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Sample records for oxide solid-state electrolyte

  1. Solid state electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  2. Lithium Polymer Electrolytes and Solid State NMR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkeley, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    Research is being done at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) developing new kinds of batteries that do not depend on a solution. Currently, batteries use liquid electrolytes containing lithium. Problems with the liquid electrolyte are (1) solvents used can leak out of the battery, so larger, more restrictive, packages have to be made, inhibiting the diversity of application and decreasing the power density; (2) the liquid is incompatible with the lithium metal anode, so alternative, less efficient, anodes are required. The Materials Department at GRC has been working to synthesize polymer electrolytes that can replace the liquid electrolytes. The advantages are that polymer electrolytes do not have the potential to leak so they can be used for a variety of tasks, small or large, including in the space rover or in space suits. The polymers generated by Dr. Mary Ann Meador's group are in the form of rod -coil structures. The rod aspect gives the polymer structural integrity, while the coil makes it flexible. Lithium ions are used in these polymers because of their high mobility. The coils have repeating units of oxygen which stabilize the positive lithium by donating electron density. This aids in the movement of the lithium within the polymer, which contributes to higher conductivity. In addition to conductivity testing, these polymers are characterized using DSC, TGA, FTIR, and solid state NMR. Solid state NMR is used in classifying materials that are not soluble in solvents, such as polymers. The NMR spins the sample at a magic angle (54.7') allowing the significant peaks to emerge. Although solid state NMR is a helpful technique in determining bonding, the process of preparing the sample and tuning it properly are intricate jobs that require patience; especially since each run takes about six hours. The NMR allows for the advancement of polymer synthesis by showing if the expected results were achieved. Using the NMR, in addition to looking at polymers, allows for

  3. A new solid polymer electrolyte incorporating Li10GeP2S12 into a polyethylene oxide matrix for all-solid-state lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanran; Wu, Chuan; Peng, Gang; Chen, Xiaotian; Yao, Xiayin; Bai, Ying; Wu, Feng; Chen, Shaojie; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Li10GeP2S12 (LGPS) is incorporated into polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix to fabricate composite solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes. The lithium ion conductivities of as-prepared composite membranes are evaluated, and the optimal composite membrane exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.21 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 80 °C and an electrochemical window of 0-5.7 V. The phase transition behaviors for electrolytes are characterized by DSC, and the possible reasons for their enhanced ionic conductivities are discussed. The LGPS microparticles, acting as active fillers incorporation into the PEO matrix, have a positive effect on the ionic conductivity, lithium ion transference number and electrochemical stabilities. In addition, two kinds of all-solid-state lithium batteries (LiFeO4/SPE/Li and LiCoO2/SPE/Li) are fabricated to demonstrate the good compatibility between this new SPE membrane and different electrodes. And the LiFePO4/Li battery exhibits fascinating electrochemical performance with high capacity retention (92.5% after 50 cycles at 60 °C) and attractive capacities of 158, 148, 138 and 99 mAh g-1 at current rates of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C, respectively. It is demonstrated that this new composite SPE should be a promising electrolyte applied in solid state batteries based on lithium metal electrode.

  4. A study of ferrocene diffusion dynamics in network poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte by solid-state voltammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, M.; Longmire, M.L.; Murray, R.W. )

    1990-03-22

    The diffusion rates of five ferrocene derivatives dissolved in an amorphous, cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer electrolyte are measured by an electrochemical technique which detects the rate of their transport to an oxidizing microdisk electrode. The diffusion coefficients in dilute ferrocene/polymer solutions at 65{degree}C vary from 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} depending on the size of the ferrocene derivative. The diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing ferrocene concentration, increasing LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte concentration, and decreasing temperature; values approaching 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1} are encountered at room temperature.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides in the system Ba-Fe-O using solid-state electrochemical cells with oxide and fluoride ion conducting electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, S. K.; Parida, S. C.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2004-04-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energy of formations of BaFe 12O 19(s), BaFe 2O 4(s), Ba 2Fe 2O 5(s), Ba 3Fe 2O 6(s) and Ba 5Fe 2O 8(s) have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CaF 2(s) as an electrolyte. The reversible e.m.f. values have been measured in the temperature range from 970 to 1151 K. The oxygen chemical potential corresponding to three phase equilibria involving technologically important compound BaFe 12O 19(s) has been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CSZ as an electrolyte from 1048 to 1221 K. The values of Δ fGm0( T) for the above ternary oxides are given by ΔfG m0( BaFe12O19, s)/ kJ mol -1(±0.6)=-5431.3+1.5317 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( BaFe2O4, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.3)=-1461.4+0.3745 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( Ba2Fe2O5, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.4)=-2038.3+0.4433 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1149) ΔfG m0( Ba3Fe2O6, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.5)=-2700.1+0.6090 (T/ K) (969⩽T/ K⩽1150) and ΔfG m0( Ba5Fe2O8, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.6)=-3984.1+0.9300 (T/ K) (973⩽T/ K⩽1150) The uncertainty estimates for Δ fGm0 includes the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. An isothermal oxygen potential diagram for the system Ba-Fe-O was constructed at 1100 K based on the thermodynamic data obtained in this study.

  6. Solid State Electrolytes Prepared from PEO (360) Silanated Silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maitra, P.; Ding, J.; Liu, B.; Wunder, S. L.; Lin, H.-P.; Chua, D.; Salomon, M.

    2002-01-01

    All solid state composite electrolytes were prepared using fumed silica (SiO2) silanated with an oligomeric polyethylene oxide (PEO) silane containing 6-9 ethylene oxide repeat units, a PEO matrix and LiClO4 (8/1 O/Li). The PEO-silane covalently attached to the silica was amorphous, with a T(sub g) that increased from -90 C to -53 C after attachment. The conductivity of films prepared using the PEO-silanated silica increased to approx. 6 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at RT compared with approx. 1 x 10(-5) S/cm for films prepared with unsilanated SiO2.

  7. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Gao; Yu-Sheng, Zhao; Si-Qi, Shi; Hong, Li

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51372228), the Shanghai Pujiang Program, China (Grant No. 14PJ1403900), and the Shanghai Institute of Materials Genome from the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261200).

  8. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm−3 at 0.8 A cm−3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm−3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors. PMID:27225484

  9. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-26

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm(-3) at 0.8 A cm(-3) with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm(-3), representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors.

  10. A zwitterionic gel electrolyte for efficient solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xu; Liu, Huili; Yin, Qin; Wu, Junchi; Chen, Pengzuo; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Gel electrolytes have attracted increasing attention for solid-state supercapacitors. An ideal gel electrolyte usually requires a combination of advantages of high ion migration rate, reasonable mechanical strength and robust water retention ability at the solid state for ensuring excellent work durability. Here we report a zwitterionic gel electrolyte that successfully brings the synergic advantages of robust water retention ability and ion migration channels, manifesting in superior electrochemical performance. When applying the zwitterionic gel electrolyte, our graphene-based solid-state supercapacitor reaches a volume capacitance of 300.8 F cm-3 at 0.8 A cm-3 with a rate capacity of only 14.9% capacitance loss as the current density increases from 0.8 to 20 A cm-3, representing the best value among the previously reported graphene-based solid-state supercapacitors, to the best of our knowledge. We anticipate that zwitterionic gel electrolyte may be developed as a gel electrolyte in solid-state supercapacitors.

  11. Functional titanium oxide nano-particles as electron lifetime, electrical conductance enhancer, and long-term performance booster in quasi-solid-state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Wu, Yun-Ling; Tung, Yung-Liang; Shih, Chao-Ming; Wang, Yi-Chun; Li, Jun-Ruei

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the design of a quasi-solid-state electrolyte for improving the photovoltaic efficiency and long-term performance stability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In this study, agarose gel and titanium oxide (TiO2) nano-particles are incorporated into an iodine/iodide electrolyte solution in a 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/3-methoxypropionitrile (MPN) solvent mixture to fabricate quasi-solid-state electrolytes for 2.0-cm2 DSSCs. The electrolyte also contains an ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide, and a co-additive, 1-methylbenzimidazole. The negatively charged TiO2 nano-particles exhibit an anatase crystal structure. Without agarose and TiO2, the control cell's photovoltaic efficiency drops by more than 50% over 2400 h of aging due to a significant decrease in the short-circuit current. Incorporating 1% agarose into the electrolyte not only enhances the retention of the solvent but also maintains the short-circuit current. Furthermore, adding 0.5% TiO2 to 1% agarose electrolyte provides sufficient ion and electron transfer routes and improves the fill factor of the corresponding DSSC. The photoconversion efficiency of the agarose/TiO2-containing DSSC monotonically increases from an initial value of 5.08% to 6.48% within 2400 h. The improved cell efficiency is correlated to the longer electron lifetime in the DSSC, higher ion diffusivity, and the smaller electrical resistance of the electrolyte.

  12. Oxygen production using solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, Jerry W.; Clark, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    High purity oxygen is required for a number of scientific, medical, and industrial applications. Traditionally, these needs have been met by cryogenic distillation or pressure swing adsorption systems designed to separate oxygen from air. Oxygen separation from air via solid-state zirconia electrolyte technology offers an alternative to these methods. The technology has several advantages over the traditional methods, including reliability, compactness, quiet operation, high purity output, and low power consumption.

  13. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S.

    2016-07-01

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  14. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  15. Highly mobile segments in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide)8:NaPF6 electrolytes studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Huan; Liang, Xinmiao; Wang, Liying; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Chaoyang; Feng, Jiwen

    2014-02-01

    Two types of high-crystallinity poly(ethylene oxide)/NaPF6 electrolytes with ethylene oxide (EO)/Na molar ratios of 8:1 and 6:1, termed as PEO8:NaPF6 and PEO6:NaPF6 with Mw = 6000 g mol-1 were prepared, and their ionic conductivity, structure, and segmental motions were investigated and compared. PEO8:NaPF6 polymer electrolyte exhibits the room-temperature ionic conductivity 7.7 × 10-7 S cm-1 which is about five times higher than the PEO6:NaPF6. By variable-temperature measurements of static powder spectra and 1H spin-lattice relaxation time in rotation frame (1H T1ρ), we demonstrate that crystalline segments are more highly mobile in the crystalline PEO8:NaPF6 with higher ionic conductivity than in the PEO6:NaPF6 with lower ionic conductivity. The large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO8:NaPF6 onsets at lower temperature (˜233 K) with a low activation energy 0.31 eV that is comparable with that of the pure PEO crystal. Whereas, the large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO6:NaPF6 starts around 313 K with a high activation energy of 0.91 eV. As a result of the temperature-enhanced large-angle reorientations, the 13C static powder lineshape changes markedly from a low-temperature wide pattern with apparent principal values of chemical shift δ33 < δ22 < δ11 to a high-temperature narrow pattern of uniaxial chemical shift anisotropy δ33 > δ22 (δ11). It is suggested that the segmental motion in crystalline PEO-salt complex promotes ionic conductivity.

  16. An all-solid-state lithium ion battery electrolyte membrane fabricated by hot-pressing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhu, Yuewu; Liu, Jin

    2015-06-01

    A cross-linked polymer electrolyte membrane (SPE) was fabricated by a solvent-free hot-pressing method for all-solid-state lithium ion battery. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte is 1.34 × 10-3 S cm-1 and the decomposition potential is 4.87 V at the ethylene oxide (EO):LiN(SO2CF3)2 (LiTFSI) molar ratio of 20:1 and 120 °C. TG-DSC results show that the SPE is thermally stable up to 230 °C in argon atmosphere. The assembled LiFePO4/SPE/Li all-solid-state battery can stably work in the temperature range of 80-140 °C. At 120 °C, the initial discharge capacity of the battery is 156.7 mAh g-1 at 1C which is close to the theoretical capacity of the cathode material, showing that the solvent-free filming method is low-cost and environment-friendly for solid polymer electrolyte and all-solid-state lithium ion battery.

  17. Highly mobile segments in crystalline poly(ethylene oxide){sub 8}:NaPF{sub 6} electrolytes studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huan; Liang, Xinmiao; Wang, Liying; Zheng, Anmin; Liu, Chaoyang; Feng, Jiwen

    2014-02-21

    Two types of high-crystallinity poly(ethylene oxide)/NaPF{sub 6} electrolytes with ethylene oxide (EO)/Na molar ratios of 8:1 and 6:1, termed as PEO{sub 8}:NaPF{sub 6} and PEO{sub 6}:NaPF{sub 6} with M{sub w} = 6000 g mol{sup −1} were prepared, and their ionic conductivity, structure, and segmental motions were investigated and compared. PEO{sub 8}:NaPF{sub 6} polymer electrolyte exhibits the room-temperature ionic conductivity 7.7 × 10{sup −7} S cm{sup −1} which is about five times higher than the PEO{sub 6}:NaPF{sub 6}. By variable-temperature measurements of static powder spectra and {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation time in rotation frame ({sup 1}H T{sub 1ρ}), we demonstrate that crystalline segments are more highly mobile in the crystalline PEO{sub 8}:NaPF{sub 6} with higher ionic conductivity than in the PEO{sub 6}:NaPF{sub 6} with lower ionic conductivity. The large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO{sub 8}:NaPF{sub 6} onsets at lower temperature (∼233 K) with a low activation energy 0.31 eV that is comparable with that of the pure PEO crystal. Whereas, the large-angle reorientation motion of polymer segments in the PEO{sub 6}:NaPF{sub 6} starts around 313 K with a high activation energy of 0.91 eV. As a result of the temperature-enhanced large-angle reorientations, the {sup 13}C static powder lineshape changes markedly from a low-temperature wide pattern with apparent principal values of chemical shift δ{sub 33} < δ{sub 22} < δ{sub 11} to a high-temperature narrow pattern of uniaxial chemical shift anisotropy δ{sub 33} > δ{sub 22} (δ{sub 11}). It is suggested that the segmental motion in crystalline PEO-salt complex promotes ionic conductivity.

  18. Transition from Superlithiophobicity to Superlithiophilicity of Garnet Solid-State Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Gong, Yunhui; Zhu, Yizhou; Fu, Kun Kelvin; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Wang, Chengwei; Liu, Boyang; Han, Xiaogang; Mo, Yifei; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-21

    All-solid-state Li-batteries using solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) offer enhanced safety over conventional Li-ion batteries with organic liquid electrolytes due to the nonflammable nature of SSEs. The superior mechanical strength of SSEs can also protect against Li dendrite penetration, which enables the use of the highest specific capacity (3861 mAh/g) and lowest redox potential (-3.04 V vs standard hydrogen electrode) anode: Li metal. However, contact between the Li metal and SSEs presents a major challenge, where a large polarization occurs at the Li metal/SSE interface. Here, the chemical properties of a promising oxide-based SSE (garnet) changed from "super-lithiophobicity" to "super-lithiophilicity" through an ultrathin coating of amorphous Si deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The wettability transition is due to the reaction between Li and Si and the in situ formation of lithiated Si. As a result, symmetric cells composed of a Si-coated garnet-structured SSE and Li metal electrodes exhibited much smaller impedance and excellent stability upon plating/stripping cycles compared to cells using bare garnet SSE. Specifically, the interfacial resistance between Li and garnet dramatically decreased from 925 to 127 Ω cm(2) when lithiated Si was formed on the garnet. Our discovery of switchable lithiophobic-lithiophilic surfaces to improve the Li metal/SSE interface opens opportunities for improving many other SSEs. PMID:27570205

  19. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life. PMID:26373359

  20. All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries with Grafted Ceramic Nanoparticles Dispersed in Solid Polymer Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Lago, Nerea; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Rojo, Teofilo; Armand, Michel

    2015-09-21

    Lithium-based rechargeable batteries offer superior specific energy and power, and have enabled exponential growth in industries focused on small electronic devices. However, further increases in energy density, for example for electric transportation, face the challenge of harnessing the lithium metal as negative electrode instead of limited-capacity graphite and its heavy copper current collector. All-solid-state batteries utilize solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by using plasticized poly(ethylene oxide)-based SPEs comprising anions grafted or co-grafted onto ceramic nanoparticles. This new approach using grafted ceramic nanoparticles enables the development of a new generation of nanohybrid polymer electrolytes with high ionic conductivity as well as high electrochemical and mechanical stability, enabling Li-ion batteries with long cycle life.

  1. Solid-state sodium batteries using polymer electrolytes and sodium intercalation electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y. |

    1996-08-01

    Solid-state sodium cells using polymer electrolytes (polyethylene oxide mixed with sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate: PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and sodium cobalt oxide positive electrodes are characterized in terms of discharge and charge characteristics, rate capability, cycle life, and energy and power densities. The P2 phase Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} can reversibly intercalate sodium in the range of x = 0.3 to 0.9, giving a theoretical specific energy of 440 Wh/kg and energy density of 1,600 Wh/l. Over one hundred cycles to 60% depth of discharge have been obtained at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Experiments show that the electrolyte/Na interface is stable and is not the limiting factor to cell cycle life. Na{sub 0.7}CoO{sub 2} composite electrodes containing various amounts of carbon black additive are investigated. The transport properties of polymer electrolytes are the critical factors for performance. These properties (the ionic conductivity, salt diffusion coefficient, and ion transference number) are measured for the PEO{sub n}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} system over a wide range of concentrations at 85 C. All the three transport properties are very salt-concentration dependent. The ionic conductivity exhibits a maximum at about n = 20. The transference number, diffusion coefficient, and thermodynamic factor all vary with salt concentration in a similar fashion, decreasing as the concentration increases, except for a local maximum. These results verify that polymer electrolytes cannot be treated as ideal solutions. The measured transport-property values are used to analyze and optimize the electrolytes by computer simulation and also cell testing. Salt precipitation is believed to be the rate limiting process for cells using highly concentrated solutions, as a result of lower values of these properties, while salt depletion is the limiting factor when a dilute solution is used.

  2. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (< 80 °C), flammable, and volatile organic electrolytes. These organic based electrolyte systems are viable at ambient temperatures, but require a cooling system to ensure that temperatures do not exceed 80 °C. These cooling systems tend to increase battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed. PMID:23963203

  3. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (< 80 °C), flammable, and volatile organic electrolytes. These organic based electrolyte systems are viable at ambient temperatures, but require a cooling system to ensure that temperatures do not exceed 80 °C. These cooling systems tend to increase battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  4. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization.

  5. Graphene quantum dots as the electrolyte for solid state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su; Li, Yutong; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Hong, Song; Huang, Minglu

    2016-01-01

    We propose that graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a sufficient number of acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups such as -COOH and -OH can serve as solution- and solid- type electrolytes for supercapacitors. Moreover, we found that the ionic conductivity and ion-donating ability of the GQDs could be markedly improved by simply neutralizing their acidic functional groups by using KOH. These neutralized GQDs as the solution- or solid-type electrolytes greatly enhanced the capacitive performance and rate capability of the supercapacitors. The reason for the enhancement can be ascribed to the fully ionization of the weak acidic oxygen-bearing functional groups after neutralization. PMID:26763275

  6. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Kuldeep; Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10−4 S cm{sup −1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg−1 for low current drain.

  7. Block Copolymer Electrolytes: Thermodynamics, Ion Transport, and Use in Solid- State Lithium/Sulfur Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Alexander Andrew

    Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes containing an ion-conducting block and a modulus-strengthening block are of interest for applications in solid-state lithium metal batteries. These materials can self-assemble into well-defined microstructures, creating conducting channels that facilitate ion transport. The overall objective of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the behavior of salt-containing block copolymers, and evaluate their potential for use in solid-state lithium/sulfur batteries. Anionically synthesized polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt were used as a model system. This thesis investigates the model system on several levels: from fundamental thermodynamic studies to bulk characterization and finally device assembly and testing. First, the thermodynamics of neat and salt-containing block copolymers was studied. The addition of salt to these materials is necessary to make them conductive, however even small amounts of salt can have significant effects on their phase behavior, and consequently their iontransport and mechanical properties. As a result, the effect of salt addition on block copolymer thermodynamics has been the subject of significant interest over the last decade. A comprehensive study of the thermodynamics of block copolymer/salt mixtures over a wide range of molecular weights, compositions, salt concentrations and temperatures was conducted. Next, the effect of molecular weight on ion transport in both homopolymer and copolymer electrolytes were studied over a wide range of chain lengths. Homopolymer electrolytes show an inverse relationship between conductivity and chain length, with a plateau in the infinite molecular weight limit. This is due to the presence of two mechanisms of ion conduction in homopolymers; the first mechanism is a result of the segmental motion of the chains surrounding the salt ions, 2 creating a liquid

  8. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  9. Investigation of solid state electrolyte silver-zinc battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Study of the solid electrolyte ZnCl2-2NH3 rechargeable silver zinc electrochemical cell by X-ray diffraction analysis of the reaction products led to the conclusion that some water is consumed when the cell is discharged. Replacement of ZnCl2-2NH3 by ZnCl2-4Zn(OH)2 gave cells with high internal resistance and limited capacity. The salt formed by exposing a fibrous membrane saturated with ZnCl2 solution to fumes from ammonium carbonate in a dry desiccator comprised ZnCl2-4Zn(OH)2, ZnCl2,3NH4Cl and a third unidentified component. The temperature coefficient of open circuit EMF was nearly zero over the range from -25 C to 50 C. The internal resistance and polarization increased substantially below -25 C. There is some indication that exposure to 50 C for 29 hours causes some deterioration.

  10. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ˜2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ˜127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ˜76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  11. Solid State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Electrolyte Decomposition Products on Lithium Ion Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSilva, J .H. S. R.; Udinwe, V.; Sideris, P. J.; Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Smith, K. A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in lithium ion cells prepared with advanced electrolytes is investigated by solid state multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of electrode materials harvested from cycled cells subjected to an accelerated aging protocol. The electrolyte composition is varied to include the addition of fluorinated carbonates and triphenyl phosphate (TPP, a flame retardant). In addition to species associated with LiPF6 decomposition, cathode NMR spectra are characterized by the presence of compounds originating from the TPP additive. Substantial amounts of LiF are observed in the anodes as well as compounds originating from the fluorinated carbonates.

  12. 'All-solid-state' electrochemistry of a protein-confined polymer electrolyte film

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Meera; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K. Mulla, Imtiaz S.; Shabab, Mohammed; Khan, M.I.

    2007-12-07

    Interfacial redox behavior of a heme protein (hemoglobin) confined in a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, Nafion (a perfluoro sulfonic acid ionomer) is investigated using a unique 'all-solid-state' electrochemical methodology. The supple phase-separated structure of the polymer electrolyte membrane, with hydrophilic pools containing solvated protons and water molecules, is found to preserve the incorporated protein in its active form even in the solid-state, using UV-visible, Fluorescence (of Tryptophan and Tyrosine residues) and DRIFT (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) spectroscopy. More specifically, solid-state cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance of the protein-incorporated polymer films reveal that the Fe{sup 2+}-form of the entrapped protein is found to bind molecular oxygen more strongly than the native protein. In the 'all-solid-state' methodology, as there is no need to dip the protein-modified electrode in a liquid electrolyte (like the conventional electrochemical methods), it offers an easier means to study a number of proteins in a variety of polymer matrices (even biomimetic assemblies). In addition, the results of the present investigation could find interesting application in a variety of research disciplines, in addition to its fundamental scientific interest, including protein biotechnology, pharmaceutical and biomimetic chemistry.

  13. Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Mechanisms and Properties Governing Ion Conduction.

    PubMed

    Bachman, John Christopher; Muy, Sokseiha; Grimaud, Alexis; Chang, Hao-Hsun; Pour, Nir; Lux, Simon F; Paschos, Odysseas; Maglia, Filippo; Lupart, Saskia; Lamp, Peter; Giordano, Livia; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-01-13

    This Review is focused on ion-transport mechanisms and fundamental properties of solid-state electrolytes to be used in electrochemical energy-storage systems. Properties of the migrating species significantly affecting diffusion, including the valency and ionic radius, are discussed. The natures of the ligand and metal composing the skeleton of the host framework are analyzed and shown to have large impacts on the performance of solid-state electrolytes. A comprehensive identification of the candidate migrating species and structures is carried out. Not only the bulk properties of the conductors are explored, but the concept of tuning the conductivity through interfacial effects-specifically controlling grain boundaries and strain at the interfaces-is introduced. High-frequency dielectric constants and frequencies of low-energy optical phonons are shown as examples of properties that correlate with activation energy across many classes of ionic conductors. Experimental studies and theoretical results are discussed in parallel to give a pathway for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes. Through this discussion, the present Review aims to provide insight into the physical parameters affecting the diffusion process, to allow for more efficient and target-oriented research on improving solid-state ion conductors. PMID:26713396

  14. Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Mechanisms and Properties Governing Ion Conduction.

    PubMed

    Bachman, John Christopher; Muy, Sokseiha; Grimaud, Alexis; Chang, Hao-Hsun; Pour, Nir; Lux, Simon F; Paschos, Odysseas; Maglia, Filippo; Lupart, Saskia; Lamp, Peter; Giordano, Livia; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-01-13

    This Review is focused on ion-transport mechanisms and fundamental properties of solid-state electrolytes to be used in electrochemical energy-storage systems. Properties of the migrating species significantly affecting diffusion, including the valency and ionic radius, are discussed. The natures of the ligand and metal composing the skeleton of the host framework are analyzed and shown to have large impacts on the performance of solid-state electrolytes. A comprehensive identification of the candidate migrating species and structures is carried out. Not only the bulk properties of the conductors are explored, but the concept of tuning the conductivity through interfacial effects-specifically controlling grain boundaries and strain at the interfaces-is introduced. High-frequency dielectric constants and frequencies of low-energy optical phonons are shown as examples of properties that correlate with activation energy across many classes of ionic conductors. Experimental studies and theoretical results are discussed in parallel to give a pathway for further improvement of solid-state electrolytes. Through this discussion, the present Review aims to provide insight into the physical parameters affecting the diffusion process, to allow for more efficient and target-oriented research on improving solid-state ion conductors.

  15. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  16. Effects of cathode electrolyte interfacial (CEI) layer on long term cycling of all-solid-state thin-film batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ziying; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Xin, Huolin L.; Han, Lili; Grillon, Nathanael; Guy-Bouyssou, Delphine; Bouyssou, Emilien; Proust, Marina; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-08-01

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to not only push the current limits of energy density by utilizing Li metal, but also improve safety by avoiding flammable organic electrolyte. However, understanding the role of solid electrolyte - electrode interfaces will be critical to improve performance. In this study, we conducted long term cycling on commercially available lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON)/lithium (Li) cells at elevated temperature to investigate the interfacial phenomena that lead to capacity decay. STEM-EELS analysis of samples revealed a previously unreported disordered layer between the LCO cathode and LiPON electrolyte. This electrochemically inactive layer grew in thickness leading to loss of capacity and increase of interfacial resistance when cycled at 80 °C. The stabilization of this layer through interfacial engineering is crucial to improve the long term performance of thin-film batteries especially under thermal stress.

  17. Fast Solid-State Li Ion Conducting Garnet-Type Structure Metal Oxides for Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Thangadurai, Venkataraman; Pinzaru, Dana; Narayanan, Sumaletha; Baral, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-15

    Lithium ion batteries are the most promising energy storage system on the market today; however, safety issues associated with the use of flammable organic polymer-based electrolytes with poor electrochemical and chemical stabilities prevent this technology from reaching maturity. Solid lithium ion electrolytes (SLIEs) are being considered as potential replacements for the organic electrolytes to develop all-solid-state Li ion batteries. Out of the recently discovered SLIEs, the garnet-related structured Li-stuffed metal oxides are the most promising electrolytes due to their high total (bulk + grain boundary) Li ion conductivity, high electrochemical stability window (∼6 V versus Li(+)/Li at room temperature), and chemical stability against reaction with an elemental Li anode and high-voltage metal oxide Li cathodes. This Perspective discusses the structural-chemical composition-ionic conductivity relationship of Li-stuffed garnets, followed by a discussion on the Li ion conduction mechanism, as well as the electrochemical and chemical stability of these materials. The performance of a number of all-solid-state batteries employing garnet-type Li ion electrolytes is also discussed.

  18. Fluorine-Doped Antiperovskite Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Jinlong; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Jianshi; Zhao, Yusheng; Goodenough, John B

    2016-08-16

    A fluorine-doped antiperovskite Li-ion conductor Li2 (OH)X (X=Cl, Br) is shown to be a promising candidate for a solid electrolyte in an all-solid-state Li-ion rechargeable battery. Substitution of F(-) for OH(-) transforms orthorhombic Li2 OHCl to a room-temperature cubic phase, which shows electrochemical stability to 9 V versus Li(+) /Li and two orders of magnitude higher Li-ion conductivity than that of orthorhombic Li2 OHCl. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 with F-doped Li2 OHCl as the solid electrolyte showed good cyclability and a high coulombic efficiency over 40 charge/discharge cycles. PMID:27356953

  19. Fluorine-Doped Antiperovskite Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Jinlong; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Jianshi; Zhao, Yusheng; Goodenough, John B

    2016-08-16

    A fluorine-doped antiperovskite Li-ion conductor Li2 (OH)X (X=Cl, Br) is shown to be a promising candidate for a solid electrolyte in an all-solid-state Li-ion rechargeable battery. Substitution of F(-) for OH(-) transforms orthorhombic Li2 OHCl to a room-temperature cubic phase, which shows electrochemical stability to 9 V versus Li(+) /Li and two orders of magnitude higher Li-ion conductivity than that of orthorhombic Li2 OHCl. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 with F-doped Li2 OHCl as the solid electrolyte showed good cyclability and a high coulombic efficiency over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  20. Toward ambient temperature operation with all-solid-state lithium metal batteries with a sp3 boron-based solid single ion conducting polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Cai, Weiwei; Rohan, Rupesh; Pan, Meize; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xupo; Li, Cuicui; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-02-01

    The ionic conductivity decay problem of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) when increase the lithium salt of the SPEs up to high concentration is here functionally overcome by the incorporation of a charge delocalized sp3 boron based single ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with poly(ethylene oxide) to fabricate solid-state sp3 boron based SIPE membranes (S-BSMs). By characterizations, particularly differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and ionic conductivity studies, the fabricated S-BSMs showed decreased melting points and increased ionic conductivity as steadily increase the content of sp3 boron based SIPE, which significantly improved the low temperature performance of the all-solid-state lithium batteries. The fabricated Li | S-BSMs | LiFePO4 cells exhibit highly electrochemical stability and excellent cycling at temperature below melting point of PEO, which has never been reported so far for SIPEs based all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  1. Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes based on dicationic bis-imidazolium salts for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Nam-Gyu; Ahn, Kwang-Duk

    Novel thixotropic gel electrolytes have been successfully prepared by utilizing oligomeric poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based bis-imidazolium diiodide salts and hydrophilic silica nanoparticles for application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The thixotropic gel-state of the ionic liquid-based composite electrolytes is confirmed by observing the typical hysteresis loop and temporary hydrogen bonding. On using the PEO-based composite electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state DSSC exhibited highly improved properties such as easy penetration of the electrolyte into the cell without leakage, long-term stability, high open-circuit voltage without the use of 4- tert-butylpyridine, and a high energy-conversion efficiency of 5.25% under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm -2).

  2. In-situ, non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Robert D.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Solid-state electrolytes such as cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) can enable solid-state batteries, metallic lithium anodes and higher voltage cathodes. However, the stability of cubic LLZO is affected by current density. In beta alumina solid electrolyte, microstructural failure was caused by Na dendrite penetration, and was shown to be a function of the fracture toughness, KIC. The relationship between dendrite penetration and KIC indicates electronic failure is related to creation of microstructural damage, and the microstructural damage may be used as an indicator of imminent electronic failure. To monitor microstructural damage during cycling, we developed a non-invasive, in-situ cell monitoring apparatus to help to correlate mechanical stability with Li-ion current density in LLZO. A pulse-echo transducer was integrated into all solid-state Li-LLZO-Li cells. The capability enables the characterization of microscopic inhomogeneities through the careful measurement of changes to the elastic moduli. The elastic moduli and fracture toughness have been previously reported for dense (>99%) specimens, but monitoring of the relative change in moduli during cycling has not been explored. In this study, an acoustic monitoring method is presented to monitor LLZO specimens during cycling.

  3. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-26

    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  4. Superior ion-conducting hybrid solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Scheers, Johan; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we developed a high-performance lithium ion conducting hybrid solid electrolyte, consisted of LiTFSI salt, Py14 TFSI ionic liquid, and TiO2 nanoparticles. The hybrid solid electrolyte prepared by a facile method had high room temperature ionic conductivity, excellent thermal stability and low interface resistance with good contact. In addition, the lithium transference number was highly increased by the scavenger effect of TiO2 nanoparticles. With the hybrid solid electrolyte, the pouch-type solid-state battery exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 150 mA h g(-1) at room temperature, and even at 1 C, the reversible capacity was as high as 106 mA h g(-1) .

  5. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  6. A Unique Hybrid Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Li-O2 Batteries with Improved Cycle Life and Safety.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the development of electric vehicle to solve the contemporary energy and environmental issues, the possibility of pushing future application of Li-O2 batteries as a power source for electric vehicles is particularly attractive. However, safety concerns, mainly derived from the use of flammable organic liquid electrolytes, become a major bottleneck for the strategically crucial applications of Li-O2 batteries. To overcome this issue, rechargeable solid-state Li-O2 batteries with enhanced safety is regarded as an appealing candidate. In this study, a hybrid quasi-solid-state electrolyte combing a polymer electrolyte with a ceramic electrolyte is first designed and explored for Li-O2 batteries. The proposed rechargeable solid-state Li-O2 battery delivers improved cycle life (>100 cycles) and safety. The feasibility study demonstrates that the hybrid quasi-solid-state electrolytes could be employed as a promising alternative strategy for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries, hence encouraging more efforts devoted to explore other hybrid solid-state electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries upon future application. PMID:27487523

  7. A Unique Hybrid Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Li-O2 Batteries with Improved Cycle Life and Safety.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin; Zhou, Haoshen

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the development of electric vehicle to solve the contemporary energy and environmental issues, the possibility of pushing future application of Li-O2 batteries as a power source for electric vehicles is particularly attractive. However, safety concerns, mainly derived from the use of flammable organic liquid electrolytes, become a major bottleneck for the strategically crucial applications of Li-O2 batteries. To overcome this issue, rechargeable solid-state Li-O2 batteries with enhanced safety is regarded as an appealing candidate. In this study, a hybrid quasi-solid-state electrolyte combing a polymer electrolyte with a ceramic electrolyte is first designed and explored for Li-O2 batteries. The proposed rechargeable solid-state Li-O2 battery delivers improved cycle life (>100 cycles) and safety. The feasibility study demonstrates that the hybrid quasi-solid-state electrolytes could be employed as a promising alternative strategy for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries, hence encouraging more efforts devoted to explore other hybrid solid-state electrolytes for Li-O2 batteries upon future application.

  8. All Solid-State Lithium Metal Batteries Using Cross-linked Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Qiwei; Li, Christopher; Soft Materials Team

    Nowadays, to prepare all solid-state lithium metal batteries with high rate capability and stability using solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) is still a grand challenge because of the interfaces between the SPE and the electrodes. In this presentation, we report a series of hybrid SPEs with controlled network structures by using POSS as cross-linker. These hybrid network SPEs show promising ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, and lithium dendrite growth resistance. All solid-state LiFePO4/Li batteries were also prepared using these SPEs as the electrolytes to study the effect of conductivity and mechanical properties of the SPEs on the performance of the batteries. At 90 °C, the prepared cells show high rate capability and stability. Capacity up to 160 mAh/g can be obtained at a C/2 rate during the galvanostatic cycling. Capacity retention of the cells is higher than 80% after 250 cycles. Battery performance at 60 °C and decay mechanism of the batteries will also be discussed.

  9. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  10. Self-Assembled in-Plane-Gate Thin-Film Transistors Gated by WOx Solid-State Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, De-Ming; Men, Chuan-Ling; Wan, Xiang; Deng, Chuang; Li, Zhen-Peng

    2013-08-01

    Low-voltage WOx gated indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with in-plane-gate structures are fabricated by using an extremely simplified one-shadow mask method at room temperature. The proton conductive WOx solid-state electrolyte is demonstrated to form an electric-double-layer (EDL) effect associated with a huge capacitance of 0.51 μF/cm2. The special EDL capacitance of the WOx electrolyte is also extended to novel in-plane-gate structure TFTs as the gate dielectric, reducing the operating voltage to 1.8 V. Such TFTs operate at n-type depletion mode with a threshold voltage of -0.5 V, saturation electron mobility of 13.2 cm2/V·s, ON/OFF ratio of 1.7 × 106, subthreshold swing of 110 mV/dec, and low leakage current less than 7 nA. The hysteresis window of the transfer curves is also explained by an unique reaction within the WOx electrolyte.

  11. Superionic solid-state polymer electrolyte membrane for high temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyu, Thein; He, Ruixuan; Cao, Jinwei

    2015-03-01

    Completely amorphous, flexible, solid-state polymer electrolyte membranes (ss-PEM) consisted of polyethylene glycol diacrylate /succinonitrile plasticizer (SCN)/lithium trifluorosulfonyl imide were fabricated via UV polymerization. The room temperature ionic conductivity of our ss-PEM is extremely high (i.e., 10-3S/cm), which is already in the superionic conductor range of inorganic and/or liquid electrolyte counterparts. Of particular interest is that our ss-PEM is thermally stable up to 140°C, which is superior to the liquid electrolyte counterpart that degrades above 80°C. The ss-PEM exhibits cyclic stability in both LiFePO4/Li and Li4Ti5O12 /Li half-cells up to 50 cycles tested. The trend of conductivity enhancement with temperature is reproducible in the repeated cycles, showing melting transitions of the SCN plastic crystals. In the compositions close to the solid (SCN plastic crystal)-liquid coexistence line, polymerization-induced crystallization occurs during photo-curing. The effect of solid-liquid segregation on ionic conductivity behavior is discussed. Supported by NSF-DMR 1161070.

  12. First-principles material modeling of solid-state electrolytes with the spinel structure.

    PubMed

    Mees, Maarten J; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Rosciano, Fabio; Put, Brecht; Vereecken, Philippe M; Stesmans, André

    2014-03-21

    Ionic diffusion through the novel (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 spinel electrolyte is investigated using first-principles calculations, combined with the Kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. We observe that the ionic diffusion increases with the lithium content x. Furthermore, the structural parameters, formation enthalpies and electronic structures of (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 are calculated for various stoichiometries. The overall results indicate the (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 stoichiometries x = 0.2…0.3 as most promising. The (AlxMg1-2xLix)Al2O4 electrolyte is a potential candidate for the all-spinel solid-state battery stack, with the material epitaxially grown between well-known spinel electrodes, such as LiyMn2O4 and Li4+3yTi5O12 (y = 0…1). Due to their identical crystal structure, a good electrolyte-electrode interface is expected.

  13. An all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using two solid electrolytes having different functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Chikusa, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries are expected to be valuable next generation batteries. To improve the performance of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries, it is essential to raise both the reactivity of sulfur and the ionic conductivity of the positive composite electrode. For achieving this, we investigate a positive composite electrode prepared using P2S5 and a solid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity. As a result, we have found that the lithium-sulfur cell exhibits a relatively low activation energy together with high ionic conductivity. The positive composite electrode exhibits an extremely high capacity of 1550 mA h g-1 (sulfur) at 1.3 mA cm-2 and 25 °C. Moreover, when using the positive electrode, the energy densities at the cell level (18650) are 540 W h kg-1 and 990 W h L-1, estimated from the equivalent structure of a current lithium-ion battery.

  14. Method of producing ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes, The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  15. Ceramic distribution members for solid state electrolyte cells and method of producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J. (Inventor); Galica, Leo M. (Inventor); Losey, Robert W. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A solid state electrolyte cells apparatus and method of producing is disclosed. The apparatus can be used for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing feedstock or as a fuel cell for reacting fluids. Cells can be stacked so that fluids can be introduced and removed from the apparatus through ceramic distribution members having ports designed for distributing the fluids in parallel flow to and from each cell. The distribution members can also serve as electrodes to membranes or as membrane members between electrodes. The distribution member design does not contain any horizontal internal ports which allows the member to be thin. A method of tape casting in combination with an embossing method allows intricate radial ribs and bosses to be formed on each distribution member. The bosses serve as seals for the ports and allow the distribution members to be made without any horizontal internal ports.

  16. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  17. Development of Bipolar All-solid-state Lithium Battery Based on Quasi-solid-state Electrolyte Containing Tetraglyme-LiTFSA Equimolar Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    The development of high energy–density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V. PMID:25746860

  18. Absorbency and conductivity of quasi-solid-state polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells: A characterization review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2016-10-01

    The application of quasi-solid state electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells opens up an interesting research field to explore, which is evident from the increasing amount of publications on this topic. Since 2010, significant progress has been made with new and more complicated quasi-solid-states materials being produced. The optimization of new materials requires specific characterizations. This review presents a comprehensive overview and recent progress of characterization methods for studying quasi-solid-state electrolytes. Emphasis is then placed on the absorbency and conductivity characterizations. Each characterization will be reviewed according to the objective, experimental set-up, summary of important outcomes, and a few case studies worth discussing. Finally, strategies for future characterizations and developments are described.

  19. Solid-State NMR Characterization of Aluminum Oxide Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, Jennifer L; Tuttle, Ricky W; Ramsier, Rex D; Espe, Mathew

    2006-07-24

    Aluminum oxide nanofibers have been generated by an electrospinning process, creating fibers with diameters on the nanometer scale and aspect ratios greater than a thousand. These nanofibers have the potential of providing enhanced catalytic properties, due to their large surface area and controllable compositions. Solid-state NMR is being used to investigate both the bulk and surface properties of these materials. 27Al NMR has shown that no chemistry occurs during the electrospinning process, even though potentials in excess of 20 kV are applied to the sample. Thermal treatment of the fibers to convert them to alumina results in the formation of different phases, with the phases identified by the relative populations of 4-, 5-, and 6-coordinate alumina sites. Heating to 525°C or 1200°C produces a species similar to the catalytically active gamma-phase or conversion of the nanofibers into the thermodynamically stable alumina phase, respectively. 1H-27Al CP/MAS has shown that the alumina phase has a low population of surface hydroxyls, whereas the “gamma-alumina” form has a much higher fraction of 5-coordinate sites, compared to materials synthesized by traditional techniques. Organophosphates are being used as molecular probes in the characterization of the nanofiber surfaces. 31P CP/MAS data has revealed the presence of mono-, bi- and tri-denate bound phosphate groups on the surface, with the onset of surface alumina dissolution with sample heating. The application of 1H-31P HETCOR shows that the three different types of bound organophosphates are intermixed, rather than there being separate domains for each type. 31P-27Al CP is also being used to distinguish the types of surface alumina sites bound to the phosphate species.

  20. Lithium phosphorus oxynitride solid-state thin-film electrolyte deposited and modified by bias sputtering and low temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, K.-F.; Chen, C. C.; Lin, K. M.; Lo, C. C.; Lin, H. C.; Ho, W.-H.; Jiang, C. S.

    2010-07-15

    Amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid-state thin-film electrolyte has been deposited and characterized. The thin films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering under various substrate biases. By fabricating under different substrate biases and applying low temperature annealing (473 K), the properties of the LiPON thin-film electrolytes and the electrolyte/cathode interfaces were modified. The ionic conductivity as high as 9.4x10{sup -4} S m{sup -1} can be obtained by depositing at optimal bias. The performances of the consequently fabricated SnO{sub 2}/LiPON/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} all-solid-state lithium ion thin-film batteries were improved using the bias sputtering technique, due to the enhanced the ionic conductivity and uniform interface.

  1. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  2. Negative differential electrolyte resistance in a solid-state nanopore resulting from electroosmotic flow bistability.

    PubMed

    Luo, Long; Holden, Deric A; White, Henry S

    2014-03-25

    A solid-state nanopore separating two aqueous solutions containing different concentrations of KCl is demonstrated to exhibit negative differential resistance (NDR) when a constant pressure is applied across the nanopore. NDR refers to a decrease in electrical current when the voltage applied across the nanopore is increased. NDR results from the interdependence of solution flow (electroosmotic and pressure-engendered) with the distributions of K+ and Cl- within the nanopore. A switch from a high-conductivity state to a low-conductivity state occurs over a very narrow voltage window (<2 mV) that depends on the nanopore geometry, electrolyte concentration, and nanopore surface charge density. Finite element simulations based on a simultaneous solution of the Navier-Stokes, Poisson, and Nernst-Planck equations demonstrate that NDR results from a positive feedback mechanism between the ion distributions and electroosmotic flow, yielding a true bistability in fluid flow and electrical current at a critical applied voltage, i.e., the NDR "switching potential". Solution pH and Ca2+ were separately employed as chemical stimuli to investigate the dependence of the NDR on the surface charge density. The NDR switching potential is remarkably sensitive to the surface charge density, and thus to pH and the presence of Ca2+, suggesting possible applications in chemical sensing.

  3. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOEpatents

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich; Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  4. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on papers coated with carbon nanotubes and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Han, Chi-Hwan; Kim, Woong

    2012-02-01

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors were fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), regular office papers, and ionic-liquid-based gel electrolytes. Flexible electrodes were made by coating CNTs on office papers by a drop-dry method. The gel electrolyte was prepared by mixing fumed silica nanopowders with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIM][NTf2]). This supercapacitor showed high power and energy performance as a solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes was 135 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, when considering the mass of active materials only. The maximum power and energy density of the supercapacitors were 164 kW kg-1 and 41 Wh kg-1, respectively. Interestingly, the solid-state supercapacitor with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors with ionic-liquid electrolyte. Moreover, the supercapacitor showed excellent stability and flexibility. The CNT/paper- and gel-based supercapacitors may hold great potential for low-cost and high-performance flexible energy storage applications.

  5. A novel quasi-solid state electrolyte with highly effective polysulfide diffusion inhibition for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai; Wang, Chunhua; Xu, Zhibin; Ding, Fei; Liu, Xinjiang

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solid state electrolytes are actively sought for their potential application in energy storage devices, particularly lithium metal rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report a polymer with high concentration salts as a quasi-solid state electrolyte used for lithium-sulfur cells, which shows an ionic conductivity of 1.6 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. The cycling performance of Li-S battery with this electrolyte shows a long cycle life (300 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (>98%), without any consuming additives in the electrolyte. Moreover, it also shows a remarkably decreased self-discharge (only 0.2%) after storage for two weeks at room temperature. The reason can be attributed to that the electrolyte can suppress polysulfide anions diffusion, due to the high ratio oxygen atoms with negative charges which induce an electrical repulsion to the polysulfide anions, and their relatively long chains which can provide additional steric hindrance. Thus, the polysulfide anions can be located around carbon particles, which result in remarkably improved overall electrochemical performance, and also the electrolyte have a function of suppress the formation of lithium dendrites on the lithium anode surface. PMID:27146645

  6. A novel quasi-solid state electrolyte with highly effective polysulfide diffusion inhibition for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hai; Wang, Chunhua; Xu, Zhibin; Ding, Fei; Liu, Xinjiang

    2016-05-01

    Polymer solid state electrolytes are actively sought for their potential application in energy storage devices, particularly lithium metal rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report a polymer with high concentration salts as a quasi-solid state electrolyte used for lithium-sulfur cells, which shows an ionic conductivity of 1.6 mS cm‑1 at room temperature. The cycling performance of Li-S battery with this electrolyte shows a long cycle life (300 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (>98%), without any consuming additives in the electrolyte. Moreover, it also shows a remarkably decreased self-discharge (only 0.2%) after storage for two weeks at room temperature. The reason can be attributed to that the electrolyte can suppress polysulfide anions diffusion, due to the high ratio oxygen atoms with negative charges which induce an electrical repulsion to the polysulfide anions, and their relatively long chains which can provide additional steric hindrance. Thus, the polysulfide anions can be located around carbon particles, which result in remarkably improved overall electrochemical performance, and also the electrolyte have a function of suppress the formation of lithium dendrites on the lithium anode surface.

  7. A novel quasi-solid state electrolyte with highly effective polysulfide diffusion inhibition for lithium-sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hai; Wang, Chunhua; Xu, Zhibin; Ding, Fei; Liu, Xinjiang

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solid state electrolytes are actively sought for their potential application in energy storage devices, particularly lithium metal rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report a polymer with high concentration salts as a quasi-solid state electrolyte used for lithium-sulfur cells, which shows an ionic conductivity of 1.6 mS cm−1 at room temperature. The cycling performance of Li-S battery with this electrolyte shows a long cycle life (300 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (>98%), without any consuming additives in the electrolyte. Moreover, it also shows a remarkably decreased self-discharge (only 0.2%) after storage for two weeks at room temperature. The reason can be attributed to that the electrolyte can suppress polysulfide anions diffusion, due to the high ratio oxygen atoms with negative charges which induce an electrical repulsion to the polysulfide anions, and their relatively long chains which can provide additional steric hindrance. Thus, the polysulfide anions can be located around carbon particles, which result in remarkably improved overall electrochemical performance, and also the electrolyte have a function of suppress the formation of lithium dendrites on the lithium anode surface. PMID:27146645

  8. A novel quasi-solid state electrolyte with highly effective polysulfide diffusion inhibition for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hai; Wang, Chunhua; Xu, Zhibin; Ding, Fei; Liu, Xinjiang

    2016-05-01

    Polymer solid state electrolytes are actively sought for their potential application in energy storage devices, particularly lithium metal rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report a polymer with high concentration salts as a quasi-solid state electrolyte used for lithium-sulfur cells, which shows an ionic conductivity of 1.6 mS cm-1 at room temperature. The cycling performance of Li-S battery with this electrolyte shows a long cycle life (300 cycles) and high coulombic efficiency (>98%), without any consuming additives in the electrolyte. Moreover, it also shows a remarkably decreased self-discharge (only 0.2%) after storage for two weeks at room temperature. The reason can be attributed to that the electrolyte can suppress polysulfide anions diffusion, due to the high ratio oxygen atoms with negative charges which induce an electrical repulsion to the polysulfide anions, and their relatively long chains which can provide additional steric hindrance. Thus, the polysulfide anions can be located around carbon particles, which result in remarkably improved overall electrochemical performance, and also the electrolyte have a function of suppress the formation of lithium dendrites on the lithium anode surface.

  9. Semiconductor/solid electrolyte junctions for optical information storage. Solid-state electrochromic cell using lutecium diphthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammells, A. F.; Pujare, N. U.

    1986-01-01

    The overall program goal is to perform a basic investigation of photoelectrochemical and electrochemical effects by electrochromic materials in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) containing solid-state cells. Initial investigations have been directed towards reversible electrochromic behavior at the interface between lutecium diphthalocyanine deposited onto electronically conducting glass, and the homopolymer poly-2-acrylamido -2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (poly(Amps)). We wish to report here some recent work on solid-state electrochromic cells in which ionic mediation to thin-film deposits of lutecium diphthalocyanine is via the homopolymer poly-2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (poly-Amps). Separation between the working (LuH(Pc)2 deposited onto SnO2 conducting glass) and counter (CeCl3 in poly (Amps)) electrodes in these solid-state cells was realized by the use of the insoluble copolymer perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion). Solid-state electrochromic cells were prepared using the supporting electrolytes (SEs) 0.1M Na2SO4 and 0.1M KCl. Upon subjecting the cell to anodic and cathodic voltage scans, up to four distinct color changes were observed varying from red (at anodic potentials) to violet (at cathodic potentials). Formation of the violet lutecium diphthalocyanine reduction product was not found contingent upon the absence of alkali cations as reported by others.

  10. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Yasaku, Syun; Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH4 electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH4 powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH4 electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH4 allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  11. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Unemoto, Atsushi Ikeshoji, Tamio; Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki; Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  12. Mesoporous silica/ionic liquid quasi-solid-state electrolytes and their application in lithium metal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yin, Kun; Yang, Li; Tachibana, Kazuhiro; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, is chosen as the matrix for the first time to prepare quasi-solid-state electrolytes (QSSEs) with an ionic liquid, LiTFSI salt and PVdF-HFP. The as-obtained QSSEs are evaluated by electrochemical methods. Lithium metal batteries containing these QSSEs exhibit high discharge capacity and good cycle performance at room temperature, indicating successful battery operation.

  13. Non-aqueous gel polymer electrolyte with phosphoric acid ester and its application for quasi solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łatoszyńska, Anna A.; Żukowska, Grażyna Zofia; Rutkowska, Iwona A.; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Kulesza, Pawel J.; Wieczorek, Władysław

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically-stable non-aqueous proton-conducting gel polymer electrolyte that is based on methacrylate monomers, is considered here for application in solid-state type supercapacitors. An electrochemical cell using activated carbon as active materials and the new gel polymer electrolyte has been characterized at room temperature using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycle tests as well as impedance spectroscopy. The use of phosphoric acid ester (instead of phosphoric acid) as a proton donor has led to an increase of both the operation voltage window (up to 1.3 V) and the electrolyte ionic conductivity (on the level of an order of magnitude). The resulting double layer capacitance of the microporous activated carbon was found to be as high as 120 F g-1; even more important, the supercapacitor utilizing non-aqueous proton-conducting gel polymer electrolyte is well-behaved in the wide temperature range (namely, from -40 to 80 °C).

  14. Thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on succinonitrile and ionic liquid for high-performance solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Liu, Tao; Hancock, Cody; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A flexible, free-standing, thermostable gel polymer electrolyte based on plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF4) entrapped in copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) is prepared and optimized for application in solvent-free solid-state supercapacitors. The synthesized gel polymer electrolyte exhibits a high ionic conductivity over a wide temperature range (from ∼5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at -30 °C up to ∼1.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C) with good electrochemical stability window (-2.9 to 2.5 V). Thermal studies confirm that the SN containing gel polymer electrolyte remains stable in the same gel phase over a wide temperature range from -30 to 90 °C. The electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have been fabricated using activated carbon as active materials and new gel polymer electrolytes. Electrochemical performance of the EDLCs is assessed through cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and impedance spectroscopy. The EDLC cells with the proper SN-containing gel polymer electrolyte has been found to give high specific capacitance 176 F g-1 at 0.18 A g-1 and 138 F g-1 at 8 A g-1. These solid-state EDLC cells show good cycling stability and the capability to retain ∼80% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 cycles.

  15. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  16. Conducting gel electrolytes with microporous structures for efficient quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shuangshuang; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Conducting gel electrolytes from poly(acrylic acid)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/polyaniline (PAA-CTAB/PANi) and poly(acrylic acid)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/polypyrrole (PAA-CTAB/PPy) are synthesized under driving forces of both osmotic pressure and capillary force within microporous PAA-CTAB matrix. The as-synthesized PAA-CTAB/PANi or PAA-CTAB/PPy can extend the reduction reaction of triiodides from gel electrolyte/Pt counter electrode interface to both interface and three-dimensional framework of conducting gel electrolyte due to the electrical conduction of PANi or PPy toward reflux electrons (electrons from external circuit to Pt counter electrode). The enhanced kinetics for triiodides → iodide conversion is promising in elevating photovoltaic performances of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Driving forces by both osmotic pressure across PAA-CTAB matrix and capillary force presenting in micropores can elevate the loading of PANi or PPy incorporated liquid electrolyte in per unit volume, leading to further enhancement in charge transfer and electrocatalytic activity. The total power conversion efficiencies of 7.11% and 6.39% are recorded in the solar cells with PAA-CTAB/PANi and PAA-CTAB/PPy electrolytes under one sun irradiation, respectively, whereas it is 6.07% for the cell device with pure PAA-CTAB gel electrolyte. Electrical and electrochemical characterizations reveal that the electrical conduction and electrocatalytic performances have been significantly enhanced by incorporating electrical conducting PANi or PPy into microporous PAA-CTAB matrix. The concept opens a new approach of fabricating efficient polymer gel electrolytes for robust quasi-solid-state DSSC applications.

  17. Employment of ionic liquid-imbibed polymer gel electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinghua; Tang, Qunwei; Du, Nan; Qin, Yuancheng; Xiao, Jin; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Chu, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Volatility of organic solvent in liquid electrolyte has been tremendous obstacle for its application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we designed an ionic liquid-imbibed polymer gel electrolyte using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as solvent, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) as iodine source, and amphiphilic poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/glycerol) [poly(HEMA/GR)] as a placeholder. As an amphiphilic matrix, poly(HEMA/GR) material can swell in ionic liquid electrolyte to form a stable gel, benefiting from its extraordinary absorption. The imbibed ionic liquid electrolyte is stored into interconnected poly(HEMA/GR) framework. Resultant quasi-solid-state electrolyte is honored with high ionic conductivity (14.29 mS cm-1) at room temperature and good retention. The ionic liquid-imbibed poly(HEMA/GR) gel electrolyte-based DSSC gives an overall light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 7.15%. The new concept along with easy fabrication promises the ionic liquid-imbibed gel electrolytes good alternatives in efficient DSSCs.

  18. Ionically conducting PVA-LiClO4 gel electrolyte for high performance flexible solid state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Chodankar, Nilesh R; Dubal, Deepak P; Lokhande, Abhishek C; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2015-12-15

    The synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte having high ionic conductivity, excellent compatibility with active electrode material, mechanical tractability and long life is crucial to obtain majestic electrochemical performance for flexible solid state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs). Our present work describes effect of different polymers gel electrolytes on electrochemical properties of MnO2 based FSS-SCs device. It is revealed that, MnO2-FSS-SCs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) gel electrolyte demonstrate excellent electrochemical features such as maximum operating potential window (1.2V), specific capacitance of 112Fg(-1) and energy density of 15Whkg(-1) with extended cycling stability up to 2500CV cycles. Moreover, the calendar life suggests negligible decrease in the electrochemical performance of MnO2-FSS-SCs after 20days. PMID:26397234

  19. Ionically conducting PVA-LiClO4 gel electrolyte for high performance flexible solid state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Chodankar, Nilesh R; Dubal, Deepak P; Lokhande, Abhishek C; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2015-12-15

    The synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte having high ionic conductivity, excellent compatibility with active electrode material, mechanical tractability and long life is crucial to obtain majestic electrochemical performance for flexible solid state supercapacitors (FSS-SCs). Our present work describes effect of different polymers gel electrolytes on electrochemical properties of MnO2 based FSS-SCs device. It is revealed that, MnO2-FSS-SCs with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) gel electrolyte demonstrate excellent electrochemical features such as maximum operating potential window (1.2V), specific capacitance of 112Fg(-1) and energy density of 15Whkg(-1) with extended cycling stability up to 2500CV cycles. Moreover, the calendar life suggests negligible decrease in the electrochemical performance of MnO2-FSS-SCs after 20days.

  20. One-pot preparation of new copolymer electrolytes with tunable network structure for all-solid-state lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Yanran; Chen, Shaojie; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-11-01

    A new class of copolymer electrolytes with tunable network structure is successfully designed and prepared via a facile one-pot reaction. The trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether (TMPEG) is cross-linked with poly (ethylene glycol) diamine (NPEG) to create well-defined solid network polymer electrolyte (SNPE). The network structure could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of TMPEG and NPEG or the molecular weight of NPEG. The effects of molecular weight of NPEG and molar ratio of EO/Li+ on the ionic conductivity are systematically investigated. The optimal electrolyte TMPEG-NPEG4K[2:1]-16:1 presents a maximum conductivity of 1.10 × 10-4 S cm-1 under 30 °C, and an 18-fold ionic conductivity enhancement in that of PEO-based electrolyte. Furthermore, it also exhibits wide electrochemical window (0-5.4 V), excellent compatibility with metallic Li, and superior mechanical properties. The all-solid-state lithium batteries LiFePO4/Li are assembled with TMPEG-NPEG4K[2:1]-16:1 electrolyte, and present good cycling and rate performance under 60 °C. The initial discharge specific capacities of the batteries are 161.7 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 132.7 mAh g-1 at 1 C, and the capacity retention ratio can be retained at 90.6% and 90.5% after 100 cycles. This new copolymer electrolyte may become a promising candidate for applications in all-solid-state lithium battery.

  1. Solid State, Surface and Catalytic Studies of Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. H.

    2004-11-23

    This project investigates the catalytic properties of oxides for the selective oxidative dehydrogenation of light alkanes and for hydrocarbon reduction of NO{sub x}. Various vanadium oxide based catalysts were investigated to elucidate the relationship between the chemical and structural properties of the catalysts and their selectivity for the formation of alkenes. It was found that vanadium oxide units that are less reducible give higher selectivities. For hydrocarbon reduction of NO{sub x}, it was found that alumina-based catalysts can be effective at higher temperatures than the corresponding zeolite-based catalysts. On some catalysts, such as SnO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the alumina participates directly in the reaction, making the catalyst bifunctional. These results are useful in research to improve the performance of this stress of catalysts.

  2. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  3. Oxidation Kinetics of Copper: An Experiment in Solid State Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebisuzaki, Y.; Sanborn, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics in metals and the role defects play in diffusion-controlled reactions are discussed as background for a junior/senior-level experiment in the physical or inorganic chemistry laboratory. Procedures used and typical data obtained are provided for the experiment. (JN)

  4. High-Performance Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitor with an Extended Nanoregime Interface through in Situ Polymer Electrolyte Generation.

    PubMed

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A T, Arun; Veeliyath, Sajna; Vijayakumar, Vidyanand; Badiger, Manohar V; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2016-01-20

    Here, we report an efficient strategy by which a significantly enhanced electrode-electrolyte interface in an electrode for supercapacitor application could be accomplished by allowing in situ polymer gel electrolyte generation inside the nanopores of the electrodes. This unique and highly efficient strategy could be conceived by judiciously maintaining ultraviolet-triggered polymerization of a monomer mixture in the presence of a high-surface-area porous carbon. The method is very simple and scalable, and a prototype, flexible solid-state supercapacitor could even be demonstrated in an encapsulation-free condition by using the commercial-grade electrodes (thickness = 150 μm, area = 12 cm(2), and mass loading = 7.3 mg/cm(2)). This prototype device shows a capacitance of 130 F/g at a substantially reduced internal resistance of 0.5 Ω and a high capacitance retention of 84% after 32000 cycles. The present system is found to be clearly outperforming a similar system derived by using the conventional polymer electrolyte (PVA-H3PO4 as the electrolyte), which could display a capacitance of only 95 F/g, and this value falls to nearly 50% in just 5000 cycles. The superior performance in the present case is credited primarily to the excellent interface formation of the in situ generated polymer electrolyte inside the nanopores of the electrode. Further, the interpenetrated nature of the polymer also helps the device to show a low electron spin resonance and power rate and, most importantly, excellent shelf-life in the unsealed flexible conditions. Because the nature of the electrode-electrolyte interface is the major performance-determining factor in the case of many electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, along with the supercapacitors, the developed process can also find applications in preparing electrodes for the devices such as lithium-ion batteries, metal-air batteries, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, etc. PMID:26697922

  5. High-performance flexible all-solid-state microbatteries based on solid electrolyte of lithium boron oxynitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Lee, Ki-Chang; Park, Ho-Young

    2016-10-01

    Rapidly growing interest and demand for wearable electronics require the development of flexible and lightweight all-solid-state batteries as power sources that guarantee high performance and safety with the absence of the risk of fire or explosion that can occur with traditional liquid electrolyte systems. Herein, we successfully fabricate new flexible all-solid-state microbatteries integrating a solid electrolyte film of lithium boron oxynitride (LiBON) on a flexible substrate using sophisticated thin-film fabrication technology. The new microbattery of Li/LiBON/LiCoO2 exhibits excellent mechanical integrity even under severe bending and twisting test conditions, enabling the realization of flexible microbatteries. The microbatteries demonstrate superior electrochemical cycling stability relative to conventional batteries, delivering an outstanding capacity retention of 90% on the 1000th cycle. Furthermore, operation at various temperatures from -10 °C to +60 °C and fast charging within 3-6 min are achieved. With various types of flexible substrates, the microbatteries can provide diverse opportunities for flexible and wearable electronics.

  6. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  7. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  8. Characteristics of solid-state batteries with zinc/cadmium halide-doped silver phosphate glasses as electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. S.; Baranwal, B. P.; Gupta, C. P.; Singh, Punita

    Several samples of ion-conducting silver phosphate glasses doped with zinc/cadmium halides are prepared and subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis, transference number measurement, and electrical conductivity studies. The percentage transference numbers of these glasses are found to lie between 98.3 and 99.3, which suggests that the glasses are essentially ionic conductors. The conductivity values range from 1.66×10 -2 to 8.66×10 -2 S cm -1 at 300 °C. Solid-state batteries using these glassy systems as electrolytes with the cell configurations Ag||Ag 2OP 2O 5(20%)Zn/CdX 2||(C+I 2) and Ag||Ag 2OP 2O 5(20%)Zn/CdX 2||(C+I 2+electrolyte) (where X is Cl, Br or I) have been fabricated and their discharge characteristics studied. Cells with undoped silver phosphate glasses as electrolytes have also been prepared and studied. The addition of Zn/CdX 2 to silver phosphate glass results in a substantial increase in the open-circuit voltage in the order MI 2>MBr 2>MCl 2 (where M is the dopant cation). Cells with Ag||Ag 2OP 2O 5(20%)Zn/CdI 2||(C+I 2+electrolyte) deliver the best performance.

  9. Towards standardizing the measurement of electrochemical properties of solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1999-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate thought and discussion in the technical community on standardization of the experimental determination of the pertinent electrochemical properties of solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This standardization is needed for comparison and modeling of solid electrolytes in a practical lithium battery. The appropriate electrochemical properties include transport, thermodynamic, and physical parameters that generally depend on concentration and temperature. While it is beyond the scope of this work to put forward definitive measurement techniques for all types of solid electrolytes, it is hoped that comparisons between various techniques to examine a dissolved binary lithium salt in a dry polymer solvent will lead to improved understanding and methodology for examining solid electrolytes.

  10. First Principles Study of Electrochemical and Chemical Stability of the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interfaces in All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yizhou; He, Xingfeng; Mo, Yifei

    All-solid-state Li-ion battery is a promising next-generation energy-storage technology. Using novel ceramic solid electrolyte materials, all-solid-state battery has advantages of intrinsic safety and high energy density compared to current Li-ion batteries based on organic liquid electrolyte. However, the power density achieved in all-solid-state battery is still unsatisfactory. The high interfacial resistance at electrode-electrolyte interface is one of the major limiting factors. Here we demonstrated a computational approach based on first principles calculation to systematically investigate the chemical and electrochemical stability of solid electrolyte materials, and provide insightful understanding of the degradation and passivation mechanisms at the interface. Our calculation revealed that the intrinsic stability of solid electrolyte materials and solid electrolyte-electrode interfaces is limited and the formation of interphase layers are thermodynamically favorable. Our study demonstrated a computational scheme to evaluate the electrochemical and chemical stability of the solid interfaces. Our newly gained understanding provided principles for developing solid electrolyte materials with enhanced stability and for engineering interfaces in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. This work was supported by Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DE-EE0006860).

  11. Theory of the electronic and structural properties of solid state oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on electronic and structural properties of solid state oxides continued. This quarter, studies have concentrated on silica. Progress is discussed in the following sections: interatomic potentials and the structural properties of silica; chemical reactivity and covalent/metallic bonding on Si clusters; and surface and thermodynamic interatomic forces fields for silicon. 64 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs. (CBS)

  12. High voltage electric double layer capacitor using a novel solid-state polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takaya; Marukane, Shoko; Morinaga, Takashi; Kamijo, Toshio; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Tsujii, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    We designed and fabricated a bipolar-type electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) with a maximum 7.5 V operating voltage using a new concept in solid electrolytes. A cell having a high operating voltage, that is free from liquid leakage and is non-flammable is achieved by a bipolar design utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte made up of particles in a three-dimensional array, such as crystals composed of 75 wt% of hybrid particles decorated with a concentrated ionic liquid polymer brush (PSiP) and 25wt% of an ionic liquid (IL). The resulting solid film had sufficient physical strength and a high enough ionic conductivity to function as an electrolyte. Solidification as well as ionic conduction is due to the regular array of PSiPs, thereby producing a high ion-conductivity from a networked path between cores containing an appropriate amount of IL as a plasticizer. The demonstration cell shows a relatively good cycle durability and rate properties up to a 10C discharge process. It also has a very small leakage current in continuous charging and better self-discharge properties, even at 60 °C, compared with conventional cells. This paper demonstrates the first successful fabrication of a bipolar EDLC in a simple structure using this novel polymer solid electrolyte.

  13. Effect of Molecular Weight on Mechanical and Electrochemical Performance of All Solid-State Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ruixuan; Ward, Daniel; Echeverri, Mauricio; Kyu, Thein

    2015-03-01

    Guided by ternary phase diagrams of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), succinonitrile plasticizer, and LiTFSI salt, completely amorphous solid-state transparent polymer electrolyte membranes (ss-PEM) were fabricated by UV irradiation in the isotropic melt state. Effects of PEGDA molecular weight (700 vs 6000 g/mol) on ss-PEM performance were investigated. These amorphous PEMs have superionic room temperature ionic conductivity of ~10-3 S/cm, whereby PEGDA6000-PEM outperforms its PEGDA700 counterpart, which may be ascribed to lower crosslinking density and greater segmental mobility. The longer chain between crosslinked points of PEGDA6000-PEM is responsible for greater extensibility of ~80% versus ~7% of PEGDA700-PEM. Besides, both PEMs exhibited thermal stability up to 120 °C and electrochemical stability versus Li+/Li up to 4.7V. LiFePO4/PEM/Li and Li4Ti5O12 /PEM/Li half-cells exhibited stable cyclic behavior up to 50 cycles tested with a capacity of ~140mAh/g, suggesting that LiFePO4/PEM/Li4Ti5O12 may be a promising full-cell for all solid-state lithium battery. We thank NSF-DMR 1161070 for providing funding of this project.

  14. Interaction of electrolyte molecules with carbon materials of well-defined porosity: characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Paasch, Silvia; Kaskel, Stefan; Brunner, Eike

    2013-09-28

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs or supercapacitors) are of special potential interest with respect to energy storage. Nearly all EDLCs make use of porous carbons as electrode materials. Further tuning of their performance in EDLC applications requires a better understanding of their properties. In particular, the understanding of the interactions between carbon-based materials and electrolyte solutions is of fundamental interest with respect to future applications. Since the capacitance of carbon-based electrode materials is known to depend on the pore size, we have studied different porous carbon materials of well-defined, variable pore size loaded with 1 M TEABF4 in acetonitrile or with pure acetonitrile using solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23925570

  15. Interaction of electrolyte molecules with carbon materials of well-defined porosity: characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Lars; Oschatz, Martin; Paasch, Silvia; Kaskel, Stefan; Brunner, Eike

    2013-09-28

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs or supercapacitors) are of special potential interest with respect to energy storage. Nearly all EDLCs make use of porous carbons as electrode materials. Further tuning of their performance in EDLC applications requires a better understanding of their properties. In particular, the understanding of the interactions between carbon-based materials and electrolyte solutions is of fundamental interest with respect to future applications. Since the capacitance of carbon-based electrode materials is known to depend on the pore size, we have studied different porous carbon materials of well-defined, variable pore size loaded with 1 M TEABF4 in acetonitrile or with pure acetonitrile using solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

  16. A Novel Small-Molecule Compound of Lithium Iodine and 3-Hydroxypropionitride as a Solid-State Electrolyte for Lithium-Air Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Chao; Shadike, Zulipiya; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Shi, Si-Qi; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Chen, Guo-Ying; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Weng, Lin-Hong; Zhao, Jing-Tai; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2016-07-01

    A novel small-molecule compound of lithium iodine and 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN) has been successfully synthesized. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies indicated that LiIHPN is a Li-ion conductor, which is utterly different from the I(-)-anion conductor of LiI(HPN)2 reported previously. Solid-state lithium-air batteries based on LiIHPN as the electrolyte exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of more than 2100 mAh g(-1) with a cyclic performance over 10 cycles. Our findings provide a new way to design solid-state electrolytes toward high-performance lithium-air batteries. PMID:27308962

  17. A novel small-molecule compound of lithium iodine and 3-hydroxypropionitride as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium–air batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Fang -Chao; Shadike, Zulipiya; Wang, Xiao -Fang; Shi, Si -Qi; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Chen, Guo -Ying; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Weng, Lin -Hong; Zhao, Jing -Tai; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2016-06-16

    A novel small-molecule compound of lithium iodine and 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN) has been successfully synthesized. Our combined experimental and theoretical studies indicated that LiIHPN is a Li-ion conductor, which is utterly different from the I–-anion conductor of LiI(HPN)2 reported previously. Solid-state lithium–air batteries based on LiIHPN as the electrolyte exhibit a reversible discharge capacity of more than 2100 mAh g–1 with a cyclic performance over 10 cycles. Lastly, our findings provide a new way to design solid-state electrolytes toward high-performance lithium–air batteries.

  18. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  19. POSS-Based Electrolyte for Efficient Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells at Sub-Zero Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    To expand the application of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to low temperatures, it is necessary to develop new solid electrolytes with low glass transition temperature (Tg). The Tg is regulated by varying the length of alkyl chain that is connected with the nitrogen atom in the imidazolium ring linked to the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The Tg as low as -8.8 °C is achieved with the POSS grafted with methyl-substituted imidazolium. The effect of alkyl group on the conductivity, Tg, and photovoltaic performance has also been investigated. The conductivity and power conversion efficiency increase with the alkyl length, while the Tg first increases and then decreases with the alkyl length. Among the synthesized POSS-based ionic conductors, the POSS grafted with the methyl-substituted imidazolium yields the highest power conversion efficiency of 6.98% at RT due to its highest conductivity, and the efficiency (6.52%) is still good at -4 °C, as its Tg (-8.8 °C) is lower than the working temperature (-4 °C). This finding suggests that the POSS-based solid electrolyte is promising for subzero-temperature applications of ssDSSCs. PMID:26860035

  20. Strong Photo-Amplification Effects in Flexible Organic Capacitors with Small Molecular Solid-State Electrolyte Layers Sandwiched between Photo-Sensitive Conjugated Polymer Nanolayers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyena; Kim, Jungnam; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate strong photo-amplification effects in flexible organic capacitors which consist of small molecular solid-state electrolyte layers sandwiched between light-sensitive conjugated polymer nanolayers. The small molecular electrolyte layers were prepared from aqueous solutions of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) aluminum (ALQSA3), while poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was employed as the light-sensitive polymer nanolayer that is spin-coated on the indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film substrates. The resulting capacitors feature a multilayer device structure of PET/ITO/P3HT/ALQSA3/P3HT/ITO/PET, which were mechanically robust due to good adhesion between the ALQSA3 layers and the P3HT nanolayers. Results showed that the specific capacitance was increased by ca. 3-fold when a white light was illuminated to the flexible organic multilayer capacitors. In particular, the capacity of charge storage was remarkably (ca. 250-fold) enhanced by a white light illumination in the potentiostatic charge/discharge operation, and the photo-amplification functions were well maintained even after bending for 300 times at a bending angle of 180o. PMID:26846891

  1. Strong Photo-Amplification Effects in Flexible Organic Capacitors with Small Molecular Solid-State Electrolyte Layers Sandwiched between Photo-Sensitive Conjugated Polymer Nanolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyena; Kim, Jungnam; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate strong photo-amplification effects in flexible organic capacitors which consist of small molecular solid-state electrolyte layers sandwiched between light-sensitive conjugated polymer nanolayers. The small molecular electrolyte layers were prepared from aqueous solutions of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) aluminum (ALQSA3), while poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was employed as the light-sensitive polymer nanolayer that is spin-coated on the indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film substrates. The resulting capacitors feature a multilayer device structure of PET/ITO/P3HT/ALQSA3/P3HT/ITO/PET, which were mechanically robust due to good adhesion between the ALQSA3 layers and the P3HT nanolayers. Results showed that the specific capacitance was increased by ca. 3-fold when a white light was illuminated to the flexible organic multilayer capacitors. In particular, the capacity of charge storage was remarkably (ca. 250-fold) enhanced by a white light illumination in the potentiostatic charge/discharge operation, and the photo-amplification functions were well maintained even after bending for 300 times at a bending angle of 180o.

  2. Strong Photo-Amplification Effects in Flexible Organic Capacitors with Small Molecular Solid-State Electrolyte Layers Sandwiched between Photo-Sensitive Conjugated Polymer Nanolayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyena; Kim, Jungnam; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-02-05

    We demonstrate strong photo-amplification effects in flexible organic capacitors which consist of small molecular solid-state electrolyte layers sandwiched between light-sensitive conjugated polymer nanolayers. The small molecular electrolyte layers were prepared from aqueous solutions of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) aluminum (ALQSA3), while poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was employed as the light-sensitive polymer nanolayer that is spin-coated on the indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film substrates. The resulting capacitors feature a multilayer device structure of PET/ITO/P3HT/ALQSA3/P3HT/ITO/PET, which were mechanically robust due to good adhesion between the ALQSA3 layers and the P3HT nanolayers. Results showed that the specific capacitance was increased by ca. 3-fold when a white light was illuminated to the flexible organic multilayer capacitors. In particular, the capacity of charge storage was remarkably (ca. 250-fold) enhanced by a white light illumination in the potentiostatic charge/discharge operation, and the photo-amplification functions were well maintained even after bending for 300 times at a bending angle of 180(°).

  3. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  4. Nanoporous zeolite and solid-state electrochemical devices for nitrogen-oxide sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiun-Chan

    Solid-state electrochemical gas sensing devices composed of stabilized-zirconia electrolyte have used extensively in the automobile and chemical industry. Two types of electrochemical devices, potentiometric and amperometric, were developed in this thesis for total NOx (NO + NO2) detection in harsh environments. In potentiometric devices, Pt covered with Pt containing zeolite Y (PtY) and WO3 were examined as the two electrode materials. Significant reactivity differences toward NOx between PtY and WO 3 led to the difference in non-electrochemical reactions and resulted in a electrode potential. With gases passing through a PtY filter, it was possible to remove interferences from 2000 ppm CO, 800 ppm propane, 10 ppm NH3, as well as to minimize effects of 1˜13% O2, CO2, and H2O. Total NOx concentration was measured by maintaining a temperature difference between the filter and the sensor. The sensitivity was significantly improved by connecting sensors in series. Amperometic devices were also developed to detect NOx passing through the PtY filter. By applying a low anodic potential of 80 mV, NO in the NOx equilibrated mixture can be oxidized at a Pt working electrode on the YSZ electrolyte at 500°C. The PtY can be held separate from the YSZ or coated onto the YSZ as a film. This design was demonstrated to exhibit total-NOx detection capability, a low NOx detection limit (< 1 ppm), high NOx selectivity relative to CO and oxygen, and linear dependence on NOx concentration. The non-electrochemical reactions around the triple-phase boundary were studied to understand the origin of the superior performance of WO3 on potentiometric NOx sensing. From TPD, DRIFTS, XRD, Raman, and catalytic activity measurements, the interfacial reactions between WO 3 and YSZ were found to dramatically reduce the NOx catalytic activity of YSZ. WO3 reacted with surface Y2O3 on YSZ and formed less catalytically active yttrium tungsten oxides and monoclinic ZrO2, which suppressed the non

  5. Solid-State Thermal Reaction of a Molecular Material and Solventless Synthesis of Iron Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debasis; Roy, Madhusudan; Zubko, Maciej; Kusz, Joachim; Bhattacharjee, Ashis

    2016-09-01

    Solid-state thermal decomposition reaction of a molecular material {As}({C}6{H}5)4[{Fe}^{II}{Fe}^{III} ({C}2{O}4)3]}n has been studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) in an inert atmosphere. By analyzing the TG data collected at multiple heating rates in 300 K-1300 K range, the kinetic parameters (activation energy, most probable reaction mechanism function and frequency factor) are determined using different multi-heating rate analysis programs. Activation energy and the frequency factor are found to be strongly dependent on the extent of decomposition. The decomposed material has been characterized to be hematite using physical techniques (FT-IR and powder XRD). Particle morphology has been checked by TEM. A solid-state reaction pathway leading the molecular precursor to hematite has been proposed illustrating an example of solventless synthesis of iron oxides utilizing thermal decomposition as a technique using innocuous materials.

  6. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-26

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of [Formula: see text] at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g(-1) for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  7. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2015-06-01

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of log ≤ft( σ /S c{{m}-1} \\right)=-3.3 at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g-1 for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  8. Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Functionalized Tannic Acids from Natural Resources for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Bae, Ki Yoon; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-12-21

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries are prepared by simple one-pot polymerization induced by ultraviolet (UV) light using poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) as an ion-conducting monomeric unit and tannic acid (TA)-based crosslinking agent and plasticizer. The crosslinking agent and plasticizer based on natural resources are obtained from the reaction of TA with glycidyl methacrylate and glycidyl poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. Dimensionally stable free-standing SPE having a large ionic conductivity of 5.6×10(-4)  Scm(-1) at room temperature can be obtained by the polymerization of PEGMA into P(PEGMA) with a very small amount (0.1 wt %) of the crosslinking agent and 2.0 wt % of the plasticizer. The ionic conductivity value of SPE with a crosslinked structure is one order of magnitude larger than that of linear P(PEGMA) in the waxy state.

  9. All-solid-state electrochemical capacitors using MnO2 electrode/SiO2-Nafion electrolyte composite prepared by the sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, Kazushi; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Electrode-electrolyte composites of MnO2 active material, acetylene black (AB), and SiO2-Nafion solid electrolyte were prepared using the sol-gel process to form good solid-solid interfaces. The composites were obtained by the addition of MnO2 and AB into a sol of hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane with Nafion, and successive solidification of the precursor sol. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements show that good solid-solid interface is formed between electrodes and solid electrolytes in the composites. All-solid-state hybrid capacitors were fabricated using the composites or the hand-grinding mixture of MnO2, AB and SiO2-Nafion powder as positive electrodes, activated carbon powder as a negative electrode, and phosphosilicate gel as a solid electrolyte. The all-solid-state hybrid capacitors using the composites exhibit larger capacitances and better rate performance than the capacitors using the electrode prepared by hand-mixing of powders. Specific discharge capacitances of the capacitor with the composite are 85 F g-1 for the one with the composite electrode and 48 F g-1 for the one with the hand-mixed electrode, at 1 mA cm-2. Moreover, the all-solid-state capacitors using the composite electrode can be operated at temperatures between -30 °C and 60 °C.

  10. Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Using Fast, Stable, Glassy Nanocomposite Electrolytes for Good Safety and Long Cycle-Life.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guoqiang; Wu, Feng; Zhan, Chun; Wang, Jing; Mu, Daobin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-03-01

    The development of safe, stable, and long-life Li-ion batteries is being intensively pursued to enable the electrification of transportation and intelligent grid applications. Here, we report a new solid-state Li-ion battery technology, using a solid nanocomposite electrolyte composed of porous silica matrices with in situ immobilizing Li(+)-conducting ionic liquid, anode material of MCMB, and cathode material of LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, or LiFePO4. An injection printing method is used for the electrode/electrolyte preparation. Solid nanocomposite electrolytes exhibit superior performance to the conventional organic electrolytes with regard to safety and cycle-life. They also have a transparent glassy structure with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical strength. Solid-state full cells tested with the various cathodes exhibited high specific capacities, long cycling stability, and excellent high temperature performance. This solid-state battery technology will provide new avenues for the rational engineering of advanced Li-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. PMID:26862941

  11. SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS AND SOME PROPERTIES OF MAGNESIUM-DOPED COPPER ALUMINUM OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chang; Ren, Fei; Wang, Hsin; Case, Eldon D; Morelli, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) with delafossite structure is a promising candidate for high temperature thermoelectric applications because of its modest band gap, high stability and low cost. We investigate magnesium doping on the aluminum site as a means of producing higher electrical conductivity and optimized Seebeck coefficient. Powder samples were synthesized using solid-state reaction and bulk samples were prepared using both cold-pressing and hot-pressing techniques. Composition analysis, microstructural examination and transport property measurements were performed, and the results suggest that while hot-pressing can achieve high density samples, secondary phases tend to form and lower the performance of the materials.

  12. Controllable growth of vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays for all-oxide solid-state DSSCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asemi, Morteza; Ghanaatshoar, Majid

    2016-09-01

    In this study, vertically aligned Bi-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays as photoanodes were successfully grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide by hydrothermal method. Structural analysis showed that bismuth was successfully incorporated into the TiO2 lattice at low concentration, but at higher concentration, phase segregation of Bi2O3 in the TiO2 matrix was occurred. TiO2 nanorods with 3 % bismuth concentration had minimum electrical resistivity. As the solid-state electrolyte, Mg-doped CuCrO2 nanoparticles with p-type conductivity were synthesized by sol-gel method. The fabricated all-oxide solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with Bi-doped TiO2 nanorods displayed better photovoltaic performance due to the presence of Bi. The improved cell performance was correlated with the higher dye loading, slower charge recombination rate and the higher electrical conductivity of the photoanodes. After mechanical pressing, the all-oxide solid-state DSSC exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance due to the formation of the large neck between adjacent nanoparticles by mechanical sintering. The open-circuit photovoltage decay measurement of the devices and electrical conductivity of the nanoparticles before and after pressing revealed that the mechanical pressing technique reduces charge recombination rate and facilitates electron transport through the interconnected nanoparticles.

  13. In situ and nonvolatile photoluminescence tuning and nanodomain writing demonstrated by all-solid-state devices based on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2015-02-24

    In situ and nonvolatile tuning of photoluminescence (PL) has been achieved based on graphene oxide (GO), the PL of which is receiving much attention because of various potential applications of the oxide (e.g., display, lighting, and nano-biosensor). The technique is based on in situ and nonvolatile tuning of the sp(2) domain fraction to the sp(3) domain fraction (sp(2)/sp(3) fraction) in GO through an electrochemical redox reaction achieved by solid electrolyte thin films. The all-solid-state variable PL device was fabricated by GO and proton-conducting mesoporous SiO2 thin films, which showed an extremely low PL background. The device successfully tuned the PL peak wavelength in a very wide range from 393 to 712 nm, covering that for chemically tuned GO, by adjusting the applied DC voltage within several hundred seconds. We also demonstrate the sp(2)/sp(3) fraction tuning using a conductive atomic force microscope. The device achieved not only writing, but also erasing of the sp(2)/sp(3)-fraction-tuned nanodomain (both directions operation). The combination of these techniques is applicable to a wide range of nano-optoelectronic devices including nonvolatile PL memory devices and on-demand rewritable biosensors that can be integrated into nano- and microtips which are transparent, ultrathin, flexible, and inexpensive.

  14. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm(-3), which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L(-1) and 549 W L(-1), based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices. PMID:27241801

  15. Solid-state proton conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Atomic solid state energy scale: Universality and periodic trends in oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelatt, Brian D.; Kokenyesi, Robert S.; Ravichandran, Ram; Pereira, Clifford B.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.

    2015-11-01

    The atomic solid state energy (SSE) scale originates from a plot of the electron affinity (EA) and ionization potential (IP) versus band gap (EG). SSE is estimated for a given atom by assessing an average EA (for a cation) or an average IP (for an anion) for binary inorganic compounds having that specific atom as a constituent. Physically, SSE is an experimentally-derived average frontier orbital energy referenced to the vacuum level. In its original formulation, 69 binary closed-shell inorganic semiconductors and insulators were employed as a database, providing SSE estimates for 40 elements. In this contribution, EA and IP versus EG are plotted for an additional 92 compounds, thus yielding SSE estimates for a total of 64 elements from the s-, p-, d-, and f-blocks of the periodic table. Additionally, SSE is refined to account for its dependence on oxidation state. Although most cations within the SSE database are found to occur in a single oxidation state, data are available for nine d-block transition metals and one p-block main group metal in more than one oxidation state. SSE is deeper in energy for a higher cation oxidation state. Two p-block main group non-metals within the SSE database are found to exist in both positive and negative oxidation states so that they can function as a cation or anion. SSEs for most cations are positioned above -4.5 eV with respect to the vacuum level, and SSEs for all anions are positioned below. Hence, the energy -4.5 eV, equal to the hydrogen donor/acceptor ionization energy ε(+/-) or equivalently the standard hydrogen electrode energy, is considered to be an absolute energy reference for chemical bonding in the solid state.

  17. Three-dimensional network electrolytes with highly efficient ion-transporting channels for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jifu; Chen, Jiubin; Li, Yujian; Zhu, Yanqing; Xu, Gang; Xu, Jiayou

    2015-05-01

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated with three-dimensional network poly(adipic acid pentaerythritol ester) (PAAPE). The PAAPEs are prepared by esterification of pentaerythritol and adipic acid. This three-dimensional structure provides highly efficient ion-transporting channels for iodide/triiodide (I-/I3-) transport in the gel electrolyte. The optimized gel electrolyte shows conductivity of 4.03 mS cm-1 at 25 °C. The fabricated DSC obtains a photoenergy conversion efficiency of 6.81% under AM 1.5 irradiation.

  18. Low molecular mass organogelator based gel electrolyte with effective charge transport property for long-term stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhipeng; Dai, Songyuan; Zhang, Changneng; Kong, Fantai; Fang, Xiaqin; Guo, Lei; Liu, Weiqing; Hu, Linhua; Pan, Xu; Wang, Kongjia

    2008-10-16

    Stable quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were fabricated using 12-hydroxystearic acid as a low molecular mass organogelator (LMOG) to form gel electrolyte. TEM image of the gel exhibited the self-assembled network constructed by the LMOG, which hindered flow and volatilization of the liquid. The formation of less-mobile polyiodide ions such as I 3 (-) and I 5 (-) confirmed by Raman spectroscopy increased the conductivity of the gel electrolytes by electronic conduction process, which should be rationalized by the Grotthuss-type electron exchange mechanism caused by rather packed polyiodide species in the electrolytes. The results of the accelerated aging tests showed that the gel electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cell could retain over 97% of its initial photoelectric conversion efficiency value after successive heating at 60 degrees C for 1000 h and device degradation was also negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter for 1000 h.

  19. Fabrication of ultrathin solid electrolyte membranes of β-Li3PS4 nanoflakes by evaporation-induced self-assembly for all-solid-state batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D.; Xia, Younan; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-04-25

    All-solid-state lithium batteries are attractive candidates for next-generation energy storage devices because of their anticipated high energy density and intrinsic safety. Owing to their excellent ionic conductivity and stability with metallic lithium anodes, nanostructured lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes such as β-Li3PS4 have found use in the fabrication of all-solid lithium batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. However, current methods for preparing air-sensitive solid electrolyte membranes of lithium thiophosphates can only generate thick membranes that compromise the battery's gravimetric/volumetric energy density and thus its rate performance. To overcome this limitation, the solid electrolyte's thickness needs to be effectively decreased to achievemore » ideal energy density and enhanced rate performance. In this paper, we show that the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique produces ultrathin membranes of a lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte with controllable thicknesses between 8 and 50 μm while maintaining the high ionic conductivity of β-Li3PS4 and stability with metallic lithium anodes up to 5 V. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that this facile EISA approach allows for the preparation of ultrathin lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte membranes for all-solid-state batteries.« less

  20. Enhanced Electrochemical Stability of Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte Containing SiO2 Nanoparticles for Li-O2 Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Young; Roev, Victor; Lee, Heung Chan; Kwon, Hyuk Jae; Lee, Hyunpyo; Kwon, Soonchul; Im, Dongmin

    2016-01-20

    A stable electrolyte is required for use in the open-packing environment of a Li-O2 battery system. Herein, a gelled quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing SiO2 nanoparticles was designed, in order to obtain a solidified electrolyte with a high discharge capacity and long cyclability. We successfully fabricated an organic-inorganic hybrid matrix with a gelled structure, which exhibited high ionic conductivity, thereby enhancing the discharge capacity of the Li-O2 battery. In particular, the improved electrochemical stability of the gelled cathode led to long-term cyclability. The organic-inorganic hybrid matrix with the gelled structure played a beneficial role in improving the ionic conductivity and long-term cyclability and diminished electrolyte evaporation. The experimental and theoretical findings both suggest that the preferential binding between amorphous SiO2 and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) solvent led to the formation of the solidified gelled electrolyte and improved electrochemical stability during cycling, while enhancing the stability of the quasi-solid state Li-O2 battery.

  1. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  2. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Jim Powers

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed for April 2003--September 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid oxide Fuel Cell Program''. During this reporting period, the conceptual system design activity was completed. The system design, including strategies for startup, normal operation and shutdown, was defined. Sealant and stack materials for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack were identified which are capable of meeting the thermal cycling and degradation requirements. A cell module was tested which achieved a stable performance of 0.238 W/cm{sup 2} at 95% fuel utilization. The external fuel processor design was completed and fabrication begun. Several other advances were made on various aspects of the SOFC system, which are detailed in this report.

  3. Anomalous capacitive behaviors of graphene oxide based solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Scrafford, Kathryn; Li, Mingtao; Cao, Zeyuan; Xia, Zhenhai; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Wei, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Substantial differences in charge storage mechanisms exist between dielectric capacitors (DCs) and electrochemical capacitors (ECs), resulting in orders of magnitude difference of stored charge density in them. However, if ionic diffusion, the major charge transport mechanism in ECs, is confined within nanoscale dimensions, the Helmholtz layers and diffusion layers will overlap, resulting in dismissible ionic diffusion. An interesting contradiction between appreciable energy density and unrecognizable ionic diffusion is observed in solid-state capacitors made from reduced graphene oxide films that challenge the fundamental charge storage mechanisms proposed in such devices. A new capacitive model is proposed, which combines the two distinct charge storage mechanisms of DCs and ECs, to explain the contradiction, of high storage capacity yet undetectable ionic diffusion, seen in graphene oxide based supercapacitors.

  4. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  5. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  6. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  7. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOEpatents

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  8. Engineering the metathesis and oxidation-reduction reaction in solid state at room temperature for nanosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pengfei; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Ruili

    2014-01-01

    It is a long-standing goal to explore convenient synthesis methodology for functional materials. Recently, several multiple-step approaches have been designed for photocatalysts AgnX@Ag (X = Cl−, PO43−, etc.), mainly containing the ion-exchange (metathesis) reaction followed by photoreduction in solution. But they were obsessed by complicated process, the uncontrollability of composition and larger sizes of Ag particles. Here we show a general solid-state route for the synthesis of AgnX@Ag catalysts with hierarchical structures. Due to strong surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles with broad shape and size, the AgnX@Ag showed high photocatalytic activity in visible region. Especially, the composition of AgnX@Ag composites could be accurately controlled by regulating the feed ratio of (NH2OH)2·H2SO4 to anions, by which the performance were easily optimized. Results demonstrate that the metathesis and oxidation-reduction reactions can be performed in solid state at room temperature for nanosynthesis, greatly reducing the time/energy consumption and pollution. PMID:24614918

  9. A polymer gel electrolyte with an inverse opal structure and its effects on the performance of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Dong, Gong-Yu; Lin, Bencai; Qu, Jie; Yuan, Ning-Yi; Ding, Jian-Ning

    2015-03-01

    To make the use of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) practical, improvements in their light harvesting and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are needed. Hybrid polymer gels with an inverse opal structure (IOS) are prepared using various SiO2 opal films as templates and subsequent template etching. The polymer gel is further used as a host to prepare gel electrolytes with a photonic band gap (PBG), based on which quasi-solid-state DSCs are fabricated. The current-voltage curves indicate higher PCEs for the gel electrolytes with IOS than for reference gel electrolytes. A maximum average PCE of 3.85% is achieved for the gel electrolytes with a PBG around 690 nm, which is ca. 10% higher than the value for the reference gel electrolyte (3.48%). The action spectra reveal increases in the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiencies in and/or away the PBG region, indicating the significance of IOS for light-harvesting and PCE enhancement by back scattering and reflection of light. The electrochemical impedance spectra further demonstrate that the gel electrolytes with IOS have a lower Warburg impedance value than the reference gel electrolyte, which may also have contributed to the observed PCE enhancement. Besides, the IOS is found to give more stable performance of DSCs.

  10. Synthesis of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles via solid state reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bystrzejewski, M.

    2011-06-15

    The encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in protective carbon cages leads to unique hybrid core-shell nanomaterials. Recent literature reports suggest that such nanocomposites can be obtained in a relatively simple process involving the solid state carbothermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles. This approach is very attractive because it does not require advanced equipment and consumes less energy in comparison to widely used plasma methods. The presented more-in-depth study shows that the carbothermal approach is sensitive to temperature and the process yield strongly depends on the morphology and crystallinity of the carbon material used as a reductant. - Graphical abstract: Reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles by carbon black at 1200 deg. C yields well crystallized carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles. Highlights: > Carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by carbothermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles. > The process has the highest selectivity at 1200 C. > Lower temperatures result in iron oxide nanoparticles wrapped in carbon matrix. > The encapsulation rate of Fe at 1200 deg. C was found to be 15%.

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of zinc oxide nanorods synthesized by solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Virendra; D'Souza, Charlene; Yadav, Deepti; Shaikh, A. J.; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2006-09-01

    Well-crystallized zinc oxide nanorods have been fabricated by single step solid-state reaction using zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide, at room temperature. The sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) stabilized zinc oxide nanorods were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction revealed the wurtzite structure of zinc oxide. The size estimation by XRD and TEM confirmed that the ZnO nanorods are made of single crystals. The growth of zinc oxide crystals into rod shape was found to be closely related to its hexagonal nature. The mass ratio of SLS:ZnO in the nanorods was found to be 1:10 based on the thermogravimetric analysis. Blue shift of photoluminescence emission was noticed in the ZnO nanorods when compared to that of ZnO bulk. FT-IR analysis confirmed the binding of SLS with ZnO nanorods. Apart from ease of preparation, this method has the advantage of eco-friendliness since the solvent and other harmful chemicals were eliminated in the synthesis protocol.

  12. Solid state chemistry of nitrogen oxides--part I: surface consumption of NO.

    PubMed

    Minissale, M; Fedoseev, G; Congiu, E; Ioppolo, S; Dulieu, F; Linnartz, H

    2014-05-14

    The role of nitrogen and oxygen chemistry in the interstellar medium is still rather poorly understood. Nitric oxide, NO, has been proposed as an important precursor in the formation of larger N- and O-bearing species, such as hydroxylamine, NH2OH, and nitrogen oxides, NO2 and N2O. The topic of this study is the solid state consumption of NO via oxygenation and the formation of NO2 and other nitrogen oxides (ONNO2 and N2O4) under conditions close to those encountered on icy grains in quiescent interstellar clouds. In our experiments nitric oxide and oxygen allotropes (O, O2, and O3) or N atoms are co-deposited under ultra-high vacuum conditions on different substrates (silicate, graphite, compact ASW ice, and gold) at temperatures ranging between 10 and 35 K. Reaction products are monitored via Fourier Transform Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) using mass spectrometry. We find that NO2 is efficiently formed in NO + O/O2/O3/N solid surface reactions. These are essentially barrier free and offer a pathway for the formation of NO2 in space. Nitrogen dioxide, however, has not been astronomically detected, contradicting the efficient reaction channel found here. This is likely due to other pathways, including regular hydrogenation reactions, as discussed separately in part II of this study.

  13. All-solid-state supercapacitors with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-coated carbon fiber paper electrodes and ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Rastogi, A. C.; Westgate, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    All-solid-state thin supercapacitors have been fabricated using current pulse polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) over carbon fiber paper and ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte. The PEDOT-coated carbon paper electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which confirm the porous morphology of PEDOT at the nanoscale and a high degree of ClO4- dopant ion conjugation. The performance characteristics of the supercapacitor cells have been evaluated by ac impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The PEDOT electrode shows specific capacitance of ∼154.5 F g-1, which correspond to the cell area-normalized capacitance of 85 mF cm-2. The maximum specific energy and specific power of the solid-state supercapacitor cell, calculated from charge-discharge characteristics, are 6.5 Wh kg-1 and 11.3 kW kg-1, respectively. The solid-state supercapacitor shows good cycle durability and time stability. The thin, lightweight, gel electrolyte based supercapacitor shows considerable potential for low-cost, high-performance energy storage applications.

  14. A high performance flexible all solid state supercapacitor based on the MnO2 sphere coated macro/mesoporous Ni/C electrode and ionic conducting electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jian; Reiser, Oliver; Wang, Youfu; Hu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating layer. By employing butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) modified gels as the ionic conducting electrolyte, the utilization efficiency of MnO2 on the specific capacitance was enhanced up to 88% of the theoretical value, delivering a volumetric capacitance of 81 F cm-3, which is the highest value among MnO2 based solid state supercapacitors. Moreover, such a flexible device exhibits exceptional volumetric energy and power density (6.6 Wh L-1 and 549 W L-1, based on the whole device volume) combined with a small capacity loss of 8.5% after 6000 cycles under twisting. These encouraging findings unambiguously overcome the energy bottleneck of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors, and open up a new application of macro/mesoporous materials in flexible devices.A high contact resistance between the active materials and the current collector, a low ionic conductivity of the gel electrolyte, and an impenetrable electrode structure are the three major barriers which greatly limit the capacitance of MnO2 in solid state supercapacitors. As a potential solution to these problems, in this work we report a novel electrode for solid state supercapacitors, based on a ternary system composed of hierarchical MnO2 spheres as the active material, macroporous Ni foam as gel penetrable skeletons and an ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) membrane as the charge-transport accelerating

  15. High-energy-density, all-solid-state microsupercapacitors with three-dimensional interdigital electrodes of carbon/polymer electrolyte composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Juan; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Siwei; Liu, Jinghe; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Novel all-solid-state microsupercapacitors (MSCs) with three-dimensional (3D) electrodes consisting of active materials (i.e., graphene or activated carbon (AC) particles) and polymer electrolyte (PE) designed for high-energy-density storage applications were fabricated and tested in this work. The incorporation of PE in the electrode material enhances the accessibility of electrolyte ions to the surface of active materials and decreases the ion diffusion path during electrochemical charge/discharge. For a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, the MSCs with graphene/PE and AC/PE composite electrodes demonstrate a very high areal capacitance of 95 and 134 mF cm-2, respectively, comparable to that of 3D MSCs with liquid electrolyte. In addition, the graphene/PE MSCs show a ˜70% increase in specific capacitance after 10 000 charge/discharge cycles, attributed to an electro-activation process resulting from ion intercalation between the graphene nanosheets. The AC/PE MSCs also demonstrate excellent stability. The results of this study illustrate the potential of the present 3D MSCs for various high-density solid-state energy storage applications.

  16. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.D.; Hash, M.C.; Krumpelt, M.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having a weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  17. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  19. Solid state chemistry of nitrogen oxides--part II: surface consumption of NO2.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, S; Fedoseev, G; Minissale, M; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Linnartz, H

    2014-05-14

    Nitrogen oxides are considered to be important astrochemical precursors of complex species and prebiotics. However, apart from the hydrogenation of solid NO that leads to the surface formation of hydroxylamine, little is known about the full solid state reaction network involving both nitrogen and oxygen. Our study is divided into two papers, hereby called Part I and Part II. In the accompanying paper, we investigate the surface reactions NO + O/O2/O3 and NO + N with a focus on the formation of NO2 ice. Here, we complement this study by measurements of the surface destruction of solid NO2, e.g., NO2 + H/O/N. Experiments are performed in two separate ultra-high vacuum setups and therefore under different experimental conditions to better constrain the experimental results. Surface reaction products are monitored by means of Fourier Transform Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) techniques using mass spectrometry. The surface destruction of solid NO2 leads to the formation of a series of nitrogen oxides such as NO, N2O, N2O3, and N2O4 as well as HNO, NH2OH, and H2O. When NO2 is mixed with an interstellar more relevant apolar (i.e., CO) ice, solid CO2 and HCOOH are also formed due to interactions between different reaction routes. The astrophysical implications of the full nitrogen and oxygen reaction network derived from Parts I and II are discussed.

  20. Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Chen, Banghao; Jiao, Jian; Parsons, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

  1. Chemical reactivity of graphene oxide towards amines elucidated by solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Isabella A.; Spinato, Cinzia; Raya, Jésus; Bianco, Alberto; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by amidation. We also prove that there is a negligible amount of carboxylic acid groups in two GO samples obtained by a different synthesis process, hence eliminating the possibility of amidation reactions with amine derivatives. This work brings additional insights into the chemical reactivity of GO, which is fundamental to control its functionalization, and highlights the major role of MAS NMR spectroscopy for a comprehensive characterization of derivatized GO.Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by

  2. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs) consisting of high-strength alloys and ceramic reinforcement phases exhibit a high potential for security relevant lightweight components due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, their application as tribologically stressed components is limited because of their susceptibility against fatigue wear and delamination wear. Oxide ceramic protective coatings produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) can solve these problems and extend the possible applications of AMCs. The substrate material was powder metallurgically processed using alloy EN AW 2017 and SiC or Al2O3 particles. The influence of material properties like particle type, size and volume fraction on coating characteristics is clarified within this work. An alkaline silicate electrolyte was used to produce PEO coatings with technically relevant thicknesses under bipolar-pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The particle type proved to have the most significant effect on the coating properties. Whereas compactness and thickness are not deteriorated by the incorporation of thermodynamically stable alumina particles, the decomposition of silica particles during the PEO processes causes an increase of the porosity. The higher silica particle content decreases also the coating thickness and hardness, which leads in particular to reduction of the wear resistance of the PEO coatings. Finally, different approaches for the reduction of the coating porosity of silica reinforced AMCs are discussed.

  3. Solid state cathode materials for secondary magnesium-ion batteries that are compatible with magnesium metal anodes in water-free electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, Adam J.; Bartlett, Bart M.

    2016-10-01

    With high elemental abundance, large volumetric capacity, and dendrite-free metal deposition, magnesium metal anodes offer promise in beyond-lithium-ion batteries. However, the increased charge density associated with the divalent magnesium-ion (Mg2+), relative to lithium-ion (Li+) hinders the ion-insertion and extraction processes within many materials and structures known for lithium-ion cathodes. As a result, many recent investigations incorporate known amounts of water within the electrolyte to provide temporary solvation of the Mg2+, improving diffusion kinetics. Unfortunately with the addition of water, compatibility with magnesium metal anodes disappears due to forming an ion-insulating passivating layer. In this short review, recent advances in solid state cathode materials for rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries are highlighted, with a focus on cathode materials that do not require water contaminated electrolyte solutions for ion insertion and extraction processes.

  4. Fully printable transparent monolithic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with mesoscopic indium tin oxide counter electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Ri, Kwangho; Rong, Yaoguang; Liu, Linfeng; Liu, Tongfa; Hu, Min; Li, Xiong; Han, Hongwei

    2014-09-01

    We present a new transparent monolithic mesoscopic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on trilamellar films of mesoscopic TiO2 nanocrystalline photoanode, a ZrO2 insulating layer and an indium tin oxide counter electrode (ITO-CE), which were screen-printed layer by layer on a single substrate. When the thickness of the ITO-CE was optimized to 2.1 μm, this very simple and fully printable solid-state DSSC with D102 dye and spiro-OMeTAD hole transport materials presents efficiencies of 1.73% when irradiated from the front side and 1.06% when irradiated from the rear side under a standard simulated sunlight condition (AM 1.5 Global, 100 mW cm(-2)). Higher parameters could be expected with a better transparent mesoscopic counter electrode and hole conductor for the printable monolithic mesoscopic solid-state DSSC.

  5. Chemical reactivity of graphene oxide towards amines elucidated by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Isabella A; Spinato, Cinzia; Raya, Jésus; Bianco, Alberto; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia

    2016-07-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an attractive nanomaterial for many applications. Controlling the functionalization of GO is essential for the design of graphene-based conjugates with novel properties. But, the chemical composition of GO has not been fully elucidated yet. Due to the high reactivity of the oxygenated moieties, mainly epoxy, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, several derivatization reactions may occur concomitantly. The reactivity of GO with amine derivatives has been exploited in the literature to design graphene-based conjugates, mainly through amidation. However, in this study we undoubtedly demonstrate using magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR that the reaction between GO and amine functions occurs via ring opening of the epoxides, and not by amidation. We also prove that there is a negligible amount of carboxylic acid groups in two GO samples obtained by a different synthesis process, hence eliminating the possibility of amidation reactions with amine derivatives. This work brings additional insights into the chemical reactivity of GO, which is fundamental to control its functionalization, and highlights the major role of MAS NMR spectroscopy for a comprehensive characterization of derivatized GO. PMID:27411370

  6. Molecular manipulation of solid state structure: influences of organic components on vanadium oxide architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagrman, Pamela J.; Finn, Robert C.; Zubieta, Jon

    2001-11-01

    Among the inorganic materials enjoying widespread contemporary interest, the metal oxide based solid phases occupy a prominent position by virtue of their applications to catalysis, sorption, molecular electronics, energy storage, optical materials and ceramics. The diversity of properties associated with these materials reflects the chemical composition, which allows variations in covalency, geometry and oxidation states, and the crystalline architecture, which may provide different pore structures, coordination sites, or juxtapositions of functional groups. Despite such fundamental and practical significance, the design of the structure of such materials remains a challenge in solid state chemistry. While organic materials have been synthesized which self-assemble into ordered arrays at low temperature and which exhibit molecular recognition and biomimetic activity, the ability to synthesize inorganic materials by rational design remains elusive. Small, soluble molecular building blocks with well-defined reaction chemistries which allow their low-temperature assembly into crystalline solid state inorganic materials are not well known. However, the existence of naturally occurring, structurally complex minerals establishes that hydrothermal synthesis can provide a low temperature pathway to produce open-framework and layered metastable structures utilizing inorganic starting materials. Thus, hydrothermal conditions have been used to prepare microporous tetrahedral framework solids that are capable of shape-selective absorption, like zeolites and aluminophosphates, and more recently in the preparation of complex solid arrays of the M/O/PO 3-4 and M/O/RPO 2-3 systems (M=V and Mo). The hydrothermal technique may be combined with the introduction of organic components which may act as charge compensating groups, space-filling units, structure directing agents, templates, tethers between functional groups, or conventional ligands in the preparation of inorganic

  7. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  8. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  9. Ultra-thin Solid-State Li-Ion Electrolyte Membrane Facilitated by a Self-Healing Polymer Matrix.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Justin M; Taynton, Philip; Zhang, Wei; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-11-18

    Thin solid membranes are formed by a new strategy, whereby an in situ derived self-healing polymer matrix that penetrates the void space of an inorganic solid is created. The concept is applied as a separator in an all-solid-state battery with an FeS2 -based cathode and achieves tremendous performance for over 200 cycles. Processing in dry conditions represents a paradigm shift for incorporating high active-material mass loadings into mixed-matrix membranes.

  10. On the chemical stability of post-lithiated garnet Al-stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 solid state electrolyte thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlence, Michael; Garbayo, Inigo; Buecheler, Stephan; Rupp, J. L. M.

    2016-08-01

    Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li+ conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly suggested post-lithiation route for films with thicknesses between 90 and 380 nm. The phase changes from cubic, to a mix of cubic and tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12, to a cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and La2Zr2O7 containing film is accompanied by a reduction in the degree of de-wetting as the thickness increases. This study reveals that the thicker, dense, and continuous films remain predominantly in a mixed phase containing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and the lithium free La2Zr2O7 phase whereas the thinner, de-wetted films exhibit improved lithium incorporation resulting in the absence of the lithium free phase. For tuning the electrical conductivity and effective use of these structures in future batteries, understanding this material system is of great importance as the chemical stability of the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase in the thin film system will control its effective use. We report a conductivity of 1.2 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 325 °C for a 380 nm thick solid state electrolyte film on MgO for potential operation in future all solid state battery assemblies.Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li+ conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly

  11. Effective Infiltration of Gel Polymer Electrolyte into Silicon-Coated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Anodes for Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaind P; Klankowski, Steven A; Li, Yonghui; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan; Wu, Judy; Rojeski, Ronald A; Li, Jun

    2015-09-23

    This study demonstrates the full infiltration of gel polymer electrolyte into silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (Si-VACNFs), a high-capacity 3D nanostructured anode, and the electrochemical characterization of its properties as an effective electrolyte/separator for future all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Two fabrication methods have been employed to form a stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNF anode. In the first method, the drop-casted gel polymer electrolyte is able to fully infiltrate into the open space between the vertically aligned core-shell nanofibers and encapsulate/stabilize each individual nanofiber in the polymer matrix. The 3D nanostructured Si-VACNF anode shows a very high capacity of 3450 mAh g(-1) at C/10.5 (or 0.36 A g(-1)) rate and 1732 mAh g(-1) at 1C (or 3.8 A g(-1)) rate. In the second method, a preformed gel electrolyte film is sandwiched between an Si-VACNF electrode and a Li foil to form a half-cell. Most of the vertical core-shell nanofibers of the Si-VACNF anode are able to penetrate into the gel polymer film while retaining their structural integrity. The slightly lower capacity of 2800 mAh g(-1) at C/11 rate and ∼1070 mAh g(-1) at C/1.5 (or 2.6 A g(-1)) rate have been obtained, with almost no capacity fade for up to 100 cycles. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy does not show noticeable changes after 110 cycles, further revealing the stable interface between the gel polymer electrolyte and the Si-VACNFs anode. These results show that the infiltrated flexible gel polymer electrolyte can effectively accommodate the stress/strain of the Si shell due to the large volume expansion/contraction during the charge-discharge processes, which is particularly useful for developing future flexible solid-state lithium-ion batteries incorporating Si-anodes.

  12. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte.

  13. On the chemical stability of post-lithiated garnet Al-stabilized Li7La3Zr2O12 solid state electrolyte thin films.

    PubMed

    Rawlence, Michael; Garbayo, Inigo; Buecheler, Stephan; Rupp, J L M

    2016-08-21

    Garnet-based Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 has the potential to be used as a solid state electrolyte for future lithium microbattery architectures, due to its relatively high Li(+) conductivity and stability against Li. Through this work, a model experiment is presented in which the effect of post-lithiation on phase formation and chemical stability is studied for pulsed laser deposited Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 thin films on MgO substrates. We report the implications of the newly suggested post-lithiation route for films with thicknesses between 90 and 380 nm. The phase changes from cubic, to a mix of cubic and tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12, to a cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and La2Zr2O7 containing film is accompanied by a reduction in the degree of de-wetting as the thickness increases. This study reveals that the thicker, dense, and continuous films remain predominantly in a mixed phase containing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 and the lithium free La2Zr2O7 phase whereas the thinner, de-wetted films exhibit improved lithium incorporation resulting in the absence of the lithium free phase. For tuning the electrical conductivity and effective use of these structures in future batteries, understanding this material system is of great importance as the chemical stability of the cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 phase in the thin film system will control its effective use. We report a conductivity of 1.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 325 °C for a 380 nm thick solid state electrolyte film on MgO for potential operation in future all solid state battery assemblies. PMID:27455404

  14. Investigations of adsorption sites on oxide surfaces using solid-state NMR and TPD-IGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombeck, Rebecca A.

    diameters and thermal histories. The bulk structural features in both compositions of glass fibers were identified using high-resolution 29Si, 27Al, and 11B magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic measurements. In multi-component glasses, the determination of silicon, aluminum, and boron distributions becomes difficult due to the competitive nature of the network-modifying oxides among the network-forming oxides. In pure silicates, 29Si MAS NMR can often resolve resonances arising from silicate tetrahedron having varying numbers of bridging oxygens. In aluminoborosilicate glasses, aluminum is present in four-, five-, and six- coordination with oxygen as neighbors. The speciation of the aluminum can be determined using 27Al MAS NMR. The fraction of tetrahedral boron species in the glass fibers were measured using 11B MAS NMR, which is typically used to study the short-range structure of borate containing glasses such as alkali borate, borosilicate, and aluminoborosilicate glasses. While solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for elucidating bonding environments and coordination changes in the glass structure, it cannot quantitatively probe low to moderate surface area samples due to insufficient spins. Chemical probes either physisorbed or chemisorbed to the fiber's surface can increase the surface selectivity of NMR for analysis of samples with low surface areas and provide information about the local molecular structure of the reactive surface site. Common chemical probe molecules contain NMR active nuclei such as 19F or may be enriched with 13C. A silyating agent, (3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)dimethylchlorosilane (TFS), reacts with reactive surface hydroxyls, which can be quantified by utilizing the NMR active nucleus (19F) contained in the probe molecule. The observed 19F MAS NMR peak area is integrated and compared against a standard of known fluorine spins (concentration), allowing the number of reactive hydroxyl sites to be quantified. IGC is a method used to study the

  15. High performance solid-state supercapacitor with PVA-KOH-K3[Fe(CN)6] gel polymer as electrolyte and separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guofu; Li, Jiajia; Sun, Kanjun; Peng, Hui; Mu, Jingjing; Lei, Ziqiang

    2014-06-01

    A gel polymer PVA-KOH-K3[Fe(CN)6] is prepared by potassium hydroxide and potassium ferricyanide doped polyvinyl alcohol, and a solid-state supercapacitor is assembled using the gel polymer as electrolyte and separator, activated carbons as electrode. The gel polymer exhibits flexible, high ionic conductivity and wide potential properties. The electrochemical properties of the supercapacitor are investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrode specific capacitance of the supercapacitor can be as high as 430.95 F g-1, and after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1 it still remains higher than 380 F g-1. The energy density and power density of the supercapacitor reach 57.94 Wh kg-1 and 59.84 kW kg-1, respectively. These novel flexible gel polymers are desirable for applications in supercapacitor devices.

  16. Systems Ln-Fe-O ( Ln=Eu, Gd): thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using solid-state electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, S. C.; Rakshit, S. K.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-05-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of LnFeO 3(s) and Ln3Fe 5O 12(s) where Ln=Eu and Gd have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing different solid electrolytes. The reversible e.m.f.s of the following solid-state electrochemical cells have been measured in the temperature range from 1050 to 1255 K. Cell (I): (-)Pt / { LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln2O 3(s)+Fe(s)} // YDT/CSZ // {Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)} / Pt(+); Cell (II): (-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+); Cell (III): (-)Pt/{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}//YSZ//{Ni(s)+NiO(s)}/Pt(+); and Cell(IV):(-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+). The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving the ternary oxides have been computed from the e.m.f. data. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of solid EuFeO 3, Eu 3Fe 5O 12, GdFeO 3 and Gd 3Fe 5O 12 calculated by the least-squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study are given by Δ fG°m(EuFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1265.5+0.2687( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), Δ fG°m(Eu 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4626.2+1.0474( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255), Δ fG°m(GdFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1342.5+0.2539( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), and Δ fG°m(Gd 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ·mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4856.0+1.0021( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255). The uncertainty estimates for Δ fG°m include the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagrams for the systems Eu-Fe-O and Gd-Fe-O and chemical potential diagrams for the system Gd-Fe-O were computed at 1250 K.

  17. Insights into the Self-assembly of Two Diamine Derivatives Low Molecular Mass Organogelators in Quasi-solid-state Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Shu-Fan; Zhang, Bing; Zhou, Kai-Xuan; Yao, Jian-Xi; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Electrolyte materials are the key components in dye-sensitized solar cells and are very crucial to the performance and long-term stability of the cells. The diamide derivatives have been proved in our lab to be effective to improve the stability of the traditional liquid electrolyte as low molecular mass organogelator (LMOGs). Our previous experiments and simulations indicated that the relationship between the morphology of the electrolyte and the self-assembly of the LMOGs. In the current study, the self-assembly of two diamine derivatives (N,N'-1,8-octanediylbis-dodecanamide and N,N'-1,9-nonanediylbis-dodecanamide) has been investigated and characterized using molecular dynamics. Although the structure of the two these molecules is only different in one methylene, the simulations revealed that the self-assembly patterns of the two diamine derivatives are quite different. The differences seems to be suitable to explain the diverse morphologies formed by the assembly of the LMOGs.

  18. A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome c based on ceria nanoparticles decorated with reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Pur, Mohammad Reza Karimi; Hosseini, Morteza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    A novel ultrasensitive sensing system for the rapid detection of cytochrome c (Cyt C) was developed on the basis of an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method. A nanocomposite biosensor was made of reduced graphene oxide decorated with cerium oxide/tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/chitosan (CeO2NPs-RGO/ Ru(bpy)3 (2+)/CHIT) and used for this purpose. The ECL signal was produced by an electrochemical interaction between Ru(bpy)3 (2+) and tripropyl amine (TPA) on the surface of the electrode. Addition of Cyt C to the solution decreases the ECL signal due to its affinity for TPA and inhibition of its reaction with Ru(bpy)3 (2+). The effects of the amount of CeO2NPs-RGO, Ru(bpy)3 (2+), TPA concentration as a co-reactant, and the pH of the electrolyte solution on the ECL signal intensity were studied and optimized. The results showed that the method was fast, reproducible, sensitive, and stable for the detection of Cyt C. The method has a linear range from 2.5 nM to 2 μM (R (2) = 0.995) with a detection limit of 0.7 nM. Finally, the proposed biosensor was used for the determination of Cyt C in human serum samples with RSDs of 1.8-3.6 %. The results demonstrate that this solid-state ECL quenching biosensor has high sensitivity, selectivity, and good stability. Graphical Abstract A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome C based on Ceria Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite. PMID:27558103

  19. A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome c based on ceria nanoparticles decorated with reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Pur, Mohammad Reza Karimi; Hosseini, Morteza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    A novel ultrasensitive sensing system for the rapid detection of cytochrome c (Cyt C) was developed on the basis of an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method. A nanocomposite biosensor was made of reduced graphene oxide decorated with cerium oxide/tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/chitosan (CeO2NPs-RGO/ Ru(bpy)3 (2+)/CHIT) and used for this purpose. The ECL signal was produced by an electrochemical interaction between Ru(bpy)3 (2+) and tripropyl amine (TPA) on the surface of the electrode. Addition of Cyt C to the solution decreases the ECL signal due to its affinity for TPA and inhibition of its reaction with Ru(bpy)3 (2+). The effects of the amount of CeO2NPs-RGO, Ru(bpy)3 (2+), TPA concentration as a co-reactant, and the pH of the electrolyte solution on the ECL signal intensity were studied and optimized. The results showed that the method was fast, reproducible, sensitive, and stable for the detection of Cyt C. The method has a linear range from 2.5 nM to 2 μM (R (2) = 0.995) with a detection limit of 0.7 nM. Finally, the proposed biosensor was used for the determination of Cyt C in human serum samples with RSDs of 1.8-3.6 %. The results demonstrate that this solid-state ECL quenching biosensor has high sensitivity, selectivity, and good stability. Graphical Abstract A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome C based on Ceria Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite.

  20. Single-Ion Block Copoly(ionic liquid)s as Electrolytes for All-Solid State Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Porcarelli, Luca; Shaplov, Alexander S; Salsamendi, Maitane; Nair, Jijeesh R; Vygodskii, Yakov S; Mecerreyes, David; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-27

    Polymer electrolytes have been proposed as replacement for conventional liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their intrinsic enhanced safety. Nevertheless, the power delivery of these materials is limited by the concentration gradient of the lithium salt. Single-ion conducting polyelectrolytes represent the ideal solution since their nature prevents polarization phenomena. Herein, the preparation of a new family of single-ion conducting block copolymer polyelectrolytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization technique is reported. These copolymers comprise poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks. The obtained polyelectrolytes show low Tg values in the range of -61 to 0.6 °C, comparatively high ionic conductivity (up to 2.3 × 10(-6) and 1.2 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 25 and 55 °C, respectively), wide electrochemical stability (up to 4.5 V versus Li(+)/Li), and a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (0.83). Owing to the combination of all mentioned properties, the prepared polymer materials were used as solid polyelectrolytes and as binders in the elaboration of lithium-metal battery prototypes with high charge/discharge efficiency and excellent specific capacity (up to 130 mAh g(-1)) at C/15 rate.

  1. High-Temperature All Solid-State Microsupercapacitors based on SiC Nanowire Electrode and YSZ Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hui; Hsia, Ben; Alper, John P; Wang, Shuang; Luna, Lunet E; Carraro, Carlo; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Maboudian, Roya

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a symmetric supercapacitor by using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte and silicon carbide nanowires (SiC NWs) as the electrode. The stacked symmetric SiC NWs/YSZ/SiC NWs supercapacitors exhibit excellent thermal stability and high areal capacitance at temperatures above 300 °C. The supercapacitor functions well at a record high temperature of 450 °C, yielding an areal capacitance of 92 μF cm(-2) at a voltage scan rate of 100 mV s(-1). At this temperature, it is also capable of withstanding current densities up to 50 μA cm(-2), yielding a maximum areal power density of 100 μW cm(-2). Good cycling stability is demonstrated with a capacitance retention of over 60% after 10,000 cycles at the operation temperature of 450 °C and a scan rate of 200 mV s(-1).

  2. High-Temperature All Solid-State Microsupercapacitors based on SiC Nanowire Electrode and YSZ Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Hui; Hsia, Ben; Alper, John P; Wang, Shuang; Luna, Lunet E; Carraro, Carlo; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Maboudian, Roya

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a symmetric supercapacitor by using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte and silicon carbide nanowires (SiC NWs) as the electrode. The stacked symmetric SiC NWs/YSZ/SiC NWs supercapacitors exhibit excellent thermal stability and high areal capacitance at temperatures above 300 °C. The supercapacitor functions well at a record high temperature of 450 °C, yielding an areal capacitance of 92 μF cm(-2) at a voltage scan rate of 100 mV s(-1). At this temperature, it is also capable of withstanding current densities up to 50 μA cm(-2), yielding a maximum areal power density of 100 μW cm(-2). Good cycling stability is demonstrated with a capacitance retention of over 60% after 10,000 cycles at the operation temperature of 450 °C and a scan rate of 200 mV s(-1). PMID:26569457

  3. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaura, Kazunari

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO3, LiOsO3, and Na2OsO4, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal-insulator transition in NaOsO3, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO3, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca2FeOsO6 may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices.

  4. Rational design of efficient electrode–electrolyte interfaces for solid-state energy storage using ion soft landing

    DOE PAGES

    Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Mehdi, B. Layla; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Bingbing; Gunaratne, K. Don D.; Johnson, David C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-04-21

    Here, the rational design of improved electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEI) for energy storage is critically dependent on a molecular-level understanding of ionic interactions and nanoscale phenomena. The presence of non-redox active species at EEI has been shown to strongly influence Faradaic efficiency and long-term operational stability during energy storage processes. Herein, we achieve substantially higher performance and long-term stability of EEI prepared with highly-dispersed discrete redox-active cluster anions (50 ng of pure ~0.7 nm size molybdenum polyoxometalate anions (POM) anions on 25 mg (≈ 0.2 wt%) carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes) by complete elimination of strongly coordinating non-redox species through ion soft-landingmore » (SL). For the first time, electron microscopy provides atomically-resolved images of individual POM species directly on complex technologically relevant CNT electrodes. In this context, SL is established as a versatile approach for the controlled design of novel surfaces for both fundamental and applied research in energy storage.« less

  5. Rational design of efficient electrode-electrolyte interfaces for solid-state energy storage using ion soft landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Mehdi, B. Layla; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Bingbing; Gunaratne, K. Don D.; Johnson, David C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The rational design of improved electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEI) for energy storage is critically dependent on a molecular-level understanding of ionic interactions and nanoscale phenomena. The presence of non-redox active species at EEI has been shown to strongly influence Faradaic efficiency and long-term operational stability during energy storage processes. Herein, we achieve substantially higher performance and long-term stability of EEI prepared with highly dispersed discrete redox-active cluster anions (50 ng of pure ~0.75 nm size molybdenum polyoxometalate (POM) anions on 25 μg (~0.2 wt%) carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes) by complete elimination of strongly coordinating non-redox species through ion soft landing (SL). Electron microscopy provides atomically resolved images of a uniform distribution of individual POM species soft landed directly on complex technologically relevant CNT electrodes. In this context, SL is established as a versatile approach for the controlled design of novel surfaces for both fundamental and applied research in energy storage.

  6. Rational design of efficient electrode–electrolyte interfaces for solid-state energy storage using ion soft landing

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Mehdi, B. Layla; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Bingbing; Gunaratne, K. Don D.; Johnson, David C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The rational design of improved electrode–electrolyte interfaces (EEI) for energy storage is critically dependent on a molecular-level understanding of ionic interactions and nanoscale phenomena. The presence of non-redox active species at EEI has been shown to strongly influence Faradaic efficiency and long-term operational stability during energy storage processes. Herein, we achieve substantially higher performance and long-term stability of EEI prepared with highly dispersed discrete redox-active cluster anions (50 ng of pure ∼0.75 nm size molybdenum polyoxometalate (POM) anions on 25 μg (∼0.2 wt%) carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes) by complete elimination of strongly coordinating non-redox species through ion soft landing (SL). Electron microscopy provides atomically resolved images of a uniform distribution of individual POM species soft landed directly on complex technologically relevant CNT electrodes. In this context, SL is established as a versatile approach for the controlled design of novel surfaces for both fundamental and applied research in energy storage. PMID:27097686

  7. Rational design of efficient electrode-electrolyte interfaces for solid-state energy storage using ion soft landing.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Mehdi, B Layla; Ditto, Jeffrey J; Engelhard, Mark H; Wang, Bingbing; Gunaratne, K Don D; Johnson, David C; Browning, Nigel D; Johnson, Grant E; Laskin, Julia

    2016-04-21

    The rational design of improved electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEI) for energy storage is critically dependent on a molecular-level understanding of ionic interactions and nanoscale phenomena. The presence of non-redox active species at EEI has been shown to strongly influence Faradaic efficiency and long-term operational stability during energy storage processes. Herein, we achieve substantially higher performance and long-term stability of EEI prepared with highly dispersed discrete redox-active cluster anions (50 ng of pure ∼0.75 nm size molybdenum polyoxometalate (POM) anions on 25 μg (∼0.2 wt%) carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes) by complete elimination of strongly coordinating non-redox species through ion soft landing (SL). Electron microscopy provides atomically resolved images of a uniform distribution of individual POM species soft landed directly on complex technologically relevant CNT electrodes. In this context, SL is established as a versatile approach for the controlled design of novel surfaces for both fundamental and applied research in energy storage.

  8. Solid-state synthesis of Ti2Nb10O29/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced lithium storage capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wan Lin; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Park, Ju-Young; Ki, Hangil; Jang, Jaewon; Lee, Gab-Yong; Gu, Hal-Bon; Ham, Moon-Ho

    2015-12-01

    Owing to their multiple redox couples, titanium-niobium-based oxides are still considered promising candidates for use as anodes for safe, rechargeable lithium ion batteries with high energy and power densities. Titanium-niobium-based oxide electrodes have, however, exhibited relatively poor cycling performance as a result of pulverization. In this study, we report on a simple two-step solid-state reaction route for producing hybrid composites of Ti2Nb10O29 (TNO) anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and the electrochemical performance of the resulting TNO/RGO composites. Solid-state reactions enable both the formation of TNO and the uniform distribution of RGO in the TNO/RGO composites. The TNO/RGO composites exhibited discharge and charge capacities of 261 and 256 mAh g-1, respectively, with much better cycling performance (182 mAh g-1 after the 50th cycles) and rate capability (165 mAh g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1) compared to the pure TNO.

  9. Electrodeposited polyethylenedioxythiophene with infiltrated gel electrolyte interface: a close contest of an all-solid-state supercapacitor with its liquid-state counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A. T, Arun; Bhange, Siddheshwar N.; Badiger, Manohar V.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2014-05-01

    We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions. The prototype is made by electro-depositing polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) onto the individual carbon fibers of a porous carbon substrate followed by intercalating the matrix with polyvinyl alcohol-sulphuric acid (PVA-H2SO4) gel electrolyte. The electrodeposited layer of PEDOT maintained a flower-like growth pattern along the threads of each carbon fiber. This morphology and the alignment of PEDOT led to an enhanced surface area and electrical conductivity, and the pores in the system enabled effective intercalation of the polymer-gel electrolyte. Thus, the established electrode-electrolyte interface nearly mimics that of its counterpart based on the liquid electrolyte. Consequently, the solid device attained very low internal resistance (1.1 Ω cm-2) and a high specific capacitance (181 F g-1) for PEDOT at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. Even with a high areal capacitance of 836 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 28 F cm-3, the solid device retained a mass-specific capacitance of 111 F g-1 for PEDOT. This is in close agreement with the value displayed by the corresponding liquid-state system (112 F g-1), which was fabricated by replacing the gel electrolyte with 0.5 M H2SO4. The device also showed excellent charge-discharge stability for 12 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The performance of the device was consistent even under wide-ranging humidity (30-80%) and temperature (-10 to 80 °C) conditions. Finally, a device fabricated by increasing the electrode area four times was used to light an LED, which validated the scalability of the process.We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions

  10. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  11. Synthesis of poly(ionic liquids) both in solution and on surface of silica nanoparticles as novel quasi-solid state electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Heyi

    conductivity than PIL homopolymer. Among them, polyGBIMTFSI-co-polyME 3MO-1/1 showed the highest ionic conductivity (around 1.2 x 10 -4 S/cm at 25 °C), which was more than 1 order of magnitude higher than PIL homopolymer (9.3 x 10-6 S/cm at 25 °C). We also synthesized PILs on the surface of silica nanoparticles via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A gel electrolyte was formed by dispersing the PIL/silica nanocomposites in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide and heating for 1 h. The gel electrolyte was used as a quasi-solid state electrolyte in DSSC and a 0.37 % conversion efficiency was achieved.

  12. Li3PO4-doped Li7P3S11 glass-ceramic electrolytes with enhanced lithium ion conductivities and application in all-solid-state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingxin; Yao, Xiayin; Huang, Zhen; Guan, Yibiao; Jin, Yi; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2015-06-01

    70Li2S·(30-x)P2S5·xLi3PO4 (mol%) amorphous powders are prepared by a high-energy ball milling technique, and the glass-ceramics are obtained by the crystallization of as-prepared amorphous samples. The XRD patterns show that a crystalline phase with a Li7P3S11 structure is obtained for x ≤ 3, while a structure change is observed for x = 5. The Li+-ion conductivity is enhanced by the substitution of Li3PO4 for P2S5, and the 70Li2S·29P2S5·1Li3PO4 glass-ceramics exhibit the highest total conductivity of 1.87 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C and the lowest activation energy of 18 kJ mol-1. The LiCoO2 in the all-solid-state cell of In-Li/70Li2S·29P2S5·1Li3PO4/LiCoO2 exhibits a discharge capacity of 108 mAh g-1, which is 20% higher than that in the In-Li/70Li2S·30P2S5/LiCoO2 cell. The higher discharge capacity of the LiCoO2 electrode is attributed to the higher Li+-ion conductivity of the solid electrolyte and lower interface resistance of electrode-electrolyte.

  13. Preparation of Li3BO3-Li2SO4 glass-ceramic electrolytes for all-oxide lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Takano, Ryohei; Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Hayashi, Akitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Newly designed oxide glass-ceramic electrolyte of Li2.9B0.9S0.1O3.1 with high Li+ ion conductivity and low melting property was prepared by mechanical milling and subsequent heat treatment at 290 °C. This material showed 1.4 × 10-5 S cm-1 at room temperature and excellent deformation properties to obtain powder-compressed pellets with low interfacial resistance like in the case of sulfide solid electrolytes. The glass-ceramic exhibited favorable mechanical properties to form favorable solid-solid contacts in solid-state batteries by pressing without high temperature heat treatments. All-solid-state In/LiCoO2 cells using these oxide glass-ceramic electrolytes operated as secondary batteries at room temperature.

  14. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  15. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.; Wielage, B.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na2SiO3·5H2O and K4P2O7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum.

  16. Anisotropy and oxidative resistance of highly crosslinked UHMWPE after deformation processing by solid-state ram extrusion.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Mazzucco, Dan; Rimnac, Clare M; Schroeder, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state deformation processing is a promising technique for modifying the physical and mechanical properties of highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) beyond simple thermal treatment cycles that have been employed previously. This study evaluates anisotropy and oxidative resistance in a novel, radiation crosslinked (50 kGy) UHMWPE material (ArComXL: Biomet, Inc., Warsaw, IN), incorporating solid-state, deformation processing by extrusion below the melt transition for application in total hip arthroplasty. Tensile, compression, and small punch tests were conducted to evaluate the material properties in the three principal axes of the resulting material. Furthermore, short-term oxidative resistance was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the small punch test in conjunction with accelerated shelf aging protocols. The results of this testing indicate that the material is anisotropic, with significantly enhanced strength oriented along the long axis of the rod. For certain other properties, the magnitude of the anisotropy was relatively slight, especially in the elastic regime, in which only a 20% difference was noted between the long axis of the rod and the orthogonal, radial direction. The highly crosslinked material contains detectable free radicals, at a concentration that is 90% less than control, gamma inert sterilized UHMWPE. An unexpected finding of this study was evidence of oxidative stability of the deformation-processed material, even after 4 weeks of accelerated aging in a pressure vessel containing five atmospheres of oxygen (ASTM F2003), which resulted in macroscopic embrittlement of the control material. The oxidative stability observed in ArComXL suggests that the deformation-processed material may be suitable for air-permeable packaging and gas sterilization, which has thus far been reserved for remelted highly crosslinked UHMWPE.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced by solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Orsolya Erzsebet; Csiszar, Emilia; Toth, Karolina; Szakacs, George; Koczka, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Ligninolytic and hydrolytic enzymes were produced with six selected fungi on flax substrate by solid state fermentation (SSF). The extracellular enzyme production of the organisms in two SSF media was evaluated by measuring the soluble protein concentration and the filter paper, endoxylanase, 1,4-β-d-glucosidase, 1,4-β-d-endoglucanase, polygalacturonase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase activities of the clear culture solutions produced by conventional extraction from the SSF materials. The SSF material of the best enzyme producer (Trichoderma virens TUB F-498) was further investigated to enhance the enzyme recovery by low frequency ultrasound treatment. Performance of both the original and ultrasound macerated crude enzyme mixtures was evaluated in degradation of the colored lignin-containing and waxy materials of raw linen fabric. Results proved that sonication (at 40%, 60% and 80% amplitudes, for 60min) did not result in reduction in the filter paper, lignin peroxidase and laccase activities of the crude enzyme solution, but has a significant positive effect on the efficiency of enzyme extraction from the SSF material. Depending on the parameters of sonication, the enzyme activities in the extracts obtained can be increased up to 129-413% of the original activities measured in the control extracts recovered by a common magnetic stirrer. Sonication also has an effect on both the enzymatic removal of the lignin-containing color materials and hydrophobic surface layer from the raw linen.

  18. Discharge performance of solid-state oxygen shuttle metal-air battery using Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Inoishi, Atsushi; Kim, Hack-Ho; Sakai, Takaaki; Ju, Young-Wan; Ida, Shintaro; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-04-13

    The effects of metal choice on the electrochemical performance of oxygen-shuttle metal-air batteries with Ca-stabilized ZrO2 (CSZ) as the electrolyte and various metals as the anodes were studied at 1073 K. The equilibrium oxygen partial pressure (P O 2) in the anode chamber was governed by the metal used in the anode chamber. A lower-P O 2 environment in the anode decreased the polarization resistance of the anode. The oxidation of oxide ions to oxygen in the anode is drastically enhanced by the n-type conduction generated in the CSZ electrolyte when it is exposed to a reducing atmosphere. A high discharge potential and high capacity can be achieved in an oxygen-shuttle battery with a Li or Mg anode because of the fast anode reaction compared to that of cells with a Zn, Fe, or Sn anode. However, only the mildly reducing metals (Zn, Si, Fe, and Sn) can potentially be used in rechargeable metal-air batteries because the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge. Oxygen shuttle rechargeable batteries with Fe, and Sn electrodes are demonstrated.

  19. Discharge performance of solid-state oxygen shuttle metal-air battery using Ca-stabilized ZrO2 electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Inoishi, Atsushi; Kim, Hack-Ho; Sakai, Takaaki; Ju, Young-Wan; Ida, Shintaro; Ishihara, Tatsumi

    2015-04-13

    The effects of metal choice on the electrochemical performance of oxygen-shuttle metal-air batteries with Ca-stabilized ZrO2 (CSZ) as the electrolyte and various metals as the anodes were studied at 1073 K. The equilibrium oxygen partial pressure (P O 2) in the anode chamber was governed by the metal used in the anode chamber. A lower-P O 2 environment in the anode decreased the polarization resistance of the anode. The oxidation of oxide ions to oxygen in the anode is drastically enhanced by the n-type conduction generated in the CSZ electrolyte when it is exposed to a reducing atmosphere. A high discharge potential and high capacity can be achieved in an oxygen-shuttle battery with a Li or Mg anode because of the fast anode reaction compared to that of cells with a Zn, Fe, or Sn anode. However, only the mildly reducing metals (Zn, Si, Fe, and Sn) can potentially be used in rechargeable metal-air batteries because the transport number of the CSZ electrolyte must be unity during charge and discharge. Oxygen shuttle rechargeable batteries with Fe, and Sn electrodes are demonstrated. PMID:25727525

  20. Solid state cell with anolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Barnette, L. H.; Liang, C. C.

    1985-06-25

    A solid state cell having a solid cathode, a solid electrolyte, and a solid anolyte comprised of at least 50% by volume of ionically conductive materials such as the electrolye and 50% or less by volume of an active metal. The anolyte is either the cell anode or alternatively the anolyte is an additional structural member within said cell positioned between an anode, comprised of the same active metal, and the solid electrolyte.

  1. 15N solid-state NMR provides a sensitive probe of oxidized flavin reactive sites.

    PubMed

    Koder, Ronald L; Walsh, Joseph D; Pometun, Maxim S; Dutton, P Leslie; Wittebort, Richard J; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2006-11-29

    Flavins are central to the reactivity of a wide variety of enzymes and electron transport proteins. There is great interest in understanding the basis for the different reactivities displayed by flavins in different protein contexts. We propose solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) as a tool for directly observing reactive positions of the flavin ring and thereby obtaining information on their frontier orbitals. We now report the SS-NMR signals of the redox-active nitrogens N1 and N5, as well as that of N3. The chemical shift tensor of N5 is over 720 ppm wide, in accordance with the predictions of theory and our calculations. The signal of N3 can be distinguished on the basis of coupling to 1H absent for N1 and N5, as well as the shift tensor span of only 170 ppm, consistent with N3's lower aromaticity and lack of a nonbonding lone pair. The isotropic shifts and spans of N5 and N1 reflect two opposite extremes of the chemical shift range for "pyridine-type" N's, consistent with their electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical reactivities, respectively. Upon flavin reduction, N5's chemical shift tensor contracts dramatically to a span of less than 110 ppm, and the isotropic chemical shift changes by approximately 300 ppm. Both are consistent with loss of N5's nonbonding lone pair and decreased aromaticity, and illustrate the responsiveness of the 15N chemical shift principal values to electronic structure. Thus. 15N chemical shift principal values promise to be valuable tools for understanding electronic differences that underlie variations in flavin reactivity, as well as the reactivities of other heterocyclic cofactors. PMID:17117871

  2. Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Borglum, Brian P.; Bessette, Norman F.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

  3. Proton conductive tantalum oxide thin film deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering for all-solid-state switchable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, K.; Yamada, Y.; Bao, S.; Okada, M.; Yoshimura, K.

    2008-03-01

    Our developed all-solid-state switchable mirror as a smart window is consisted in multi-layer of Mg4Ni/Pd/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO/glass and can switch reversibly from the reflective state to the transparent one. The development of high performance solid electrolyte thin film of Ta2O5 is important for fast speed switching and high durability of the device. In this work, we have investigated the electrochemical property of Ta2O5 thin film deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The effect of thickness on electrochemical and proton conductivities of Ta2O5 thin film was investigated. The Ta2O5 thin film with a thickness of 400 nm had better proton conductivity of 1.5×10-9 S/cm measured by AC impedance method. The transmittance at wavelength of 670 nm of the device with 400 nm thick Ta2O5 thin film was changed from 0.1% (reflective state) to 51% (transparent state) within 10 s by applying voltage of 5 V. The device showed high durability up to two-thousand switching cycles.

  4. AC impedance spectroscopy studies on solid-state sintered zinc aluminum oxide (ZnAl2O4) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2012-07-01

    In the present investigation Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZnAl2O4) is prepared by solid-state reaction technique. Dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss(tan δ), ac conductivity (σac) as a function of temperature are studied by varying frequencies from 100 Hz to 1MHz using an impedance analyzer. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss increases gradually with an increase of temperature, but it decreases with increase of frequency. The ac conductivity (σac) also increases with increases of frequency. The transition peaks for ZnAl2O4 are observed at 490°C, 510°C, 520°C for the frequencies 1 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz. No transition peaks are found for the frequency 100 Hz and 1 MHz because of high conductive loss.

  5. Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide doped by V2O5 synthesized by solid-state reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaira, R.; Dammak, T.; Matoussi, A.; Younes, A.

    2016-03-01

    Vanadium doped zinc oxide with different vanadium concentration were synthesized by conventional solid state reaction. The structural and optical properties of ZnO: V2O5 pellets were studied by using a panalytic diffraktometer (X'pert) with Cu-K radiation, the UV-visible spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL). X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that all the samples have a wurtzite structure and grow mainly in the (101) orientation, we show also the presence of dominated phase Zn3 (VO4)2, Optical studied indicate a decrease in optical band gap energy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed a strong visible emission band, energy position and intensity of this emission depends on the temperature measurement. The activate energy Ea has been fitted and studied using Arunis equation.

  6. Density Functional Theory Studies of the Electronic Structure of Solid State Actinide Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Xiaodong; Martin, Richard L.; Henderson, Thomas M.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2013-02-13

    The actinide oxides have been extensively studied in the context of the nuclear fuel cycle. They are also of fundamental interest as members of a class of strongly correlated materials, the Mott insulators. Their complex physical and chemical properties make them challenging systems to characterize, both experimentally and theoretically. Chiefly, this is because actinide oxides can exhibit both electronic localization and electronic delocalization and have partially occupied f orbitals, which can lead to multiple possibilities for ground states. Of particular concern for theoretical work is that the large number of competing states display strong correlations which are dffcult to capture with computationally tractable methods.

  7. Polypyrrole-polyoxometalate/reduced graphene oxide ternary nanohybrids for flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuyun; Han, Min; Tang, Yujia; Bao, Jianchun; Li, Shunli; Lan, Yaqian; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-08-11

    Novel polypyrrole-polyoxometalate/reduced graphene oxide ternary nanohybrids (TNHs) are synthesized via a one-pot redox relay strategy. The TNHs exhibit high areal specific capacitance (2.61 mF cm(-2)), and the fabricated solid device also exhibits good rate capability, excellent flexibility and mechanical stability. PMID:26140676

  8. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  9. Lithium Ion Pathway within Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 -Polyethylene Oxide Composite Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tang, Mingxue; Hu, Yan-Yan

    2016-09-26

    Polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are emerging as a promising solution to deliver high ionic conductivity, optimal mechanical properties, and good safety for developing high-performance all-solid-state rechargeable batteries. Composite electrolytes have been prepared with cubic-phase Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO) garnet and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and employed in symmetric lithium battery cells. By combining selective isotope labeling and high-resolution solid-state Li NMR, we are able to track Li ion pathways within LLZO-PEO composite electrolytes by monitoring the replacement of (7) Li in the composite electrolyte by (6) Li from the (6) Li metal electrodes during battery cycling. We have provided the first experimental evidence to show that Li ions favor the pathway through the LLZO ceramic phase instead of the PEO-LLZO interface or PEO. This approach can be widely applied to study ion pathways in ionic conductors and to provide useful insights for developing composite materials for energy storage and harvesting. PMID:27611222

  10. Lithium Ion Pathway within Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 -Polyethylene Oxide Composite Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tang, Mingxue; Hu, Yan-Yan

    2016-09-26

    Polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are emerging as a promising solution to deliver high ionic conductivity, optimal mechanical properties, and good safety for developing high-performance all-solid-state rechargeable batteries. Composite electrolytes have been prepared with cubic-phase Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO) garnet and polyethylene oxide (PEO) and employed in symmetric lithium battery cells. By combining selective isotope labeling and high-resolution solid-state Li NMR, we are able to track Li ion pathways within LLZO-PEO composite electrolytes by monitoring the replacement of (7) Li in the composite electrolyte by (6) Li from the (6) Li metal electrodes during battery cycling. We have provided the first experimental evidence to show that Li ions favor the pathway through the LLZO ceramic phase instead of the PEO-LLZO interface or PEO. This approach can be widely applied to study ion pathways in ionic conductors and to provide useful insights for developing composite materials for energy storage and harvesting.

  11. Theory of the electronic and structural properties of solid state oxides. Annual technical report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Chelikowsky, J.R.

    1993-06-01

    Emphasis has been on the electronic materials: silica, titania, and ruthenia. Fundamental interest centered on nature of microstructure of these solids in the amorphous state, or mixed oxide state. New theoretical techniques have been implemented to examine such issues, based on ab initio pseudopotential methods and interatomic potentials. Some areas examined under this project are: (1) Nature of the amorphization transformation of quartz under pressure. Specific focus is on the microscopic nature of the amorphous material and the driving forces for amorphization. (2) Equation of states of crystalline silica polymorphs. (3) Elastic anomalies in silica. In particular, the existence of a ``negative`` Poisson ratio in high temperature, low density forms of crystalline silica. (4) Optical and structural properties of titania and mixed oxides such as Ru{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 2}.

  12. Studies of the fundamentals of solids state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, K. M.; Alamgir, M.

    1990-11-01

    Several methods have been developed to dimensionally stabilize polymer electrolytes based on poly-(bis (methoxy ethoxy ethoxide) phosphazene), known as MEEP. In contrast to the poor dimensional stability exhibited by complexes of MEEP with most Li salts, those prepared with LiAlCl4 have been isolated as the first example of free-standing MEEP-(LiX)n films. The mechanical properties of dimensionally unstable MEEP-(LIX)n complexes can be significantly improved by forming composites with polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide), poly(propylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone). The conductivity of 6.7 x 10(exp -5) ohm(exp -1) cm(exp -1) at 25 C exhibited by 55 w/o MEEP/45 w/o PEO-(LiN(CF3SO2)2)0.13 is among the highest values reported to date for a dimensionally stable electrolyte. The preparation, and conductivity, calorimetric and electrochemical studies of these electrolytes are described. Cyclic voltammetric data indicated that these electrolytes have anodic stability at least up to 4.5V versus Li(+)/Li. They have shown excellent compatibility with Li metal making them suitable for use as Li(+) conductive solid electrolytes in solid-state Li batteries. Li/TiS2 solid-state cells utilizing some of these electrolytes have exceeded 200 cycles.

  13. Identification of different oxygen species in oxide nanostructures with 17O solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wu, Xin-Ping; Zheng, Sujuan; Zhao, Li; Li, Lei; Shen, Li; Gao, Yuxian; Xue, Nianhua; Guo, Xuefeng; Huang, Weixin; Gan, Zhehong; Blanc, Frédéric; Yu, Zhiwu; Ke, Xiaokang; Ding, Weiping; Gong, Xue-Qing; Grey, Clare P.; Peng, Luming

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured oxides find multiple uses in a diverse range of applications including catalysis, energy storage, and environmental management, their higher surface areas, and, in some cases, electronic properties resulting in different physical properties from their bulk counterparts. Developing structure-property relations for these materials requires a determination of surface and subsurface structure. Although microscopy plays a critical role owing to the fact that the volumes sampled by such techniques may not be representative of the whole sample, complementary characterization methods are urgently required. We develop a simple nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategy to detect the first few layers of a nanomaterial, demonstrating the approach with technologically relevant ceria nanoparticles. We show that the 17O resonances arising from the first to third surface layer oxygen ions, hydroxyl sites, and oxygen species near vacancies can be distinguished from the oxygen ions in the bulk, with higher-frequency 17O chemical shifts being observed for the lower coordinated surface sites. H217O can be used to selectively enrich surface sites, allowing only these particular active sites to be monitored in a chemical process. 17O NMR spectra of thermally treated nanosized ceria clearly show how different oxygen species interconvert at elevated temperature. Density functional theory calculations confirm the assignments and reveal a strong dependence of chemical shift on the nature of the surface. These results open up new strategies for characterizing nanostructured oxides and their applications. PMID:26601133

  14. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  15. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2008-04-01

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  16. Solid-state synthesis and characterization of silver vanadium oxide for use as a cathode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Leising, R.A.; Takeuchi, E.S. )

    1994-04-01

    Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, AgV[sub 2]O[sub 5.5]) was synthesized for use as a cathode material in lithium/SVO batteries. The material was prepared via the solid-state thermal reaction of a silver-containing precursor and vanadium pentoxide at 500[degrees]C under an air or argon atmosphere. The silver-containing precursors examined in this study were silver nitrate, silver nitrite, silver vanadate, silver oxide, silver carbonate, and silver metal powder. SEM analysis of the SVO products indicated that the surface morphology was similar for each of the samples, with the dimensions of the rodlike particles depending on the form of silver used in the reaction. In addition, the degree of crystallinity of the samples depended strongly on the type of silver used in the reaction, as evidenced by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. All of the samples were analyzed by DSC, chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, resistivity measurements, and electrical discharge tests of Li/SVO test cells. The experimental capacities and pulse power capabilities of the SVO samples prepared under an air atmosphere were all almost identical, while the samples synthesized under an inert atmosphere displayed a significant decrease in delivered capacity and pulse power capability. 40 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. A novel solid-state thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon--a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12 K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  18. Grain Boundary Effects in Solid Oxide Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Mai

    Ion conducting ceramics are essential in applications such as solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen sensors. Traditional 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) solid oxide electrolytes operate at high temperatures (850°C-1000°C) to achieve high ionic conductivity (> 0.1 Scm-1 at 1000°C) by oxygen ion diffusion via vacancies. Operation at such temperatures requires high temperature electrode materials and shortens device lifetime due to interdiffusion and reactions at electrode/electrolyte interfaces. These concerns drive research in current systems and alternative materials to improve ionic conductivity at reduced operating temperatures. This research considers how grain size and grain boundary phases affect three electrolyte materials with different ion diffusion mechanisms. First, the conductivity of ultra-fine grained two-step sintered and large grained conventional sintered 8YSZ are compared to determine if enhanced ionic conductivity occurs supporting the theory that ion blocking impurities in grain boundaries are diluted with decreasing grain size. Second, apatite-type lanthanide silicates (Ln9.33(SiO4)6O2) which exhibit anisotropic interstitial oxygen diffusion at intermediate temperatures (400°C-800°C) are studied to determine whether grain boundaries detrimentally affect conductivity. Lastly, proton conducting La-monazite (LaPO4) is evaluated to determine the role of Sr-doping (up to 10% substitution of La with Sr) on grain size and conductivity as well as the effect of sintering in air or water vapor on the formation of intergranular phases rich in Sr and P. This research investigates grain boundary effects in three solid oxide electrolyte materials with the goal of understanding how grain boundaries affect ionic conductivity and the atomistic behavior governing these different diffusion mechanisms.

  19. Solid state electrochromic smart windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    The structure under development at EIC Laboratories consists of a multilayer stack of thin films, incorporating the two principal electrochemically active elements, the electrochromic (EC) and counter electrode (CE) layers, respectively. The EC layer changes from colorless to a state of reduced transmission on reduction while the CE layer has the opposite (complementary) behavior (or is colorless in both oxidized and reduced states). These are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. The stack is completed with top and bottom transparent electrodes. The major achievements are as follows: (1) Tunable thermal emittance for the EC layer over a range of 0.2 to 0.8 was demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of surfaces with adjustable heat transfer properties. (2) Thin film ion conductors based on the Li2O/B2O3 and LiNbO3 were developed using thermal and electron beam evaporation with ionic conductivities greater than 10(exp -8) S/cm, fulfilling a major requirement for this component. (3) A variety of improved vanadium oxide-based counter electrode materials were demonstrated and patented which undergo reversible electrochemical Li insertion reactions and which increase their solar transmission on reduction. (4) Devices incorporating a laminated Li+ conducting polymer electrolyte were demonstrated with bleached state visible transmittance of greater than 65 percent and colored state transmittance of less than 15 percent. These devices were tested for greater than 10(exp 4) complete cycles. (5) An all thin film solid state device was demonstrated with a visible transmission range of 65/13 percent, using the component materials developed on this program. The device was tested for greater than 3000 complete cycles without degradation. A fabrication sequence was specified which forms the basis of initial production cost estimates. (6) Window modeling studies have been used to compare the relative performance of amorphous and crystalline WO3-based electrochromic

  20. In operando scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy studies of lithium/sulfur cells using all solid-state polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marceau, Hugues; Kim, Chi-Su; Paolella, Andrea; Ladouceur, Sébastien; Lagacé, Marin; Chaker, Mohamed; Vijh, Ashok; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Julien, Christian M.; Mauger, Alain; Armand, Michel; Hovington, Pierre; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-07-01

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (SPE)/sulfur cells were studied in operando by two techniques: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). During the operation of the cell, extensive polysulfide dissolution in the solid polymer electrolyte (cross-linked polyethylene oxide) leads to the formation of a catholyte. A clear micrograph of the thick passivation layer on the sulfur-rich anode and the decreased SPE thickness by cycling confirmed the failure mechanism; the capacity decays by reducing the amount of active material, and by contributing to a charge inhibiting mechanism called polysulfide shuttle. The formation of elemental sulfur is clearly visible in real time during the charge process beyond 2.3 V. The non-destructive in operando UV-vis study also shows the presence of characteristic absorption peaks evolving with cycling, demonstrating the accumulation of various polysulfide species, and the predominant formation of S42- and of S62- during discharge and charge, respectively. This finding implies that the charge and discharge reactions are not completely reversible and proceed along different pathways.

  1. Dissimilar Crystal Dependence of Vanadium Oxide Cathodes in Organic Carbonate and Safe Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Morales, Enrique; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2016-01-27

    Advances in Li metal anode stabilization, solid-state electrolytes, and capabilities to insert a variety of active ions (Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+)) have renewed the interest in layered vanadium oxides. Here we show that crystal characteristics such as size and crystallinity are fundamental variables that control the dissimilar electrochemical capabilities of 1D vanadium oxides immersed in different electrolytes (organic carbonates and safe electrolytes containing 80% of ionic liquid). We show that this opposite behavior can be understood in terms of a subtle interplay between crystal characteristics (size and crystallinity), electrolyte degradability, and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. Thus, through this control we are able to obtain pure 1D vanadium oxides that show reversibility in carbonate electrolytes at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V (voltage region where insertion of more than two lithium ions is possible). Furthermore, these materials are able to uptake ca. 1.0 mol of Li at a rate of 20C (1C = 295 mAh/g) and retain excellent capabilities (Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 200 cycles at a rate of 5C). Finally, what, to our knowledge, is really remarkable is that this optimization allows building vanadium oxide electrodes with an excellent electrochemical response in a safe electrolyte composition (80% of ionic liquid). Specifically, we reach uptakes also at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V of ca. 1.0 mol of Li after 200 cycles at 5C (charge/discharge) with Coulombic efficiencies higher than 99.5%. PMID:26743032

  2. Dissimilar Crystal Dependence of Vanadium Oxide Cathodes in Organic Carbonate and Safe Ionic Liquid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Tartaj, Pedro; Amarilla, Jose M; Morales, Enrique; Vazquez-Santos, Maria B

    2016-01-27

    Advances in Li metal anode stabilization, solid-state electrolytes, and capabilities to insert a variety of active ions (Li(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), and Al(3+)) have renewed the interest in layered vanadium oxides. Here we show that crystal characteristics such as size and crystallinity are fundamental variables that control the dissimilar electrochemical capabilities of 1D vanadium oxides immersed in different electrolytes (organic carbonates and safe electrolytes containing 80% of ionic liquid). We show that this opposite behavior can be understood in terms of a subtle interplay between crystal characteristics (size and crystallinity), electrolyte degradability, and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. Thus, through this control we are able to obtain pure 1D vanadium oxides that show reversibility in carbonate electrolytes at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V (voltage region where insertion of more than two lithium ions is possible). Furthermore, these materials are able to uptake ca. 1.0 mol of Li at a rate of 20C (1C = 295 mAh/g) and retain excellent capabilities (Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 200 cycles at a rate of 5C). Finally, what, to our knowledge, is really remarkable is that this optimization allows building vanadium oxide electrodes with an excellent electrochemical response in a safe electrolyte composition (80% of ionic liquid). Specifically, we reach uptakes also at a cutoff voltage of 1.5 V of ca. 1.0 mol of Li after 200 cycles at 5C (charge/discharge) with Coulombic efficiencies higher than 99.5%.

  3. Strongly coupled metal oxide nanorod arrays with graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets enable novel solid-state hybrid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Xi, Jiangbo; Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Shihe; Jin, Yunxia; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Shuai

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical capacitors and rechargeable batteries are still limited in applications by the low energy and power densities they can deliver, respectively, holding back their deployment in electric vehicles. Here we develop a type of solid-state hybrid cells (SHCs) composed of graphene nanoribbons and nanosheets-coated metal oxide nanorod arrays ((MOx/GNR)@GNS). GNR and GNS are deposited on the surface of MOx nanorod arrays to improve the electron transport characteristic, and thus enhance the energy storage performance. The (MOx/GNR)@GNS-based SHCs can achieve a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.9 mWh cm-3, and still retain 0.4 mWh cm-3 even at 0.1 W cm-3. The energy storage performance is much better than the electrochemical capacitors reported previously, and can even rival the commercial Li thin-film battery but with a significantly higher power density, lower cost and higher safety. Also demonstrated is the good long-term cycle life with only ∼17% loss after 2500 cycles. These salient features make the (MOx/GNR)@GNS composites-based SHCs a strong contender for electrochemical energy storage.

  4. Study of ceria-carbonate nanocomposite electrolytes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; Wang, C; Di, J; Chen, M; Zheng, J; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Composite and nanocomposite samarium doped ceria-carbonates powders were prepared by solid-state reaction, citric acid-nitrate combustion and modified nanocomposite approaches and used as electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, low-temperature Nitrogen Adsorption/desorption Experiments, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and fuel cell performance test were employed in characterization of these materials. All powders are nano-size particles with slight aggregation and carbonates are amorphous in composites. Nanocomposite electrolyte exhibits much lower impedance resistance and higher ionic conductivity than those of the other electrolytes at lower temperature. Fuel cell using the electrolyte prepared by modified nanocomposite approach exhibits the best performance in the whole operation temperature range and achieves a maximum power density of 839 mW cm(-2) at 600 degrees C with H2 as fuel. The excellent physical and electrochemical performances of nanocomposite electrolyte make it a promising candidate for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Comparison between superficial and solid-state cultures of Isaria fumosorosea: conidial yields, quality and sensitivity to oxidant conditions.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Paredes, Facundo; Garza-López, Paul Misael; Viniegra-González, Gustavo; Loera, Octavio

    2016-07-01

    Conidia production and quality from mycoinsecticides in solid-state cultures (SSC) are frequently inferred from superficial culture (SC) results. Both parameters were evaluated for two Isaria fumosorosea strains (ARSEF 3302 and CNRCB1), in SC and SSC, using culture media with the same chemical composition. For both strains, conidia production was higher in SC than SSC in terms of conidia per gram of dry substrate. Germination in both strains did not show significant differences between SC and SSC (>90 %). Similarly, conidia viability in ARSEF 3302 strain did not show differences at early stages between SC and SSC, but was higher in SC compared to SSC in the late stage of culture; in contrast, conidia from CNRCB1 strain did not differ between both culture systems. Some infectivity parameters improved in conidia from SSC, compared to SC at the early stages, but these differences disappeared at the final stage, independently of the strain. Both strains showed decreased conidia production when 26 % O2 pulses were applied; nevertheless, conidiation in SSC was two orders of magnitude more sensitive to oxidant pulses. In SC with 26 % O2 pulses, conidia viability for both strains at early stages, was higher than in normal atmospheric conditions. Infectivity towards Galleria mellonella larvae was similar between conidia from normal atmosphere and oxidant conditions; notably, for the strain ARSEF 3302 infectivity decreased at the final stage. This study shows the intrinsic differences between SC and SSC, which should be considered when using SC as a model to design production processes in SSC. PMID:27263006

  6. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  7. Structure of the polymer electrolyte poly(ethylene oxide)6:LiAsF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macglashan, Graham S.; Andreev, Yuri G.; Bruce, Peter G.

    1999-04-01

    Polymer electrolytes-salts (such as LiCF3SO3) dissolved in solid, high-molar-mass polymers (for example, poly(ethylene oxide), PEO),,-hold the key to the development of all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. They also represent an unusual class of coordination compounds in the solid state. Conductivities of up to 10-4Scm-1 may be obtained, but higher levels are needed for applications in batteries,,. To achieve such levels requires a better understanding of the conduction mechanism, and crucial to this is a knowledge of polymer-electrolyte structure. Crystalline forms of polymer electrolytes are obtained at only a few discrete compositions. The structures of 3:1 and 4:1 complexes (denoting the ratio of ether oxygens to cations) have been determined,,. But the 6:1 complex is of greater interest as the conductivity of polymer electrolytes increases significantly on raising the polymer content from 3:1 to 6:1 (refs 10, 11). Furthermore, many highly conducting polymer-electrolyte systems form crystalline 6:1 complexes whereas those with lower conductivities do not. Here we report the structure of the PEO:LiAsF6 complex with a 6:1 composition. Determination of the structure was carried out abinitio by employing a method for flexible molecular structures, involving full profile fitting to the X-ray powder diffraction data by simulated annealing. Whereas in the 3:1 complexes the polymer chains form helices, those in the 6:1 complex form double non-helical chains which interlock to form a cylinder. The lithium ions reside inside these cylinders and, in contrast to other complexes, are not coordinated by the anions.

  8. All-Solid-State Conductive Polymer Miniaturized Reference Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien Cheng; Chou, Jung Chuan

    2009-11-01

    A novel, stable, and all-solid-state miniaturized reference electrode (MRE) prepared by changing the properties of a conductive polymer for potentiometric applications is presented in this study. A monomer of a conductive polymer, pyrrole, was electrodeposited to form polypyrrole on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass at a DC power of 5 V. The difference of the solid-state MRE from the Ag/AgCl glass reference electrode is that the former requires no inner electrolyte and can be preserved without any storage solution (such as saturated KCl solution). In this study, the potentiometric characteristics of the solid-state MRE are investigated using the current-voltage (I-V) measurement system. The solid-state MRE exhibits sufficient stability and reproducibility in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions. Furthermore, the solid-state MRE can collocate successfully with H+-, Na+-, and K+-ion selective electrodes to measure H+, Na+, and K+ ion concentrations in acid-base, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride solutions, respectively.

  9. Operating mechanisms of electrolytes in magnesium ion batteries: chemical equilibrium, magnesium deposition, and electrolyte oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Young; Lim, Younhee; Roy, Basab; Ryu, Young-Gyoon; Lee, Seok-Soo

    2014-12-21

    Since the early nineties there have been a number of reports on the experimental development of Mg electrolytes based on organo/amide-magnesium chlorides and their transmetalations. However, there are no theoretical papers describing the underlying operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes, and there is no clear understanding of these mechanisms. We have therefore attempted to clarify the operating mechanisms of Mg electrolytes by studying the characteristics of Mg complexes, solvation, chemical equilibrium, Mg-deposition processes, electrolyte-oxidation processes, and oxidative degradation mechanism of RMgCl-based electrolytes, using ab initio calculations. The formation and solvation energies of Mg complexes highly depend on the characteristics of R groups. Thus, changes in R groups of RMgCl lead to changes in the equilibrium position and the electrochemical reduction and oxidation pathways and energies. We first provide a methodological scheme for calculating Mg reduction potential values in non-aqueous electrolytes and electrochemical windows. We also describe a strategy for designing Mg electrolytes to maximize the electrochemical windows and oxidative stabilities. These results will be useful not only for designing improved Mg electrolytes, but also for developing new electrolytes in the future.

  10. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  11. Achieving high capacity in bulk-type solid-state lithium ion battery based on Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 electrolyte: Interfacial resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting; Ren, Yaoyu; Shen, Yang; Zhao, Shi-Xi; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2016-08-01

    A bulk-type all-solid-state lithium ion battery based on Ta-doped Li6.75La3Zr1.75Ta0.25O12 (LLZ-Ta) is prepared by a simple solid state process with high capacity of 279.0 μAh cm-2 at 80 °C. However, severe polarization is discovered during charging/discharging cycles at room temperature (RT) for battery with a higher active cathode loading. Large interfacial resistance due to the poor contact at the interfaces between cathode and LLZ-Ta solid electrolyte and at the interfaces within the composite cathode layer is proven to be the main reason for the poor electrochemical performance of the battery at RT. The polarization could be suppressed at elevated temperature, which is attributed to the decreased interfacial resistance as indicated by the results of impedance measurements and gives rise to much enhanced performance of the all-solid-state battery.

  12. Effect upon biocompatibility and biocorrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation in trisodium phosphate electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Bae, Tae-Sung; Jang, Yong-Seok; Oh, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Mg-Al-Zn-Ca alloy was conducted via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an electrolyte that included phosphate. Calcium phosphate can be easily induced on the surface of a PEO coating that includes phosphate in a physiological environment because Ca(2+) ions in body fluids can be combined with PO4 (3-). Cytotoxicity of the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with various amounts of Na3PO4 was identified. In particular, the effects that PEO films have upon oxidative stress and differentiation of osteoblast activity were studied. As the concentration of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte increased, the oxide layer was found to become thicker, which increased corrosion resistance. However, the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with over 0.2 M of added Na3PO4 exhibited more microcracks and larger pores than those formed in smaller Na3PO4 concentrations owing to a large spark discharge. A nonuniform oxide film that included more phosphate caused more cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, and overabundant phosphate content in the oxide layer interrupted the differentiation of osteoblasts. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy and the thickness of the oxide layer were increased by the addition of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte for PEO treatment. However, excessive phosphate content in the oxide layer led to oxidative stress, which resulted in reduced cell viability and activity. PMID:26829967

  13. Effect upon biocompatibility and biocorrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation in trisodium phosphate electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Kyoung; Park, Il-Song; Lee, Kwang-Bok; Bae, Tae-Sung; Jang, Yong-Seok; Oh, Young-Min; Lee, Min-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Mg-Al-Zn-Ca alloy was conducted via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in an electrolyte that included phosphate. Calcium phosphate can be easily induced on the surface of a PEO coating that includes phosphate in a physiological environment because Ca(2+) ions in body fluids can be combined with PO4 (3-). Cytotoxicity of the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with various amounts of Na3PO4 was identified. In particular, the effects that PEO films have upon oxidative stress and differentiation of osteoblast activity were studied. As the concentration of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte increased, the oxide layer was found to become thicker, which increased corrosion resistance. However, the PEO coating formed in electrolytes with over 0.2 M of added Na3PO4 exhibited more microcracks and larger pores than those formed in smaller Na3PO4 concentrations owing to a large spark discharge. A nonuniform oxide film that included more phosphate caused more cytotoxicity and oxidative stress, and overabundant phosphate content in the oxide layer interrupted the differentiation of osteoblasts. The corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy and the thickness of the oxide layer were increased by the addition of Na3PO4 in the electrolyte for PEO treatment. However, excessive phosphate content in the oxide layer led to oxidative stress, which resulted in reduced cell viability and activity.

  14. Three-Dimensional Expanded Graphene-Metal Oxide Film via Solid-State Microwave Irradiation for Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, MinHo; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Sang Bok; Han, Young-Kyu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-10-14

    Carbon-based electrochemical double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors, consisting of a symmetric configuration of electrodes, can deliver much higher power densities than batteries, but they suffer from low energy densities. Herein, we report the development of high energy and power density supercapacitors using an asymmetric configuration of Fe2O3 and MnO2 nanoparticles incorporated into 3D macroporous graphene film electrodes that can be operated in a safe and low-cost aqueous electrolyte. The gap in working potential windows of Fe2O3 and MnO2 enables the stable expansion of the cell voltage up to 1.8 V, which is responsible for the high energy density (41.7 Wh kg(-1)). We employ a household microwave oven to simultaneously create conductivity, porosity, and the deposition of metal oxides on graphene films toward 3D hybrid architectures, which lead to a high power density (13.5 kW kg(-1)). Such high energy and power densities are maintained for over 5000 cycles, even during cycling at a high current density of 16.9 A g(-1).

  15. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  16. Preparation of gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/) by solid-state reaction of the oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Hellstrom, E.E.; Ray, R.D. II; Zhang, C. )

    1989-08-01

    The authors prepared dense polycrystalline gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) by solid-state reaction of the oxides. The oxides were prereacted at 1350{sup 0}C, ground, pressed, and sintered at 1650{sup 0}C, yielding 97% dense samples, Ga/sub 2/O/sub 3/ evaporated from the sample surface leaving Gd/sub 4/Ga/sub 2/O/sub 9/ that could spall off the sample. For the short times needed to sinter samples, the bulk composition of the material remained essentially constant. The microhardness of the GGG was 11.8 +- 1.2 GN . m/sup -2/.

  17. Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells with two-layer, composite electrolytes - Electrolyte stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virkar, Anil V.

    1991-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using two-layer, composite electrolytes consisting of a solid electrolyte of a significantly higher conductivity compared to zirconia (such as ceria or bismuth oxide) with a thin layer of zirconia or thoria on the fuel side is presented. Electrochemical transport in the two-layer composite electrolytes is examined by taking both ionic and electronic fluxes into account. Similar to most electrochemical transport phenomena, it is assumed that local equilibrium prevails. An equivalent circuit approach is used to estimate the partial pressure of oxygen at the interface. It is shown that thermodynamic stability of the electrolyte (ceria or bismuth oxide) depends upon the transport characteristics of the composite electrolyte, in particular the electronic conductivity of the air-side part of the electrolyte. The analysis shows that it would be advantageous to use composite electrolytes instead of all-zirconia electrolytes, thus making low-temperature (about 600-800 C) SOFCs feasible. Implications of the analysis from the standpoint of the desired characteristics of SOFC components are discussed.

  18. Trimethylphosphine-Assisted Surface Fingerprinting of Metal Oxide Nanoparticle by (31)P Solid-State NMR: A Zinc Oxide Case Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yung-Kang; Ye, Lin; Qu, Jin; Zhang, Li; Fu, Yingyi; Teixeira, Ivo F; McPherson, Ian James; He, Heyong; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-24

    Nano metal oxides are becoming widely used in industrial, commercial and personal products (semiconductors, optics, solar cells, catalysts, paints, cosmetics, sun-cream lotions, etc.). However, the relationship of surface features (exposed planes, defects and chemical functionalities) with physiochemical properties is not well studied primarily due to lack of a simple technique for their characterization. In this study, solid state (31)P MAS NMR is used to map surfaces on various ZnO samples with the assistance of trimethylphosphine (TMP) as a chemical probe. As similar to XRD giving structural information on a crystal, it is demonstrated that this new surface-fingerprint technique not only provides qualitative (chemical shift) but also quantitative (peak intensity) information on the concentration and distribution of cations and anions, oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on various facets from a single deconvoluted (31)P NMR spectrum. On the basis of this technique, a new mechanism for photocatalytic •OH radical generation from direct surface-OH oxidation is revealed, which has important implications regarding the safety of using nano oxides in personal care products. PMID:26812527

  19. Probing Oxide-Ion Mobility in the Mixed Ionic–Electronic Conductor La2NiO4+δ by Solid-State 17O MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While solid-state NMR spectroscopic techniques have helped clarify the local structure and dynamics of ionic conductors, similar studies of mixed ionic–electronic conductors (MIECs) have been hampered by the paramagnetic behavior of these systems. Here we report high-resolution 17O (I = 5/2) solid-state NMR spectra of the mixed-conducting solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode material La2NiO4+δ, a paramagnetic transition-metal oxide. Three distinct oxygen environments (equatorial, axial, and interstitial) can be assigned on the basis of hyperfine (Fermi contact) shifts and quadrupolar nutation behavior, aided by results from periodic DFT calculations. Distinct structural distortions among the axial sites, arising from the nonstoichiometric incorporation of interstitial oxygen, can be resolved by advanced magic angle turning and phase-adjusted sideband separation (MATPASS) NMR experiments. Finally, variable-temperature spectra reveal the onset of rapid interstitial oxide motion and exchange with axial sites at ∼130 °C, associated with the reported orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition of La2NiO4+δ. From the variable-temperature spectra, we develop a model of oxide-ion dynamics on the spectral time scale that accounts for motional differences of all distinct oxygen sites. Though we treat La2NiO4+δ as a model system for a combined paramagnetic 17O NMR and DFT methodology, the approach presented herein should prove applicable to MIECs and other functionally important paramagnetic oxides. PMID:27538437

  20. Probing Oxide-Ion Mobility in the Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conductor La2NiO4+δ by Solid-State (17)O MAS NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Halat, David M; Dervişoğlu, Rıza; Kim, Gunwoo; Dunstan, Matthew T; Blanc, Frédéric; Middlemiss, Derek S; Grey, Clare P

    2016-09-14

    While solid-state NMR spectroscopic techniques have helped clarify the local structure and dynamics of ionic conductors, similar studies of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) have been hampered by the paramagnetic behavior of these systems. Here we report high-resolution (17)O (I = 5/2) solid-state NMR spectra of the mixed-conducting solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode material La2NiO4+δ, a paramagnetic transition-metal oxide. Three distinct oxygen environments (equatorial, axial, and interstitial) can be assigned on the basis of hyperfine (Fermi contact) shifts and quadrupolar nutation behavior, aided by results from periodic DFT calculations. Distinct structural distortions among the axial sites, arising from the nonstoichiometric incorporation of interstitial oxygen, can be resolved by advanced magic angle turning and phase-adjusted sideband separation (MATPASS) NMR experiments. Finally, variable-temperature spectra reveal the onset of rapid interstitial oxide motion and exchange with axial sites at ∼130 °C, associated with the reported orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition of La2NiO4+δ. From the variable-temperature spectra, we develop a model of oxide-ion dynamics on the spectral time scale that accounts for motional differences of all distinct oxygen sites. Though we treat La2NiO4+δ as a model system for a combined paramagnetic (17)O NMR and DFT methodology, the approach presented herein should prove applicable to MIECs and other functionally important paramagnetic oxides. PMID:27538437

  1. System DyFeO: thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using Calvet calorimetry and solid-state electrochemical cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, S. C.; Jacob, K. T.; Venugopal, V.

    2002-10-01

    The enthalpy increments and the standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of DyFeO 3(s) and Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s) have been measured using a Calvet micro-calorimeter and a solid oxide galvanic cell, respectively. A co-operative phase transition, related to anti-ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transformation, is apparent from the heat capacity data for DyFeO 3 at ˜648 K. A similar type of phase transition has been observed for Dy 3Fe 5O 12 at ˜560 K which is related to ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic transformation. Enthalpy increment data for DyFeO 3(s) and Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s), except in the vicinity of the second-order transition, can be represented by the following polynomial expressions: {H 0m(T)-H 0m(298.15 K)} ( J mol-1) (±1.1%)=-52754+142.9×(T ( K))+2.48×10 -3×(T ( K)) 2+2.951×10 6×(T ( K)) -1;(298.15⩽ T ( K)⩽1000) for DyFeO 3(s), and {H 0m(T)-H 0m(298.15 K)} ( J mol-1) (±1.2%)=-191048+545.0×(T ( K))+2.0×10 -5×(T ( K)) 2+8.513×10 6×(T ( K)) -1;(298.15⩽T ( K)⩽1000) for Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s). The reversible emfs of the solid-state electrochemical cells: (-)Pt/{DyFeO 3(s) + Dy 2O 3(s) + Fe(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{Fe(s) + Fe 0.95O(s)}/Pt(+) and (-)Pt/{Fe(s) + Fe 0.95O(s)}//CSZ//{DyFeO 3(s) + Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s) + Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+), were measured in the temperature range from 1021 to 1250 K and 1035 to 1250 K, respectively. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of solid DyFeO 3 and Dy 3Fe 5O 12 calculated by the least squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study, and data for Fe 0.95O and Dy 2O 3 from the literature, are given by: Δ fG 0m( DyFeO3, s) ( kJ mol-1) (±3.2)=-1339.9+0.2473×(T ( K));(1021⩽T ( K)⩽1548) and Δ fG 0m( Dy3Fe5O12, s) ( kJ mol-1) (±3.5)=-4850.4+0.9846×(T ( K));(1035⩽T ( K)⩽1250). The uncertainty estimates for Δ fG 0m include the standard deviation in the emf and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagram and chemical potential diagrams for

  2. Influence of microstructure and AlPO4 secondary-phase on the ionic conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid-state electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Mertens, Andreas; Gao, Xin; Gunduz, Deniz Cihan; Schierholz, Roland; Benning, Svenja; Hausen, Florian; Mertens, Josef; Kungl, Hans; Tempel, Hermann; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.

    2016-09-01

    A ceramic solid-state electrolyte of lithium aluminum titanium phosphate with the composition of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP) was synthesized by a sol-gel method using a pre-dissolved Ti-source. The annealed LATP powders were subsequently processed in a binder-free dry forming method and sintered under air for the pellet preparation. Phase purity, density, microstructure as well as ionic conductivity of the specimen were characterized. The highest density (2.77gṡcm‑3) with an ionic conductivity of 1.88×10‑4 Sṡcm‑1 (at 30∘C) was reached at a sintering temperature of 1100∘C. Conductivity of LATP ceramic electrolyte is believed to be significantly affected by both, the AlPO4 secondary phase content and the ceramic electrolyte microstructure. It has been found that with increasing sintering temperature, the secondary-phase content of AlPO4 increased. For sintering temperatures above 1000∘C, the secondary phase has only a minor impact, and the ionic conductivity is predominantly determined by the microstructure of the pellet, i.e. the correlation between density, porosity and particle size. In that respect, it has been demonstrated, that the conductivity increases with increasing particle size in this temperature range and density.

  3. Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene/carbon black nanoparticle film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Haojie; Yang, Chongyang; Bao, Hua; Wang, Gengchao

    2014-11-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) are fabricated using graphene/carbon black nanoparticle (GCB) film electrodes and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H2SO4 porous gel electrolytes (gPVAP-H2SO4). The GCB composite films, with carbon black (CB) nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the graphene nanosheets, greatly improve the active surface areas and ion transportation of pristine graphene film. The porous structure of as-prepared gPVAP-H2SO4 membrane improves the equilibrium swelling ratio in electrolyte and provides interconnected ion transport channels. The chemical crosslinking solves the fluidity problem of PVA-H2SO4 gel electrolyte at high temperature. As-fabricated GCB//gPVAP(20)-H2SO4//GCB flexible SC displays an increased specific capacitance (144.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1) and a higher specific capacitance retention (67.9% from 0.2 to 4 A g-1). More importantly, the flexible SC possesses good electrochemical performance at high temperature (capacitance retention of 78.3% after 1000 cycles at 70 °C).

  4. Comparison of subthreshold swing in SrTiO3-based all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistors with Li4SiO4 or Y-stabilized-ZrO2 solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya

    2016-06-01

    SrTiO3 (STO)-based all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs) with a Li4SiO4 (LSO) lithium ion conductor (i.e., electrolyte) or Y-stabilized-ZrO2 (YSZ) proton conductor were fabricated. While the LSO device showed significant drain current enhancement at room temperature, the YSZ device needed high temperature to achieve comparable drain current enhancement due to the difference in ionic conductivity between the two electrolytes. Subthreshold swing (S), which is a parameter used to evaluate the steepness of drain current enhancement in field-effect transistors (FETs), was calculated to be 66 and 227 mV/dec, respectively, for LSO and YSZ EDLTs. The 66 mV/dec is very close to the theoretical limit (60 mV/dec) for conventional FETs, indicating that LSO is more suitable for STO-based EDLTs and that the type of solid electrolyte used greatly affects EDLT switching characteristics.

  5. Quantitative study of solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid and magnesium oxide using X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Stowell, Joseph G; Morris, Kenneth R; Byrn, Stephen R

    2010-03-11

    The purpose of this study is to investigate solid-state acid-base reactions between polymorphs of flufenamic acid (FFA) and magnesium oxide (MgO) using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Polymorphs of FFA were blended with MgO and stored under conditions of 96.5% RH and 89% RH at 40 degrees C. The disappearance of FFA and production of magnesium flufenamate were monitored by XRPD. It was observed that the reactions between FFA and MgO proceeded following the Jander equation. Form I of FFA is more reactive with MgO than Form III. Differential accessibility of reactive groups is hypothesized as one of the reasons that Form I is more reactive than Form III. It was noted that the reaction between FFA and MgO could be mitigated by adding another acidic excipient such as polyacrylic acid to prevent the acid-base reaction with FFA. The effectiveness of polyacrylic acid was impacted by the mixing order of the tertiary mixture. Mixing polyacrylic acid and MgO first provided the most significant protection. In conclusion, solid-state acid-base reactions could be investigated using XRPD. Different forms may have distinct reactivity. Acid-base reactions in the solid state could be mitigated through the addition of another "shielding" excipient.

  6. Carbon dioxide sensing mechanisms of an electrocatalytic sensor/cell based on a tungsten stabilized bismuth oxide solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Erika Leigh

    This work describes the specific O2/CO2 sensing mechanisms of a solid-state, thick-film, electrocatalytic cermet (ceramic/metallic) gas sensor based on a tungsten stabilized bismuth oxide (WBO) solid electrolyte. The sensors embody the same configuration of classical planar oxygen sensors with two catalytic electrodes sandwiching an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and a buried metal oxide reference. The technique of cyclic voltammetry is used where a cyclic voltage is ramped across the electrodes to promote electrochemical reactions on the surface of the sensor. These reactions alter the ionic current flow through the solid electrolyte, generating voltage-current related responses (voltammograms) which are gas specific. The WBO sensors have the identical configuration of previously investigated sensors of this type based on a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte which show good response to O 2 but do not respond to CO2 to any degree. This dissertation examines the specific function of each solid electrolyte layer and relates them to both the WBO sensors ability to respond uniquely to CO2 and the YSZ sensors incapability to respond to CO2. The research suggests that the tungsten component of the WBO electrolyte along with the porosity of the WBO layer together are responsible for the unique CO 2 response of this sensor.

  7. 51V Solid-state NMR and Density-Functional Theory Studies of Eight-Coordinate Non-Oxo Vanadium Complexes: Oxidized Amavadin

    PubMed Central

    Ooms, Kristopher J.; Bolte, Stephanie E.; Baruah, Bharat; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Crans, Debbie C.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Using 51V magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory calculations we have characterized the chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling parameters for two eight-coordinate vanadium complexes, [PPh4][V(V)(HIDPA)2] and [PPh4][V(V)(HIDA)2]; HIDPA = 2,2′-(hydroxyimino)dipropionate and HIDA = 2,2′-(hydroxyimino)diacetate. The coordination geometry under examination is the less common non-oxo eight coordinate distorted dodecahedral geometry that has not been previously investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Both complexes were isolated by oxidizing their reduced forms: [V(IV)(HIDPA)2]2- and [V(IV)(HIDA)2]2-. V(IV)(HIDPA)22- is also known as amavadin, a vanadium-containing natural product present in the Amanita muscaria mushroom and responsible for vanadium accumulation in nature. The quadrupolar coupling constants, CQ, are found to be moderate, 5.0 to 6.4 MHz while the chemical shift anisotropies are relatively small for vanadium complexes, −420 and 360 ppm. The isotropic chemical shifts in the solid state are −220 and −228 ppm for the two compounds, and near the chemical shifts observed in solution. Presumably this is a consequence of the combined effects of the increased coordination number and the absence of oxo groups. Density Functional Theory calculations of the electric field gradient parameters are in good agreement with the NMR results while the chemical shift parameters show some deviation from the experimental values. Future work on this unusual coordination geometry and a combined analysis by solid-state NMR and Density Functional Theory should provide a better understanding of the correlations between experimental NMR parameters and the local structure of the vanadium centers. PMID:19421628

  8. Solid-State Water Electrolysis with an Alkaline Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Chen, G; Mendoza, AJ; Tighe, TB; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2012-06-06

    We report high-performance, durable alkaline membrane water electrolysis in a solid-state cell. An anion exchange membrane (AEM) and catalyst layer ionomer for hydroxide ion conduction were used without the addition of liquid electrolyte. At 50 degrees C, an AEM electrolysis cell using iridium oxide as the anode catalyst and Pt black as the cathode catalyst exhibited a current density of 399 mA/cm(2) at 1.80 V. We found that the durability of the AEM-based electrolysis cell could be improved by incorporating a highly durable ionomer in the catalyst layer and optimizing the water feed configuration. We demonstrated an AEM-based electrolysis cell with a lifetime of > 535 h. These first-time results of water electrolysis in a solid-state membrane cell are promising for low-cost, scalable hydrogen production.

  9. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  10. Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, L.M.

    1981-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

  11. Yb 3+-doped oxide crystals for diode-pumped solid state lasers: crystal growth, optical spectroscopy, new criteria of evaluation and combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulon, G.

    2003-04-01

    Our recent scientific program has involved the general evaluation of Yb 3+-doped oxide crystals for diode-pumped solid state lasers. Among crystalline families which provide the best expected performances, some have been grown: sesquioxide, oxyapatite, niobate and garnet fibres pulled either from the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG) or the Micro-Pulling Down ( μ-PD) technique, tungstates by the top nucleated floating crystal (TNFC) and garnet and oxiapatite by the Czochralski (CZ) technique. Optical spectra of all crystals have been performed. In addition, a combinatorial chemistry approach has been pointed out to study the radiative lifetime and the concentration quenching processes in these laser crystals.

  12. Proton conducting membranes for high temperature fuel cells with solid state water free membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A water free, proton conducting membrane for use in a fuel cell is fabricated as a highly conducting sheet of converted solid state organic amine salt, such as converted acid salt of triethylenediamine with two quaternized tertiary nitrogen atoms, combined with a nanoparticulate oxide and a stable binder combined with the converted solid state organic amine salt to form a polymeric electrolyte membrane. In one embodiment the membrane is derived from triethylenediamine sulfate, hydrogen phosphate or trifiate, an oxoanion with at least one ionizable hydrogen, organic tertiary amine bisulfate, polymeric quaternized amine bisulfate or phosphate, or polymeric organic compounds with quaternizable nitrogen combined with Nafion to form an intimate network with ionic interactions.

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  15. The Organic Solid State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Wlygul, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews interesting and useful electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of the organic solid state. Offers speculation as to areas of fruitful research. Discusses organic superconductors, conducting organic polymers, organic metals, and traces recent history of creation of organic metals. (JM)

  16. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of octadecyl modified metal oxides obtained from different silane precursors.

    PubMed

    Kailasam, Kamalakannan; Natile, Marta Maria; Glisenti, Antonella; Müller, Klaus

    2009-03-20

    Octadecyl (C(18)) modified metal oxide substrates, including titania, zirconia, hafnia, and alumina, are prepared using two types of silylating reagents, n-octadecyltrihydridosilane and n-octadecyltrichlorosilane. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are performed to examine the cross-linking of the silanes. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy provides information about the conformation and mobility of surface-immobilized alkyl chains. Variable temperature FTIR investigations are carried out to study the influence of the organosilane precursors and metal oxides on the conformational order of the alkyl modified systems. It is found that grafting by means of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane yields higher grafting densities than surface modification with n-octadecyltrihydridosilane. Combined pyridine adsorption and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) measurements are performed on the titania and hafnia substrates to evaluate potential surface heterogeneities, i.e. Lewis and Brønsted sites. Differences in the alkyl chain conformational order within the series of C(18) modified metal oxides are explained by the presence of island structures. The reduced C(18) conformational order for the samples grafted with n-octadecyltrihydridosilane is traced back to the lower grafting density which in turn points to a lower reactivity of this silylating reagent. The most striking result is the higher conformational order of the C(18) chains grafted in the present surface modified metal oxides when compared with silica-based systems. This finding is attributed to the lower porosity of the metal oxide supports along with more closely packed chains on the surface.

  18. Enhancement of lithium ion conductivity by doping Li3BO3 in Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Minyong; Choi, Sunho; Son, Seunghyeon; Choi, Lakyoung; Park, Chanhwi; Shin, Dongwook

    2016-11-01

    (100-x) (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·xLi3BO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 5) solid electrolytes are prepared via mechanical milling and a post heat-treatment process, and the resulting electrochemical properties are investigated in conjunction with structural analysis. Adding of Li3BO3 into the (100-x) (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·xLi3BO3 solid electrolyte is expected to enhance the conductivity and lower the activation energy as a consequence of changing the structural unit in the glass network. It turned out that the doping of Li3BO3 enhances the conductivity by enlarging the glass forming region and promoting precipitation of high lithium ion conductive thio-LISICON II analog. 97 (0.78Li2S·0.22P2S5)·3Li3BO3 (x = 3) glass-ceramics exhibits the highest conductivity (1.03 × 10-3 S cm-1). Structural analysis shows that the samples with Li3BO3 added to the electrolyte are composed of the main structural unit of PS43- with partially-modified structural unit of PO43-, which are believed to effectively enhance the conductivity and decrease the activation energy. In glass-ceramics produced from these materials, the thio-LISICON II phase with higher ionic conductivity tends to be stabilized by the addition of Li3BO3. Additionally, the formation of space-charge layer is relaxed by Li3BO3 doping. As a result, the all-solid-state cell shows high initial discharge capacity of 156 mAh g-1, and the capacity is retained to be 149 mAh g-1 for 40 cycles.

  19. Charge transfer in Li/CFx-silver vanadium oxide hybrid cathode batteries revealed by solid state 7Li and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sideris, Paul J.; Yew, Rowena; Nieves, Ian; Chen, Kaimin; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig L.; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2014-05-01

    Solid state 7Li and 19F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) experiments are conducted on several cathodes containing CFx-Silver vanadium oxide (CFx-Ag2V4O11) hybrid cathodes discharged to 50% depth of discharge (DoD) and stored at their open-circuit voltage for a period of one and three months. Three carbonaceous sources for the CFx phase are investigated: petroleum coke-based, fibrous, and mixed fibrous. For each hybrid cathode, a measurable increase in the relative amount of lithium fluoride is observed after a three month resting period in both the 7Li and 19F NMR spectra. These changes are attributed to lithium ion migration from the silver vanadium oxide to the CFx phase during the resting period, and help clarify the mechanism behind high power handling capability of this cathode.

  20. Low temperature electrolytes for lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuhovak, Denise R.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1991-01-01

    Combinations of methyl formate (MF) and propylene carbonate (PC) using salt concentrations of 0.6 to 2.4 M, with lithium hexafluoroarsenate and lithium tetrafluoroborate in a five to one molar ratio, were investigated as electrolytes in lithium/silver vanadium oxide batteries. The composition of the electrolyte affected cell performance at low temperature, self-discharge and abuse resistance as characterized by short circuit and crush testing. The electrolyte that provided the best combination of good low temperature performance, low cell self-discharge and abuse resistance was 0.6 M salt in 10:90 PC/MF.

  1. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOEpatents

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  2. Structural features of a bituminous coal and their changes during low-temperature oxidation and loss of volatiles investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.-D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hatcher, P.G.; Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative and advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to investigate (i) the chemical structure of a high volatile bituminous coal, as well as (ii) chemical structural changes of this coal after evacuation of adsorbed gases, (iii) during oxidative air exposure at room temperature, and (iv) after oxidative heating in air at 75 ??C. The solid-state NMR techniques employed in this study included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at a high spinning speed of 14 kHz, cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CH, CH2, and CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filtering, two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR), and 2D HETCOR with 1H spin diffusion. With spectral editing techniques, we identified methyl CCH 3, rigid and mobile methylene CCH2C, methine CCH, quaternary Cq, aromatic CH, aromatic carbons bonded to alkyls, small-sized condensed aromatic moieties, and aromatic C-O groups. With direct polarization combined with spectral-editing techniques, we quantified 11 different types of functional groups. 1H-13C 2D HETCOR NMR experiments indicated spatial proximity of aromatic and alkyl moieties in cross-linked structures. The proton spin diffusion experiments indicated that the magnetization was not equilibrated at a 1H spin diffusion time of 5 ms. Therefore, the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of different functional groups should be above 2 nm. Recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing showed that the fraction of large charcoal-like clusters of polycondensed aromatic rings was relatively small. The exposure of this coal to atmospheric oxygen at room temperature for 6 months did not result in obvious chemical structural changes of the coal, whereas heating at 75 ??C in air for 10 days led to oxidation of coal and generated some COO groups. Evacuation removed most volatiles and caused a significant reduction in aliphatic signals in its DP

  3. Oxide coating mechanism during fluidized bed reduction: solid-state reaction characteristics between iron ore particles and MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Gao, Jin-tao; Zhong, Yi-wei; Gao, Han; Guo, Zhan-cheng

    2016-09-01

    Experiments on the solid-state reaction between iron ore particles and MgO were performed to investigate the coating mechanism of MgO on the iron ore particles' surface during fluidized bed reduction. MgO powders and iron ore particles were mixed and compressed into briquettes and, subsequently, roasted at different temperatures and for different time periods. A Mg-containing layer was observed on the outer edge of the iron ore particles when the roasting temperature was greater than 1173 K. The concentration of Fe in the Mg-containing layer was evenly distributed and was approximately 10wt%, regardless of the temperature change. Boundary layers of Mg and Fe were observed outside of the iron ore particles. The change in concentration of Fe in the boundary layers was simulated using a gas-solid diffusion model, and the diffusion coefficients of Fe and Mg in these layers at different temperatures were calculated. The diffusion activation energies of Fe and Mg in the boundary layers in these experiments were evaluated to be approximately 176 and 172 kJ/mol, respectively.

  4. Superior performance of highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on the ternary composites of graphene oxide supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Han, Gaoyi

    2016-08-01

    Ternary composite electrodes based on carbon nanotubes thin films (CNFs)-loaded graphene oxide (GO) supported poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- carbon nanotubes (GO/PEDOT-CNTs) have been prepared via a facile one-step electrochemical codeposition method. The effect of long and short CNTs-incorporated composites (GO/PEDOT-lCNTs and GO/PEDOT-sCNTs) on the electrochemical behaviors of the electrodes is investigated and compared. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the incorporation of CNTs effectively improves the electrochemical performances of the GO/PEDOT electrodes. Long CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes have more superior electrochemical behaviors with respect to the short CNTs-incorporated GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes, which can be attributed to the optimized composition and specific microstructures of the former. To verify the feasibility of the prepared composite electrodes for utilization as flexible supercapacitor, a solid-state supercapacitor using the CNFs-loaded GO/PEDOT-lCNTs electrodes is fabricated and tested. The device shows lightweight, ultrathin, and highly flexible features, which also has a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance (33.4 m F cm-2 at 10 mV s-1 and 2.7 F cm-3 at 0.042 A cm-3), superior rate capability, and excellent cycle stability (maintaining 97.5% for 5000 cycles). This highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor has great potential for applications in flexible electronics, roll-up display, and wearable devices.

  5. Solid-state voltammetry and self-diffusion dynamics of a linear monotagged redox polymer:. omega. -ferrocenecarboxamido-. alpha. -methoxypoly(ethylene oxide)

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, M.J.; Le Mest, Y.; Zhang, H.; Watanabe, M.; Murray, R.W. )

    1990-05-09

    The synthesized title labeled polymer, Fc-MePEG, MW = 2,590, analytically characterized as free of unlabeled PEO and of ferrocene monomer, dissolves LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte and in dry undiluted form is both a polymer electrolyte and an electroactive phase. The microelectrode solid-state voltammetrically measured, center-of-mass self-diffusion coefficient for Fc-MePEG in its polymer let, 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/s at 62{degree}C, is 3.4 times smaller than that for ferrocene monomer dissolved in unlabeled (MW = 2,380) Me{sub 2}PEG. Electron hopping is estimated to contribute less than 10% to the diffusion rates of Fc-MePEG and of monomer dissolved at 40-50 mM concentrations in unlabeled Me{sub 2}PEG. At room temperature, where Fc-MePEG and Me{sub 2}PEG are waxy solids, D{sub Fc-MePEG} is 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s, 12 times smaller than that of monomer ferrocene, in Me{sub 2}PEG, and which corresponds to a diffusion pathlength of ca. 110-200 nm during the electrochemical experiment. Dissolved in CH{sub 3}CN or CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, Fe-MePEG diffuses 8-10 times more slowly than ferrocene monomer which is consistent with transport as a random coiled sphere.

  6. Porous, one-dimensional and high aspect ratio nanofibric network of cobalt manganese oxide as a high performance material for aqueous and solid-state supercapacitor (2 V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Sivasankaran, V.; Yadav, K. L.; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-09-01

    Porous nanofibric network of spinel CoMn2O4 (CMO) are fabricated by facile electrospinning process and characterized by XRD, BET, TGA, FTIR, FESEM, TEM, XPS techniques. CMO nanofibers are employed as supercapacitor electrode for first time which exhibits high specific capacitance (Cs) of 320(±5) F g-1 and 270(±5) F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 5 A g-1, respectively in 1 M H2SO4. CMO nanofibers exhibit excellent cyclability (till 10,000 cycles @ 5 A g-1). To examine practical performance, solid-state symmetric supercapacitor (SSSC) is also fabricated using PVA-H2SO4 as gel electrolyte. The SSSC evinces high energy density of 75 W h kg-1 (comparable to Pb-acid and Ni-MH battery) along with high power density of 2 kW kg-1. Furthermore, a red colored LED (1.8 V @ current 20 mA) was lit for 5 min using single SSSC device supporting its output voltage of 2 V. This high performance of CMO in both aqueous and SSSC is attributed to one dimensional nanofibers consisting of voids/gaps with minimum inter-particle resistance that facilitates smoother transportation of electrons/ions. These voids/gaps in CMO (structural as well as morphological) act as intercalation/de-intercalation sites for extra storage performance, and also works as buffering space to accommodate stress/strain produced while long term cyclings.

  7. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  8. How is oxygen incorporated into oxides? A comprehensive kinetic study of a simple solid-state reaction with SrTiO3 as a model material.

    PubMed

    Merkle, Rotraut; Maier, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of stoichiometry change of an oxide--a prototype of a simple solid-state reaction and a process of substantial technological relevance--is studied and analyzed in great detail. Oxygen incorporation into strontium titanate was chosen as a model process. The complete reaction can be phenomenologically and mechanistically understood beginning with the surface reaction and ending with the transport in the perovskite. Key elements are a detailed knowledge of the defect chemistry of the perovskite as well as the application of a variety of experimental and theoretical tools, many of them evolving from this study. The importance of the reaction and transport steps for (electro)chemical applications is emphasized.

  9. Systems R-Fe-O ( R=Ho, Er): Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using differential scanning calorimetry and solid-state electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, S. C.; Rakshit, S. K.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Sen, B. K.; Venugopal, V.

    2006-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of three different types of ternary oxides RFeO 3(s), R3Fe 5O 12(s) and RFe 2O 4(s) (where R=Ho and Er) have been determined by calorimetric and solid-state galvanic cell methods. Heat capacities of RFeO 3(s) and R3Fe 5O 12(s) have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry from 130 to 860 K. Heat capacity measurements from 130 to 860 K revealed λ-type anomalies for RFeO 3(s) and R3Fe 5O 12(s) compounds which are assigned due to magnetic order-disorder transitions. The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving these ternary oxides have been determined by using solid-state electrochemical cells. The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of RFeO 3(s), R3Fe 5O 12(s) and RFe 2O 4(s) have been computed from the oxygen potential data. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagrams have been computed for the systems R-Fe-O ( R=Ho and Er) at two different temperatures: T=1250 and 1450 K. Thermodynamic functions like Cp,mo, Smo, Ho, Go, (HTo-H0o), (HTo-H298.15 Ko), -(GTo-H298.15 Ko)/T, ΔHmo, and ΔGmo have been generated for the compounds RFeO 3(s) and R3Fe 5O 12(s) based on the experimental data obtained in this study and the available data in the literature.

  10. Sequential electrolytic oxidation and reduction of aqueous phase energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, David M; Sale, Tom C

    2005-12-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater with energetic compounds has been documented at many former ammunition manufacturing plants and ranges. Recent research at Colorado State University (CSU) has demonstrated the potential utility of electrolytic degradation of organic compounds using an electrolytic permeable reactive barrier (e-barrier). In principle, an electrolytic approach to degrade aqueous energetic compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) can overcome limitations of management strategies that involve solely oxidation or reduction, through sequential oxidation-reduction or reduction-oxidation. The objective of this proof-of-concept research was to evaluate transformation of aqueous phase RDX and TNT in flow-through electrolytic reactors. Laboratory experiments were conducted using six identical column reactors containing porous media and expanded titanium-mixed-metal-oxide electrodes. Three columns tested TNT transformation and three tested RDXtransformation. Electrode sequence was varied between columns and one column for each contaminant acted as a no-voltage control. Over 97% of TNT and 93% of RDX was transformed in the reactors under sequential oxidation-reduction. Significant accumulation of known degradation intermediates was not observed under sequential oxidation-reduction. Removal of approximately 90% of TNT and 40% of RDX was observed under sequential reduction-oxidation. Power requirements on the order of 3 W/m2 were measured during the experiment. This suggests that an in-situ electrolytic approach may be cost-practical for managing groundwater contaminated with explosive compounds.

  11. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, A.; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D.; Schaaf, P.

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  12. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  13. Solid-State Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  14. Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-03-30

    The article discusses solid state lighting technologies. This topic was covered in two previous ASHRAE Journal columns (2010). This article covers advancements in technologies and the associated efficacies. The life-cycle, energy savings and market potential of these technologies are addressed as well.

  15. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO. PMID:23877300

  16. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    * The Sputtered La0.5Sr0.5MnO3-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Composite Electrode in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * A Solid Electrochemical Ferro Sensor for Molten Matte * SnO2-based Sensor for H2S Monitoring-Electrical Conductivity Measurements and Device Testing * Humidity Sensor using Potassium Tungsten Bronze Synthesized from Peroxo-Polytungstic Acid * Study on Li/LiClO4/V6O13 Test Cells * Fabrication and Characterisation of Some Solid Electrolyte Cells Containing CuI and Silver Oxysalts * Solid State Battery of Proton Conducting Sodium Thiosulphate Pentahydrate * Low Temperature Synthesis of LiMn2O4 for Secondary Lithium Batteries * Effect of Different Cathode Active Materials on Battery Performance with Silver Molybdate Electrolyte Partially Substituted with Zinc Oxide * Fabrication and Characterization of Electrochemical Cells based on Silver Molybdoarsenate and Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolytes * Lorentz Force Dependence of Dissipation in a Granular Superconductor * Late Entry (Invited paper) * Simultaneous Voltammetry and Spectroscopy of Polyaniline in Propylene Carbonate * Author Index * Tentative List of Participants

  17. Solid state {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR structural investigation of a poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Badiger, M.V.; Graham, N.B.; Law, R.V.; Snape, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    A cross-linked poly (ethylene oxide)/polyurethane hydrogel cross-linked with 1,2,6 hexane-triol and designated PEG4050/1HT [measured M{sup n} of 4050 for poly (ethylene oxide) glycol (PEG) and a mole ratio of 1:1 for the PEG to the 1,2,6 hexane-triol] has been characterized by high resolution {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. {sup 1}H thermal (T{sub 1}) and rotating frame (T{sub 1{rho}}) and {sup 13}CT{sub 1} relaxation times were determined for the powdered dry and swollen hydrogel with the standard variants of the cross-polarization pulse sequence which was used in conjunction with magic-angle spinning (MAS). The rotating frame relaxation measurements confirmed that crystalline and amorphous regions were present in the dry hydrogel but showed unabiguously that the crystalline regions are confined to the poly (ethylene oxide) chains, Upon hydration, there is a decrease in the cross polarization efficiency from the enhanced mobility by the poly (ethylene oxide) chains are affected to a much greater extent that the urethane and hexane segments, the characteristic time constant, T{sub CH} increasing by more than order of magnitude compared to no more than a factor of two for the latter. Clearly, the hydration involves hydrogen bonding between the water and principally the oxygens in the poly (ethylene oxide) chains. The {sup 1}H MAS spectra of the dry and hydrated samples confirmed that considerable averaging of the dipolar interactions occurs on hydration to give a well-resolved spectrum.

  18. Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Kim, Min-Yeong; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2016-05-15

    Poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTBA) layered-AuZn alloy oxide (AuZnOx) deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE) was prepared to create a disposable all-solid-state pH sensor at first. Further, FAD-glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE to fabricate a glucose sensor. The characterizations of the sensor probe reveal that AuZnOx forms a homogeneous hierarchical structure, and that the polymerized pTBA layer on the alloy oxide surface captures GOx covalently. The benzoic acid group of pTBA coated on the probe layer synergetically improved the pH response of the alloy oxide and provide chemical binding sites to enzyme, which resulted in a Nernstian behavior (59.2 ± 0.5 mV/pH) in the pH range of 2-13. The experimental parameters affecting the glucose analysis were studied in terms of pH, temperature, humidity, and interferences. The sensor exhibited a fast response time <1s and a dynamic range between 30 and 500 mg/dL glucose with a detection limit of 17.23 ± 0.32 mg/dL. The reliabilities of the disposable pH and glucose sensors were examined for biological samples. PMID:26703994

  19. Disposable all-solid-state pH and glucose sensors based on conductive polymer covered hierarchical AuZn oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Cho, Seong Je; Cho, Chul-Ho; Kim, Kwang Bok; Kim, Min-Yeong; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2016-05-15

    Poly(terthiophene benzoic acid) (pTBA) layered-AuZn alloy oxide (AuZnOx) deposited on the screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE) was prepared to create a disposable all-solid-state pH sensor at first. Further, FAD-glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized onto the pTBA/AuZnOx/SPCE to fabricate a glucose sensor. The characterizations of the sensor probe reveal that AuZnOx forms a homogeneous hierarchical structure, and that the polymerized pTBA layer on the alloy oxide surface captures GOx covalently. The benzoic acid group of pTBA coated on the probe layer synergetically improved the pH response of the alloy oxide and provide chemical binding sites to enzyme, which resulted in a Nernstian behavior (59.2 ± 0.5 mV/pH) in the pH range of 2-13. The experimental parameters affecting the glucose analysis were studied in terms of pH, temperature, humidity, and interferences. The sensor exhibited a fast response time <1s and a dynamic range between 30 and 500 mg/dL glucose with a detection limit of 17.23 ± 0.32 mg/dL. The reliabilities of the disposable pH and glucose sensors were examined for biological samples.

  20. Interfacial solid-state reaction at thermally oxidized In1 - xGaxAsyP1 - y alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Minoru; Sasai, Yoichi; Ogura, Mototsugu; Kohiki, Shigemi

    1988-07-01

    The interfacial reaction between thermally oxidized In1-xGaxAsyP1-y and an In1-xGaxAsyP1-y epilayer was studied using Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. In Raman spectra, it was found that the appearance of the phonon modes, i.e., the first-order longitudinal (LO) and transverse-optical (TO) modes for crystalline arsenic, was due to the In1-xGaxAsyP1-y -oxide interfacial reaction. The XPS analyses showed that this reaction corresponded to the GaAs-oxide interfacial reaction, i.e., As2O3+2GaAs→Ga2O3+4As. Furthermore, the reaction depends on the composition y of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y, which may be due to the enhancement in the initial transient reaction by thermal damage of In1-xGaxAsyP1-y occurring at the interface.

  1. Surface Charge at the Oxide/Electrolyte Interface: Toward Optimization of Electrolyte Composition for Treatment of Aluminum and Magnesium by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Nominé, Alexandre; Martin, Julien; Noël, Cédric; Henrion, Gérard; Belmonte, Thierry; Bardin, Ilya V; Lukeš, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Controlling microdischarges in plasma electrolytic oxidation is of great importance in order to optimize coating quality. The present study highlights the relationship between the polarity at which breakdown occurs and the electrolyte pH as compared with the isoelectric point (IEP). It is found that working at a pH higher than the IEP of the grown oxide prevents the buildup of detrimental cathodic discharges. The addition of phosphates results in a shift in the IEP to a lower value and therefore promotes anodic discharges at the expense of cathodic ones. PMID:26752107

  2. Solid State Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Titan-CW Ti:sapphire (titanium-doped sapphire) tunable laser is an innovation in solid-state laser technology jointly developed by the Research and Solid State Laser Divisions of Schwartz Electro-optics, Inc. (SEO). SEO is producing the laser for the commercial market, an outgrowth of a program sponsored by Langley Research Center to develop Ti:sapphire technology for space use. SEO's Titan-CW series of Ti:sapphire tunable lasers have applicability in analytical equipment designed for qualitative analysis of carbohydrates and proteins, structural analysis of water, starch/sugar analyses, and measurements of salt in meat. Further applications are expected in semiconductor manufacture, in medicine for diagnosis and therapy, and in biochemistry.

  3. Tunable solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerling, R.; Budgor, A.B.; Pinto, A.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on solid state lasers. Topics considered at the conference included transition-metal-doped lasers, line-narrowed alexandrite lasers, NASA specification, meteorological lidars, laser materials spectroscopy, laser pumped single pass gain, vibronic laser materials growth, crystal growth methods, vibronic laser theory, cross-fertilization through interdisciplinary fields, and laser action of color centers in diamonds.

  4. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combusion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai

    2003-09-24

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. The nitric oxide sensor has been used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based sensor measurements showed good agreement with the results from physical probe sampling of the combustion exhaust. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. Future planned modifications will lead to even faster response times at sensitivity levels at or below 1 ppm.

  5. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  6. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  7. Characterizing Surface Acidic Sites in Mesoporous-Silica-Supported Tungsten Oxide Catalysts Using Solid State NMR and Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Yong; Hu, Mary Y.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-18

    The acidic sites in dispersed tungsten oxide supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica were investigated using a combination of pyridine titration, both fast-, and slow-MAS {sup 15}N NMR, static {sup 2}H NMR, and quantum chemistry calculations. It is found that the bridged acidic -OH groups in surface adsorbed tungsten dimers (i.e., W-OH-W) are the Broensted acid sites. The unusually strong acidity of these Broensted acid sites is confirmed by quantum chemistry calculations. In contrast, terminal W-OH sites are very stable and only weakly acidic as are terminal Si-OH sites. Furthermore, molecular interactions between pyridine molecules and the dimer Broensted and terminal W-OH sites for dispersed tungsten oxide species is strong. This results in restricted molecular motion for the interacting pyridine molecules even at room temperature, i.e., a reorientation mainly about the molecular 2-fold axis. This restricted reorientation makes it possible to estimate the relative ratio of the Broensted (tungsten dimer) to the weakly acidic terminal W-OH sites in the catalyst using the slow-MAS {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N CP PASS method.

  8. Stable high conductivity ceria/bismuth oxide bilayered electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsman, E.D.; Jayaweera, P.; Jiang, N.; Lowe, D.M.; Pound, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a high conductivity bilayered ceria/bismuth oxide anolyte/electrolyte that uses the Po{sub 2} gradient to obtain stability at the anolyte-electrolyte interface and reduced electronic conduction due to the electrolyte region. Results in terms of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) performance and stability are presented. These results include a 90 to 160 mV increase in open-circuit potential, depending on temperature, with the bilayered structure as compared to SOFCs fabricated from a single ceria layer. An open-circuit potential of >1.0 V was obtained at 500 C with the bilayered structure. This increase in open-circuit potential is obtained without any measurable increase in cell resistance and is stable for over 1,400 h of testing, under both open-circuit and maximum power conditions. Moreover, SOFCs fabricated from the bilayered structure result in a 33% greater power density as compared to cells with a single ceria electrolyte layer.

  9. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from a Coumarin NKX-2700 Dye-Sensitized TiO2/MgO Core-Shell Photoanode with an HfO2 Blocking Layer and a Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.

    2015-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated from a coumarin NKX-2700 dye-sensitized core-shell photoanode and a quasi-solid-state electrolyte, sandwiched together, with a cobalt sulfide-coated counter electrode. The core-shell photoanode consisted of a composite mixture of 90% TiO2 nanoparticles and 10% TiO2 nanowires (TNPW) as core layer and MgO nanoparticles (MNP) as shell layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied to the core-shell photoanode film as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanowires, and TNPW/MNP were characterized by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was apparent from the UV-visible spectrum of the sensitizing dye coumarin NKX-2700 that its absorption was maximum at 525 nm. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) was greater for DSSC-1, fabricated with a core-shell TNPW/MNP/HfO2 photoanode, than for the other DSSC; its photovoltaic properties were: short circuit photocurrent J sc = 19 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V oc) = 720 mV, fill factor ( FF) = 66%, and PCE ( η) = 9.02%. The charge-transport and charge-recombination behavior of the DSSC were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the results showed that the composite core-shell film resulted in the lowest charge-transfer resistance ( R CE) and the longest electron lifetime ( τ eff). Hence, the improved performance of DSSC-1 could be ascribed to the core-shell photoanode with blocking layer, which increased electron transport and suppressed recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum silicate apatite by gel-casting route as electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, San Ping; Zhang, Lan; He, Hong Quan; Yap, Rong Keng; Xiang, Yan

    Lanthanum silicate oxyapatite, La 10Si 6O 27 is successfully synthesized by a water-based gel-casting technique. The effect of calcination and sintering temperatures on the conductivity is investigated in detail in the temperature range between 300 and 800 °C by the impedance spectroscopy. The highest oxygen ion conductivity is 1.50 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 500 °C and 3.46 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 800 °C for an apatite electrolyte sintered at 1650 °C, which is one order of magnitude higher than that synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction route under the same sintering conditions. The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of the as-synthesized apatite is 9.7 × 10 -6 K -1. A solid oxide fuel cell using La 10Si 6O 27 as an electrolyte shows an open circuit potential of 1.06 V and power output of 7.89 mW cm -2 at 800 °C. The results demonstrate the potential of the silicate oxyapatite materials synthesized by the gel-casting as an alternative electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells.

  11. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  12. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  13. Solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  14. Solid-state cathode materials for lithium batteries: Effect of synthesis temperature on the physical and electrochemical properties of silver vanadium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Leising, R.A.; Takeuchi, E.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Silver vanadium oxide (SVO, AgV[sub 2]O[sub 5.5]) was synthesized for use as a cathode material in lithium/SVO batteries. The material was prepared via a solid-state thermal reaction of silver nitrate and vanadium pentoxide in the presence of air. The surface morphology of the final product was found to be dependent on the temperature of synthesis of the material, as evidenced by SEM analysis of the samples. SVO synthesized at 320 and 375[degrees]C displayed irregularly shaped particles, while material prepared at 450[degrees]C was needlelike. SVO synthesized at 540[degrees]C appeared to be a mixture of large crystalline plates and irregular particles. All of the samples were analyzed by DSC, chemical analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, resistivity measurements, and constant-resistance discharge of Li/SVO test cells. The experimental capacities of the lower temperature materials (320,375[degrees]C) were similar to that found for SVO prepared at 450[degrees]C. A significant decrease in delivered capacity was noted when the SVO prepared at 540[degrees]C was used as a cathode material. 30 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life. PMID:27494271

  16. High Energy Density All Solid State Asymmetric Pseudocapacitors Based on Free Standing Reduced Graphene Oxide-Co3O4 Composite Aerogel Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debasis; Lim, Joonwon; Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2016-08-31

    Modern flexible consumer electronics require efficient energy storage devices with flexible free-standing electrodes. We report a simple and cost-effective route to a graphene-based composite aerogel encapsulating metal oxide nanoparticles for high energy density, free-standing, binder-free flexible pseudocapacitive electrodes. Hydrothermally synthesized Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully housed inside the microporous graphene aerogel network during the room temperature interfacial gelation at the Zn surface. The resultant three-dimensional (3D) rGO-Co3O4 composite aerogel shows mesoporous quasiparallel layer stack morphology with a high loading of Co3O4, which offers numerous channels for ion transport and a 3D interconnected network for high electrical conductivity. All solid state asymmetric pseudocapacitors employing the composite aerogel electrodes have demonstrated high areal energy density of 35.92 μWh/cm(2) and power density of 17.79 mW/cm(2) accompanied by excellent cycle life.

  17. New opportunities for high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy of oxide materials at 21.1- and 18.8-T fields.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, J; Du, Lin-Shu; Kroeker, S; Neuhoff, P; Rice, D; Frye, J; Jakobsen, H J

    2002-01-01

    We present here high-resolution solid state NMR spectra of several oxide and silicate materials that illustrate the improvements obtainable with very high external fields (18.8 and 21.1 T), with probes capable of tuning to a wide frequency range that allow observations of nuclides from high to low magnetogyric ratio. We discuss 27Al MAS spectra for the zeolite scolecite (CaAl2Si3O10 x 3H2O), 17O MAS data for analcime (NaAlSi2O6 x H2O), calcium monoaluminate (CaAI2O4), and titanite (CaTiSiO5), 39K spin-echo spectra for leucite (KAlSi2O6), microline (KAlSiO8), muscovite (KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH2) and a potassium aluminosolicate glass, and preliminary 73Ge spin-echo MAS spectra for crystalline and glassy germanium dioxide (GeO2).

  18. Chemical phenomena in solid-state voltammetry in polymer solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, L.; Reed, R.A.; Kim, M.H.; Wooster, T.T.; Oliver, B.N.; Egekeze, J.; Kennedy, R.T.; Jorgenson, J.W.; Parcher, J.F.; Murray, R.W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper, aimed at delineating significant chemical effects in solid-state voltammetry, describes electrochemical oxidations and reductions of electroactive monomer solutes dissolved in and diffusing through rigid and semirigid polymer electrolyte solvents. Sorption of organic monomer vapors into poly(ethylene oxide) films yields polymer solvents whose chemistry is dominated by that of the sorbed monomer as shown by coordination and precipitation effects. The dynamics of plasticization-induced changes in transport rates are quite rapid. Physical diffusion in the polymer solvent in slow enough that electron hopping reactions measurably enhance charge transport rates; the effect was used to estimate a lower limit for the (Co(bpy)/sub 3/)/sup 2+/+/ self-exchange rate constant of 2 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/ s/sup /minus/1/. It is possible to erect polymeric film transport barriers at the electrode/polymer solvent interface and to measure the rate of permeation of monomer complexes from the polymer solvent into the polymer transport barrier film. Polymeric films of Os and Ru polypyridine complexes can be electropolymerized from polymer solutions of the corresponding monomers. Solid-state voltammetry can be extended to other polymer solvents including sulfonated polystyrene, poly(vinyl chloride), Nafion, and poly(acrylamide) gel.

  19. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOEpatents

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  20. Solid State Ionics 4. Proceedings of Materials Research Society Symposium, volume 369

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazri, Gholam-Abbas; Tarascon, Jean-Marie; Schreiber, Martha

    The proceeding of the 4th Solid State Ionics symposium is presented. This first part of the proceeding deals with the chemistry and physics of insertion materials, mostly from the viewpoint of applications as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, Ni/Cd, and Ni/metal hydride systems. Crystal chemistry and electrochemistry properties of potential oxides cathodes are discussed. The second part of the proceeding deals with sol-gel process for preparation of cathode materials for lithium batteries and other applications. Novel synthetic methods of preparation of high surface area transition metal oxides are presented. The third part deals with theory of ion conduction in solids, as well as mechanisms of ion conduction in glassy and polymeric materials. Part four deals with defect chemistry in solid electrolytes and the role of defect on ionic conductivity of ceramic electrolytes. The fifth part of the proceedings deals with polymer electrolytes and electrodes. Synthesis, characterization and performance of various polymer electrolytes and electrodes are discussed. The last part of the proceedings deals with characteristics and materials aspect of ionic devices. this includes advance solid state batteries, sensors, electrochromic devices, fuel cells, and the dynamic of ion exchange in high T(c) superconductors.

  1. Water oxidation by amorphous cobalt-based oxides: volume activity and proton transfer to electrolyte bases.

    PubMed

    Klingan, Katharina; Ringleb, Franziska; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Heidkamp, Jonathan; Chernev, Petko; Gonzalez-Flores, Diego; Risch, Marcel; Fischer, Anna; Dau, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Water oxidation in the neutral pH regime catalyzed by amorphous transition-metal oxides is of high interest in energy science. Crucial determinants of electrocatalytic activity were investigated for a cobalt-based oxide film electrodeposited at various thicknesses on inert electrodes. For water oxidation at low current densities, the turnover frequency (TOF) per cobalt ion of the bulk material stayed fully constant for variation of the thickness of the oxide film by a factor of 100 (from about 15 nm to 1.5 μm). Thickness variation changed neither the nanostructure of the outer film surface nor the atomic structure of the oxide catalyst significantly. These findings imply catalytic activity of the bulk hydrated oxide material. Nonclassical dependence on pH was observed. For buffered electrolytes with pKa values of the buffer base ranging from 4.7 (acetate) to 10.3 (hydrogen carbonate), the catalytic activity reflected the protonation state of the buffer base in the electrolyte solution directly and not the intrinsic catalytic properties of the oxide itself. It is proposed that catalysis of water oxidation occurs within the bulk hydrated oxide film at the margins of cobalt oxide fragments of molecular dimensions. At high current densities, the availability of a proton-accepting base at the catalyst-electrolyte interface controls the rate of water oxidation. The reported findings may be of general relevance for water oxidation catalyzed at moderate pH by amorphous transition-metal oxides.

  2. Flexible solid-state paper based carbon nanotube supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan; Rajamani, Rajesh; Yu, Xun

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a flexible solid-state supercapacitor of high energy density. The electrodes of the supercapacitor are made of porous and absorbent cotton paper coated with single-wall carbon nanotubes. To ensure all solid-state configuration, a solid-state polymer-based electrolyte (poly (vinyl alcohol)/phosphoric acid) is used. The as-fabricated supercapacitor can be charged to over 3 V. It has high specific capacitance and high energy density of 115.8301 F/g carbon and 48.8587 Wh/kg carbon. Its performance is comparable to that of commercial supercapacitors, which need to utilize liquid electrolytes. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors offer several significant advantages for use in hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Photocured Gelled Electrolytes For Secondary Li Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1994-01-01

    Class of photocured polymers exhibiting lithium-ion conductivities greater than those of well-studied polymers based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) show promise as polymeric electrolytes in rechargeable lithium cells. Increase in conductivity occasioned by use of electrolytes, coupled with amenability of electrolytes to formation into uniform thin (less than 25 micrometers thick), wide films, expected to result in cells with power densities greater than 100 W h/kg and charge/discharge rates exceeding currents equal, in amperes, to ampere-hour ratings. All-solid-state lithium batteries containing these electrolytes used as high-power, high-rate rechargeable power sources in commercial and aerospace applications.

  4. Solid state television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a solid state television camera using a new charge-coupled imaging device are reported. An RCA charge-coupled device arranged in a 512 by 320 format and directly compatible with EIA format standards was the sensor selected. This is a three-phase, sealed surface-channel array that has 163,840 sensor elements, which employs a vertical frame transfer system for image readout. Included are test results of the complete camera system, circuit description and changes to such circuits as a result of integration and test, maintenance and operation section, recommendations to improve the camera system, and a complete set of electrical and mechanical drawing sketches.

  5. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  6. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  7. Failure analysis of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Felix; Tiefenauer, Andreas; Graule, Thomas; Danzer, Robert; Mai, Andreas; Kuebler, Jakob

    2014-07-01

    For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) one key aspect is the structural integrity of the cell and hence its thermo mechanical long term behaviour. The present study investigates the failure mechanisms and the actual causes for fracture of electrolyte supported SOFCs which were run using the current μ-CHP system of Hexis AG, Winterthur - Switzerland under lab conditions or at customer sites for up to 40,000 h. In a first step several operated stacks were demounted for post-mortem inspection, followed by a fractographic evaluation of the failed cells. The respective findings are then set into a larger picture including an analysis of the present stresses acting on the cell like thermal and residual stresses and the measurements regarding the temperature dependent electrolyte strength. For all investigated stacks, the mechanical failure of individual cells can be attributed to locally acting bending loads, which rise due to an inhomogeneous and uneven contact between the metallic interconnect and the cell.

  8. Tuning thin-film electrolyte for lithium battery by grafting cyclic carbonate and combed poly(ethylene oxide) on polysiloxane.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Yue; Yao, Hehua; Yuan, Changfu; Liu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    A tunable polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries was developed. The polysiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation of polymethylhydrosiloxane with cyclic [(allyloxy)methyl]ethylene ester carbonic acid and vinyl tris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane. (1) H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the bifunctional groups of the cyclic propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were well grafted on the polysiloxane. At PC/PEO=6:4, the polysiloxane-based electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) and 1.50 × 10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. The LiFePO4 /Li batteries fabricated with the thin-film electrolyte presented excellent cycling performance in the temperature range from 25 to 100 °C with an initial discharge capacity at a rate of 1 C of 88.2 and 140 mA h g(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively.

  9. A Solid-State Thin-Film Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Coated with Graphene Oxide and Its Use in a pH Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Sung A; Yang, Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we describe a novel solid-state thin-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (SSRE) that was coated with a protective layer of graphene oxide (GO). This layer was prepared by drop casting a solution of GO on the Ag/AgCl thin film. The potential differences exhibited by the SSRE were less than 2 mV for 26 days. The cyclic voltammograms of the SSRE were almost similar to those of a commercial reference electrode, while the diffusion coefficient of Fe(CN)63− as calculated from the cathodic peaks of the SSRE was 6.48 × 10−6 cm2/s. The SSRE was used in conjunction with a laboratory-made working electrode to determine its suitability for practical use. The average pH sensitivity of this combined sensor was 58.5 mV/pH in the acid-to-base direction; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99. In addition, an integrated pH sensor that included the SSRE was packaged in a secure digital (SD) card and tested. The average sensitivity of the chip was 56.8 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. In addition, a pH sensing test was also performed by using a laboratory-made potentiometer, which showed a sensitivity of 55.4 mV/pH, with the correlation coefficient being greater than 0.99. PMID:25789490

  10. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  11. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomen–pelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same

  12. Reduced graphene oxide/polypyrrole nanotube papers for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors with excellent rate capability and high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocapacitive materials are known to suffer from severe capacitance loss during charging/discharging cycling. Here we report flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanotube (PPy NT) papers prepared by a facile vacuum filtration method. It is revealed that the incorporation of rGO nanosheets can improve the electrochemical stability of PPy NT paper electrodes for pseudocapacitors. The hybrid paper electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance of 807 mF/cm2 at 1 mA/cm2 and a large volumetric specific capacitance of 94.3 F/cm3 at 0.1 A/cm3. The assembled ASSSC possesses a maximum areal specific capacitance of 512 mF/cm2 at 1 mA/cm2 and a maximum volumetric specific capacitance of 59.9 F/cm3 at 0.1 A/cm3. Moreover, it also exhibits excellent rate capability (86.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 10 mA/cm2) and cycling stability, little capacitance deviation under different bending states, a small leakage current and a low self-discharge characteristic. The device can provide an areal energy density of 61.4 μWh/cm2 at 10 mW/cm2 and a volumetric energy density of 7.18 mWh/cm3 at 1.17 W/cm3, indicating this high-performance ASSSC is a promising candidate for flexible high-power supply devices.

  13. Solid state electrochemical composite

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  14. Position sensitive solid state detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnatterly, S. E.; Husk, D.

    1986-05-01

    Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described.

  15. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Solid state power controllers (SSPC's) are to be considered for use as replacements of electromechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 v(dc). They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near the utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small gauge wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, onboard testing, power management, and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability. Conventional systems require the heavy gage load wiring and the control wiring to be routed from the bus to the load to other remote relay contacts, switches, sensors, etc. and to the circuit breaker located in the flight engineer's compartment for purposes of manual reset.

  16. A Solid State Pyranometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  17. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2007-05-08

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  18. Electrodes for solid state gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric L.; Garzon, Fernando

    2003-08-12

    A mixed potential electrochemical sensor for the detection of gases has a ceria-based electrolyte with a surface for exposing to the gases to be detected, and with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode extending through the surface and fixed within the electrolyte as the electrolyte is compressed and sintered. The electrochemical sensor is formed by placing a wire reference electrode and a wire sensing electrode in a die, where each electrode has a first compressed planar section and a second section depending from the first section with the second section of each electrode extending axially within the die. The die is filled with an oxide-electrolyte powder and the powder is pressed within the die with the wire electrodes. The wire-electrodes and the pressed oxide-electrolyte powder are sintered to form a ceramic electrolyte base with a reference wire electrode and a sensing wire electrode depending therefrom.

  19. Influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides and an Fe-Mn-Si solid alloy during heat treatment at 1473 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-song; Yang, Shu-feng; Kim, Kyung-ho; Li, Jing-she; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2015-08-01

    To clarify the influence of FeO and sulfur on solid state reaction between an Fe-Mn-Si alloy and MnO-SiO2-FeO oxides under the restricted oxygen diffusion flux, two diffusion couples with different sulfur contents in the oxides were produced and investigated after heat treatment at 1473 K. The experimental results were also compared with previous work in which the oxides contained higher FeO. It was found that although the FeO content in the oxides decreased from 3wt% to 1wt% which was lower than the content corresponding to the equilibrium with molten steel at 1873 K, excess oxygen still diffused from the oxides to solid steel during heat treatment at 1473 K and formed oxide particles. In addition, increasing the sulfur content in the oxides was observed to suppress the diffusion of oxygen between the alloy and the oxides.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF ALL-SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR MEASUREMENT OF NITRIC OXIDE AND AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS BY OPTICAL ABSORPTION IN PARTICLE-LADEN COMBUSTION EXHAUST STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2004-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2 described in this progress report, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be

  1. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  2. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2005-09-30

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  3. Preparation of silicate tungsten bronzes on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in 12-tungstosilicic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, M.; Stojadinović, S.; Vasilić, R.; Belča, I.; Nedić, Z.; Kasalica, B.; Mioč, U. B.

    2011-09-01

    The growth of silicate tungsten bronzes on aluminum by plasma electrolytic oxidation in 12-tungstosilicic acid is experimentally investigated and discussed. Real time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy characterization of plasma electrolytic oxidation show that spatial density of microdischarges is the highest in the early stage of the process, while the percentage of oxide coating area covered by active discharge sites decreases slowly with time. Emission spectrum of microdischarges has several intensive band peaks originating either from aluminum electrode or from the electrolyte. Surface roughness of obtained oxide coatings increases with prolonged time of plasma electrolytic oxidation, as their microhardness decreases. Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are employed to confirm that the outer layer of oxide coatings formed during the plasma electrolytic oxidation process is silicate tungsten bronze

  4. In Situ STEM-EELS observation of nanoscale interfacial phenomena in all-solid-state batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Ziying; Xin, Huolin L.; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-05-03

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode–solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Usingmore » a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. Here, these findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.« less

  5. In Situ STEM-EELS Observation of Nanoscale Interfacial Phenomena in All-Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziying; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Xin, Huolin L; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-06-01

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode-solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Using a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. These findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.

  6. Fabrication of a solid state power source for ambient conditions using solid electrolyte system (SbI3)0.3-(Ag2CrO4)0.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthanthiraraj, S. Austin; Sarojini, S.

    2012-06-01

    Fast ion conducting system (SbI3)0.3 - (Ag2CrO4)0.7 containing 0.3 mole fraction SbI3 was synthesized by rapid melt-quenching method. The open circuit voltage, (OCV) measured for the solid state primary electrochemical cell fabricated using the above best conducting composition (SbI3)0.3 - (Ag2Cr04)0.7 is found to be 641 mV. Detailed discharge characteristics evaluated under different load conditions for the solid state cell have indicated certain interesting features.

  7. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Polymer Backbone Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium and Sodium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer backbone dynamics of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer samples with low glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Experiments detecting 13C with 1H decoupling under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions identified the different components of the polymer backbone (PEO spacer and isophthalate groups) and their relative mobilities for a suite of lithium- and sodium-containing ionomer samples with varying cation contents. Variable temperature (203-373 K) 1H-13C cross-polarization MAS (CP-MAS) experiments also provided qualitative assessment of the differences in the motions of the polymer backbone components as a function of cation content and identity. Each of the main backbone components exhibit distinct motions, following the trends expected for motional characteristics based on earlier Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering and 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements. Previous 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation measurements focused on both the polymer backbone and cation motion on the nanosecond timescale. The studies presented here assess the slower timescale motion of the polymer backbone allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of the polymer dynamics. The temperature dependences of 13C linewidths were used to both qualitatively and quantitatively examine the effects of cation content and identity on PEO spacer mobility. Variable contact time 1H-13C CP-MAS experiments were used to further assess the motions of the polymer backbone on the microsecond timescale. The motion of the PEO spacer, reported via the rate of magnetization transfer from 1H to 13C nuclei, becomes similar for T ≳ 1.1 Tg in all ionic samples, indicating that at similar elevated reduced temperatures the motions of the polymer backbones on the microsecond timescale become insensitive to ion interactions. These results present an improved picture, beyond those of previous findings, for

  8. Solid State Ionic Materials - Proceedings of the 4th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Yahaya, M.; Talib, I. A.; Salleh, M. M.

    1994-07-01

    SO4 (X=Si, Ge, Ti) Systems * A DSC and Conductivity Study of the Influence of Cesium Ion on the Beta-Alpha Transition in Silver Iodide * Phase Diagrams, Stoichiometries and Properties of Bi4V2O11:M2+ Solid Electrolytes * Physical Properties of Electrodeposited Silver Chromotungstate * Pseudopotential Study of Bonding in the Superionic Material AgI: The Effect of Statistical Distribution of Mobile Ions * Cubic Phase Dominant Region in Submicron BaTiO3 Particles * The Crystallization of CoZr Amorphous Alloys via Electrical Resistivity * Cation Ratio Related Properties of Synthetic Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide and it's Nanocomposite * DC Conductivity of Nano-Particles of Silver Iodide * Effect of Anomalous Diffusion on Quasielastic Scattering in Superionic Conductors * Computer Simulation Study of Conductivity Enhancement in Superionic-Insulator Composites * Dynamics of Superionic Silver and Copper Iodide Salt Melts * Influence of Dopant Salt AgI, Glass Modifier Ag2O and Glass Formers (SeO3 + MoO3) on Electrical Conductivity in Quaternary Glassy System * Fast Ion Conductivity in the Presence of Competitive Network Formers * Role of Alkali Ions in Borate Glasses * Inelastic Light Scattering in Cadmium Borate Glasses * Investigation on Transport Properties of Mixed Glass System 0.75 [0.75AgI:0.25AgCl]. 0.25[Ag2O:CrO3] * Conduction Mechanism in Lithium Tellurite Glasses * Optimized Silver Tungstoarsenate Glass Electrolyte * Stabilized Superfine Zirconia Powder Prepared by Sol-Gel Process * Study of New PAN-based Electrolytes * Electrical and Thermal Characterization of PVA based Polymer Electrolytes * Conductive Electroactive Polymers: Versatile Solid State Ionic Materials * The Role of Ag2O Addition on the Superconducting Properties of Y-124 Compound * Absorption Spectra Studies of the C60 Films on Transition Metal Film Substrates * Effect of Alumina Dispersal on the Conductivity and Crystallite Size of Polymer Electrolyte * New Mixed Galss-Polymer Solid Electrolytes

  9. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  10. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  11. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  12. New strategy and easy fabrication of solid-state supercapacitor based on polypyrrole and nitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyool; Lee, Youngkwan; Cho, Mi-Suk; Nam, Jae-Do

    2008-09-01

    Solid state redox supercapacitors were fabricated using a solid polymer electrolyte, nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)-KCI and chemically deposited polypyrrole (PPy) as the conducting polymer electrodes on both surfaces of a NBR film. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the PPy/NBR electrode were confirmed as functions of the uptake of pyrrole monomer into the NBR matrix as well as the immersion time in an oxidant solution. The morphology of the PPy-NBR-KCI capacitor was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The performance of the capacitors was characterized using a galvanostatic charge-discharge technique.

  13. Electrolytes

    MedlinePlus

    ... body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes affect how your body functions in many ways, including: The amount of water in your body The acidity of your blood (pH) Your muscle function Other important processes You lose ...

  14. Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Mason, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

  15. Formulations for Stronger Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Goldsby, John C.; Choi, Sung R.

    2004-01-01

    Tests have shown that modification of chemical compositions can increase the strengths and fracture toughnesses of solid oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) electrolytes. Heretofore, these solid electrolytes have been made of yttria-stabilized zirconia, which is highly conductive for oxygen ions at high temperatures, as needed for operation of fuel cells. Unfortunately yttria-stabilized zirconia has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, low resistance to thermal shock, low fracture toughness, and low mechanical strength. The lack of strength and toughness are especially problematic for fabrication of thin SOFC electrolyte membranes needed for contemplated aeronautical, automotive, and stationary power-generation applications. The modifications of chemical composition that lead to increased strength and fracture toughness consist in addition of alumina to the basic yttria-stabilized zirconia formulations. Techniques for processing of yttria-stabilized zirconia/alumina composites containing as much as 30 mole percent of alumina have been developed. The composite panels fabricated by these techniques have been found to be dense and free of cracks. The only material phases detected in these composites has been cubic zirconia and a alumina: this finding signifies that no undesired chemical reactions between the constituents occurred during processing at elevated temperatures. The flexural strengths and fracture toughnesses of the various zirconia-alumina composites were measured in air at room temperature as well as at a temperature of 1,000 C (a typical SOFC operating temperature). The measurements showed that both flexural strength and fracture toughness increased with increasing alumina content at both temperatures. In addition, the modulus of elasticity and the thermal conductivity were found to increase and the density to decrease with increasing alumina content. The oxygen-ion conductivity at 1,000 C was found to be unchanged by the addition of alumina.

  16. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, G. C.

    1987-09-01

    During this reporting period a number of novel solid polymer electrolytes formed by salts of multivalent cations and polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been prepared and characterized. These materials are of interest not only because of their potential ionic conductivities, but also because some of them may have electronic conductivity and oxidizing power which would be useful for novel electrode materials in all-solid-state batteries. Two broad classes of materials were investigated: PEO solutions of Zn(2), Cd(2), and Pb(2), all of which are potential electrolytes for solid-state batteries, and PEO solutions of transition metal salts, which are of interest as possible cathode materials. Mixed compositions containing both divalent cations and lithium ions were also prepared. Electrolytes formed with small, highly-polarizing ions, such as Mg(2) and Ca(2), are essentially pure anion conductors. Electrolytes containing Zn(2) behave similarly, unless they are hydrated, in which case the Zn(2) ions are quite mobile. Electrolytes formed with larger, more polarizable cations, such as Pb(2) and Cd(2), conduct both anions and cations. Solutions of salts of transition metal cations form a third group of electrolytes. Of the electrolytes investigated so far, those formed with Ni(++) salts are the most unusual. It appears as if the transport number of Ni(2) and the electrolyte conductivity can be greatly enhanced by controlling the hydration and dehydration of the polymer.

  17. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  18. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  19. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries. PMID:26783056

  20. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries.

  1. Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1984-01-01

    An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

  2. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  3. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    SiO[symbol]) ceramics via solid state sintering of Zr)[symbol] and SiO[symbol] and the effect of dopants on the zircon yield / U. Dhanayake, B. S. B. Karunaratne. Preparation and properties of vanadium doped ZnTe cermet thin films / M. S. Hossain, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Dynamical properties and electronic structure of lithium-ion conductor / M. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Cuprous ion conducting Montmorillonite-Polypyrrole nanocomposites / D. M. M. Krishantha ... [et al.]. Frequency dependence of conductivity studies on a newly synthesized superionic solid solution/mixed system: [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar. Diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering from Powder PbS / X. Lian ... [et al.]. Electron affinity and work function of Pyrolytic MnO[symbol] thin films prepared from Mn(C[symbol]H[symbol]O[symbol])[symbol].4H[symbol]) / A. K. M. Farid Ul Islam, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Crystal structure and heat capacity of Ba[symbol]Ca[symbol]Nb[symbol]O[symbol] / T. Shimoyama ... [et al.]. XPS and impedance investigations on amorphous vanadium oxide thin films / M. Kamalanathan ... [et al.]. Sintering and mixed electronic-ionic conducting properties of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]NiO[symbol] derived from a polyaminocarboxylate complex precursor / D.-P. Huang ... [et al.]. Preparation and characteristics of ball milled MgH[symbol] + M (M= Fe, VF[symbol] and FeF[symbol]) nanocomposites for hydrogen storage / N. W. B. Balasooriya, Ch. Poinsignon. Structural studies of oxysulfide glasses by X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation / R. Prasada Rao, M. Seshasayee, J. Dheepa. Synthesis, sintering and oxygen ionic conducting properties of Bi[symbol]V[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / F. Zhang ... [et al.]. Synthesis and transport characteristics of PbI[symbol]-Ag[symbol]O-Cr[symbol]O[symbol] superioninc system / S. A. Suthanthiraraj, V. Mathew. Electronic conductivity of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ga[symbol]Mg[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] electrolytes / K. Yamaji ... [et al.] -- pt. II. Electrode materials

  6. Amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence detection of cholesterol in near-infrared range based on CdTe quantum dots decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Huan, Juan; Liu, Qian; Fei, Airong; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-15

    An amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detection of cholesterol in near-infrared (NIR) range was constructed based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene nanoribbons (CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs), which were prepared by electrostatic interactions. The CdTe QDs decorated on the MWCNTs@rGONRs resulted in the amplified ECL intensity by ~4.5 fold and decreased onset potential by ~100 mV. By immobilization of the cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and NIR CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs on the electrode surface, a solid-state ECL biosensor for cholesterol detection was constructed. When cholesterol was added to the detection solution, the immobilized ChOx catalyzed the oxidation of cholesterol to generate H2O2, which could be used as the co-reactant in the ECL system of CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited good performance for cholesterol detection including good reproducibility, selectivity, and acceptable linear range from 1 μM to 1mM with a relative low detection limit of 0.33 μM (S/N=3). The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of cholesterol in biological fluid and food sample, which would open a new possibility for development of solid-state ECL biosensors with NIR emitters.

  7. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. PMID:26974032

  8. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered.

  9. The contribution of mediated oxidation mechanisms in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid using diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Bensalah, Nasr; Dbira, Sondos; Bedoui, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of mediated oxidation mechanisms in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes was investigated in different electrolytes. A complete mineralization of cyanuric acid was obtained in NaCl; however lower degrees of mineralization of 70% and 40% were obtained in Na2SO4 and NaClO4, respectively. This can be explained by the nature of the oxidants electrogenerated in each electrolyte. It is clear that the contribution of active chlorine (Cl2, HClO, ClO(-)) electrogenerated from oxidation of chlorides on BDD is much more important in the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid than the persulfate and hydroxyl radicals produced by electro-oxidation of sulfate and water on BDD anodes. This could be explained by the high affinity of active chlorine towards nitrogen compounds. No organic intermediates were detected during the electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid in any the electrolytes, which can be explained by their immediate depletion by hydroxyl radicals produced on the BDD surface. Nitrates and ammonium were the final products of electrolytic degradation of cyanuric acid on BDD anodes in all electrolytes. In addition, small amounts of chloramines were formed in the chloride medium. Low current density (≤10mA/cm(2)) and neutral medium (pH in the range 6-9) should be used for high efficiency electrolytic degradation and negligible formation of hazardous chlorate and perchlorate. PMID:27372125

  10. Photoactive TiO2 coatings obtained by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in refrigerated electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Silvia; Perego, Daniele; Marchese, Ottavia; Lucotti, Andrea; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    The effect of synthesis conditions on the properties of nanoporous TiO2 coatings obtained by PEO in refrigerated electrolytes have been investigated. Linear sweep voltammetry was carried out on the TiO2 coatings, in dark and under UV-C irradiation, in order to assess the photoelectrochemical behavior of samples. The largest photocurrents (0.18 mA/cm2) were measured on TiO2 coatings obtained by PEO in refrigerated aqueous solutions. UV-vis spectra revealed that lowering the processing temperature from 20 to -3.5 °C induced a blue-shift of the absorption band of the TiO2 coatings from 3.05 to 3.42 eV. The main advantage of PEO in refrigerated aqueous solutions over current approaches, based on anodic oxidation and thermal treatments, is that the synthesis of photoactive TiO2 coatings can be carried out in a relatively easy, quick and reproducible way, without annealing pre- and post-treatments. Furthermore, by controlling the solution temperature in PEO process, the photocurrent of the resulting TiO2 coating reaches quite high values.

  11. Characterization of oxide coatings formed on tantalum by plasma electrolytic oxidation in 12-tungstosilicic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, M.; Stojadinović, S.; Vasilić, R.; Zeković, Lj.

    2011-10-01

    Oxide coatings were formed on tantalum by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process in 12-tungstosilicic acid. The PEO process can be divided into three stages with respect to change of the voltage-time response. The contribution of electron current density in total current density during anodization results in the transformation of the slope of voltage-time curve. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of oxide coatings were investigated by AFM, SEM-EDX, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Oxide coating morphology is strongly dependent of PEO time. The elemental components of PEO coatings are Ta, O, Si and W. The oxide coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of WO 3, Ta 2O 5 and SiO 2. Raman spectroscopy showed that the outer layer of oxide coatings formed during the PEO process is silicate tungsten bronze.

  12. PEALD YSZ-based bilayer electrolyte for thin film-solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Hong, Soonwook; Lee, Yeageun; Kim, Young Beom; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2016-10-14

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film electrolyte deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated. PEALD YSZ-based bi-layered thin film electrolyte was employed for thin film solid oxide fuel cells on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates, whose electrochemical performance was compared to the cell with sputtered YSZ-based electrolyte. The cell with PEALD YSZ electrolyte showed higher open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.0 V and peak power density of 182 mW cm(-2) at 450 °C compared to the one with sputtered YSZ electrolyte(0.88 V(OCV), 70 mW cm(-2)(peak power density)). High OCV and high power density of the cell with PEALD YSZ-based electrolyte is due to the reduction in ohmic and activation losses as well as the gas and electrical current tightness.

  13. PEALD YSZ-based bilayer electrolyte for thin film-solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Hong, Soonwook; Lee, Yeageun; Kim, Young Beom; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2016-10-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film electrolyte deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated. PEALD YSZ-based bi-layered thin film electrolyte was employed for thin film solid oxide fuel cells on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates, whose electrochemical performance was compared to the cell with sputtered YSZ-based electrolyte. The cell with PEALD YSZ electrolyte showed higher open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.0 V and peak power density of 182 mW cm-2 at 450 °C compared to the one with sputtered YSZ electrolyte(0.88 V(OCV), 70 mW cm-2(peak power density)). High OCV and high power density of the cell with PEALD YSZ-based electrolyte is due to the reduction in ohmic and activation losses as well as the gas and electrical current tightness.

  14. PEALD YSZ-based bilayer electrolyte for thin film-solid oxide fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wonjong; Cho, Gu Young; Hong, Soonwook; Lee, Yeageun; Kim, Young Beom; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2016-10-14

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin film electrolyte deposited by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) was investigated. PEALD YSZ-based bi-layered thin film electrolyte was employed for thin film solid oxide fuel cells on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide substrates, whose electrochemical performance was compared to the cell with sputtered YSZ-based electrolyte. The cell with PEALD YSZ electrolyte showed higher open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.0 V and peak power density of 182 mW cm(-2) at 450 °C compared to the one with sputtered YSZ electrolyte(0.88 V(OCV), 70 mW cm(-2)(peak power density)). High OCV and high power density of the cell with PEALD YSZ-based electrolyte is due to the reduction in ohmic and activation losses as well as the gas and electrical current tightness. PMID:27595193

  15. Transparent conducting oxide induced by liquid electrolyte gating

    PubMed Central

    ViolBarbosa, Carlos; Karel, Julie; Kiss, Janos; Gordan, Ovidiu-dorin; Altendorf, Simone G.; Utsumi, Yuki; Samant, Mahesh G.; Wu, Yu-Han; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Optically transparent conducting materials are essential in modern technology. These materials are used as electrodes in displays, photovoltaic cells, and touchscreens; they are also used in energy-conserving windows to reflect the infrared spectrum. The most ubiquitous transparent conducting material is tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), a wide-gap oxide whose conductivity is ascribed to n-type chemical doping. Recently, it has been shown that ionic liquid gating can induce a reversible, nonvolatile metallic phase in initially insulating films of WO3. Here, we use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry to show that the metallic phase produced by the electrolyte gating does not result from a significant change in the bandgap but rather originates from new in-gap states. These states produce strong absorption below ∼1 eV, outside the visible spectrum, consistent with the formation of a narrow electronic conduction band. Thus WO3 is metallic but remains colorless, unlike other methods to realize tunable electrical conductivity in this material. Core-level photoemission spectra show that the gating reversibly modifies the atomic coordination of W and O atoms without a substantial change of the stoichiometry; we propose a simple model relating these structural changes to the modifications in the electronic structure. Thus we show that ionic liquid gating can tune the conductivity over orders of magnitude while maintaining transparency in the visible range, suggesting the use of ionic liquid gating for many applications. PMID:27647884

  16. A solid state streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Shah, Ashish

    2005-03-01

    A monolithic solid-state streak camera has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm, 3.3V, thin-oxide digital CMOS process. It consists of a 1-D linear array of 150 integrated photodiodes, followed by fast analog buffers and on-chip, 150-deep analog frame storage. Each pixel's front-end consists of an n-diffusion / p-well photodiode, with fast complementary reset transistors, and a source-follower buffer. Each buffer drives a line of 150 sample circuits per pixel, with each sample circuit consisting of an n-channel sample switch, a 0.1 pF double-polysilicon sample capacitor, a reset switch to definitively clear the capacitor, and a multiplexed source-follower readout buffer. Fast on-chip sample clock generation was designed using a self-timed break-before-make operation that insures the maximum time for sample settling. The electrical analog bandwidth of each channels buffer and sampling circuits was designed to exceed 1 GHz. Sampling speeds of 400 M-frames/s have been achieved using electrical input signals. Operation with optical input signals has been demonstrated at 100 MHz sample rates. Sample output multiplexing allows the readout of all 22,500 samples (150 pixels times 150 samples per pixel) in about 3 ms. The chip"s output range was a maximum of 1.48 V on a 3.3V supply voltage, corresponding to a maximum 2.55 V swing at the photodiode. Time-varying output noise was measured to be 0.51 mV, rms, at 100 MHz, for a dynamic range of ~11.5 bits, rms. Circuit design details are presented, along with the results of electrical measurements and optical experiments with fast pulsed laser light sources at several wavelengths.

  17. Solid-state chemistry of molecular metal oxide clusters. Multiple, sequential C-H activation processes in the hydrogenation of coordinated cyclooctene. Lattice mobility of small organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Siedle, A.R.; Newmark, R.A.; Sahyun, M.R.V.; Lyon, P.A.; Hunt, S.L.; Skarjune, R.P. )

    1989-10-25

    Reaction of solid ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(C{sub 8}H{sub 12})){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} with D{sub 2} gas produces cyclooctane containing up to 16 deuterium atoms. The c-C{sub 8}D{sub n}H{sub 16-n} isotopomer distribution is analyzed by Poisson statistics and interpreted in terms of C-H activation involving Ir-D-C-H exchange in an intermediate species containing coordinated cyclooctene. The results are compared with those from D{sub 2} reduction of ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(C{sub 8}H{sub 12}))(PF{sub 6}) in the solid state and in acetone solution, in which cases, an additional exchange process operates. Solid-state {sup 2}H NMR shows that, even at low temperatures, small organic molecules such as cyclooctane and benzene undergo nearly isotropic motion.

  18. A review of lithium and non-lithium based solid state batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Son, Byungrak; Mukherjee, Santanu; Schuppert, Nicholas; Bates, Alex; Kwon, Osung; Choi, Moon Jong; Chung, Hyun Yeol; Park, Sam

    2015-05-01

    Conventional lithium-ion liquid-electrolyte batteries are widely used in portable electronic equipment such as laptop computers, cell phones, and electric vehicles; however, they have several drawbacks, including expensive sealing agents and inherent hazards of fire and leakages. All solid state batteries utilize solid state electrolytes to overcome the safety issues of liquid electrolytes. Drawbacks for all-solid state lithium-ion batteries include high resistance at ambient temperatures and design intricacies. This paper is a comprehensive review of all aspects of solid state batteries: their design, the materials used, and a detailed literature review of various important advances made in research. The paper exhaustively studies lithium based solid state batteries, as they are the most prevalent, but also considers non-lithium based systems. Non-lithium based solid state batteries are attaining widespread commercial applications, as are also lithium based polymeric solid state electrolytes. Tabular representations and schematic diagrams are provided to underscore the unique characteristics of solid state batteries and their capacity to occupy a niche in the alternative energy sector.

  19. Dry sliding wear behaviour of magnesium oxide and zirconium oxide plasma electrolytic oxidation coated magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Srinivasan, P.; Liang, J.; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-03-01

    Two types of PEO coatings, one consisting of magnesium oxide (MgO) and the other comprising zirconium oxide (ZrO 2) as the main phase composition were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy from alkaline and acidic electrolytes, respectively. The ZrO 2 coating was found to be spongy and thicker with a higher roughness, whilst the relatively more compact MgO coating was having contrasting features. In the dry sliding oscillating wear tests under two different loads viz., 2 N and 5 N, the ZrO 2 coating exhibited a very poor wear resistance. The MgO coating showed an excellent resistance to sliding wear under 2 N load; however, the load bearing capacity of the coating was found to be insufficient to resist the wear damage under 5 N load. The higher specific wear rates of the MgO coating under 5 N load and that of the ZrO 2 coating under 2 N and 5 N loads were attributed to the poor load bearing capacity and a three-body-abrasive wear mechanism.

  20. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Burris, Leslie; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  1. Modern solid state laser materials

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1984-06-20

    This document contains visual aids used in an invited talk entitled Modern Solid State Laser Materials, presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) held in Anaheim, California, on June 20, 1984. Interest at LLNL in solid state lasers focuses on evaluating the potential of solid state laser media for high average power applications, including inertial fusion power production. This talk identifies the relevant bulk material parameters characterizing average power capacity and uses chromium and neodymium co-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:Cr:GSGG) as an example of a laser material with improved laser properties relative to Nd:YAG (plausible large-scale growth, more efficient spectral coupling to xenon flashlamp radiation, reduced stimulated emission cross section, adequate thermal shock and optical damage threshold parameters, etc.). Recently measured spectroscopic, kinetic, and thermo-mechanical properties of Nd:Cr:GSGG are given.

  2. Insights on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium batteries containing the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode and sulfide electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Gang; Yao, Xiayin; Wan, Hongli; Huang, Bingxin; Yin, Jingyun; Ding, Fei; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-03-01

    An insightful study on the fundamental lithium storage behavior of all-solid-state lithium battery with a structure of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA)/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In is carried out in this work. The relationship between electrochemical performances and particle size, surface impurities and defects of the NCA positive material is systematically investigated. It is found that a ball-milling technique can decrease the particle size and remove surface impurities of the NCA cathode while also give rise to surface defects which could be recovered by a post-annealing process. The results indicate that the interfacial resistance between the NCA and Li10GeP2S12 is obviously decreased during the ball-milling followed by a post-annealing. Consequently, the discharge capacity of NCA in the NCA/Li10GeP2S12/Li-In solid-state battery is significantly enhanced, which exhibits a discharge capacity of 146 mAh g-1 at 25 °C.

  3. Morphological, rheological and electrochemical studies ofpoly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes containing fumed silicananoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Jiangbing; Kerr, John B.; Duan, Robert G.; Han, Yongbong

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, the rheology and crystallization of composite Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO) electrolytes were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis, DSC and polarized light microscopy. The effects of fumed silica nanoparticles on the conductivities of the polymer electrolytes at temperatures above and below their melting point were measured and related to their rheology and crystallization behavior, respectively. The electrolyte/electrode interfacial properties and cycling performances of the composite polymer electrolytes in Li/Li cells are also discussed. The measured electrochemical properties were found to depend heavily on the operational environments and sample processing history.

  4. Charge separation in solid-state dye-sensitized heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, U.; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Moser, J.E.; Haque, S.A.; Durrant, J.R.; Graetzel, M.; Klug, D.R.

    1999-08-18

    Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells are presently under intensive investigation, as they offer an attractive alternative to conventional p--n junction devices. Solid-state versions have been described where the electrolyte present in the pores of the malodorous oxide film is replaced by a large band gap p-type semiconductor. In this way, a solid-state heterojunction of very large contact area is formed. Light is absorbed by the dye that is located at the interface. Upon excitation, the dye injects electrons into the conduction band of the oxide and is regenerated by hole injection into the p-type conductor. High incident photon-to-electric current conversion efficiencies have been achieved recently with a cell consisting of a dye-derivatized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film contacted by a new organic hole conductor. The great advantage of such systems with regard to conventional p--n junctions is that only majority carriers are involved in the photoelectric conversion process. Moreover, these are generated by the dye precisely at the site of the junction where the electric field is maximal, enhancing charge separation. Photoelectric conversion by conventional solar cells involves minority carriers whose lifetime is restricted due to recombination. As they are generated throughout the semiconductor and away from the junction, expensive high-purity materials are required in order to maintain the minority carrier diffusion length at a level where current losses are avoided. While the dynamics of photoinduced redo processes in photoelectrochemical systems have been studied in great detail, little is known about the electron-transfer dynamics in solid-state sensitized junctions. Here the authors report for the first time on the direct observation of photoinduced, interfacial charge separation across a dye-sensitized solid-state heterojunction by means of picosecond transient absorption laser spectroscopy.

  5. Electrochemical protection of thin film electrodes in solid state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Stefan; Waggoner, Philip S; Luan, Binquan; Afzali-Ardakani, Ali; Goldfarb, Dario L; Peng, Hongbo; Martyna, Glenn; Rossnagel, Stephen M; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A

    2011-07-01

    Solid state nanopores are a core element of next-generation single molecule tools in the field of nano-biotechnology. Thin film electrodes integrated into a pore can interact with charges and fields within the pore. In order to keep the nanopore open and thus functional electrochemically induced surface alteration of electrode surfaces and bubble formation inside the pore have to be eliminated. This paper provides electrochemical analyses of nanopores drilled into TiN membranes which in turn were employed as thin film electrodes. We studied physical pore integrity and the occurrence of water decomposition yielding bubble formation inside pores by applying voltages between -4.5 and +4.5 V to membranes in various protection stages continuously for up to 24 h. During potential application pores were exposed to selected electrolyte-solvent systems. We have investigated and successfully eliminated electrochemical pore oxidation and reduction as well as water decomposition inside nanopores of various diameters ranging from 3.5 to 25 nm in 50 nm thick TiN membranes by passivating the nanopores with a plasma-oxidized layer and using a 90% solution of glycerol in water as KCl solvent. Nanopore ionic conductances were measured before and after voltage application in order to test for changes in pore diameter due to electrochemical oxidation or reduction. TEM imaging was used to confirm these observations. While non-passivated pores were electrochemically oxidized, neither electrochemical oxidation nor reduction was observed for passivated pores. Bubble formation through water decomposition could be detected in non-passivated pores in KCl/water solutions but was not observed in 90% glycerol solutions. The use of a protective self-assembled monolayer of hexadecylphosphonic acid (HDPA) was also investigated.

  6. Versatile solid-state relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Solid-state relay (SSR), containing multinode control logic, is operated as normally open, normally closed, or latched. Moreover several can be paralleled to form two-pole or double-throw relays. Versatile unit ends need to design custom control circuit for every relay application. Technique can be extended to incorporate selectable time delay, on operation or release, or pulsed output.

  7. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Gill, John T.; Hawkins, Daniel B.; Renschler, Clifford L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Smith, Henry M.

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  8. Interface Limited Lithium Transport in Solid-State Batteries.

    PubMed

    Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Qian, Danna; McGilvray, Thomas; Wang, Ziying; Wang, Feng; Camino, Fernando; Graetz, Jason; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2014-01-16

    Understanding the role of interfaces is important for improving the performance of all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. To study these interfaces, we present a novel approach for fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries using focused ion beams and their characterization by analytical electron microscopy. Morphological changes by scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and correlated elemental concentration changes by electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping are presented. We provide first evidence of lithium accumulation at the anode/current collector (Si/Cu) and cathode/electrolyte (LixCoO2/LiPON) interfaces, which can be accounted for the irreversible capacity losses. Interdiffusion of elements at the Si/LiPON interface was also witnessed with a distinct contrast layer. These results highlight that the interfaces may limit the lithium transport significantly in solid-state batteries. Fabrication of electrochemically active nanobatteries also enables in situ electron microscopy observation of electrochemical phenomena in a variety of solid-state battery chemistries.

  9. High performance zirconia-bismuth oxide nanocomposite electrolytes for lower temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Dong Woo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Do Yeub; Yun, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Kang Taek

    2016-07-01

    We develop a novel nanocomposite electrolyte, consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB). The 20 mol% ESB-incorporated YSZ composite (20ESB-YSZ) achieves the high density (>97%) at the low sintering temperature of 800 °C. The microstructural analysis of 20ESB-YSZ reveals the characteristic nanocomposite structure of the highly percolated ESB phase at the YSZ grain boundaries (a few ∼ nm thick). The ionic conductivity of 20ESB-YSZ is increased by 5 times compared to that of the conventional YSZ due to the fast oxygen ion transport along the ESB phase. Moreover, this high conductivity is maintained up to 580 h, indicating high stability of the ESB-YSZ nanocomposite. In addition, the oxygen reduction reaction at the composite electrolyte/cathode interface is effectively enhanced (∼70%) at the temperature below 650 °C, mainly due to the fast dissociative oxygen adsorption on the ESB surface as well as the rapid oxygen ion incorporation into the ESB lattice. Thus, we believe this ESB-YSZ nanocomposite is a promising electrolyte for high performance solid oxide fuel cells at reduced temperatures.

  10. All-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor based on oxide ion migration in Gd-doped CeO2 on SrTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2013-08-01

    An all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) with a Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC) oxide ion conductor/SrTiO3 (STO) insulator structure has been developed. At 473 K, the drain current of the EDLT was well controlled, from less than nA order to μA order, by electrostatic carrier doping at the GDC/STO interface due to oxide ion (O2-) migration in the GDC, in contrast to an inactiveness at room temperature. The EDL capacitance at the interface, measured with an ac impedance spectroscopy, was 14 μF cm-2, higher than that reported for a microporous-SiO2 EDLT and comparable to that of an ionic-liquid-gated EDLT.

  11. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    PubMed

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-01

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  12. Electrolyte-dependent electrosynthesis and activity of cobalt-based water oxidation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Surendranath, Yogesh; Dinca, Mircea; Nocera, Daniel G

    2009-02-25

    Electrolysis of Co(2+) in phosphate, methylphosphonate, and borate electrolytes effects the electrodeposition of an amorphous highly active water oxidation catalyst as a thin film on an inert anode. Electrodeposition of a catalytically competent species immediately follows oxidation of Co(2+) to Co(3+) in solution. Methylphosphonate and borate electrolytes support catalyst activity comparable to that observed for phosphate. Catalytic activity for O(2) generation in aqueous solutions containing 0.5 M NaCl is retained for catalysts grown from phosphate electrolyte.

  13. LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte stabilizes vanadium oxide nanowire electrodes for pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongming; Lu, Xihong; Ling, Yichuan; Zhai, Teng; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Li, Yat

    2012-11-27

    Here we report a new strategy to improve the electrochemical stability of vanadium oxide electrodes for pseudocapacitors. Vanadium oxides are known to suffer from severe capacitance loss during charging/discharging cycling, due to chemical dissolution and ion intercalation/deintercalation-induced material pulverization. We demonstrate that these two issues can be addressed by using a neutral pH LiCl/PVA gel electrolyte. The function of the gel electrolyte is twofold: (i) it reduces the chemical dissolution of amphoteric vanadium oxides by minimizing water content and providing a neutral pH medium and (ii) it serves as a matrix to maintain the vanadium oxide nanowire network structure. Vanadium oxide nanowire pseudocapacitors with gel electrolyte exhibit excellent capacitance retention rates of more than 85% after cycling for 5000 cycles, without sacrificing the electrochemical performance of vanadium oxides.

  14. Solid state ionics 3. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, volume 293

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazri, Gholam A.; Tarascon, Jean M.; Armand, Michel

    This proceedings volume includes most of the invited and contributed papers presented as Symposium U, Solid State Ionics, at the 1992 MRS Fall meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. The Symposium covered material aspects of solid state ionics, theory of ion transfer in solids, ionically and electronically conductive polymers and their application in solid state devices, and various in-situ and ex-situ techniques for materials characterization. The first part of this proceedings volume deals with physics and chemistry of insertion compounds and application of these in advanced solid state batteries. The optical and electrochemical properties of insertion compounds are also presented. The second part of the proceedings deals with ionic and electronic conductive polymers. A new class of rubbery phase polymer electrolytes and their structure-conductivity relationship are presented. Physical and chemical properties of polymer electrolytes and electrodes and their application in solid state devices are presented.

  15. Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells: Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-10-01

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is currently under development for a variety of applications including coal-based power generation. The MSOFC is a design concept that places the thin components of a solid oxide fuel cell in lightweight, compact, corrugated structure, and so achieves high efficiency and excellent performance simultaneously with high power density. The MSOFC can be integrated with coal gasification plants and is expected to have high overall efficiency in the conversion of the chemical energy of coal to electrical energy. This report describes work aimed at: (1) assessing manufacturing costs for the MSOFC and system costs for a coal-based plant; (2) modifying electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the electrochemical performance of the MSOFC; and (3) testing the performance of the MSOFC on hydrogen and simulated coal gas. Manufacturing costs for both the coflow and crossflow MSOFC's were assessed based on the fabrication flow charts developed by direct scaleup of tape calendering and other laboratory processes. Integrated coal-based MSOFC systems were investigated to determine capital costs and costs of electricity. Design criteria were established for a coal-fueled 200-Mw power plant. Four plant arrangements were evaluated, and plant performance was analyzed. Interfacial modification involved modification of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the MSOFC electrochemical performance. Work in the cathode and cathode/electrolyte interface was concentrated on modification of electrode porosity, electrode morphology, electrode material, and interfacial bonding. Modifications of the anode and anode/electrolyte interface included the use of additives and improvement of nickel distribution. Single cells have been tested for their electrochemical performance. Performance data were typically obtained with humidified H2 or simulated coal gas and air or oxygen.

  16. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera, J. M.; Paredes, J. I.; Villar-Rodil, S.; Ayán-Varela, M.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrolytic - usually referred to as electrochemical - exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.Electrolytic - usually referred to as electrochemical - exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise

  17. Electrochemical properties of all solid state Li/S battery

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Wang, Qing; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Ki-Won; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kang, Yongku; Wang, Guoxiu; Ahn, Hyo-Jun

    2012-10-15

    All-solid-state lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is prepared using siloxane cross-linked network solid electrolyte at room temperature. The solid electrolytes show high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability with lithium and sulfur. In the first discharge curve, all-solid-state Li/S battery shows three plateau potential regions of 2.4 V, 2.12 V and 2.00 V, respectively. The battery shows the first discharge capacity of 1044 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur at room temperature. This first discharge capacity rapidly decreases in 4th cycle and remains at 512 mAh g{sup −1}-sulfur after 10 cycles.

  18. Effect of Ar bubbling during plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31B magnesium alloy in silicate electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Kim, Yonghwan; Chung, Wonsub

    2012-10-01

    Argon gas was bubbled during plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treatment of magnesium alloy in a silicate solution. The appearance of arcs and plasma discharging was locally concentrated on the magnesium alloy surface and phase fraction of Mg2SiO4 in the oxide layer was increased due to Argon gas bubbling. The higher energy density of the Ar plasma atmosphere is believed to contribute to the effective formation of the high temperature phase (Mg2SiO4), particularly in the inner layer. Furthermore, the PEO treated Mg alloy with Ar bubbling showed improved corrosion resistance by a change of open pores structure.

  19. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  20. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of titanium and improvement in osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chi-Jen; Su, Rein-Teng; Chu, Hou-Jen; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; He, Ju-Liang

    2013-08-01

    Reducing the osseointegration time for biomedical titanium implants in surgical patients is an important goal. However, a huge controversy exists over the effectiveness of osseointegration of the surface layer by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), which is a widely favored surface modification for titanium-based implants. In this study, various surface coatings, including anatase-TiO2 (A-TiO2 ), rutile-TiO2 (R-TiO2 ), hydroxyapatite (HAp), strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp), and dual-phase HAp-TiO2 were synthesized on titanium implants by PEO. A comparative study of osseointegration performance (both in vitro and in vivo) and bone/implant adhesion strength conducted using push-out thrust tests were demonstrated. The in vitro experimental test results agree strongly with the in vivo test results: the dual-phase HAp-TiO2 coating exhibits the superior cell adhesion and differentiation condition among all of the coatings in the in vitro tests and therefore has the highest push-out bonding strength of 5.37 MPa after 12 wk of implantation in the in vivo test. The HAp-containing coatings benefit from its bioactivity and therefore perform the others in terms of long-term osteocyte growth (from the in vitro results) and the extent of osseointegration (from the in vivo results). The dual-phase HAp-TiO2 coating provides the advantages of both the bioactive HAp and structural enhancement by the TiO2 , effectively promoting osseointegration. PMID:23529975

  1. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  2. Radiation sensitive solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A mechanically operable solid state switch suited for use in achieving a variable circuit-switching function is described. This switch is characterized by an annular array of photoresponsive switching devices, disposed in communication with an included source of radiation, and a plurality of interchangeable, mechanically operable interrupter disks. Each disk has a predetermined pattern of transparent and opaque portions. Operative displacement of each disk serves to make and break selected electrical circuits through the photo responsive devices of said array.

  3. Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte and Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Sensing Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L P; Glass, R S

    2004-03-26

    A solid state electrochemical sensor has been developed for hydrogen leak detection in ambient air. The sensor uses an yttria-stabilized electrolyte with a tin-doped indium oxide sensing electrode and a Pt reference electrode. Excellent sensitivity, and response time of one second or less, are reported for hydrogen gas over the concentration range of 0.03 to 5.5% in air. Cross-sensitivity to relative humidity and to CO{sub 2} are shown to be low. The response to methane, a potentially significant source of interference for such a sensor, is significantly less than that for hydrogen. The sensor shows good reproducibility and was unaffected by thermal cycling over the course of this investigation. The effects of sensing electrode thickness and thermal aging are also reported, and the sensing mechanism is discussed. The sensor is intended for use in vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Those vehicles will use and/or store significant quantities of hydrogen, and will require safety sensor for monitoring potential hydrogen leakage in order to ensure passenger safety.

  4. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  5. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  6. A coordination chemistry study of hydrated and solvated cationic vanadium ions in oxidation states +III, +IV, and +V in solution and solid state.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, Joanna; Lundberg, Daniel; Persson, Ingmar

    2012-09-17

    The coordination chemistry of hydrated and solvated vanadium(III), oxovanadium(IV), and dioxovanadium(V) ions in the oxygen-donor solvents water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N,N'-dimethylpropyleneurea (DMPU) has been studied in solution by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and EXAFS. The hydrated vanadium(III) ion has a regular octahedral configuration with a mean V-O bond distance of 1.99 Å. In the hydrated and DMSO-solvated oxovanadium(IV) ions, vanadium binds strongly to an oxo group at ca. 1.6 Å. The solvent molecule trans to the oxo group is very weakly bound, at ca. 2.2 Å, while the remaining four solvent molecules, with a mean V-O bond distance of 2.0 Å, form a plane slightly below the vanadium atom; the mean O═V-O(perp) bond angle is ca. 98°. In the DMPU-solvated oxovanadium(IV) ion, the space-demanding properties of the DMPU molecule leave no solvent molecule in the trans position to the oxo group, which reduces the coordination number to 5. The O═V-O bond angle is consequently much larger, 107°, and the mean V═O and V-O bond distances decrease to 1.58 and 1.97 Å, respectively. The hydrated and DMSO-solvated dioxovanadium(V) ions display a very distorted octahedral configuration with the oxo groups in the cis position with a mean V═O bond distance of 1.6 Å and a O═V═O bond angle of ca. 105°. The solvent molecules trans to the oxo groups are weakly bound, at ca. 2.2 Å, while the remaining two have bond distances of 2.02 Å. The experimental studies of the coordination chemistry of hydrated and solvated vanadium(III,IV,V) ions are complemented by summarizing previously reported crystal structures to yield a comprehensive description of the coordination chemistry of vanadium with oxygen-donor ligands.

  7. One-step synthesis of vertically aligned anatase thornbush-like TiO2 nanowire arrays on transparent conducting oxides for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Dong Kyu; Chi, Won Seok; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Harim; Kim, Jong Hak

    2013-08-01

    Herein, we report a facile synthesis of high-density anatase-phase vertically aligned thornbush-like TiO2 nanowires (TBWs) on transparent conducting oxide glasses. Morphologically controllable TBW arrays of 9 μm in length are generated through a one-step hydrothermal reaction at 200 °C over 11 h using potassium titanium oxide oxalate dehydrate, diethylene glycol (DEG), and water. The TBWs consist of a large number of nanoplates or nanorods, as confirmed by SEM and TEM imaging. The morphologies of TBWs are controllable by adjusting DEG/water ratios. TBW diameters gradually decrease from 600 (TBW600) to 400 (TBW400) to 200 nm (TBW200) and morphologies change from nanoplates to nanorods with an increase in DEG content. TBWs are utilized as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs) and solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs). The energy-conversion efficiency of qssDSSCs is in the order: TBW200 (5.2%)>TBW400 (4.5%)>TBW600 (3.4%). These results can be attributed to the different surface areas, light-scattering effects, and charge transport rates, as confirmed by dye-loading measurements, reflectance spectroscopy, and incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy analyses. TBW200 is further treated with a graft-copolymer-directed organized mesoporous TiO2 to increase the surface area and interconnectivity of TBWs. As a result, the energy-conversion efficiency of the ssDSSC increases to 6.7% at 100 mW cm(-2) , which is among the highest values for N719-dye-based ssDSSCs.

  8. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, C. E.; Benson, D. K.; Ruth, M. R.

    1984-12-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  9. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Ruth, Marta R.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  10. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-12-21

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  11. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  12. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  13. Characterization of calcium containing plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, P. Bala; Liang, J.; Blawert, C.; Störmer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-04-01

    An attempt was made to produce calcium containing plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy using an alkaline electrolyte. This study was performed in three alkaline electrolytes containing calcium hydroxide and sodium phosphate with three different mass ratios viz., 1:2.5, 1:5 and 1:7.5. All the three coatings produced were found to contain Ca and P in appreciable amounts. The concentration of P was found to be higher in the coatings obtained in the electrolytes with higher concentration of phosphate ions. Even though all the three coatings were found to be constituted with magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate phases, X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the phase composition was influenced by the phosphate ion concentration/conductivity of the electrolyte. Further, the PEO coating obtained in the 1:7.5 ratio electrolyte was found to contain di-calcium phosphate (monetite) and calcium peroxide phases, which were absent in the other two coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization studies performed in 0.1 M NaCl solution showed that the coatings obtained from the 1:5 ratio electrolyte possessed a superior corrosion resistance, which is attributed to the combined effect of thickness, compactness and phase/chemical composition of this coating.

  14. Chemical Symbolism and the Solid State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the coordinated polyhedra approach to teaching the solid state. A solid is viewed as a collection of coordination complexes. Also proposes a method of extending the current chemical symbolism to include structural facts of solid state chemistry. (MLH)

  15. Neglect of Solid State Chemistry Scored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    At a recent symposium concerning the teaching of solid state chemistry in the classroom, many educators indicated that important areas of solid state chemistry were being neglected in college curricula. (RH)

  16. The evidence of cathodic micro-discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominé, A.; Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T.; Bardin, I. V.; Kovalev, V. L.; Rakoch, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic micro-discharges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 1015 cm-3) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500 K) while the role of F- anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

  17. Solid state nuclear track detection

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, S.A.; Bull, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a basic work on the technique variously known as 'nuclear track analysis', 'track-etch technique', or 'solid state nuclear tract detection'. This has greatly expanded in range, scope and depth since the early 1960's, soon after its discovery, until there is hardly a field now in which it has not found an actual or potential use. Such applications range from archaeology, geology, space physics, medicine and biology to reactor physics and nuclear physics-to name but a few.

  18. Solid-State Personal Dosimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2005-01-01

    This document is a web site page, and a data sheet about Personal protection (i.e., space suits) presented to the Radiation and Micrometeoroid Mitigation Technology Focus Group meeting. The website describes the work of the PI to improve solid state personal radiation dosimetry. The data sheet presents work on the active personal radiation detection system that is to provide real-time local radiation exposure information during EVA. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.

  19. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  20. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  1. An aqueous route to [Ta6O19]8- and solid-state studies of isostructural niobium and tantalum oxide complexes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May D.; Anderson, Travis Mark; Alam, Todd Michael; Rodriguez, Mark A; Joel N. Bixler; Francois Bonhomme

    2007-10-01

    Tantalate materials play a vital role in our high technology society: tantalum capacitors are found in virtually every cell phone. Furthermore, electronic characteristics and the incredibly inert nature of tantalates renders them ideal for applications such as biomedical implants, nuclear waste forms, ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, photocatalysts and optical coatings. The inert and insoluble nature of tantalates is not fundamentally understood; and furthermore poor solubility renders fabrication of novel or optimized tantalates very difficult. We have developed a soft chemical route to water-soluble tantalum oxide clusters that can serve as both precursors for novel tantalate materials and ideal models for experimental and computational approaches to understanding the unusually inert behavior of tantalates. The water soluble cluster, [Ta6O19]8- is small, highly symmetric, and contains the representative oxygen types of a metal oxide surface, and thus ideally mimics a complex tantalate surface in a simplistic form that can be studied unambiguously. Furthermore; in aqueous solution, these highly charged and super-basic clusters orchestrate surprising acid-base behavior that most likely plays an important role in the inertness of related oxide surfaces. Our unique synthetic approach to the [Ta6O19]8- cluster allowed for unprecedented enrichment with isotopic labels (17O), enabling detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies of the behavior of cluster oxygens, as well as their acid-base behavior. This SAND report is a collection of two publications that resulted from these efforts.

  2. Electrokinetic Properties of the Pristine and Oxidized MWCNT Depending on the Electrolyte Type and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwarek, Ewa; Bolbukh, Yuliia; Tertykh, Valentyn; Janusz, Władysław

    2016-03-01

    Electrostatic stabilization is reduced in its efficiency in an electrolyte-containing environment. The effect of electrolyte concentration is mostly described as negative factor for dispersion stabilization. Usually, zeta potential and physical stability decrease at increasing electrolyte concentration. The purpose of the present study was to measure the surface properties of nanotubes in aqueous solution of monovalent electrolytes at different concentration. Characteristics such as size distribution, surface chemistry, surface charge, and dispersability in aqueous phase have been identified. Hydrodynamic size and zeta potential in aqueous multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) suspensions were determined at different pH with the desired concentrations of electrolyte of the cationic group (NaCl, KCl, CsCl) and the anionic group (NaClO4). The correlations between the response of the surface functionality of pristine and oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and electrical double layer (EDL) forming at different ionic environments in the vicinity of a nanotube surface were determined. The nanotube dispersion stabilization was found to be more affected by ion size and pH medium then electrolyte concentration. The data obtained confirms the predominant role of surface reactions. The most stable dispersion of nanotubes was achieved in KCl electrolyte solution at less negative charge of the surface.

  3. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  4. Thermal control coatings on magnesium alloys prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingqian; Zhou, Jiansong; Liang, Jun; Chen, Jianmin

    2013-09-01

    Four kinds of oxide coatings with different solar absorptance properties were prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation. They were of different colors due to the different additives in the electrolytes. The microstructure and composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The optical properties were investigated by the UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, and the thermal control properties were measured by solar spectrum reflectometer as well as emissivity tester. Results showed that the solar absorptance of the coatings ranged from 0.439 to 0.918 while the emittance remained unchanged.

  5. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  6. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  7. Study of solid state photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, K. M.; Laviolette, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Available solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) detectors were tested under low-background, low temperature conditions to determine the conditions producing optimal sensitivity in a space-based astronomy system such as a liquid cooled helium telescope in orbit. Detector temperatures varied between 6 and 9 K, with background flux ranging from 10 to the 13th power to less than 10 to the 6th power photons/square cm-s. Measured parameters included quantum efficiency, noise, dark current, and spectral response. Experimental data were reduced, analyzed, and combined with existing data to build the SSPM data base included herein. The results were compared to analytical models of SSPM performance where appropriate models existed. Analytical models presented here were developed to be as consistent with the data base as practicable. Significant differences between the theory and data are described. Some models were developed or updated as a result of this study.

  8. Solid state sciences committee forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Philip

    1992-05-01

    The 1991 SSSC Forum was conducted under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy's Solid State Sciences Committee (SSSC) and cosponsored with the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The Forum was the culmination of a year-long dissemination effort following up the NCR study Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s that was released in September of 1989 and successfully brought together experts and policy makers in the field of advanced materials processing to discuss issues pertinent to the field. Support for the Forum was provided by the Air Force office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the office of Naval Research (ONR).

  9. Novel solid state sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Arthur E., Jr.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Phillips, Terry E.; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Givens, Robert B.

    1998-05-01

    A unique solid-state optical sensor configuration has been invented that can serve as a development platform for a host of chemical and biochemical sensors in either gaseous or liquid environments. We present results from measurements from the first adaptation of the device to oxygen sensing via fluorescence quenching and note the distinct advantages over existing electrochemical and more recent fiber-optic methods. The platform technology itself features greatly enhanced energy efficiency, high sensitivity, low-power consumption, ease of miniaturization, low cost, high-volume manufacturability using standard methods, very fast response/recovery profiles, and high reliability. The oxygen sensor embodiment has been demonstrated to operate well over the temperature range from -20 to 50 degrees C, not to be interfered with by other common gases including water vapor at high levels, and capable of response times less than 100 milliseconds.

  10. Solid-state source of atomic oxygen for low-temperature oxidation processes: Application to pulsed laser deposition of TiO2:N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Daiki; Chiba, Tetsuya; Shima, Kazunari; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro

    2012-02-01

    An atomic oxygen (AO) source has been redesigned to coordinate with a pulsed laser deposition system and used to grow nitrogen-doped TiO2 films by deposition of TiN and simultaneous irradiation of the substrate with AO. The AO source uses an incandescently heated thin tube of zirconia as an oxygen permeation media to generate pure AO of low kinetic energy. The emission flux is calibrated using a silver-coated quartz crystal microbalance. The thin shape of the probe and transverse emission geometry of this emission device allow the emission area to be positioned close to the substrate surface, enhancing the irradiation flux at the substrate. AO irradiation is crucial for formation of TiO2 phases via oxidation of the deposited TiN laser plume, and is effective for decrease of the substrate temperature for crystallization of anatase phase to as low as around 200 °C.

  11. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings. PMID:25942897

  12. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  13. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-09-30

    A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

  14. Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    All-solid-state electrochemical power cells have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments for use in environments as hot as 500 C. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus, and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal and oil wells, processing furnaces, and combustion engines. In the state-of-the-art predecessors of the present solid-state power cells, fully packaged molten eutectic salts are used as electrolytes. The molten-salt-based cells can be susceptible to significant amounts of self-discharge and corrosion when used for extended times at elevated temperatures. In contrast, all-solid-state cells such as the present ones are expected to be capable of operating for many days at temperatures up to 500 C, without significant self-discharge. The solid-state cell described here includes a cathode made of FeS2, an electrolyte consisting of a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and Li4SiO4, and an anode made of an alloy of Li and Si (see figure). The starting material for making the solid electrolyte is a stoichiometric mixture of Li3PO4, SiO2, and Li3CO2. This mixture is ball-milled, then calcined for two hours at a temperature of 1,100 C, then placed in a die atop the cathode material. Next, the layers in the die are squeezed together at a pressure between 60 and 120 MPa for one hour at a temperature of 600 C to form a unitary structure comprising the solid electrolyte and cathode bonded together. Finally, the lithium-alloy anode is pressure-bonded to the solid electrolyte layer, using an intermediate layer of pure lithium. In one test of a cell of this type, a discharge rate of about 1 mA per gram of cathode material was sustained for 72 hours at a temperature of about 460 C. This is about three times the discharge rate required to support some of the longer duration Venus-exploration mission scenarios.

  15. Advances and development of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevey, James Edward

    Lithium-ion battery technologies have always been accompanied by severe safety issues; therefore recent research efforts have focused on improving battery safety. In large part, the hazardous nature of lithium-ion batteries stems from the high flammability of liquid electrolytes. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to replace liquid electrolytes with nonflammable solid electrolytes in order to avoid potential safety problems. Unfortunately, current solid electrolytes are incapable of performing as effectively as liquid electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries due to inferior electrochemical capabilities. While some "all-solid-state" batteries have found niche application, further technological advancement is required for large scale replacement of liquid-based batteries. The goal of this research is to develop all-solid-state batteries that can outperform liquid batteries and understand the mechanisms that dictate battery operation and behavior. This involves fabrication of highly conducting solid electrolytes, production and analyzation of batteries employing state-of-the-art electrode materials, and generation of high power and high energy density lithium batteries. In this dissertation, the first objective was to manufacture highly conducting solid electrolytes that are stable in contact with lithium metal. Numerous characterization techniques were used to gain understanding of physical and chemical properties of solid electrolytes, as well as mechanisms for fast ion conduction. A new process for production of highly conducting and stable solid electrolytes is developed and materials are used to evaluate performance of electrodes in an all-solid-state construction. The second objective of this work was to research the performance of both positive and negative electrodes incorporating solid electrolyte. Evaluation of electrochemical results allowed for a good understanding of reaction mechanisms taking place within composite battery materials and at

  16. Novel approaches for fabrication of thin film layers for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murugesamoorthi, K. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Cocke, D. L.; Appleby, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The main objectives of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) project are to (1) identify viable and cost-effective techniques to prepare cell components for stable MSOFCs (monolithic SOFCs); (2) fabricate half and single cells; and (3) evaluate their performances. The approach used to fabricate stable MSOFCs is as follows: (1) the electrolyte layer is prepared in the form of a honeycomb structure by alloy oxidation and other cell components are deposited on it; (2) the electrolyte and anode layers are deposited on the cathode layer, which has a porous, honeycomb structure; and (3) the electrolyte and cathode layers are deposited on the anode layer. The current status of the project is reported.

  17. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based on Doped LaGaO3 Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Jen-Hau; Goodenough, John B.

    2003-03-01

    Losses in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arise from the resistance to O2--ion conduction across the electrolyte and from the rate of reactant dissociative chemisorption and migration across the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Efforts made to reduce the electrolyte thickness have increased the power density that can be withdrawn from the fuel cell. Whereas a SOFC based on a thin layer of yittria-stablized zirconia (YSZ) as the electrolyte has been under development for several years, a similar thin-electrolyte SOFC with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.83Mg0.17O2.815 (LSGM) has received little attention. A SOFC with a thin layer of LSGM deposited on a porous YSZ substrate that was subsequently impregnated with Ni has been reported to give a power density of 850 mW/cm2 at 800¢XC with H2 as fuel. In our group, different methods have been used to fabricate a thin LSGM membrane on a composite anode, these methods include screen-printing, colloidal deposition, impregnation, and dry-pressing methods. Because of the reaction between LSGM and a Ni anode during fabrication, a layer of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) must be put between the LSGM electrolyte and a NiO+LDC composite anode. The thin-film SOFC made by screen-printing technique produced an anode-supported fuel cell with a 50 mm thick electrolyte+LDC layer. However because the screen-printing method did not produce an air-tight dense electrolyte membrane, the open-circuit voltage dropped to 0.7V instead of the theoretical 1.1V when running on humid hydrogen as fuel. The power density of this cell reaches 700 mW/cm2 at 850¢XC and 520mW/cm2 at 800¢XC. The dry-pressing method allows co-sintering of anode/electrolyte, which lowers the interfacial overpotentials and guarantees an air-tight, dense electrolyte layer. A SOFC power density of 1400 mW/cm2 at 800¢XC with a 200 mm thick LSGM electrolyte will be compared with the result for a thin-film electrolyte.

  18. Fe3O4@Carbon Nanosheets for All-Solid-State Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huailin; Niu, Ruiting; Duan, Jiaqi; Liu, Wei; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-08-01

    Fe3O4@carbon nanosheet composites were synthesized using ammonium ferric citrate as the Fe3O4/carbon precursor and graphene oxide as the structure-directing agent under a hydrothermal process. The surface chemical compositions, pore structures, and morphology of the composite were analyzed and characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, TG analysis, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron energy spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The composites showed excellent specific capacitance of 586 F/g, 340 F/g at 0.5 A/g and 10 A/g. The all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device assembled using carbon nanosheets in situ embedded Fe3O4 composite and porous carbon showed a largest energy density of 18.3 Wh/kg at power density of 351 W/kg in KOH/PVA gel electrolyte. The synergism of high special surface to volume ratio, mesoporous structure, graphene-based conduction paths, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles provided a high surface area of ion-accessibility, high electric conductivity, and the utmost utilization of Fe3O4 and resulted in excellent specific capacitance, outstanding rate capability and cycling life as all-solid-state supercapacitor electrodes. PMID:27406686

  19. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Leng, X.; Bozovic, I.; Bollinger, A. T.

    2016-08-10

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a puremore » electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.« less

  20. Extremely thin bilayer electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) fabricated by chemical solution deposition (CSD).

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Ok; Whang, Chin-Myung; Lee, Yu-Ri; Park, Sun-Young; Prasad, Dasari Hari; Yoon, Kyung Joong; Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Hae-Weon

    2012-07-01

    An extremely thin bilayer electrolyte consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) is successfully fabricated on a sintered NiO-YSZ substrate. Major processing flaws are effectively eliminated by applying local constraints to YSZ nanoparticles, and excellent open circuit voltage and cell performance are demonstrated in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at intermediate operating temperatures.

  1. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    PubMed Central

    Leng, X.; Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices. PMID:27506371

  2. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, X.; Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices.

  3. Purely electronic mechanism of electrolyte gating of indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Leng, X; Bollinger, A T; Božović, I

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial indium tin oxide films have been grown on both LaAlO3 and yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates using RF magnetron sputtering. Electrolyte gating causes a large change in the film resistance that occurs immediately after the gate voltage is applied, and shows no hysteresis during the charging/discharging processes. When two devices are patterned next to one another and the first one gated through an electrolyte, the second one shows no changes in conductance, in contrast to what happens in materials (like tungsten oxide) susceptible to ionic electromigration and intercalation. These findings indicate that electrolyte gating in indium tin oxide triggers a pure electronic process (electron depletion or accumulation, depending on the polarity of the gate voltage), with no electrochemical reactions involved. Electron accumulation occurs in a very thin layer near the film surface, which becomes highly conductive. These results contribute to our understanding of the electrolyte gating mechanism in complex oxides and may be relevant for applications of electric double layer transistor devices. PMID:27506371

  4. Plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on γTiAl alloy for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lara Rodriguez, L; Sundaram, P A; Rosim-Fachini, E; Padovani, A M; Diffoot-Carlo, N

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to enhance the potential of gamma titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy as a biomaterial, its surface characteristics were successfully modified using a calcium and phosphorous rich electrolyte through the application of plasma electrolytic oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the morphology and topographical features of the resulting coating while X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to determine the surface oxide composition. The mechanical properties of the surface coating were characterized by nanoindentation studies. The results observed show the formation of a submicron scale porous structure and a concomitant increase in the surface roughness. The surface oxide was composed of rutile and anatase phases. Composition gradients of Ca and P were also present which can possibly enhance the biomaterial application potential of this treated surface. Nanoindentation measurements indicate the formation of a fairly compact oxide during the process. PMID:24259371

  5. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  6. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  7. Development of materials for solid state electrochemical sensors and fuel cell applications. Final report, September 30, 1995--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bobba, R.; Hormes, J.; Young, V.; Baker, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The intent of this project was two fold: (1) to develop new ionically conducting materials for solid state gas phase sensors and fuel cells and (2) to train students and create an environment conducive to Solid State Ionics research at Southern University. The authors have investigated the electrode-electrolyte interfacial reactions, defect structure and defect stability in some perovoskite type solid electrolyte materials and the effect of electrocatalyst and electrolyte on direct hydrocarbon and methanol/air fuel cell performance using synchrotron radiation based Extended X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (EXAFS), surface analytical and Impedance Spectroscopic techniques. They have measured the AC impedance and K edge EXAFS of the entire family of rare earth dopants in Cerium Oxide to understand the effect of dopants on the conductivity and its impact on the structural properties of Cerium Oxide. All of the systems showed an increase in the conductivity over undoped ceria with ceria doped Gd, Sm and Y showing the highest values. The conductivity increased with increasing ionic radius of the dopant cation. The authors have measured the K edge of the EXAFS of these dopants to determine the local structural environment and also to understand the nature of the defect clustering between oxygen vacancies and trivalent ions. The analysis and the data reduction of these complex EXAFS spectra is in progress. Where as in the DOWCs, the authors have attempted to explore the impact of catalyst loadings on the performance of direct oxidation of methanol fuel cells. Their initial measurements on fuel cell performance characteristics and EXAFS are made on commercial membranes Pt/Ru/Nafion 115, 117 and 112.

  8. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1987-02-24

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device is described comprising layers including cathode contact means, anode contact means, means including a layer of dielectric material and means including an electrochromic oxide layer. The means is arranged and oriented such that the application of a predetermined potential to the transition metal oxide device is effective for actuating blue coloration within the electrochromic oxide layer and wherein the coloration action sweeps across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer from the cathode contact means to the anode contact means.

  9. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower

  10. Molecular-Level Control of Ciclopirox Olamine Release from Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Mucoadhesive Buccal Films: Exploration of Structure-Property Relationships with Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Urbanova, Martina; Gajdosova, Marketa; Steinhart, Miloš; Vetchy, David; Brus, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal films (MBFs) provide an innovative way to facilitate the efficient site-specific delivery of active compounds while simultaneously separating the lesions from the environment of the oral cavity. The structural diversity of these complex multicomponent and mostly multiphase systems as well as an experimental strategy for their structural characterization at molecular scale with atomic resolution were demonstrated using MBFs of ciclopirox olamine (CPX) in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix as a case study. A detailed description of each component of the CPX/PEO films was followed by an analysis of the relationships between each component and the physicochemical properties of the MBFs. Two distinct MBFs were identified by solid-state NMR spectroscopy: (i) at low API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) loading, a nanoheterogeneous solid solution of CPX molecularly dispersed in an amorphous PEO matrix was created; and (ii) at high API loading, a pseudoco-crystalline system containing CPX-2-aminoethanol nanocrystals incorporated into the interlamellar space of a crystalline PEO matrix was revealed. These structural differences were found to be closely related to the mechanical and physicochemical properties of the prepared MBFs. At low API loading, the polymer chains of PEO provided sufficient quantities of binding sites to stabilize the CPX that was molecularly dispersed in the highly amorphous semiflexible polymer matrix. Consequently, the resulting MBFs were soft, with low tensile strength, plasticity, and swelling index, supporting rapid drug release. At high CPX content, however, the active compounds and the polymer chains simultaneously cocrystallized, leaving the CPX to form nanocrystals grown directly inside the spherulites of PEO. Interfacial polymer-drug interactions were thus responsible not only for the considerably enhanced plasticity of the system but also for the exclusive crystallization of CPX in the thermodynamically most stable

  11. Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

    2009-03-01

    Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ∼6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

  12. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, Rizwan; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M.; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Shakir, Imran; Mohsin, Munazza; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Zhu, Bin E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  13. Operando X-ray Investigation of Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Model Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We employed operando anomalous surface X-ray diffraction to investigate the buried interface between the cathode and the electrolyte of a model solid oxide fuel cell with atomic resolution. The cell was studied under different oxygen pressures at elevated temperatures and polarizations by external potential control. Making use of anomalous X-ray diffraction effects at the Y and Zr K-edges allowed us to resolve the interfacial structure and chemical composition of a (100)-oriented, 9.5 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal electrolyte below a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ (LSC) electrode. We observe yttrium segregation toward the YSZ/LSC electrolyte/electrode interface under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions, the interface becomes Y depleted. The yttrium segregation is corroborated by an enhanced outward relaxation of the YSZ interfacial metal ion layer. At the same time, an increase in point defect concentration in the electrolyte at the interface was observed, as evidenced by reduced YSZ crystallographic site occupancies for the cations as well as the oxygen ions. Such changes in composition are expected to strongly influence the oxygen ion transport through this interface which plays an important role for the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The structure of the interface is compared to the bare YSZ(100) surface structure near the microelectrode under identical conditions and to the structure of the YSZ(100) surface prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. PMID:27346923

  14. Solid-State Electrode Engineering and Material Processing for All-Solid-State Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersak, Thomas A.

    In this dissertation we demonstrate the full rechargeability of a FeS 2/lithium metal battery at 60°C. To enable the reversibility of the FeS2 redox chemistry we utilize a bulk all-solid-state battery architecture based upon the Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. The glass-ceramic electrolyte's non-volatility and non-flammability allows us to use a lithium metal anode safely, while its solid nature confines FeS2's intermediate electroactive species to prevent active material loss and capacity fade. Based only on the weight of the active materials our battery stands to triple the specific energy (Wh kg-1) of conventional state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. We also observe ortho-FeS2 as a charge product and propose a new discharge mechanism which revises 30 years of research on the subject. Unfortunately, our laboratory FeS2/Li battery could not achieve a practical cell-level specific energy because the composite electrode was nearly 70 wt. % glass-ceramic electrolyte and carbon black. We also found that our batteries were not durable because the formation of lithium dendrites through the glass-ceramic electrolyte separator membrane frequently internally shorted test cells upon charge. The remainder of this dissertation outlines our work to develop an all-solid-state Li-ion battery to address the shorting issue and the work done to engineer better active material-electrolyte solid-solid interfaces in the composite electrode for high cell-level specific energy.

  15. Electrolytic separation of crystals of transition-metal oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnott, R. J.; Feretti, A.; Kunnamann, W.

    1969-01-01

    Versatile flux system grows large, well-formed, stoichiometric single crystals of mixed oxides of the transition-metal elements. These crystals have important uses in the microwave field, and applications as lasers and masers in communications.

  16. Thermal and oxidation stability of organo-fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Daiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Koh, Meiten; Yamauchi, Akiyoshi; Kagawa, Michiru; Aoyama, Hirokazu

    2013-12-01

    Thermal and oxidation stability of fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions have been investigated. Charge/discharge behavior of natural graphite electrode has been also examined in the same electrolyte solutions. Fluorine compounds demonstrate much lower reactivity with metallic Li than ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate. Fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions show the lower reactivity with LiC6 and the smaller exothermic peaks due to decomposition of electrolyte solutions and surface films than original solutions without fluorine compound. Oxidation currents are also smaller in fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions than in original ones. First coulombic efficiencies in fluorine compound-mixed electrolyte solutions are similar to those in original ethylene carbonate-based solutions except one case. Mixing of fluorine compounds highly increase first coulombic efficiencies of natural graphite electrode in propylene carbonate-containing solution.

  17. Covering anodized aluminum with electropolymerized polypyrrole via manganese oxide layer and application to solid electrolytic capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoh, Yasuo; Kojima, Toshikuni; Fukuyama, Masao; Tsuchiya, Sohji; Yoshimura, Susumu

    A new technology for covering an etched and anodized aluminum (Al) foil with polypyrrole (PPy) was developed. PPy was electropolymerized from an external electrode via an extremely thin semiconducting manganese oxide layer prepared on the etched and anodized Al foil in advance. Pyrolytic and reduced manganese oxide could be used with little difference in the performance of the PPy layer growth. To obtain a high coverage ratio, the optimal starting materials were manganese nitrate for the pyrolysis process and sodium permanganate for the reduction process. On the basis of the technology, two kinds of Al solid electrolytic capacitors, in which the PPy layers are used as electrolytes, were produced and characterized. These capacitors showed almost equal ideal impedance-frequency characteristics, excellent temperature characteristics and environmental stability, and independence of the manganese oxide synthesis route.

  18. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2001-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate1 temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid start-up is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research are to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower

  19. Electrowinning of neodymium from a molten oxide-fluoride electrolyte. Report of investigations/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dysinger, D.K.; Murphy, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Neodymium metal of 99.8 percent purity was prepared by electrolysis of Nd2O3 salts dissolved in a molten fluoride electrolyte. The metal was electrowon in a molten state at current efficiencies of 50 to 60 percent. Oxygen and carbon were the major impurities detected in the product. During operation of the small scale laboratory cell, a number of technical problems including anode effect, low oxide solubility in the electrolyte, high neodymium metal solubility, reactivity of the metal with the cell materials, and back reaction of the metal with the anode gases were encountered. Approaches to improve cell operation and prospects for commercial adoption of the electrolytic production of neodymium metal are discussed.

  20. The evidence of cathodic micro-discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Nominé, A.; Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T.; Bardin, I. V.; Kovalev, V. L.; Rakoch, A. G.

    2014-02-24

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) processing of EV31 magnesium alloy has been carried out in fluoride containing electrolyte under bipolar pulse current regime. Unusual PEO cathodic micro-discharges have been observed and investigated. It is shown that the cathodic micro-discharges exhibit a collective intermittent behavior, which is discussed in terms of charge accumulations at the layer/electrolyte and layer/metal interfaces. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine the electron density (typ. 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}) and the electron temperature (typ. 7500 K) while the role of F{sup −} anions on the appearance of cathodic micro-discharges is pointed out.

  1. Thiourea-succinonitrile based polymer matrix for efficient and stable quasi solid state dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Rakhi; Jauhari, Himanshi; Saxena, Kanchan

    2016-05-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are considered to be emerging alternatives to the low cost indoor photovoltaic technologies. However, to make the application of these cells economically feasible, the stability of the cells need to be enhanced. This can be achieved by employing solid or quasi solid state electrolytes to reduce the leakage and sealing problems in DSSCs. In the present work, a gel state electrolyte composition was successfully prepared using thiourea and solid state ionic conductor succinonitrile along with other components. The composition has been used for the fabrication of quasi solid state DSSCs using Eosin B as the sensitizer material. The cells fabricated exhibited consistent photovoltaic properties even after 24 hours of storage under ambient conditions without sealing. The present work therefore, demonstrates a rapid and simple preparation of electrolyte medium for quasi solid state DSSCs.

  2. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes

    DOEpatents

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  3. Solid-electrolyte oxide-ion electrode for molten nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    An oxide ion sensitive electrode of the type Pb, PbO/ZrO/sub 2/(Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/)// was constructed and its performance tested in the binary, equimolar molten salt NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ over the temperature range 336 to 350/sup 0/C. The response of this electrode to oxide ion concentrations over the range 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -10/ moles/kg is linearly dependent upon log (0/sup =/), and dE/dlog(0/sup =/) corresponds to a two-electron process.

  4. Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Leygraf, Christofer H.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  6. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  7. Dissolution of Neptunium and Plutonium Oxides Using a Catalyzed Electrolytic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, TD

    2004-10-25

    This report discusses the scoping study performed to evaluate the use of a catalyzed electrolytic process for dissolving {sup 237}Np oxide targets that had been irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu oxide. Historically, these compounds have been difficult to dissolve, and complete dissolution was obtained only by adding hydrofluoric acid to the nitric acid solvent. The presence of fluoride in the mixture is undesired because the fluoride ions are corrosive to tank and piping systems and the fluoride ions cause interferences in the spectrophotometric analyses. The goal is to find a dissolution method that will eliminate these issues and that can be incorporated into a processing system to support the domestic production and purification of {sup 238}Pu. This study evaluated the potential of cerium(IV) ions, a strong oxidant, to attack and dissolve the oxide compounds. In the dissolution process, the cerium(IV) ions are reduced to cerium(III) ions, which are not oxidants. Therefore, an electrolytic process was incorporated to continuously convert cerium(III) ions back to cerium(IV) ions so that they can dissolve more of the oxide compounds. This study showed that the neptunium and plutonium oxides were successfully dissolved and that more development work should be performed to optimize the procedure.

  8. Solid state recorders for airborne reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.

    2003-08-01

    Solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice for meeting airborne ruggedized requirements for reconnaissance and flight test. The cost of solid state recorders have decreased over the past few years that they are now less expense than the traditional high speed tape recorders. CALCULEX, Inc manufactures solid state recorders called MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used on many different platforms such as F/A-22, Global Hawk, F-14, F-15, F-16, U-2, RF-4, and Tornado. This paper will discuss the advantages of using solid state recorders to meet the airborne reconnaissance requirement and the ability to record instrumentation data. The CALCULEX recorder has the ability to record sensor data and flight test data in the same chassis. This is an important feature because it eliminates additional boxes on the aircraft. The major advantages to using a solid state recorder include; reliability, small size, light weight, and power. Solid state recorders also have a larger storage capacity and higher bandwidth capability than other recording devices.

  9. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection-high-resolution-mass spectrometry combined with automated data processing for studying the kinetics of oxidative thermal degradation of thyroxine in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Neu, Volker; Bielow, Chris; Reinert, Knut; Huber, Christian G

    2014-12-01

    Levothyroxine as active pharmaceutical ingredient of formulations used for the treatment of hypothyroidism is distributed worldwide and taken by millions of people. An important issue in terms of compound stability is its capability to react with ambient oxygen, especially in case of long term compound storage at elevated temperature. In this study we demonstrate that ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-HRMS) represent very useful approaches to investigate the influence of ambient oxygen on the degradation kinetics of levothyroxine in the solid state at enhanced degradation conditions. Moreover, the impurity pattern of oxidative degradation of levothyroxine is elucidated and classified with respect to degradation kinetics at different oxygen levels. Kinetic analysis of thyroxine bulk material at 100 °C reveals bi-phasic degradation kinetics with a distinct change in degradation phases dependent on the availability of oxygen. The results clearly show that contact of the bulk material to ambient oxygen is a key factor for fast compound degradation. Furthermore, the combination of time-resolved HRMS data and automated data processing is shown to allow insights into the kinetics and mechanism of impurity formation on individual compound basis. By comparing degradation profiles, four main classes of profiles linked to reaction pathways of thyroxine degradation were identifiable. Finally, we show the capability of automated data processing for the matching of different stressing conditions, in order to extract information about mechanistic similarities. As a result, degradation kinetics is influenced by factors like availability of oxygen, stressing time, or stressing temperature, while the degradation mechanisms appear to be conserved.

  10. Anode shroud for off-gas capture and removal from electrolytic oxide reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Williamson, Mark A.; Willit, James L.

    2014-07-08

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies and an anode shroud for each of the anode assemblies. The anode shroud may be used to dilute, cool, and/or remove off-gas from the electrolytic oxide reduction system. The anode shroud may include a body portion having a tapered upper section that includes an apex. The body portion may have an inner wall that defines an off-gas collection cavity. A chimney structure may extend from the apex of the upper section and be connected to the off-gas collection cavity of the body portion. The chimney structure may include an inner tube within an outer tube. Accordingly, a sweep gas/cooling gas may be supplied down the annular space between the inner and outer tubes, while the off-gas may be removed through an exit path defined by the inner tube.

  11. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  12. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-07-06

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs.

  13. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components.

  14. Pseudo-capacitance of composite electrode of ruthenium oxide with porous carbon in non-aqueous electrolyte containing imidazolium salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egashira, Minato; Matsuno, Yuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    Pseudo-capacitance of composite materials where ruthenium oxide particles are loaded on activated carbon has been evaluated in the electrolyte of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate dissolved in acetonitrile. The composite materials prepared by conventional a sol-gel method have dispersed structure of ruthenium oxide particle of tens nanometer diameter on the surface of activated carbon. The extent of the pseudo-capacitance of the composite electrodes in the imidazolium salt electrolyte, estimated by the comparison of the capacitance per surface area of electrode in different non-aqueous electrolyte, is ca. 3-5 μF cm -2 in addition to the double-layer capacitance of ca. 6 μF cm -2, depending on the loading status of ruthenium oxide. The symmetric cell consisting of the composite electrode containing 18 wt% of ruthenium oxide and the imidazolium salt electrolyte provides cell capacitance based on the pseudo-capacitance by a constant-current test.

  15. A Quasi-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Capacitor with High Energy Density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chang, Zheng; Wu, Xiongwei; Liu, Xiang; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2015-11-18

    A quasi-solid-state sodium-ion capacitor is demonstrated with nanoporous disordered carbon and macroporous graphene as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, using a sodium-ion-conducting gel polymer electrolyte. It can operate at a cell voltage as high as 4.2 V with an energy density of record high 168 W h kg(-1).

  16. Modifying zirconia solid electrolyte surface property to enhance oxide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, B.Y.; Song, S.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, BSCCO) is known for its high T{sub c} superconducting behavior and mixed conducting property. The applicability of similar high T{sub c} cuprates for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application has been studied recently. We investigated the electrochemical behavior of several Ag{vert_bar}BSCCO{vert_bar}10 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ){vert_bar}Ag and Ag{vert_bar}YSZ{vert_bar}Ag cells using complex impedance spectroscopy. A highly uniform and porous microstructure was observed at the interface of the YSZ and BSCCO. The ionic conductivity determined from the Nyquest plots in the temperature range of 200-700{degrees}C agrees with the values reported in the literature. The specific resistance of the BSCCO{vert_bar}YSZ interface was also determined to be lower than those of the conventional manganite electrode, suggesting that BSCCO seems attractive for cathode applications in SOFC.

  17. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. PMID:26280225

  18. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J.; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li+ conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm-1) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  19. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  20. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Zarkadoula, E.; Dove, M. T.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  1. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support

  2. Surface engineering of nanoporous substrate for solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sanghoon; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Yu, Wonjong; Kang, Sungmin; Cho, Gu Young; Kim, Sung Han; An, Jihwan; Cha, Suk Won

    2015-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited thin film electrolytes supported on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) are electrochemically characterized with varying thickness of bottom electrode catalyst (BEC); BECs which are 0.5 and 4 times thicker than the size of AAO pores are tested. The thicker BEC ensures far more active mass transport on the BEC side and resultantly the thicker BEC cell generates ≈11 times higher peak power density than the thinner BEC cell at 500 °C.

  3. Surface engineering of nanoporous substrate for solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sanghoon; Tanveer, Waqas Hassan; Yu, Wonjong; Kang, Sungmin; Cho, Gu Young; Kim, Sung Han

    2015-01-01

    Summary Solid oxide fuel cells with atomic layer-deposited thin film electrolytes supported on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) are electrochemically characterized with varying thickness of bottom electrode catalyst (BEC); BECs which are 0.5 and 4 times thicker than the size of AAO pores are tested. The thicker BEC ensures far more active mass transport on the BEC side and resultantly the thicker BEC cell generates ≈11 times higher peak power density than the thinner BEC cell at 500 °C. PMID:26425432

  4. State-of-the-art Thin Film Electrolytes For Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Nandasiri, Manjula I.

    2015-02-19

    State-of-the-Art solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are amongst the main candidates for clean energy technology due to their high efficiency, fuel flexibility, low air pollution, and minimal greenhouse gas emission. However, high operational temperature of SOFC is a greater challenge in commercialization these devices for low cost and portable applications. High temperature operation of SOFC degrades its performance with aging, limits the selection of materials for fuel cell components, and increases the fabrication cost. Thus, there have been enormous efforts to improve the properties of existing materials and develop new materials for SOFC components in order to lower the operating temperature of SOFC. Recent advances in thin film technology have also been utilized to develop new materials with improved properties for SOFC. One of the key components in SOFC is the electrolyte and several research groups are working on developing new electrolyte materials. In this chapter, we will discuss the recent advances in thin film SOFC electrolytes. This extensive discussion includes the evolution of doped ceria, doped zirconia, and multilayer hetero-structured thin film electrolytes. The newly developed nanoscale thin films and multi-layer hetero-structures with improved oxygen ionic conductivity will have significant impact on SOFC devices.

  5. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic −EO− based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm−1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions. PMID:26791572

  6. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic -EO- based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm-1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions.

  7. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, Alvin C.; Britten, Jerald A.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  8. Transverse mode control in solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bobeck, A.H.; Harriott, L.R.; Hartman, R.L.; Kaplan, D.R.; Przybylek, G.J.; Tabor, W.J.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a solid state laser. It comprises a solid state body including an optical resonator, a waveguide in which laser radiation propagates in TE and TM modes. The radiation being incident on a region of a first surface of the body, characterized by a reflection filter disposed on the first surface so as to preferentially reflect either TE or TM modes and to suppress oscillation within the resonator of the non-reflected modes.

  9. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  10. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  11. Current status of solid-state lithium batteries employing solid redox polymerization cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1991-03-01

    The rapidly growing demand for secondary batteries having high specific energy and power has naturally led to increased efforts in lithium battery technology. Still, the increased safety risks associated with high energy density systems has tempered the enthusiasm of proponents of such systems for use in the consumer marketplace. The inherent advantages of all-solid-state batteries in regards to safety and reliability are strong factors in advocating their introduction to the marketplace. However, the low ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes relative to non-aqueous liquid electrolytes implies low power densities for solid-state systems operating at ambient temperatures. Recent advances in polymer electrolytes have led to the introduction of solid electrolytes having conductivities in the range of 10{sup {minus}4} (ohm cm){sup {minus}1} at room temperature; this is still two orders of magnitude lower than liquid electrolytes. Although these improved ambient conductivities put solid-state batteries in the realm of practical devices, it is clear that solid-state batteries using such polymeric separators will be thin-film devices. Fortunately, thin-film fabrication techniques are well established in the plastics and paper industry, and present the possibility of continuous web-form manufacturing. This style of battery manufacture should make solid polymer batteries very cost- competitive with conventional secondary cells. In addition, the greater geometric flexibility of thin-film solid-state cells should provide benefits in terms of the end-use form factor in device design. This work discusses the status of solid redox polymerization cathodes. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funke, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic) transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an ‘evolving scheme of materials science’, point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals), by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  13. Novel solid state proton-conductors based on polymeric non-oxy acids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, A.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Gonzalez, E.R.; DesMarteau, D.; Gillette, M.S.; Ghosh, J.K.; Jalan, V.; Desai, M.

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this project were to prepare and characterize novel solid state proton-conductors and to evaluate these compounds as fuel cell electrolytes. The thrust was on the synthesis of new proton-conducting ``model`` and ``polymeric`` compounds, based on acid functions of the type (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH and (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 2} in appropriate fluorinated carbon structures, their physics-chemical characterization (Infra-red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and X-ray Diffraction), and is pro. evaluation as candidate fuel cell electrolytes for use at elevated temperatures. This project consisted of four tasks (i) Synthesis of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (ii) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (iii) Electrochemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; and (iv) Evaluation of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Fuel Cells.

  14. Solid state NMR study of SEI formation in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dachun

    Recently, rechargeable lithium ion batteries, which offer high energy density and long cycle life, are in great demand as power sources for our mobile electronic society. The formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of electrodes in lithium ion batteries plays an essential role in their performance. This thesis presents solid state NMR and MAS NMR results on the SEI, which contribute to our understanding of SEI formation on both cathodes and anodes. This thesis is organized as following: Chapter 1 surveys the history of batteries and the challenges to further development of the lithium ion battery. Fundamental aspects and SEI formation mechanisms are also included in Chapter l. Chapter 2 deals with the principles and experimental techniques of solid state NMR. Chapter 3 presents studies of SEI formation on anode and cathode in lithium ion batteries using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and NMR. The results provide EIS and NMR evidence that cells containing electrolytes with high EC content display less irreversible capacity after high temperature storage. The irreversible capacity is attributed to SEI growth on electrode surfaces. NMR results on cathodes, on the other hand, imply that the presence of Ni in the cathode may reduce cell performance due to the oxidation of Ni 3+ to Ni4+. Our simulations show that a lower EC/DMC ratio is associated with a smaller SEI intensity for the cathode and higher intensity for the anode. Chapter 4 discusses the effect of temperature on SEI formation on anodes and cathodes. NMR measurements show that MCMB graphite based anodes exhibit high stability no chemical shift is evident over a wide temperature range. On cathodes, however, NMR does reveal changes in SEI intensity as a function of temperature. These changes are believed to be the result of decomposition of the SEI. Evidently, then, changes in the performance of the cell as a factor of temperature are, at least in part, due to changes in

  15. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy and investigation on microstructure and wear behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Mehdi; Fadaee, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    In this study, plasma electrolytic oxidation has been used to improve wear resistance of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy. An electrolyte containing available and inexpensive constituents was used. A conventional DC source with low applied voltage was employed. It was found that with increase in oxidation treatment time the micro-hardness of the coating were decreased while the friction coefficient increased. It was seen that deposition at optimum treatment time of 10 min resulted in the highest micro-hardness and lowest friction coefficient and weight loss. The surface and cross-sectional morphology indicated that the coatings have a dense structure with low porosity and without any cracking. Also, the presence of wear scars on the worn surface morphology demonstrates that the three-body rolling was the main wear mechanism for coated specimen. The phase analysis of the coating indicated that the coating was formed mainly from α-Al2O3, ɤ-Al2O3, Al3.21Si0.47 and small amounts of amorphous phases. The presence of glycerin in the electrolyte composition resulted in not only stabilizing the solution but also achieving of a dense and uniform coating without any cracking.

  16. Strength and Fracture Toughness of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte Material Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2002-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are being developed for various applications in the automobile, power-generation, and aeronautics industries. Recently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has been exploring the possibility of using SOFC's for aeropropulsion under its Zero Carbon Dioxide Emission Technology (ZCET) Program. 10-mol% yttriastabilized zirconia (10YSZ) is a very good anionic conductor at high temperatures and is, therefore, used as an oxygen solid electrolyte in SOFC. However, it has a high thermal expansion coefficient, low thermal shock resistance, low fracture toughness, and poor mechanical strength. For aeronautic applications, the thin ceramic electrolyte membrane of the SOFC needs to be strong and tough. Therefore, we have been investigating the possibility of enhancing the strength and fracture toughness of the 10YSZ electrolyte without degrading its electrical conductivity to an appreciable extent. We recently demonstrated that the addition of alumina to zirconia electrolyte increases its strength as well as its fracture toughness. Zirconia-alumina composites containing 0 to 30 mol% of alumina were fabricated by hot pressing. The hot pressing procedure was developed and various hot pressing parameters were optimized, resulting in dense, crackfree panels of composite materials. Cubic zirconia and a-alumina were the only phases detected, indicating that there was no chemical reaction between the constituents during hot pressing at elevated temperatures. Flexure strength sf and fracture toughness K(sub IC) of the various zirconia-alumina composites were measured at room temperature as well as at 1000 C in air. Both properties showed systematic improvement with increased alumina addition at room temperature and at 1000 C. Use of these modified electrolytes with improved strength and fracture toughness should prolong the life and enhance the performance of SOFC in aeronautics and other applications.

  17. Evaluation of lanthanum tungstates as electrolytes for proton conductors Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas-Rey, M. J.; dos Santos-Gómez, L.; Porras-Vázquez, J. M.; Losilla, E. R.; Marrero-López, D.

    2015-10-01

    La27W4NbO55-δ (LWNO) has been tested as electrolyte for proton conductor Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (PC-SOFCs). For this purpose, different electrodes and composite electrodes are considered, including: La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ, La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xFexO3-δ, La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ, SrFe0.75Nb0.25O3-δ and NiO. Chemical compatibility between the cell components is investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, area specific resistance (ASR) for the different electrodes is determined in symmetrical cells by impedance spectroscopy. XRPD and EDS analysis does not reveal significant bulk reactivity between most of these electrodes and LWNO electrolyte in the typical operating temperature range of an SOFC (600-900 °C). However, minor interdiffusion of elements at the electrolyte/electrode interface has negative effects on both the ohmic losses and electrode polarization of the cells. ASR values are significantly improved by using a porous buffer layer of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (CGO), deposited between the electrolyte and electrode materials, to prevent reactivity. A single cell with a 350 μm-thick electrolyte, NiO-CGO and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ-CGO composite as anode and cathode, respectively, generates maximum power densities of 140 and 18 mWcm-2 at 900 and 650 °C, respectively.

  18. Improvement of cathode-electrolyte interfaces of tubular solid oxide fuel cells by fabricating dense YSZ electrolyte membranes with indented surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dehua; Liu, Mingfei; Xie, Kui; Sheng, Jin; Wang, Yonghong; Peng, Xiaobo; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    To improve cathode-electrolyte interfaces of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), dense YSZ electrolyte membranes with indented surfaces were fabricated on tubular NiO/YSZ anode supports by two comparable methods. Electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and current-voltage tests of the cells were carried out to characterize the cathode-electrolyte interfaces. Results showed that the electrode polarization resistances of the modified cells were reduced by 52% and 35% at 700 °C, and the maximum power densities of cells were remarkably increased, even by 146.6% and 117.8% at lower temperature (700 °C), respectively. The indented surfaces extended the active zone of cathode and enhanced interfacial adhesion, which led to the major improvement in the cell performance.

  19. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2014-03-01

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ˜5.5 × 10-3 S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ˜2.0 μF/cm2 at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, 2.8 × 106, and 130 mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  20. Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Shobit; Wachsman, Eric D.; Nino, Juan C.

    2007-10-01

    Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm3+ and Nd3+ were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancy diffusion, thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover, the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship, thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of SmxNdxCe1-2xO2-δ solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O2-δ, the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0×10-3Scm-1 at 550°C, which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  1. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOEpatents

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  2. Effect of surface nanostructuring of aluminum alloy on post plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiha, H. R.; Bagheri, H. R.; Gheytani, M.; Aliofkhazraei, M.; Sabour Rouhaghdam, A.; Shahrabi, T.

    2014-10-01

    AA1230 aluminum alloy samples were coated by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The samples with and without surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) were coated in phosphate- and silicate-based electrolytes and in the presence of Si3N4 nanoparticles. Besides, morphology and properties of the produced coatings were examined. To determine the corrosion resistance of the coatings, potentiodynamic polarization technique was used. All coated samples were subjected to wear test in order to compare coating wear properties of the SMATed and unSMATed samples. Then the effects of SMAT preprocessing and its duration on the properties of the coatings prepared by PEO were investigated. The results indicated that the mean coefficient of friction of the coated samples decreased by near 83% with respect to the uncoated (raw) samples. Furthermore, the SMATed samples showed thicker coatings as compared to unSMATed samples due to an increase in their matrix reactivity.

  3. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Di Wang; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-14

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). PMID:27609560

  4. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  5. Oxide-ion and proton conducting electrolyte materials for clean energy applications: structural and mechanistic features.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2010-11-01

    This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references). PMID:20848015

  6. Oxide-ion and proton conducting electrolyte materials for clean energy applications: structural and mechanistic features.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2010-11-01

    This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references).

  7. Production of hydroxyapatite layers on the plasma electrolytically oxidized surface of titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lugovskoy, Alex; Lugovskoy, Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material that is widely used for improving the osseointegration of titanium dental implants. Titanium can be coated with HA by various methods, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), thermal spray, or plasma spray. HA coatings can also be grown on titanium surfaces by hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical methods. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), or microarc oxidation (MAO), is an electrochemical method that enables the production of a thick porous oxide layer on the surface of a titanium implant. If the electrolyte in which PEO is performed contains calcium and phosphate ions, the oxide layer produced may contain hydroxyapatite. The HA content can then be increased by subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The HA thus produced on titanium surfaces has attractive properties, such as a high porosity, a controllable thickness, and a considerable density, which favor its use in dental and bone surgery. This review summarizes the state of the art and possible further development of PEO for the production of HA on Ti implants.

  8. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Di Wang; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-14

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  9. Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive for improving interfacial stability of high voltage layered lithium-rich oxide cathode/carbonate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Xing, Lidan; Zhang, Ruiqin; Chen, Min; Wang, Zaisheng; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2015-07-01

    Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is used as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-rich oxide cathode of lithium ion battery. The interfacial natures of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/carbonate-based electrolyte are investigated with a combination of electrochemical measurements and physical characterizations. Charge/discharge tests show that the cyclic performance of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 in a mixed carbonate electrolyte is significantly improved by using TMSB. After 200 cycles between 2 V and 4.8 V (vs. Li/Li+) at 0.5 C rate, the capacity retention of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is only 19% in the blank electrolyte, while it is improved to 74% when 0.5% TMSB is applied. The results from physical characterizations demonstrate that this excellent cyclic performance is attributed to the improved interfacial stability of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/electrolyte due to the thin and protective film generated by TMSB.

  10. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  11. Electrodes for solid state devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The invention relates to coated metal powders and to dispersions of such powders in liquid vehicles forming screenable, sinterable pastes for use in forming electrodes on photovoltaic devices. The primary nickel or copper metal particles are provided with a carrier of lower melting sintering metals such as 1-20% by weight, of a non-oxidizing metal such as lead or tin. The powdered metal systems operate on the basis of fusing together by way of eutectic alloying. As the paste is heated during firing the organic binder is first vaporized. An eutectic of the base metal (copper) and coating (tin) forms at the intersections of the base metal grains. This eutectic dissolves the grains and as the temperature is raised above the eutectic temperature, more of the base metal is dissolved. While the temperature is held at the higher value, the much smaller amount of sintering metal disappears as the eutectic dissolves and diffuses into the base metal until the composition of the eutectic is so enriched with base metal that it no longer has the eutectic properties and it solidifies. In this high temperature solidification, the base metal grains became thoroughly alloyed together and will not separate at the eutectic temperature (a lower temperature than their solidification by diffusion).

  12. On the role of twinning in solid-state reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akchurin, M. Sh. Zakalyukin, R. M.

    2013-05-15

    A new concept of the role of twinning in processes of plastic deformation is proposed which suggests mechanical twinning to be the main mechanism of solid-state reactions under the deformation mixing of components, in particular, the grinding of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders, as a result of which yttrium-aluminum garnet (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) particles are formed.

  13. Modular nonvolatile solid state recorder (MONSSTR) update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klang, Mark R.; Small, Martin B.; Beams, Tom

    2001-12-01

    Solid state recorders have begun replacing traditional tape recorders in fulfilling the requirement to record images on airborne platforms. With the advances in electro-optical, IR, SAR, Multi and Hyper-spectral sensors and video recording requirements, solid state recorders have become the recorder of choice. Solid state recorders provide the additional storage, higher sustained bandwidth, less power, less weight and smaller footprint to meet the current and future recording requirements. CALCULEX, Inc., manufactures a non-volatile flash memory solid state recorder called the MONSSTR (Modular Non-volatile Solid State Recorder). MONSSTR is being used to record images from many different digital sensors on high performance aircraft such as the RF- 4, F-16 and the Royal Air Force Tornado. MONSSTR, with its internal multiplexer, is also used to record instrumentation data. This includes multiple streams of PCM and multiple channels of 1553 data. Instrumentation data is being recorded by MONSSTR systems in a range of platforms including F-22, F-15, F-16, Comanche Helicopter and US Navy torpedos. MONSSTR can also be used as a cockpit video recorder. This paper will provide an update of the MONSSTR.

  14. Evaluation of chemical stability, thermal expansion coefficient, and electrical properties of solid state and wet-chemical synthesized Y and Mn-codoped CeO2 for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handal, Hala T.; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2013-12-01

    Chemical stability and high electrical conductivity under the operating conditions of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are considered as the momentum for innovating solid electrolytes and electrodes. In this paper, we report synthesis, structure, chemical stability and electrical conductivity of novel co-doped Ce0.9-xY0.1MnxO2-δ (x = 0-15 mol%) (CYMO). X-ray diffraction of Mn and Y-doped CeO2 shows the formation of fluorite-type structure with a space group Fm-3m. A few weak peaks corresponding to a tetragonal Mn3O4 phase has been detected in some samples. Solubility of Mn in ceria is explained by considering the influence of the ionic radius, the crystal structure and its electronic structure. Thermal analysis shows dissimilarity between the reduction behavior of Ce0.9Mn0.1O2-δ and Ce0.9-xY0.1MnxO2-δ. Ce0.8Y0.1Mn0.1O2-δ exhibited the highest conductivity of ˜6 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 0.15 S cm-1 at 700 °C in air and H2, respectively. Surface studies have confirmed the formation of S species upon exposure to 30 ppm H2S in H2 and a mechanism for S poisoning is presented.

  15. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    SiO[symbol]) ceramics via solid state sintering of Zr)[symbol] and SiO[symbol] and the effect of dopants on the zircon yield / U. Dhanayake, B. S. B. Karunaratne. Preparation and properties of vanadium doped ZnTe cermet thin films / M. S. Hossain, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Dynamical properties and electronic structure of lithium-ion conductor / M. Kobayashi ... [et al.]. Cuprous ion conducting Montmorillonite-Polypyrrole nanocomposites / D. M. M. Krishantha ... [et al.]. Frequency dependence of conductivity studies on a newly synthesized superionic solid solution/mixed system: [0.75AgI: 0.25AgCl] / R. K. Nagarch, R. Kumar. Diffuse X-ray and neutron scattering from Powder PbS / X. Lian ... [et al.]. Electron affinity and work function of Pyrolytic MnO[symbol] thin films prepared from Mn(C[symbol]H[symbol]O[symbol])[symbol].4H[symbol]) / A. K. M. Farid Ul Islam, R. Islam, K. A. Khan. Crystal structure and heat capacity of Ba[symbol]Ca[symbol]Nb[symbol]O[symbol] / T. Shimoyama ... [et al.]. XPS and impedance investigations on amorphous vanadium oxide thin films / M. Kamalanathan ... [et al.]. Sintering and mixed electronic-ionic conducting properties of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]NiO[symbol] derived from a polyaminocarboxylate complex precursor / D.-P. Huang ... [et al.]. Preparation and characteristics of ball milled MgH[symbol] + M (M= Fe, VF[symbol] and FeF[symbol]) nanocomposites for hydrogen storage / N. W. B. Balasooriya, Ch. Poinsignon. Structural studies of oxysulfide glasses by X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation / R. Prasada Rao, M. Seshasayee, J. Dheepa. Synthesis, sintering and oxygen ionic conducting properties of Bi[symbol]V[symbol]Cu[symbol]O[symbol] / F. Zhang ... [et al.]. Synthesis and transport characteristics of PbI[symbol]-Ag[symbol]O-Cr[symbol]O[symbol] superioninc system / S. A. Suthanthiraraj, V. Mathew. Electronic conductivity of La[symbol]Sr[symbol]Ga[symbol]Mg[symbol]Co[symbol]O[symbol] electrolytes / K. Yamaji ... [et al.] -- pt. II. Electrode materials

  16. Influence of electrolytes (TEABF4 and TEMABF4) on electrochemical performance of graphite oxide derived from needle coke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Bae, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2013-05-01

    The structure of needle coke was changed to graphite oxide structure after oxidation treatment with 70 wt.% of nitric acid and sodium chlorate (NaClO3), and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle coke was expanded to 6.9 angstroms. The first charge profile of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEMABF4/acetonitrile solution displayed that the intercalation of electrolyte ions into the inter-layer occurred at 1.0 V, which value is lower than 1.3 V of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEABF4/acetonitrile solution. After first charge/discharge, the cell using TEMABF4 electrolyte exhibited smaller electrode resistance of 0.05 omega, and larger specific volume capacitance of 25.5 F/ml at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0-2.5 V than those of the cell using TEABF4 electrolyte. Compared to the TEABF4 electrolyte, better electrochemical performance of the TEMABF4 electrolyte in the oxidized needle coke may be caused by the smaller cation (TEMA+) size and better ion mobility in the nanopores between inter-layers.

  17. Nanoceramic oxide hybrid electrolyte membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Mu, Shichun

    2014-02-01

    This review reports on the functions and applications of nanoceramic oxides in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Such materials are mainly used as fillers to enhance the water uptake and proton conductivity of polymeric matrices at high temperatures under low relative humidity. To further enhance the mechanical property of proton exchange membranes (PEMs), the functionalized ceramic oxides with organic groups are introduced. Furthermore, the inorganic PEMs are developed to improve their proton conductivities at elevated temperatures. Due to the inherent disadvantages of polymeric PEMs, it is believed that the inorganic PEMs based on porous ceramic oxides are a promising new candidate as solid electrolyte membranes in PEMFCs at high temperatures and with low relative humidity.

  18. Thermodynamics of solid electrolytes and related oxide ceramics based on the fluorite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Oxides based on the fluorite structure are important as electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells, thermal barrier coatings, gate dielectrics, catalysts, and nuclear materials. Though the parent fluorite structure is simple, the substitution of trivalent for tetravalent cations, coupled with the presence of charge-balancing oxygen vacancies, leads to a wealth of short-range and long-range ordered structures and complex thermodynamic properties. The location of vacancies and the nature of clusters affect the energetics of mixing in rare earth doped zirconia, hafnia, ceria, urania, and thoria, with systematic trends in energetics as a function of cation radius. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry has provided direct measurement of formation enthalpies of these refractory materials. Surface and interfacial energies have also been measured in yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanomaterials. Other ionic conductors having perovskite, apatite, and mellilite structures are discussed briefly.

  19. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  20. Solid state recording current meter conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  1. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium-aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovović, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium-aluminium alloys is studied in this work by means of Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES). Spectral line shapes of the Hβ, Al II 704.21 nm and Mg II 448.11 nm line are analyzed to measure plasma electron number density Ne. From the Hβ line profile, two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities Ne ≈ 1015 cm-3 and Ne ≈ 2 × 1016 cm-3 were discovered while the shape and shift of Al II and Mg II lines revealed the third process characterized by large electron density Ne = (1-2) × 1017 cm-3. Low Ne processes, related with breakdown in gas bubbles and on oxide surface, are not influenced by anode material or electrolyte composition. The ejection of evaporated anode material through oxide layer is designated here as third PEO process. Using the Boltzmann plot technique, electron temperature of 4000 K and 33000 K is determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. Several difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are met during this study and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated.

  2. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  3. In Situ Study of Strain-Dependent Ion Conductivity of Stretchable Polyethylene Oxide Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Taylor; Ghadi, Bahar Moradi; Berg, Sean; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong need in developing stretchable batteries that can accommodate stretchable or irregularly shaped applications including medical implants, wearable devices and stretchable electronics. Stretchable solid polymer electrolytes are ideal candidates for creating fully stretchable lithium ion batteries mainly due to their mechanical and electrochemical stability, thin-film manufacturability and enhanced safety. However, the characteristics of ion conductivity of polymer electrolytes during tensile deformation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of tensile strain on the ion conductivity of thin-film polyethylene oxide (PEO) through an in situ study. The results of this investigation demonstrate that both in-plane and through-plane ion conductivities of PEO undergo steady and linear growths with respect to the tensile strain. The coefficients of strain-dependent ion conductivity enhancement (CSDICE) for in-plane and through-plane conduction were found to be 28.5 and 27.2, respectively. Tensile stress-strain curves and polarization light microscopy (PLM) of the polymer electrolyte film reveal critical insights on the microstructural transformation of stretched PEO and the potential consequences on ionic conductivity. PMID:26831948

  4. Highly stable microtubular solid oxide fuel cells based on integrated electrolyte/anode hollow fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiuxia; Yan, Wei; Yang, Naitao; Tan, Xiaoyao; Liu, Shaomin

    2015-02-01

    The asymmetric YSZ hollow fibers have been prepared by a phase-inversion method, based on which, the integrated electrolyte/anode hollow fibers are fabricated via a vacuum-assisted impregnation of nickel nitrate. The content of NiO in the integrated hollow fibers enhances linearly from 0 to 42 wt.% with the impregnation cycles from 0 to 10. The porosity of the integrated electrolyte/anode hollow fibers decreases from 43% to 31% with the repeated impregnation and calcination of Ni catalyst. Its conductivity reaches up to 728 S cm-1 after 10 cycles of impregnation. And the mechanical strength of the integrated hollow fiber enhances from 128 to 156 MPa due to the increased NiO content. Based on the integrated electrolyte/anode hollow fibers, the prepared microtubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) deliver a peak power density of 562 mW cm-2 after ten cycles of Ni impregnation. The cell stability has been verified in 40 thermal cycles with a steady OCV of 1.1 V and stable power density around 560 mW cm-2 operated at 800 °C.

  5. In Situ Study of Strain-Dependent Ion Conductivity of Stretchable Polyethylene Oxide Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Taylor; Ghadi, Bahar Moradi; Berg, Sean; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    There is a strong need in developing stretchable batteries that can accommodate stretchable or irregularly shaped applications including medical implants, wearable devices and stretchable electronics. Stretchable solid polymer electrolytes are ideal candidates for creating fully stretchable lithium ion batteries mainly due to their mechanical and electrochemical stability, thin-film manufacturability and enhanced safety. However, the characteristics of ion conductivity of polymer electrolytes during tensile deformation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of tensile strain on the ion conductivity of thin-film polyethylene oxide (PEO) through an in situ study. The results of this investigation demonstrate that both in-plane and through-plane ion conductivities of PEO undergo steady and linear growths with respect to the tensile strain. The coefficients of strain-dependent ion conductivity enhancement (CSDICE) for in-plane and through-plane conduction were found to be 28.5 and 27.2, respectively. Tensile stress-strain curves and polarization light microscopy (PLM) of the polymer electrolyte film reveal critical insights on the microstructural transformation of stretched PEO and the potential consequences on ionic conductivity. PMID:26831948

  6. Evolution of Insulator-Metal Phase Transitions in Epitaxial Tungsten Oxide Films during Electrolyte-Gating.

    PubMed

    Nishihaya, Shinichi; Uchida, Masaki; Kozuka, Yusuke; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Kawasaki, Masashi; Nishihaya, S; Uchida, M; Kozuka, Y; Iwasa, Y; Kawasaki, M; Iwasa, Y; Kawasaki, M

    2016-08-31

    An interface between an oxide and an electrolyte gives rise to various processes as exemplified by electrostatic charge accumulation/depletion and electrochemical reactions such as intercalation/decalation under electric field. Here we directly compare typical device operations of those in electric double layer transistor geometry by adopting A-site vacant perovskite WO3 epitaxial thin films as a channel material and two different electrolytes as gating agent. In situ measurements of X-ray diffraction and channel resistance performed during the gating revealed that in both the cases WO3 thin film reaches a new metallic state through multiple phase transitions, accompanied by the change in out-of-plane lattice constant. Electrons are electrostatically accumulated from the interface side with an ionic liquid, while alkaline metal ions are more uniformly intercalated into the film with a polymer electrolyte. We systematically demonstrate this difference in the electrostatic and electrochemical processes, by comparing doped carrier density, lattice deformation behavior, and time constant of the phase transitions. PMID:27502546

  7. In Situ Study of Strain-Dependent Ion Conductivity of Stretchable Polyethylene Oxide Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Taylor; Ghadi, Bahar Moradi; Berg, Sean; Ardebili, Haleh

    2016-02-01

    There is a strong need in developing stretchable batteries that can accommodate stretchable or irregularly shaped applications including medical implants, wearable devices and stretchable electronics. Stretchable solid polymer electrolytes are ideal candidates for creating fully stretchable lithium ion batteries mainly due to their mechanical and electrochemical stability, thin-film manufacturability and enhanced safety. However, the characteristics of ion conductivity of polymer electrolytes during tensile deformation are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of tensile strain on the ion conductivity of thin-film polyethylene oxide (PEO) through an in situ study. The results of this investigation demonstrate that both in-plane and through-plane ion conductivities of PEO undergo steady and linear growths with respect to the tensile strain. The coefficients of strain-dependent ion conductivity enhancement (CSDICE) for in-plane and through-plane conduction were found to be 28.5 and 27.2, respectively. Tensile stress-strain curves and polarization light microscopy (PLM) of the polymer electrolyte film reveal critical insights on the microstructural transformation of stretched PEO and the potential consequences on ionic conductivity.

  8. Anodic Oxidation in Aluminum Electrode by Using Hydrated Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Film as Solid Electrolyte under High Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Su, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zou, Pei; Yao, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Dense and nonporous amorphous aluminum oxide (AmAO) film was deposited onto platinized silicon substrate by sol-gel and spin coating technology. The evaporated aluminum film was deposited onto the AmAO film as top electrode. The hydrated AmAO film was utilized as a solid electrolyte for anodic oxidation of the aluminum electrode (Al) film under high electric field. The hydrated AmAO film was a high efficiency electrolyte, where a 45 nm thick Al film was anodized completely on a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and breakdown phenomena of a dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film with a 150 nm thick Al electrode pad were studied in this work. Breakdown voltage of the dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film were 85 ± 3 V (405 ± 14 MV m(-1)) and 160 ± 5 V (762 ± 24 MV m(-1)), respectively. The breakdown voltage of the hydrated AmAO film increased about twice, owing to the self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction). As an intuitive phenomenon of the self-healing behavior, priority anodic oxidation phenomena was observed in a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film with a 65 nm thick Al electrode pad. The results suggested that self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction) was occurring nearby the defect regions of the films during I-V test. It was an effective electrical self-healing method, which would be able to extend to many other simple and complex oxide dielectrics and various composite structures.

  9. The electrochemical performance of thin-electrolyte solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurawski, D.; Kueper, T.

    1993-04-01

    Several benefits are realized by lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) from 1000C to temperatures in the 600 to 800C range. Among the advantages are decreased reaction between fuel cell components, shorter startup times, and the possibility of using metals in stack construction; however, the achievable power density in conventional SOFC's is too low. A strategy for overcoming this limitation is to decrease the thickness of this layer by approximately an order of magnitude. Thin (5 micron electrolyte SOFC's have recently been fabricated by Allied-Signal Aerospace Systems and Equipment Company (ASASE). The electrochemical performance of these cells has been studied and is discussed.

  10. Flexible thin-film battery based on graphene-oxide embedded in solid polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammoun, M.; Berg, S.; Ardebili, H.

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced safety of flexible batteries is an imperative objective due to the intimate interaction of such devices with human organs such as flexible batteries that are integrated with touch-screens or embedded in clothing or space suits. In this study, the fabrication and testing of a high performance thin-film Li-ion battery (LIB) is reported that is both flexible and relatively safer compared to the conventional electrolyte based batteries. The concept is facilitated by the use of solid polymer nanocomposite electrolyte, specifically, composed of polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix and 1 wt% graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The flexible LIB exhibits a high maximum operating voltage of 4.9 V, high capacity of 0.13 mA h cm-2 and an energy density of 4.8 mW h cm-3. The battery is encapsulated using a simple lamination method that is economical and scalable. The laminated battery shows robust mechanical flexibility over 6000 bending cycles and excellent electrochemical performance in both flat and bent configurations. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the LIB provides critical insights into the evolution of mechanical stresses during lamination and bending.Enhanced safety of flexible batteries is an imperative objective due to the intimate interaction of such devices with human organs such as flexible batteries that are integrated with touch-screens or embedded in clothing or space suits. In this study, the fabrication and testing of a high performance thin-film Li-ion battery (LIB) is reported that is both flexible and relatively safer compared to the conventional electrolyte based batteries. The concept is facilitated by the use of solid polymer nanocomposite electrolyte, specifically, composed of polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix and 1 wt% graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. The flexible LIB exhibits a high maximum operating voltage of 4.9 V, high capacity of 0.13 mA h cm-2 and an energy density of 4.8 mW h cm-3. The battery is encapsulated using a simple lamination method

  11. Stabilization of the high-temperature phases in ceramic coatings on zirconium alloy produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelfeld, A. V.; Betsofen, S. Y.; Borisov, A. M.; Vladimirov, B. V.; Savushkina, S. V.; Knyazev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The composition and structure of ceramic coatings obtained on Zr-1%Nb alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aqueous electrolyte comprising 2 g/L KOH, 6 g/L NaAlO2 and 2 g/L Na2SiO3 with addition of yttria nanopowder, have been studied. The PEO coatings of thickness ∼⃒20 μm were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray phase analysis. Additives in the electrolyte of yttria nanopowder allowed stabilizing the high-temperature tetragonal and cubic zirconia in the coating.

  12. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  13. Solid State Lasers from an Efficiency Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.

    2007-01-01

    Solid state lasers have remained a vibrant area of research because several major innovations expanded their capability. Major innovations are presented with emphasis focused on the laser efficiency. A product of efficiencies approach is developed and applied to describe laser performance. Efficiency factors are presented in closed form where practical and energy transfer effects are included where needed. In turn, efficiency factors are used to estimate threshold and slope efficiency, allowing a facile estimate of performance. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical data are provided for common solid state laser materials.

  14. Recent Results of Solid-State Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Cornelia; Posch, Thomas; Mutschke, Harald; Zeidler, Simon; Tamanai, Akemi; de Vries, Bernard L.

    2011-12-01

    Solid state spectroscopy continues to be an important source of information on the mineralogical composition and physical properties of dust grains both in space and on planetary surfaces. With only a few exceptions, artificially produced or natural terrestrial analog materials, rather than `real' cosmic dust grains, are the subject of solid state astrophysics. The Jena laboratory has provided a large number of data sets characterizing the UV, optical and infrared properties of such cosmic dust analogs. The present paper highlights recent developments and results achieved in this context, focussing on `non-standard conditions' such as very low temperatures, very high temperatures and very long wavelengths.

  15. Solid-state impact-ionization multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong-Wei

    This dissertation presents an innovative solid-state current amplifier based on impact-ionization. Unlike avalanche photodetectors which use the same amplification principle, this device can be integrated with any external current source. A discrete amplifier was built on a silicon surface using standard CMOS fabrication processes including lithography, oxidation, ion implantation, diffusion, chemical wet etching, metal deposition, annealing, and rapid thermal processing. Testing was performed by connecting the device to a silicon photodiode, indium-gallium-arsenide photodiodes, and a function generator to demonstrate its compatibility with arbitrary current sources. Current gains above 100 along with pre-amplified leakage currents of less than 10 nA were measured. This amplifier can also be cascaded to achieve very high gains similar to the photomultiplier tube but with much smaller size and no vacuum environment required. Testing was done by amplifying the output signal from an external silicon photodiode. Current gains over 600 were measured when two amplifying devices were cascaded. Additionally, the gain saturation phenomenon of the amplifier due to the space-charge effect is investigated. The measured gain saturation is observed to match very well with the theoretical based predictions. We also present a design rule for obtaining high current gain from the cascaded structure without experiencing gain saturation. Initial bandwidth of the SIM when connected to a silicon photodiode was measured to be about 300 kHz. As we replace the photodiode by a function generator, the bandwidth improved to 450 kHz which is the frequency limit of the system. These results were made on the first generation of SIM devices. We discovered that the space-charge resistance Rsc plays a significant role in determining frequency response. In future generations of the device, we can begin with optimizing the device geometry to reduce this resistance. Also, we can reduce the size of the

  16. Polymer chain organization in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Burba, Christopher M.; Woods, Lauren; Millar, Sarah Y.; Pallie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Polymer chain orientation in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate polymer electrolytes are investigated with polarized infrared spectroscopy as a function of the degree of strain and salt composition (ether oxygen atom to lithium ion ratios of 20:1, 15:1, and 10:1). The 1359 and 1352 cm-1 bands are used to probe the crystalline PEO and P(EO)3LiCF3SO3 domains, respectively, allowing a direct comparison of chain orientation for the two phases. Two-dimensional correlation FT-IR spectroscopy indicates that the two crystalline domains align at the same rate as the polymer electrolytes are stretched. Quantitative measurements of polymer chain orientation obtained through dichroic infrared spectroscopy show that chain orientation predominantly occurs between strain values of 150% and 250%, regardless of salt composition investigated. There are few changes in chain orientation for either phase when the films are further elongated to a strain of 300%; however, the PEO domains are slightly more oriented at the high strain values. The spectroscopic data are consistent with stretching-induced melt-recrystallization of the unoriented crystalline domains in the solution-cast polymer films. Stretching the films pulls polymer chains from the crystalline domains, which subsequently recrystallize with the polymer helices parallel to the stretch direction. If lithium ion conduction in crystalline polymer electrolytes is viewed as consisting of two major components (facile intra-chain lithium ion conduction and slow helix-to-helix inter-grain hopping), then alignment of the polymer helices will affect the ion conduction pathways for these materials by reducing the number of inter-grain hops required to migrate through the polymer electrolyte. PMID:22184475

  17. Polymer chain organization in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Burba, Christopher M; Woods, Lauren; Millar, Sarah Y; Pallie, Jonathan

    2011-12-15

    Polymer chain orientation in tensile-stretched poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate polymer electrolytes are investigated with polarized infrared spectroscopy as a function of the degree of strain and salt composition (ether oxygen atom to lithium ion ratios of 20:1, 15:1, and 10:1). The 1359 and 1352 cm(-1) bands are used to probe the crystalline PEO and P(EO)(3)LiCF(3)SO(3) domains, respectively, allowing a direct comparison of chain orientation for the two phases. Two-dimensional correlation FT-IR spectroscopy indicates that the two crystalline domains align at the same rate as the polymer electrolytes are stretched. Quantitative measurements of polymer chain orientation obtained through dichroic infrared spectroscopy show that chain orientation predominantly occurs between strain values of 150% and 250%, regardless of salt composition investigated. There are few changes in chain orientation for either phase when the films are further elongated to a strain of 300%; however, the PEO domains are slightly more oriented at the high strain values. The spectroscopic data are consistent with stretching-induced melt-recrystallization of the unoriented crystalline domains in the solution-cast polymer films. Stretching the films pulls polymer chains from the crystalline domains, which subsequently recrystallize with the polymer helices parallel to the stretch direction. If lithium ion conduction in crystalline polymer electrolytes is viewed as consisting of two major components (facile intra-chain lithium ion conduction and slow helix-to-helix inter-grain hopping), then alignment of the polymer helices will affect the ion conduction pathways for these materials by reducing the number of inter-grain hops required to migrate through the polymer electrolyte.

  18. Polymer Electrolytes:. Problems, Prospects, and Promises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasubramanian, G.; Doughty, D. H.

    2002-12-01

    In 1975 P. V. Wright observed ionic conduction at elevated temperatures in polyethylene oxide (PEO) thin film electrolyte containing sodium salt. This seminal research generated wide spread interest in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Armand took the cue from this observation and demonstrated the use of PEO/salt complex as electrolyte in lithium batteries. Soon after this a number of researchers have followed suit and studied the physical, electrical and transport properties of thin film PEO electrolyte. These studies have clearly identified the limitations of the PEO electrolyte. Chief among the limitations are a low cation transport number (t+), high glass transition temperature (Tg), and segmental motion of the polymer chain, which carries the cation through the bulk electrolyte. While low t+ leads to cell polarization and increase in cell resistance high Tg reduces conductivity at and around room temperature. For example, the conductivity of PEO electrolyte containing lithium salt is ~10-8 S/cm at room temperature. Attempts have been made to reduce Tg of PEO polymer by attaching PEO macromolecules to polyphosphazene (N=P) inorganic backbone, which is very flexible. Another material that has been investigated as a backbone material consists of Si-O chain. These two polymers exhibit a lower Tg and higher room temperature conductivity than the unmodified PEO. For example, the room temperature conductivity of the two polymers is around 10-5 S/cm - a 3 orders of magnitude increase in conductivity compared to unmodified PEO at around room temperature. Although this approach has yielded polymers with lower Tg, the t+ is still very low - ~0.25 - for lithium ion. Nano-ceramic particles of Al2O3, TiO2 etc. mechanically mixed with PEO electrolyte seem to increase t+. This approach also has inherent limitations regarding phase separation. The latest approach appears to involve integrating nano domains of inorganic moieties such as Si-O as part of the polymer

  19. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It's a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm2 and 94.9 F/cm3 at 0.5 mA/cm2. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm2 and 26.4 mWh/cm3 are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  20. Formation of self-organized Zircaloy-4 oxide nanotubes in organic viscous electrolyte via anodization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the formation of self-organized Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) oxide nanotubes in viscous organic ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte containing a small amount of fluoride salt and deionized (DI) water via an electrochemical anodization. The structure, morphology, and composition of the Zr-4 oxide nanotubes were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), EDX, and XPS. SEM results showed that the length of the nanotubes is approximately 13 μm, and TEM results showed that the inner diameter of the Zr-4 oxide nanotubes is approximately 20 nm with average wall thickness of approximately 7 nm. XRD and selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) results confirmed that the as-anodized Zr-4 oxide nanotubes have cubic crystalline structure. Both cubic and monoclinic phases were found after annealing of Zr-4 oxide nanotubes. The tubular structure morphology of Zr-4 oxide nanotubes did not remain intact after annealing which is attributed to the elimination of F species from the annealed nanotubes. PMID:25328503