplored capability of metal-oxide thin-film transistors, such applications with next-generation display switches, sensors, radio frequency circuits and power converters. PMID:26842997

  4. Unveiling and controlling the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor surfaces: Crystalline oxidized InSb(100)(1 Ã-- 2)-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lâng, J. J. K.; Punkkinen, M. P. J.; Tuominen, M.; Hedman, H.-P.; Vähä-Heikkilä, M.; Polojärvi, V.; Salmi, J.; Korpijärvi, V.-M.; Schulte, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Punkkinen, R.; Laukkanen, P.; Guina, M.; Kokko, K.

    2014-07-01

    The exothermic nature of oxidation causes nearly all semiconductor applications in various fields like electronics, medicine, photonics, and sensor technology to acquire an oxidized semiconductor surface part during the application manufacturing. The significance of understanding and controlling the atomic scale properties of oxidized semiconductor surfaces is expected to increase even further with the development of nanoscale semiconductor crystals. The nature of oxidized semiconductor layers is, however, hard to predict and characterize as they are usually buried and amorphous. To shed light on these issues, we pursue a different approach based on oxidized III-V semiconductor layers that are crystalline. We present a comprehensive characterization of oxidized crystalline InSb(100)(1×2)-O layers by ab initio calculations, photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and spectroscopy, and demonstrate the electronic band structures of different oxidized phases of the semiconductor, which elucidate the previous contradictory semiconductor-oxidation effects. At 0.5 monolayer (ML) oxidation, oxygen atoms tend to occupy subsurface Sb sites, leading to metallic states in the semiconductor band gap, which arise from top dimers. When the oxidation is increased to the 1.0-2.0 ML concentration, oxygen occupies also interstitial sites, and the insulating band structure without gap states is stabilized with unusual occupied In dangling bonds. In contrast, the 2.5-3.0 ML oxide phases undergo significant changes toward a less ordered structure. The findings suggest a methodology for manipulating the electronic structure of oxidized semiconductor layers.

  5. Paper field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

  6. Printing Peptide arrays with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Felix F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Muenster, Bastian; Striffler, Jakob; Liu, Fanny C; Ralf Bischoff, F; Doersam, Edgar; Breitling, Frank; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    : In this chapter, we discuss the state-of-the-art peptide array technologies, comparing the spot technique, lithographical methods, and microelectronic chip-based approaches. Based on this analysis, we describe a novel peptide array synthesis method with a microelectronic chip printer. By means of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip, charged bioparticles can be patterned on its surface. The bioparticles serve as vehicles to transfer molecule monomers to specific synthesis spots. Our chip offers 16,384 pixel electrodes on its surface with a spot-to-spot pitch of 100 μm. By switching the voltage of each pixel between 0 and 100 V separately, it is possible to generate arbitrary particle patterns for combinatorial molecule synthesis. Afterwards, the patterned chip surface serves as a printing head to transfer the particle pattern from its surface to a synthesis substrate. We conducted a series of proof-of-principle experiments to synthesize high-density peptide arrays. Our solid phase synthesis approach is based on the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl protection group strategy. After melting the particles, embedded monomers diffuse to the surface and participate in the coupling reaction to the surface. The method demonstrated herein can be easily extended to the synthesis of more complicated artificial molecules by using bioparticles with artificial molecular building blocks. The possibility of synthesizing artificial peptides was also shown in an experiment in which we patterned biotin particles in a high-density array format. These results open the road to the development of peptide-based functional modules for diverse applications in biotechnology.

  7. Pulsed direct flame deposition and thermal annealing of transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide films as active layers in field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Daniel; Polster, Sebastian; Vogeler, Isabell; Jank, Michael P M; Frey, Lothar; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2014-08-13

    Indium-zinc oxide (IZO) films were deposited via flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) by pulsewise shooting a Si/SiO2 substrate directly into the combustion area of the flame. Based on UV-vis measurements of thin-films deposited on glass substrates, the optimal deposition parameters with respect to low haze values and film thicknesses of around 100 nm were determined. Thermal annealing of the deposited films at temperatures between 300 and 700 °C was carried out and staggered bottom gate thin-film transistors (TFT) were fabricated. The thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outcome of these investigations lead to two major requirements in order to implement a working TFT: (i) organic residues from the deposition process need to be removed and (ii) the net free charge carrier concentration has to be minimized by controlling the trap states in the semiconductor. The optimal annealing temperature was 300 °C as both requirements are fulfilled best in this case. This leads to field effect transistors with a low hysteresis, a saturation mobility of μSat = 0.1 cm(2)/(V s), a threshold voltage of Vth = -18.9 V, and an Ion/Ioff ratio on the order of 10(7). Depending on thermal treatment, the defect density changes significantly strongly influencing the transfer characteristics of the device.

  8. Electrically coupling complex oxides to semiconductors: A route to novel material functionalities

    DOE PAGES

    Ngai, J. H.; Ahmadi-Majlan, K.; Moghadam, J.; ...

    2017-01-12

    Complex oxides and semiconductors exhibit distinct yet complementary properties owing to their respective ionic and covalent natures. By electrically coupling complex oxides to traditional semiconductors within epitaxial heterostructures, enhanced or novel functionalities beyond those of the constituent materials can potentially be realized. Essential to electrically coupling complex oxides to semiconductors is control of the physical structure of the epitaxially grown oxide, as well as the electronic structure of the interface. In this paper, we discuss how composition of the perovskite A- and B-site cations can be manipulated to control the physical and electronic structure of semiconductor—complex oxide heterostructures. Two prototypicalmore » heterostructures, Ba1-xSrxTiO3/Ge and SrZrxTi1-xO3/Ge, will be discussed. In the case of Ba1-xSrxTiO3/Ge, we discuss how strain can be engineered through A-site composition to enable the re-orientable ferroelectric polarization of the former to be coupled to carriers in the semiconductor. In the case of SrZrxTi1-xO3/Ge we discuss how B-site composition can be exploited to control the band offset at the interface. Finally, analogous to heterojunctions between compound semiconducting materials, control of band offsets, i.e., band-gap engineering, provides a pathway to electrically couple complex oxides to semiconductors to realize a host of functionalities.« less

  9. Multifunctional Organic-Semiconductor Interfacial Layers for Solution-Processed Oxide-Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Guhyun; Kim, Keetae; Choi, Byung Doo; Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee; Noh, Yong-Young; Seo, SungYong; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Choongik

    2017-06-01

    The stabilization and control of the electrical properties in solution-processed amorphous-oxide semiconductors (AOSs) is crucial for the realization of cost-effective, high-performance, large-area electronics. In particular, impurity diffusion, electrical instability, and the lack of a general substitutional doping strategy for the active layer hinder the industrial implementation of copper electrodes and the fine tuning of the electrical parameters of AOS-based thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this study, the authors employ a multifunctional organic-semiconductor (OSC) interlayer as a solution-processed thin-film passivation layer and a charge-transfer dopant. As an electrically active impurity blocking layer, the OSC interlayer enhances the electrical stability of AOS TFTs by suppressing the adsorption of environmental gas species and copper-ion diffusion. Moreover, charge transfer between the organic interlayer and the AOS allows the fine tuning of the electrical properties and the passivation of the electrical defects in the AOS TFTs. The development of a multifunctional solution-processed organic interlayer enables the production of low-cost, high-performance oxide semiconductor-based circuits. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electric-field induced quantum broadening of the characteristic energy level of traps in semiconductors and oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Mazharuddin; Verhulst, Anne S.; Verreck, Devin; Van de Put, Maarten; Simoen, Eddy; Sorée, Bart; Kaczer, Ben; Degraeve, Robin; Mocuta, Anda; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron; Groeseneken, Guido

    2016-12-01

    The trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) current in tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is one of the crucial factors degrading the sub-60 mV/dec sub-threshold swing. To correctly predict the TAT currents, an accurate description of the trap is required. Since electric fields in TFETs typically reach beyond 106 V/cm, there is a need to quantify the impact of such high field on the traps. We use a quantum mechanical implementation based on the modified transfer matrix method to obtain the trap energy level. We present the qualitative impact of electric field on different trap configurations, locations, and host materials, including both semiconductors and oxides. We determine that there is an electric-field related trap level shift and level broadening. We find that these electric-field induced quantum effects can enhance the trap emission rates.

  11. Solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for solar energy conversion and environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Rajeshwar, Krishnan; de Tacconi, Norma R

    2009-07-01

    In this tutorial review, we summarize recent research on the solution combustion synthesis of oxide semiconductors for applications related to photovoltaic solar energy conversion, photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation, and heterogeneous photocatalytic remediation of environmental pollutants. First, the advantages of combustion synthesis relative to other strategies for preparing oxide semiconductors are discussed followed by a summary of process variants in combustion synthesis. The possibility of in situ chemical modification of the oxide during its formation in the combustion environment is addressed. Morphological and crystal structure aspects of the combustion-synthesized products are discussed followed by a summary of trends in their photocatalytic activity relative to benchmark samples prepared by other methods.

  12. Effects of oxide thickness on charge trapping in metal-nitride-oxide- semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Vikram J.; Delatore, James P.

    1982-07-01

    Charge trapping in chemically vapor-deposited Si3N4 thin films of metal-nitride-oxide- semiconductor (MNOS) structures has been studied using the internal photoelectric-effect technique in combination with high-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements. The trapped charge density in the Si3N4 film was investigated as a function of the experimental parameters of the internal photoelectric-effect technique and the oxide thickness (300-20 Å) of the MNOS structure. The optimum trapped electron density in the Si3N4 film was measured to be 1.5×1018/ cm3 using 4.14-eV photon energy, 3.0-mW/cm2 light intensity, and -20-V applied gate voltage bias for the MNOS structures whose oxide thicknesses were greater than 70 Å. The photoinjection of holes from Si into Si3N4 was inhibited in thick-oxide (300-43 Å) MNOS structures due to the large barrier height at the Si-SiO2 interface. This eliminated simultaneous trapping of holes and electrons in the Si3N4 film. As the oxide thickness of the MNOS structure was reduced below the critical thickness of 43 Å, the photoinjection of holes from Si into Si3N4 was enhanced substantially with subsequent dominant hole trapping in the Si3N4 film.

  13. Anomalous Drain Voltage Dependence in Bias Temperature Instability Measurements on High-K Field Effect Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Ez(Y), when V ds is not small and so the semiconductor surface potential becomes a function of distance along the inversion channel (y direction). In...generation models in which H2 diffusing through the oxide "cracks" on a positively charged center and de-passivates a silicon dangling bond [12]. That...devices. 3 1. Introduction Accurate detelmination of the susceptibility of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to degradation

  14. Challenges of Electrical Measurements of Advanced Gate Dielectrics in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric M.; Brown, George A.

    2003-09-01

    Experimental measurements and simulations are used to provide an overview of key issues with the electrical characterization of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with ultra-thin oxide and alternate gate dielectrics. Experimental issues associated with the most common electrical characterization method, capacitance-voltage (C-V), are first described. Issues associated with equivalent oxide thickness extraction and comparison, interface state measurement, extrinsic defects, and defect generation are then overviewed.

  15. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies.

  16. Electrical Characterization of Polyaniline/polyethylene Oxide Nanofibers for Field Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Noulie; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2002-01-01

    Nanofibers comprised of polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANI/PEO) are being developed for novel logic devices. We report the electrical conductivity of PANI/PEO nanofibers with diameters in the 100 to 200 nm range. We measured conductivity values of approx. 0.3 to 1.0 S/cm, which is higher than the values reported for thicker nanofibers, but less than the bulk value of PANI. The electrical measurements were performed by depositing the fibers on pre-electroded, oxidized silicon (Si) substrates. The excellent adherence of the nanofibers to the SiO2 as well as the gold (Au) electrodes may be useful in the design of future devices.

  17. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin With Current Modulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-27

    Zhou, R.; Josse, F.; Gopel, W.; Ozturk, Z.; Bekaroglu, O. Phthalocyanines as sensitive materials for chemical sensors. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 1996, 10...wpafb.af.mil (J.L.C.); Nancy.Kelley-Loughnane@wpafb.af.mil (N.K.-L.); Morley.Stone@wpafb.af.mil (M.O.S.) 2 Materials and Manufacturing Directorate...voltage on metal-oxide nanowires [4], the addition of different materials such as polymers [5-8], small molecules [9], and membranes [10]. Another

  18. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al2O3 and HfO2. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO3), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  20. Energetic mapping of oxide traps in MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Yury Yu; Knobloch, Theresia; Waltl, Michael; Rzepa, Gerhard; Pospischil, Andreas; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Furchi, Marco M.; Mueller, Thomas; Grasser, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    The performance of MoS2 transistors is strongly affected by charge trapping in oxide traps with very broad distributions of time constants. These defects degrade the mobility and additionally lead to the hysteresis of the gate transfer characteristics, which presents a crucial performance and reliability issue for these new technologies. Here we perform a detailed study of the hysteresis in double-gated MoS2 FETs and show that this issue is nothing else than a combination of threshold voltage shifts resulting from positive and negative bias-temperature instabilities. While these instabilities are well known from silicon devices, they are even more important in 2D devices given the considerably larger defect densities. Most importantly, the magnitudes of these threshold voltage shifts depend strongly on the density and energetic alignment of the active oxide traps. Based on this, we introduce the incremental hysteresis sweep method which allows for an accurate mapping of these defects and extract their energy distributions from simulations. By applying our method to analyze the impact of oxide traps situated in the Al2O3 top gate of several devices, we confirm its versatility. Since all 2D devices investigated so far suffer from a similar hysteresis behavior, the incremental hysteresis sweep method provides a unique and powerful way for the detailed characterization of their defect bands.

  1. Transistor sizing in the design of high-speed CMOS (complementary-symmetry metal-oxide-semiconductor) super buffers. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, G.R.

    1988-03-01

    An algorithm for sizing transistors for static Complementary-symmetry Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit logic design using silicon-gate enhancement-mode Field-Effect Transistors (FET) is derived and implemented in software. The algorithm is applied to the mask-level hardware design of a three-micron-minimum feature-size p-well high-speed super buffer. A software representation of the super buffer can be used for the automated design of custom Very-Large-Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.

  2. Effects of buffered HF cleaning on metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties of Al2O3/InAs/GaSb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Koichi; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Haruki; Hoshi, Takuya; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2015-06-01

    We studied the impact of buffered HF (BHF) cleaning on the interface properties of Al2O3/InAs/GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures fabricated by the ex-situ surface cleaning process. The Al2O3/InAs/GaSb MOS structures fabricated with BHF cleaning exhibited lower Dit values than those fabricated with sulfur passivation. In addition, the Al2O3/InAs/GaSb MOS structures fabricated with BHF cleaning were robust with respect to the MOS field-effect transistor fabrication process by using W gate metal with PMA in the 250-300 °C range.

  3. Evolution of corundum-structured III-oxide semiconductors: Growth, properties, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shizuo; Oda, Masaya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Hitora, Toshimi

    2016-12-01

    The recent progress and development of corundum-structured III-oxide semiconductors are reviewed. They allow bandgap engineering from 3.7 to ∼9 eV and function engineering, leading to highly durable electronic devices and deep ultraviolet optical devices as well as multifunctional devices. Mist chemical vapor deposition can be a simple and safe growth technology and is advantageous for reducing energy and cost for the growth. This is favorable for the wide commercial use of devices at low cost. The III-oxide semiconductors are promising candidates for new devices contributing to sustainable social, economic, and technological development for the future.

  4. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Theofylaktos, Noulle; Robinson, Daryl C.; Mueller, Carl H.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Novel translators and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. Furthermore, the ability to form devices on flexible substrates expands the range of applications where electronic circuitry can be introduced. For NASA, nonotechndogy offers opportunities for increased onboard data processing and thus autonomous decision-making ability, ad novel sensors that detect and respond to external stimuli with few oversight requirements. The goat of this work is to demonstrate transistor behavior in polyaniline/ polyethylene oxide nanofibers, thus creating a foundation for future logic devices.

  5. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Theofylaktos, Noulle; Robinson, Daryl C.; Mueller, Carl H.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Novel translators and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. Furthermore, the ability to form devices on flexible substrates expands the range of applications where electronic circuitry can be introduced. For NASA, nonotechndogy offers opportunities for increased onboard data processing and thus autonomous decision-making ability, ad novel sensors that detect and respond to external stimuli with few oversight requirements. The goat of this work is to demonstrate transistor behavior in polyaniline/ polyethylene oxide nanofibers, thus creating a foundation for future logic devices.

  6. Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dargis, Rytis Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi; Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas; O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2014-07-01

    Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

  7. Thin Film Transistor Gas Sensors Incorporating High-Mobility Diketopyrrolopyrole-Based Polymeric Semiconductor Doped with Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kwang Hee; Cho, Jangwhan; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we fabricated a diketopyrrolopyrole-based donor-acceptor copolymer composite film. This is a high-mobility semiconductor component with a functionalized-graphene-oxide (GO) gas-adsorbing dopant, used as an active layer in gas-sensing organic-field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. The GO content of the composite film was carefully controlled so that the crystalline orientation of the semiconducting polymer could be conserved, without compromising its gas-adsorbing ability. The resulting optimized device exhibited high mobility (>1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and revealed sensitive response during programmed exposure to various polar organic molecules (i.e., ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile). This can be attributed to the high mobility of polymeric semiconductors, and also to their high surface-to-volume ratio of GO. The operating mechanism of the gas sensing GO-OFET is fully discussed in conjunction with charge-carrier trap theory. It was found that each transistor parameter (e.g., mobility, threshold voltage), responds independently to each gas molecule, which enables high selectivity of GO-OFETs for various gases. Furthermore, we also demonstrated practical GO-OFET devices that operated at low voltage (<1.5 V), and which successfully responded to gas exposure.

  8. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Correlated Oxide Field Effect Switching Devices for High Speed Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    between the binary oxides and the  perovskite  nickelates and the nature of  d‐orbital filling leads to profound complexity in the electronic nature of the...Al2O3,  (111) MgO,  (111) MgAl2O4,  and  (111)  perovskite  oxide  substrates  [20,21]. The key to achieving epitaxy of (100) rutile‐type compounds is...Shin et al. [7] The O2p  band energies of N1 and N2 closely resemble recent in‐situ photoemission studies of epitaxial NbO2 films  on (111)  perovskite

  9. High Performance Metal Oxide Field-Effect Transistors with a Reverse Offset Printed Cu Source/Drain Electrode.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Hun; Won, Ju-Yeon; Yoo, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Rino; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2016-01-20

    Nonvacuum and photolithography-free copper (Cu) films were prepared by reverse offset printing. The mechanical, morphological, structural, and chemical properties of the Cu films annealed at different temperatures were examined in detail. The Ostwald ripening-induced coalescence and grain growth in the printing Cu films were enhanced with increasing annealing temperature in N2 ambient up to 400 °C. Simultaneously, unwanted chemical impurities such as oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon in the Cu films decreased as the annealing temperature increased. The high electrical conductivity (∼6.2 μΩ·cm) of the printing Cu films annealed at 400 °C is attributed to the enlargement of the grain size and reduction of the incorporation of impurities. A printing Cu film was adopted as a source/drain (S/D) electrode in solution processable zinc tin oxide (ZTO) field-effect transistors (FETs), where the ZTO film was prepared by simple spin-coating. The ZTO FETs fabricated at a contact annealing temperature of 250 °C exhibited a promising field-effect mobility of 2.6 cm(2)/(V s), a threshold voltage of 7.0 V, and an ION/OFF modulation ratio of 2 × 10(5).

  10. A comprehensive study of charge trapping in organic field-effect devices with promising semiconductors and different contact metals by displacement current measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisoyi, Sibani; Rödel, Reinhold; Zschieschang, Ute; Kang, Myeong Jin; Takimiya, Kazuo; Klauk, Hagen; Tiwari, Shree Prakash

    2016-02-01

    A systematic and comprehensive study on the charge-carrier injection and trapping behavior was performed using displacement current measurements in long-channel capacitors based on four promising small-molecule organic semiconductors (pentacene, DNTT, C10-DNTT and DPh-DNTT). In thin-film transistors, these semiconductors showed charge-carrier mobilities ranging from 1.0 to 7.8 cm2 V-1 s-1. The number of charges injected into and extracted from the semiconductor and the density of charges trapped in the device during each measurement were calculated from the displacement current characteristics and it was found that the density of trapped charges is very similar in all devices and of the order 1012 cm-2, despite the fact that the four semiconductors show significantly different charge-carrier mobilities. The choice of the contact metal (Au, Ag, Cu, Pd) was also found to have no significant effect on the trapping behavior.

  11. Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Correlated Oxide Field Effect Switching Devices for High Speed Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    include VO2, SmNiO3, and NbO2. The common aspects of these materials include their thermal insulator‐metal transition. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...NbO2. The  common aspects of these materials  include their  thermal   insulator‐metal transition. At the same time,  the different crystal structure...orbital valence  states are more  dispersed  in both space and energy, Mott physics is less important in 4d transition‐metal  oxides than  in 3d ones

  12. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Theofylaktos, Noulie; Mueller, Carl H.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decision-making ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline (PANi) is an intriguing material because its electrical conductivity can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain, and when combined with polyethylene oxide (PEO), can be formed into nanofibers with diameters ranging from approximately 50 to 500 nm (depending on the deposition conditions). The initial goal of this work was to demonstrate transistor behavior in these nanofibers, thus creating a foundation for future logic devices.

  13. Quantum dot made in metal oxide silicon-nanowire field effect transistor working at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Lavieville, Romain; Triozon, François; Barraud, Sylvain; Corna, Andrea; Jehl, Xavier; Sanquer, Marc; Li, Jing; Abisset, Antoine; Duchemin, Ivan; Niquet, Yann-Michel

    2015-05-13

    We report the observation of an atomic like behavior from T = 4.2 K up to room temperature in n- and p-type Ω-gate silicon nanowire (NW) transistors. For that purpose, we modified the design of a NW transistor and introduced long spacers between the source/drain and the channel in order to separate the channel from the electrodes. The channel was made extremely small (3.4 nm in diameter with 10 nm gate length) with a thick gate oxide (7 nm) in order to enhance the Coulomb repulsion between carriers, which can be as large as 200 meV when surface roughness promotes charge confinement. Parasitic stochastic Coulomb blockade effect can be eliminated in our devices by choosing proper control voltages. Moreover, the quantum dot can be tuned so that the resonant current at T = 4.2 K exceeds that at room temperature.

  14. Direct fabrication of thin layer MoS{sub 2} field-effect nanoscale transistors by oxidation scanning probe lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Francisco M.; Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo; Marinov, Kolyo; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras

    2015-03-09

    Thin layer MoS{sub 2}-based field effect transistors (FET) are emerging candidates to fabricate very fast and sensitive devices. Here, we demonstrate a method to fabricate very narrow transistor channel widths on a single layer MoS{sub 2} flake connected to gold electrodes. Oxidation scanning probe lithography is applied to pattern insulating barriers on the flake. The process narrows the electron path to about 200 nm. The output and transfer characteristics of the fabricated FET show a behavior that is consistent with the minimum channel width of the device. The method relies on the direct and local chemical modification of MoS{sub 2}. The straightforward character and the lack of specific requirements envisage the controlled patterning of sub-100 nm electron channels in MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  15. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Summary One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+, since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments

  16. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Herr, Ulrich; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu(3+), since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments are

  17. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Reber, R.A. Jr.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Riewe, L.C. )

    1993-05-15

    We have identified several features of the 1/[ital f] noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO[sub 2] layer of the MOS structure, and interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO[sub 2] interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. [bold NS]-[bold 39], 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/[ital f] noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing.

  18. Partial Oxidized Arsenene: Emerging Tunable Direct Bandgap Semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Kai-Ge; Yu, Geliang; Zhong, Xing; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Arsenene, as a member of the Group V elemental two-dimensional materials appears on the horizon, has shown great prospects. However, its indirect bandgap limits the applications in optoelectronics. In this theoretical work, we reported that partial oxidation can tune the indirect bandgap of arsenene into the direct one. Attributed to the enthalpy decreasing linear to the oxygen ratio, partial oxidized arsenene can be controllably produced by the progressive oxidation under low temperature. Importantly, by increasing the oxygen content from 1O/18As to 18O/18As, the oxidation can narrow the direct bandgap of oxidized arsenene from 1.29 to 0.02 eV. The bandgap of partial oxidized arsenene is proportional to the oxygen content. Consequently, the partial oxidized arsenene with tunable direct bandgap has great potentials in the high efficient infra light emitter and photo-voltaic devices. PMID:27114052

  19. Mixed proton and electron conduction in graphene oxide films: field effect in a transistor based on graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. A.; Mokrushin, A. D.; Vasiliev, V. P.; Denisov, N. N.; Denisova, K. N.

    2016-05-01

    GO films exhibited dual proton and electron conduction. Proton conduction showed the exponential dependence on relative humidity with the activation energy E a = 0.9 ± 0.05 eV. For the electron conductivity (220-273 K) induced by thermolysis and chemical means E a = 1.15 ± 0.05 eV. With increasing humidity, the electron conduction went down, which was associated with recombination phenomena. The GO films can be regarded as a first example of the mixed electron-proton conduction when sample conductivity can be regulated by external influence (humidity). Field effect is detected and studied in the transistor on the basis of the GO in different types of conduction.

  20. Modification of Wide-Band-Gap Oxide Semiconductors with Cobalt Hydroxide Nanoclusters for Visible-Light Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiko; Ishimaki, Koki; Tokunaga, Yuki; Lu, Daling; Eguchi, Miharu

    2016-07-11

    Cobalt-based compounds, such as cobalt(II) hydroxide, are known to be good catalysts for water oxidation. Herein, we report that such cobalt species can also activate wide-band-gap semiconductors towards visible-light water oxidation. Rutile TiO2 powder, a well-known wide-band-gap semiconductor, was capable of harvesting visible light with wavelengths of up to 850 nm, and thus catalyzed water oxidation to produce molecular oxygen, when decorated with cobalt(II) hydroxide nanoclusters. To the best of our knowledge, this system constitutes the first example that a particulate photocatalytic material that is capable of water oxidation upon excitation by visible light can also operate at such long wavelengths, even when it is based on earth-abundant elements only.

  1. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 2. Overview).

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-03-18

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  2. Catalyzed Water Oxidation by Solar Irradiation of Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors (Part 1. Overview).

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita,E.; Khalifah, P.; Lymar, S.; Muckerman, J.T.; Rodgriguez, J.

    2008-03-18

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Investigate the catalysis of water oxidation by cobalt and manganese hydrous oxides immobilized on titania or silica nanoparticles, and dinuclear metal complexes with quinonoid ligands in order to develop a better understanding of the critical water oxidation chemistry, and rationally search for improved catalysts. (2) Optimize the light-harvesting and charge-separation abilities of stable semiconductors including both a focused effort to improve the best existing materials by investigating their structural and electronic properties using a full suite of characterization tools, and a parallel effort to discover and characterize new materials. (3) Combine these elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductor (BGNSC) surfaces and elucidate the core scientific challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  3. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  4. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  5. Electronic Properties and Device Applications of III-V Compound Semiconductor Native Oxides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-02

    variable-temperature impedance spectroscopy measurement technique to determine low total interface state density of Dit= 8 x 1011 cm-2 for a 110 nm thick...Zhang and R. D. Dupuis, “Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlP/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostuctures using impedance spectroscopy ...State Density Measured by Impedance Spectroscopy ,” 46th Electronic Materials Conference, paper GG4 (Notre Dame, Indiana, June 23-25, 2004). [8] T. H

  6. Centro-Apical Self-Organization of Organic Semiconductors in a Line-Printed Organic Semiconductor: Polymer Blend for One-Step Printing Fabrication of Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Jin Lee, Su; Kim, Yong-Jae; Young Yeo, So; Lee, Eunji; Sun Lim, Ho; Kim, Min; Song, Yong-Won; Cho, Jinhan; Ah Lim, Jung

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the first demonstration for centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductors in a line-printed organic semiconductor: polymer blend. Key feature of this work is that organic semiconductor molecules were vertically segregated on top of the polymer phase and simultaneously crystallized at the center of the printed line pattern after solvent evaporation without an additive process. The thickness and width of the centro-apically segregated organic semiconductor crystalline stripe in the printed blend pattern were controlled by varying the relative content of the organic semiconductors, printing speed, and solution concentrations. The centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductor molecules in a printed polymer blend may be attributed to the combination of an energetically favorable vertical phase-separation and hydrodynamic fluids inside the droplet during solvent evaporation. Finally, a centro-apically phase-separated bilayer structure of organic semiconductor: polymer blend was successfully demonstrated as a facile method to form the semiconductor and dielectric layer for OFETs in one- step. PMID:26359068

  7. Centro-Apical Self-Organization of Organic Semiconductors in a Line-Printed Organic Semiconductor: Polymer Blend for One-Step Printing Fabrication of Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Yong-Jae; Yeo, So Young; Lee, Eunji; Lim, Ho Sun; Kim, Min; Song, Yong-Won; Cho, Jinhan; Lim, Jung Ah

    2015-09-11

    Here we report the first demonstration for centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductors in a line-printed organic semiconductor: polymer blend. Key feature of this work is that organic semiconductor molecules were vertically segregated on top of the polymer phase and simultaneously crystallized at the center of the printed line pattern after solvent evaporation without an additive process. The thickness and width of the centro-apically segregated organic semiconductor crystalline stripe in the printed blend pattern were controlled by varying the relative content of the organic semiconductors, printing speed, and solution concentrations. The centro-apical self-organization of organic semiconductor molecules in a printed polymer blend may be attributed to the combination of an energetically favorable vertical phase-separation and hydrodynamic fluids inside the droplet during solvent evaporation. Finally, a centro-apically phase-separated bilayer structure of organic semiconductor: polymer blend was successfully demonstrated as a facile method to form the semiconductor and dielectric layer for OFETs in one- step.

  8. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Warren, William L.; Vanheusden, Karel J. R.; Schwank, James R.; Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Winokur, Peter S.; Devine, Roderick A. B.

    1998-01-01

    A method for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus-voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer.

  9. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOEpatents

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  10. Label-free attomolar detection of lactate based on radio frequency sputtered of nickel oxide thin film field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Mansouri Majd, Samira; Salimi, Abdollah; Astinchap, Bandar

    2017-06-15

    The radio frequency sputtered nickel oxide thin film nanostrtablucture deposited on glass substrate was used as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective field effect transistor-type lactate biosensor. Firstly, NiO-FET was tested for NADH detection showing a linear concentration range 1aM to 1nM and a low detection limit of 0.2aM. Then, NiO surface modified with chitosan and functionalized with glutaraldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme was immobilized on the aldehyde terminal. The biosensor is found to exhibit highly efficient sensing response characteristics with good linearity of 1aM to 1pM and low limit of detection of 0.5aM. The biosensor shows high stability without interferences from commonly interfering compounds in biological fluids, including uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose and acetaminophen. Furthermore, the application of the proposed biosensor for analysis of lactate in artificial serum samples was evaluated with good satisfactory results. This protocol can be used to develop of disposable, low cost, and portable various types of dehydrogenase based biosensor devices using metal oxide nanomaterials.

  11. Variations in I-V characteristics of oxide semiconductors induced by oxidizing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Egashira, Makoto; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Takao, Yuji; Sako, Syuichi

    1996-12-31

    In previous studies, it was found that the breakdown voltage of porous ZnO-based varistors shifted reversibly toward a low electric field in the presence of H{sub 2} in air at 400 - 600{degrees}C, depending upon the H{sub 2} concentration. An additional study aimed at clarifying the effect of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the H{sub 2} sensing properties has revealed that the number of grain boundaries and the oxide ion conductivity of grain-boundary phases were important for determining the H{sub 2} sensitivity. These results suggest that excess oxide ions existing inside the ZnO-ZnO grain boundaries play important roles both in the formation of the double Schottky barrier, which is responsible for the nonlinearity of varistors, and in the H{sub 2} sensing mechanism. The authors latest study has also revealed that SnO{sub 2}-based specimens exhibited H{sub 2}-sensitive I-V characteristics in a manner similar to ZnO-based varistors. To get further information on the origin of the double Schottky barrier of varistors, and then to clarify the difference in sensing mechanism between conventional semiconductor and varistor type sensors, in the present study, I-V characteristics of pure SnO{sub 2} and ZnO have been investigated under an oxidizing gas atmosphere containing NO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}, and the results were compared with those obtained under a reducing gas atmosphere containing H{sub 2}.

  12. Creation of reduced graphene oxide based field effect transistors and their utilization in the detection and discrimination of nucleoside triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunmeng; Chang, Xingmao; Liu, Jing; Ding, Liping; Peng, Junxia; Fang, Yu

    2015-05-27

    Two low-cost, micropatterned, solution-gated field effect transistors (modified FET and unmodified FET) based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were developed and used for detection and discrimination of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). The modified FET was realized by simple deposition of a positively charged bis-pyrenyl derivative, py-diIM-py, onto the conducting RGO strips of the unmodified FET. The electrical properties and sensing behaviors of the as-prepared devices were studied comprehensively. Electrical transfer property tests revealed that both of the two FETs exhibit V-shaped ambipolar field effect behavior from p-type region to n-type region. Sensing performance studies demonstrated that modification of the native FET with py-diIM-py improves its sensing ability to NTPs-GTP and ATP in particular. The detection limit of GTP and ATP was as low as 400 nM, which is the lowest value for graphene-based electronic sensors reported so far. Furthermore, based on the cross-reactive responses of the two devices to NTPs, NTPs can be conveniently distinguished via combining use of the two devices. The enhancement of the modifier (py-diIM-py) to the sensing performance of the FET is tentatively attributed to its possible mediation role in sticking onto RGO strips and accumulating analytes by electrostatic association with the relevant species. Because they are sensitive and fast in response, simple and low-cost in preparation, and possibly useful in sensor-array fabrication, the developed sensors show great potential in real-life application.

  13. Technology of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The growth of an oxide interfacial layer was recently found to increase the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and efficiency by up to 60 per cent in GaAs metal-semiconductor solar cells. Details of oxidation techniques to provide the necessary oxide thickness and chemical structure and using ozone, water-vapor-saturated oxygen, or oxygen gas discharges are described, as well as apparent crystallographic orientation effects. Preliminary results of the oxide chemistry obtained from X-ray, photoelectron spectroscopy are given. Ratios of arsenic oxide to gallium oxide of unity or less seem to be preferable. Samples with the highest OVC predominantly have As(+3) in the arsenic oxide rather than As(+5). A major difficulty at this time is a reduction in OCV by 100-200 mV when the antireflection coating is vacuum deposited.

  14. Technology of GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The growth of an oxide interfacial layer was recently found to increase the open-circuit voltage (OCV) and efficiency by up to 60 per cent in GaAs metal-semiconductor solar cells. Details of oxidation techniques to provide the necessary oxide thickness and chemical structure and using ozone, water-vapor-saturated oxygen, or oxygen gas discharges are described, as well as apparent crystallographic orientation effects. Preliminary results of the oxide chemistry obtained from X-ray, photoelectron spectroscopy are given. Ratios of arsenic oxide to gallium oxide of unity or less seem to be preferable. Samples with the highest OVC predominantly have As(+3) in the arsenic oxide rather than As(+5). A major difficulty at this time is a reduction in OCV by 100-200 mV when the antireflection coating is vacuum deposited.

  15. Radiation induced failures of complementary metal oxide semiconductor containing pacemakers: a potentially lethal complication

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, A.A.; Serago, C.F.; Schwade, J.G.; Abitbol, A.A.; Margolis, S.C.

    1984-10-01

    New multi-programmable pacemakers frequently employ complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). This circuitry appears more sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation when compared to the semiconductor circuits used in older pacemakers. A case of radiation induced runaway pacemaker in a CMOS device is described. Because of this and other recent reports of radiation therapy-induced CMOS type pacemaker failure, these pacemakers should not be irradiated. If necessary, the pacemaker can be shielded or moved to a site which can be shielded before institution of radiation therapy. This is done to prevent damage to the CMOS circuit and the life threatening arrythmias which may result from such damage.

  16. Development of non-oxide semiconductors as light harvesting materials in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-08-15

    Water splitting via photocatalysis and photoelectrolysis is a potential means to produce clean and renewable hydrogen as a storable high-density energy carrier. At present, the main concern is how to develop semiconductor materials for efficiently converting sunlight energy. The present perspective summarises recent developments in the use of new semiconductors as light-harvesting materials. Specifically, non-oxides, oxynitrides and oxysulfides have been demonstrated to be promising materials for water splitting under visible light. The design of such materials and their application to photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting are discussed.

  17. Structural, electronic, vibrational and dielectric properties of selected high-shape K semiconductor oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolfaro, L. M. R.; Leite Alves, H. W.; Borges, P. D.; Garcia, J. C.; da Silva, E. F., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    The semiconductor oxides SnO2, HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2 and SrTiO3 are interesting materials for applications as high-K dielectric gate materials in silicon-based devices and spintronics, among others. Here we review our theoretical work about the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of these oxides in their most stable structural phases, including dielectric properties as derived from the electronic structure taking into account the lattice contribution. Finally, we address the recent role played by the presence of transition metal atoms in semiconductor oxides, considering in particular SnO2 as an example in forming diluted magnetic alloys.

  18. Determination of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling parameters in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor structure including oxide field correction using a vertical optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumi, S.; Ouennoughi, Z.; Strenger, K. C.; Frey, L.

    2016-08-01

    Current conduction mechanisms through a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor structure are characterized via Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots. The extraction of the FN parameters like the electron/hole effective mass in oxide mox and in semiconductor msc, the barrier height at the semiconductor-oxide interface ϕB, and the correction oxide voltage Vcorr for a MOS structure is made using a vertical optimization process on the current density without any assumption about ϕB or mox. An excellent agreement is obtained between the FN plots calculated with the FN parameters extracted using a vertical optimization process with the experimental one.

  19. Study of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as semiconductor/insulator for application in low voltage organic field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenho, Adriano R. V.; Machado, Wagner S.; Cruz-Cruz, Isidro; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work we study the cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) interfacial properties of an organic field effect transistor. We use cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) prepared with different ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportions, ranging from 0% to 35%, as insulator. Using admittance spectroscopy, we show that the interfacial properties change when the ammonium dichromate concentration is altered. The interfacial properties and the better insulation are responsible for the improvement of the device performance in these organic field effect transistors, achieving best performance in the blend with ammonium dichromate:poly(vinyl alcohol) proportion of 0.25:1.

  20. Self-aligned silicides for Ohmic contacts in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology: TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.-L.; Smith, U.

    2004-07-01

    Metal silicides continue to play an indispensable role during the remarkable development of microelectronics. Along with several other technological innovations, the implementation of the self-aligned silicide technology paved the way for a rapid and successful miniaturization of device dimensions for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in pace with the Moore's law. The use of silicides has also evolved from creating reliable contacts for diodes, to generating high-conductivity current paths for local wiring, and lately to forming low-resistivity electrical contacts for MOSFETs. With respect to the choice of silicides for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, a convergence has become clear with the self-alignment technology using only a limited number of silicides, namely TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi. The present work discusses the advantages and limitations of TiSi2, CoSi2, and NiSi using the development trend of CMOS technology as a measure. Specifically, the reactive diffusion and phase formation of these silicides in the three terminals of a MOSFET, i.e., gate, source, and drain, are analyzed. This work ends with a brief discussion about future trends of metal silicides in micro/nanoelectronics with reference to potential material aspects and device structures outlined in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. .

  1. Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, E; Barquinha, P; Martins, R

    2012-06-12

    Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which

  2. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOEpatents

    Seager, C.H.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1998-11-24

    A method is described for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100 C and 300 C for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer. 1 fig.

  3. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOEpatents

    Seager, Carleton H.; Evans, Jr., Joseph Tate

    1998-01-01

    A method for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 300.degree. C. for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer.

  4. Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)-Memristor Hybrid Nanoelectronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    N+ N+ M1M1 P+ N- P- P N+ N M1M1 (d) TEOS open (e) SiN open with TEOS as hardmask (f) Oxidation N-Well P-Well P P+ N N+ M1M1 P+ N-Well P-Well P N...N+ M1M1 P+ N- P- P N+ N M1M1 (d) TEOS open (e) SiN open with TEOS as hardmask (f) Oxidation N-Well P-Well P+ P+ N+ N+ M1M1 N-Well P-Well P+ P+ N

  5. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, G. H.; van Breemen, A. J. J. M.; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  6. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Gelinck, G. H.; Breemen, A. J. J. M. van; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-02

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  7. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown on Printed Circuit Board for Extended-Gate Field-Effect Transistor pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Thanh, Pham; Nhu, Le Thi Quynh; Mai, Hong Hanh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Doanh, Sai Cong; Viet, Nguyen Canh; Kien, Do Trung

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown directly on printed circuit boards with a 35-μm-thick copper layer using a seedless galvanic-cell hydrothermal process. The hexagonal structure of the synthesized ZnO NRs was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructural characteristics of the as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, revealing preferred (002) growth direction. Raman and photoluminescence spectra confirmed the high crystalline quality of the ZnO NRs. As-grown ZnO NRs were then grown for 7 h using the galvanic effect for use as the pH membrane of an extended-gate field-effect transistor pH sensor (pH-EGFET). The current-voltage characteristics showed sensitivity of 15.4 mV/pH and 0.26 (μA)1/2/pH in the linear and saturated region, respectively. Due to their cost effectiveness, low-temperature processing, and ease of fabrication, such devices are potential candidates for use as flexible, low-cost, disposable biosensors.

  8. Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown on Printed Circuit Board for Extended-Gate Field-Effect Transistor pH Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Thanh, Pham; Nhu, Le Thi Quynh; Mai, Hong Hanh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Doanh, Sai Cong; Viet, Nguyen Canh; Kien, Do Trung

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were grown directly on printed circuit boards with a 35- μm-thick copper layer using a seedless galvanic-cell hydrothermal process. The hexagonal structure of the synthesized ZnO NRs was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The microstructural characteristics of the as-grown ZnO NRs were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, revealing preferred (002) growth direction. Raman and photoluminescence spectra confirmed the high crystalline quality of the ZnO NRs. As-grown ZnO NRs were then grown for 7 h using the galvanic effect for use as the pH membrane of an extended-gate field-effect transistor pH sensor (pH-EGFET). The current-voltage characteristics showed sensitivity of 15.4 mV/pH and 0.26 ( μA)1/2/pH in the linear and saturated region, respectively. Due to their cost effectiveness, low-temperature processing, and ease of fabrication, such devices are potential candidates for use as flexible, low-cost, disposable biosensors.

  9. A Solution-Processable Liquid-Crystalline Semiconductor for Low-Temperature-Annealed Air-Stable N-Channel Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Resul; Choi, Donghee; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Kim, Hyekyoung; Kostakoğlu, Sinem Tuncel; Erkartal, Mustafa; Kim, Hyungsug; Kim, Choongik; Usta, Hakan

    2017-04-05

    A new solution-processable and air-stable liquid-crystalline n-channel organic semiconductor (2,2'-(2,8-bis(5-(2-octyldodecyl)thiophen-2-yl)indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-diylidene)dimalononitrile, α,ω-2OD-TIFDMT) with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) π conjugation has been designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. The new semiconductor exhibits a low LUMO energy (-4.19 eV) and a narrow optical bandgap (1.35 eV). The typical pseudo-focal-conic fan-shaped texture of a hexagonal columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) phase was observed over a wide temperature range. The spin-coated semiconductor thin films show the formation of large (≈0.5-1 μm) and highly crystalline platelike grains with edge-on molecular orientations. Low-temperature-annealed (50 °C) top-contact/bottom-gate OFETs have provided good electron mobility values as high as 0.11 cm(2)  (V s)(-1) and high Ion /Ioff ratios of 10(7) to 10(8) with excellent ambient stability. This indicates an enhancement of two orders of magnitude (100×) when compared with the β-substituted parent semiconductor, β-DD-TIFDMT (2,2'-(2,8-bis(3-dodecylthiophen-2-yl)indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-diylidene)dimalononitrile). The current rational alkyl-chain engineering route offers great advantages for D-A-D π-core coplanarity in addition to maintaining good solubility in organic solvents, and leads to favorable optoelectronic/physicochemical characteristics. These remarkable findings demonstrate that α,ω-2OD-TIFDMT is a promising semiconductor material for the development of n-channel OFETs on flexible plastic substrates and LC-state annealing of the columnar liquid crystals can lower the electron mobility for transistor-type charge transport. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Interactions between graphene oxide and wide band gap semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, M.; Podborska, A.; Szaciłowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The graphene oxide (GO) and GO@TiO2 nanocomposite have been synthesised by using modified Hummers method and ultrasonics respectively. The materials were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the interaction between GO and TiO2 affects the average interlayer spacing in carbonaceous material. The formation of bonds between various oxygen-containing functional groups and surface of titanium dioxide was investigated. One of them formed between the quinone structures (occur in graphene oxide) and titanium atoms exhibited 1.5 bond order. Furthermore the charge-transfer processes in GO@TiO2 composite were observed.

  11. Modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) source/drain electrodes for fully printed organic field-effect transistors consisting of a semiconductor blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. C.; Höft, D.; Bhuie, M.; Haase, K.; Bellmann, M.; Haidu, F.; Lehmann, D.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Hübler, A. C.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of post-press treatment on the modification of printed source/drain electrodes made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with ethylene glycol is presented. Beside changes of the geometry and the conductivity of these mass printed structures, the work function of PEDOT:PSS can be tuned, leading to an improved performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). OFETs were built up with a new small molecule/polymer blend consisting of 6,13-bis[(cyclopropyldiisopropylsilyl)ethynyl] pentacene and poly(triarylamine), providing a field effect mobility of 0.2 cm2/Vs for fully printed devices in air. Ring oscillators based on these OFETs demonstrate a frequency of more than 1 kHz.

  12. Interfacial engineering of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions for efficient and stable photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digdaya, Ibadillah A.; Adhyaksa, Gede W. P.; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Garnett, Erik C.; Smith, Wilson A.

    2017-06-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting can potentially provide an efficient route for large-scale renewable energy conversion and storage. It is essential for such a system to provide a sufficiently high photocurrent and photovoltage to drive the water oxidation reaction. Here we demonstrate a photoanode that is capable of achieving a high photovoltage by engineering the interfacial energetics of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions. We evaluate the importance of using two metals to decouple the functionalities for a Schottky contact and a highly efficient catalyst. We also illustrate the improvement of the photovoltage upon incidental oxidation of the metallic surface layer in KOH solution. Additionally, we analyse the role of the thin insulating layer to the pinning and depinning of Fermi level that is responsible to the resulting photovoltage. Finally, we report the advantage of using dual metal overlayers as a simple protection route for highly efficient metal-insulator-semiconductor photoanodes by showing over 200 h of operational stability.

  13. Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au/Ga2O3/GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Hua; Chang, Mu-Tung; Chien, Yu-Jen; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2008-10-01

    Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au-Ga2O3-GaN heterostructure nanowires were successfully fabricated by an in situ two-step process. The Au-Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by the reaction of Ga powder, a mediated Au thin layer, and a SiO2 substrate at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, these core-shell nanowires were nitridized in ambient ammonia to form a GaN coating layer at 600 degrees C. The GaN shell is a single crystal, an atomic flat interface between the oxide and semiconductor that ensures that the high quality of the MOS device is achieved. These novel 1D nitride-based MOS nanowires may have promise as building blocks to the future nitride-based vertical nanodevices.

  14. Modeling of n-InAs metal oxide semiconductor capacitors with high-κ gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Babadi, A. S. Lind, E.; Wernersson, L. E.

    2014-12-07

    A qualitative analysis on capacitance-voltage and conductance data for high-κ/InAs capacitors is presented. Our measured data were evaluated with a full equivalent circuit model, including both majority and minority carriers, as well as interface and border traps, formulated for narrow band gap metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. By careful determination of interface trap densities, distribution of border traps across the oxide thickness, and taking into account the bulk semiconductor response, it is shown that the trap response has a strong effect on the measured capacitances. Due to the narrow bandgap of InAs, there can be a large surface concentration of electrons and holes even in depletion, so a full charge treatment is necessary.

  15. A hard oxide semiconductor with a direct and narrow bandgap and switchable p-n electrical conduction.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Karkin, Alexander E; Morozova, Natalia V; Shchennikov, Vladimir V; Bykova, Elena; Abakumov, Artem M; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Glazyrin, Konstantin V; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2014-12-23

    An oxide semiconductor (perovskite-type Mn2 O3 ) is reported which has a narrow and direct bandgap of 0.45 eV and a high Vickers hardness of 15 GPa. All the known materials with similar electronic band structures (e.g., InSb, PbTe, PbSe, PbS, and InAs) play crucial roles in the semiconductor industry. The perovskite-type Mn2 O3 described is much stronger than the above semiconductors and may find useful applications in different semiconductor devices, e.g., in IR detectors.

  16. Retinal Stimulation on Rabbit Using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multichip Flexible Stimulator toward Retinal Prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Asano, Ryosuke; Sugitani, Sachie; Taniyama, Mari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Nakauchi, Kazuaki; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

    2008-04-01

    The Functionality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) LSI-based, multichip flexible retinal stimulator was demonstrated in retinal stimulation experiments on rabbits. A 1×4-configured multichip stimulator was fabricated for application to experiments on animals. An experimental procedure including surgical operations was developed, and retinal stimulation was performed with the fabricated multichip stimulator. Neural responses on the visual cortex were successfully evoked by the fabricated stimulator. The stimulator is confirmed to be applicable to acute animal experiments.

  17. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    DOE PAGES

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; ...

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistormore » can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.« less

  18. Impact of transient currents caused by alternating drain stress in oxide semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Jun; Cho, Sung Haeng; Abe, Katsumi; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Minkyung

    2017-08-29

    Reliability issues associated with driving metal-oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs), which may arise from various sequential drain/gate pulse voltage stresses and/or certain environmental parameters, have not received much attention due to the competing desire to characterise the shift in the transistor characteristics caused by gate charging. In this paper, we report on the reliability of these devices under AC bias stress conditions because this is one of the major sources of failure. In our analysis, we investigate the effects of the driving frequency, pulse shape, strength of the applied electric field, and channel current, and the results are compared with those from a general reliability test in which the devices were subjected to negative/positive bias, temperature, and illumination stresses, which are known to cause the most stress to oxide semiconductor TFTs. We also report on the key factors that affect the sub-gap defect states, and suggest a possible origin of the current degradation observed with an AC drive. Circuit designers should apply a similar discovery and analysis method to ensure the reliable design of integrated circuits with oxide semiconductor devices, such as the gate driver circuits used in display devices.

  19. Ionic Liquid Activation of Amorphous Metal-Oxide Semiconductors for Flexible Transparent Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.; Haglund, Amanda V.; Dai, Sheng; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip D.

    2016-02-09

    To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates. The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. In addition to activation of unannealed devices, it is shown that threshold voltages of a transistor can be linearly tuned between the enhancement and depletion modes. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.

  20. Photodegradation of neonicotinoid insecticides in water by semiconductor oxides.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Garrido, Isabel; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Navarro, Simón

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of three neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs), thiamethoxam (TH), imidacloprid (IM) and acetamiprid (AC), in pure water has been studied using zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalysts under natural sunlight and artificial light irradiation. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the addition of these chalcogenide oxides in tandem with the electron acceptor (Na2S2O8) strongly enhances the degradation rate of these compounds in comparison with those carried out with ZnO and TiO2 alone and photolytic tests. Comparison of catalysts showed that ZnO is the most efficient for the removal of such insecticides in optimal conditions and at constant volumetric rate of photon absorption. Thus, the complete disappearance of all the studied compounds was achieved after 10 and 30 min of artificial light irradiation, in the ZnO/Na2S2O8 and TiO2/Na2S2O8 systems, respectively. The highest degradation rate was noticed for IM, while the lowest rate constant was obtained for AC under artificial light irradiation. In addition, solar irradiation was more efficient compared to artificial light for the removal of these insecticides from water. The main photocatalytic intermediates detected during the degradation of NIs were identified.

  1. Gate tunneling current and quantum capacitance in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with graphene gate electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yanbin; Shekhawat, Aniruddh; Behnam, Ashkan; Pop, Eric; Ural, Ant

    2016-11-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p-type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized. It is found that Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range 77-300 K. The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes. In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness. These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  2. Performance analysis of boron nitride embedded armchair graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor with Stone Wales defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanana, Anuja; Sengupta, Amretashis; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-01-01

    We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride armchair nanoribbon (a-GNR-BN) n-MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p + 1, and 3p + 2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on either side (2, 4, and 6 BN) on the GNR. Material properties like band gap, effective mass, and density of states of these H-passivated structures are evaluated using the Density Functional Theory. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Green's Function formalism to calculate the ballistic n-MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ˜5 nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range of 265 μA-280 μA with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 × 106-7.4 × 106 for a VDD = 0.68 V corresponding to 10 nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales (SW) defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.5% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 3.18%.

  3. Electric-double-layer doping of WSe2 field-effect transistors using polyethylene-oxide cesium perchlorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, Sara; Pandey, Pratyush; Fullerton-Shirey, Susan; Seabaugh, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Electric double layers (EDLs) formed between polyethylene oxide cesium perchlorate and multilayer WSe2 field-effect transistors (FETs) are explored as a means for contact and access region doping. In this application, the electric double layer is formed using a top field plate or a side gate and then locked into place by cooling of the device below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. A dual work-function Ti/Pd contact is used to form the Schottky contacts with Ti as the n-contact and Pd as the p-contact and these are evaporated in a single evaporation. Using the EDL doping technique, sheet carrier density and current density are as high as (4.9 ± 1.9) × 1013 cm-2 and 58 μA/μm for n-doping and (3.5 ± 1.9) × 1013 cm-2 and 50 μA/μm for p-doping for the highest channel conductivities. The weak temperature dependence of the transfer characteristics at high doping levels reveals that the current in the Schottky contacts is dominated by tunneling with a contact resistance of 1 kΩ μm for the p-branch and 3.4 kΩ μm for the n-branch, comparable to the best WSe2 FET reports. At the highest carrier densities, the temperature coefficient of the conductance becomes negative as the mobility of the channel controls the temperature dependence. Using EDL doping, n-FET and p-FET configurations are demonstrated.

  4. Determination of trap distributions from current characteristics of pentacene field-effect transistors with surface modified gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinert, Susanne; Pernstich, Kurt P.; Batlogg, Bertram; Paasch, Gernot

    2007-11-01

    It has been demonstrated [K. P. Pernstich, S. Haas, D. Oberhoff, C. Goldmann, D. J. Gundlach, B. Batlogg, A. N. Rashid, and G. Schitter, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6431 (2004)] that a controllable shift of the threshold voltage in pentacene thin film transistors is caused by the use of organosilanes with different functional groups forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the gate oxide. The observed broadening of the subthreshold region indicates that the SAM creates additional trap states. Indeed, it is well known that traps strongly influence the behavior of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Therefore, the so-called "amorphous silicon (a-Si) model" has been suggested to be an appropriate model to describe OFETs. The main specifics of this model are transport of carriers above a mobility edge obeying Boltzmann statistics and exponentially distributed tail states and deep trap states. Here, approximate trap distributions are determined by adjusting two-dimensional numerical simulations to the experimental data. It follows from a systematic variation of parameters describing the trap distributions that the existence of both donorlike and acceptorlike trap distributions near the valence band, respectively, and a fixed negative interface charge have to be assumed. For two typical devices with different organosilanes the electrical characteristics can be described well with a donorlike bulk trap distribution, an acceptorlike interface distribution, and/or a fixed negative interface charge. As expected, the density of the fixed or trapped interface charge depends strongly on the surface treatment of the dielectric. There are some limitations in determining the trap distributions caused by either slow time-dependent processes resulting in differences between transfer and output characteristics, or in the uncertainty of the effective mobility.

  5. Fabrication of OSOS cells by neutral ion beam sputtering. [Oxide Semiconductor On Silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, D. E.; Dubow, J. B.; Sites, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor on silicon (OSOS) solar cells have been fabricated from various indium tin oxide (In2O3)x(SnO2)1-x compositions sputtered onto p-type single crystal silicon substrates with a neutralized argon ion beam. High temperature processing or annealing was not required. The highest efficiency was achieved with x = 0.91 and was 12 percent. The cells are environmentally rugged, chemically stable, and show promise for still higher efficiencies. Moreover, the ion beam sputtering fabrication technique is amenable to low cost, continuous processing.

  6. Anomalous quantum efficiency for photoconduction and its power dependence in metal oxide semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Chen, R S; Wang, W C; Lu, M L; Chen, Y F; Lin, H C; Chen, K H; Chen, L C

    2013-08-07

    The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed.

  7. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, chargemore » density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.« less

  8. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, charge density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.

  9. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-06-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin film transistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectric transistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  10. A simple method of interface-state reduction in metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Yea-Dean

    1991-04-01

    A method for reducing the interface-state density in polysilicon gate metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) capacitors is reported. The method involves deposition of a sacrificial blanket aluminum layer on top of a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) oxide over MNOS capacitors. The entire stack was then annealed at 450 °C in nitrogen and then the metal and CVD oxide were stripped away. The interface state density was reduced from 1011 to 1010 cm-2 eV-1 after this anneal. It is believed that Al reacts with trace water in the CVD oxide and generates active hydrogen. The hydrogen diffuses to the Si/SiO2 interface and passivates the interface states.

  11. Molecular beam epitaxial growth of tin oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Gabriel A.

    In an effort to develop a method to utilize SnO in transparent electronic and optoelectronic applications, the molecular beam epitaxy method was used to grow a thin film SnO sample. Five samples were grown and studied using various conventional techniques. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the composition of the samples. The quality and thickness of the samples was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy. This data was used to determine which samples were successful growths of SnO and how the growth conditions of each may have affected the outcomes. From the compiled data, single phase SnO was identified and selected for further study of it electrical properties. Previous studies have not been able to accurately identify the band gap energy of SnO due to its instability as an oxide. A bandgap energy of 2.56 eV was determined by photoluminescence analysis. This is consistent with reported estimates of between 2.5 to 3 eV for SnO.

  12. Dual field effects in spinel ferrite field effect devices: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-03-01

    Spinel ferrite is a good candidate as a tunable magnetic semiconductor with high TC. Here, we report the gate-induced conductance modulation of (Fe3-xZnx) O4 solid solution to demonstrate the dual contributions of volatile and non-volatile field effects arising from electronic carrier doping and redox reactions using field effect device structure with a ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and an ionic liquid DEME-TFSI. In the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/(Fe2.5Zn0.5) O4 FET, the gate voltage dependence of channel conductance on the (Fe,Zn)3O4 layer shows the typical hysteresis behavior reflecting the ferroelectric polarization, indicating the static carrier modulation . In contrast, in the DEME-TFSI/(Fe2.5Zn0.5) O4 FET, a large hysteresis observed in the drain current vs gate voltage characteristics is not accounted for solely by electrostatic doping, strongly suggesting the presence of chemical reactions. In more details, the characteristic hysteresis virtually disappears for the heavily Zn substituted system,(Fe2.2Zn0.8) O4 with less carrier concentration. These observations revealed the coexistence of two types of field effects in the Fe3-xZnxO4 devices, and the tuning of field-effect characteristics via composition engineering should be extremely useful for fabricating high-performance oxide field-effect devices.

  13. Fabrication of porous materials (metal, metal oxide and semiconductor) through an aerosol-assisted route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Hiesang

    Porous materials have gained attraction owing to their vast applications in catalysts, sensors, energy storage devices, bio-devices and other areas. To date, various porous materials were synthesized through soft and hard templating approaches. However, a general synthesis method for porous non-oxide materials, metal alloys and semiconductors with tunable structure, composition and morphology has not been developed yet. To address this challenge, this thesis presents an aerosol method towards the synthesis of such materials and their applications for catalysis, hydrogen storage, Li-batteries and photo-catalysis. The first part of this thesis presents the synthesis of porous metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors with controlled pore structure, crystalline structure and morphology. In these synthesis processes, metal salts and organic ligands were employed as precursors to create porous metal-carbon frameworks. During the aerosol process, primary metal clusters and nanoparticles were formed, which were coagulated/ aggregated forming the porous particles. Various porous particles, such as those of metals (e.g., Ni, Pt, Co, Fe, and Ni xPt(1-x)), metal oxides (e.g., Fe3O4 and SnO2) and semiconductors (e.g., CdS, CuInS2, CuInS 2x-ZnS(1-x), and CuInS2x-TiO2(1-x)) were synthesized. The morphology, porous structure and crystalline structure of the particles were regulated through both templating and non-templating methods. The second part of this thesis explores the applications of these materials, including propylene hydrogenation and H2 uptake capacity of porous Ni, NiPt alloys and Ni-Pt composites, Li-storage of Fe3O4 and SnO2, photodegradation of CuInS2-based semiconductors. The effects of morphology, compositions, and porous structure on the device performance were systematically investigated. Overall, this dissertation work unveiled a simple synthesis approach for porous particles of metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, and semiconductors with controlled

  14. Large Memory Effect and High Carrier Mobility of Organic Field-Effect Transistors Using Semiconductor Colloidal Nano-Dots Dispersed in Polymer Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajimoto, Kaori; Kurokawa, Atsushi; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2011-02-01

    We fabricated organic memory field-effect transistors (FETs) using PbS colloidal nano-dots (NDs) dispersed in thin poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers inserted between gate insulators (SiO2) and pentacene active layers as floating gates. The colloidal NDs were dispersed in chloroform solution with PMMA, and spin-coated on SiO2 surfaces. The fabricated memory FETs showed significantly large threshold voltage shifts of 64.5 V at maximum after a writing voltage of 100 V was applied to their control gates, and a maximum carrier mobility of 0.36 cm2 V-1 s-1, which was comparable to that of reference pentacene FETs without colloidal NDs, was obtained because of the improved crystallinity of the pentacene films.

  15. Anomalous quantum efficiency for photoconduction and its power dependence in metal oxide semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; Wang, W. C.; Lu, M. L.; Chen, Y. F.; Lin, H. C.; Chen, K. H.; Chen, L. C.

    2013-07-01

    The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed.The quantum efficiency and carrier lifetime that decide the photoconduction (PC) efficiencies in the metal oxide semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. The experimental result surprisingly shows that the SnO2, TiO2, WO3, and ZnO NWs reveal extraordinary quantum efficiencies in common, which are over one to three orders of magnitude lower than the theoretical expectation. The surface depletion region (SDR)-controlled photoconductivity is proposed to explain the anomalous quantum efficiency and its power dependence. The inherent difference between the metal oxide nanostructures such as carrier lifetime, carrier concentration, and dielectric constant leading to the distinct PC performance and behavior are also discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01635h

  16. Band structure engineering strategies of metal oxide semiconductor nanowires and related nanostructures: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piyadasa, Adimali; Wang, Sibo; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2017-07-01

    The electronic band structure of a solid state semiconductor determines many of its physical and chemical characteristics such as electrical, optical, physicochemical, and catalytic activity. Alteration or modification of the band structure could lead to significant changes in these physical and chemical characteristics, therefore we introduce new mechanisms of creating novel solid state materials with interesting properties. Over the past three decades, research on band structure engineering has allowed development of various methods to modify the band structure of engineered materials. Compared to bulk counterparts, nanostructures generally exhibit higher band structure modulation capabilities due to the quantum confinement effect, prominent surface effect, and higher strain limit. In this review we will discuss various band structure engineering strategies in semiconductor nanowires and other related nanostructures, mostly focusing on metal oxide systems. Several important strategies of band structure modulation are discussed in detail, such as doping, alloying, straining, interface and core-shell nanostructuring.

  17. Performance improvements of the vertical, double-diffused power metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ronghua

    An n-channel power vertical double-diffused metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor (VDMOSFET) with a new atomic-lattice-layout (ALL) has been designed and fabricated. The performance of the VDMOSFET with the ALL has been studied experimentally and comprehensively for the first time. The experimental results with the ALL are compared with the square (SQ), hexagonal (HEX) and stripe (STR) layouts for different applications. For high-frequency applications of VDMOSFET, the ALL is superior to the HEX and inferior to the STR. The optimum specific on-resistance and input capacitance product (Rsb{ON,SP} × Csb{iss,SP}) and optimum specific on-resistance and output capacitance product (Rsb{ON,SP} × Csb{oss,SP}) for the ALL are 44% and 36% lower than the HEX, and 10% and 13% higher than the STR, respectively. The ALL offers superior performance compared to the SQ for applications involving smart power feedback control using integrated current sensor. For a typical sense resistance of 100 Omega, the sense current drops 44% of its value at 0 Omega for the SQ, but only 11% for the ALL. For high-voltage and high-current applications, such as voltage-controlled current source, one observes that the ALL enters into quasi-saturation region at lower gate voltage (Vsb{G}). Typically, quasi-saturation occurs at Vsb{G} of 3V above the threshold voltage (Vsb{T}) for ALL, whereas this voltage is 5 and 6V for the STR and HEX, respectively. Minority carrier lifetime control by proton implantation has been successfully employed to improve the VDMOSFET built-in diode switching performance for the first time. A sevenfold reduction in reverse recovery charge has been achieved with a proton energy of 2.5 MeV and dose of 3 × 10sp{11}/cmsp2. The impact of proton implantation on diode forward voltage and the VDMOSFET characteristics, such as Vsb{T}, leakage current and on-resistance, has been found negligible. Proton implantation has also been found to significantly improve the device

  18. Band offsets of high K gate oxides on III-V semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J.; Falabretti, B.

    2006-07-01

    III-V semiconductors have high mobility and will be used in field effect transistors with the appropriate gate dielectric. The dielectrics must have band offsets over 1eV to inhibit leakage. The band offsets of various gate dielectrics including HfO2, Al2O3, Gd2O3, Si3N4, and SiO2 on III-V semiconductors such as GaAs, InAs, GaSb, and GaN have been calculated using the method of charge neutrality levels. Generally, the conduction band offsets are found to be over 1eV, so they should inhibit leakage for these dielectrics. On the other hand, SrTiO3 has minimal conduction band offset. The valence band offsets are also reasonably large, except for Si nitride on GaN and Sc2O3 on GaN which are 0.6-0.8eV. There is reasonable agreement with experiment where it exists, although the GaAs :SrTiO3 case is even worse in experiment.

  19. Characterization of Interface State in Silicon Carbide Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Wei-Chieh

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has always been considered as an excellent material for high temperature and high power devices. Since SiC is the only compound semiconductor whose native oxide is silicon dioxide (SiO2), it puts SiC in a unique position. Although SiC metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) technology has made significant progress in recent years, there are still a number of issues to be overcome before more commercial SiC devices can enter the market. The prevailing issues surrounding SiC MOSFET devices are the low channel mobility, the low quality of the oxide layer and the high interface state density at the SiC/SiO2 interface. Consequently, there is a need for research to be performed in order to have a better understanding of the factors causing the poor SiC/SiO2 interface properties. In this work, we investigated the generation lifetime in SiC materials by using the pulsed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor method and measured the interface state density distribution at the SiC/SiO2 interface by using the conductance measurement and the high-low frequency capacitance technique. These measurement techniques have been performed on n-type and p-type SiC MOS capacitors. In the course of our investigation, we observed fast interface states at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in SiC MOS capacitors that underwent three different interface passivation processes, such states were detected in the nitrided samples but not observed in PSG-passivated samples. This result indicate that the lack of fast states at PSG-passivated interface is one of the main reasons for higher channel mobility in PSG MOSFETs. In addition, the effect of mobile ions in the oxide on the response time of interface states has been investigated. In the last chapter we propose additional methods of investigation that can help elucidate the origin of the particular interface states, enabling a more complete understanding of the SiC/SiO2 material system.

  20. A novel lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) by attracting the electric field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Hanaei, Mahsa

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon on insulator (SOI) lateral diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor with high voltage and high frequency performance is presented. In this work we try to reduce the electric field crowding in the drift region. The proposed structure consists of a metal in the buried oxide and also connected to the source. The inserted metal attracts the electric field lines in the buried oxide. It causes 67% improvement in the breakdown voltage in comparison with a conventional SOI-LDMOS (C-LDMOS). Our simulations with two dimensional ATLAS simulator show that the gate-drain capacitance improves in the proposed structure. The unilateral power gain also enhances. So, the proposed structure is suitable for high voltage and high frequency applications.

  1. Enhanced electrical properties of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors with high conductivity thin layer insertion for the channel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Sunbo; Jang, Kyungsoo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the performance and the stability of indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) by inserting an ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) layer at the active/insulator interface. The electrical properties of the double channel device (ITO thickness of 5 nm) were improved in comparison with the single channel ITZO or ITO devices. The TFT characteristics of the device with an ITO thickness of less than 5 nm were degraded due to the formation of an island-like morphology and the carriers scattering at the active/insulator interface. The 5 nm-thick ITO inserted ITZO TFTs (optimal condition) exhibited a superior field effect mobility (∼95 cm2/V·s) compared with the ITZO-only TFTs (∼34 cm2/V·s). The best characteristics of the TFT devices with double channel layer are due to the lowest surface roughness (0.14 nm) and contact angle (50.1°) that result in the highest hydrophicility, and the most effective adhesion at the surface. Furthermore, the threshold voltage shifts for the ITO/ITZO double layer device decreased to 0.80 and -2.39 V compared with 6.10 and -6.79 V (for the ITZO only device) under positive and negative bias stress, respectively. The falling rates of EA were 0.38 eV/V and 0.54 eV/V for the ITZO and ITO/ITZO bi-layer devices, respectively. The faster falling rate of the double channel devices suggests that the trap density, including interface trap and semiconductor bulk trap, can be decreased by the ion insertion of a very thin ITO film into the ITZO/SiO2 reference device. These results demonstrate that the double active layer TFT can potentially be applied to the flat panel display.

  2. The role of the substrate on the dispersion in accumulation in III-V compound semiconductor based metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2015-09-07

    Dispersion in accumulation is a widely observed phenomenon in metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks based on III-V compound semiconductors. The physical origin of this phenomenon is attributed to border traps located in the dielectric material adjacent to the semiconductor. Here, we study the role of the semiconductor substrate on the electrical quality of the first layers at atomic layer deposited (ALD) dielectrics. For this purpose, either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or HfO{sub 2} dielectrics with variable thicknesses were deposited simultaneously on two technology important semiconductors—InGaAs and InP. Significantly larger dispersion was observed in InP based gate stacks compared to those based on InGaAs. The observed difference is attributed to a higher border trap density in dielectrics deposited on InP compared to those deposited on InGaAs. We therefore conclude that the substrate plays an important role in the determination of the electrical quality of the first dielectric monolayers deposited by ALD. An additional observation is that larger dispersion was obtained in HfO{sub 2} based capacitors compared to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based capacitors, deposited on the same semiconductor. This phenomenon is attributed to the lower conduction band offset rather than to a higher border trap density.

  3. Artificial semiconductor/insulator superlattice channel structure for high-performance oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Senthil, Karuppanan; Cho, Hyung Koun; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2013-01-01

    High-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the fundamental building blocks in realizing the potential applications of the next-generation displays. Atomically controlled superlattice structures are expected to induce advanced electric and optical performance due to two-dimensional electron gas system, resulting in high-electron mobility transistors. Here, we have utilized a semiconductor/insulator superlattice channel structure comprising of ZnO/Al2O3 layers to realize high-performance TFTs. The TFT with ZnO (5 nm)/Al2O3 (3.6 nm) superlattice channel structure exhibited high field effect mobility of 27.8 cm2/Vs, and threshold voltage shift of only < 0.5 V under positive/negative gate bias stress test during 2 hours. These properties showed extremely improved TFT performance, compared to ZnO TFTs. The enhanced field effect mobility and stability obtained for the superlattice TFT devices were explained on the basis of layer-by-layer growth mode, improved crystalline nature of the channel layers, and passivation effect of Al2O3 layers. PMID:24061388

  4. Confirmation of filament dissolution behavior by analyzing electrical field effect during reset process in oxide-based RRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chu, Tian-Jian; Lin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Min-Chen; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate completely different characteristics with different operating modes and analyze the electrical field effect to confirm the filament dissolution behavior. The device exhibited a larger memory window when using a single voltage sweep method during reset process rather than the traditional double sweep method. The phenomenon was verified by using fast I-V measurement to simulate the two operating methods. A better high resistance state (HRS) will be obtained with a very short rising time pulse, but quite notably, lower power consumption was needed. We proposed the electrical field effect to explain the phenomenon and demonstrate distribution by COMSOL simulation.

  5. Impact of drift gap, N-layer, and deep N+ sinker on breakdown voltage and saturation current of lateral double-diffused metal oxide semiconductor transistor.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss on the optimal design of a High-Side n-channel Lateral Double-diffused Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (LDMOSFET) whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V with 0.35 microm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process. The proposed nLDMOSFET has been fabricated and tested in order to confirm the features of a deep N+ sinker and a gap of between the drift region (DEEP N-WELL) and the center of the source. The surface is implanted by the N-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side LDMOS exhibits BVdss of 115 V and Ron,sp of as low as 2.20 m ohms cm2, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  6. Ultrasensitive mass sensor fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsen, E.; Abadal, G.; Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S.; Teva, J.; Verd, J.; Sandberg, R.; Svendsen, W.; Perez-Murano, F.; Esteve, J.; Figueras, E.; Campabadal, F.; Montelius, L.; Barniol, N.; Boisen, A.

    2005-07-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have been monolithically integrated on preprocessed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips. Fabricated resonator systems have been designed to have resonance frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. The systems have been characterized in ambient air and vacuum conditions and display ultrasensitive mass detection in air. A mass sensitivity of 4ag/Hz has been determined in air by placing a single glycerine drop, having a measured weight of 57 fg, at the apex of a cantilever and subsequently measuring a frequency shift of 14.8 kHz. CMOS integration enables electrostatic excitation, capacitive detection, and amplification of the resonance signal directly on the chip.

  7. Origin and control of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz

    2008-04-01

    The author reviews the present understanding of the hole-mediated ferromagnetism in magnetically doped semiconductors and oxides as well as the origin of high temperature ferromagnetism in materials containing no valence band holes. It is argued that in these systems spinodal decomposition into regions with a large and a small concentration of magnetic component takes place. This self-organized assembling of magnetic nanocrystals can be controlled by codoping and growth conditions. Functionalities of these multicomponent systems are described together with prospects for their applications in spintronics, nanoelectronics, photonics, plasmonics, and thermoelectrics.

  8. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junghwan Miyokawa, Norihiko; Ide, Keisuke; Toda, Yoshitake; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2016-01-15

    We propose a light-emitting thin film using an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) because AOS has low defect density even fabricated at room temperature. Eu-doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films fabricated at room temperature emitted intense red emission at 614 nm. It is achieved by precise control of oxygen pressure so as to suppress oxygen-deficiency/excess-related defects and free carriers. An electronic structure model is proposed, suggesting that non-radiative process is enhanced mainly by defects near the excited states. AOS would be a promising host for a thin film phosphor applicable to flexible displays as well as to light-emitting transistors.

  9. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Chen, Yok; Kernohan, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  10. Proposal of Trench-Oxide Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structure and Computer Simulation of Silicon Quantum-Wire Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukui, Tetsuya; Oda, Shunri

    1993-12-01

    We propose “trench-oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)” structures as a novel formation method of silicon-based low-dimensional quantum structures, which are considered to be basic elements of future ultrahigh-speed and ultralarge-scale integrated devices. In this method, the applied gate voltage forms the potential well confined in an additional direction defined by ultrafine “trenches” on the oxide layer of the MOS structure. We characterize “trench-oxide MOS” quantum wire structures by two-dimensional numerical calculation of the shape of the potential well, the subband energy levels and the electron density, and investigate the possibility of the experimental observation of quantized density of states peculiar to quantum wires, by measuring capacitance-gate voltage (C-V) characteristics of “trench-oxide MOS capacitors.” We also have successfully fabricated “trench-oxide MOS” quantum wires with the width of 16 nm using electron beam (EB) lithography and electron cyclotron resonance reactive ion etching (ECR-RIE).

  11. Proton-induced failures in high-power field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. A.; Mitin, E. V.; Pashuk, V. V.; Tverskoy, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 1000-MeV protons on high-power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) manufactured using microelectronic technology has been studied. It is established that high-energy proton bombardment leads to breakdown of the gate insulator (oxide) in the MOSFET structure that results in a "catastrophic" failure of the device. A model explaining the appearance of these failures is proposed that is based on the formation of fast residual particles as a result of nuclear reactions between high-energy protons and nuclei of the semiconductor material.

  12. Effective control on flat band voltage of epitaxial lanthanide oxide based metal oxide semiconductor capacitors by interfacial carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Apurba; Fissel, A.; Osten, H. J.

    2013-05-01

    Present work addresses the issue of flat band voltage instability engendered by the presence of large number of fixed charges and interface traps at and close to the interface of metal oxide semiconductor capacitors. We show that submonolayer of C incorporation onto Si surface prior to epitaxial lanthanide oxides (Ln2O3: Gd2O3, Nd2O3) deposition can significantly improve their electrical properties. Ultraviolet photoelectric spectroscopy shows that most of the intrinsic surface states that stem from the dangling bonds on Si surface disappear after passivation with C. The flat band voltage of Pt/Gd2O3/Si MOS capacitors can be tuned in a controlled manner by systematic incorporation of C onto Si surface, effectively at Gd2O3-Si interface.

  13. Modeling of subthreshold characteristics of short channel junctionless cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire metal-oxide-silicon field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoshi; Liu, Xi; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A subthreshold model of short-channel junctionless field effect transistors with cylindrical surrounding-gate nanowire structure has been proposed. It was based on an approximated solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation. The derivation of this model was introduced and the accuracy of the proposed models have been verified by comparison with both previous models and the SILVACO Atlas TCAD simulation results, which show good agreement.

  14. Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors on GaAs with germanium nitride passivation layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Han; Kim, Hyoung-Sub; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Manhong; OK, Injo; Park, Sung Il; Yum, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jack C.

    2007-10-01

    We present gallium arsenide (GaAs) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) with a thin HfO2 gate dielectric and a thin germanium nitride (GexNy) interfacial passivation layer (IPL). TaN /HfO2/GexNy/GaAs MOSCAPs show a low interface state density and a thin equivalent oxide thickness (1.6nm). Compared to GaAs MOSCAPs with germanium (Ge) IPL, the GexNy IPL has a smaller slow trap density, which is confirmed by improved C-V characteristics without humps near the flatband voltage. The lower rate of flatband voltage shift and gate leakage decreasing under constant gate voltage stress were also demonstrated in GaAs MOSCAPs with GexNy IPL than the Ge IPL.

  15. Energy Harvesting Thermoelectric Generators Manufactured Using the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Process

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Tsai, Wen-Jung

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of energy harvesting thermoelectric micro generators using the commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The micro generator consists of 33 thermocouples in series. Thermocouple materials are p-type and n-type polysilicon since they have a large Seebeck coefficient difference. The output power of the micro generator depends on the temperature difference in the hot and cold parts of the thermocouples. In order to increase this temperature difference, the hot part of the thermocouples is suspended to reduce heat-sinking. The micro generator needs a post-CMOS process to release the suspended structures of hot part, which the post-process includes an anisotropic dry etching to etch the sacrificial oxide layer and an isotropic dry etching to remove the silicon substrate. Experiments show that the output power of the micro generator is 9.4 μW at a temperature difference of 15 K. PMID:23396193

  16. Improved interface properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with thin Ga-oxide interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Asahara, Ryohei; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-06-01

    The impact of thin Ga-oxide (GaOx) interlayers on the electrical properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was systematically investigated. Thin thermal oxides formed at around 900 °C were found to be beneficial for improving the electrical properties of insulator/GaN interfaces, despite the fact that thermal oxidation of GaN surfaces at high temperatures proceeds by means of grain growth. Consequently, well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics of SiO2/GaOx/n-GaN stacked MOS capacitors with an interface state density (Dit) as low as 1.7 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were demonstrated. Moreover, the Dit value was further reduced for the SiO2/GaOx/GaN capacitor with a 2-nm-thick sputter-deposited GaOx interlayer. These results clearly indicate the intrinsically superior nature of the oxide/GaN interfaces and provide plausible guiding principles for fabricating high-performance GaN-MOS devices with thin GaOx interlayers.

  17. Interfacial engineering of metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions for efficient and stable photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Digdaya, Ibadillah A.; Adhyaksa, Gede W. P.; Trześniewski, Bartek J.; Garnett, Erik C.; Smith, Wilson A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar-assisted water splitting can potentially provide an efficient route for large-scale renewable energy conversion and storage. It is essential for such a system to provide a sufficiently high photocurrent and photovoltage to drive the water oxidation reaction. Here we demonstrate a photoanode that is capable of achieving a high photovoltage by engineering the interfacial energetics of metal–insulator–semiconductor junctions. We evaluate the importance of using two metals to decouple the functionalities for a Schottky contact and a highly efficient catalyst. We also illustrate the improvement of the photovoltage upon incidental oxidation of the metallic surface layer in KOH solution. Additionally, we analyse the role of the thin insulating layer to the pinning and depinning of Fermi level that is responsible to the resulting photovoltage. Finally, we report the advantage of using dual metal overlayers as a simple protection route for highly efficient metal–insulator–semiconductor photoanodes by showing over 200 h of operational stability. PMID:28660883

  18. Real-space electron transfer in III-nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor-heterojunction structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygi, S.; Koudymov, A.; Adivarahan, V.; Yang, J.; Simin, G.; Khan, M. Asif; Deng, J.; Gaska, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2005-07-01

    The real-space transfer effect in a SiO2/AlGaN /GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure (MOSH) from the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas at the heterointerface to the oxide-semiconductor interface has been demonstrated and explained. The effect occurs at high positive gate bias and manifests itself as an additional step in the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristic. The real-space transfer effect limits the achievable maximum 2D electron gas density in the device channel. We show that in MOSH structures the maximum electron gas density exceeds up to two times that at the equilibrium (zero bias) condition. Correspondingly, a significant increase in the maximum channel current (up to two times compared to conventional Schottky-gate structures) can be achieved. The real-space charge transfer effect in MOSH structures also opens up a way to design novel devices such as variable capacitors, multistate switches, memory cells, etc.

  19. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing of stretchable metal oxide semiconductor transistors with high performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Kim, K; Hwang, Y H; Park, J; Jang, J; Nam, Y; Kang, Y; Kim, M; Park, H J; Lee, Z; Choi, J; Kim, Y; Jeong, S; Bae, B-S; Park, J-U

    2016-10-06

    As demands for high pixel densities and wearable forms of displays increase, high-resolution printing technologies to achieve high performance transistors beyond current amorphous silicon levels and to allow low-temperature solution processability for plastic substrates have been explored as key processes in emerging flexible electronics. This study describes electrohydrodynamic inkjet (e-jet) technology for direct printing of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFTs) with high resolution (minimum line width: 2 μm) and superb performance, including high mobility (∼230 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)). Logic operations of the amplifier circuits composed of these e-jet-printed metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) TFTs demonstrate their high performance. Printed In2O TFTs with e-jet printing-assisted high-resolution S/D electrodes were prepared, and the direct printing of passivation layers on these channels enhanced their gate-bias stabilities significantly. Moreover, low process temperatures (<250 °C) enable the use of thin plastic substrates; highly flexible and stretchable TFT arrays have been demonstrated, suggesting promise for next-generation printed electronics.

  20. Electrosprayed metal oxide semiconductor films for sensitive and selective detection of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Ghimbeu, Camelia Matei; Lumbreras, Martine; Schoonman, Joop; Siadat, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Semiconductor metal oxide films of copper-doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO(2)), tungsten oxide (WO(3)) and indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) were deposited on a platinum coated alumina substrate employing the electrostatic spray deposition technique (ESD). The morphology studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows porous homogeneous films comprising uniformly distributed aggregates of nano particles. The X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) proves the formation of crystalline phases with no impurities. Besides, the Raman cartographies provided information about the structural homogeneity. Some of the films are highly sensitive to low concentrations of H(2)S (10 ppm) at low operating temperatures (100 and 200 °C) and the best response in terms of R(air)/R(gas) is given by Cu-SnO(2) films (2500) followed by WO(3) (1200) and In(2)O(3) (75). Moreover, all the films exhibit no cross-sensitivity to other reducing (SO(2)) or oxidizing (NO(2)) gases.