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Sample records for oxide thin-film transistors

  1. Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Barquinha, P.; Pimentel, A.; Gonçalves, A.; Marques, A.; Pereira, L.; Martins, R.

    ZnO thin film transistors (ZnO-TFT) have been fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a bottom-gate configuration. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 21 V, a field effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs, a gate voltage swing of 1.24 V/decade and an on/off ratio of 2×105. The ZnO-TFT present an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 80 % in the visible part of the spectrum. The combination of transparency, high channel mobility and room temperature processing makes the ZnO-TFT a very promising low cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics. Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and it is compatible with inexpensive plastic/flexible substrate technology.

  2. Review of solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si Joon; Yoon, Seokhyun; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-02-01

    In this review, we summarize solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) researches based on our fulfillments. We describe the fundamental studies of precursor composition effects at the beginning in order to figure out the role of each component in oxide semiconductors, and then present low temperature process for the adoption of flexible devices. Moreover, channel engineering for high performance and reliability of solution-processed oxide TFTs and various coating methods: spin-coating, inkjet printing, and gravure printing are also presented. The last topic of this review is an overview of multi-functional solution-processed oxide TFTs for various applications such as photodetector, biosensor, and memory.

  3. Review paper: Transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Do-Joong; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2011-03-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with oxide semiconductors have drawn great attention in the last few years, especially for large area electronic applications, such as high resolution active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) and active matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), because of their high electron mobility and spatial uniform property. This paper reviews and summarizes recent emerging reports that include potential applications, oxide semiconductor materials, and the impact of the fabrication process on electrical performance. We also address the stability behavior of such devices under bias/illumination stress and critical factors related to reliability, such as the gate insulator, the ambient and the device structure.

  4. Thin-film transistors with a graphene oxide nanocomposite channel.

    PubMed

    Jilani, S Mahaboob; Gamot, Tanesh D; Banerji, P

    2012-12-04

    Graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide-zinc oxide nanocomposites (GO-ZnO) were used as channel materials on SiO(2)/Si to fabricate thin-film transistors (TFT) with an aluminum source and drain. Pure GO-based TFT showed poor field-effect characteristics. However, GO-ZnO-nanocomposite-based TFT showed better field-effect performance because of the anchoring of ZnO nanostructures in the GO matrix, which causes a partial reduction in GO as is found from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data. The field-effect mobility of charge carriers at a drain voltage of 1 V was found to be 1.94 cm(2)/(V s). The transport of charge carriers in GO-ZnO was explained by a fluctuation-induced tunneling mechanism.

  5. Trap States of the Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kyeong Min; Yuh, Jin Tae; Park, Sang Hee Ko; Ryu, Min Ki; Yun, Eui Jung; Bae, Byung Seong

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the temperature dependent recovery of the threshold voltage shift observed in both ZnO and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) after application of gate bias and light illumination. Two types of recovery were observed for both the ZnO and IGZO TFTs; low temperature recovery (below 110 °C) which is attributed to the trapped charge and high temperature recovery (over 110 °C) which is related to the annihilation of trap states generated during stresses. From a comparison study of the recovery rate with the analysis of hydrogen diffusion isochronal annealing, a similar behavior was observed for both TFT recovery and hydrogen diffusion. This result suggests that hydrogen plays an important role in the generation and annihilation of trap states in oxide TFTs under gate bias or light illumination stresses.

  6. Amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide semiconductor thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Jung; Kim, Sangwook; Lee, Je-Hun; Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Sunil; Park, Jaechul; Lee, Eunha; Lee, Jaechul; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Joo Han; Shin, Sung Tae; Chung, U.-In

    2009-12-01

    We developed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (HIZO) thin films as oxide semiconductors and investigated the films electrically and physically. Adding of hafnium (Hf) element can suppress growing the columnar structure and drastically decrease the carrier concentration and hall mobility in HIZO films. The thin film transistors (TFTs) with amorphous HIZO active channel exhibit good electrical properties with field effect mobility of around 10 cm2/Vs, S of 0.23 V/decade, and high Ion/off ratio of over 108, enough to operate the next electronic devices. In particular, under bias-temperature stress test, the HIZO TFTs with 0.3 mol % (Hf content) showed only 0.46 V shift in threshold voltage, compared with 3.25 V shift in HIZO TFT (0.1 mol %). The Hf ions may play a key role to improve the instability of TFTs due to high oxygen bonding ability. Therefore, the amorphous HIZO semiconductor will be a prominent candidate as an operation device for large area electronic applications.

  7. P-channel thin film transistors using reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Resmi, A. N.; Renuka Devi, P.; Jinesh, K. B.

    2017-04-01

    Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) samples with various degrees of reduction were prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Scanning tunnelling microscope imaging shows that rGO contains rows of randomly distributed patches of epoxy groups. The local density of states of the rGO samples were mapped with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which shows that the bandgap in rGO originates from the epoxide regions itself. The Fermi level of the epoxide regions is shifted towards the valence band, making rGO locally p-type and a range of bandgaps from 0–2.2 eV was observed in these regions. Thin film transistors were fabricated using rGO as the channel layer. The devices show excellent output characteristics with clear saturation and gate dependence. The transfer characteristics show that rGO behaves as a p-type semiconductor; the devices exhibit an on/off ratio of 104, with a low-bias hole mobility of 3.9 cm2 V‑1 s‑1.

  8. P-channel thin film transistors using reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Resmi, A N; Devi, P Renuka; Jinesh, K B

    2017-04-18

    Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) samples with various degrees of reduction were prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Scanning tunnelling microscope imaging shows that rGO contains rows of randomly distributed patches of epoxy groups. The local density of states of the rGO samples were mapped with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which shows that the bandgap in rGO originates from the epoxide regions itself. The Fermi level of the epoxide regions is shifted towards the valence band, making rGO locally p-type and a range of bandgaps from 0-2.2 eV was observed in these regions. Thin film transistors were fabricated using rGO as the channel layer. The devices show excellent output characteristics with clear saturation and gate dependence. The transfer characteristics show that rGO behaves as a p-type semiconductor; the devices exhibit an on/off ratio of 10(4), with a low-bias hole mobility of 3.9 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).

  9. Novel Low Temperature Processing for Enhanced Properties of Ion Implanted Thin Films and Amorphous Mixed Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuri, Rajitha

    This research emphasizes the use of low energy and low temperature post processing to improve the performance and lifetime of thin films and thin film transistors, by applying the fundamentals of interaction of materials with conductive heating and electromagnetic radiation. Single frequency microwave anneal is used to rapidly recrystallize the damage induced during ion implantation in Si substrates. Volumetric heating of the sample in the presence of the microwave field facilitates quick absorption of radiation to promote recrystallization at the amorphous-crystalline interface, apart from electrical activation of the dopants due to relocation to the substitutional sites. Structural and electrical characterization confirm recrystallization of heavily implanted Si within 40 seconds anneal time with minimum dopant diffusion compared to rapid thermal annealed samples. The use of microwave anneal to improve performance of multilayer thin film devices, e.g. thin film transistors (TFTs) requires extensive study of interaction of individual layers with electromagnetic radiation. This issue has been addressed by developing detail understanding of thin films and interfaces in TFTs by studying reliability and failure mechanisms upon extensive stress test. Electrical and ambient stresses such as illumination, thermal, and mechanical stresses are inflicted on the mixed oxide based thin film transistors, which are explored due to high mobilities of the mixed oxide (indium zinc oxide, indium gallium zinc oxide) channel layer material. Semiconductor parameter analyzer is employed to extract transfer characteristics, useful to derive mobility, subthreshold, and threshold voltage parameters of the transistors. Low temperature post processing anneals compatible with polymer substrates are performed in several ambients (oxygen, forming gas and vacuum) at 150 °C as a preliminary step. The analysis of the results pre and post low temperature anneals using device physics fundamentals

  10. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs

  11. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petti, Luisa; Münzenrieder, Niko; Vogt, Christian; Faber, Hendrik; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular

  12. Self-formed copper oxide contact interlayer for high-performance oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Xu E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Aikawa, Shinya; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Lin, Meng-Fang; Kizu, Takio; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2014-07-14

    Oxide thin film transistor employing copper source/drain electrodes shows a small turn on voltage and reduced hysteresis. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the formation of ∼4 nm CuO{sub x} related interlayer. The lower bond-dissociation energy of Cu-O compared to Si-O and In-O suggests that the interlayer was formed by adsorbing oxygen molecules from surrounding environment instead of getting oxygen atoms from the semiconductor film. The formation of CuO{sub x} interlayer acting as an acceptor could suppress the carrier concentration in the transistor channel, which would be utilized to control the turn on voltage shifts in oxide thin film transistors.

  13. Molybdenum as a contact material in zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.; Peterson, R. L.

    2014-05-12

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors are of increasing interest for a variety of thin film electronics applications. Here, the contact properties of different source/drain electrode materials to solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors are studied using the transmission line method. The width-normalized contact resistance between ZTO and sputtered molybdenum is measured to be 8.7 Ω-cm, which is 10, 20, and 600 times smaller than that of gold/titanium, indium tin oxide, and evaporated molybdenum electrodes, respectively. The superior contact formed using sputtered molybdenum is due to a favorable work function lineup, an insulator-free interface, bombardment of ZTO during molybdenum sputtering, and trap-assisted tunneling. The transfer length of the sputtered molybdenum/ZTO contact is 0.34 μm, opening the door to future radio-frequency sub-micron molybdenum/ZTO thin film transistors.

  14. Characterization of Zinc Oxide and Pentacene Thin Film Transistors for CMOS Inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iechi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    We fabricated both thin film transistors (TFTs) and diodes using zinc oxide (ZnO) and pentacene, and investigated their basic characteristics. We found that field-effect mobility is influenced by the interface state between the semiconductor and dielectric layers. Furthermore, the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverter using a p-channel pentacene field-effect transistor (FET) and an n-channel ZnO FET showed a relatively high voltage gain (8 - 12) by optimizing the device structure. The hybrid complementary inverters described here are expected for application in flexible displays, radio frequency identification cards (RFID) tags, and others.

  15. p-Channel oxide thin film transistors using solution-processed copper oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yun; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Lee, Ju Ho; Kwon, Yong Hun; Hwang, Sooyeon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2013-04-10

    Cu2O thin films were synthesized on Si (100) substrate with thermally grown 200-nm SiO2 by sol-gel spin coating method and postannealing under different oxygen partial pressure (0.04, 0.2, and 0.9 Torr). The morphology of Cu2O thin films was improved through N2 postannealing before O2 annealing. Under relatively high oxygen partial pressure of 0.9 Torr, the roughness of synthesized films was increased with the formation of CuO phase. Bottom-gated copper oxide (CuxO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated via conventional photolithography, and the electrical properties of the fabricated TFTs were measured. The resulting Cu2O TFTs exhibited p-channel operation, and field effect mobility of 0.16 cm2/(V s) and on-to-off drain current ratio of ∼1×10(2) were observed in the TFT device annealed at PO2 of 0.04 Torr. This study presented the potential of the solution-based process of the Cu2O TFT with p-channel characteristics for the first time.

  16. Morphological impact of zinc oxide layers on the device performance in thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Faber, Hendrik; Klaumünzer, Martin; Voigt, Michael; Galli, Diana; Vieweg, Benito F; Peukert, Wolfgang; Spiecker, Erdmann; Halik, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    Zinc oxide thin-films are prepared either by spin coating of an ethanolic dispersion of nanoparticles (NP, diameter 5 nm) or by spray pyrolysis of a zinc acetate dihydrate precursor. High-resolution electron microscopy studies reveal a monolayer of particles for the low temperature spin coating approach and larger crystalline domains of more than 30 nm for the spray pyrolysis technique. Thin-film transistor devices (TFTs) based on spray pyrolysis films exhibit higher electron mobilities of up to 24 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) compared to 0.6 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for NP based TFTs. These observations were dedicated to a reduced number of grain boundaries within the transistor channel.

  17. Amorphous indium zinc oxide thin film transistors with poly-4-vinylphenol gate dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Haifeng; Li, Guifeng; Feng, Jiahan; Liu, Baoying; Zhang, Qun

    2011-09-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as channel layers and poly-4-vinylphenol as dielectric layers were fabricated. Transmission curves show that the double-layer structure of the a-IZO layer and the poly-4-vinylphenol layer exhibits the antireflection effect. It was found that post heat-treatment at relatively low temperature will improve the electrical performance of the transistors. TFT devices with saturation mobility of 25.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, threshold voltage of 4.0 V, subthreshold swing value of 0.88 V/decade and current on/off ratio of 106 were obtained.

  18. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, A. N.; Ghoneim, M. T.; Bahabry, R. R.; Hussain, A. M.; Hussain, M. M.

    2013-11-25

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  19. Fully transparent thin film transistors based on zinc oxide channel layer and molybdenum doped indium oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MÄ dzik, Mateusz; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Viegas, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT) with zinc oxide channel and molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) electrodes, achieved by room temperature sputtering. A set of devices was fabricated, with varying channel width and length from 5μm to 300μm. Output and transfer characteristics were then extracted to study the performance of thin film transistors, namely threshold voltage and saturation current, enabling to determine optimal fabrication process parameters. Optical transmission in the UV-VIS-IR are also reported.

  20. Carbon-Incorporated Amorphous Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, S.; Park, K.; Kim, H.-J.; Yang, S.; Kwon, J.-Y.

    2014-11-01

    We propose the use of amorphous-carbon indium zinc oxide (a-CIZO) as a channel material for thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication. This study chose a carbon dopant as a carrier suppressor and strong oxygen binder in amorphous-indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) channel material. a-CIZO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) sputtering and postannealed at 150°C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the film remained amorphous even after postannealing. The a-CIZO TFT postannealed at 150°C exhibited saturation field-effect mobility of 16.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on-off current ratio of ˜4.3 × 107.

  1. Thin-film transistor fabricated in single-crystalline transparent oxide semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi; Ueda, Kazushige; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2003-05-23

    We report the fabrication of transparent field-effect transistors using a single-crystalline thin-film transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, as an electron channel and amorphous hafnium oxide as a gate insulator. The device exhibits an on-to-off current ratio of approximately 106 and a field-effect mobility of approximately 80 square centimeters per volt per second at room temperature, with operation insensitive to visible light irradiation. The result provides a step toward the realization of transparent electronics for next-generation optoelectronics.

  2. Thin-Film Transistor Fabricated in Single-Crystalline Transparent Oxide Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi; Ueda, Kazushige; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2003-05-01

    We report the fabrication of transparent field-effect transistors using a single-crystalline thin-film transparent oxide semiconductor, InGaO3(ZnO)5, as an electron channel and amorphous hafnium oxide as a gate insulator. The device exhibits an on-to-off current ratio of ~106 and a field-effect mobility of ~80 square centimeters per volt per second at room temperature, with operation insensitive to visible light irradiation. The result provides a step toward the realization of transparent electronics for next-generation optoelectronics.

  3. Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated Using Biodegradable Gate Dielectric Layer of Chicken Albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Da-Bin; Bak, Jun-Yong; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2013-12-01

    An oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) using chicken albumen as gate dielectric on paper substrate was demonstrated. Chicken albumen, which was directly extracted from chicken egg white, was deposited as gate dielectric layer. An In-Ga-Zn-O was chosen as an active channel. The TFT feasibilities were successfully confirmed, in which channel mobility and subthreshold slope of the TFT were 6.48 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.28 V/s, respectively. This is the first report on the device configuration combining the biodegradable gate insulator and oxide semiconducting channel.

  4. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byungsu; Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Heeyoung; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  5. Charge pumping method for photosensor application by using amorphous indium-zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Po-Tsun; Chou, Yi-Teh; Teng, Li-Feng

    2009-06-01

    The study investigated the photoreaction behavior of amorphous indium-zinc oxide thin film transistor (a-IZO TFT), which was thought to be insensitive to visible light. The obvious threshold voltage shift was observed after light illumination, and it exhibited slow recovery while returning to initial status. The photoreaction mechanism is well explained by the dynamic equilibrium of charge exchange reaction between O2(g) and O2- in a-IZO layer. A charge pumping technique is used to confirm the mechanism and accelerate recoverability. Using knowledge of photoreaction behavior, an operation scheme of photosensing elements consist of a-IZO TFT is also demonstrated in this work.

  6. Electric field modulation of thermopower for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Hirotaka; Nagao, Yuki; Koumoto, Kunihito; Takasaki, Yuka; Umemura, Tomonari; Kato, Takeharu; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the electronic density of states (DOS) around the conduction band bottom for state of the art transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors (TAOSs), InGaZnO4 and In2MgO4, we fabricated TAOS-based transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs) and measured their gate voltage dependence of thermopower (S). TAOS-based TTFTs exhibit an unusual S behavior. The |S|-value abruptly increases but then gradually decreases as Vg increases, clearly suggesting the antiparabolic shaped DOS is hybridized with the original parabolic shaped DOS around the conduction band bottom.

  7. Performance of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors in Saline Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Lacour, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Transistors are often envisioned as alternative transducing devices to microelectrodes to communicate with the nervous system. Independently of the selected technology, the transistors should have reliable performance when exposed to physiological conditions (37°C, 5% CO2). Here, we report on the reliable performance of parylene encapsulated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) after prolonged exposure to phosphate buffer saline solution in an incubator. The encapsulated IGZO TFTs (W/L = 500 μm/20 μm) have an ON/OFF current ratio of 107 and field effect mobility of 8.05 ± 0.78 cm2/Vs. The transistors operate within 4 V; their threshold voltages and subthreshold slope are ~1.9 V and 200 mV/decade, respectively. After weeks immersed in saline solution and at 37°C, we did not observe any significant deterioration in the transistors' performance. The long-term stability of IGZO transistors at physiological conditions is a promising result in the direction of metal oxide bioelectronics.

  8. Fully transparent flexible tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dedong; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yingying; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have successfully fabricated bottom gate fully transparent tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors (TZO TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrate at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of O2/Ar gas flow ratio during channel deposition on the electrical properties of TZO TFTs was investigated, and we found that the O2/Ar gas flow ratio have a great influence on the electrical properties. TZO TFTs on flexible substrate has very nice electrical characteristics with a low off-state current (Ioff) of 3 pA, a high on/off current ratio of 2 × 107, a high saturation mobility (μsat) of 66.7 cm2/V•s, a steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 333 mV/decade and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.2 V. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) roughness of TZO thin film is about 0.52 nm. The transmittance of TZO thin film is about 98%. These results highlight that the excellent device performance can be realized in TZO film and TZO TFT can be a promising candidate for flexible displays. PMID:27941915

  9. Fully transparent flexible tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on plastic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dedong; Zhang, Yi; Cong, Yingying; Yu, Wen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we have successfully fabricated bottom gate fully transparent tin-doped zinc oxide thin film transistors (TZO TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrate at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. The effect of O2/Ar gas flow ratio during channel deposition on the electrical properties of TZO TFTs was investigated, and we found that the O2/Ar gas flow ratio have a great influence on the electrical properties. TZO TFTs on flexible substrate has very nice electrical characteristics with a low off-state current (Ioff) of 3 pA, a high on/off current ratio of 2 × 107, a high saturation mobility (μsat) of 66.7 cm2/V•s, a steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 333 mV/decade and a threshold voltage (Vth) of 1.2 V. Root-Mean-Square (RMS) roughness of TZO thin film is about 0.52 nm. The transmittance of TZO thin film is about 98%. These results highlight that the excellent device performance can be realized in TZO film and TZO TFT can be a promising candidate for flexible displays.

  10. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Hsiang; Lyu, Syue-Ru; Heredia, Elica; Liu, Shu-Hao; Jiang, Pei-hsun; Liao, Po-Yung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Hua-Mao

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the gate-voltage dependence and the temperature dependence of the magnetoconductivity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. A weak-localization feature is observed at small magnetic fields on top of an overall negative magnetoconductivity at higher fields. An intriguing controllable competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization is observed by tuning the gate voltage or by varying the temperature. Our findings reflect controllable quantum interference competition in the electron systems in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors.

  11. Patterned oxide semiconductor by electrohydrodynamic jet printing for transparent thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangkyu; Kim, Jeonghyun; Choi, Junghyun; Park, Hyunjung; Ha, Jaehwan; Kim, Yongkwan; Rogers, John A.; Paik, Ungyu

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores transport in transparent thin film transistors formed using a liquid precursor to indium zinc oxide, delivered to target substrates by electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing. Under optimized conditions, we observe field effect mobilities as high as 32 cm2V-1s-1, with on/off current ratios of 103 and threshold voltages of 2 V. These results provide evidence that material manipulated in fine-jet, electric field induced liquid flows can yield semiconductor devices without any adverse effects of residual charge or unintentional doping. E-jet printing methods provide levels of resolution (˜1.5 μm) that provide a path to printed transistors with small critical dimensions.

  12. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  13. Controllable film densification and interface flatness for high-performance amorphous indium oxide based thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ou-Yang, Wei E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2014-10-20

    To avoid the problem of air sensitive and wet-etched Zn and/or Ga contained amorphous oxide transistors, we propose an alternative amorphous semiconductor of indium silicon tungsten oxide as the channel material for thin film transistors. In this study, we employ the material to reveal the relation between the active thin film and the transistor performance with aid of x-ray reflectivity study. By adjusting the pre-annealing temperature, we find that the film densification and interface flatness between the film and gate insulator are crucial for achieving controllable high-performance transistors. The material and findings in the study are believed helpful for realizing controllable high-performance stable transistors.

  14. Ultra-Flexible, Invisible Thin-Film Transistors Enabled by Amorphous Metal Oxide/Polymer Channel Layer Blends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-25

    Transistors Enabled by Amorphous Metal Oxide/Polymer Channel Layer Blends Xinge Yu , Li Zeng , Nanjia Zhou , Peijun Guo , Fengyuan Shi , Donald B...chemical vapor deposition processes. Thus, a key issue for inexpensive large-scale roll-to-roll production is to enable MO TFT manu- facturing with...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultra-Flexible, ’Invisible’ Thin-Film Transistors Enabled by Amorphous Metal Oxide/Polymer Channel Layer Blends 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Temperature Dependence of Transistor Characteristics and Electronic Structure for Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godo, Hiromichi; Kawae, Daisuke; Yoshitomi, Shuhei; Sasaki, Toshinari; Ito, Shunichi; Ohara, Hiroki; Kishida, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akiharu; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2010-03-01

    We fabricated an inverted-staggered amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) and measured the temperature dependence of its characteristics. A threshold voltage (Vth) shift between 120 and 180 °C was as large as 4 V. In an analysis with two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation, we reproduced the measured result by assuming two types of donor-like states as carrier generation sources. Furthermore, by ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we determined the electronic structures of three types of a-IGZO structures, namely, “stoichiometric a-IGZO”, “oxygen deficiency”, and “hydrogen doping”.

  16. Reduction of channel resistance in amorphous oxide thin-film transistors with buried layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Eugene; Kim, Bosul; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-04-01

    A silicon-indium-zinc-oxide (SIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) with low channel-resistance (RCH) indium-zinc-oxide (In2O3:ZnO = 9:1) buried layer annealed at low temperature of 200°C exhibited high field-effect mobility (μFE) over 55.8 cm2/V·s which is 5 times higher than that of the conventional TFTs due to small threshold voltage (Vth) change of 1.8 V under bias-temperature stress (BTS) condition for 420 minutes. The low-RCH buried-layer allows more strong current-path formed in channel layer well within relatively high-RCH channel-layer since it is less affected by the channel bulk and/or back interface trap with high carrier concentration.

  17. Amorphous silicon-indium-zinc oxide semiconductor thin film transistors processed below 150 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Eugene; Chun, Yoon Soo; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2010-09-01

    Amorphous silicon-indium-zinc-oxide (a-SIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) was investigated with the process temperature below 150 °C. The a-SIZO TFT exhibited a field effect mobility of 21.6 cm2/V s and an on/off ratio of 107. The stabilities of a-SIZO TFT and indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) TFT were compared, and a-SIZO TFT showed 3.7 V shift for threshold voltage (Vth) compared to 10.8 V shift in IZO TFT after bias temperature stress. Si incorporation into IZO-system as a stabilizer, which was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, resulted in small shift in Vth in a-SIZO TFT without deteriorating mobility of higher than 21.6 cm2/V s.

  18. Remarkably high mobility ultra-thin-film metal-oxide transistor with strongly overlapped orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei Shih, Chen; Chin, Albert; Fu Lu, Chun; Fang Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    High mobility channel thin-film-transistor (TFT) is crucial for both display and future generation integrated circuit. We report a new metal-oxide TFT that has an ultra-thin 4.5 nm SnO2 thickness for both active channel and source-drain regions, very high 147 cm2/Vs field-effect mobility, high ION/IOFF of 2.3 × 107, small 110 mV/dec sub-threshold slope, and a low VD of 2.5 V for low power operation. This mobility is already better than chemical-vapor-deposition grown multi-layers MoS2 TFT. From first principle quantum-mechanical calculation, the high mobility TFT is due to strongly overlapped orbitals.

  19. Self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaechul; Song, Ihun; Kim, Sunil; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Changjung; Lee, Jaecheol; Lee, Hyungik; Lee, Eunha; Yin, Huaxiang; Kim, Kyoung-Kok; Kwon, Kee-Won; Park, Youngsoo

    2008-08-01

    We have demonstrated a self-aligned top-gate amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistor (a-GIZO TFT). It had a field effect mobility of 5 cm2/V s, a threshold voltage of 0.2 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade. Ar plasma was treated on the source/drain region of the a-GIZO active layer to reduce the series resistance. After Ar plasma treatment, the surface of the source/drain region was divided into In-rich and In-deficient regions. The a-GIZO TFT also had a constant sheet resistance of 1 kΩ/◻ for a film thickness of over 40 nm. The interface between the source/drain Mo metal and the Ar plasma-treated a-GIZO indicated a good Ohmic contact and a contact resistivity of 50 μΩ cm2.

  20. Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by Direct Transfer Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Susumu; Okamura, Shoichi

    2010-10-01

    This letter describes the fabrication of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by direct transfer printing. An a-IGZO layer and a silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer were sequentially sputtered on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp; the stamp was then pressed onto a glass substrate on which a gate metal had been previously deposited. Then, a-IGZO/SiO2 layers were successfully transferred by simply releasing the stamp from the substrate; a bottom-gate TFT was finally constructed. The measured current-voltage characteristics exhibited good field-effect mobility exceeding 10 cm2 V-1 s-1. The on/off current ratio and subthreshold slope were 4×105 and 0.86 V/decade, respectively.

  1. Remarkably high mobility ultra-thin-film metal-oxide transistor with strongly overlapped orbitals

    PubMed Central

    Wei Shih, Chen; Chin, Albert; Fu Lu, Chun; Fang Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    High mobility channel thin-film-transistor (TFT) is crucial for both display and future generation integrated circuit. We report a new metal-oxide TFT that has an ultra-thin 4.5 nm SnO2 thickness for both active channel and source-drain regions, very high 147 cm2/Vs field-effect mobility, high ION/IOFF of 2.3 × 107, small 110 mV/dec sub-threshold slope, and a low VD of 2.5 V for low power operation. This mobility is already better than chemical-vapor-deposition grown multi-layers MoS2 TFT. From first principle quantum-mechanical calculation, the high mobility TFT is due to strongly overlapped orbitals. PMID:26744240

  2. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants.

  3. Contact resistance improvement using interfacial silver nanoparticles in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian; Song, Yang; Li, Wei; Zaslavsky, A.; Paine, D. C.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an approach to reduce the contact resistance at compositional conducting/semiconducting indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) homojunctions used for contacts in thin film transistors (TFTs). By introducing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at the homojunction interface between the conducting IZO electrodes and the amorphous IZO channel, we reduce the specific contact resistance, obtained by transmission line model measurements, down to ∼10{sup −2 }Ω cm{sup 2}, ∼3 orders of magnitude lower than either NP-free homojunction contacts or solid Ag metal contacts. The resulting back-gated TFTs with Ag NP contacts exhibit good field effect mobility of ∼27 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio >10{sup 7}. We attribute the improved contact resistance to electric field concentration by the Ag NPs.

  4. Numerical simulation of offset-drain amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewook

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an offset-drain structure by technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulation. When operating in a linear region, an enhancement-type TFT shows poor field-effect mobility because most conduction electrons are trapped in acceptor-like defects in an offset region when the offset length (L off) exceeds 0.5 µm, whereas a depletion-type TFT shows superior field-effect mobility owing to the high free electron density in the offset region compared with the trapped electron density. When operating in the saturation region, both types of TFTs show good field-effect mobility comparable to that of a reference TFT with a large gate overlap. The underlying physics of the depletion and enhancement types of offset-drain TFTs are systematically analyzed.

  5. Silicon induced stability and mobility of indium zinc oxide based bilayer thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ram Narayan; Tiwari, Nidhi; Liu, Po-Tsun; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-11-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO), silicon containing IZO, and IZO/IZO:Si bilayer thin films have been prepared by dual radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass and SiO2/Si substrates for studying their chemical compositions and electrical characteristics in order to ascertain reliability for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. An attempt is therefore made here to fabricate single IZO and IZO/IZO:Si bilayer TFTs to study the effect of film thickness, silicon incorporation, and bilayer active channel on device performance and negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) stability. TFTs with increasing single active IZO layer thickness exhibit decrease in carrier mobility but steady improvement in NBIS; the best values being μFE ˜ 27.0, 22.0 cm2/Vs and ΔVth ˜ -13.00, -6.75 V for a channel thickness of 7 and 27 nm, respectively. While silicon incorporation is shown to reduce the mobility somewhat, it raises the stability markedly (ΔVth ˜ -1.20 V). Further, IZO (7 nm)/IZO:Si (27 nm) bilayer based TFTs display useful characteristics (field effect mobility, μFE = 15.3 cm2/Vs and NBIS value, ΔVth =-0.75 V) for their application in transparent electronics.

  6. High-mobility thin film transistors with neodymium-substituted indium oxide active layer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenguo; Lan, Linfeng Xiao, Peng; Sun, Sheng; Li, Yuzhi; Song, Wei; Gao, Peixiong; Wang, Lei; Ning, Honglong; Peng, Junbiao

    2015-09-14

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with neodymium-substituted indium oxide (InNdO) channel layer were demonstrated. The structural properties of the InNdO films as a function of annealing temperature have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The InNdO thin films showed polycrystalline nature when annealed at 450 °C with a lattice parameter (cubic cell) of 10.255 Å, which is larger than the cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film (10.117 Å). The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that no Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} clusters were found in the InNdO film, implying that Nd was incorporated into the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The InNdO TFTs annealed at 450 °C exhibited more excellent electrical properties with a high mobility of 20.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and better electric bias stability compared to those annealed at 300 °C, which was attributed to the reduction of the scattering centers and/or charge traps due to the decrease of the |Nd3d{sub 5/2}{sup 5}4f{sup 4}O2p{sup −1}〉 electron configuration.

  7. Solution-processed high-k magnesium oxide dielectrics for low-voltage oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guixia; Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia; Zhu, Chundan; Meng, You; Shin, Byoungchul; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fukai

    2016-10-01

    Solution-processed metal-oxide thin films with high dielectric constants (k) have been extensively studied for low-cost and high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this report, MgO dielectric films were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The MgO dielectric films annealed at various temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600 °C) were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. The electrical measurements indicate that the insulating properties of MgO thin films are improved with an increase in annealing temperature. In order to clarify the potential application of MgO thin films as gate dielectrics in TFTs, solution-derived In2O3 channel layers were separately fabricated on various MgO dielectric layers. The optimized In2O3/MgO TFT exhibited an electron mobility of 5.48 cm2/V s, an on/off current ratio of 107, and a subthreshold swing of 0.33 V/dec at a low operation voltage of 6 V. This work represents a great step toward the development of portable and low-power consumption electronics.

  8. A review on the recent developments of solution processes for oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Ahn, Byung; Jeon, Hye-Ji; Sheng, Jiazhen; Park, Jozeph; Park, Jin-Seong

    2015-06-01

    This review article introduces the recent advances in the development of oxide semiconductor materials based on solution processes and their potential applications. In the early stage, thin film transistors based on oxide semiconductors fabricated by solution processes used to face critical problems such as high annealing temperatures (>400 °C) required to obtain reasonable film quality, and the relatively low field effect mobility (<5 cm2 V-1 s-1) compared to devices fabricated by conventional vacuum-based techniques. In order to overcome such hurdles, the proper selection of high mobility amorphous oxide semiconductor materials is addressed first. The latter involves the combination of high mobility compounds and multilayered active stacks. Ensuing overviews are provided on the selection of optimum precursors and alternative annealing methods that enable the growth of high quality films at relatively low process temperatures (<200 °C). Reasonably high field effect mobility values (~10 cm2 V-1 s-1) could thus be obtained by optimizing the above process parameters. Finally, potential applications of solution processed oxide semiconductor devices are summarized, involving, for instance, flexible displays, biosensors, and non-volatile memory devices. As such, further innovations in the solution process methods of oxide semiconductor devices are anticipated to allow the realization of cost effective, large area electronics in the near future.

  9. Model for determination of mid-gap states in amorphous metal oxides from thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubel, S.; Chabinyc, M. L.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic density of states in metal oxide semiconductors like amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO) and its ternary and quaternary oxide alloys with indium, gallium, tin, or aluminum are different from amorphous silicon, or disordered materials such as pentacene, or P3HT. Many ZnO based semiconductors exhibit a steep decaying density of acceptor tail states (trap DOS) and a Fermi level (EF) close to the conduction band energy (EC). Considering thin film transistor (TFT) operation in accumulation mode, the quasi Fermi level for electrons (Eq) moves even closer to EC. Classic analytic TFT simulations use the simplification EC-EF> `several'kT and cannot reproduce exponential tail states with a characteristic energy smaller than 1/2 kT. We demonstrate an analytic model for tail and deep acceptor states, valid for all amorphous metal oxides and include the effect of trap assisted hopping instead of simpler percolation or mobility edge models, to account for the observed field dependent mobility.

  10. Electrical characterization of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on organic thin film transistor (OTFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Nurhazwani; Halim, Nurul Farhanah Ab.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Hashim, Uda

    2017-03-01

    A green method and eco-friendly solution were used to chemically reduce graphene oxide (GO) to graphene using green reductant. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by using Tours method. Then, reduced graphene oxides (rGO) were prepared by using three typical reduction agents: L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), formamidinesulfinic acid (FAS) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). The reduced materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Graphene based organic thin film transistor (G-OTFT) was prepared by a spin coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of G-OTFT was analyzed by using semiconductor parameter analyzer (SPA). The G-OTFT devices show p-type semiconducting behaviour. This article focuses on the synthesis and reduction of graphene oxide using three different reductants in order to maximise its electrical conductivity. The rGO product demonstrated a good electrical conductivity performance with highly sensitivity sensor.

  11. Codoping of zinc and tungsten for practical high-performance amorphous indium-based oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kizu, Takio E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Miyanaga, Miki; Awata, Hideaki; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2015-09-28

    Using practical high-density sputtering targets, we investigated the effect of Zn and W codoping on the thermal stability of the amorphous film and the electrical characteristics in thin film transistors. zinc oxide is a potentially conductive component while W oxide is an oxygen vacancy suppressor in oxide films. The oxygen vacancy from In-O and Zn-O was suppressed by the W additive because of the high oxygen bond dissociation energy. With controlled codoping of W and Zn, we demonstrated a high mobility with a maximum mobility of 40 cm{sup 2}/V s with good stability under a negative bias stress in InWZnO thin film transistors.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of oxide-based thin film transistors, and process development for oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wantae

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation is focused on the development of thin film transistors (TFTs) using oxide materials composed of post-transitional cations with (n-1)d 10ns0 (n≥4). The goal is to achieve high performance oxide-based TFTs fabricated at low processing temperature on either glass or flexible substrates for next generation display applications. In addition, etching mechanism and Ohmic contact formation for oxide heterostructure (ZnO/CuCrO 2) system is demonstrated. The deposition and characterization of oxide semiconductors (In 2O3-ZnO, and InGaZnO4) using a RF-magnetron sputtering system are studied. The main influence on the resistivity of the films is found to be the oxygen partial pressure in the sputtering ambient. The films remained amorphous and transparent (> 70%) at all process conditions. These films showed good transmittance at suitable conductivity for transistor fabrication. The electrical characteristics of both top- and bottom-gate type Indium Zinc Oxide (InZnO) and Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (InGaZnO4)-based TFTs are reported. The InZnO films were favorable for depletion-mode TFTs due to their tendency to form oxygen vacancies, while enhancement-mode devices were realized with InGaZnO4 films. The InGaZnO4-based TFTs fabricated on either glass or plastic substrates at low temperature (<100°C) exhibit good electrical properties: the saturation mobility of 5--12 cm2.V-1.s-1 and threshold voltage of 0.5--2.5V. The devices are also examined as a function of aging time in order to verify long-term stability in air. The effect of gate dielectric materials on electrical properties of InGaZnO 4-based TFTs was investigated. The use of SiNx film as a gate dielectric reduces the trap density and the roughness at the channel/gate dielectric interface compared to SiO2 gate dielectric, resulting in an improvement of device parameters by reducing scattering of trapped charges at the interface. The quality of interface is shown to have large effect on TFT performance

  13. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  14. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm2 V–1 s–1. We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225–200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm2 V–1 s–1) and demonstrate a facile “ink-on-demand” process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium. PMID:24511184

  15. Optimisation of amorphous zinc tin oxide thin film transistors by remote-plasma reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, K. M.; Cho, J.; Heffernan, S.; Milne, W. I.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the stoichiometry of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) thin films used as the semiconducting channel in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. A-ZTO has been deposited using remote-plasma reactive sputtering from zinc:tin metal alloy targets with 10%, 33%, and 50% Sn at. %. Optimisations of thin films are performed by varying the oxygen flow, which is used as the reactive gas. The structural, optical, and electrical properties are investigated for the optimised films, which, after a post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in air, are also incorporated as the channel layer in TFTs. The optical band gap of a-ZTO films slightly increases from 3.5 to 3.8 eV with increasing tin content, with an average transmission ˜90% in the visible range. The surface roughness and crystallographic properties of the films are very similar before and after annealing. An a-ZTO TFT produced from the 10% Sn target shows a threshold voltage of 8 V, a switching ratio of 108, a sub-threshold slope of 0.55 V dec-1, and a field effect mobility of 15 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is a sharp increase from 0.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 obtained in a reference ZnO TFT. For TFTs produced from the 33% Sn target, the mobility is further increased to 21 cm2 V-1 s-1, but the sub-threshold slope is slightly deteriorated to 0.65 V dec-1. For TFTs produced from the 50% Sn target, the devices can no longer be switched off (i.e., there is no channel depletion). The effect of tin content on the TFT electrical performance is explained in the light of preferential sputtering encountered in reactive sputtering, which resulted in films sputtered from 10% and 33% Sn to be stoichiometrically close to the common Zn2SnO4 and ZnSnO3 phases.

  16. Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated Using Sputter Deposition of Zinc Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Development of thin film transistors (TFTs) with conventional channel layer materials, such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) and polysilicon (poly-Si), has been extensively investigated. A-Si TFT currently serves the large flat panel industry; however advanced display products are demanding better TFT performance because of the associated low electron mobility of a-Si. This has motivated interest in semiconducting metal oxides, such as Zinc Oxide (ZnO), for TFT backplanes. This work involves the fabrication and characterization of TFTs using ZnO deposited by sputtering. An overview of the process details and results from recently fabricated TFTs following a full-factorial designed experiment will be presented. Material characterization and analysis of electrical results will be described. The investigated process variables were the gate dielectric and ZnO sputtering process parameters including power density and oxygen partial pressure. Electrical results showed clear differences in treatment combinations, with certain I-V characteristics demonstrating superior performance to preliminary work. A study of device stability will also be discussed.

  17. Reduced graphene oxide/molecular imprinted polymer-organic thin film transistor for amino acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Nurul Farhanah AB.; Musa, Nur Hazwani; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Von Schleusingen, Mubaraq; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Derman, Nazree; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.

    2017-03-01

    This works reports the electrical performance of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)- organic thin film transistor (OTFT) for amino-acid detection, serine. These biomimetic sensors consider MIP as man-tailored biomimetic recognition sites that play an important role in signal transduction. MIP provides recognition sites compatible with serine molecules was developed by dispersing serine with methylacrylate acid (MAA) as functional monomer and Ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The imprinted polymeric were mixed with reduced graphene oxide to produced sensing layer for the sensor. RGO-MIP layer was introduced between source and drain of OTFT via spin coating as a detecting layer for serine molecules. RGO was introduced into MIP, to allow a highly conductive sensing material thus enhanced selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. By analyzing the electrical performance of the sensors, the performances of OTFT sensor enhanced with RGO/MIP interlayer and OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer when exposed to serine analyte were obtained. The results showed that there were remarkable shifts of drain current (ID) obtained from OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer after exposed to serine analyte. Moreover, the sensitivity of OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer was nearly higher than the OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer. Hence, it proved that RGO successfully enhanced the sensing performance of OTFT sensor.

  18. Study on the Hydrogenated ZnO-Based Thin Film Transistors. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors ( TFTs ) was...Amorphous indium-gallium- zinc oxide thin - film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs ) have been investigated for switching devices in the active matrix liquid crystal...depletion-mode ZnO -based thin - film transistors ( TFTs ) were studied using two approaches. The first approach used elevated substrate

  19. All-amorphous-oxide transparent, flexible thin-film transistors. Efficacy of bilayer gate dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Buchholz, D Bruce; Hennek, Jonathan W; Chang, Robert P H; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2010-09-01

    Optically transparent and mechanically flexible thin-film transistors (TF-TFTs) composed exclusively of amorphous metal oxide films are fabricated on plastic substrates by combining an amorphous Ta(2)O(5)/SiO(x) bilayer transparent oxide insulator (TOI) gate dielectric with an amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide (a-ZITO) transparent oxide semiconductor (TOS) channel and a-ZITO transparent oxide conductor (TOC) electrodes. The bilayer gate dielectric is fabricated by the post-cross-linking of vapor-deposited hexachlorodisiloxane-derived films to form thin SiO(x) layers (v-SiO(x)) on amorphous Ta(2)O(5) (a-Ta(2)O(5)) films grown by ion-assisted deposition at room temperature. The a-Ta(2)O(5)/v-SiO(x) bilayer TOI dielectric integrates the large capacitance of the high dielectric constant a-Ta(2)O(5) layer with the excellent dielectric/semiconductor interfacial compatibility of the v-SiO(x) layer in a-ZITO TOS-based TF-TFTs. These all-amorphous-oxide TF-TFTs, having a channel length and width of 100 and 2000 microm, respectively, perform far better than a-Ta(2)O(5)-only devices and exhibit saturation-regime field-effect mobilities of approximately 20 cm(2)/V x s, on-currents >10(-4) A, and current on-off ratios >10(5). These TFTs operate at low voltages (approximately 4.0 V) and exhibit good visible-region optical transparency and excellent mechanical flexibility.

  20. Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: a review of recent advances.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, E; Barquinha, P; Martins, R

    2012-06-12

    Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which

  1. Nitrogen-doped amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors with double-stacked channel layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haiting; Wu, Qi; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Guochao; Dong, Chengyuan

    2016-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin film transistors (TFTs) with the double-stacked channel layers (DSCL) combing the amorphous InZnO (a-IZO) films and the nitrogen-doped amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO:N) films were proposed and fabricated, which showed the excellent performance with the field-effect mobility of 49.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the subthreshold swing of 0.5 V/dec. More interestingly, very stable properties were observed in the bias stress and light illumination tests for these a-IZO/a-IGZO:N TFTs, as seemed to be the evident improvements over the prior arts. The improved performance and stability might be mainly due to the hetero-junctions in the channel layers and less interface/bulk trap density from the in situ nitrogen doping process in the a-IGZO layers. In addition, the passivation effect of the a-IGZO:N films also made some contributions to the stable properties exhibited in these novel DSCL TFTs.

  2. Mechanical Flexibility of Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Prepared by Transfer Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eun, K. T.; Hwang, W. J.; Sharma, B. K.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, Y. K.; Choa, S. H.

    In the present study, we demonstrate the performance of Zinc oxide thin film transistors (ZnO TFTs) array subjected to the strain under high bending test and the reliability of TFTs was confirmed for the bending fatigue test of 2000 cycles. Initially, ZnO TFTs were fabricated on Si substrate and subsequently transferred on flexible PET substrate using transfer printing process. It was observed that when the bending radius reached ≥ 11 mm then cracks start to initiate first at SiO2 bridges, acting as interconnecting layers among individual TFT. Whatever the strain is applied to the devices, it is almost equivalently adopted by the SiO2 bridges, as they are relatively weak compared to rest of the part. The initial cracking of destructed SiO2 bridge leads to the secondary cracks to the ITO electrodes upon further increment of bending radius. Numerical simulation suggested that the strain of SiO2 layer reached to fracture level of 0.55% which was concentrated at the edge of SiO2 bridge layer. It also suggests that the round shape of SiO2 bridge can be more fruitful to compensate the stress concentration and to prevent failure of device.

  3. Electrical properties of magnesium incorporated zinc tin oxide thin film transistors by solution process.

    PubMed

    Jeon, In Young; Lee, Ji Yoon; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2013-03-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate as a function of Mg concentration (the ratio of 3 to 10 atomic%) using a spin-coating process. For the characterization of thin film transistors (TFTs), Zn0.3Sn0.70 channel TFT exhibited a higher on/off ratio compared to Zn0.5 Sn.0.5O channel TFT because the higher Sn concentration can induce more charge carriers. 3 atomic% Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs showed stable electrical performances such as I(on/off) - 1 x 10(7), micro(sat) = 1.40 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), and S = 0.39 V/decade. However, 10 atomic% Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs deteriorated their electrical performances due to Mg segregation. The Mg incorporated Zn0.3Sn0.7O channel TFTs effectively suppress off-current and threshold voltage change during positive gate bias stress due to their strong bonding with oxygen.

  4. Electrical instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors under monochromatic light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Wu, Chenfei; Lu, Hai; Ren, Fangfang; Xu, Qingyu; Ou, Huiling; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2012-06-01

    The electrical instability behaviors of a positive-gate-bias-stressed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) are studied under monochromatic light illumination. It is found that as the wavelength of incident light reduces from 750 nm to 450 nm, the threshold voltage of the illuminated TFT shows a continuous negative shift, which is caused by photo-excitation of trapped electrons at the channel/dielectric interface. Meanwhile, an increase of the sub-threshold swing (SS) is observed when the illumination wavelength is below 625 nm (˜2.0 eV). The SS degradation is accompanied by a simultaneous increase of the field effect mobility (μFE) of the TFT, which then decreases at even shorter wavelength beyond 540 nm (˜2.3 eV). The variation of SS and μFE is explained by a physical model based on generation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo+) and double ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo2+) within the a-IGZO active layer by high energy photons, which would form trap states near the mid-gap and the conduction band edge, respectively.

  5. A physics-based model of threshold voltage for amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Le; Chen, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Wu, Wei-Jing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Jun-Biao

    2016-03-01

    In the application of the Lambert W function, the surface potential for amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (AOS TFTs) under the subthreshold region is approximated by an asymptotic equation only considering the tail states. While the surface potential under the above-threshold region is approximated by another asymptotic equation only considering the free carriers. The intersection point between these two asymptotic equations represents the transition from the weak accumulation to the strong accumulation. Therefore, the gate voltage corresponding to the intersection point is defined as threshold voltage of AOS TFTs. As a result, an analytical expression for the threshold voltage is derived from this novel definition. It is shown that the threshold voltage achieved by the proposed physics-based model is agreeable with that extracted by the conventional linear extrapolation method. Furthermore, we find that the free charge per unit area in the channel starts increasing sharply from the threshold voltage point, where the concentration of the free carriers is a little larger than that of the localized carriers. The proposed model for the threshold voltage of AOS TFTs is not only physically meaningful but also mathematically convenient, so it is expected to be useful for characterizing and modeling AOS TFTs.

  6. Solution-processed zinc oxide nanoparticles/single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Sun, Jia; Qian, Chuan; Hu, Xiaotao; Wu, Han; Huang, Yulan; Yang, Junliang

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the essential building blocks for manufacturing the low-cost and large-area consumptive electronics. Herein, solution-processed TFTs based on the composites of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were fabricated by the methods of spin-coating and doctor-blading. Through controlling the weight of SWCNTs, the ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs fabricated by spin-coating demonstrated a field-effect mobility of 4.7 cm2/Vs and a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, while the TFTs devices fabricated by doctor-blading technique showed reasonable electrical performance with a mobility of 0.22 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the ion-gel was used as an efficient electrochemical gate dielectric because of its large electric double-layer capacitance. The operating voltage of all the TFTs devices is as low as 4.0 V. The research suggests that ZnO/SWCNTs TFTs have the potential applications in low-cost, large-area and flexible consumptive electronics, such as chemical-biological sensors and smart label.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of high mobility spin-coated zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P.

    2012-10-01

    A ZnO based thin film transistor (TFT) with bottom-gate configuration and SiO2 as insulating layer has been fabricated and characterized. The ZnO thin film was prepared by spin coating the sol-gel solution on the p-type Si wafers. The optical and structural properties of ZnO films were investigated using UV measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result of UV-visible study confirms that the films have a good absorbance in UV region and relatively low absorbance in the visible region. The TFT exhibited an off-current of 2.5×10-7 A. The values of field effect channel mobility and on/off current ratio extracted for the device, measured 11 cm2/V.s and ~102 respectively. The value of threshold voltage was found to be 1.3 V.

  8. Characteristics of flexographic printed indium-zinc-oxide thin films as an active semiconductor layer in thin film field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilfer, Stefan; Hoffmann, Rudolf C.; Dörsam, Edgar

    2014-11-01

    Characteristics of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors prepared by flexographic printing technique have been studied. The device was a field-effect transistor substrate (15 mm × 15 mm, n-doped silicon, 90 nm SiO2 layer) with pre-structured gold electrodes and a printed active layer. The active layer was printed with a indium-zinc-oxide precursor solution and then annealed at 450 °C for 4 min on a hotplate. Influences of typographical parameters, i.e. printing pressure, anilox roller pressure, ink supply rate, printing velocity and printing plate (cliché) properties were studied. Reference active layers were produced by spin coating. The printed IZO ceramic layer with a dry film thickness between 3 and 8 nm, deposited onto the substrate for field-effect transistors provided a good performance with charge carrier mobilities (μ) up to 2.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off current ratios (Ion/off ratio) up to 5.2 × 107 and mean threshold voltages (Vth) of +4 V. The characterization of the printed and annealed IZO layer by AFM revealed the amorphous nature of the printed active layer films with a root-mean square roughness of 0.8 nm.

  9. The effect of annealing temperature on the stability of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc; McCall, Briana; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-10-01

    With the growing need for large area display technology and the push for a faster and cheaper alternative to the current amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as the active channel layer for pixel-driven thin film transistors (TFTs) display applications, gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) has shown to be a promising candidate due to the similar electronic configuration of Sn4+ and In3+. In this work TFTs of GSZO sputtered films with only a few atomic % of Ga and Sn have been fabricated. A systematic and detailed comparison has been made of the properties of the GSZO films annealed at two temperatures: 140 °C and 450 °C. The electrical and optical stabilities of the respective devices have been studied to gain more insight into the degradation mechanism and are correlated with the initial TFT performance prior to the application of stress. Post deposition annealing at 450 °C of the films in air was found to lead to a higher atomic concentration of Sn4+ in these films and a superior quality of the film, as attested by the higher film density and less surface and interface roughness in comparison to the lower annealed temperature device. These result in significantly reduced shallow and deep interface traps with improved performance of the device exhibiting VON of -3.5 V, ION/IOFF of 108, field-effect mobility (μFE) of 4.46 cm2 V-1s-1, and sub-threshold swing of 0.38 V dec-1. The device is stable under both electrical and optical bias for wavelengths of 550 nm and above. Thus, this work demonstrates GSZO-based TFTs as a promising viable option to the IGZO TFTs by further tailoring the film composition and relevant processing temperatures.

  10. Role of order and disorder on the electronic performances of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, R.; Barquinha, P.; Ferreira, I.; Pereira, L.; Gonçalves, G.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-02-01

    The role of order and disorder on the electronic performances of n-type ionic oxides such as zinc oxide, gallium zinc oxide, and indium zinc oxide used as active (channel) or passive (drain/source) layers in thin film transistors (TFTs) processed at room temperature are discussed, taking as reference the known behavior observed in conventional covalent semiconductors such as silicon. The work performed shows that while in the oxide semiconductors the Fermi level can be pinned up within the conduction band, independent of the state of order, the same does not happen with silicon. Besides, in the oxide semiconductors the carrier mobility is not bandtail limited and so disorder does not affect so strongly the mobility as it happens in covalent semiconductors. The electrical properties of the oxide films (resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility) are highly dependent on the oxygen vacancies (source of free carriers), which can be controlled by changing the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition process and/or by adding other metal ions to the matrix. In this case, we make the oxide matrix less sensitive to the presence of oxygen, widening the range of oxygen partial pressures that can be used and thus improving the process control of the film resistivity. The results obtained in fully transparent TFT using polycrystalline ZnO or amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) as channel layers and highly conductive poly/nanocrystalline ZGO films or amorphous IZO as drain/source layers show that both devices work in the enhancement mode, but the TFT with the highest electronic saturation mobility and on/off ratio 49.9cm2/Vs and 4.3×108, respectively, are the ones in which the active and passive layers are amorphous. The ZnO TFT whose channel is based on polycrystalline ZnO, the mobility and on/off ratio are, respectively, 26cm2/Vs and 3×106. This behavior is attributed to the fact that the electronic transport is governed by the s-like metal cation conduction bands

  11. Electrical properties of zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hang; Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xing-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Strontium-zinc-oxide (SrZnO) films forming the semiconductor layers of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are deposited by using ion-assisted electron beam evaporation. Using strontium-oxide-doped semiconductors, the off-state current can be dramatically reduced by three orders of magnitude. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the incorporation of strontium, which suppresses carrier generation, thereby improving the TFT. Additionally, the presence of strontium inhibits the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the hexagonal wurtzite phase and permits the formation of an unusual phase of ZnO, thus significantly changing the surface morphology of ZnO and effectively reducing the trap density of the channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 6140031454) and the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications.

  12. Solution-processed gadolinium doped indium-oxide thin-film transistors with oxide passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Taehun; Lee, Jihun; Avis, Christophe; Jang, Jin

    2017-03-01

    We studied the effect of Gd doping on the structural properties of solution processed, crystalline In2O3 for thin-film transistor (TFT) application. With increasing Gd in In2O3 up to 20%, the material structure changes into amorphous phase, and the oxygen vacancy concentration decreases from 15.4 to 8.4%, and M-OH bonds from 33.5 to 23.7%. The field-effect mobility for the Gd doped In2O3 TFTs decreases and threshold voltage shifts to the positive voltage with increasing Gd concentration. In addition, the stability of the solution processed TFTs can also be improved by increasing Gd concentration. As a result, the optimum Gd concentration is found to be ˜5% in In2O3 and the 5% Gd doped In2O3 TFTs with the Y2O3 passivation layer exhibit the linear mobility of 9.74 cm2/V s, the threshold voltage of -0.27 V, the subthreshold swing of 79 mV/dec., and excellent bias stability.

  13. Hole mobility modulation of solution-processed nickel oxide thin-film transistor based on high-k dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ao; Liu, Guoxia; Zhu, Huihui; Shin, Byoungchul; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Shan, Fukai

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processed p-type oxide semiconductors have recently attracted increasing interests for the applications in low-cost optoelectronic devices and low-power consumption complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. In this work, p-type nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films were prepared using low-temperature solution process and integrated as the channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). The electrical properties of NiOx TFTs, together with the characteristics of NiOx thin films, were systematically investigated as a function of annealing temperature. By introducing aqueous high-k aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric, the electrical performance of NiOx TFT was improved significantly compared with those based on SiO2 dielectric. Particularly, the hole mobility was found to be 60 times enhancement, quantitatively from 0.07 to 4.4 cm2/V s, which is mainly beneficial from the high areal capacitance of the Al2O3 dielectric and high-quality NiOx/Al2O3 interface. This simple solution-based method for producing p-type oxide TFTs is promising for next-generation oxide-based electronic applications.

  14. Nonhydrolytic alkyl halide elimination reaction and its application in solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Young Bum; Park, Jee Ho; Baik, Hong Koo; Song, Kie Moon

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we fabricated zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a sol-gel solution at an annealing temperature of 350 °C. We used a precursor combination of alkoxide and metal chloride to utilize the alkyl halide elimination reaction. Compared with transistor using chloride-only precursors, the resulting ZTO transistor showed improved performance. Solution-processed ZTO-TFTs prepared at 350 °C using an alkoxide-chloride precursor combination showed a field-effect mobility of 4.17 cm2 V-1 s-1, whereas that prepared using a chloride-only solution showed a mobility of 0.98 cm2 V-1 s-1. Thermal analysis showed that the alkoxide-chloride precursor was decomposed well at a given annealing temperature and formed oxide with few residual impurities compared with chloride-only precursors.

  15. Proton induced multilevel storage capability in self-assembled indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li Qiang; Jin Wan, Chang; Qiang Zhu, Li; Wan, Qing

    2013-09-01

    Multilevel memory capability of self-assembled indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) thin-film transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conducting electrolytes is investigated. More than four distinct memory states are obtained by programming gate voltage. The observed multilevel storage behavior is mainly due to the controlled interfacial electrochemical doping of IZO channel by penetrated protons under programmed gate voltages. In addition, such IZO-based EDL transistor multilevel memory exhibits good characteristics of programming/erasing endurance and data retention. Such oxide-based EDL transistors with proton-induced multilevel memory behavior are interesting for low-cost memory and neuromorphic system applications after further properties and size optimization.

  16. Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors on Paper Substrate: Fabrication, Characterization, and Printing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nack-Bong

    Flexible electronics is an emerging next-generation technology that offers many advantages such as light weight, durability, comfort, and flexibility. These unique features enable many new applications such as flexible display, flexible sensors, conformable electronics, and so forth. For decades, a variety of flexible substrates have been demonstrated for the application of flexible electronics. Most of them are plastic films and metal foils so far. For the fundamental device of flexible circuits, thin film transistors (TFTs) using poly silicon, amorphous silicon, metal oxide and organic semiconductor have been successfully demonstrated. Depending on application, low-cost and disposable flexible electronics will be required for convenience. Therefore it is important to study inexpensive substrates and to explore simple processes such as printing technology. In this thesis, paper is introduced as a new possible substrate for flexible electronics due to its low-cost and renewable property, and amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs are realized as the promising device on the paper substrate. The fabrication process and characterization of a-IGZO TFT on the paper substrate are discussed. a-IGZO TFTs using a polymer gate dielectric on the paper substrate demonstrate excellent performances with field effect mobility of ˜20 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off current ratio of ˜106, and low leakage current, which show the enormous potential for flexible electronics application. In order to complement the n-channel a-IGZO TFTs and then enable complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit architectures, cuprous oxide is studied as a candidate material of p-channel oxide TFTs. In this thesis, a printing process is investigated as an alternative method for the fabrication of low-cost and disposable electronics. Among several printing methods, a modified offset roll printing that prints high resolution patterns is presented. A new method to fabricate a high resolution

  17. Suppression of photo-bias induced instability for amorphous indium tungsten oxide thin film transistors with bi-layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Po-Tsun; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Chih-Jui

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the instability induced by bias temperature illumination stress (NBTIS) for an amorphous indium-tungsten-oxide thin film transistor (a-IWO TFT) with SiO2 backchannel passivation layer (BPL). It is found that this electrical degradation phenomenon can be attributed to the generation of defect states during the BPL process, which deteriorates the photo-bias stability of a-IWO TFTs. A method proposed by adding an oxygen-rich a-IWO thin film upon the a-IWO active channel layer could effectively suppress the plasma damage to channel layer during BPL deposition process. The bi-layer a-IWO TFT structure with an oxygen-rich back channel exhibits superior electrical reliability of device under NBTIS.

  18. Phosphorus Doping Effect in a Zinc Oxide Channel Layer to Improve the Performance of Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dong-Suk; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Sih; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Woong-Sun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we fabricated phosphorus-doped zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering at a relatively low temperature of 100°C. To improve the TFT device performance, including field-effect mobility and bias stress stability, phosphorus dopants were employed to suppress the generation of intrinsic defects in the ZnO-based semiconductor. The positive and negative bias stress stabilities were dramatically improved by introducing the phosphorus dopants, which could prevent turn-on voltage ( V ON) shift in the TFTs caused by charge trapping within the active channel layer. The study showed that phosphorus doping in ZnO was an effective method to control the electrical properties of the active channel layers and improve the bias stress stability of oxide-based TFTs.

  19. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ~ 4.1 Å), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 × 10-4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained "on/off" current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 × 107, 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm2/V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs.

  20. Temperature effect on negative bias-induced instability of HfInZnO amorphous oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Chang, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Wandong; Park, Jae Chul; Song, Ihun; Kim, Chang Jung; Jung, U. In; Park, Byung-Gook

    2011-02-01

    Negative bias-induced instability of amorphous hafnium indium zinc oxide (α-HIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) was investigated at various temperatures. In order to examine temperature-induced effects, fabricated TFTs with different combinations of gate insulator and gate metal were stressed by a negative gate bias at various temperatures. As a result, it is proved that negative bias-induced hole-trapping in the gate insulators and temperature-enhanced electron injection from the gate metals occurs at the same time at all temperatures, and the instability of HIZO TFT is more affected by the dominant factor out of the two mechanisms.

  1. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  2. High-Quality Solution-Processed Silicon Oxide Gate Dielectric Applied on Indium Oxide Based Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Jaehnike, Felix; Pham, Duy Vu; Anselmann, Ralf; Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    A silicon oxide gate dielectric was synthesized by a facile sol-gel reaction and applied to solution-processed indium oxide based thin-film transistors (TFTs). The SiOx sol-gel was spin-coated on highly doped silicon substrates and converted to a dense dielectric film with a smooth surface at a maximum processing temperature of T = 350 °C. The synthesis was systematically improved, so that the solution-processed silicon oxide finally achieved comparable break downfield strength (7 MV/cm) and leakage current densities (<10 nA/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm) to thermally grown silicon dioxide (SiO2). The good quality of the dielectric layer was successfully proven in bottom-gate, bottom-contact metal oxide TFTs and compared to reference TFTs with thermally grown SiO2. Both transistor types have field-effect mobility values as high as 28 cm(2)/(Vs) with an on/off current ratio of 10(8), subthreshold swings of 0.30 and 0.37 V/dec, respectively, and a threshold voltage close to zero. The good device performance could be attributed to the smooth dielectric/semiconductor interface and low interface trap density. Thus, the sol-gel-derived SiO2 is a promising candidate for a high-quality dielectric layer on many substrates and high-performance large-area applications.

  3. Development of Liquid Crystal Display Panel Integrated with Drivers Using Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi Osada,; Kengo Akimoto,; Takehisa Sato,; Masataka Ikeda,; Masashi Tsubuku,; Junichiro Sakata,; Jun Koyama,; Tadashi Serikawa,; Shunpei Yamazaki,

    2010-03-01

    We designed, prototyped, and evaluated a liquid crystal panel integrated with a gate driver and a source driver using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). Using bottom-gate bottom-contact (BGBC) thin film transistors, superior characteristics could be obtained. We obtained TFT characteristics with little variation even when the thickness of the gate insulator (GI) film was reduced owing to etching of source/drain (S/D) wiring, which is a typical process for the BGBC TFT. Moreover, a favorable ON-state current was obtained even when an In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer was formed over the S/D electrode. Since the upper portion of the In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer is not etched, the BGBC structure is predicted to be effective in thinning the In-Ga-Zn-oxide layer in the future. Upon evaluation, we found that the prototyped liquid crystal panel integrated with the gate and source drivers using the TFTs with improved characteristics had stable drive.

  4. Effects of solution temperature on solution-processed high-performance metal oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Ho; Park, Jee Ho; Yoo, Young Bum; Jang, Woo Soon; Oh, Jin Young; Chae, Soo Sang; Moon, Kyeong Ju; Myoung, Jae Min; Baik, Hong Koo

    2013-04-10

    Herein, we report a novel and easy strategy for fabricating solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors by controlling the dielectric constant of H2O through manipulation of the metal precursor solution temperature. As a result, indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated from IZO solution at 4 °C can be operated after annealing at low temperatures (∼250 °C). In contrast, IZO TFTs fabricated from IZO solutions at 25 and 60 °C must be annealed at 275 and 300 °C, respectively. We also found that IZO TFTs fabricated from the IZO precursor solution at 4 °C had the highest mobility of 12.65 cm2/(V s), whereas the IZO TFTs fabricated from IZO precursor solutions at 25 and 60 °C had field-effect mobility of 5.39 and 4.51 cm2/(V s), respectively, after annealing at 350 °C. When the IZO precursor solution is at 4 °C, metal cations such as indium (In3+) and zinc ions (Zn2+) can be fully surrounded by H2O molecules, because of the higher dielectric constant of H2O at lower temperatures. These chemical complexes in the IZO precursor solution at 4 °C are advantageous for thermal hydrolysis and condensation reactions yielding a metal oxide lattice, because of their high potential energies. The IZO TFTs fabricated from the IZO precursor solution at 4 °C had the highest mobility because of the formation of many metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) bonds under these conditions. In these bonds, the ns-orbitals of the metal cations overlap each other and form electron conduction pathways. Thus, the formation of a high proportion of M-O-M bonds in the IZO thin films is advantageous for electron conduction, because oxide lattices allow electrons to travel easily through the IZO.

  5. Effect of mesa structure formation on the electrical properties of zinc oxide thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shaivalini; Chakrabarti, P

    2014-05-01

    ZnO based bottom-gate thin film transistor (TFT) with SiO2 as insulating layer has been fabricated with two different structures. The effect of formation of mesa structure on the electrical characteristics of the TFTs has been studied. The formation of mesa structure of ZnO channel region can definitely result in better control over channel region and enhance value of channel mobility of ZnO TFT. As a result, by fabricating a mesa structured TFT, a better value of mobility and on-state current are achieved at low voltages. A typical saturation current of 1.85 x 10(-7) A under a gate bias of 50 V is obtained for non mesa structure TFT while for mesa structured TFT saturation current of 5 x 10(-5) A can be obtained at comparatively very low gate bias of 6.4 V.

  6. Analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor contact metal using Pilling-Bedworth theory and a variable capacitance diode model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Ahmed; Hasko, David G.; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    It is widely reported that threshold voltage and on-state current of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide bottom-gate thin-film transistors are strongly influenced by the choice of source/drain contact metal. Electrical characterisation of thin-film transistors indicates that the electrical properties depend on the type and thickness of the metal(s) used. Electron transport mechanisms and possibilities for control of the defect state density are discussed. Pilling-Bedworth theory for metal oxidation explains the interaction between contact metal and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide, which leads to significant trap formation. Charge trapping within these states leads to variable capacitance diode-like behavior and is shown to explain the thin-film transistor operation.

  7. Low-Temperature-Processed Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yumi; Tani, Mai; Hattori, Nozomu; Miyatake, Naomasa; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2012-02-01

    We investigated zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films prepared by plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD), and thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the ALD ZnO channel layer for application to next-generation displays. We deposited the ZnO channel layer by PA-ALD at 100 or 300 °C, and fabricated TFTs. The transfer characteristic of the 300 °C-deposited ZnO TFT exhibited high mobility (5.7 cm2 V-1 s-1), although the threshold voltage largely shifted toward the negative (-16 V). Furthermore, we deposited Al2O3 thin film as a gate insulator by PA-ALD at 100 °C for the low-temperature TFT fabrication process. In the case of ZnO TFTs with the Al2O3 gate insulator, the shift of the threshold voltage improved (-0.1 V). This improvement of the negative shift seems to be due to the negative charges of the Al2O3 film deposited by PA-ALD. On the basis of the experimental results, we confirmed that the threshold voltage of ZnO TFTs is controlled by PA-ALD for the deposition of the gate insulator.

  8. High-performance calcium-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on glass at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen; Han, Dedong; Cui, Guodong; Cong, Yingying; Dong, Junchen; Zhang, Xiaomi; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shengdong

    2016-04-01

    High-performance calcium-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors (Ca-ZnO TFTs) have been successfully fabricated on transparent glass at low temperature by RF magnetron sputtering. To study the effects of calcium doping on zinc oxide thin-film transistors, the characteristics of Ca-ZnO TFTs and ZnO TFTs are compared and analyzed in detail from different perspectives, including electrical performance, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the material. The results suggest that the incorporation of calcium element can decrease the root-mean-square roughness of the material, suppress growth of a columnar structure, and improve device performance. The TFTs with Ca-ZnO active layer exhibit excellent electrical properties with the saturation mobility (μsat) of 147.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, threshold voltage (V t) of 2.91 V, subthreshold slope (SS) of 0.271 V/dec, and I on/I off ratio of 2.34 × 108. In addition, we also study the uniformity of the devices. The experimental results show that the Ca-ZnO TFTs possess good uniformity, which is important for large-area application.

  9. Metal-oxide thin-film transistor-based pH sensor with a silver nanowire top gate electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Tae-Hee; Sang, Byoung-In; Wang, Byung-Yong; Lim, Dae-Soon; Kang, Hyun Wook; Choi, Won Kook; Lee, Young Tack; Oh, Young-Jei; Hwang, Do Kyung

    2016-04-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO (IGZO) metal-oxide-semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) are one of the most promising technologies to replace amorphous and polycrystalline Si TFTs. Recently, TFT-based sensing platforms have been gaining significant interests. Here, we report on IGZO transistor-based pH sensors in aqueous medium. In order to achieve stable operation in aqueous environment and enhance sensitivity, we used Al2O3 grown by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and a porous Ag nanowire (NW) mesh as the top gate dielectric and electrode layers, respectively. Such devices with a Ag NW mesh at the top gate electrode rapidly respond to the pH of solutions by shifting the turn-on voltage. Furthermore, the output voltage signals induced by the voltage shifts can be directly extracted by implantation of a resistive load inverter.

  10. Physical/chemical properties of tin oxide thin film transistors prepared using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung Kook; Jung, Eunae; Kim, Seok Hwan; Moon, Dae Chul; Lee, Sun Sook; Park, Bo Keun; Hwang, Jin Ha; Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun; An, Ki-Seok

    2012-10-15

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with tin oxide films as the channel layer were fabricated by means of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The as-deposited tin oxide films show n-type conductivity and a nano-crystalline structure of SnO{sub 2}. Notwithstanding the relatively low deposition temperatures of 70, 100, and 130 °C, the bottom gate tin oxide TFTs show an on/off drain current ratio of 10{sup 6} while the device mobility values were increased from 2.31 cm{sup 2}/V s to 6.24 cm{sup 2}/V s upon increasing the deposition temperature of the tin oxide films.

  11. Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

  12. Toward active-matrix lab-on-a-chip: programmable electrofluidic control enabled by arrayed oxide thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-21

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m×n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 × 5 electrode array connected to a 2 × 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 μm and mobility of 6.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

  13. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Ting Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  14. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  15. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-09-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec.

  16. A mixed solution-processed gate dielectric for zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistor and its MIS capacitance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hunho; Kwack, Young-Jin; Yun, Eui-Jung; Choi, Woon-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Solution-processed gate dielectrics were fabricated with the combined ZrO2 and Al2O3 (ZAO) in the form of mixed and stacked types for oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). ZAO thin films prepared with double coatings for solid gate dielectrics were characterized by analytical tools. For the first time, the capacitance of the oxide semiconductor was extracted from the capacitance-voltage properties of the zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs with the combined ZAO dielectrics by using the proposed metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure model. The capacitance evolution of the semiconductor from the TFT model structure described well the threshold voltage shift observed in the ZTO TFT with the ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric. The electrical properties of the ZTO TFT with a ZAO (1:2) gate dielectric showed low voltage driving with a field effect mobility of 37.01 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.00 V, an on-to-off current ratio of 1.46 × 105, and a subthreshold slope of 0.10 V/dec. PMID:27641430

  17. Room-temperature-operated sensitive hybrid gas sensor based on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chang-Hung; Yeh, Chun-Cheng; Dai, Ming-Zhi; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang

    2011-06-01

    An organic sensing layer is capped onto an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) to form a hybrid sensor. The organic layer, served as a second gate, forms a p-n junction with the a-IGZO film. Oxidizing or reducing vapor molecules act like electron acceptors or electron donors to change the potential of the organic layer and the current of a-IGZO TFT. A sensitive and reversible response to 100 ppb ammonia and 100 ppb acetone is obtained at room temperature. This letter opens a route to develop low-cost large-area bio/chemical sensor arrays based on the emerging a-IGZO TFT technology.

  18. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic–inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic–inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  19. Photoresist-Free Fully Self-Patterned Transparent Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Obtained by Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrated self-patterned solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) using photosensitive sol-gels. The photosensitive sol-gels were synthesized by adding β-diketone compounds, i.e., benzoylacetone and acetylacetone, to sol-gels. The chemically modified photosensitive sol-gels showed a high optical absorption at specific wavelengths due to the formation of metal chelate bonds. Photoreactions of the modified solutions enabled a photoresist-free process. Moreover, Zn-Sn-O with a high Sn ratio, which is hard to wet-etch using conventional photolithography due to its chemical durability, was easily patterned via the self-patterning process. Finally, we fabricated a solution-processed oxide TFT that included fully self-patterned electrodes and an active layer.

  20. Low-temperature metal-oxide thin-film transistors formed by directly photopatternable and combustible solution synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rim, You Seung; Lim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the formation of ultraviolet (UV)-assisted directly patternable solution-processed oxide semiconductor films and successfully fabricated thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on these films. An InGaZnO (IGZO) solution that was modified chemically with benzoylacetone (BzAc), whose chelate rings decomposed via a π-π* transition as result of UV irradiation, was used for the direct patterning. A TFT was fabricated using the directly patterned IGZO film, and it had better electrical characteristics than those of conventional photoresist (PR)-patterned TFTs. In addition, the nitric acid (HNO3) and acetylacetone (AcAc) modified In2O3 (NAc-In2O3) solution exhibited both strong UV absorption and high exothermic reaction. This method not only resulted in the formation of a low-energy path because of the combustion of the chemically modified metal-oxide solution but also allowed for photoreaction-induced direct patterning at low temperatures.

  1. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  2. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this ‘electrical activation’, the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully. PMID:27725695

  3. Solution processed lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics for use in metal oxide-based thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Esro, M.; Adamopoulos, G.; Mazzocco, R.; Kolosov, O.; Krier, A.; Vourlias, G.; Milne, W. I.

    2015-05-18

    We report on ZnO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) employing lanthanum aluminate gate dielectrics (La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y}) grown by spray pyrolysis in ambient atmosphere at 440 °C. The structural, electronic, optical, morphological, and electrical properties of the La{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}O{sub y} films and devices as a function of the lanthanum to aluminium atomic ratio were investigated using a wide range of characterization techniques such as UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and field-effect measurements. As-deposited LaAlO{sub y} dielectrics exhibit a wide band gap (∼6.18 eV), high dielectric constant (k ∼ 16), low roughness (∼1.9 nm), and very low leakage currents (<3 nA/cm{sup 2}). TFTs employing solution processed LaAlO{sub y} gate dielectrics and ZnO semiconducting channels exhibit excellent electron transport characteristics with hysteresis-free operation, low operation voltages (∼10 V), high on/off current modulation ratio of >10{sup 6}, subthreshold swing of ∼650 mV dec{sup −1}, and electron mobility of ∼12 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  4. Electric Field-aided Selective Activation for Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heesoo; Chang, Ki Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Jung, Tae Soo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Won-Gi; Chung, Jusung; Jeong, Chan Bae; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-10-01

    A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130 °C simultaneously. In this ‘electrical activation’, the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280 °C to 130 °C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130 °C for 1 hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280 °C for 1 hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully.

  5. Low-temperature spray-deposited indium oxide for flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Luisa; Faber, Hendrik; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Münzenrieder, Niko; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard; Patsalas, Panos A.

    2015-03-02

    Indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis in ambient air and incorporated into bottom-gate coplanar and staggered thin-film transistors. As-fabricated devices exhibited electron-transporting characteristics with mobility values of 1 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and 16 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} for coplanar and staggered architectures, respectively. Integration of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors enabled realization of unipolar inverters with high gain (5.3 V/V) and low-voltage operation. The low temperature deposition (≤250 °C) of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} also allowed transistor fabrication on free-standing 50 μm-thick polyimide foils. The resulting flexible In{sub 2}O{sub 3} transistors exhibit good characteristics and remain fully functional even when bent to tensile radii of 4 mm.

  6. The influence of interfacial defects on fast charge trapping in nanocrystalline oxide-semiconductor thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taeho; Hur, Jihyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-05-01

    Defects in oxide semiconductors not only influence the initial device performance but also affect device reliability. The front channel is the major carrier transport region during the transistor turn-on stage, therefore an understanding of defects located in the vicinity of the interface is very important. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of charge transport in a nanocrystalline hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) by short pulse I-V, transient current and 1/f noise measurement methods. We found that the fast charging behavior of the tested device stems from defects located in both the front channel and the interface, following a multi-trapping mechanism. We found that a silicon-nitride stacked hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT is vulnerable to interfacial charge trapping compared with silicon-oxide counterpart, causing significant mobility degradation and threshold voltage instability. The 1/f noise measurement data indicate that the carrier transport in a silicon-nitride stacked TFT device is governed by trapping/de-trapping processes via defects in the interface, while the silicon-oxide device follows the mobility fluctuation model.

  7. Strong Influence of Humidity on Low-Temperature Thin-Film Fabrication via Metal Aqua Complex for High Performance Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lim, Keon-Hee; Huh, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jinwon; Cho, Nam-Kwang; Park, Jun-Woo; Nam, Bu-Il; Lee, Eungkyu; Kim, Youn Sang

    2017-01-11

    Oxide semiconductors thin film transistors (OS TFTs) with good transparency and electrical performance have great potential for future display technology. In particular, solution-processed OS TFTs have been attracted much attention due to many advantages such as continuous, large scale, and low cost processability. Recently, OS TFTs fabricated with a metal aqua complex have been focused because they have low temperature processability for deposition on flexible substrate as well as high field-effect mobility for application of advanced display. However, despite some remarkable results, important factors to optimize their electrical performance with reproducibility and uniformity have not yet been achieved. Here, we newly introduce the strong effects of humidity to enhance the electrical performance of OS TFTs fabricated with the metal aqua complex. Through humidity control during the spin-coating process and annealing process, we successfully demonstrate solution-processed InOx/SiO2 TFTs with a good electrical uniformity of ∼5% standard deviation, showing high average field-effect mobility of 2.76 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) and 15.28 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) fabricated at 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Also, on the basis of the systematic analyses, we demonstrate the mechanism for the change in electrical properties of InOx TFTs depending on the humidity control. Finally, on the basis of the mechanism, we extended the humidity control to the fabrication of the AlOx insulator. Subsequently, we successfully achieved humidity-controlled InOx/AlOx TFTs fabricated at 200 °C showing high average field-effect mobility of 9.5 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1).

  8. Electrothermal Annealing (ETA) Method to Enhance the Electrical Performance of Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor (AOS) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Kim, Eungtaek; Lee, Myung Keun; Park, Jun-Young; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Bae, Hagyoul; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Jun, Sungwoo; Park, Sang-Hee K; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-09-14

    An electro-thermal annealing (ETA) method, which uses an electrical pulse of less than 100 ns, was developed to improve the electrical performance of array-level amorphous-oxide-semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The practicality of the ETA method was experimentally demonstrated with transparent amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs. The overall electrical performance metrics were boosted by the proposed method: up to 205% for the trans-conductance (gm), 158% for the linear current (Ilinear), and 206% for the subthreshold swing (SS). The performance enhancement were interpreted by X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), showing a reduction of oxygen vacancies in a-IGZO after the ETA. Furthermore, by virtue of the extremely short operation time (80 ns) of ETA, which neither provokes a delay of the mandatory TFTs operation such as addressing operation for the display refresh nor demands extra physical treatment, the semipermanent use of displays can be realized.

  9. Thin-film transistor behaviour and the associated physical origin of water-annealed In-Ga-Zn oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Ahn, Byung; Lim, Jun Hyung; Cho, Mann-Ho; Park, Jin-Seong; Chung, Kwun-Bum

    2012-10-01

    A transparent In-Ga-Zn oxide semiconductor was thermally annealed in an ambient atmosphere of water vapour and the associated electrical and physical properties of the film were investigated. After annealing in water vapour, the resulting thin-film transistor (TFT) exhibits n-type behaviour with a field effect mobility of 11.4 cm2 V-1 s-1, and an on/off current ratio of 6.65 × 109. The annealing process in water vapour induces changes in the elemental composition and chemical bonding states of Zn and O. These phenomena affect the changes of band alignment including the band gap and conduction band offset (Δ(ECB - EF)) of InGaZnO semiconductors, which is the basis for the improved operation and performance of these TFTs.

  10. High performance indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors fabricated with a back-channel-etch-technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Lan, Linfeng; Xu, Miao; Zou, Jianhua; Wang, Lei; Wang, Dan; Peng, Junbiao

    2011-12-01

    Indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with back-channel-etch (BCE) structure were demonstrated. A stacked structure of Mo/Al/Mo was used as the source/drain electrodes and patterned by a wet-etch-method. Good etching profile with few residues on the channel was obtained. The TFT showed a field effect mobility of 11.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a sub-threshold swing of 0.24 V/decade. The performance of this kind of TFT was better than that of the TFT with etch-stopper-layer structure, which was proved to be due to the lower contact resistance. The BCE-TFTs fabricated with this method have good prospect due to the advantage of low cost.

  11. Effect of organic buffer layer in the electrical properties of amorphous-indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Hyung, Gun Woo; Li, Zhao-Hui; Son, Sung-Yong; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Young Kwan; Cho, Eou Sik

    2012-07-01

    In this research, we reported on the fabrication of top-contact amorphous-indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an organic buffer layer between inorganic gate dielectric and active layer in order to improve the electrical properties of devices. By inserting an organic buffer layer, it was possible to make an affirmation of the improvements in the electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs such as subthreshold slope (SS), on/off current ratio (I(ON/OFF)), off-state current, and saturation field-effect mobility (muFE). The a-IGZO TFTs with the cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (c-PVA) buffer layer exhibited the pronounced improvements of the muFE (17.4 cm2/Vs), SS (0.9 V/decade), and I(ON/OFF) (8.9 x 10(6)).

  12. Light-induced hysteresis and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Hoon E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr

    2014-07-28

    In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative V{sub T} shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall V{sub T} shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less V{sub T} shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

  13. Nanocomposites of polyimide and mixed oxide nanoparticles for high performance nanohybrid gate dielectrics in flexible thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Do-Il; Kim, Jin Soo; Seol, Young Gug; Kim, Tae Woong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-01-01

    Organic gate dielectrics in thin film transistors (TFTs) for flexible display have advantages of high flexibility yet have the disadvantage of low dielectric constant (low-k). To supplement low-k characteristics of organic gate dielectrics, an organic/inorganic nanocomposite insulator loaded with high-k inorganic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated but high loading of high-k NPs in polymer matrix is essential. Herein, compositing of over-coated polyimide (PI) on self-assembled (SA) layer of mixed HfO2 and ZrO2 NPs as inorganic fillers was used to make dielectric constant higher and leakage characteristics lower. A flexible TFT with lower the threshold voltage and high current on/off ratio could be fabricated by using the hybrid gate dielectric structure of the nanocomposite with SA layer of mixed NPs on ultrathin atomic-layer deposited Al2O3.

  14. Recovery from ultraviolet-induced threshold voltage shift in indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by positive gate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2013-11-11

    The effect of short-duration ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) and its recovery characteristics were investigated. The V{sub th} exhibited a significant negative shift after UV exposure. The V{sub th} instability caused by UV illumination is attributed to the positive charge trapping in the dielectric layer and/or at the channel/dielectric interface. The illuminated devices showed a slow recovery in threshold voltage without external bias. However, an instant recovery can be achieved by the application of positive gate pulses, which is due to the elimination of the positive trapped charges as a result of the presence of a large amount of field-induced electrons in the interface region.

  15. A compact model and direct parameters extraction techniques For amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Oana; Castro-Carranza, Alejandra; Cerdeira, Antonio; Estrada, Magali; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Miljakovic, Slobodan; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    An advanced compact and analytical drain current model for the amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide (GIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. Its output saturation behavior is improved by introducing a new asymptotic function. All model parameters were extracted using an adapted version of the Universal Method and Extraction Procedure (UMEM) applied for the first time for GIZO devices in a simple and direct form. We demonstrate the correct behavior of the model for negative VDS, a necessity for a complete compact model. In this way we prove the symmetry of source and drain electrodes and extend the range of applications to both signs of VDS. The model, in Verilog-A code, is implemented in Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, such as Smart Spice, and compared with measurements of TFTs. It describes accurately the experimental characteristics in the whole range of GIZO TFTs operation, making the model suitable for the design of circuits using these types of devices.

  16. Defect generation in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias stress at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin; Migliorato, Piero

    2014-04-07

    We report on the generation and characterization of a hump in the transfer characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias temperature stress. The hump depends strongly on the gate bias stress at 100 °C. Due to the hump, the positive shift of the transfer characteristic in deep depletion is always smaller that in accumulation. Since, the latter shift is twice the former, with very good correlation, we conclude that the effect is due to creation of a double acceptor, likely to be a cation vacancy. Our results indicate that these defects are located near the gate insulator/active layer interface, rather than in the bulk. Migration of donor defects from the interface towards the bulk may also occur under PBST at 100 °C.

  17. Enhanced stability against bias-stress of metal-oxide thin film transistors deposited at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhri, M.; Goerrn, P.; Riedl, T.; Weimann, T.; Hinze, P.

    2011-09-19

    Transparent zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. Compared to reference devices with a channel deposited at room temperature and subsequently annealing at 400 deg. C, a substantially enhanced stability against bias stress is evidenced for devices with in-situ substrate heating during deposition (400 deg. C). A reduced density of sub-gap defect states in TFT channels prepared with in-situ substrate heating is found. Concomitantly, a reduced sensitivity to the adsorption of ambient gases is evidenced for the in-situ heated devices. This finding is of particular importance for an application as driver electronics for organic light emitting diode displays.

  18. Top-gate zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors with high bias and environmental stress stability

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhri, M.; Theisen, M.; Behrendt, A.; Görrn, P.; Riedl, T.

    2014-06-23

    Top gated metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) provide two benefits compared to their conventional bottom-gate counterparts: (i) The gate dielectric may concomitantly serve as encapsulation layer for the TFT channel. (ii) Damage of the dielectric due to high-energetic particles during channel deposition can be avoided. In our work, the top-gate dielectric is prepared by ozone based atomic layer deposition at low temperatures. For ultra-low gas permeation rates, we introduce nano-laminates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} as dielectrics. The resulting TFTs show a superior environmental stability even at elevated temperatures. Their outstanding stability vs. bias stress is benchmarked against bottom-gate devices with encapsulation.

  19. Effect of UV-light illumination on oxide-based electric-double-layer thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jumei; Hu, Yunping

    2017-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using porous SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition as dielectrics. The results showed that the porous SiO2 film exhibited a high electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Devices gated by the EDL dielectric exhibited a high drain current on/off ratio of >106 and a low operation voltage of <2.0 V in the dark. When illuminated by 254 nm UV light, ITO-based EDL TFTs gated by a single SiO2 dielectric displayed weak photo-responses. However, devices gated by a stacked Al2O3/EDL dielectric displayed a high photo responsivity of more than 104 with a gate bias of -0.5 V (depletion state).

  20. Electron transporting water-gated thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Naim, Abdullah; Grell, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate an electron-transporting water-gated thin film transistor, using thermally converted precursor-route zinc-oxide (ZnO) intrinsic semiconductors with hexamethyldisilazene (HMDS) hydrophobic surface modification. Water gated HMDS-ZnO thin film transistors (TFT) display low threshold and high electron mobility. ZnO films constitute an attractive alternative to organic semiconductors for TFT transducers in sensor applications for waterborne analytes. Despite the use of an electrolyte as gate medium, the gate geometry (shape of gate electrode and distance between gate electrode and TFT channel) is relevant for optimum performance of water-gated TFTs.

  1. Organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Klauk, Hagen

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, organic transistors have developed from a laboratory curiosity to a commercially viable technology. This critical review provides a short summary of several important aspects of organic transistors, including materials, microstructure, carrier transport, manufacturing, electrical properties, and performance limitations (200 references).

  2. Temperature-dependent bias-stress-induced electrical instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hui-Min; Yu, Guang; Lu, Hai; Wu, Chen-Fei; Tang, Lan-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Liao; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The time and temperature dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias stress (PBS) and the following recovery process are investigated in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. It is found that the time dependence of threshold voltage shift can be well described by a stretched exponential equation in which the time constant τ is found to be temperature dependent. Based on Arrhenius plots, an average effective energy barrier Eτstress = 0.72 eV for the PBS process and an average effective energy barrier Eτrecovery = 0.58 eV for the recovery process are extracted respectively. A charge trapping/detrapping model is used to explain the threshold voltage shift in both the PBS and the recovery process. The influence of gate bias stress on transistor performance is one of the most critical issues for practical device development. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB301900 and 2011CB922100) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China

  3. Density of states-based design of metal oxide thin-film transistors for high mobility and superior photostability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Park, Joon Seok; Jeong, Hyun-Kwang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Seon, Jong-Baek; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Dae Hwan; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2012-10-24

    A novel method to design metal oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) devices with high performance and high photostability for next-generation flat-panel displays is reported. Here, we developed bilayer metal oxide TFTs, where the front channel consists of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) and the back channel material on top of it is hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (HIZO). Density-of-states (DOS)-based modeling and device simulation were performed in order to determine the optimum thickness ratio within the IZO/HIZO stack that results in the best balance between device performance and stability. As a result, respective values of 5 and 40 nm for the IZO and HIZO layers were determined. The TFT devices that were fabricated accordingly exhibited mobility values up to 48 cm(2)/(V s), which is much elevated compared to pure HIZO TFTs (∼13 cm(2)/(V s)) but comparable to pure IZO TFTs (∼59 cm(2)/(V s)). Also, the stability of the bilayer device (-1.18 V) was significantly enhanced compared to the pure IZO device (-9.08 V). Our methodology based on the subgap DOS model and simulation provides an effective way to enhance the device stability while retaining a relatively high mobility, which makes the corresponding devices suitable for ultradefinition, large-area, and high-frame-rate display applications.

  4. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäniemi, J.; Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In2O3) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ˜1 cm2/(V.s). Amorphous In2O3 films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm2/(V.s) and 7.5 cm2/(V.s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  5. Determination of intrinsic mobility of a bilayer oxide thin-film transistor by pulsed I-V method.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyunsuk; Kim, Taeho; Hur, Jihyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-04-28

    Amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFT) have been considered as outstanding switch devices owing to their high mobility. However, because of their amorphous channel material with a certain level of density of states, a fast transient charging effect in an oxide TFT occurs, leading to an underestimation of the mobility value. In this paper, the effects of the fast charging of high-performance bilayer oxide semiconductor TFTs on mobility are examined in order to determine an accurate mobility extraction method. In addition, an approach based on a pulse I D -V G measurement method is proposed to determine the intrinsic mobility value. Even with the short pulse I D -V G measurement, a certain level of fast transient charge trapping cannot be avoided as long as the charge-trap start time is shorter than the pulse rising time. Using a pulse-amplitude-dependent threshold voltage characterization method, we estimated a correction factor for the apparent mobility, thus allowing us to determine the intrinsic mobility.

  6. Recent progress in high performance and reliable n-type transition metal oxide-based thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jang Yeon; Kyeong Jeong, Jae

    2015-02-01

    This review gives an overview of the recent progress in vacuum-based n-type transition metal oxide (TMO) thin film transistors (TFTs). Several excellent review papers regarding metal oxide TFTs in terms of fundamental electron structure, device process and reliability have been published. In particular, the required field-effect mobility of TMO TFTs has been increasing rapidly to meet the demands of the ultra-high-resolution, large panel size and three dimensional visual effects as a megatrend of flat panel displays, such as liquid crystal displays, organic light emitting diodes and flexible displays. In this regard, the effects of the TMO composition on the performance of the resulting oxide TFTs has been reviewed, and classified into binary, ternary and quaternary composition systems. In addition, the new strategic approaches including zinc oxynitride materials, double channel structures, and composite structures have been proposed recently, and were not covered in detail in previous review papers. Special attention is given to the advanced device architecture of TMO TFTs, such as back-channel-etch and self-aligned coplanar structure, which is a key technology because of their advantages including low cost fabrication, high driving speed and unwanted visual artifact-free high quality imaging. The integration process and related issues, such as etching, post treatment, low ohmic contact and Cu interconnection, required for realizing these advanced architectures are also discussed.

  7. Optically transparent thin-film transistors based on 2D multilayer MoS2 and indium zinc oxide electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Junyeon; Hong, Young Ki; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Park, Yu Jin; Yoo, Byungwook; Kim, Jiwan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Oh, Min Suk; Kim, Sunkook

    2015-01-01

    We report on optically transparent thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using multilayered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as the active channel, indium tin oxide (ITO) for the back-gated electrode and indium zinc oxide (IZO) for the source/drain electrodes, respectively, which showed more than 81% transmittance in the visible wavelength. In spite of a relatively large Schottky barrier between MoS2 and IZO, the n-type behavior with a field-effect mobility (μeff) of 1.4 cm2 V-1 s-1 was observed in as-fabricated transparent MoS2 TFT. In order to enhance the performances of transparent MoS2 TFTs, a picosecond pulsed laser was selectively irradiated onto the contact region of the IZO electrodes. Following laser annealing, μeff increased to 4.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the on-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) increased to 104, which were attributed to the reduction of the contact resistance between MoS2 and IZO.

  8. Label-free attomolar detection of lactate based on radio frequency sputtered of nickel oxide thin film field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Mansouri Majd, Samira; Salimi, Abdollah; Astinchap, Bandar

    2017-06-15

    The radio frequency sputtered nickel oxide thin film nanostrtablucture deposited on glass substrate was used as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective field effect transistor-type lactate biosensor. Firstly, NiO-FET was tested for NADH detection showing a linear concentration range 1aM to 1nM and a low detection limit of 0.2aM. Then, NiO surface modified with chitosan and functionalized with glutaraldehyde and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme was immobilized on the aldehyde terminal. The biosensor is found to exhibit highly efficient sensing response characteristics with good linearity of 1aM to 1pM and low limit of detection of 0.5aM. The biosensor shows high stability without interferences from commonly interfering compounds in biological fluids, including uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose and acetaminophen. Furthermore, the application of the proposed biosensor for analysis of lactate in artificial serum samples was evaluated with good satisfactory results. This protocol can be used to develop of disposable, low cost, and portable various types of dehydrogenase based biosensor devices using metal oxide nanomaterials.

  9. Effect of Zinc Oxide Film Deposition Position on the Characteristics of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors Fabricated by Low-Temperature Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Kazushige; Nakata, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Toshimasa; Otsuki, Shigeyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Kaneko, Setsuo

    2008-09-01

    We report on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposition position on the characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by magnetron sputtering with no intentional heating of the substrate. We evaluate the properties of ZnO (channel semiconductor) films deposited at various positions with respect to the target position. We show that the film deposition at a position off-centered from the target results in good TFT characteristics. This might be due to the fact that the off-centered deposition position is effective for suppressing the effect of energetic negative ions in the plasma.

  10. Crystallization behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide films and its effects on thin-film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suko, Ayaka; Jia, JunJun; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in air at 300-1000 °C for 1 h to investigate the crystallization behavior in detail. X-ray diffraction, electron beam diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy revealed that the IGZO films showed an amorphous structure after post-annealing at 300 °C. At 600 °C, the films started to crystallize from the surface with c-axis preferred orientation. At 700-1000 °C, the films totally crystallized into polycrystalline structures, wherein the grains showed c-axis preferred orientation close to the surface and random orientation inside the films. The current-gate voltage (Id-Vg) characteristics of the IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) showed that the threshold voltage (Vth) and subthreshold swing decreased markedly after the post-annealing at 300 °C. The TFT using the totally crystallized films also showed the decrease in Vth, whereas the field-effect mobility decreased considerably.

  11. High Field-Emission Stability of Offset-Thin-Film Transistor-Controlled Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Jyh-Liang; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Jia-Chuan; Lee, I.-Che; Chang, Chia-Tsung; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2011-04-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanowire (NW) arrays incorporating an offset thin-film transistor (offset-TFT) have been proposed to achieve high field-emission (FE) stability. The AZO NW field emission arrays (FEAs) were hydrothermally grown at a low temperature of 85 °C. The uncontrolled AZO NW FEAs demonstrated superior FE characteristics (i.e., turn-on field of ˜2.17 V/µm and threshold field of ˜3.43 V/µm) compared with those of the conventional CNT FEAs grown at a temperature below 600 °C. However, uncontrolled AZO NW FEAs show a larger current fluctuation of 15.6%. Therefore, the offset-TFTs were used to control the AZO NW FEAs. Consequently, the fluctuation of AZO NW FEAs could be significantly reduced to less than 2%. This novel field emission device exhibits good emission stability, low-voltage controllability, low-temperature processing, and structural simplicity, making it promising for applications in flat panel displays.

  12. The effects of deposition conditions and annealing temperature on the performance of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Tanina; Iyer, Shanthi; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Lewis, Jay; Cunningham, Garry; Forsythe, Eric

    2013-03-01

    In this work the performance of bottom gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with transparent amorphous gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) active layers fabricated by radio frequency sputter deposition using a single GSZO target on SiO2/Si wafers will be presented. Trap density and its energetic distribution, and oxygen chemisorption were found to play a critical role in determining the operational characteristics of the device, all of which can be controlled by the oxygen incorporation and substrate temperature during deposition, along with the post-deposition annealing. In addition device instability, with respect to the electrical stress and optical illumination, can be suppressed by suitably tailoring these parameters. TFTs exhibiting a drain current (ID) of 10-6 A and on/off current ratio (Ion/off ) of 106 was achieved. A stable TFT has been achieved under electrical stress for 2% oxygen flow exhibiting ΔVT as low as ~0.5 V for 3hr stress under a gate bias of 1.2 and 12 V, with good optical stability.

  13. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a "dream" display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays.

  14. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Minkyu; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Jang, Jin

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (V{sub TG}) and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 {sup o}C) on dual-gate (DG) back-channel-etched (BCE) amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) characteristics. The increment of V{sub TG} from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup −3}. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on V{sub TG}. At V{sub TG} of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at V{sub TG} of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.

  15. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-24

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV{sub ON}) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristic trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress.

  16. Channel length dependence of negative-bias-illumination-stress in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin; Migliorato, Piero

    2015-06-21

    We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-μm. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length L{sub D} ∼ L{sub n} ∼ 10-μm, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model also shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.

  17. Contact resistance asymmetry of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Fei, Wu; Yun-Feng, Chen; Hai, Lu; Xiao-Ming, Huang; Fang-Fang, Ren; Dun-Jun, Chen; Rong, Zhang; You-Dou, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a method based on scanning Kelvin probe microscopy is proposed to separately extract source/drain (S/D) series resistance in operating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. The asymmetry behavior of S/D contact resistance is deduced and the underlying physics is discussed. The present results suggest that the asymmetry of S/D contact resistance is caused by the difference in bias conditions of the Schottky-like junction at the contact interface induced by the parasitic reaction between contact metal and a-IGZO. The overall contact resistance should be determined by both the bulk channel resistance of the contact region and the interface properties of the metal-semiconductor junction. Project supported by the Key Industrial R&D Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BE2015155), the Priority Academic Program Development of Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 021014380033).

  18. Anion control as a strategy to achieve high-mobility and high-stability oxide thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Suk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Park, Joon Seok; Kim, Tae Sang; Son, Kyoung Seok; Seon, Jong-Baek; Seo, Seok-Jun; Kim, Sun-Jae; Lee, Eunha; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Hyungik; Han, Seungwu; Ryu, Myungkwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kinam

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-definition, large-area displays with three-dimensional visual effects represent megatrend in the current/future display industry. On the hardware level, such a “dream” display requires faster pixel switching and higher driving current, which in turn necessitate thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as In-Ga-Zn-O are poised to enable such TFTs, but the trade-off between device performance and stability under illumination critically limits their usability, which is related to the hampered electron-hole recombination caused by the oxygen vacancies. Here we have improved the illumination stability by substituting oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO, which may deactivate oxygen vacancies by raising valence bands above the defect levels. Indeed, the stability under illumination and electrical bias is superior to that of previous AOS-based TFTs. By achieving both mobility and stability, it is highly expected that the present ZnON TFTs will be extensively deployed in next-generation flat-panel displays. PMID:23492854

  19. Oxide Semiconductor-Based Flexible Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soon-Won; Choi, Jeong-Seon; Park, Jung Ho; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Lim, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Seok; Chu, Hye Yong

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate flexible organic/inorganic hybrid thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a polydimethysilox- ane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. The active channel and gate insulator of the hybrid TFT are composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF- TrFE)] with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively. It has been confirmed that the fabri- cated TFT display excellent characteristics: the recorded field-effect mobility, sub-threshold voltage swing, and I(on)/I(off) ratio were approximately 0.35 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), 1.5 V/decade, and 10(4), respectively. These characteristics did not experience any degradation at a bending radius of 15 mm. These results correspond to the first demonstration of a hybrid-type TFT using an organic gate insulator/oxide semiconducting active channel structure fabricated on PDMS elastomer, and demonstrate the feasibility of a promising device in a flexible electronic system.

  20. Investigation on the negative bias illumination stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaeman; Kim, Dae Geun; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Lim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Yong-Sung; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2014-10-01

    The quantitative analysis of mechanism on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS)-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) was suggested along with the effect of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of gate insulator. The analysis was implemented through combining the experimentally extracted density of subgap states and the device simulation. During NBIS, it was observed that the thicker EOT causes increase in both the shift of threshold voltage and the variation of subthreshold swing as well as the hump-like feature in a transfer curve. We found that the EOT-dependence of NBIS instability can be clearly explicated with the donor creation model, in which a larger amount of valence band tail states is transformed into either the ionized oxygen vacancy VO2+ or peroxide O22- with the increase of EOT. It was also found that the VO2+-related extrinsic factor accounts for 80%-92% of the total donor creation taking place in the valence band tail states while the rest is taken by the O22- related intrinsic factor. The ratio of extrinsic factor compared to the total donor creation also increased with the increase of EOT, which could be explained by more prominent oxygen deficiency. The key founding of our work certainly represents that the established model should be considered very effective for analyzing the instability of the post-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) ZnO-based compound semiconductor TFTs with the mobility, which is much higher than those of a-IGZO TFTs.

  1. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100 °C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250 °C with FUV for 5 min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ∼1 cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15 min with FUV at temperatures of 180 °C and 200 °C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5 cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160 nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  2. Investigation on the negative bias illumination stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jaeman; Kim, Dae Geun; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Lim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Je-Hun; Ahn, Byung Du E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2014-10-13

    The quantitative analysis of mechanism on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS)-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) was suggested along with the effect of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of gate insulator. The analysis was implemented through combining the experimentally extracted density of subgap states and the device simulation. During NBIS, it was observed that the thicker EOT causes increase in both the shift of threshold voltage and the variation of subthreshold swing as well as the hump-like feature in a transfer curve. We found that the EOT-dependence of NBIS instability can be clearly explicated with the donor creation model, in which a larger amount of valence band tail states is transformed into either the ionized oxygen vacancy V{sub O}{sup 2+} or peroxide O{sub 2}{sup 2−} with the increase of EOT. It was also found that the V{sub O}{sup 2+}-related extrinsic factor accounts for 80%–92% of the total donor creation taking place in the valence band tail states while the rest is taken by the O{sub 2}{sup 2–} related intrinsic factor. The ratio of extrinsic factor compared to the total donor creation also increased with the increase of EOT, which could be explained by more prominent oxygen deficiency. The key founding of our work certainly represents that the established model should be considered very effective for analyzing the instability of the post-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) ZnO-based compound semiconductor TFTs with the mobility, which is much higher than those of a-IGZO TFTs.

  3. High Performance Airbrushed Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.; Richter, L; Dinardo, B; Jaye, C; Conrad, B; Ro, H; Germack, D; Fischer, D; DeLongchamp, D; Gunlach, D

    2010-01-01

    Spray-deposited poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors were characterized using electrical and structural methods. Thin-film transistors with octyltrichlorosilane treated gate dielectrics and spray-deposited P3HT active layers exhibited a saturation regime mobility as high as 0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the best mobilities observed in high molecular mass P3HT transistors prepared using other methods. Optical and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of individual droplets with an average diameter of 20 {micro}m and appreciable large-scale film inhomogeneities. Despite these inhomogeneities, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the device-relevant channel interface indicated excellent orientation of the P3HT.

  4. Enhanced electrical properties of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors with high conductivity thin layer insertion for the channel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Cam Phu Thi; Raja, Jayapal; Kim, Sunbo; Jang, Kyungsoo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the performance and the stability of indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) by inserting an ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO) layer at the active/insulator interface. The electrical properties of the double channel device (ITO thickness of 5 nm) were improved in comparison with the single channel ITZO or ITO devices. The TFT characteristics of the device with an ITO thickness of less than 5 nm were degraded due to the formation of an island-like morphology and the carriers scattering at the active/insulator interface. The 5 nm-thick ITO inserted ITZO TFTs (optimal condition) exhibited a superior field effect mobility (∼95 cm2/V·s) compared with the ITZO-only TFTs (∼34 cm2/V·s). The best characteristics of the TFT devices with double channel layer are due to the lowest surface roughness (0.14 nm) and contact angle (50.1°) that result in the highest hydrophicility, and the most effective adhesion at the surface. Furthermore, the threshold voltage shifts for the ITO/ITZO double layer device decreased to 0.80 and -2.39 V compared with 6.10 and -6.79 V (for the ITZO only device) under positive and negative bias stress, respectively. The falling rates of EA were 0.38 eV/V and 0.54 eV/V for the ITZO and ITO/ITZO bi-layer devices, respectively. The faster falling rate of the double channel devices suggests that the trap density, including interface trap and semiconductor bulk trap, can be decreased by the ion insertion of a very thin ITO film into the ITZO/SiO2 reference device. These results demonstrate that the double active layer TFT can potentially be applied to the flat panel display.

  5. The effect of annealing ambient on the characteristics of an indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeon; Bang, Seokhwan; Lee, Seungjun; Park, Joohyun; Ko, Youngbin; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the effects of different annealing conditions (air, O2, N2, vacuum) on the chemical and electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT) were investigated. The contact resistance and interface properties between the IGZO film and the gate dielectric improved after an annealing treatment. However, the chemical bonds in the IGZO bulk changed under various annealing atmospheres, which, in turn, altered the characteristics of the TFTs. The TFTs annealed in vacuum and N2 ambients exhibited undesired switching properties due to the high carrier concentration (>10(17) cm(-3)) of the IGZO active layer. In contrast, the IGZO TFTs annealed in air and oxygen ambients displayed clear transfer characteristics due to an adequately adjusted carrier concentration in the operating range of the TFT. Such an optimal carrier concentration arose through the stabilization of unstable chemical bonds in the IGZO film. With regard to device performance, the TFTs annealed in O2 and air exhibited saturation mobility values of 8.29 and 7.54 cm2/Vs, on-off ratios of 7.34 x 10(8) and 3.95 x 10(8), and subthreshold swing (SS) values of 0.23 and 0.19 V/decade, respectively. Therefore, proper annealing ambients contributed to internal modifications in the IGZO structure and led to an enhancement in the oxidation state of the metal. As a result, defects such as oxygen vacancies were eliminated. Oxygen annealing is thus effective for controlling the carrier concentration of the active layer, decreasing electron traps, and enhancing TFT performance.

  6. Study of the improvements in the electrical performance of solution-processed metal oxide thin-film transistors using self-assembled monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Hyungjoong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Lee, Mijung

    2014-10-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) of a metal oxide semiconductor typically are transparent and have high mobility to be paid attention for back plane of displays. One of the most actively studied fabrication methods of metal oxide semiconductors is the solution processing (sol-gel) method, owing to its low-cost, simple and fast steps that ensure good product uniformity, and applicability to roll-to-roll processing. Our study focused on probing the electronic properties of solution-processed metal oxide TFTs. We have calculated the density of state (DOS) with monochromatic photonic capacitance-voltage (MPCV) measurements. Improvements in device are proved by electronic and photo-electronic methods.

  7. Thin film transistors for flexible electronics: contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Lopez, M A; Wondmagegn, W T; Alshareef, H N; Ramirez-Bon, R; Gnade, B E

    2011-06-01

    The development of low temperature, thin film transistor processes that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, radiation detectors, etc. In this paper, we review the impact of gate dielectrics, contacts and semiconductor materials on thin film transistors for flexible electronics applications. We present our recent results to fully integrate hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductors comprising inorganic and organic-based materials. In particular, we demonstrate novel gate dielectric stacks and semiconducting materials. The impact of source and drain contacts on device performance is also discussed.

  8. Exploring Two-Dimensional Transport Phenomena in Metal Oxide Heterointerfaces for Next-Generation, High-Performance, Thin-Film Transistor Technologies.

    PubMed

    Labram, John G; Lin, Yen-Hung; Anthopoulos, Thomas D

    2015-11-04

    In the last decade, metal oxides have emerged as a fascinating class of electronic material, exhibiting a wide range of unique and technologically relevant characteristics. For example, thin-film transistors formed from amorphous or polycrystalline metal oxide semiconductors offer the promise of low-cost, large-area, and flexible electronics, exhibiting performances comparable to or in excess of incumbent silicon-based technologies. Atomically flat interfaces between otherwise insulating or semiconducting complex oxides, are also found to be highly conducting, displaying 2-dimensional (2D) charge transport properties, strong correlations, and even superconductivity. Field-effect devices employing such carefully engineered interfaces are hoped to one day compete with traditional group IV or III-V semiconductors for use in the next-generation of high-performance electronics. In this Concept article we provide an overview of the different metal oxide transistor technologies and potential future research directions. In particular, we look at the recent reports of multilayer oxide thin-film transistors and the possibility of 2D electron transport in these disordered/polycrystalline systems and discuss the potential of the technology for applications in large-area electronics.

  9. Effect of Chloride Precursors on the Stability of Solution-Processed Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Hee; Park, Sung Min; Yang, Jung Il; Cho, Dong Kyu; Woo, Sang Hyun; Lim, Yoo Sung; Kuk Kim, Dae; Yi, Moonsuk

    2013-10-01

    In this experiment, solution-processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were prepared by spin-coating the films as an active layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs). These films were coated with nitrate and a mixture of acetate- and chloride-based precursors to allow the IZO films to contain indium and zinc components. The solution-processed IZO-based TFT fabricated using a zinc acetate precursor for the IZO films exhibited a mobility of 2.83 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×105, and a subthreshold swing value of 2.48 V/dec. The IZO-TFT with the zinc chloride precursor exhibited a mobility of 4.37 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×103, and a subthreshold swing value of 6.44 V/dec. In comparison, the IZO-TFT with a mixture of zinc acetate and chloride precursors exhibited a mobility of 1.45 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on/off current ratio of ˜1×105, and a subthreshold swing value of 1.83 V/dec. The first two devices suffered from a large threshold voltage (Vth) shift, >7 and >6 V, respectively, after a gate voltage of 20 V was applied for 2 h. In contrast, the device fabricated using the mixed precursors showed a higher stability, shifting about 1.7 V under the same stress conditions.

  10. Role of oxygen vacancies on the bias illumination stress stability of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-Chih; Chen, Jen-Sue E-mail: jsjeng@mail.nutn.edu.tw; Jeng, Jiann-Shing E-mail: jsjeng@mail.nutn.edu.tw

    2014-07-14

    Solution-processed ultra-thin (∼3 nm) zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a mobility of 8 cm{sup 2}/Vs are obtained with post spin-coating annealing at only 350 °C. The effect of light illumination (at wavelengths of 405 nm or 532 nm) on the stability of TFT transfer characteristics under various gate bias stress conditions (zero, positive, and negative) is investigated. It is found that the ΔV{sub th} (V{sub th}{sup stress} {sup 3400} {sup s − stress} {sup 0} {sup s}) window is significantly positive when ZTO TFTs are under positive bias stress (PBS, ΔV{sub th} = 9.98 V) and positive bias illumination stress (λ = 405 nm and ΔV{sub th} = 6.96 V), but ΔV{sub th} is slightly negative under only light illumination stress (λ = 405 nm and ΔV{sub th} = −2.02 V) or negative bias stress (ΔV{sub th} = −2.27 V). However, the ΔV{sub th} of ZTO TFT under negative bias illumination stress is substantial, and it will efficiently recover the ΔV{sub th} caused by PBS. The result is attributed to the photo-ionization and subsequent transition of electronic states of oxygen vacancies (i.e., V{sub o}, V{sub o}{sup +}, and V{sub o}{sup ++}) in ZTO. A detailed mechanism is discussed to better understand the bias stress stability of solution processed ZTO TFTs.

  11. Charge transport at high temperatures in solution-processed zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kyeong Min; Bae, Byung Seong; Jung, Myunghee; Yun, Eui-Jung

    2014-07-01

    We report charge transport studies at temperatures in the range of 303-402 K for solutiondeposited amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) operating in the subthreshold region. The developed TFTs, which had a non-patterned bottom gate and top contact structure, employed a heavily-doped Si wafer and a SiO2 as a gate electrode and a gate insulator layer, respectively. In a-ZTO, the trap activation energy ( E TAC ) was estimated using the Maxwell-Boltzmann approximation. The decreasing E TAC with increasing gate-voltage-induced sheet carrier density (n s ) in the a-ZTO channel can be understood as being due to a shift of the Fermi level ( E F ) toward the conduction band edge ( E C ) with increasing gate voltage. Samples with low n s , which exhibited thermally-activated behavior, revealed multiple trap and release phenomena. In samples with high n s , on the other hand, we observed decreasing mobility/conductivity with increasing temperature at temperatures higher than 348 K. This suggests that the E TAC can drop to zero, implying a shift of E F beyond E C , where the crossover from the thermal activation to band transport is observed. The temperature-dependent characteristics also revealed that the density of subgap trap states at E F exhibited thermally-activated behavior with an activation energy of 0.7 eV, suggesting that subgap trap states existed near 0.7 eV below the E C .

  12. Effect of Hydrogen in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungyol; Seo, Ogweon; Jeong, Euihyuk; Seo, Hyunseok; Lee, Byeongon; Choi, Yearn-Ik

    2007-04-01

    We studied the transport characteristics of ZnO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at temperatures between 200 and 500 °C. The crystal quality, measured by X-ray diffraction, improved as the growth temperature increased. However, the mobility measured in the thin-film transistor (TFT) decreased in films grown at higher temperatures. In our experiments, a ZnO TFT grown at 250 °C showed good electrical characteristics, with a 13 cm2 V-1 s-1 mobility and a 103 on/off ratio. We conclude that hydrogen incorporated during MOCVD growth plays an important role in determining the transistor characteristics. This was supported by results of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), where a higher hydrogen concentration was observed in films grown at lower temperatures.

  13. Reduction of the interfacial trap density of indium-oxide thin film transistors by incorporation of hafnium and annealing process

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Meng-Fang E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Gao, Xu; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Aikawa, Shinya; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2015-01-15

    The stable operation of transistors under a positive bias stress (PBS) is achieved using Hf incorporated into InO{sub x}-based thin films processed at relatively low temperatures (150 to 250 °C). The mobilities of the Hf-InO{sub x} thin-film transistors (TFTs) are higher than 8 cm{sup 2}/Vs. The TFTs not only have negligible degradation in the mobility and a small shift in the threshold voltage under PBS for 60 h, but they are also thermally stable at 85 °C in air, without the need for a passivation layer. The Hf-InO{sub x} TFT can be stable even annealed at 150 °C for positive bias temperature stability (PBTS). A higher stability is achieved by annealing the TFTs at 250 °C, originating from a reduction in the trap density at the Hf-InO{sub x}/gate insulator interface. The knowledge obtained here will aid in the realization of stable TFTs processed at low temperatures.

  14. Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors, Non-volatile Memory and Circuits for Transparent Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Arun

    The ability to make electronic devices, that are transparent to visible and near infrared wavelength, is a relatively new field of research in the development of the next generation of optoelectronic devices. A new class of inorganic thin-film transistor (TFT) channel material based on amorphous oxide semiconductors, that show high carrier mobility and high visual transparency, is being researched actively. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop amorphous oxide semiconductors by pulsed laser deposition, show their suitability for TFT applications and demonstrate other classes of devices such as non-volatile memory elements and integrated circuits such as ring oscillators and active matrix pixel elements. Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) is discussed extensively in this dissertation. The influence of several deposition parameters is explored and oxygen partial pressure during deposition is found to have a profound effect on the electrical and optical characteristics of the IGZO films. By optimizing the deposition conditions, IGZO TFTs exhibit excellent electrical properties, even without any intentional annealing. This attribute along with the amorphous nature of the material also makes IGZO TFTs compatible with flexible substrates opening up various applications. IGZO TFTs with saturation field effect mobility of 12--16 cm 2 V-1 s-1 and subthreshold voltage swing of <200 mV decade-1 have been fabricated. By varying the oxygen partial pressure during deposition the conductivity of the channel was controlled to give a low off-state current ˜10 pA and a drain current on/off ratio of >1 x 108. Additionally, the effects of the oxygen partial pressure and the thickness of the semiconductor layer, the choice of the gate dielectric material and the device channel length on the electrical characteristics of the TFTs are explored. To evaluate IGZO TFT electrical stability, constant voltage bias stress measurements were carried out. The observed logarithmic

  15. Influence of source and drain contacts on the properties of the indium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors based on anodic aluminum oxide gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Linfeng; Xu, Miao; Peng, Junbiao; Xu, Hua; Li, Min; Luo, Dongxiang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Yao, Rihui

    2011-11-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on indium-zinc oxide (IZO) active layer and anodic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) gate dielectric layer were fabricated. The influence of source and drain (S/D) contacts on TFT performance was investigated by comparing IZO-TFTs with different S/D electrodes. The TFT with Mo S/D electrodes had higher output current and lower threshold voltage, but had poorer subthreshold swing and lower effective electron mobility compared to that with ITO S/D electrodes. By using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profile analyzing method, it was observed that Mo was diffusing seriously into IZO, resulting in the variation of the effective channel length, thereby causing serious short-channel effect, poor subshreshold swing, and bad uniformity of the TFTs with Mo S/D electrodes.

  16. Contact Resistance and Stability Analysis of Oxide-Based Thin Film Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-19

    SnO2 [9], as well as the single-crystalline, quaternary compound IGZO [5] have also been demonstrated as channel materials. ITO, ZnO , ZIO, and IGO...assessment. First, determination of the contact resistance of indium tin oxide (ITO) on two wide-band gap semiconductors, zinc oxide ( ZnO ) and indium...TLM) structures are used in the study and three material systems are employed: ZnO on SiO2, ZnO on aluminum titanium oxide (ATO), and IGO on SiO2

  17. Dual gate indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with an unisolated floating metal gate for threshold voltage modulation and mobility enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Chen, Wei-Tsung; Yeh, Chung-Cheng; Hsueh, Hsiu-Wen; Tsai, Chuang-Chuang; Meng, Hsin-Fei

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we propose a floating dual gate (FDG) indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) with a floating metal back gate that is directly contact with IGZO without a dielectric layer. The floating back gate effect is investigated by changing the work function (ϕ) of the back gate. The FDG IGZO TFT exhibits an improved field-effect mobility (μ), unchanged subthreshold swing (SS), high on/off current ratio, and a tunable threshold voltage ranged (Vth) from -5.0 to +7.9 V without an additional back gate power supply.

  18. Solution-Processed Flexible Fluorine-doped Indium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Film at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-Suk; Jeon, Jun-Hyuck; Hwang, Young Hwan; Park, Hyungjin; Ryu, Minki; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Transparent flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were demonstrated using the spin-coating method of the metal fluoride precursor aqueous solution with annealing at 200°C for 2 hrs on polyethylene naphthalate films. The proposed thermal evolution mechanism of metal fluoride aqueous precursor solution examined by thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy can easily explain oxide formation. The chemical composition analysed by XPS confirms that the fluorine was doped in the thin films annealed below 250°C. In the IZO:F thin films, a doped fluorine atom substitutes for an oxygen atom generating a free electron or occupies an oxygen vacancy site eliminating an electron trap site. These dual roles of the doped fluorine can enhance the mobility and improve the gate bias stability of the TFTs. Therefore, the transparent flexible IZO:F TFT shows a high mobility of up to 4.1 cm2/V·s and stable characteristics under the various gate bias and temperature stresses. PMID:23803977

  19. Effect of morphology on organic thin film transistor sensors.

    PubMed

    Locklin, Jason; Bao, Zhenan

    2006-01-01

    This review provides a general introduction to organic field-effect transistors and their application as chemical sensors. Thin film transistor device performance is greatly affected by the molecular structure and morphology of the organic semiconductor layer. Various methods for organic semiconductor deposition are surveyed. Recent progress in the fabrication of organic thin film transistor sensors as well as the correlation between morphology and analyte response is discussed.

  20. Performance improvement of tin-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistor by novel channel modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuofa; Han, Dedong; Zhao, Nannan; Wu, Jing; Cong, Yingying; Dong, Junchen; Zhao, Feilong; Zhang, Shengdong; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Lifeng

    2015-04-01

    By applying a novel active modulation layer of indium tin oxide/tin zinc oxide (ITO/TZO), we have successfully fabricated high-performance bottom-gate-type dual-active-layer thin-film transistors (TFTs) on a glass substrate at a low temperature by a simple process. The as-fabricated dual-active-layer ITO/TZO TFTs exhibited excellent electrical properties compared with single-active-layer TZO TFTs. We found that the dual-layer ITO/TZO TFT with an optimized stack structure of ITO (5 nm)/TZO (45 nm) as the channel layer exhibits excellent properties, namely, a high saturation mobility of 204 cm2 V-1 s-1, a steep subthreshold slope of 219 mV/dec, a low threshold voltage of 0.8 V, and a high on-off current ratio of 4.3 × 107. A physical mechanism for the electrical improvement is also deduced. Owing to its advantages, namely, a low processing temperature, a high electrical performance, a simple process, and a low cost, this novel active modulation layer is highly promising for the manufacture of oxide semiconductor TFT and transparent displays.

  1. Origin of Degradation Phenomenon under Drain Bias Stress for Oxide Thin Film Transistors using IGZO and IGO Channel Layers

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kang, Youngho; Yang, Shinhyuk; Ryu, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Han, Seungwu; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-01-01

    Top-gate structured thin film transistors (TFTs) using In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) and In-Ga-O (IGO) channel compositions were investigated to reveal a feasible origin for degradation phenomenon under drain bias stress (DBS). DBS-driven instability in terms of VTH shift, deviation of the SS value, and increase in the on-state current were detected only for the IGZO-TFT, in contrast to the IGO-TFT, which did not demonstrate VTH shift. These behaviors were visually confirmed via nanoscale transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy observations. To understand the degradation mechanism, we performed ab initio molecular dynamic simulations on the liquid phases of IGZO and IGO. The diffusivities of Ga and In atoms were enhanced in IGZO, confirming the degradation mechanism to be increased atomic diffusion. PMID:25601183

  2. High transconductance zinc oxide thin-film transistors on flexible plastic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuta; Higaki, Tomohiro; Maemoto, Toshihiko; Sasa, Shigehiko; Inoue, Masataka

    2012-02-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization on high-performance ZnO based TFTs on unheated plastic substrate. ZnO films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) substrates. Top-gate ZnO-TFTs were fabricated by photolithography and wet chemical etching. The source and drain contacts were formed by lift-off of e-beam deposited Ti(20 nm)/Au(200 nm). An HfO2 with thickness 100 nm was selected as the gate insulator, and top gate electrode Ti(20 nm)/Au(200 nm) was deposited by e-beam evaporation. We prepared a set of the structure with SiO2/TiO2 to investigate the characteristic changes that appear in the film characteristics in response to bending. From the ID-VDS and the transfer characteristics which are affected by bending and return for the ZnO-TFT with SiO2/TiO2 buffers, the TFTs were bent to a curvature radius of 8.5 mm. The transconductance, gm is obtained 1.7 mS/mm on flat, 1.4 mS/mm on bending and 1.3 mS/mm on returning the film, respectively. The ID-VDS characteristics were therefore not changed by bending. All of the devices exhibited a clear pinch-off behavior and a high on/off current ratio of ˜10^6. The threshold voltages, Vth were not changed drastically. Furthermore, TFT structures were changed from a conventional top-gate type to a bottom-gate type. A high transconductance of 95.8 mS/mm was achieved in the bottom-gate type TFT by using Al2O3 oxide buffer.

  3. Polycrystalline silicon conductivity modulated thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anish, Kumar K. P.

    1997-09-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) on glass has received significant attention for use in large area microelectronic applications. These applications include both niche and large volume applications such as printer drivers, image scanners, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs), electro-luminescent displays, plasma assisted displays, etc. Currently, the leading technology for these applications is amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT. However, as the information content increases, a-Si technology encounters severe challenges due to its inherent low mobility, high parasitic capacitance, low aperture ratio, and non-compatibility to CMOS process. On the other hand, poly-Si technology offers high mobility, low parasitic capacitance, small size, CMOS compatibility, good stability, and uses the infrastructure of silicon science and technology. Thus, a simple low temperature poly-Si technology which allows large area system integration on panel will be in great demand for future high definition displays. However, it was found that poly-Si material properties vary with its method of preparation, its grain size, its surface roughness, and the nature and distribution of the inter-granular and bulk defects. Therefore, extensive studies are needed to optimize the key parameters such as the off-current, on-current, and breakdown voltage of the devices. These parameters can be optimized by means of material preparation as well as innovative device designs. In this thesis, three TFT structures were invented and fabricated using a simple low temperature poly-Si technology. With these novel structures, pixels, pixel drivers, and analog and digital peripheral circuits can all be built on the same glass substrate. This allows the ultimate goal of display systems on glass to be much more closer to reality. First, a high voltage transistor called the Conductivity Modulated Thin Film Transistor (CMTFT) is presented. Using this structure, the fundamental current

  4. Investigation of the effects of deposition parameters on indium-free transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors fabricated at low temperatures for flexible electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alston, Robert; Iyer, Shanthi; Bradley, Tanina; Lewis, Jay; Cunningham, Garry; Forsythe, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Low temperature gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) based thin film transistors fabricated on silicon has been investigated as a potential indium free transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor (TAOS TFT) with potential device applications on plastic substrates. A comprehensive and detailed study on the performance of GSZO TFTs has been carried out by studying the effects of processing parameters such as deposition temperature and annealing temperature/duration, as well as the channel thickness with all temperatures held below 150 °C. Variety of characterization techniques, namely Rutherford backscattering (RBS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) in addition to I-V and C-V measurements were employed to determine the effects of the above parameters on the composition and quality of the channel. Optimized TFT characteristics of ID=3×10-7 A, ION/OFF =2×106, VON ~ -2 V, SS ~ 1 V/dec and μFE = 0.14 cm2/V· s with a ΔVON of 3.3 V under 3 hours electrical stress were produced.

  5. Influence of molybdenum source/drain electrode contact resistance in amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, Yu-Jin; Park, Jae-Hyung; Jeon, Hyung-Tag; Park, Jong-Wan

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed and investigated source/drain electrodes in oxide TFTs. • The Mo S/D electrodes showed good output characteristics. • Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of a low-resistivity electrode material (Mo) for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in thin film transistors (TFTs). The effective resistances between Mo source/drain electrodes and amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors were studied. Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method (TLM) using a series of TFTs with different channel lengths measured at a low source/drain voltage. The TFTs fabricated with Mo source/drain electrodes showed good transfer characteristics with a field-effect mobility of 10.23 cm{sup 2}/V s. In spite of slight current crowding effects, the Mo source/drain electrodes showed good output characteristics with a steep rise in the low drain-to-source voltage (V{sub DS}) region.

  6. Thin-film transistors based on poly(3,3‴-dialkyl-quarterthiophene) and zinc oxide nanowires with improved ambient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Sara M. C.; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Unalan, Husnu E.; Dag, Sefa; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2011-03-01

    The ambient stability of thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires embedded in poly(3,3‴-dialkyl-quarterthiophene) was monitored through time dependence of electrical characteristics over a period of 16 months. The hybrid-based TFT showed an initial hole mobility in the linear regime of 4.2×10-4 cm2/V s. After 16 months storage in ambient conditions (exposed to air, moisture, and light) the mobility decreased to 2.3×10-5 cm2/V s. Comparatively the organic-based TFT lost total carrier mobility after one month storage making the hybrid-based TFTs more suitable for transistor applications when improved stability combined with structural flexibility are required.

  7. Back-channel-etch amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors: The impact of source/drain metal etch and final passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Manoj; Bhoolokam, Ajay; Steudel, Soeren; Chasin, Adrian; Myny, Kris; Maas, Joris; Groeseneken, Guido; Heremans, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We report on the impact of source/drain (S/D) metal (molybdenum) etch and the final passivation (SiO2) layer on the bias-stress stability of back-channel-etch (BCE) configuration based amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is observed that the BCE configurations TFTs suffer poor bias-stability in comparison to etch-stop-layer (ESL) TFTs. By analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), as well as by a comparative analysis of contacts formed by other metals, we infer that this poor bias-stability for BCE transistors having Mo S/D contacts is associated with contamination of the back channel interface, which occurs by Mo-containing deposits on the back channel during the final plasma process of the physical vapor deposited SiO2 passivation.

  8. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  9. Li-Assisted Low-Temperature Phase Transitions in Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Films for High-Performance Thin Film Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Manh-Cuong; Jang, Mi; Lee, Dong-Hwi; Bang, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Minjung; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Yang, Hoichang; Choi, Rino

    2016-01-01

    Lithium (Li)-assisted indium oxide (In2O3) thin films with ordered structures were prepared on solution-processed zirconium oxide (ZrO2) gate dielectrics by spin-casting and thermally annealing hydrated indium nitrate solutions with different Li nitrate loadings. It was found that the Li-assisted In precursor films on ZrO2 dielectrics could form crystalline structures even at processing temperatures (T) below 200 °C. Different In oxidation states were observed in the Li-doped films, and the development of such states was significantly affected by both temperature and the mol% of Li cations, [Li+]/([In3+] + [Li+]), in the precursor solutions. Upon annealing the Li-assisted precursor films below 200 °C, metastable indium hydroxide and/or indium oxyhydroxide phases were formed. These phases were subsequently transformed into crystalline In2O3 nanostructures after thermal dehydration and oxidation. Finally, an In2O3 film doped with 13.5 mol% Li+ and annealed at 250 °C for 1 h exhibited the highest electron mobility of 60 cm2 V−1 s−1 and an on/off current ratio above 108 when utilized in a thin film transistor. PMID:27121951

  10. Electrical instability of InGaZnO thin-film transistors with and without titanium sub-oxide layer under light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Y. C.; Zheng, Z. W.; Cheng, C. H.; Chen, P. C.; Yen, S. S.; Fan, C. C.; Hsu, H. H.; Kao, H. L.; Chang, C. Y.

    2017-03-01

    The electrical instability behaviors of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors with and without titanium sub-oxide passivation layer were investigated under light illumination in this study. For the unpassivated IGZO TFT device, in contrast with the dark case, a noticeable increase of the sub-threshold swing was observed when under the illumination environment, which can be attributed to the generation of ionized oxygen vacancies within the α-IGZO active layer by high energy photons. For the passivated TFT device, the much smaller SS of 70 mV/dec and high device mobility of >100 cm2/Vs at a drive voltage of 3 V with negligible degradation under light illumination are achieved due to the passivation effect of n-type titanium sub-oxide semiconductor, which may create potential application for high-performance display.

  11. All Inkjet-Printed Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistor Array with Good Stability and Uniformity Using Surface-Energy Patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhi; Lan, Linfeng; Sun, Sheng; Lin, Zhenguo; Gao, Peixiong; Song, Wei; Song, Erlong; Zhang, Peng; Peng, Junbiao

    2017-03-08

    An array of inkjet-printed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) is demonstrated for the first time with the assistance of surface-energy patterns prepared by printing pure solvent to etch the ultrathin hydrophobic layer. The surface-energy patterns not only restrained the spreading of inks but also provided a facile way to regulate the morphology of metal oxide films without optimizing ink formulation. The fully printed InGaO TFT devices in the array exhibited excellent electron transport characteristics with a maximum mobility of 11.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), negligible hysteresis, good uniformity, and good stability under bias stress. The new route lights a general way toward fully inkjet-printed metal-oxide TFT arrays.

  12. Dopant selection for control of charge carrier density and mobility in amorphous indium oxide thin-film transistors: Comparison between Si- and W-dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Mitoma, Nobuhiko E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Kizu, Takio; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Aikawa, Shinya; Ou-Yang, Wei; Gao, Xu; Fujiwara, Akihiko

    2015-01-26

    The dependence of oxygen vacancy suppression on dopant species in amorphous indium oxide (a-InO{sub x}) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported. In a-InO{sub x} TFTs incorporating equivalent atom densities of Si- and W-dopants, absorption of oxygen in the host a-InO{sub x} matrix was found to depend on difference of Gibbs free energy of the dopants for oxidation. For fully oxidized films, the extracted channel conductivity was higher in the a-InO{sub x} TFTs containing dopants of small ionic radius. This can be explained by a reduction in the ionic scattering cross sectional area caused by charge screening effects.

  13. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors.

  14. 6.0-Inch Extended Graphics Array Reflective Liquid Crystal Display Using Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors for Electronic Paper Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyotaka, Kouhei; Kusunoki, Koji; Nagata, Takaaki; Hirakata, Yoshiharu; Wakimoto, Kenichi; Koyama, Jun; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Sato, Rai; Okazaki, Kenichi; Sakakura, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    We focused on the off-state current (Ioff) of oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (TFT) (In-Ga-Zn-oxide TFTs), which is lower than that of amorphous silicon TFTs and successfully made a prototype of a 6.0-in. extended graphics array (XGA) reflective liquid crystal display (RLCD) panel integrally including a data selection demultiplexer and a scan driver and capable of displaying still images at 1/180 fps. When still images are displayed, the frame frequency can be set low. This means that the frequency of rewrites of image data is markedly reduced. This leads to the reduction in the power consumption of an LCD panel. Our panel can solve the problems of electronic paper displays: high drive voltage and difficulty of displaying moving images. Thus, our panel is suitable for electronic paper displays.

  15. Homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide thin-film transistors for control of turn-on voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizu, Takio; Aikawa, Shinya; Nabatame, Toshihide; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated homogeneous double-layer amorphous Si-doped indium oxide (ISO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an insulating ISO cap layer on top of a semiconducting ISO bottom channel layer. The homogeneously stacked ISO TFT exhibited high mobility (19.6 cm2/V s) and normally-off characteristics after annealing in air. It exhibited normally-off characteristics because the ISO insulator suppressed oxygen desorption, which suppressed the formation of oxygen vacancies (VO) in the semiconducting ISO. Furthermore, we investigated the recovery of the double-layer ISO TFT, after a large negative shift in turn-on voltage caused by hydrogen annealing, by treating it with annealing in ozone. The recovery in turn-on voltage indicates that the dense VO in the semiconducting ISO can be partially filled through the insulator ISO. Controlling molecule penetration in the homogeneous double layer is useful for adjusting the properties of TFTs in advanced oxide electronics.

  16. Surface modification of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-Suk; Wee, Duyoung; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Jinsoo; Ahn, Taek; Ka, Jae-Won; Yi, Mi Hye

    2013-06-11

    We report a simple approach to modify the surface of a polyimide gate insulator with an yttrium oxide interlayer for aqueous-solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors. It is expected that the yttrium oxide interlayer will provide a surface that is more chemically compatible with the ZnO semiconductor than is bare polyimde. The field-effect mobility and the on/off current ratio of the ZnO TFT with the YOx/polyimide gate insulator were 0.456 cm(2)/V·s and 2.12 × 10(6), respectively, whereas the ZnO TFT with the polyimide gate insulator was inactive.

  17. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated.

  18. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tari, Alireza Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S.

    2015-07-13

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  19. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted ZnO nanoparticles for oxide charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Gi Ho; Yun, Da Jeong; Lee, Won Ho; Yoon, Sung Min

    2017-02-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with monolayer structures were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to use for a charge-trap layer (CTL) for nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (MTFTs). The optimum ALD temperature of the NP formation was demonstrated to be 160 °C. The size and areal density of the ZnO NPs was estimated to be approximately 33 nm and 4.8 × 109 cm-2, respectively, when the number of ALD cycles was controlled to be 20. The fabricated MTFTs using a ZnO-NP CTL exhibited typical memory window properties, which are generated by charge-trap/de-trap processes, in their transfer characteristics and the width of the memory window (MW) increased from 0.6 to 18.0 V when the number of ALD cycles increased from 5 to 30. The program characteristics of the MTFT were markedly enhanced by the post-annealing process performed at 180 °C in an oxygen ambient due to the improvements in the interface and bulk qualities of the ZnO NPs. The program/erase (P/E) speed was estimated to be 10 ms at P/E voltages of -14 and 17 V. The memory margin showed no degradation with the lapse in retention time for 2 × 104 s and after the repetitive P/E operations of 7 × 103 cycles.

  20. High Performance and Highly Reliable ZnO Thin Film Transistor Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition for Next Generation Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-19

    zinc oxide ( ZnO ) thin film as an active channel layer in TFT has become of great interest owing to their specific...630-0192 Japan Phone: +81-743-72-6060 Fax: +81-743-72-6069 E-mail: uraoka@ms.naist.jp Keywords: zinc oxide , thin film transistors , atomic layer...deposition Symposium topic: Transparent Semiconductors Oxides [Abstract] In this study, we fabricated TFTs using ZnO thin film as the

  1. Fabrication Process Assessment and Negative Bias Illumination Stress Study of Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide and Zinc-Tin Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Ken

    Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) are investigated for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. Negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) is employed for electrical stability assessment. Unpassivated IGZO and ZTO TFTs suffer from severe NBIS instabilities. Zinc-tin-silicon oxide is found to be an effective passivation layer for IGZO and ZTO TFTs, significantly improving the NBIS stability. NBIS instabilities in unpassivated TFTs are attributed to an NBIS-induced desorption of chemisorbed oxygen from the channel layer top surface, exposing surface oxygen vacancies. A ZTSO layer protects the channel layer top surface from adsorbed gas interactions and also appears to reduce the density of oxygen vacancies. The best device architectures investigated with respect to TFT electrical performance are found to be staggered with aluminum electrodes for unpassivated TFTs and coplanar with ITO electrodes for ZTSO-passivated TFTs. Annealing in wet-O2 is not found to be effective for improving the performance of IGZO or ZTO TFTs or for reducing the post-deposition annealing temperature.

  2. Synergistic effects of water addition and step heating on the formation of solution-processed zinc tin oxide thin films: towards high-mobility polycrystalline transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Genmao; Duan, Lian; Zhao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yunge; Dong, Guifang; Zhang, Deqiang; Qiu, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with high mobility and good uniformity are attractive for next-generation flat panel displays. In this work, solution-processed polycrystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film with well-ordered microstructure is prepared, thanks to the synergistic effect of water addition and step heating. The step heating treatment other than direct annealing induces crystallization, while adequate water added to precursor solution further facilitates alloying and densification process. The optimal polycrystalline ZTO film is free of hierarchical sublayers, and featured with an increased amount of ternary phases, as well as a decreased fraction of oxygen vacancies and hydroxides. TFT devices based on such an active layer exhibit a remarkable field-effect mobility of 52.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, a current on/off ratio of 2 × 105, a threshold voltage of 2.32 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.36 V dec-1. Our work offers a facile method towards high-performance solution-processed polycrystalline metal oxide TFTs.

  3. Improvement in performance of solution-processed indium-zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistors by UV/O3 treatment on zirconium oxide gate insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Bukke Ravindra; Avis, Christophe; Delwar Hossain Chowdhury, Md; Kim, Taehun; Lin, Tengda; Jang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    We studied solution-processed amorphous indium-zinc-tin oxide (a-IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with spin-coated zirconium oxide (ZrOx) as the gate insulator. The ZrOx gate insulator was used without and with UV/O3 treatment. The TFTs with an untreated ZrOx gate dielectric showed a saturation mobility (μsat) of 0.91 ± 0.29 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.28 ± 0.36 V, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 199 ± 37.17 mV/dec, and a current ratio (ION/IOFF) of ˜107. The TFTs with a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator exhibited μsat of 2.65 ± 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1, Vth of 0.44 ± 0.35 V, SS of 133 ± 24.81 mV/dec, and ION/IOFF of ˜108. Hysteresis was 0.32 V in the untreated TFTs and was eliminated by UV/O3 treatment. Also, the leakage current decreased significantly when the IZTO TFT was coated onto a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator.

  4. Effective enhancement of hydrophilicity of solution indium zinc oxide-based thin-film transistors by oxygen plasma treatment of deposition layer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Hsin-Chiang; Wang, Yu-Chih

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of a simple and efficient sol-gel solution method for synthesizing indium zinc oxide (IZO) films for use as semiconductor channel layers in thin-film transistors (TFTs) on p-type silicon substrates. The performance of IZO-based TFTs was investigated, and the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the surface of dielectric SiN x was observed. Oxygen plasma treatment effectively enhanced the electron mobility in IZO-based TFT devices from 0.005 to 1.56 cm2 V-1 s-1, an increase of more than 312 times, and effectively enhanced device performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the IZO film was performed to clarify element bonding.

  5. Study on interface characteristics in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors by using low-frequency noise and temperature dependent mobility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenfei; Huang, Xiaoming; Lu, Hai; Yu, Guang; Ren, Fangfang; Chen, Dunjun; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the interface properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors annealed at different temperatures ranging from 150 to 250 °C are studied by temperature dependent mobility and low-frequency noise (LFN) characterizations. The dominant scattering mechanism for carrier transport is found to be Coulomb scattering based on gate bias and temperature dependent mobility measurement. Meanwhile, as the annealing temperature increases, the dominant mechanism of LFN within the device channel varies from carrier number fluctuation to carrier mobility fluctuation. The border trap density as well as the distribution properties of charged border traps is deduced. The present results suggest that annealing at higher temperature has a more remarkable effect on removing deeper border traps than traps closer to the channel/dielectric interface.

  6. Scaling characteristics of depletion type, fully transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors and inverters following Ar plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonwoo; Jeong, Soon Moon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated depletion type, transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and inverters with an Ar plasma treatment and analyzed their scaling characteristics with channel lengths ranging from 2 to 100 µm. The improvement of the field-effect mobility of a-IGZO TFTs is apparent only for short channel lengths. There is also an unexpected side effect of the Ar plasma treatment, which introduces back-channel interfacial states and induces a positive shift in the threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFTs. The resulting increase in the field-effect mobility and the positive shift in the threshold voltage of each TFT increase the differential gain up to 3 times and the positive shift in the transient point of the transparent inverters.

  7. Positive Bias Instability of Bottom-Gate Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with a SiOx/SiNx-Stacked Gate Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Mamoru; Kamada, Yudai; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Li, Chaoyang; Kimura, Mutsumi; Fujita, Shizuo; Hirao, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The positive bias instabilities of the zinc oxide thin-film transistors (ZnO TFTs) with a SiOx/SiNx-stacked gate insulator have been investigated. The film quality of a gate insulator of SiOx, which forms an interface with the ZnO channel, was varied by changing the gas mixture ratio of SiH4/N2O/N2 during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The positive bias stress endurance of ZnO TFT strongly depended on the deposition condition of the SiOx gate insulator. From the relaxations of the transfer curve shift after imposition of positive bias stress, transfer curves could not be recovered completely without any thermal annealing. A charge trapping in a gate insulator rather than that in bulk ZnO and its interface with a gate insulator is a dominant instability mechanism of ZnO TFTs under positive bias stress.

  8. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Oh, Byung Su; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  9. Increase of interface and bulk density of states in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors with negative-bias-under-illumination-stress time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwang Um, Jae; Mativenga, Mallory; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2012-09-01

    The evolution with time of interface trap density and bulk density of states in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), for negative-bias-under-illumination-stress (NBIS), is traced. Based on the combined analysis of TFT current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, position of Fermi energy, flat band voltage, interface trap density, and gap state density per unit energy are investigated as function of NBIS time and applied gate voltage. These key parameters help to identify the degradation phenomena responsible for the negative threshold voltage shift caused by NBIS. In particular, the interface trap density becomes more positive; from 0.03 × 1011/cm2 to 0.65 × 1011/cm2, while the gap trap density per unit energy also increases after NBIS, supporting defect creation in the bulk and build-up of positive charge at the gate insulator/active-layer interface as the mechanism responsible for NBIS instability.

  10. Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Tae-Woong; Stryakhilev, Denis; Lee, Jae-Sup; An, Sung-Guk; Pyo, Yong-Shin; Lee, Dong-Bum; Mo, Yeon Gon; Jin, Dong-Un; Chung, Ho Kyoon

    2009-07-01

    We have fabricated 6.5 in. flexible full-color top-emission active matrix organic light-emitting diode display on a polyimide (PI) substrate driven amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs exhibited field-effect mobility (μFE) of 15.1 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/dec, threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.9 V. The electrical characteristics of TFTs on PI substrate, including a bias-stress instability after 1 h long gate bias at 15 V, were indistinguishable from those on glass substrate and showed high degree of spatial uniformity. TFT samples on 10 μm thick PI substrate withstood bending down to R =3 mm under tension and compression without any performance degradation.

  11. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng; Pei, Zingway; Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie

    2014-07-21

    In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm{sup 2}/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  12. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng; Pei, Zingway; Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the Al2O3 nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm2/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide electrodes for p- and n-channel bottom-contact organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Hector A; Stoltenberg, Randall M; Tang, Ming Lee; Roberts, Mark E; Liu, Zunfeng; Chen, Yongsheng; Kim, Do Hwan; Lee, Bang-Lin; Lee, Sangyoon; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-11-23

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electrically conductive carbon-based nanomaterial that has recently attracted attention as a potential electrode for organic electronics. Here we evaluate several solution-based methods for fabricating RGO bottom-contact (BC) electrodes for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), demonstrate functional p- and n-channel devices with such electrodes, and compare their electrical performance with analogous devices containing gold electrodes. We show that the morphology of organic semiconductor films deposited on RGO electrodes is similar to that observed in the channel region of the devices and that devices fabricated with RGO electrodes have lower contact resistances compared to those fabricated with gold contacts. Although the conductivity of RGO is poor compared to that of gold, RGO is still an enticing electrode material for organic electronic devices possibly owing to the retention of desirable morphological features, lower contact resistance, lower cost, and solution processability.

  14. Reduction of defect formation in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors by N{sub 2}O plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jhu, Jhe-Ciou; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Geng-Wei; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Tsai, Wu-Wei; Chiang, Wen-Jen; Yan, Jing-Yi

    2013-11-28

    An abnormal sub-threshold leakage current is observed at high temperature in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). This phenomenon occurs due to a reduced number of defects in the device's a-IGZO active layer after the device has undergone N{sub 2}O plasma treatment. Experimental verification shows that the N{sub 2}O plasma treatment enhances the thin film bonding strength, thereby suppressing the formation of temperature-dependent holes, which are generated above 400 K by oxygen atoms leaving their original sites. The N{sub 2}O plasma treatment devices have better stability performance than as-fabricated devices. The results suggest that the density of defects for a-IGZO TFTs with N{sub 2}O plasma treatment is much lower than that in as-fabricated devices. The N{sub 2}O plasma treatment repairs the defects and suppresses temperature-dependent sub-threshold leakage current.

  15. Optimization of a Solution-Processed SiO2 Gate Insulator by Plasma Treatment for Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yesul; Pearson, Christopher; Kim, Hyun-Gwan; Park, Man-Young; Kim, Hongdoo; Do, Lee-Mi; Petty, Michael C

    2016-01-27

    We report on the optimization of the plasma treatment conditions for a solution-processed silicon dioxide gate insulator for application in zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs). The SiO2 layer was formed by spin coating a perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) precursor. This thin film was subsequently thermally annealed, followed by exposure to an oxygen plasma, to form an insulating (leakage current density of ∼10(-7) A/cm(2)) SiO2 layer. Optimized ZnO TFTs (40 W plasma treatment of the gate insulator for 10 s) possessed a carrier mobility of 3.2 cm(2)/(V s), an on/off ratio of ∼10(7), a threshold voltage of -1.3 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.2 V/decade. In addition, long-term exposure (150 min) of the pre-annealed PHPS to the oxygen plasma enabled the maximum processing temperature to be reduced from 180 to 150 °C. The resulting ZnO TFT exhibited a carrier mobility of 1.3 cm(2)/(V s) and on/off ratio of ∼10(7).

  16. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  17. Atomic-layer-deposition-assisted ZnO nanoparticles for oxide charge-trap memory thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Ho; Yun, Da Jeong; Lee, Won Ho; Yoon, Sung Min

    2017-02-17

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with monolayer structures were prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to use for a charge-trap layer (CTL) for nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (MTFTs). The optimum ALD temperature of the NP formation was demonstrated to be 160 °C. The size and areal density of the ZnO NPs was estimated to be approximately 33 nm and 4.8 × 10(9) cm(-2), respectively, when the number of ALD cycles was controlled to be 20. The fabricated MTFTs using a ZnO-NP CTL exhibited typical memory window properties, which are generated by charge-trap/de-trap processes, in their transfer characteristics and the width of the memory window (MW) increased from 0.6 to 18.0 V when the number of ALD cycles increased from 5 to 30. The program characteristics of the MTFT were markedly enhanced by the post-annealing process performed at 180 °C in an oxygen ambient due to the improvements in the interface and bulk qualities of the ZnO NPs. The program/erase (P/E) speed was estimated to be 10 ms at P/E voltages of -14 and 17 V. The memory margin showed no degradation with the lapse in retention time for 2 × 10(4) s and after the repetitive P/E operations of 7 × 10(3) cycles.

  18. Highly stable thin film transistors using multilayer channel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Wang, Zhenwei; Anjum, D. H.; Hedhili, M. N.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2015-03-01

    We report highly stable gate-bias stress performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) using zinc oxide (ZnO)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) multilayer structure as the channel layer. Positive and negative gate-bias stress stability of the TFTs was measured at room temperature and at 60 °C. A tremendous improvement in gate-bias stress stability was obtained in case of the TFT with multiple layers of ZnO embedded between HfO2 layers compared to the TFT with a single layer of ZnO as the semiconductor. The ultra-thin HfO2 layers act as passivation layers, which prevent the adsorption of oxygen and water molecules in the ZnO layer and hence significantly improve the gate-bias stress stability of ZnO TFTs.

  19. Highly stable thin film transistors using multilayer channel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Wang, Zhenwei; Anjum, D. H.; Hedhili, M. N.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2015-03-09

    We report highly stable gate-bias stress performance of thin film transistors (TFTs) using zinc oxide (ZnO)/hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) multilayer structure as the channel layer. Positive and negative gate-bias stress stability of the TFTs was measured at room temperature and at 60 °C. A tremendous improvement in gate-bias stress stability was obtained in case of the TFT with multiple layers of ZnO embedded between HfO{sub 2} layers compared to the TFT with a single layer of ZnO as the semiconductor. The ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} layers act as passivation layers, which prevent the adsorption of oxygen and water molecules in the ZnO layer and hence significantly improve the gate-bias stress stability of ZnO TFTs.

  20. Rapid curing of solution-processed zinc oxide films by pulse-light annealing for thin-film transistor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Jaehoon; Hwang, Jaeeun; Kim, Hong Doo; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Lee, Kang Bok; Baek, Kyu Ha; Do, Lee-Mi; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a pulse-light annealing method is proposed for the rapid fabrication of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thinfilm transistors (TFTs). Transistors that were fabricated by the pulse-light annealing method, with the annealing being carried out at 90℃ for 15 s, exhibited a mobility of 0.05 cm2/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 106. Such electrical properties are quite close to those of devices that are thermally annealed at 165℃ for 40 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ZnO films showed that the activation energy required to form a Zn-O bond is entirely supplied within 15 s of pulse-light exposure. We conclude that the pulse-light annealing method is viable for rapidly curing solution-processable oxide semiconductors for TFT applications.

  1. Lateral protonic/electronic hybrid oxide thin-film transistor gated by SiO{sub 2} nanogranular films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Li Qiang Chao, Jin Yu; Xiao, Hui

    2014-12-15

    Ionic/electronic interaction offers an additional dimension in the recent advancements of condensed materials. Here, lateral gate control of conductivities of indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films is reported. An electric-double-layer (EDL) transistor configuration was utilized with a phosphorous-doped SiO{sub 2} nanogranular film to provide a strong lateral electric field. Due to the strong lateral protonic/electronic interfacial coupling effect, the IZO EDL transistor could operate at a low-voltage of 1 V. A resistor-loaded inverter is built, showing a high voltage gain of ∼8 at a low supply voltage of 1 V. The lateral ionic/electronic coupling effects are interesting for bioelectronics and portable electronics.

  2. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance in flexible sub-micron long oxide thin-film transistors for above 100 MHz operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, Niko; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Petti, Luisa; Zysset, Christoph; Büthe, Lars; Vogt, Christian; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    In recent years new forms of electronic devices such as electronic papers, flexible displays, epidermal sensors, and smart textiles have become reality. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the basic blocks of the circuits used in such devices and need to operate above 100 MHz to efficiently treat signals in RF systems and address pixels in high resolution displays. Beyond the choice of the semiconductor, i.e., silicon, graphene, organics, or amorphous oxides, the junctionless nature of TFTs and its geometry imply some limitations which become evident and important in devices with scaled channel length. Furthermore, the mechanical instability of flexible substrates limits the feature size of flexible TFTs. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance are two parasitic effects which limit the transit frequency of transistors. They are often considered independent, while a deeper analysis of TFTs geometry imposes to handle them together; in fact, they both depend on the overlapping length (LOV) between source/drain and the gate contacts. Here, we conduct a quantitative analysis based on a large number of flexible ultra-scaled IGZO TFTs. Devices with three different values of overlap length and channel length down to 0.5 μm are fabricated to experimentally investigate the scaling behavior of the transit frequency. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance depend in opposite ways on LOV. These findings establish routes for the optimization of the dimension of source/drain contact pads and suggest design guidelines to achieve megahertz operation in flexible IGZO TFTs and circuits.

  3. Low-temperature, solution-processed indium-oxide thin-film transistors fabricated by using an ultraviolet-ozone treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hoon; Kang, Chan-mo; Oh, Yeon-Wha; Ryu, Jin Hwa; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Do, Lee-Mi

    2016-04-01

    For the fabrication of low-temperature solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), alternative annealing processes have recently been studied for reduced fabrication cost and applications to flexible devices. Indium nitrate solution has been proposed as a precursor for the low-temperature solution-processed TFTs. However, due to its high decomposition temperature, achieving a high-performance indium-oxide (In2O3) TFT at temperatures below 200°C is still difficult. In this study, for improved metal-oxide formation in low-temperature solution-processed In2O3 TFT, indium nitrate film was exposed to UV-ozone for 30 min before annealing at 200°C. The smooth scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the UV-ozone treated film implies that the indium nitrates are condensed after treatment. In addition, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) data suggest that UV-ozone decreases the number of oxygen vacancies and increases the number of metal-oxygen-metal bonds in the indium-oxide films. As a result, high electrical device performance was achieved with an improved Ion/off ratio (˜107) and mobility (1.25 cm2V -1s -1).

  4. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Jonghun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA) self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  5. Improvement in performance and reliability with CF4 plasma pretreatment on the buffer oxide layer for low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yan; Yang, Chun-Chieh

    2012-03-01

    This study applies CF4 plasma pretreatment to a buffer oxide layer to improve the performance of low-temperature polysilicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs). Results show that the fluorine atoms piled up at the interface between the bulk channel and buffer oxide layer and accumulated in the bulk channel. The reduction of the trap states density by fluorine passivation can improve the electrical characteristics of the LTPS TFTs. It is found that the threshold voltage reduced from 4.32 to 3.03 V and the field-effect mobility increased from 29.71 to 45.65 cm2 V-1 S-1. In addition, the on current degradation and threshold voltage shift after stressing were significantly improved about 31% and 70%, respectively. We believe that the proposed CF4 plasma pretreatment on the buffer oxide layer can passivate the trap states and avoid the plasma induced damage on the polysilicon channel surface, resulting in the improvement in performance and reliability for LTPS-TFT mass production application on AMOLED displays with critical reliability requirement.

  6. A review of carbon nanotube- and graphene-based flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong-Ming; Liu, Chang; Ren, Wen-Cai; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-04-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have attracted great attention for numerous applications for future flexible electronics, owing to their supreme properties including exceptionally high electronic conductivity and mechanical strength. Here, the progress of CNT- and graphene-based flexible thin-film transistors from material preparation, device fabrication techniques to transistor performance control is reviewed. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of thin-film transistors are divided into three categories: solid-phase, liquid-phase, and gas-phase techniques, and possible scale-up approaches to achieve realistic production of flexible nanocarbon-based transistors are discussed. In particular, the recent progress in flexible all-carbon nanomaterial transistor research is highlighted, and this all-carbon strategy opens up a perspective to realize extremely flexible, stretchable, and transparent electronics with a relatively low-cost and fast fabrication technique, compared to traditional rigid silicon, metal and metal oxide electronics.

  7. Thin Film Transistor Gas Sensors Incorporating High-Mobility Diketopyrrolopyrole-Based Polymeric Semiconductor Doped with Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kwang Hee; Cho, Jangwhan; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we fabricated a diketopyrrolopyrole-based donor-acceptor copolymer composite film. This is a high-mobility semiconductor component with a functionalized-graphene-oxide (GO) gas-adsorbing dopant, used as an active layer in gas-sensing organic-field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. The GO content of the composite film was carefully controlled so that the crystalline orientation of the semiconducting polymer could be conserved, without compromising its gas-adsorbing ability. The resulting optimized device exhibited high mobility (>1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and revealed sensitive response during programmed exposure to various polar organic molecules (i.e., ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile). This can be attributed to the high mobility of polymeric semiconductors, and also to their high surface-to-volume ratio of GO. The operating mechanism of the gas sensing GO-OFET is fully discussed in conjunction with charge-carrier trap theory. It was found that each transistor parameter (e.g., mobility, threshold voltage), responds independently to each gas molecule, which enables high selectivity of GO-OFETs for various gases. Furthermore, we also demonstrated practical GO-OFET devices that operated at low voltage (<1.5 V), and which successfully responded to gas exposure.

  8. Solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin-film transistors at low temperatures between 100 and 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangmei; Qian, Chuan; Sun, Jia; Liu, Peng; Huang, Yulan; Gao, Yongli; Yang, Junliang

    2016-04-01

    Lithium-doped zinc oxide (Li-ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated by solution process at the low temperatures ranged from 100 to 300 °C. Li-ZnO TFTs fabricated at 300 °C under nitrogen condition showed a mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs. Most importantly, the mobility of Li-ZnO TFT devices fabricated at 100 °C could be increased significantly from 0.08 to 0.4 cm2/Vs by using double spin-coated and UV irradiation-treated Li-ZnO film, and the on-/off-current ratio is in the order of 106. Notably, the XPS analyses proved that the performance improvement was originated from the chemical composition or stoichiometry evolution, in which the hydroxide was converted into metal oxide and accelerated the formation of the oxygen vacancies. Furthermore, low-voltage operating Li-ZnO TFTs were demonstrated by using a high-capacitance ion gel gate dielectrics. The Li-ZnO TFTs with an operating voltage as low as 2 V exhibited the carrier mobilities of 2.1 and 0.65 cm2/Vs for the devices treated at 300 and 100 °C, respectively. The low-temperature, solution-processed Li-ZnO TFTs showed greatly potential applications in flexible displays, smart label, and sensors.

  9. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O2, H2O, and N2O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N2O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N2O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT.

  10. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm2/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites.

  11. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki

    2015-01-12

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N{sub 2}O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N{sub 2}O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT.

  12. Characteristics of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated at Room Temperature Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hoonha; Verma, Ved Prakash; Hwang, Sookhyun; Lee, Sooyeon; Park, Chiyoung; Kim, Do-Hyun; Choi, Wonbong; Jeon, Minhyon

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present bottom-gate-type Ga-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a certain conventional SiO2 gate insulator by applying a radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. A low gate leakage current was achieved using this conventional SiO2 gate insulator instead of new gate oxide materials. The root mean square (RMS) value of the GZO film surface was found to be 1.65 nm, and the transmittance was higher than 75% in the visible region. The GZO TFTs operated in a depletion mode with a threshold voltage of -3.4 V. A mobility of 0.023 cm2/(V·s), an on/off ratio of 2×103, and a gate voltage swing of 3.3 V/decade were obtained. We successfully demonstrated that the TFT of depletion-mode type can be fabricated using a GZO film that has good surface uniformity, transparency, and electrical characteristics.

  13. Heterotermetallic indium lithium halostannates: low-temperature single-source precursors for tin-rich indium tin oxides and their application for thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Samedov, Kerim; Aksu, Yilmaz; Driess, Matthias

    2012-06-18

    The syntheses and structural elucidation of dimeric [Sn(OCyHex)(2)] (1), its corresponding (cyclohexoxy)alkalistannates(II) [{M(OCyHex)(3)Sn}(2)] (M = Li (2), Na (3), K (4)), and of the first heteroleptic heterotermetallic Li/In/Sn-haloalkoxide clusters [X(2)In{LiSn(2)(OCyHex)(6)}] (X = Br (5), Cl (6)) with a double seco-norcubane core are reported. They represent suitable precursors for new amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO) materials as transparent conducting oxides with drastically reduced concentrations of expensive indium, while maintaining their high electrical performance. In fact, compounds 5 and 6 were successfully degraded under dry synthetic air at relatively low temperature, resulting in new semiconducting tin-rich ITOs homogeneously dispersed in a tin oxide/lithium oxide matrix. The obtained particles were investigated and characterised by different analytical techniques, such as powder XRD, IR spectroscopy, SEM, TEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analytical data confirm that the final materials consist of tin-containing indium oxide embedded in an amorphous tin oxide matrix. The typical broadening and shift of the observed indium oxide reflections to higher 2θ values in the powder XRD pattern clearly indicated that tin centres were successfully incorporated into the In(2)O(3) lattice and partially occupied In(3+) sites. Investigations by EDX mapping proved that Sn was homogeneously distributed in the final materials. Thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated by spin-coating of silicon wafers with solutions of 5 in toluene and subsequent calcination under dry air (25-700 °C). The FETs prepared with precursor 5 exhibited excellent performances, as shown by a charge-carrier mobility of 6.36×10(-1)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s (calcination at 250 °C) and an on/off current ratio of 10(6).

  14. Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors for Flat Panel Display Application.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuelei; Xia, Jiye; Dong, Guodong; Tian, Boyuan; Peng, Lianmao

    2016-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials for both high performance transistors for high speed computing and thin film transistors for macroelectronics, which can provide more functions at low cost. Among macroelectronics applications, carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFT) are expected to be used soon for backplanes in flat panel displays (FPDs) due to their superior performance. In this paper, we review the challenges of CNT-TFT technology for FPD applications. The device performance of state-of-the-art CNT-TFTs are compared with the requirements of TFTs for FPDs. Compatibility of the fabrication processes of CNT-TFTs and current TFT technologies are critically examined. Though CNT-TFT technology is not yet ready for backplane production line of FPDs, the challenges can be overcome by close collaboration between research institutes and FPD manufacturers in the short term.

  15. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  16. Performance improvement for solution-processed high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha Li, Chen; Li, Yu Ning; Wu, Yi Liang; Ong, Beng S.; Loutfy, Rafik O.

    2008-06-01

    The fabrication technology of stable, non-toxic, transparent, high performance zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film semiconductors via the solution process was investigated. Two methods, which were, respectively, annealing a spin-coated precursor solution and annealing a drop-coated precursor solution, were compared. The prepared ZnO thin-film semiconductor transistors have well-controlled, preferential crystal orientation and exhibit superior field-effect performance characteristics. But the ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by annealing a drop-coated precursor solution has a distinctly elevated linear mobility, which further approaches the saturated mobility, compared with that fabricated by annealing a spin-coated precursor solution. The performance of the solution-processed ZnO TFT was further improved when substituting the spin-coating process by the drop-coating process.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO nanowires for thin film network transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, S. H.; Unalan, H. E.; Zhang, Y.; Hiralal, Pritesh; Gangloff, L.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Milne, William I.

    2008-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire networks are attractive as alternatives to organic and amorphous semiconductors due to their wide bandgap, flexibility and transparency. We demonstrate the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFT)s which utilize ZnO nanowires as the semiconducting channel. These thin film transistors can be transparent and flexible and processed at low temperatures on to a variety of substrates. The nanowire networks are created using a simple contact transfer method that is easily scalable. Apparent nanowire network mobility values can be as high as 3.8 cm2/Vs (effective thin film mobility: 0.03 cm2/Vs) in devices with 20μm channel lengths and ON/OFF ratios of up to 104.

  18. Stacked color image sensor using wavelength-selective organic photoconductive films with zinc-oxide thin film transistors as a signal readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hokuto; Aihara, Satoshi; Namba, Masakazu; Watabe, Toshihisa; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Kubota, Misao; Egami, Norifumi; Hiramatsu, Takahiro; Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Furuta, Mamoru; Nitta, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Our group has been developing a new type of image sensor overlaid with three organic photoconductive films, which are individually sensitive to only one of the primary color components (blue (B), green (G), or red (R) light), with the aim of developing a compact, high resolution color camera without any color separation optical systems. In this paper, we firstly revealed the unique characteristics of organic photoconductive films. Only choosing organic materials can tune the photoconductive properties of the film, especially excellent wavelength selectivities which are good enough to divide the incident light into three primary colors. Color separation with vertically stacked organic films was also shown. In addition, the high-resolution of organic photoconductive films sufficient for high-definition television (HDTV) was confirmed in a shooting experiment using a camera tube. Secondly, as a step toward our goal, we fabricated a stacked organic image sensor with G- and R-sensitive organic photoconductive films, each of which had a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film transistor (TFT) readout circuit, and demonstrated image pickup at a TV frame rate. A color image with a resolution corresponding to the pixel number of the ZnO TFT readout circuit was obtained from the stacked image sensor. These results show the potential for the development of high-resolution prism-less color cameras with stacked organic photoconductive films.

  19. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (VTG) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm2 intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the VTG from -15 to +15 V. By changing VTG from negative to positive, the Fermi level (EF) shifts toward conduction band edge (EC), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (VO → VO+/VO2+ + e-/2e-), peroxide (O22-) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (Oi2-) to neutral interstitial (Oi), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows -2.7 V shift at VTG = -15 V, which gradually decreases to -0.42 V shift at VTG = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (VO+/VO2+/O22-/Oi) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  20. Multifunctional Hybrid Multilayer Gate Dielectrics with Tunable Surface Energy for Ultralow-Power Organic and Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hye-Ran; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2017-03-01

    For large-area, printable, and flexible electronic applications using advanced semiconductors, novel dielectric materials with excellent capacitance, insulating property, thermal stability, and mechanical flexibility need to be developed to achieve high-performance, ultralow-voltage operation of thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this work, we first report on the facile fabrication of multifunctional hybrid multilayer gate dielectrics with tunable surface energy via a low-temperature solution-process to produce ultralow-voltage organic and amorphous oxide TFTs. The hybrid multilayer dielectric materials are constructed by iteratively stacking bifunctional phosphonic acid-based self-assembled monolayers combined with ultrathin high-k oxide layers. The nanoscopic thickness-controllable hybrid dielectrics exhibit the superior capacitance (up to 970 nF/cm(2)), insulating property (leakage current densities <10(-7) A/cm(2)), and thermal stability (up to 300 °C) as well as smooth surfaces (root-mean-square roughness <0.35 nm). In addition, the surface energy of the hybrid multilayer dielectrics are easily changed by switching between mono- and bifunctional phosphonic acid-based self-assembled monolayers for compatible fabrication with both organic and amorphous oxide semiconductors. Consequently, the hybrid multilayer dielectrics integrated into TFTs reveal their excellent dielectric functions to achieve high-performance, ultralow-voltage operation (< ± 2 V) for both organic and amorphous oxide TFTs. Because of the easily tunable surface energy, the multifunctional hybrid multilayer dielectrics can also be adapted for various organic and inorganic semiconductors, and metal gates in other device configurations, thus allowing diverse advanced electronic applications including ultralow-power and large-area electronic devices.

  1. All 2D, high mobility, flexible, transparent thin film transistor

    DOEpatents

    Das, Saptarshi; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Roelofs, Andreas

    2017-01-17

    A two-dimensional thin film transistor and a method for manufacturing a two-dimensional thin film transistor includes layering a semiconducting channel material on a substrate, providing a first electrode material on top of the semiconducting channel material, patterning a source metal electrode and a drain metal electrode at opposite ends of the semiconducting channel material from the first electrode material, opening a window between the source metal electrode and the drain metal electrode, removing the first electrode material from the window located above the semiconducting channel material providing a gate dielectric above the semiconducting channel material, and providing a top gate above the gate dielectric, the top gate formed from a second electrode material. The semiconducting channel material is made of tungsten diselenide, the first electrode material and the second electrode material are made of graphene, and the gate dielectric is made of hexagonal boron nitride.

  2. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  3. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  4. Graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chao; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Graphene has been attracting wide attention owing to its superb electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. These properties allow great applications in the next generation of optoelectronics, where flexibility and stretchability are essential. In this context, the recent development of graphene growth/transfer and its applications in field-effect transistors are involved. In particular, we provide a detailed review on the state-of-the-art of graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors. We address the principles of fabricating high-speed graphene analog transistors and the key issues of producing an array of graphene-based transistors on flexible and stretchable substrates. It provides a platform for future work to focus on understanding and realizing high-performance graphene-based transistors.

  5. Graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2012-08-21

    Graphene has been attracting wide attention owing to its superb electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. These properties allow great applications in the next generation of optoelectronics, where flexibility and stretchability are essential. In this context, the recent development of graphene growth/transfer and its applications in field-effect transistors are involved. In particular, we provide a detailed review on the state-of-the-art of graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors. We address the principles of fabricating high-speed graphene analog transistors and the key issues of producing an array of graphene-based transistors on flexible and stretchable substrates. It provides a platform for future work to focus on understanding and realizing high-performance graphene-based transistors.

  6. Low-Temperature Growth of Indium Oxide Thin Film by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition Using Liquid Dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylpropanamido)indium for High-Mobility Thin Film Transistor Application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Yeon; Jung, Eun Ae; Mun, Geumbi; Agbenyeke, Raphael E; Park, Bo Keun; Park, Jin-Seong; Son, Seung Uk; Jeon, Dong Ju; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Chung, Taek-Mo; Han, Jeong Hwan

    2016-10-12

    Low-temperature growth of In2O3 films was demonstrated at 70-250 °C by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using a newly synthesized liquid indium precursor, dimethyl(N-ethoxy-2,2-dimethylcarboxylicpropanamide)indium (Me2In(EDPA)), and O2 plasma for application to high-mobility thin film transistors. Self-limiting In2O3 PEALD growth was observed with a saturated growth rate of approximately 0.053 nm/cycle in an ALD temperature window of 90-180 °C. As-deposited In2O3 films showed negligible residual impurity, film densities as high as 6.64-7.16 g/cm(3), smooth surface morphology with a root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of approximately 0.2 nm, and semiconducting level carrier concentrations of 10(17)-10(18) cm(-3). Ultrathin In2O3 channel-based thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated in a coplanar bottom gate structure, and their electrical performances were evaluated. Because of the excellent quality of In2O3 films, superior electronic switching performances were achieved with high field effect mobilities of 28-30 and 16-19 cm(2)/V·s in the linear and saturation regimes, respectively. Furthermore, the fabricated TFTs showed excellent gate control characteristics in terms of subthreshold swing, hysteresis, and on/off current ratio. The low-temperature PEALD process for high-quality In2O3 films using the developed novel In precursor can be widely used in a variety of applications such as microelectronics, displays, energy devices, and sensors, especially at temperatures compatible with organic substrates.

  7. Amorphous LaZnSnO thin films by a combustion solution process and application in thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Huang, Chuan-Xin; Fu, Yi-Zhou; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous LaZnSnO thin films with different La doping concentration are prepared by a combustion solution process and the electrical performances of thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. The influence of La content on the structure, oxygen vacancies, optical and electrical performance of LaZnSnO thin films are investigated. At an appropriate amount of La doping (15 mol.%), LaZnSnO-TFT shows a superior electrical performance including a mobility of 4.2 cm2/V s, a subthreshold swing of 0.50 V/decade and an on/off current ratio of 1.9 × 107. The high performance LaZnSnO-TFT is attributed to the better interface between SiO2 and LaZnSnO channel layer and the suppression of oxygen vacancies by optimizing La content. It suggests that La doping can be a useful technique for fabricating high performance solution-processed oxide TFTs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed aluminum oxide dielectric for low-temperature, high-performance oxide thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wangying; Wang, Han; Xie, Fangyan; Chen, Jian; Cao, Hongtao; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2015-03-18

    We developed a facile and environmentally friendly solution-processed method for aluminum oxide (AlOx) dielectrics. The formation and properties of AlOx thin films under various annealing temperatures were intensively investigated by thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), impedance spectroscopy, and leakage current measurements. The sol-gel-derived AlOx thin film undergoes the decomposition of organic residuals and nitrate groups, as well as conversion of aluminum hydroxides to form aluminum oxide, as the annealing temperature increases. Finally, the AlOx film is used as gate dielectric for a variety of low-temperature solution-processed oxide TFTs. Above all, the In2O3 and InZnO TFTs exhibited high average mobilities of 57.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 10.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), as well as an on/off current ratio of ∼10(5) and low operating voltages of 4 V at a maximum processing temperature of 300 °C. Therefore, the solution-processable AlOx could be a promising candidate dielectric for low-cost, low-temperature, and high-performance oxide electronics.

  9. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm2/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites. PMID:26972476

  10. Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Enhanced Sensing Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angione, M. Daniela; Marinelli, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Antonio; Luzio, Alessandro; Pignataro, Bruno; Torsi, Luisa

    Organic thin-film transistors, used as sensing devices, have been attracting quite a considerable interest lately as they offer advantages such as multi parameter behaviour and possibility to be quite easily molecularly tuned for the detection of specific analytes. Here, a study on the dependences of the devices responses on important parameters such as the active layer thickness and its morphology as well as on the transistor channel length is presented. To introduce the least number of variables the system chosen for this study is quite a simple and well assessed one being based on a thiophene oligomer active layer exposed to 1-butanol vapours.

  11. Mechanical force sensors using organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlinski, Grzegorz; Böttger, Ulrich; Waser, Rainer; Klauk, Hagen; Halik, Marcus; Zschieschang, Ute; Schmid, Günter; Dehm, Christine

    2005-05-01

    The pressure dependence of pentacene (C22H14) transistors with solution-processed polyvinylphenol gate dielectric on glass substrates is investigated by applying uniaxial mechanical pressure with a needle. We found that organic thin-film transistors are sensitive to applied pressure inherently. The measurements reveal a reversible current dependence of the transfer characteristics where the drain current is switching between two states. Experimental and simulation results suggest that switch-on voltage and interface resistance are affected. The change takes seconds, hinting at trap states being responsible for the effect.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes, Semiconductor Nanowires and Graphene for Thin Film Transistor and Circuit Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribat, Didier; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we briefly review the use of carbon nanotubes and semiconductor nanowires, which represent a new class of nanomaterials actively studied for thin film transistors and electronics applications. Although these nanomaterials are usually synthesised at moderate to high temperatures, they can be transferred to any kind of substrate after growth, paving the way for the fabrication of flexible displays and large area electronics systems on plastic. Over the past few years, the field has progressed well beyond the realisation of elementary devices, since active matrix displays driven by nanowire thin film transistors have been demonstrated, as well as the fabrication of medium scale integrated circuits based on random arrays of carbon nanotubes. Also, graphene, a new nanomaterial has appeared in the landscape; although it is a zero gap semiconductor, it can still be used to make transistors, provided narrow ribbons or bilayers are used. Graphene is also a serious contender for the replacement of oxide-based transparent conducting films.

  13. Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors using biodegradable chicken albumen gate insulator and oxide semiconductor channel on eco-friendly paper substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Jung; Jeon, Da-Bin; Park, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Min-Ki; Yang, Jong-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Kim, Gi-Heon; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-03-04

    Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on paper substrates were proposed as one of the eco-friendly electronic devices. The gate stack was composed of chicken albumen gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O semiconducting channel layers. All the fabrication processes were performed below 120 °C. To improve the process compatibility of the synthethic paper substrate, an Al2O3 thin film was introduced as adhesion and barrier layers by atomic layer deposition. The dielectric properties of biomaterial albumen gate insulator were also enhanced by the preparation of Al2O3 capping layer. The nonvolatile bistabilities were realized by the switching phenomena of residual polarization within the albumen thin film. The fabricated device exhibited a counterclockwise hysteresis with a memory window of 11.8 V, high on/off ratio of approximately 1.1 × 10(6), and high saturation mobility (μsat) of 11.5 cm(2)/(V s). Furthermore, these device characteristics were not markedly degraded even after the delamination and under the bending situration. When the curvature radius was set as 5.3 cm, the ION/IOFF ratio and μsat were obtained to be 5.9 × 10(6) and 7.9 cm(2)/(V s), respectively.

  14. Thiophene polymer semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ong, Beng S; Wu, Yiliang; Li, Yuning; Liu, Ping; Pan, Hualong

    2008-01-01

    Printed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received great interests as potentially low-cost alternative to silicon technology for application in large-area, flexible, and ultra-low-cost electronics. One of the critical materials for TFTs is semiconductor, which has a dominant impact on the transistor properties. We review here the structural studies and design of thiophene-based polymer semiconductors with respect to solution processability, ambient stability, molecular self-organization, and field-effect transistor properties for OTFT applications. We show that through judicial monomer design, delicately controlled pi-conjugation, and strategically positioned pendant side-chain distribution, novel solution-processable thiophene polymer semiconductors with excellent self-organization ability to form extended lamellar pi-stacking orders can be developed. OTFTs using semiconductors of this nature processed in ambient conditions have provided excellent field-effect transistor properties.

  15. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{sub O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  16. Effects of Ga:N addition on the electrical performance of zinc tin oxide thin film transistor by solution-processing.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byung Du; Jeon, Hye Ji; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-06-25

    This paper addressed the effect of gallium nitrate hydrate addition on thin film transistor (TFT) performance and positive bias stability of amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) TFTs by solution processing, Further, the mechanisms responsible for chemical properties and electronic band structure are explored. A broad exothermic peak accompanied by weight loss appeared in the range from about 350 to 570 °C for the ZTO solution; the thermal reaction of the Ga-ZTO:N solution was completed at 520 °C. This is because the gallium nitrate hydrate precursor promoted the decomposition and dehydroxylation reaction for Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and/or SnCl2·2H2O precursors. The concentrations of carbon and chloride in gallium nitrate hydrate added ZTO films annealed at 400 °C have a lower value (C 0.65, Cl 0.65 at. %) compared with those of ZTO films (C 3.15, Cl 0.82 at. %). Absorption bands at 416, 1550, and 1350 cm(-1) for GaZTO:N films indicated the presence of ZnGa2O4, N-H, and N═O groups by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement, respectively. As a result, an inverted staggered Ga-ZTO:N TFT exhibited a mobility of 4.84 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the saturation region, a subthreshold swing of 0.35 V/decade, and a threshold gate voltage (Vth) of 0.04 V. In addition, the instability of Vth values of the ZTO TFTs under positive bias stress conditions was suppressed by adding Ga and N from 13.6 to 3.17 V, which caused a reduction in the oxygen-related defects located near the conduction band.

  17. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  18. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-01-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al2O3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a, which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm2/Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 107 and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  19. The Influence of Hafnium Doping on Density of States in Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Deposited via Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingwei; Qin, Cunping; Song, Jiantao; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Xueyin; Zhang, Zhilin

    2017-12-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfZnO (HZO) as channel layer and Al2O3 as gate insulator were successfully fabricated. Compared with ZnO-TFT, the stability of HZO-TFT was obviously improved as Hf doping can suppress the generation of oxygen related defects. The transfer characteristics of TFTs at different temperatures were also investigated, and temperature stability enhancement was observed for the TFT with Hf doping. The density of states (DOS) was calculated based on the experimentally obtained E a, which can explain the experimental observation. A high-field effect mobility of 9.4 cm(2)/Vs, a suitable turn-on voltage of 0.26 V, a high on/off ratio of over 10(7) and a steep sub-threshold swing of 0.3 V/decade were obtained in HZO-TFT. The results showed that temperature stability enhancement in HfZnO thin-film transistors are attributed to the smaller DOS.

  20. Molecular orientation dependence of hole-injection barrier in pentacene thin film on the Au surface in organic thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihm, Kyuwook; Kim, Bongsoo; Kang, Tai-Hee; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Joo, Min Ho; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Yoon, Sang Soo; Chung, Sukmin

    2006-07-01

    We have investigated the effects of a buffer layer insertion on the performance of the pentacene based thin film transistor with a bottom contact structure. When the pentacene molecules have a standing up coordination on the Au surface that is modified by the benzenethiol or methanethiol, the transition region in the pentacene thin film is removed along the boundary between the Au and silicon oxide region, and the hole-injection barrier decreases by 0.4eV. Pentacene on various surfaces showed that the highly occupied molecular level is 0.2-0.4eV lower in the standing up coordination than in the lying down coordination.

  1. Organic thin-film transistors for chemical and biological sensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Yan, Feng

    2012-01-03

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) show promising applications in various chemical and biological sensors. The advantages of OTFT-based sensors include high sensitivity, low cost, easy fabrication, flexibility and biocompatibility. In this paper, we review the chemical sensors and biosensors based on two types of OTFTs, including organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), mainly focusing on the papers published in the past 10 years. Various types of OTFT-based sensors, including pH, ion, glucose, DNA, enzyme, antibody-antigen, cell-based sensors, dopamine sensor, etc., are classified and described in the paper in sequence. The sensing mechanisms and the detection limits of the devices are described in details. It is expected that OTFTs may have more important applications in chemical and biological sensing with the development of organic electronics.

  2. Full-Swing InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor Inverter with Depletion Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2009-10-01

    A high performance amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) inverter is implemented using the enhancement mode driver and the depletion mode load. The threshold voltage of the TFT is easily controlled by adjusting the active layer thickness in a-IGZO TFTs. The proposed inverter shows much improved switching characteristics including higher voltage gain, wider swing range, and higher noise margins compared to the conventional inverter with an enhancement load.

  3. Fabrication of Organic Thin Film Transistors Using Layer-By-Layer Assembly (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    thin-film transistors (TFTs) have received considerable attention as a low- cost, light-weight, flexible alternative to traditional amorphous silicon ...as the cathode at which the oxidized PEDOT + molecules are reduced back to their neutral species (i.e. de-doped). The protons generated at the...bias results in a faster depletion rate and a larger Ion/off ratio due to a larger driving force for ion migration and PEDOT de-doping. Similarly

  4. Effect of direct current sputtering power on the behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under negative bias illumination stress: A combination of experimental analyses and device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jun Tae; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Park, Jozeph; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Hyun-Suk E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr

    2015-03-23

    The effect of direct current sputtering power of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) on the performance and stability of the corresponding thin-film transistor devices was studied. The field effect mobility increases as the IGZO sputter power increases, at the expense of device reliability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). Device simulation based on the extracted sub-gap density of states indicates that the field effect mobility is improved as a result of the number of acceptor-like states decreasing. The degradation by NBIS is suggested to be induced by the formation of peroxides in IGZO rather than charge trapping.

  5. Control of trap density in channel layer for the higher stability of oxide thin film transistors under gate bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, K. T.; Han, D. S.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated turn-on voltage (VON) stability of oxide-based TFTs under constant voltage stress for the TFTs including intrinsic ZnO, Hf-doped ZnO, and Hf-Zn-Sn-O channel layer. Also, to verify the effects of interfacial trap density on the TFTs stability, we employed SiNX and SiO2/SiNX as gate insulator, respectively. We found that the low trap density of the TFTs, including the interfacial trap density between channel and gate insulator, and oxide semiconductor bulk trap density is intimately related to excellent gate bias and temperature stability.

  6. Photocurrent Suppression of Transparent Organic Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chiao-Shun; Tsai, Shu-Ting; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Fang-Chung; Shieh, Hang-Ping D.

    2007-12-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with high transmittance and low photosensitivity have been demonstrated. By using titanium dioxide nanoparticles as the additives in the polymer gate insulators, the level of device photoresponse has been reduced. The device shows simultaneously a high transparence and a minimal threshold voltage shift under white light illumination. It is inferred that the localized energy levels deep in the energy gap of pentacene behave as the recombination centers, enhancing substantially the recombination process in the conducting channel of the OTFTs. Therefore, the electron trapping is relieved and the shift of threshold voltage is reduced upon illumination.

  7. Luminescent sulfides and solution-deposited oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jeremy T.

    Solid state luminescent sulfides are prepared as powders in order to elucidate the relationship between structure and light emission. While the sulfides studied in this dissertation are known phosphors, materials are investigated in a variety of new ways. Elementary properties and structures of MgS are reviewed, and preparation of MgS is described with sufficient detail that it may be reproduced in laboratories worldwide. Luminescence of MgS:Eu is evaluated, primarily by interpretation of published work. Solid pellets of MgS:Eu are created for the purpose of depositing thin-film layers by physical vapor deposition, and incorporating the phosphor layer within ACTFEL structures. Fabricated devices are found to exhibit bright ACTFEL luminescence--the brightest known for MgS. Similarly, MgS films are doped with a variety of lanthanide atoms to investigate the hot-electron distribution in MgS layers during device operation. The system BaGa2S4--SrGa 2S4 is evaluated for mutual solid phase solubility. Addition of Eu2+ causes each of these phases to photoluminescence. The emission energies (and therefore colors) are adjusted according to composition. Thin-film oxides are deposited from solution sources. Solution-deposited ZnO serves as the semiconductor layer in transparent thin-film transistor devices. A new class of dielectric material is also developed by solution methods. HafSOx and ZircSOx films, and derivative compositions, are evaluated in simple capacitor structures and demonstrated in functioning transistor devices. High-resolution nanolaminate structures are also constructed from this class of materials. From the knowledge and experience of developing oxide thin-films, more general chemical strategies are expressed.

  8. Characterization of novel BaZnSnO thin films by solution process and applications in thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Huang, Chuan-Xin; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Qing; Jiang, Xue-Yin; Zhang, Zhi-Lin

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: This work reports the Ba content on thin film transistor based on a novel BaZnSnO semiconductor using solution process. - Highlights: • No reports about BaZnSnO thin film using solution process. • BaZnSnO thin film transistor (TFT) was firstly fabricated. • BaZnSnO-TFT shows a acceptable performace. • Influence of Ba content on BaZnSnO-TFT. - Abstract: A novel BaZnSnO semiconductor is fabricated using solution process and the influence of Ba addition on the structure, the chemical state of oxygen and electrical performance of BaZnSnO thin films are investigated. A high performance BaZnSnO-based thin film transistor with 15 mol% Ba is obtained, showing a saturation mobility of 1.94 cm{sup 2}/V s, a threshold voltage of 3.6 V, an on/off current ratio of 6.2 × 10{sup 6}, a subthreshold swing of 0.94 V/decade, and a good bias stability. Transistors with solution processed BaZnSnO films are promising candidates for the development of future large-area, low-cost and high-performance electronic devices.

  9. Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic complementary thin-film transistor inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogura, Shintaro; Fukuda, Nobuko; Yoshida, Manabu; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Uemura, Sei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) n-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) and p-channel TFTs using the high-uniformity polymer poly[2,5-bis(alkyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrolo-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-5,5-di(thiophene-2-yl)-2,2-(E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene] (PDVT-10). The IGZO TFT was fabricated at 150 °C for 1 min. It showed a high field-effect mobility of 0.9 cm2·V-1·s-1 and a high on/off current ratio of 107. A hybrid complementary inverter was fabricated by combining IGZO with a PDVT-10 thin-film transistor and its operation was confirmed.

  10. Improvement in the electrical performance and bias-stress stability of dual-active-layered silicon zinc oxide/zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhao, Gao-Wei; Lai, Pai-To; Yao, Ruo-He

    2016-08-01

    Si-doped zinc oxide (SZO) thin films are deposited by using a co-sputtering method, and used as the channel active layers of ZnO-based TFTs with single and dual active layer structures. The effects of silicon content on the optical transmittance of the SZO thin film and electrical properties of the SZO TFT are investigated. Moreover, the electrical performances and bias-stress stabilities of the single- and dual-active-layer TFTs are investigated and compared to reveal the effects of the Si doping and dual-active-layer structure. The average transmittances of all the SZO films are about 90% in the visible light region of 400 nm-800 nm, and the optical band gap of the SZO film gradually increases with increasing Si content. The Si-doping can effectively suppress the grain growth of ZnO, revealed by atomic force microscope analysis. Compared with that of the undoped ZnO TFT, the off-state current of the SZO TFT is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude and it is 1.5 × 10-12 A, and thus the on/off current ratio is increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In summary, the SZO/ZnO TFT with dual-active-layer structure exhibits a high on/off current ratio of 4.0 × 106 and superior stability under gate-bias and drain-bias stress. Projected supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61076113 and 61274085), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2016A030313474), and the University Development Fund (Nanotechnology Research Institute, Grant No. 00600009) of the University of Hong Kong, China.

  11. Correlation between microstructure, electronic properties and flicker noise in organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Oana D.; Hamadani, Behrang H.; Xiong, Hao D.; Park, Sungkyu K.; Subramanian, Sankar; Zimmerman, Neil M.; Anthony, John E.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Gundlach, David J.

    2008-03-01

    We report on observations of a correlation between the microstructure of organic thin films and their electronic properties when incorporated in field-effect transistors. We present a simple method to induce enhanced grain growth in solution-processed thin film transistors by chemical modification of the source-drain contacts. This leads to improved device performance and gives a unique thin film microstructure for fundamental studies concerning the effect of structural order on the charge transport. We demonstrate that the 1/f flicker noise is sensitive to organic semiconductor thin film microstructure changes in the transistor channel.

  12. Ferroelectric/Dielectric Double Gate Insulator Spin-Coated Using Barium Titanate Nanocrystals for an Indium Oxide Nanocrystal-Based Thin-Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hien Thu; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Don-Sung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2016-03-23

    Barium titanate nanocrystals (BT NCs) were prepared under solvothermal conditions at 200 °C for 24 h. The shape of the BT NCs was tuned from nanodot to nanocube upon changing the polarity of the alcohol solvent, varying the nanosize in the range of 14-22 nm. Oleic acid-passivated NCs showed good solubility in a nonpolar solvent. The effect of size and shape of the BT NCs on the ferroelectric properties was also studied. The maximum polarization value of 7.2 μC/cm(2) was obtained for the BT-5 NC thin film. Dielectric measurements of the films showed comparable dielectric constant values of BT NCs over 1-100 kHz without significant loss. Furthermore, the bottom gate In2O3 NC thin film transistors exhibited outstanding device performance with a field-effect mobility of 11.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at a low applied gate voltage with BT-5 NC/SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The low-density trapped state was observed at the interface between the In2O3 NC semiconductor and the BT-5 NCs/SiO2 dielectric film. Furthermore, compensation of the applied gate field by an electric dipole-induced dipole field within the BT-5 NC film was also observed.

  13. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Mao, Bao-Hua; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O2/air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O2/air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O2/air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results.

  14. High-performance amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors through N2O plasma passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaechul; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Changjung; Kim, Sunil; Song, Ihun; Yin, Huaxiang; Kim, Kyoung-Kok; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Kiha; Lee, Jaecheol; Jung, Jaekwan; Lee, Eunha; Kwon, Kee-Won; Park, Youngsoo

    2008-08-01

    Amorphous-gallium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-GIZO) thin filmtransistors (TFTs) are fabricated without annealing, using processes and equipment for conventional a-Si :H TFTs. It has been very difficult to obtain sound TFT characteristics, because the a-GIZO active layer becomes conductive after dry etching the Mo source/drain electrode and depositing the a-SiO2 passivation layer. To prevent such damages, N2O plasma is applied to the back surface of the a-GIZO channel layer before a-SiO2 deposition. N2O plasma-treated a-GIZO TFTs exhibit excellent electrical properties: a field effect mobility of 37cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 0.1V, a subthreshold swing of 0.25V/decade, and an Ion/off ratio of 7.

  15. High-performance amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors through N{sub 2}O plasma passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jaechul; Kim, Sangwook; Kim, Changjung; Kim, Sunil; Song, Ihun; Yin, Huaxiang; Kim, Kyoung-Kok; Lee, Sunghoon; Hong, Kiha; Park, Youngsoo; Lee, Jaecheol; Jung, Jaekwan; Lee, Eunha; Kwon, Kee-Won

    2008-08-04

    Amorphous-gallium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-GIZO) thin filmtransistors (TFTs) are fabricated without annealing, using processes and equipment for conventional a-Si:H TFTs. It has been very difficult to obtain sound TFT characteristics, because the a-GIZO active layer becomes conductive after dry etching the Mo source/drain electrode and depositing the a-SiO{sub 2} passivation layer. To prevent such damages, N{sub 2}O plasma is applied to the back surface of the a-GIZO channel layer before a-SiO{sub 2} deposition. N{sub 2}O plasma-treated a-GIZO TFTs exhibit excellent electrical properties: a field effect mobility of 37 cm{sup 2}/V s, a threshold voltage of 0.1 V, a subthreshold swing of 0.25 V/decade, and an I{sub on/off} ratio of 7.

  16. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  17. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flewitt, A. J.; Powell, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    It has been previously observed that thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconducting channel suffer from a threshold voltage shift when subjected to a negative gate bias and light illumination simultaneously. In this work, a thermalization energy analysis has been applied to previously published data on negative bias under illumination stress (NBIS) in a-IGZO TFTs. A barrier to defect conversion of 0.65-0.75 eV is extracted, which is consistent with reported energies of oxygen vacancy migration. The attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 106-107 s-1, which suggests a weak localization of carriers in band tail states over a 20-40 nm distance. Models for the NBIS mechanism based on charge trapping are reviewed and a defect pool model is proposed in which two distinct distributions of defect states exist in the a-IGZO band gap: these are associated with states that are formed as neutrally charged and 2+ charged oxygen vacancies at the time of film formation. In this model, threshold voltage shift is not due to a defect creation process, but to a change in the energy distribution of states in the band gap upon defect migration as this allows a state formed as a neutrally charged vacancy to be converted into one formed as a 2+ charged vacancy and vice versa. Carrier localization close to the defect migration site is necessary for the conversion process to take place, and such defect migration sites are associated with conduction and valence band tail states. Under negative gate bias stressing, the conduction band tail is depleted of carriers, but the bias is insufficient to accumulate holes in the valence band tail states, and so no threshold voltage shift results. It is only under illumination that the quasi Fermi level for holes is sufficiently lowered to allow occupation of valence band tail states. The resulting charge localization then allows a negative threshold voltage shift, but only under conditions

  18. Process Condition Considered Preparation and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Methyl Methacrylate Thin Films for Organic Thin Film Transistor Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Se-Hyun; Lee, Boong-Joo; Lim, Young-Taek; Lim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Sunwoo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Yi, Jun-Sin; Shin, Paik-Kyun

    2012-02-01

    Plasma polymerized methyl methaclylate (ppMMA) thin films were prepared with various process conditions such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power, substrate bias power, working pressure, substrate heating temperature, substrate position, and monomer flow rate. Thickness, surface morphology, dielectric constant, and leakage current of the ppMMA thin films were investigated for application to organic thin film transistor as gate dielectric. Deposition rate of over 8.6 nm/min, dielectric constant of 3.4, and leakage current density of 8.9 ×10-9 A/cm-2 at electric field of 1 MV/cm were achieved for the ppMMA thin film prepared at the optimized process condition: plasma power of RF 100 W; Ar flow rate of 20 sccm; working pressure of 5 mTorr; substrate temperature of 100 °C substrate position of 100 mm. The ppMMA thin film was then applied to pentacene based organic thin film transistor (OTFT) device fabrication. The OTFT device with 80 nm thick pentacene semiconductor layer showed field effect mobility of 0.144 cm2 V-1 s-1 and threshold voltage of -1.72 V.

  19. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  20. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  1. Comparison of the effects of Ar and H2 plasmas on the performance of homojunctioned amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Ahn, Byung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jae; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2008-11-01

    We proposed a homojunctioned amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) and compared its performance to that of a conventional structured TFT. The source/drain regions were formed in the a-IGZO channel layer using Ar and H2 plasma treatments, respectively. Hydrogen itself was found to act as a carrier of donors with H2 plasma treatment, which had effects to a depth of 50 nm. Our TFT had a field-effect mobility of 7.27 cm2/V s, an on/off ratio of 1.2×107, a threshold voltage of 0.96 V, and a subthreshold swing of 0.49 V/decade.

  2. Electrical stability enhancement of GeInGaO thin-film transistors by solution-processed Li-doped yttrium oxide passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, U. H.; Yoon, S.; Yoon, D. H.; Tak, Y. J.; Kim, Y.-G.; Ahn, B. D.; Park, J.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a method of enhancing the electrical stability of GeInGaO thin-film transistors (TFTs) using a Li-doped Y2O3 (YO) passivation layer (PVL). Li reduced metal hydroxide groups in the PVL, and diffused into the channel layer and reduced the oxygen vacancy at the top surface of the channel layer, which is the origin of the defect state and electrical instability. In addition, the negative-bias temperature stress (NBTS) for 3600 s improved for Li-doped YO (LYO) PVL. The threshold voltage shift decreased from  -10.3 V for the YO PVL to  -4.8 V for the LYO PVL, a 54% improvement.

  3. Optimization of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin-film growth parameters for thin-film transistors (TFT) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manisha; Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Barlage, Douglas; Tsui, Ying Yin

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present the optimization of zinc oxide (ZnO) film properties for a thin-film transistor (TFT) application. Thin films, 50±10 nm, of ZnO were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) under a variety of growth conditions. The oxygen pressure, laser fluence, substrate temperature and annealing conditions were varied as a part of this study. Mobility and carrier concentration were the focus of the optimization. While room-temperature ZnO growths followed by air and oxygen annealing showed improvement in the (002) phase formation with a carrier concentration in the order of 1017-1018/cm3 with low mobility in the range of 0.01-0.1 cm2/V s, a Hall mobility of 8 cm2/V s and a carrier concentration of 5×1014/cm3 have been achieved on a relatively low temperature growth (250 °C) of ZnO. The low carrier concentration indicates that the number of defects have been reduced by a magnitude of nearly a 1000 as compared to the room-temperature annealed growths. Also, it was very clearly seen that for the (002) oriented films of ZnO a high mobility film is achieved.

  4. Sprayed lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Ynineb, F.

    2012-01-01

    Lanthanum doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates using a pneumatic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were prepared using different lanthanum concentrations at optimum deposition parameters. We studied the variations in structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples due to the change of doping concentration in precursor solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that pure and La-doped ZnO thin films are highly textured along c-axis perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Scanning electron micrographs show that surface morphology of ZnO films undergoes a significant change according to lanthanum doping. All films exhibit a transmittance higher than 80% in the visible region.

  5. Air-stable conversion of separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors from p-type to n-type using atomic layer deposition of high-κ oxide and its application in CMOS logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jialu; Wang, Chuan; Fu, Yue; Che, Yuchi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-04-26

    Due to extraordinary electrical properties, preseparated, high purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes hold great potential for thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuit applications. One of the main challenges it still faces is the fabrication of air-stable n-type nanotube TFTs with industry-compatible techniques. Here in this paper, we report a novel and highly reliable method of converting the as-made p-type TFTs using preseparated semiconducting nanotubes into air-stable n-type transistors by adding a high-κ oxide passivation layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The n-type devices exhibit symmetric electrical performance compared with the p-type devices in terms of on-current, on/off ratio, and device mobility. Various factors affecting the conversion process, including ALD temperature, metal contact material, and channel length, have also been systematically studied by a series of designed experiments. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter with rail-to-rail output, symmetric input/output behavior, and large noise margin has been further demonstrated. The excellent performance gives us the feasibility of cascading multiple stages of logic blocks and larger scale integration. Our approach can serve as the critical foundation for future nanotube-based thin-film macroelectronics.

  6. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junghwan Miyokawa, Norihiko; Ide, Keisuke; Toda, Yoshitake; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2016-01-15

    We propose a light-emitting thin film using an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) because AOS has low defect density even fabricated at room temperature. Eu-doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films fabricated at room temperature emitted intense red emission at 614 nm. It is achieved by precise control of oxygen pressure so as to suppress oxygen-deficiency/excess-related defects and free carriers. An electronic structure model is proposed, suggesting that non-radiative process is enhanced mainly by defects near the excited states. AOS would be a promising host for a thin film phosphor applicable to flexible displays as well as to light-emitting transistors.

  7. Dynamic control of THz waves through thin-film transistor metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fang-Fang; Xu, Wei-Zong; Lu, Hai; Ye, Jiandong; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-12-01

    We propose a hybrid metamaterial with embedded amorphous oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays, which embraces the advantages of energy saving, low cost and high yields for tunable amplitude modulation in terahertz (THz) regime. The properties of this active metamaterial system are numerically investigated based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory. The calculation results attribute the modulation to a change in the damping rate of an electric dipoletype resonance mode caused by the increased conductivity of the transparent oxide layer. Such a device, expanding the horizon of oxide electronics into metamaterials, opens up many fascinating prospects for producing stable, uniform, and low-cost THz components.

  8. Graphene as tunable contact for high performance thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan

    performance and mechanical robustness. By using the graphene as a work-function tunable contact for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film, the vertical current flow across the graphene-IGZO junction can be effectively modulated by an external gate potential to enable VTFTs with a highest on-off ratio exceeding 105. The unique vertical transistor architecture can readily enable ultrashort channel devices with very high delivering current and exceptional mechanical flexibility. Furthermore, I will, demonstrate a new design strategy for vertical OTFT with ultra-short channel length without using conventional high-resolution lithography process. They can deliver a high current density over 1.8 A/ cm2 and thus enable a high cutoff frequency devices (~ 0.4 MHz) comparable with the ultra-short channel organic transistors. Importantly, with unique vertical architecture, the entire organic channel material is sandwiched between the source and drain electrodes and is thus naturally protected to ensure excellent air-stability. Finally I will present a new strategy by using graphene as the back electrodes to achieve Ohmic contact to MoS2. With a finite density of states, the Fermi level of graphene can be readily tuned by a gate potential to enable a nearly perfect band alignment with MoS2. For the first time, a transparent contact to MoS2 is demonstrated with zero contact barrier and linear output behaviour at cryogenic temperatures (down to 1.9 K) for both monolayer and multilayer MoS2. Benefiting from the barrier-free transparent contacts, we show that a metal-insulator-transition (MIT) can be observed in a two-terminal MoS2 device, a phenomenon that could be easily masked by Schottky barriers found in conventional metal-contacted MoS2 devices. With further passivation by boron nitride (BN) encapsulation, we demonstrate a record-high extrinsic (two-terminal) field effect mobility up to 1300 cm2/V s in MoS2 at low temperature. These findings can open up exciting new

  9. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-03-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage.

  10. Conduction Threshold in Accumulation-Mode InGaZnO Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    The onset of inversion in the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) takes place when the surface potential is approximately twice the bulk potential. In contrast, the conduction threshold in accumulation mode transistors, such as the oxide thin film transistor (TFT), has remained ambiguous in view of the complex density of states distribution in the mobility gap. This paper quantitatively describes the conduction threshold of accumulation-mode InGaZnO TFTs as the transition of the Fermi level from deep to tail states, which can be defined as the juxtaposition of linear and exponential dependencies of the accumulated carrier density on energy. Indeed, this permits direct extraction and visualization of the threshold voltage in terms of the second derivative of the drain current with respect to gate voltage. PMID:26932790

  11. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of -0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ṡ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  12. Low-temperature, solution-processed ZrO2:B thin film: a bifunctional inorganic/organic interfacial glue for flexible thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Ho; Oh, Jin Young; Han, Sun Woong; Lee, Tae Il; Baik, Hong Koo

    2015-03-04

    A solution-processed boron-doped peroxo-zirconium oxide (ZrO2:B) thin film has been found to have multifunctional characteristics, providing both hydrophobic surface modification and a chemical glue layer. Specifically, a ZrO2:B thin film deposited on a hydrophobic layer becomes superhydrophilic following ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) treatment, whereas the same treatment has no effect on the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic layer alone. Investigation of the ZrO2:B/hydrophobic interface layer using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR XPS) confirmed it to be chemically bonded like glue. Using the multifunctional nature of the ZrO2:B thin film, flexible amorphous indium oxide (In2O3) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were subsequently fabricated on a polyimide substrate along with a ZrO2:B/poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) dielectric. An aqueous In2O3 solution was successfully coated onto the ZrO2:B/PVP dielectric, and the surface and chemical properties of the PVP and ZrO2:B thin films were analyzed by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface-engineered PVP dielectric was found to have a lower leakage current density (Jleak) of 4.38 × 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 MV/cm, with no breakdown behavior observed up to a bending radius of 5 mm. In contrast, the electrical characteristics of the flexible amorphous In2O3 TFT such as on/off current ratio (Ion/off) and electron mobility remained similar up to 10 mm of bending without degradation, with the device being nonactivated at a bending radius of 5 mm. These results suggest that ZrO2:B thin films could be used for low-temperature, solution-processed surface-modified flexible devices.

  13. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  14. Fabrication of Vertical Organic Light-Emitting Transistor Using ZnO Thin Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Iizuka, Masaaki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) combined with thin film transistor (TFT) are well suitable elements for low-cost, large-area active matrix displays. On the other hand, zinc oxide (ZnO) is a transparent material and its electrical conductivity is controlled from conductive to insulating by growth conditions. The drain current of ZnO FET is 180 μA. The OLED uses ZnO thin film (Al-doped) for the electron injection layer and is controlled by radio frequency (rf) and direct current (dc) sputtering conditions, such as Al concentration and gas pressure. Al concentration in the ZnO film and deposition rate have strong effects on electron injection. Furthermore, the OLED driven by ZnO FET shows a luminance of 13 cd/m2, a luminance efficiency of 0.7 cd/A, and an on-off ratio of 650.

  15. AC Stress-Induced Degradation of Amorphous InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kong, Dongsik; Kim, Sungchul; Jeon, Young Woo; Kim, Yongsik; Kim, Dong Myong; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2011-09-01

    The degradation of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) inverter operation is investigated under AC pulse stresses. From the extraction of subgap density of states (DOSs), the dominant mechanism of the pulse stress-induced degradation of driver TFT is considered as the increase of acceptor-like deep states, while that of the load TFT is attributed to the increased number of electrons trapped into the interface and/or a-IGZO thin films. We also observe that the rising and falling time of the induced pulse affects each TFT of the inverter in a different manner, and discuss the related mechanism of this phenomenon.

  16. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-14

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm(2)/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  17. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-01-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds. PMID:28290547

  18. Chemical and biological sensing with organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabeck, Jeffrey Todd

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer a great deal of promise for applications in chemical and biological sensing where there is a demand for small, portable, and inexpensive sensors. OTFTs have many advantages over other types of sensors, including low-cost fabrication, straightforward miniaturization, simple instrumentation, and inherent signal amplification. This dissertation examines two distinct types of OTFTs: organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on pentacene, and organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The bulk of the previous work on sensing with OFETs has focused on gas sensing, and this dissertation contributes to this body of work by briefly treating the large, reversible response of pentacene OFETs to humidity. However, there are many applications where the analyte of interest must be detected in an aqueous environment rather than a gaseous environment, and very little work has been done in this area for OFETs. Therefore, the integration of pentacene OFETs with microfluidics is treated in detail. Using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels to confine aqueous solutions over the active region of pentacene transistors, it is demonstrated that the current-voltage characteristics remain stable under aqueous flow with a decrease in mobility of ˜30% compared to its value when dry. The operation of PEDOT:PSS transistors is also treated in detail. It is demonstrated that their transistor behavior cannot be attributed solely to a field effect and that ion motion is key to the switching mechanism. It is also demonstrated that simple glucose sensors based on PEDOT:PSS OECTs are sensitive to low glucose concentrations below 1 mM, therefore showing promise for potential application in the field of noninvasive glucose monitoring for diabetic patients using saliva rather than blood samples. Furthermore, a novel microfluidic gating technique has been

  19. Transparent Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using n-(In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1/InGaZnO4 Modulation-Doped Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Satoshi; Yokozeki, Mikihiro; Ikeda, Masao; Suzuki, Toshi-kazu

    2011-04-01

    We investigated transparent oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) using n-(In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1/InGaZnO4 (n-ITO/IGZO) modulation-doped heterostructures, which are effective in achieving high carrier mobilities. From transmittance measurements and UV photoemission spectroscopy, n-ITO/IGZO modulation-doped heterostructures are expected to realize the type-II energy band lineup, in which both the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum of n-ITO are higher in energy than those of IGZO. Van der Pauw Hall measurements revealed Hall mobility enhancement and two-dimensional behavior of electrons at the n-ITO/IGZO interface. Using the n-ITO/IGZO modulation-doped heterostructures, we obtained TFTs with higher electron mobility than that of IGZO TFTs. We consider that modulation doping is a promising method for performance improvements of TFTs using transparent oxide semiconductors.

  20. Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors Using O2 Plasma Treatment on the SiNx Gate Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woong-Sun; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Lee, Sih; Kang, Byung-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Joo-Han; Ahn, Byung-Du; Park, Jong-Wan

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of processing parameters on the electrical characteristics of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Processing parameters including the oxygen partial pressure, annealing temperature, and channel thickness have a great influence on TFT performance and better devices are obtained at a low oxygen partial pressure, annealing at 200 °C, and a low channel thickness. We attempted to improve the a-IGZO TFT performance and stability under a gate bias stress using O2 plasma treatment. With an O2 plasma treated gate insulator, remarkable properties including excellent bias stability as well as a field effect mobility (µFE) of 11.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, a subthreshold swing (S) of 0.59 V/decade, a turn-on voltage (VON) of -1.3 V, and an on/off current ratio (ION/IOFF) of 105 were achieved.

  1. Examination of the ambient effects on the stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors using a laser-glass-sealing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Kazuo; Takeda, Satoshi; Nomura, Kenji; Abe, Katsumi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-09-29

    The effect of an ambient atmosphere with a positive bias constant current stress (CCS) and a negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) on the stability of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistors (TFTs) is examined by utilizing a glass-hermetic-sealant with a moisture permeability of less than 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2} · day. In the CCS test, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) was remarkably suppressed in the glass-sealed TFTs. The unsealed and resin-sealed TFTs exhibited large ΔV{sub th} values. During the NBIS tests, the glass-sealed TFTs had almost the same negative ΔV{sub th} as the unsealed and resin sealed TFTs. Among the different TFTs, no significant differences were observed in the threshold voltage, the subthreshold swing and the saturation mobility as a function of the photon energy. It is concluded that ambient molecules were the primary origin of the instability of the ΔV{sub th}, induced by a CCS, but they were not related to the NBIS instability. The major role of the effective passivation layers in the NBIS test was not to simply block out the ambient effects, but to reduce the extra density of states at/near the surface of the back channel.

  2. Subthreshold Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors with ultralow power and high intrinsic gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-10-01

    The quest for low power becomes highly compelling in newly emerging application areas related to wearable devices in the Internet of Things. Here, we report on a Schottky-barrier indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor operating in the deep subthreshold regime (i.e., near the OFF state) at low supply voltages (<1 volt) and ultralow power (<1 nanowatt). By using a Schottky-barrier at the source and drain contacts, the current-voltage characteristics of the transistor were virtually channel-length independent with an infinite output resistance. It exhibited high intrinsic gain (>400) that was both bias and geometry independent. The transistor reported here is useful for sensor interface circuits in wearable devices where high current sensitivity and ultralow power are vital for battery-less operation.

  3. Low-temperature processed Schottky-gated field-effect transistors based on amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, M.; Lajn, A.; Frenzel, H.; v. Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.; Barquinha, P.; Martins, R.; Fortunato, E.

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the electrical properties of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET) based on amorphous oxide semiconductor channels. All functional parts of the devices were sputter-deposited at room temperature. The influence on the electrical properties of a 150 °C annealing step of the gallium-indium-zinc-oxide channel is investigated. The MESFET technology offers a simple route for processing of the transistors with excellent electrical properties such as low subthreshold swing of 112 mV/decade, gate sweep voltages of 2.5 V, and channel mobilities up to 15 cm2/V s.

  4. Hydrogen-induced improvements in electrical characteristics of a-IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, S. W.; Chang, T. C.; Huang, S. Y.; Chen, M. C.; Chen, S. C.; Tsai, C. T.; Kuo, Y. J.; Chen, Y. C.; Wu, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydrogen incorporation on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The threshold voltage ( Vth) and subthreshold swing ( SS) of hydrogen-incorporated a-IGZO TFTs were improved, and the threshold voltage shift (Δ Vth) in hysteresis loop was also suppressed from 4 V to 2 V. The physical property and chemical composition of a-IGZO films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Experimental results show that the hydrogen-induced passivation of the interface trap states between active layer and dielectric is responsible for the improvement of SS and Vth.

  5. Electrochromism: from oxide thin films to devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, A.; Danine, A.; Faure, C.; Buffière, S.

    2014-03-01

    In respect of their adaptability and performance, electrochromic devices, ECDs, which are able to change their optical properties under an applied voltage, have received significant attention. Target applications are multifold both in the visible region (automotive sunroofs, smart windows, ophthalmic lenses, and domestic appliances (oven, fridge…)) and in the infrared region (Satellites Thermal Control, IR furtivity). In our group, focusing on oxide thin films grown preferentially at room temperature, optimization of ECDs performances have been achieved by tuning the microstructure, the stoichiometry and the cationic composition of the various layers. Herein, our approach for optimized ECDs is illustrated through the example of WO3 electrochromic layer in the visible and in the IR domain as well as ZnO based transparent conducting oxide layer. Targeting the field of printed electronics, simplification of the device architecture for low power ECDs is also reported.

  6. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-06-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted.

  7. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  8. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  9. DEVICE TECHNOLOGY. Nanomaterials in transistors: From high-performance to thin-film applications.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Aaron D

    2015-08-14

    For more than 50 years, silicon transistors have been continuously shrunk to meet the projections of Moore's law but are now reaching fundamental limits on speed and power use. With these limits at hand, nanomaterials offer great promise for improving transistor performance and adding new applications through the coming decades. With different transistors needed in everything from high-performance servers to thin-film display backplanes, it is important to understand the targeted application needs when considering new material options. Here the distinction between high-performance and thin-film transistors is reviewed, along with the benefits and challenges to using nanomaterials in such transistors. In particular, progress on carbon nanotubes, as well as graphene and related materials (including transition metal dichalcogenides and X-enes), outlines the advances and further research needed to enable their use in transistors for high-performance computing, thin films, or completely new technologies such as flexible and transparent devices.

  10. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command   a. REPORT U   b. ABSTRACT U   c. THIS PAGE U REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 The public...PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1.  REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      18-12-2014 2.  REPORT TYPE      Final Performance 3.  DATES...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1    Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films   Abstract  The present review paper reports on the

  11. Thin Film Transistors Using Wafer-Scale Low-Temperature MOCVD WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yiyang; Zhang, Xiaotian; Redwing, Joan M.; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2016-12-01

    We report on thin film transistors using continuous WSe2 thin films synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition at 400°C. O2 plasma etching is used to provide precise thickness modification of the WSe2 thin film with an etch rate ˜0.25 nm/min. Device performance is found to vary with the thickness of the WSe2 films. P-channel thin film transistors with plasma-thinned 3 nm WSe2 channels have mobility ˜0.01 cm2/Vs and current on-off ratio greater than 104. Our results suggest that plasma etching may provide an approach for post-growth modification of the electrical properties of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide thin films.

  12. The effect of a zinc-tin-oxide layer used as an etch-stopper layer on the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the bias stress stability of solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) using zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) as the etch-stopper layer, the so-called dual-active-layered ZTO/IGZO TFT (DALZI TFT). The DALZI TFT can use a low-cost back-channel-etch structure because of the high chemical stability of the upper ZTO layer. The DALZI TFT exhibited only a threshold voltage shift of -1.86 V under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) conditions (stress time = 1000 s), while the unpassivated IGZO TFT suffered from a threshold voltage shift of -19.59 V under NBIS conditions (stress time = 1000 s). The superior bias stress stability of the DALZI TFT is attributed not only to the densification effect by the multi-stacking process but also to the lower sensitivity to ambient gases (e.g., oxygen and water vapour) due to the low oxygen vacancy in the upper ZTO layer.

  13. High-Mobility Ambipolar Organic Thin-Film Transistor Processed From a Nonchlorinated Solvent.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Prashant; Chang, Jingjing; Kim, Jae H; Ong, Kok-Haw; Gann, Eliot; Manzhos, Sergei; Wu, Jishan; McNeill, Christopher R

    2016-09-21

    Polymer semiconductor PDPPF-DFT, which combines furan-substituted diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and a 3,4-difluorothiophene base, has been designed and synthesized. PDPPF-DFT polymer semiconductor thin film processed from nonchlorinated hexane is used as an active layer in thin-film transistors. As a result, balanced hole and electron mobilities of 0.26 and 0.12 cm(2)/(V s) are achieved for PDPPF-DFT. This is the first report of using nonchlorinated hexane solvent for fabricating high-performance ambipolar thin-film transistor devices.

  14. Thin film transistors of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on glass substrates.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eun Ju; Min, Yo-Sep; Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Wanjun

    2007-12-12

    We report a transistor of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes on a glass substrate. The carbon nanotube networks acting as the active components of the thin film transistor were selectively formed on the transistor channel areas that were previously patterned with catalysts to avoid the etching process for isolating nanotubes. The nanotube density was more than 50 microm(-2), which is much larger than the percolation threshold. Transistors were successfully fabricated with a conducting and transparent ZnO for the back-side gate and the top-side gate. This allows the transparent electronics or suggests thin film applications of nanotubes for future opto-electronics.

  15. Ambipolar charge transport in microcrystalline silicon thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Knipp, Dietmar; Marinkovic, M.; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Gordijn, Aad; Stiebig, Helmut

    2011-01-15

    Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) is a promising candidate for thin-film transistors (TFTs) in large-area electronics due to high electron and hole charge carrier mobilities. We report on ambipolar TFTs based on {mu}c-Si:H prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at temperatures compatible with flexible substrates. Electrons and holes are directly injected into the {mu}c-Si:H channel via chromium drain and source contacts. The TFTs exhibit electron and hole charge carrier mobilities of 30-50 cm{sup 2}/V s and 10-15 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In this work, the electrical characteristics of the ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs are described by a simple analytical model that takes the ambipolar charge transport into account. The analytical expressions are used to model the transfer curves, the potential and the net surface charge along the channel of the TFTs. The electrical model provides insights into the electronic transport of ambipolar {mu}c-Si:H TFTs.

  16. Highly conductive grain boundaries in copper oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuermeier, Jonas; Wardenga, Hans F.; Morasch, Jan; Siol, Sebastian; Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás; Martins, Rodrigo; Klein, Andreas; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    High conductivity in the off-state and low field-effect mobility compared to bulk properties is widely observed in the p-type thin-film transistors of Cu2O, especially when processed at moderate temperature. This work presents results from in situ conductance measurements at thicknesses from sub-nm to around 250 nm with parallel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An enhanced conductivity at low thickness is explained by the occurrence of Cu(II), which is segregated in the grain boundary and locally causes a conductivity similar to CuO, although the surface of the thick film has Cu2O stoichiometry. Since grains grow with an increasing film thickness, the effect of an apparent oxygen excess is most pronounced in vicinity to the substrate interface. Electrical properties of Cu2O grains are at least partially short-circuited by this effect. The study focuses on properties inherent to copper oxide, although interface effects cannot be ruled out. This non-destructive, bottom-up analysis reveals phenomena which are commonly not observable after device fabrication, but clearly dominate electrical properties of polycrystalline thin films.

  17. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-03-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications.

  18. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications. PMID:27000419

  19. Remarkable changes in interface O vacancy and metal-oxide bonds in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by long time annealing at 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin

    2014-12-08

    We have studied the effect of long time post-fabrication annealing on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Annealing for 100 h at 250 °C increased the field effect mobility from 14.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 17.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and reduced the NBIS instability remarkably. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen vacancy and OH were found to exist at the interfaces of a-IGZO with top and bottom SiO{sub 2}. Long time annealing helps to decrease the vacancy concentration and increase the metal-oxygen bonds at the interfaces; this leads to increase in the free carrier concentrations in a-IGZO and field-effect mobility. X-ray reflectivity measurement indicated the increment of a-IGZO film density of 5.63 g cm{sup −3} to 5.83 g cm{sup −3} (3.4% increase) by 100 h annealing at 250 °C. The increase in film density reveals the decrease of O vacancy concentration and reduction of weak metal-oxygen bonds in a-IGZO, which substantially helps to improve the NBIS stability.

  20. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-01

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  1. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-21

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  2. Conduction mechanism in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoolokam, Ajay; Nag, Manoj; Steudel, Soeren; Genoe, Jan; Gelinck, Gerwin; Kadashchuk, Andrey; Groeseneken, Guido; Heremans, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We validate a model which is a combination of multiple trapping and release and percolation model for describing the conduction mechanism in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT). We show that using just multiple trapping and release or percolation model is insufficient to explain TFT behavior as a function of temperature. We also show the intrinsic mobility is dependent on temperature due to scattering by ionic impurities or lattice. In solving the Poisson equation to find the surface potential and back potential as a function of gate voltage, we explicitly allow for the back surface to be floating, as is the case for a-IGZO transistors. The parameters for gap states, percolation barriers and intrinsic mobility at room temperature that we extract with this comprehensive model are in good agreement with those extracted in literature with partially-complete models.

  3. High-performance flexible thin-film transistors exfoliated from bulk wafer.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yujia; Mathew, Leo; Rao, Rajesh; Xu, Dewei; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2012-11-14

    Mechanically flexible integrated circuits (ICs) have gained increasing attention in recent years with emerging markets in portable electronics. Although a number of thin-film-transistor (TFT) IC solutions have been reported, challenges still remain for the fabrication of inexpensive, high-performance flexible devices. We report a simple and straightforward solution: mechanically exfoliating a thin Si film containing ICs. Transistors and circuits can be prefabricated on bulk silicon wafer with the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process flow without additional temperature or process limitations. The short channel MOSFETs exhibit similar electrical performance before and after exfoliation. This exfoliation process also provides a fast and economical approach to producing thinned silicon wafers, which is a key enabler for three-dimensional (3D) silicon integration based on Through Silicon Vias (TSVs).

  4. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  5. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Ingersoll, D.

    2000-07-11

    A method is described for preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A {beta}-metal {beta}-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  6. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  7. Restorative effect of oxygen annealing on device performance in HfIZO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2015-03-15

    Metal-oxide based thin-film transistors (oxide-TFTs) are very promising for use in next generation electronics such as transparent displays requiring high switching and driving performance. In this study, we demonstrate an optimized process to secure excellent device performance with a favorable shift of the threshold voltage toward 0V in amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (a-HfIZO) TFTs by using post-treatment with oxygen annealing. This enhancement results from the improved interfacial characteristics between gate dielectric and semiconductor layers due to the reduction in the density of interfacial states related to oxygen vacancies afforded by oxygen annealing. The device statistics confirm the improvement in the device-to-device and run-to-run uniformity. We also report on the photo-induced stability in such oxide-TFTs against long-term UV irradiation, which is significant for transparent displays.

  8. In situ preparation, electrical and surface analytical characterization of pentacene thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Lassnig, R; Striedinger, B; Hollerer, M; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2014-09-21

    The fabrication of organic thin film transistors with highly reproducible characteristics presents a very challenging task. We have prepared and analyzed model pentacene thin film transistors under ultra-high vacuum conditions, employing surface analytical tools and methods. Intentionally contaminating the gold contacts and SiO2 channel area with carbon through repeated adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of pentacene proved to be very advantageous in the creation of devices with stable and reproducible parameters. We mainly focused on the device properties, such as mobility and threshold voltage, as a function of film morphology and preparation temperature. At 300 K, pentacene displays Stranski-Krastanov growth, whereas at 200 K fine-grained, layer-like film growth takes place, which predominantly influences the threshold voltage. Temperature dependent mobility measurements demonstrate good agreement with the established multiple trapping and release model, which in turn indicates a predominant concentration of shallow traps in the crystal grains and at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Mobility and threshold voltage measurements as a function of coverage reveal that up to four full monolayers contribute to the overall charge transport. A significant influence on the effective mobility also stems from the access resistance at the gold contact-semiconductor interface, which is again strongly influenced by the temperature dependent, characteristic film growth mode.

  9. In situ preparation, electrical and surface analytical characterization of pentacene thin film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lassnig, R.; Striedinger, B.; Hollerer, M.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of organic thin film transistors with highly reproducible characteristics presents a very challenging task. We have prepared and analyzed model pentacene thin film transistors under ultra-high vacuum conditions, employing surface analytical tools and methods. Intentionally contaminating the gold contacts and SiO2 channel area with carbon through repeated adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of pentacene proved to be very advantageous in the creation of devices with stable and reproducible parameters. We mainly focused on the device properties, such as mobility and threshold voltage, as a function of film morphology and preparation temperature. At 300 K, pentacene displays Stranski-Krastanov growth, whereas at 200 K fine-grained, layer-like film growth takes place, which predominantly influences the threshold voltage. Temperature dependent mobility measurements demonstrate good agreement with the established multiple trapping and release model, which in turn indicates a predominant concentration of shallow traps in the crystal grains and at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Mobility and threshold voltage measurements as a function of coverage reveal that up to four full monolayers contribute to the overall charge transport. A significant influence on the effective mobility also stems from the access resistance at the gold contact-semiconductor interface, which is again strongly influenced by the temperature dependent, characteristic film growth mode. PMID:25814770

  10. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments.

  11. Demonstration of flexible thin film transistors with GaN channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolat, S.; Sisman, Z.; Okyay, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the thin film transistors (TFTs) with Gallium Nitride (GaN) channels directly fabricated on flexible substrates. GaN thin films are grown by hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD) at 200 °C. TFTs exhibit 103 on-to-off current ratios and are shown to exhibit proper transistor saturation behavior in their output characteristics. Gate bias stress tests reveal that flexible GaN TFTs have extremely stable electrical characteristics. Overall fabrication thermal budget is below 200 °C, the lowest reported for the GaN based transistors so far.

  12. Molecular doping for control of gate bias stress in organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Moritz P.; Zakhidov, Alexander A.; Lüssem, Björn; Jankowski, Jens; Tietze, Max L.; Riede, Moritz K.; Leo, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The key active devices of future organic electronic circuits are organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Reliability of OTFTs remains one of the most challenging obstacles to be overcome for broad commercial applications. In particular, bias stress was identified as the key instability under operation for numerous OTFT devices and interfaces. Despite a multitude of experimental observations, a comprehensive mechanism describing this behavior is still missing. Furthermore, controlled methods to overcome these instabilities are so far lacking. Here, we present the approach to control and significantly alleviate the bias stress effect by using molecular doping at low concentrations. For pentacene and silicon oxide as gate oxide, we are able to reduce the time constant of degradation by three orders of magnitude. The effect of molecular doping on the bias stress behavior is explained in terms of the shift of Fermi Level and, thus, exponentially reduced proton generation at the pentacene/oxide interface.

  13. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  14. Organic nanodielectrics for low voltage carbon nanotube thin film transistors and complementary logic gates.

    PubMed

    Hur, Seung-Hyun; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gaur, Anshu; Shim, Moonsub; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Rogers, John A

    2005-10-12

    We report the implementation of three dimensionally cross-linked, organic nanodielectric multilayers as ultrathin gate dielectrics for a type of thin film transistor device that uses networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes as effective semiconductor thin films. Unipolar n- and p-channel devices are demonstrated by use of polymer coatings to control the behavior of the networks. Monolithically integrating these devices yields complementary logic gates. The organic multilayers provide exceptionally good gate dielectrics for these systems and allow for low voltage, low hysteresis operation. The excellent performance characteristics suggest that organic dielectrics of this general type could provide a promising path to SWNT-based thin film electronics.

  15. Organic ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor memory using high-mobility rubrene thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanashima, Takeshi; Katsura, Yuu; Okuyama, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    An organic ferroelectric gate field-effect transistor (FET) memory has been fabricated using an organic semiconductor of rubrene thin film with a high mobility and a gate insulating layer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-tetrafluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TeFE)] thin film. A rubrene thin-film sheet was grown by physical vapor transport (PVT), and placed onto a spin-coated P(VDF-TeFE) thin-film layer, and Au source and drain electrodes were formed on this rubrene thin film. A hysteresis loop of the drain current-gate voltage (ID-VG) characteristic has been clearly observed in the ferroelectric gate FET, and is caused by the ferroelectricity. The maximum drain current is 1.5 × 10-6 A, which is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of the P(VDF-TeFE) gate FET using a pentacene thin film. Moreover, the mobility of this organic ferroelectric gate FET using rubrene thin film is 0.71 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is 35 times larger than that of the FET with pentacene thin film.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Fully Transparent ZnO Thin-Film Transistors and Self-Switching Nano-Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ashida, K.; Sasaki, S.; Koyama, M.; Maemoto, T.; Sasa, S.; Kasai, S.; Iñiguez-de-la-Torre, I.; González, T.

    2015-10-01

    Fully transparent zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) and a new type of rectifiers calls self-switching nano-diodes (SSDs) were fabricated on glass substrates at room temperature by using low resistivity and transparent conducting Al- doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films. The deposition conditions of AZO thin-films were optimized with pulsed laser deposition (PLD). AZO thin-films on glass substrates were characterized and the transparency of 80% and resistivity with 1.6*10-3 Ωcm were obtained of 50 nm thickness. Transparent ZnO-TFTs were fabricated on glass substrates by using AZO thin-films as electrodes. A ZnO-TFT with 2 μm long gate device exhibits a transconductance of 400 μS/mm and an ON/OFF ratio of 2.8*107. Transparent ZnO-SSDs were also fabricated by using ZnO based materials and clear diode-like characteristics were observed.

  17. Improvement of bias-stability in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by using solution-processed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation

    SciTech Connect

    An, Sungjin; Mativenga, Mallory; Kim, Youngoo; Jang, Jin

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate back channel improvement of back-channel-etch amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors by using solution-processed yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) passivation. Two different solvents, which are acetonitrile (35%) + ethylene glycol (65%), solvent A and deionized water, solvent B are investigated for the spin-on process of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation—performed after patterning source/drain (S/D) Mo electrodes by a conventional HNO{sub 3}-based wet-etch process. Both solvents yield devices with good performance but those passivated by using solvent B exhibit better light and bias stability. Presence of yttrium at the a-IGZO back interface, where it occupies metal vacancy sites, is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The passivation effect of yttrium is more significant when solvent A is used because of the existence of more metal vacancies, given that the alcohol (65% ethylene glycol) in solvent A may dissolve the metal oxide (a-IGZO) through the formation of alkoxides and water.

  18. Investigation of the drain current shift in ZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Motaleb, Ibrahim; Shetty, Neeraj; Leedy, Kevin; Cortez, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A ZnO thin film transistor (TFT), with barium strontium titanate (BST) as a gate oxide, has been fabricated and characterized. The ZnO and the BST layers were deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The I-V characteristics were measured, and an upward shift in the drain current was observed when the voltage sweeping was repeated. The reasons for this shift were investigated and it was found that the shift could be attributed to the combination effect of the reduction in the built-in potential of the grain boundaries, the population and depopulation of trap centers in the channel, and the existence of mobile charges in the gate oxide layer.

  19. Analytical approximation of the InGaZnO thin-film transistors surface potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colalongo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Surface-potential-based mathematical models are among the most accurate and physically based compact models of thin-film transistors, and in turn of indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs, available today. However, the need of iterative computations of the surface potential limits their computational efficiency and diffusion in CAD applications. The existing closed-form approximations of the surface potential are based on regional approximations and empirical smoothing functions that could result not accurate enough in particular to model transconductances and transcapacitances. In this work we present an extremely accurate (in the range of nV) and computationally efficient non-iterative approximation of the surface potential that can serve as a basis for advanced surface-potential-based indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs models.

  20. Analysis of the contact resistance in amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Ling; Lu, Congyan; Liu, Yu; Lv, Hangbing; Xu, Guangwei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    Contact resistance has great impact on the performance of oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) and their applications. In this letter, temperature, gate voltage, and electrode dependences of the contact resistance were investigated in amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) TFTs. We found that gate voltage dependent contact resistance made a large contribution to or even dominated the "field effect" of oxide TFTs. After separating the influence of contact resistance, the intrinsic temperature dependent field effect mobility of the a-IGZO TFTs was obtained. Furthermore, the experimental data of the contact resistance can be well described by an optimized transmission line model, and the height of the Schottky barrier in the interface between the metal electrode and a-IGZO semiconductor was found to be related to the gate voltage and account for the contact resistance's dependence on the gate voltage.

  1. Suppression of excess oxygen for environmentally stable amorphous In-Si-O thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Aikawa, Shinya E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2015-05-11

    We discuss the environmental instability of amorphous indium oxide (InO{sub x})-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) in terms of the excess oxygen in the semiconductor films. A comparison between amorphous InO{sub x} doped with low and high concentrations of oxygen binder (SiO{sub 2}) showed that out-diffusion of oxygen molecules causes drastic changes in the film conductivity and TFT turn-on voltages. Incorporation of sufficient SiO{sub 2} could suppress fluctuations in excess oxygen because of the high oxygen bond-dissociation energy and low Gibbs free energy. Consequently, the TFT operation became rather stable. The results would be useful for the design of reliable oxide TFTs with stable electrical properties.

  2. Selective Conversion from p-Type to n-Type of Printed Bottom-Gate Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistors and Application in Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Inverters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiqi; Zhao, Jianwen; Pecunia, Vincenzo; Xu, Wenya; Zhou, Chunshan; Dou, Junyan; Gu, Weibing; Lin, Jian; Mo, Lixin; Zhao, Yanfei; Cui, Zheng

    2017-04-12

    The fabrication of printed high-performance and environmentally stable n-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors and their integration into complementary (i.e., complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, CMOS) circuits are widely recognized as key to achieving the full potential of carbon nanotube electronics. Here, we report a simple, efficient, and robust method to convert the polarity of SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) using cheap and readily available ethanolamine as an electron doping agent. Printed p-type bottom-gate SWCNT TFTs can be selectively converted into n-type by deposition of ethanolamine inks on the transistor active region via aerosol jet printing. Resulted n-type TFTs show excellent electrical properties with an on/off ratio of 10(6), effective mobility up to 30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), small hysteresis, and small subthreshold swing (90-140 mV dec(-1)), which are superior compared to the original p-type SWCNT devices. The n-type SWCNT TFTs also show good stability in air, and any deterioration of performance due to shelf storage can be fully recovered by a short low-temperature annealing. The easy polarity conversion process allows construction of CMOS circuitry. As an example, CMOS inverters were fabricated using printed p-type and n-type TFTs and exhibited a large noise margin (50 and 103% of 1/2 Vdd = 1 V) and a voltage gain as high as 30 (at Vdd = 1 V). Additionally, the CMOS inverters show full rail-to-rail output voltage swing and low power dissipation (0.1 μW at Vdd = 1 V). The new method paves the way to construct fully functional complex CMOS circuitry by printed TFTs.

  3. Oxidation Temperature Effects on ZnO Thin Films Prepared from Zn Thin Films on Quartz Substrates.

    PubMed

    Park, Seonhee; Kim, Younggyu; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the structural and optical properties of the ZnO thin films formed by oxidation of Zn thin films. Zn thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation and were then annealed from 300 to 800 degrees C to prepare ZnO thin films. We found that ZnO thin films were formed by thermal oxidation of Zn thin films at oxidation temperatures over 400 degrees C. The grain size of ZnO thin films increased with the oxidation temperature and the highest ZnO (002) intensity was obtained at 600 degrees C. In the PL spectra, the intensity of the near-band-edge peak increased with the oxidation temperatures until 400 degrees C. However, these values gradually decreased with a further increase in the oxidation temperatures over 400 degrees C. The transmittance of the ZnO thin films was more than 90% for the visible wavelength region, and the optical band gap was red-shifted with increase in the oxidation temperature.

  4. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Growth Related Carrier Mobility Enhancement of Pentacene Thin-Film Transistors with High-k Oxide Gate Dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ai-Fang; Qi, Qiong; Jiang, Peng; Jiang, Chao

    2009-07-01

    Carrier mobility enhancement from 0.09 to 0.59 cm2/Vs is achieved for pentacene-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) by modifying the HfO2 gate dielectric with a polystyrene (PS) thin film. The improvement of the transistor's performance is found to be strongly related to the initial film morphologies of pentacene on the dielectrics. In contrast to the three-dimensional island-like growth mode on the HfO2 surface, the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on the smooth and nonpolar PS/HfO2 surface is believed to be the origin of the excellent carrier mobility of the TFTs. A large well-connected first monolayer with fewer boundaries is formed via the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, which facilitates a charge transport parallel to the substrate and promotes higher carrier mobility.

  5. A room temperature process for the fabrication of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors with co-sputtered Zr x Si1‑ x O2 Gate dielectric and improved electrical and hysteresis performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Liu, Pang-Yi; Wu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Nai-Sheng; Yan, Hao-Ping; Lin, Tseng-Hsing

    2017-04-01

    The use of co-sputtered zirconium silicon oxide (Zr x Si1‑ x O2) gate dielectrics to improve the gate controllability of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) through a room-temperature fabrication process is proposed and demonstrated. With the sputtering power of the SiO2 target in the range of 0–150 W and with that of the ZrO2 target kept at 100 W, a dielectric constant ranging from approximately 28.1 to 7.8 is obtained. The poly-structure formation immunity of the Zr x Si1‑ x O2 dielectrics, reduction of the interface trap density suppression, and gate leakage current are examined. Our experimental results reveal that the Zr0.85Si0.15O2 gate dielectric can lead to significantly improved TFT subthreshold swing performance (103 mV/dec) and field effect mobility (33.76 cm2 V‑1 s‑1).

  6. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al2O3, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) was 0 V even after a PBS time (tstress) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (VG) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔVth value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔVth values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (NT) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher NT resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of NT near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  7. Organic thin-film transistors as transducers for (bio)analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Bartic, Carmen; Borghs, Gustaaf

    2006-01-01

    The use of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in sensorics is relatively new. Although electronic noses, electronic textiles and disposable biochemical sensors appear to be viable applications for this type of devices, the benefits of the technology still have to be proven. This paper aims to provide a review of the recent advances in the area of chemically sensitive field-effect devices based on organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), with emphasis on bioanalytical applications. Detection principle, device configuration, materials and fabrication processes as well as sensor performances will be discussed, with emphasis on the potential for implementation in real applications and the important challenges ahead.

  8. Ti-doped indium tin oxide thin films for transparent field-effect transistors: control of charge-carrier density and crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-In; Ji, Kwang Hwan; Jang, Mi; Yang, Hoichang; Choi, Rino; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2011-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 × 10(20) cm(-3)), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO(2)/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO(2) exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade(-1), and a high I(on/)I(off) ratio of >1 × 10(8).

  9. Carrier trapping anisotropy in ambipolar SnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao

    2017-03-01

    The anisotropic carrier trapping behaviors was demonstrated for ambipolar tin monoxide (SnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). On one hand, the TFTs exhibited good stability with almost no changes in transfer characteristics under negative gate-bias stress (NGBS). On the other, under positive gate-bias stress (PGBS), the transfer curves presented parallel and positive shift with no degradation in field-effect mobility and subthreshold voltage swing. The stress-time evolution of the turn-on voltage shift, induced by different positive stress voltages and temperatures, could be described by the stretched exponential model. The relaxation time was extracted to be 1.6 × 104 s at room temperature with activation energy of 0.43 eV, indicating that the ambipolar SnO TFTs under PGBS approach the stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide based TFTs.

  10. ZnO thin film transistor immunosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Pavel Ivanoff; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Lu, Yicheng; Solanki, Aniruddh; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2011-04-01

    A zinc oxide thin film transistor-based immunosensor (ZnO-bioTFT) is presented. The back-gate TFT has an on-off ratio of 108 and a threshold voltage of 4.25 V. The ZnO channel surface is biofunctionalized with primary monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detection of the antibody-antigen reaction is achieved through channel carrier modulation via pseudo double-gating field effect caused by the biochemical reaction. The sensitivity of 10 fM detection of pure EGFR proteins is achieved. The ZnO-bioTFT immunosensor also enables selectively detecting 10 fM of EGFR in a 5 mg/ml goat serum solution containing various other proteins.

  11. Light Response of Top Gate InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Ryu, Minki; Yoon, Sung Min; Yang, Shinhyuk; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Jeon, Jae-Hong; Kim, Kyounghwan

    2011-03-01

    The light stability of top gate indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) has been investigated under gate bias and constant current stress to explore the possibility of active matrix display applications. While the halogen lamp irradiation onto the device under positive gate bias stress caused just -0.18 V of threshold voltage shift (ΔVth), it resulted in -15.1 V shift under negative gate bias stress. When the white light extracted from the halogen lamp of 100 µW/cm2 power illuminated the device under constant current stress, operation voltage shifted just -0.05 V for 21 h. The result shows good promise for the application of highly stable IGZO TFT to active matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs).

  12. Hydrogen passivation of electron trap in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro; Domen, Kay; Nomura, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kumomi, Hideya; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental evidence that some hydrogens passivate electron traps in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). The a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) annealed at 300 °C exhibit good operation characteristics; while those annealed at ≥400 °C show deteriorated ones. Thermal desorption spectra (TDS) of H2O indicate that this threshold annealing temperature corresponds to depletion of H2O desorption from the a-IGZO layer. Hydrogen re-doping by wet oxygen annealing recovers the good TFT characteristic. The hydrogens responsible for this passivation have specific binding energies corresponding to the desorption temperatures of 300-430 °C. A plausible structural model is suggested.

  13. High-K Lanthanum Zirconium Oxide Thin Film Dielectrics from Aqueous Solution Precursors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Keenan Navarre; Chiang, Tsung-Han; Plassmeyer, Paul N; Kast, Matthew G; Lygo, Alexander C; Grealish, Aidan K; Boettcher, Shannon W; Page, Catherine J

    2017-03-06

    Metal oxide thin films are critical in modern electronic applications. In particular, high-κ dielectrics are of interest for reducing power consumption in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field-effect transistors. Although thin-film materials are typically produced via vacuum-based methods, solution deposition offers a scalable and cost-efficient alternative. We report an all-inorganic aqueous solution route to amorphous lanthanum zirconium oxide (La2Zr2O7, "LZO") dielectric thin films. LZO films were spin-cast from aqueous solutions of metal nitrates and annealed at temperatures between 300 and 600 °C to produce dense, defect-free, and smooth films with sub-nm roughness. Dielectric constants of 12.2 to 16.4 and loss tangents < 0.6% were obtained for MIS devices utilizing LZO as the dielectric layer (1 kHz). Leakage currents < 10-7 A cm-2 at 4 MV cm-1 were measured for samples annealed at 600 °C. The excellent surface morphology, high dielectric constants, and low leakage current densities makes these LZO dielectrics promising candidates for thin-film transistor devices.

  14. Unidirectional oxide hetero-interface thin-film diode

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Youngmin; Lee, Eungkyu; Lee, Jinwon; Lim, Keon-Hee; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-10-05

    The unidirectional thin-film diode based on oxide hetero-interface, which is well compatible with conventional thin-film fabrication process, is presented. With the metal anode/electron-transporting oxide (ETO)/electron-injecting oxide (EIO)/metal cathode structure, it exhibits that electrical currents ohmically flow at the ETO/EIO hetero-interfaces for only positive voltages showing current density (J)-rectifying ratio of ∼10{sup 5} at 5 V. The electrical properties (ex, current levels, and working device yields) of the thin-film diode (TFD) are systematically controlled by changing oxide layer thickness. Moreover, we show that the oxide hetero-interface TFD clearly rectifies an AC input within frequency (f) range of 10{sup 2} Hz < f < 10{sup 6} Hz, providing a high feasibility for practical applications.

  15. 4.0-inch Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display Integrated with Driver Circuits Using Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Suppressed Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki Ohara,; Toshinari Sasaki,; Kousei Noda,; Shunichi Ito,; Miyuki Sasaki,; Yuta Endo,; Shuhei Yoshitomi,; Junichiro Sakata,; Tadashi Serikawa,; Shunpei Yamazaki,

    2010-03-01

    We have newly developed a 4.0-in. quarter video graphics array (QVGA) active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display integrated with gate and source driver circuits using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Focusing on a passivation layer in an inverted staggered bottom gate structure, the threshold voltage of the TFTs can be controlled to have “normally-off” characteristics with suppressed variation by using a SiOx layer formed by sputtering with a low hydrogen content. In addition, small subthreshold swing S/S of 0.19 V/decade, high field-effect mobility μFE of 11.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage Vth of 1.27 V are achieved. The deposition conditions of the passivation layer and other processes are optimized, and variation in TFT characteristics is suppressed, whereby high-speed operation in gate and source driver circuits can be achieved. Using these driver circuits, the 4.0-in. QVGA AMOLED display integrated with driver circuits can be realized.

  16. 4.0-inch Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display Integrated with Driver Circuits Using Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Suppressed Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Hiroki; Sasaki, Toshinari; Noda, Kousei; Ito, Shunichi; Sasaki, Miyuki; Endo, Yuta; Yoshitomi, Shuhei; Sakata, Junichiro; Serikawa, Tadashi; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2010-03-01

    We have newly developed a 4.0-in. quarter video graphics array (QVGA) active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display integrated with gate and source driver circuits using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Focusing on a passivation layer in an inverted staggered bottom gate structure, the threshold voltage of the TFTs can be controlled to have “normally-off” characteristics with suppressed variation by using a SiOx layer formed by sputtering with a low hydrogen content. In addition, small subthreshold swing S/S of 0.19 V/decade, high field-effect mobility µFE of 11.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, and threshold voltage Vth of 1.27 V are achieved. The deposition conditions of the passivation layer and other processes are optimized, and variation in TFT characteristics is suppressed, whereby high-speed operation in gate and source driver circuits can be achieved. Using these driver circuits, the 4.0-in. QVGA AMOLED display integrated with driver circuits can be realized.

  17. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  18. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  19. Memristive Properties of Thin Film Cuprous Oxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    switches, namely solid state transistors , have revolutionized the world by providing us with cheap and fast methods of data processing. However... transistors as they are currently designed are approaching some physical and theoretical limits of size. As the transistor has approached the nanometer...Another area of concern with current solid state transistors is their volatile nature, namely they require power to maintain their state of memory

  20. Sigma-pi molecular dielectric multilayers for low-voltage organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Myung-Han; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2005-03-29

    Very thin (2.3-5.5 nm) self-assembled organic dielectric multilayers have been integrated into organic thin-film transistor structures to achieve sub-1-V operating characteristics. These new dielectrics are fabricated by means of layer-by-layer solution phase deposition of molecular silicon precursors, resulting in smooth, nanostructurally well defined, strongly adherent, thermally stable, virtually pinhole-free, organosiloxane thin films having exceptionally large electrical capacitances (up to approximately 2,500 nF.cm(-2)), excellent insulating properties (leakage current densities as low as 10(-9) A.cm(-2)), and single-layer dielectric constant (k)of approximately 16. These 3D self-assembled multilayers enable organic thin-film transistor function at very low source-drain, gate, and threshold voltages (<1 V) and are compatible with a broad variety of vapor- or solution-deposited p- and n-channel organic semiconductors.

  1. Discrepancy in mobility extracted from transfer and output characteristics of organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Huang, Bo-Chieh

    2010-11-01

    The discrepancy in mobility extracted from transfer and output characteristics of organic thin film transistors was studied. The extraction from transfer characteristics demonstrates higher mobility, compared to the extraction from output characteristics. It is shown that the contribution of capacitance variation may lead to an increased drain current, thus overestimating mobility.

  2. Solution-Processed Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films for Alternative Gate Dielectric Application.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Sun, Qi-Jun; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Peng, Haiyan; Venkatesh, Shishir; Wu, Wei; Li, Robert K Y; Roy, V A L

    2016-11-16

    Previous investigations on rare-earth oxides (REOs) reveal their high possibility as dielectric films in electronic devices, while complicated physical methods impede their developments and applications. Herein, we report a facile route to fabricate 16 REOs thin insulating films through a general solution process and their applications in low-voltage thin-film transistors as dielectrics. The formation and properties of REOs thin films are analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry, water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and electrical characterizations, respectively. Ultrasmooth, amorphous, and hydrophilic REO films with thickness around 10 nm have been obtained through a combined spin-coating and postannealing method. The compositional analysis results reveal the formation of RE hydrocarbonates on the surface and silicates at the interface of REOs films annealed on Si substrate. The dielectric properties of REO films are investigated by characterizing capacitors with a Si/Ln2O3/Au (Ln = La, Gd, and Er) structure. The observed low leakage current densities and large areal capacitances indicate these REO films can be employed as alternative gate dielectrics in transistors. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a series of low-voltage organic thin-film transistors based on such sol-gel derived REO films to demonstrate their application in electronics. The optimization of REOs dielectrics in transistors through further surface modification has also been studied. The current study provides a simple solution process approach to fabricate varieties of REOs insulating films, and the results reveal their promising applications as alternative gate dielectrics in thin-film transistors.

  3. High-performance carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible paper substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Na; Yun, Ki Nam; Yu, Hyun-Yong; Lee, Cheol Jin; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-03-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are promising materials as active channels for flexible transistors owing to their excellent electrical and mechanical properties. However, flexible SWCNT transistors have never been realized on paper substrates, which are widely used, inexpensive, and recyclable. In this study, we fabricated SWCNT thin-film transistors on photo paper substrates. The devices exhibited a high on/off current ratio of more than 10{sup 6} and a field-effect mobility of approximately 3 cm{sup 2}/V·s. The proof-of-concept demonstration indicates that SWCNT transistors on flexible paper substrates could be applied as low-cost and recyclable flexible electronics.

  4. Ln polyoxocations: yttrium oxide solution speciation & solution deposited thin films.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David A; Goberna-Ferrón, Sara; Baumeister, Mary K; Zakharov, Lev N; Nyman, May; Johnson, Darren W

    2017-01-17

    Rare earth oxide materials, including thin film coatings, are critically important in magnetic, luminescent and microelectric devices, and few substitutes have been discovered with comparable performance. Thin film coatings from solution are almost unknown for rare earth oxides, likely due to their high activity towards hydrolysis which yields poor quality thin films. The hexamer [Ln6(O)(OH)8(H2O)12(NO3)6](2+) is a rare example of a metal-oxo cluster isolated and stabilized without additional supporting organic ligands. Herein we report a new method for both the preparation and stabilization in non-aqueous media, which makes these clusters valuable precursors for solution-processed thin films. Solution characterization (NMR, small-angle X-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy) in wet organic solvents indicated that the clusters evolve via a fragmentation and reaggregation process. This is especially true for hexamers of the smaller Ln(3+)-ions: the higher charge density yields higher hydration rates. This process produced an entirely new hexadecameric cluster formulated Y16O3(OH)24(NO3)18(OSMe2)16(OCMe2)2(H2O)4. The new structure represents an intermediate hydrolysis product on the pathway from hexanuclear clusters to metal oxyhydroxide bulk solid. DMSO solvent ligands displace aqua ligands on the cluster and likely explain the additional stability observed for these clusters in organic solvents. The enhanced cluster stability in DMF and DMSO also enables solution-processing methods to create high quality thin films.

  5. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír; and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  6. Photosensitivity of InZnO thin-film transistors using a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jongwon; Park, Junghak; Lim, Keon-Hee; Cho, Nam-kwang; Lee, Jinwon; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2016-09-01

    Oxide semiconductor devices play a role in both switches and photo-sensors in interactive displays. During the fabrication of oxide semiconductor devices, the sol-gel solution process that is used to form an oxide semiconductor has various merits, including its simplicity and low cost as well as its good composition controllability. Here, we present the photosensitivity characteristics of an oxide photo thin-film transistor (TFT) created using the InZnO (IZO) sol-gel process. Upon exposure to light, photocurrent (Iphoto) in the negative gate bias regime is significantly increased with a negligible threshold voltage shift. The photosensitivity is modulated by geometrical factors and by the IZO material composition. We observed a significant effect of the channel thickness and IZO composition on the photosensitivity, which was attributed to the screening effect of optically ionized oxygen vacancies (Vo++). In particular, the optimized bi-layered oxide photo-TFT presents a good Iphoto/Idark photosensitivity value of 3 × 104 and a subthreshold slope of 0.96 V/decade. In addition, the persistent photoconductivity of the oxide photo-TFT was removed by applying positive gate voltage, resulting in good high-speed operation. These results taken together demonstrate that the IZO photo-TFT produced by the sol-gel process can be workable when applied to interactive displays.

  7. Bi-layer channel structure-based oxide thin-film transistors consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO with different Al compositions and stacking sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woon; Yun, Myeong Gu; Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Kim, So Hee; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2015-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-based bi-layers, consisting of ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers grown by atomic layer deposition, were utilized as the channels of oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). Thin AZO layers (5 nm) with different Al compositions (5 and 14 at. %) were deposited on top of and beneath the ZnO layers in a bi-layer channel structure. All of the bi-layer channel TFTs that included the AZO layers showed enhanced stability (Δ V Th ≤ 3.2 V) under a positive bias stress compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (Δ V Th = 4.0 V). However, the AZO/ZnO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO interlayer between the gate dielectric and the ZnO showed a degraded field effect mobility (0.3 cm2/V·s for 5 at. % and 1.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) compared to the ZnO single-layer channel TFT (5.5 cm2/V·s) due to increased scattering caused by Al-related impurities near the gate dielectric/channel interface. In contrast, the ZnO/AZO bi-layer channel TFTs with an AZO layer on top of the ZnO layer exhibited an improved field effect mobility (7.8 cm2/V·s for 14 at. %) and better stability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Low-temperature Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon Materials and Thin-film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, Andrei; Striakhilev, Denis; Nathan, Arokia

    Low-temperature processing and characterization of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) materials and devices are reviewed. An overview of silicon-based low-temperature thin-film dielectrics is given in the context of thin-film transistor (TFT) device operation. The low-temperature growth and synthesis of these materials are also presented and compared to conventionally fabricated high-temperature processed devices. The effect of using nc-Si contacts on a-Si:H TFTs and the stability of nc-Si TFTs is reviewed.

  9. Electrical properties of vanadium tungsten oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nam, Sung-Pill; Noh, Hyun-Ji; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2010-03-15

    The vanadium tungsten oxide thin films deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by RF sputtering exhibited good TCR and dielectric properties. The dependence of crystallization and electrical properties are related to the grain size of V{sub 1.85}W{sub 0.15}O{sub 5} thin films with different annealing temperatures. It was found that the dielectric properties and TCR properties of V{sub 1.85}W{sub 0.15}O{sub 5} thin films were strongly dependent upon the annealing temperature. The dielectric constants of the V{sub 1.85}W{sub 0.15}O{sub 5} thin films annealed at 400 {sup o}C were 44, with a dielectric loss of 0.83%. The TCR values of the V{sub 1.85}W{sub 0.15}O{sub 5} thin films annealed at 400 {sup o}C were about -3.45%/K.

  10. Compositional tuning of atomic layer deposited MgZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrench, J. S.; Brunell, I. F.; Chalker, P. R.; Jin, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Hall, S.

    2014-11-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated using magnesium zinc oxide (MgZnO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C. The composition of the MgZnO is systematically modified by varying the ratio of MgO and ZnO deposition cycles. A blue-shift of the near band-edge photoluminescence after post-deposition annealing at 300 °C indicates significant activation of the Mg dopant. A 7:1 ratio of ZnO:MgO deposition cycles was used to fabricate a device with a TFT channel width of 2000 μm and a channel length of 60 μm. This transistor yielded an effective saturation mobility of 4 cm2/V s and a threshold voltage of 7.1 V, respectively. The on/off ratio was 1.6 × 10 6 and the maximum interface state density at the ZnO/SiO2 interface is ˜ 6.5 × 10 12 cm-2.

  11. Compositional tuning of atomic layer deposited MgZnO for thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wrench, J. S.; Brunell, I. F.; Chalker, P. R.; Jin, J. D.; Shaw, A.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Hall, S.

    2014-11-17

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated using magnesium zinc oxide (MgZnO) layers deposited by atomic layer deposition at 200 °C. The composition of the MgZnO is systematically modified by varying the ratio of MgO and ZnO deposition cycles. A blue-shift of the near band-edge photoluminescence after post-deposition annealing at 300 °C indicates significant activation of the Mg dopant. A 7:1 ratio of ZnO:MgO deposition cycles was used to fabricate a device with a TFT channel width of 2000 μm and a channel length of 60 μm. This transistor yielded an effective saturation mobility of 4 cm{sup 2}/V s and a threshold voltage of 7.1 V, respectively. The on/off ratio was 1.6×10{sup 6} and the maximum interface state density at the ZnO/SiO{sub 2} interface is ∼6.5×10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}.

  12. Electrical and structural characterization of IZO (indium oxide-zinc oxide) thin films for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaglioglu, Burag

    Materials for oxide-based transparent electronics have been recently reported in the literature. These materials include various amorphous and crystalline compounds based on multi-component oxides and many of them offer useful combinations of transparency, controllable carrier concentrations, and reasonable n-carrier mobility. In this thesis, the properties of amorphous and crystalline In2O3-10wt%ZnO, IZO, thin films were investigated for their potential use in oxide electronics. The room temperature deposition of this material using DC magnetron sputtering results in the formation of amorphous films. Annealing amorphous IZO films at 500°C in air produces a previously unknown crystalline compound. Using electron diffraction experiments, it is reported that the crystal structure of this compound is based on the high-pressure rhombohedral phase of In2O3. Electrical properties of different phases of IZO were explored and it was concluded that amorphous films offer most promising characteristics for device applications. Therefore, thin film transistors (TFT) were fabricated based on amorphous IZO films where both the channel and metallization layers were deposited from the same target. The carrier densities in the channel and source-drain layers were adjusted by changing the oxygen content in the sputter chamber during deposition. The resulting transistors operate as depletion mode n-channel field effect devices with high saturation mobilities.

  13. High mobility amorphous zinc oxynitride semiconductor material for thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Yan; Lim, Rodney; White, John M.

    2009-10-01

    Zinc oxynitride semiconductor material is produced through a reactive sputtering process in which competition between reactions responsible for the growth of hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) and for the growth of cubic zinc nitride (Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}) is promoted. In contrast to processes in which the reaction for either the oxide or the nitride is dominant, the multireaction process yields a substantially amorphous or a highly disordered nanocrystalline film with higher Hall mobility, 47 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} for the as-deposited film produced at 50 deg. C and 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} after annealing at 400 deg. C. In addition, it has been observed that the Hall mobility of the material increases as the carrier concentration decreases in a carrier concentration range where a multicomponent metal oxide semiconductor, indium-gallium-zinc oxide, follows the opposite trend. This indicates that the carrier transports in the single-metal compound and the multimetal compound are probably dominated by different mechanisms. Film stability and thin film transistor performance of the material have also been tested, and results are presented herein.

  14. Chemical and biological sensors based on organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Mabeck, Jeffrey T; Malliaras, George G

    2006-01-01

    The application of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) to chemical and biological sensing is reviewed. This review covers transistors that are based on the modulation of current through thin organic semiconducting films, and includes both field-effect and electrochemical transistors. The advantages of using OTFTs as sensors (including high sensitivity and selectivity) are described, and results are presented for sensing analytes in both gaseous and aqueous environments. The primary emphasis is on the major developments in the field of OTFT sensing over the last 5-10 years, but some earlier work is discussed briefly to provide a foundation.

  15. Electrical instability of high-mobility zinc oxynitride thin-film transistors upon water exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effects of water absorption on the electrical performance and stability in high-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The ZnON TFT exhibits a smaller field-effect mobility, lower turn-on voltage, and higher subthreshold slope with a deteriorated electrical stability under positive gate bias stresses after being exposed to water. From the Hall measurements, an increase of the electron concentration and a decrease of the Hall mobility are observed in the ZnON thin film after water absorption. The observed phenomena are mainly attributed to the water molecule-induced increase of the defective ZnXNY bond and the oxygen vacancy inside the ZnON thin film based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  16. Electrical instability of high-mobility zinc oxynitride thin-film transistors upon water exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-03-03

    We investigate the effects of water absorption on the electrical performance and stability in high-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The ZnON TFT exhibits a smaller field-effect mobility, lower turn-on voltage, and higher subthreshold slope with a deteriorated electrical stability under positive gate bias stresses after being exposed to water. From the Hall measurements, an increase of the electron concentration and a decrease of the Hall mobility are observed in the ZnON thin film after water absorption. The observed phenomena are mainly attributed to the water molecule-induced increase of the defective ZnXNY bond and the oxygen vacancy inside the ZnON thin film based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  17. Performance improvement in polymeric thin film transistors using chemically modified both silver bottom contacts and dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ying-Tao; Ouyang, Shi-Hong; Wang, Dong-Ping; Zhu, Da-Long; Xu, Xin; Tan, Te; Fong, Hon-Hang

    2015-09-01

    An efficient interface modification is introduced to improve the performance of polymeric thin film transistors. This efficient interface modification is first achieved by 4-fluorothiophenol (4-FTP) self-assembled monolayers (SAM) to chemically treat the silver source-drain (S/D) contacts while the silicon oxide (SiO2) dielectric interface is further primed by either hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or octyltrichlorosilane (OTS-C8). Results show that contact resistance is the dominant factor that limits the field effect mobility of the PTDPPTFT4 transistors. With proper surface modification applied to both the dielectric surface and the bottom contacts, the field effect mobilities of the bottom-gate bottom-contact PTDPPTFT4 transistors were significantly improved from 0.15 cm2·V-1·s-1 to 0.91 cm2·V-1·s-1. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328803).

  18. High performance thin film transistor with ZnO channel layer deposited by DC magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Moon, Dae-Yong; Lee, Sang-Ho; Jeong, Chang-Oh; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-09-01

    Research in large area electronics, especially for low-temperature plastic substrates, focuses commonly on limitations of the semiconductor in thin film transistors (TFTs), in particular its low mobility. ZnO is an emerging example of a semiconductor material for TFTs that can have high mobility, while a-Si and organic semiconductors have low mobility (<1 cm2/Vs). ZnO-based TFTs have achieved high mobility, along with low-voltage operation low off-state current, and low gate leakage current. In general, ZnO thin films for the channel layer of TFTs are deposited with RF magnetron sputtering methods. On the other hand, we studied ZnO thin films deposited with DC magnetron sputtering for the channel layer of TFTs. After analyzing the basic physical and chemical properties of ZnO thin films, we fabricated a TFT-unit cell using ZnO thin films for the channel layer. The field effect mobility (micro(sat)) of 1.8 cm2/Vs and threshold voltage (Vth) of -0.7 V were obtained.

  19. Active Oxygen Generator by Silent Discharge and Oxidation Power in Formation of Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawagoe, Yasuyuki; Tsukazaki, Hisashi; Yamanishi, Kenichiro

    We have studied the low pressure silent discharge type active oxygen generator in terms of the application to the formation of oxide thin films. In this paper the oxidation power of active oxygen in the oxide thin film formation is compared with that of oxygen and ozone by forming silicon oxide thin films. It was confirmed that the oxidation power is in turn of active oxygen > ozone > oxygen from the experimental result of the number of x in SiOx thin film. Furthermore we applied active oxygen to the formation of the thin film high temperature super conductor and active oxygen was found to be effective to the formation of the thin film with high performance.

  20. Effective mobility enhancement of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors by holographically generated periodic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaewook; Kim, Joonwoo; Kim, Donghyun; Jeon, Heonsu; Jeong, Soon Moon; Hong, Yongtaek

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a mobility enhancement structure for fully transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) by embedding a holographically generated periodic nano-conductor in the back-channel regions. The intrinsic field-effect mobility was enhanced up to 2 times compared to that of a reference sample. The enhancement originated from a decrease in the effective channel length due to the highly conductive nano-conductor region. By combining conventional and holographic lithography, the performance of the a-IGZO TFT can be effectively improved without varying the composition of the channel layer.

  1. High-mobility pyrene-based semiconductor for organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunduck; Lee, Sunyoung; Cho, Nam Sung; Jabbour, Ghassan E; Kwak, Jeonghun; Hwang, Do-Hoon; Lee, Changhee

    2013-05-01

    Numerous conjugated oligoacenes and polythiophenes are being heavily studied in the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors. Although many researchers have designed fused aromatic compounds as organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), pyrene-based organic semiconductors with high mobilities and on-off current ratios have not yet been reported. Here, we introduce a new pyrene-based p-type organic semiconductor showing liquid crystal behavior. The thin film characteristics of this material are investigated by varying the substrate temperature during the deposition and the gate dielectric condition using the surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer, and systematically studied in correlation with the performances of transistor devices with this compound. OTFT fabricated under the optimum deposition conditions of this compound, namely, 1,6-bis(5'-octyl-2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)pyrene (BOBTP) shows a high-performance transistor behavior with a field-effect mobility of 2.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on-off current ratio of 7.6 × 10(6) and enhanced long-term stability compared to the pentacene thin-film transistor.

  2. High performance p-type NiOx thin-film transistor by Sn doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tengda; Li, Xiuling; Jang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Major obstacles towards power efficient complementary electronics employing oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) lie in the lack of equivalent well performing p-channel devices. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement of solution-processed p-type nickel oxide (NiOx) TFTs by introducing Sn dopant. The Sn-doped NiOx (Sn-NiOx) TFTs annealed at 280 °C demonstrate substantially improved electrical performances with the increase in the on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) by ˜100 times, field-effect mobility (μlin) by ˜3 times, and the decrease in subthreshold swing by half, comparing with those of pristine NiOx TFTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results confirm that Sn atoms tend to substitute Ni sites and induce more amorphous phase. A decrease in density of states in the gap of NiOx by Sn doping and the shift of Fermi level (EF) into the midgap lead to the improvements of TFT performances. As a result, Sn-NiOx can be a promising material for the next-generation, oxide-based electronics.

  3. Scanned Probe Characterization of Atmospheric Effects on diF TESADT Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, Cortney; Huston, Shawn; Ward, Jeremy; Obaid, Abdul; Loth, Marsha; Anthony, John; Jurchescu, Oana; Conrad, Brad

    2014-03-01

    Single crystal organic semiconductors have been shown to exhibit carrier mobilities comparable to the silicon currently used in photovoltaics. However, during solution deposition of common organic semiconducting materials the resultant thin-film is often polycrystalline. Device performance and electrical properties of organic thin-film transistors are highly dependent on crystal structure and molecular packing. In polycrystalline thin-films, boundary regions between crystal grains can affect the overall performance of devices, as crystal structure and packing may differ from that of the surrounding crystal regions. These boundary regions may also serve as defect sites, allowing environmental factors, such as oxygen content and humidity, to alter local charge transport through devices. We utilize Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) to characterize how grain boundaries alter local conductivity and device performance as a function of doping in 2,8-difluoro-5,11-triethysilylethynyl anthradithiophene (diF TESADT) thin-film transistor surfaces. Device voltage drops at grain boundaries are characterized as a function of both atmospheric dopants and transition time between dopants. NC Space Grant Consortium, Appalachian State University Office of Student Research, Ralph E Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award.

  4. Reduction of persistent photoconductivity in ZnO thin film transistor-based UV photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanoff Reyes, Pavel; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Xu, Yi; Garfunkel, Eric; Lu, Yicheng

    2012-07-01

    We report a ZnO-based thin film transistor UV photodetector with a back gate configuration. The thin-film transistor (TFT) aspect ratio W/L is 150 μm/5 μm and has a current on-off ratio of 1010. The detector shows UV-visible rejection ratio of 104 and cut-off wavelength of 376 nm. The device has low dark current of 5 × 10-14 A. The persistent photoconductivity is suppressed through oxygen plasma treatment of the channel surface which significantly reduces the density of oxygen vacancy confirmed by XPS measurements. The proper gate bias-control further reduces recovery time. The UV-TFT configuration is particularly suitable for making large-area imaging arrays.

  5. Recent progress in high-mobility thin-film transistors based on multilayer 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Young Ki; Liu, Na; Yin, Demin; Hong, Seongin; Kim, Dong Hak; Kim, Sunkook; Choi, Woong; Yoon, Youngki

    2017-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors are emerging as promising candidates for next-generation thin-film electronics because of their high mobility, relatively large bandgap, low-power switching, and the availability of large-area growth methods. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on multilayer transition metal dichalcogenides or black phosphorus offer unique opportunities for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in high-mobility transistors based on multilayer 2D semiconductors. We describe the theoretical background on characterizing methods of TFT performance and material properties, followed by their applications in flexible, transparent, and optoelectronic devices. Finally, we highlight some of the methods used in metal-semiconductor contacts, hybrid structures, heterostructures, and chemical doping to improve device performance.

  6. Nanometer-scale organic thin film transistors from self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Vuillaume, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    A survey of the most interesting results on nanometer-scale organic thin film transistors (nano-OTFT) is presented. Additionally, we discuss our recent results on the properties of end-group functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers and on their use in the fabrication of nanometer-scale field-effect transistors. Nanometer-scale organic transistors (channel length 30 nm) were fabricated, with a self-assembled monolayer as gate insulator. The carrier transport in these transistors, as a function of the channel length, was investigated, and a transition from a dispersive to a ballistic transport at a channel length of 200 nm was observed. On a molecular scale, alkyl monolayers functionalized at their omega-ends by aromatic moieties were prepared. A high anisotropic conductivity in molecular insulator/semiconductor heterostructures of monolayer thickness was observed. These molecular architectures provide a basis for the building blocks of molecular transistors.

  7. Photosensor application of amorphous InZnO-based thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Po-Tsun; Chou, Yi-Teh; Teng, Li-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Thin film transistor (TFT) device structure with transparent conductive oxide semiconductor is proposed for the photosensor application. The adoption of TFT-based photosensor device also is promising to be integrated with pixel-array circuits in a flat panel display and realize the system-on-panel (SoP) concept. The photosensitive TFT device can be applied to sense the ambient light brightness and then give the feedback to the backlight system adjusting the backlight intensity for the power-saving green displays. In this work, we studied the photosensitivity of amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) TFT to ultraviolet light. The a-IZO-based semiconductors have been paid much attention due to their uniform amorphous phase and high field-effect carrier mobility characteristics. The obvious threshold voltage shift was observed after light illumination, and exhibited slow recovery while returning to initial status after removing the light source. This mechanism for the photoreaction is well explained by the dynamic equilibrium of charge exchange reaction between O2(g) and O2- in the backchannel region of IZO-based films. An electrical trigger using charge pumping method is used to confirm the proposed mechanism and accelerate photoreaction recoverability for the first time. Using knowledge of photoreaction behavior, an operation scheme of photosensing elements consist of a-IZO TFTs is also demonstrated in this paper.

  8. Design of step composition gradient thin film transistor channel layers grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Cheol Hyoun; Hee Kim, So; Gu Yun, Myeong; Koun Cho, Hyung

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we proposed the artificially designed channel structure in oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) called a “step-composition gradient channel.” We demonstrated Al step-composition gradient Al-Zn-O (AZO) channel structures consisting of three AZO layers with different Al contents. The effects of stacking sequence in the step-composition gradient channel on performance and electrical stability of bottom-gate TFT devices were investigated with two channels of inverse stacking order (ascending/descending step-composition). The TFT with ascending step-composition channel structure (5 → 10 → 14 at. % Al composition) showed relatively negative threshold voltage (−3.7 V) and good instability characteristics with a reduced threshold voltage shift (Δ 1.4 V), which was related to the alignment of the conduction band off-set within the channel layer depending on the Al contents. Finally, the reduced Al composition in the initial layer of ascending step-composition channel resulted in the best field effect mobility of 4.5 cm{sup 2}/V s. We presented a unique active layer of the “step-composition gradient channel” in the oxide TFTs and explained the mechanism of adequate channel design.

  9. Enhanced photocurrent of Ge-doped InGaO thin film transistors with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Moo; Park, Si Jin; Kang, Seong Jun; Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jin-Seong; Park, Soohyung; Yi, Yeonjin

    2015-01-19

    The photocurrent of germanium-doped indium-gallium oxide (GIGO) thin film transistors (TFTs) can be observed when the device is exposed to a ultra-violet light because GIGO is a wide band gap semiconducting material. Therefore, we decorated cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum-dots (QDs) on the surface of GIGO to increase the photocurrent for low-energy light, i.e., visible light. A 10 nm GIGO film was deposited on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by a radio frequency sputter system. Also, we prepared CdSe QDs with sizes of ∼6.3 nm, which can absorb red visible light. QDs were spin-coated onto the GIGO film, and post-annealing was done to provide cross-linking between QDs. The prepared devices showed a 231% increase in photocurrent when exposed to 650 nm light due to the QDs on the GIGO surface. Measurements to construct an energy level diagram were made using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the origin of the photocurrent, and we found that the small band gap of CdSe QDs enables the increase in photocurrent in the GIGO TFTs. This result is relevant for developing highly transparent photosensors based on oxide semiconductors and QDs.

  10. Enhanced photocurrent of Ge-doped InGaO thin film transistors with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Moo; Park, Si Jin; Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Jin-Seong; Park, Soohyung; Yi, Yeonjin; Kang, Seong Jun

    2015-01-01

    The photocurrent of germanium-doped indium-gallium oxide (GIGO) thin film transistors (TFTs) can be observed when the device is exposed to a ultra-violet light because GIGO is a wide band gap semiconducting material. Therefore, we decorated cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum-dots (QDs) on the surface of GIGO to increase the photocurrent for low-energy light, i.e., visible light. A 10 nm GIGO film was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by a radio frequency sputter system. Also, we prepared CdSe QDs with sizes of ˜6.3 nm, which can absorb red visible light. QDs were spin-coated onto the GIGO film, and post-annealing was done to provide cross-linking between QDs. The prepared devices showed a 231% increase in photocurrent when exposed to 650 nm light due to the QDs on the GIGO surface. Measurements to construct an energy level diagram were made using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the origin of the photocurrent, and we found that the small band gap of CdSe QDs enables the increase in photocurrent in the GIGO TFTs. This result is relevant for developing highly transparent photosensors based on oxide semiconductors and QDs.

  11. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    DOEpatents

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  12. Persistent photoconductivity in Hf-In-Zn-O thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffarzadeh, Khashayar; Nathan, Arokia; Robertson, John; Kim, Sangwook; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Changjung; Chung, U.-In; Lee, Je-Hun

    2010-10-01

    Passivated Hf-In-Zn-O (HIZO) thin film transistors suffer from a negative threshold voltage shift under visible light stress due to persistent photoconductivity (PPC). Ionization of oxygen vacancy sites is identified as the origin of the PPC following observations of its temperature- and wavelength-dependence. This is further corroborated by the photoluminescence spectrum of the HIZO. We also show that the gate voltage can control the decay of PPC in the dark, giving rise to a memory action.

  13. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  14. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickbold, Paul

    2006-09-26

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  15. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbi, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.

  16. High temperature coefficient of resistance molybdenum oxide and nickel oxide thin films for microbolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yao O.; John, David Saint; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Horn, Mark W.

    2015-03-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and nickel oxide (NiOx) thin films were deposited by reactive biased target ion beam deposition. MoOx thin film resistivity varied from 3 to 2000 Ω.cm with a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) from -1.7% to -3.2%/K, and NiOx thin film resistivity varied from 1 to 300 Ω.cm with a TCR from -2.2% to -3.3%/K, both easily controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure. Biased target ion beam deposited high TCR MoOx and NiOx thin films are polycrystalline semiconductors and have good stability in air. Compared with commonly used vanadium oxide thin films, MoOx or NiOx thin films offer improved process control for resistive temperature sensors.

  17. Mechanisms for the operation of thin film transistors on ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, C.H.; McIntyre, D.; Tuttle, B.A.; Evans, J.

    1993-12-31

    The electric field emanating from the surface of a poled ferroelectric can control the conduction properties of an overlaying semiconducting film, this combination of materials can thus serve as a non-destructive readout, non-volatile memory device. Here the authors will describe a variety of experimental studies of these devices designed to probe the physics of their operation. The experimental systems included sputtered, n-type semiconductor (SC) films of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO deposited on bulk PLZT ferroelectrics (FE) and thin PZT FE films. Two distinctly different types of device response were measured in this study; in the first, the change in SC film conductance observed in the remanent FE state is in the direction expected from the remanent polarization vector in the ferroelectric. In the second, typically seen in the thin film FE devices, the opposite behavior is observed. They find that these two general cases of behavior, including the observed variations of the SC film conductances and carrier mobilities, can be described by a general model which takes into account not only the FE displacement vector, but also charge injected from the semiconductor into the ferroelectric during biasing of the gate.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene brushes for organic thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do-Hoon; Nomura, Akihiro; Kim, Jeongsik; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Cho, Hyunduck; Lee, Changhee; Ohno, Kohji; Tsujii, Yoshinobu

    2012-05-01

    We synthesized and characterized polystyrene brushes on a silicon wafer using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The thickness of the polymer brush was controlled by adjusting the reaction time. We investigated monomer conversion as well as the molecular weight and density of the polymer brushes. When the monomer conversion reached 100%, the number-average molecular weight and film thickness reached 135,000 and 113 nm, respectively. The estimated densities of the synthesized polystyrene brushes were in the range 0.34-0.54 chains/nm2, high enough to be categorized in the "concentrated brush" regime. The synthesized polymer brush was used as an insulating layer in an organic thin-film transistor. Organic thin-film transistors were fabricated using pentacene as an active p-type organic semiconductor and a polystyrene brush on a SiO2 layer as a gate dielectric. The pentacene based organic thin-film transistor with the polystyrene brush exhibited a field-effect mobility microFET of 0.099 cm2/(V x s).

  19. Method of fabrication of display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.

    1999-01-01

    Display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors are fabricated on plastic substrates for use in active matrix displays, such as flat panel displays. The process for forming the pixels involves a prior method for forming individual silicon thin film transistors on low-temperature plastic substrates. Low-temperature substrates are generally considered as being incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 200.degree. C. The pixel formation process results in a complete pixel and active matrix pixel array. A pixel (or picture element) in an active matrix display consists of a silicon thin film transistor (TFT) and a large electrode, which may control a liquid crystal light valve, an emissive material (such as a light emitting diode or LED), or some other light emitting or attenuating material. The pixels can be connected in arrays wherein rows of pixels contain common gate electrodes and columns of pixels contain common drain electrodes. The source electrode of each pixel TFT is connected to its pixel electrode, and is electrically isolated from every other circuit element in the pixel array.

  20. Al/CdSe/GaSe/C resonant tunneling thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasrawi, A. F.; Kayed, T. S.; Elsayed, Khaled A.

    2017-02-01

    An Al/CdSe/GaSe/C thin film transistor device was prepared by the physical vapor deposition technique at a vacuum pressure of 10-5 mbar. The x-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated the polycrystalline nature of the surface of the device. The dc current-voltage characteristics recorded for the Al/CdSe/C and Al/CdSe/GaSe/C channels displayed a resonant tunneling diode features during the forward and reverse voltage biasing, respectively. In addition, the switching current ratio of the Al/CdSe/C increased from 18.6 to 9.62×103 as a result of the GaSe deposition on the CdSe surface. Moreover, the alternating electrical signal analyses in the frequency range of 1.0 MHz to 1.8 GHz, showed some remarkable properties of negative resistance and negative capacitance spectra of the Al/CdSe/GaSe/C thin film transistors. Two distinct resonance-antiresonance phenomena in the resistance spectra and one in the capacitance spectra were observed at 0.53, 1.04 and 1.40 GHz for the Al/CdSe/C channel, respectively. The respective resonating peak positions of the resistance spectra shift to 0.38 and 0.95 GHz when GaSe is interfaced with CdSe. These features of the thin film transistors are promising for use in high quality microwave filtering circuits and also for use as ultrafast switches.

  1. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sonny Xiao-zhe

    2003-01-01

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO2 plasma or by N+ implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zni, a native shallow donor. In NO2-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N2)O, a shallow double donor. In NO2-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N2O and N2. Upon annealing, N2O decomposes into N2 and O2. In furnace-annealed samples N2 redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N2 bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N+ implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N2)O and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  2. Effect of the gate metal work function on water-gated ZnO thin-film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mandeep; Yusuf Mulla, Mohammad; Vittoria Santacroce, Maria; Magliulo, Maria; Di Franco, Cinzia; Manoli, Kyriaki; Altamura, Davide; Giannini, Cinzia; Cioffi, Nicola; Palazzo, Gerardo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    ZnO thin films, prepared using a printing-compatible sol-gel method involving a thermal treatment below 400 °C, are proposed as active layers in water-gated thin-film transistors (WG-TFTs). The thin-film structure and surface morphology reveal the presence of contiguous ZnO crystalline (hexagonal wurtzite) with isotropic nano-grains as large as 10 nm characterized by a preferential orientation along the a-axis. The TFT devices are gated through a droplet of deionized water by means of electrodes characterized by different work functions. The high capacitance of the electrolyte allowed operation below 0.5 V. While the Ni, Pd, Au and Pt gate electrodes are electrochemically stable in the inspected potential range, electrochemical activity is revealed for the W one. Such an occurrence leads to an increase of capacitance (and current), which is ascribed to a high output current from the dissolution of a lower capacitance W-oxide layer. The environmental stability of the ZnO WG-TFTs is quite good over a period of five months.

  3. Thin-Film Transistor-Based Biosensors for Determining Stoichiometry of Biochemical Reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Ting-Yang; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lo, Yu-Hwa; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme kinetic in a biochemical reaction is critical to scientific research and drug discovery but can hardly be determined experimentally from enzyme assays. In this work, a charge-current transducer (a transistor) is proposed to evaluate the status of biochemical reaction by monitoring the electrical charge changes. Using the malate-aspartate shuttle as an example, a thin-film transistor (TFT)-based biosensor with an extended gold pad is demonstrated to detect the biochemical reaction between NADH and NAD+. The drain current change indicates the status of chemical equilibrium and stoichiometry.

  4. Thin-Film Transistor-Based Biosensors for Determining Stoichiometry of Biochemical Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Chen, Ting-Yang; Yang, Tsung-Han; Chang, Cheng-Chung; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme kinetic in a biochemical reaction is critical to scientific research and drug discovery but can hardly be determined experimentally from enzyme assays. In this work, a charge-current transducer (a transistor) is proposed to evaluate the status of biochemical reaction by monitoring the electrical charge changes. Using the malate-aspartate shuttle as an example, a thin-film transistor (TFT)-based biosensor with an extended gold pad is demonstrated to detect the biochemical reaction between NADH and NAD+. The drain current change indicates the status of chemical equilibrium and stoichiometry. PMID:28033412

  5. Study of Ferromagnetic and Field Effect Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Daxue

    Spintronics (spin transport electronics), in which both spm and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is perceived to be a candidate to extend and possibly to become the next-generation electronics. Its advantages include nonvolatility (data retention without electrical power), lower energy consumption, faster processing speed, and higher integration densities in comparison with the current semiconductor devices relying solely on electron charge. To realize a spin-field effect transistor, two respects are prerequisite. On the one hand, the mechanism of ferromagnetism should be addressed before one could prepare magnetic semiconductor films in a controllable way. On the other hand, excellent field effect properties should be sought through a convenient and low-cost strategy for manufacturing future nano-scale spintronic devices. This thesis is comprised of two parts. Firstly, it deals with the synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped or un-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. Secondly, it focuses on the field effect properties of solution processable ZnO thin films, which are not only of great interest for current charge-carrier based thin film transistors, but also of fundamental importance in future spin-based transistors. A facile spin-coating technique has been developed to fabricate ZnO thin films. Even without magnetic element doping, the film is found to show room temperature ferromagnetism. A broad series of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques are utilized to characterize the thin films properties. Oxygen vacancy defects are tentatively attributed to the observed ferromagnetism. Following the similar method, Ga doped or Ga, Co co-doped ZnO thin films are prepared. The ferromagnetism is enhanced with Ga doping, providing more carriers. It is discovered that room temperature ferromagnetism can exist in both highly conductive regime and the less conductive or near insulating regime. Transition metal

  6. The synthesis and characterization of multifunctional oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Parashu Ram

    2008-10-01

    Multifunctional materials offer a number of very interesting properties for developing new generation novel devices. Motivated by this fact, we concentrated our research efforts on investigating two different class of multifunctional materials namely: Diluted Magnetic Semiconducting Oxides (DMSO) and Multiferroic Oxides. The primary goal of this study was to determine how to resolve the controversy concerning the origin of room temperature ferromagnetic order in DMSO and to demonstrate the theoretically predicted coupling between ferroelectric and magnetic order parameters in multiferroic oxides. We chose several materials of current interest such as TiO2, ZnOand In2O3 (DMSO) and Ni3V2O8 and BiFeO 3 (multiferroic oxides) as the experimental specimens. We synthesized thin film samples of these materials using metal organic decomposition by spin coating and RF magnetron sputtering techniques. We succeeded in growing single phase polycrystalline thin films using both of the techniques with the sputter deposited samples showing highly preferred orientations. We did not observe any secondary phases and accidental impurities leading to robust ferromagnetic order in our samples within the detection limit of XRD, Raman spectroscopy and TEM. We have demonstrated that the lattice defects such as oxygen vacancies and cation vacancies play crucial role in the development of ferromagnetic order in DMSO materials. Based on the investigation carried out on TiO 2, ZnO and In2O3, we conclude that ferromagnetism can be developed in oxygen deficient DMSO thin films without the subbstitution of any external magnetic impurities but the incorporation of magnetic impurities may help in stabilizing the observed ferromagnetic order. Most importantly, we demonstrated with the direct measurement of spin polarization in In 2O3 and Cr doped In2O3 thin films that the charge carriers responsible for the ferromagnetic order are spin polarized. We have successfully demonstrated that the low

  7. F2-Laser-Induced Modification of Aluminum Thin Films into Transparent Aluminum Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Iwai, Kazufumi; Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Narumi

    2012-12-01

    A vacuum-UV F2 laser of 157 nm wavelength induced strong oxidation of 10-nm-thick Al thin films, forming transparent Al2O3 on silica glass. The laser-induced modification occurred at the surface of Al thin films; consequently, the thickness of the formed Al2O3 thin films increased linearly with increasing number of F2 laser photons. The formation of equivalent-phase Al2O3 thin films was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxidation reaction in the laser-induced modification of 10-nm-thick Al thin films was slower than that for 20- and 60-nm-thick Al thin films. Morphological changes leading to the crystallization of the Al2O3 thin films were also observed when the thickness of Al thin films increased from 10 to 20 and 60 nm.

  8. Thin film zinc oxide deposited by CVD and PVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelmann, Frank U.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide is known as a mineral since 1810, but it came to scientific interest after its optoelectronic properties found to be tuneable by p-type doping. Since the late 1980’s the number of publications increased exponentially. All thin film deposition technologies, including sol-gel and spray pyrolysis, are able to produce ZnO films. However, for outstanding properties and specific doping, only chemical vapor deposition and physical vapor deposition have shown so far satisfying results in terms of high conductivity and high transparency. In this paper the different possibilities for doping will be discussed, some important applications of doped ZnO thin films will be presented. The deposition technologies used for industrial applications are shown in this paper. Especially sputtering of aluminium doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO) and LPCVD of boron doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO:B or BZO) are used for the commercial production of transparent conductive oxide films on glass used for thin film photovoltaic cells. For this special application the typical process development for large area deposition is presented, with the important trade-off between optical properties (transparency and ability for light scattering) and electrical properties (conductivity). Also, the long term stability of doped ZnO films is important for applications, humidity in the ambient is often the reason for degradation of the films. The differences between the mentioned materials are presented.

  9. Pulse Thermal Processing for Low Thermal Budget Integration of IGZO Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kuruganti, Teja; Rack, Philip D.

    2014-11-26

    Pulse thermal processing (PTP) has been explored for low thermal budget integration of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). The IGZO TFTs are exposed to a broadband (0.2-1.4 m) arc lamp radiation spectrum with 100 pulses of 1 msec pulse width. The impact of radiant exposure power on the TFT performance was analyzed in terms of the switching characteristics and bias stress reliability characteristics, respectively. The PTP treated IGZO TFTs with power density of 3.95 kW/cm2 and 0.1 sec total irradiation time showed comparable switching properties, at significantly lower thermal budget, to furnace annealed IGZO TFT. The typical field effect mobility FE, threshold voltage VT, and sub-threshold gate swing S.S were calculated to be 7.8 cm2/ V s, 8.1 V, and 0.22 V/ decade, respectively. The observed performance shows promise for low thermal budget TFT integration on flexible substrates exploiting the large-area, scalable PTP technology.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of Nb-doped ZnO for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Wrench, J. S.; Jin, J. D.; Whittles, T. J.; Mitrovic, I. Z.; Raja, M.; Dhanak, V. R.; Chalker, P. R.; Hall, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present physical and electrical characterization of niobium-doped zinc oxide (NbZnO) for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The NbZnO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the crystallinity of the NbZnO films reduces with an increase in the Nb content and lower deposition temperature. It was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that Nb5+ is present within the NbZnO matrix. Furthermore, photoluminescence indicates that the band gap of the ZnO increases with a higher Nb content, which is explained by the Burstein-Moss effect. For TFT applications, a growth temperature of 175 °C for 3.8% NbZnO provided the best TFT characteristics with a saturation mobility of 7.9 cm2/Vs, the current On/Off ratio of 1 × 108, and the subthreshold swing of 0.34 V/decade. The transport is seen to follow a multiple-trap and release mechanism at lower gate voltages and percolation thereafter.

  11. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-01-01

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the ‘internet of things’ (IoT). PMID:26691929

  12. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-12-01

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the ‘internet of things’ (IoT).

  13. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna.

    PubMed

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-12-22

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the 'internet of things' (IoT).

  14. Active Matrix Driving Organic Light-Emitting Diode Panel Using Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Satoru; Chuman, Takashi; Miyaguchi, Satoshi; Satoh, Hideo; Tanabe, Takahisa; Okuda, Yoshiyuki; Tsuchida, Masami

    2005-06-01

    We developed an active matrix driving organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panel on a glass substrate using two organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) per pixel, a switching OTFT and a driving OTFT. The OTFTs are bottom contact structures with the high-dielectric constant gate insulator tantalum oxide (Ta2O5, relative dielectric constant of 23) produced by anodization in ammonium adipate solution and with pentacene as the active layer. The W/L (where W and L are the OTFTs channel width and length, respectively) was 400 μm/10 μm for the switching OTFTs and 680 μm/10 μm for the driving OTFTs. The characteristics of the OTFTs were improved by treating the Ta2O5 surface with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), so that the field-effect mobility was 2.0× 10-1 cm2 V-1 s-1 and the current on/off ratio was 105. A green phosphorescent dopant, tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3], was used for the OLED layer. The panel had 8× 8 pixels and the aperture ratio was 27%. We confirmed a 16-gray-scale representation and a luminance of 400 cd/m2.

  15. Pulse Thermal Processing for Low Thermal Budget Integration of IGZO Thin Film Transistors

    DOE PAGES

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Joshi, Pooran C.; Kuruganti, Teja; ...

    2014-11-26

    Pulse thermal processing (PTP) has been explored for low thermal budget integration of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). The IGZO TFTs are exposed to a broadband (0.2-1.4 m) arc lamp radiation spectrum with 100 pulses of 1 msec pulse width. The impact of radiant exposure power on the TFT performance was analyzed in terms of the switching characteristics and bias stress reliability characteristics, respectively. The PTP treated IGZO TFTs with power density of 3.95 kW/cm2 and 0.1 sec total irradiation time showed comparable switching properties, at significantly lower thermal budget, to furnace annealed IGZO TFT. Themore » typical field effect mobility FE, threshold voltage VT, and sub-threshold gate swing S.S were calculated to be 7.8 cm2/ V s, 8.1 V, and 0.22 V/ decade, respectively. The observed performance shows promise for low thermal budget TFT integration on flexible substrates exploiting the large-area, scalable PTP technology.« less

  16. Ar plasma treated ZnON transistor for future thin film electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunha E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr; Benayad, Anass; Kim, HeeGoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Kim, Taeho; Jeon, Sanghun E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr

    2015-09-21

    To achieve high-mobility and high-reliability oxide thin film transistors (TFTs), ZnON has been investigated following an anion control strategy based on the substitution of oxygen with nitrogen in ZnO. However, as nitrogen possesses, compared to oxygen, a low reactivity with Zn, the chemical composition of ZnON changes easily, causing in turn a degradation of both the performance and the stability. Here, we have solved the issues of long-time stability and composition non-uniformity while maintaining a high channel mobility by adopting the argon plasma process, which can delay the reaction of oxygen with Zn–O–N; as a result, owing to the formation of very fine nano-crystalline structure in stable glassy phase without changes in the chemical composition, the material properties and stability under e-radiation have significantly improved. In particular, the channel mobility of the ZnON TFTs extracted from the pulsed I−V method was measured to be 138 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  17. Photo-modulated thin film transistor based on dynamic charge transfer within quantum-dots-InGaZnO interface

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Mingju; Tao, Zhi; Wei, Lei Li, Chi Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Baoping; Dai, Qing; Nathan, Arokia

    2014-03-17

    The temporal development of next-generation photo-induced transistor across semiconductor quantum dots and Zn-related oxide thin film is reported in this paper. Through the dynamic charge transfer in the interface between these two key components, the responsibility of photocurrent can be amplified for scales of times (∼10{sup 4} A/W 450 nm) by the electron injection from excited quantum dots to InGaZnO thin film. And this photo-transistor has a broader waveband (from ultraviolet to visible light) optical sensitivity compared with other Zn-related oxide photoelectric device. Moreover, persistent photoconductivity effect can be diminished in visible waveband which lead to a significant improvement in the device's relaxation time from visible illuminated to dark state due to the ultrafast quenching of quantum dots. With other inherent properties such as integrated circuit compatible, low off-state current and high external quantum efficiency resolution, it has a great potential in the photoelectric device application, such as photodetector, phototransistor, and sensor array.

  18. Oxidation of Light Alkanes Using Photocatalytic Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Transformation of the TiO2 from anatase to the rutile crystalline phase was also delayed in the mixed oxides leading to a photocatalyst with higher...at room temperature using a WO3 / TiO2 binary system compared to plain TiO2 . Improvements in the photocatalytic activity were attributed to more... TiO2 thin film photocatalyst . It was observed that efficient reactor design requires optimization of catalyst packing to minimize bypass of the

  19. High Mobility Flexible Amorphous IGZO Thin-Film Transistors with a Low Thermal Budget Ultra-Violet Pulsed Light Process.

    PubMed

    Benwadih, M; Coppard, R; Bonrad, K; Klyszcz, A; Vuillaume, D

    2016-12-21

    Amorphous, sol-gel processed, indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transistors on plastic substrate with a printable gate dielectric and an electron mobility of 4.5 cm(2)/(V s), as well as a mobility of 7 cm(2)/(V s) on solid substrate (Si/SiO2) are reported. These performances are obtained using a low temperature pulsed light annealing technique. Ultraviolet (UV) pulsed light system is an innovative technique compared to conventional (furnace or hot-plate) annealing process that we successfully implemented on sol-gel IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) made on plastic substrate. The photonic annealing treatment has been optimized to obtain IGZO TFTs with significant electrical properties. Organic gate dielectric layers deposited on this pulsed UV light annealed films have also been optimized. This technique is very promising for the development of amorphous IGZO TFTs on plastic substrates.

  20. High mobility bottom gate InGaZnO thin film transistors with SiOx etch stopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkyu; Jeong, Jong Han; Lee, Hun Jung; Ahn, Tae Kyung; Shin, Hyun Soo; Park, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Jae Kyeong; Mo, Yeon-Gon; Kim, Hye Dong

    2007-05-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of thin film transistors (TFTs), which use an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel, by rf sputtering at room temperature and for which the channel length and width are patterned by photolithography and dry etching. To prevent plasma damage to the active channel, a 100-nm-thick SiOx layer deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was adopted as an etch stopper structure. The a-IGZO TFT (W /L=10μm/50μm) fabricated on glass exhibited a high field-effect mobility of 35.8cm2/Vs, a subthreshold gate swing value of 0.59V/decade, a thrseshold voltage of 5.9V, and an Ion/off ratio of 4.9×106, which is acceptable for use as the switching transistor of an active-matrix TFT backplane.

  1. Air-Flow Navigated Crystal Growth for TIPS Pentacene-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhengran; Chen, Jihua; Sun, Zhenzhong; Szulczewski, Greg; Li, Dawen

    2012-01-01

    6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene) is a promising active channel material of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) due to its solubility, stability, and high mobility. However, the growth of TIPS pentacene crystals is intrinsically anisotropic and thus leads to significant variation in the performance of OTFTs. In this paper, air flow is utilized to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs, and the resulted films are examined with optical microscopy, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and thin-film transistor measurements. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene drop-cast from toluene solution has been observed to form thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage on substrates, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency defined by the ratio of average mobility to the standard deviation of the field-effect mobilities.

  2. High angular sensitivity thin film tin oxide sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Davinder; Madaan, Divya; Sharma, V. K.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present theoretical anlaysis of a thin film SnO2 (Tin Oxide) sensor for the measurement of variation in the refractive index of the bulk media. It is based on lossy mode resonance between the absorbing thin film lossy modes and the evanescent wave. Also the addition of low index dielectric matching layer between the prism and the lossy waveguiding layer future increase the angular sensitivity and produce an efficient refractive index sensor. The angular interrogation is done and obtained sensitivity is 110 degree/RIU. Theoretical analysis of the proposed sensor based on Fresnel reflection coefficients is presented. This enhanced sensitivity will further improve the monitoring of biomolecular interactions and the higher sensitivity of the proposed configurations makes it to be a much better option to be employed for biosensing applications.

  3. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Duenow, Joel N.; Barnes, Teresa; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  4. Lateral solid-phase epitaxy of oxide thin films on glass substrate seeded with oxide nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Taira, Kenji; Hirose, Yasushi; Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Kogure, Toshihiro; Shibata, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-06-24

    We developed a technique to fabricate oxide thin films with uniaxially controlled crystallographic orientation and lateral size of more than micrometers on amorphous substrates. This technique is lateral solid-phase epitaxy, where epitaxial crystallization of amorphous precursor is seeded with ultrathin oxide nanosheets sparsely (≈10% coverage) deposited on the substrate. Transparent conducting Nb-doped anatase TiO2 thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by this technique. Perfect (001) orientation and large grains with lateral sizes up to 10 μm were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and electron beam backscattering diffraction measurements. As a consequence of these features, the obtained film exhibited excellent electrical transport properties comparable to those of epitaxial thin films on single-crystalline substrates. This technique is a versatile method for fabricating high-quality oxide thin films other than anatase TiO2 and would increase the possible applications of oxide-based thin film devices.

  5. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-08-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  6. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma Ribera, R. Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  7. Ionic liquid versus SiO2 gated a-IGZO thin film transistors: A direct comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; ...

    2015-08-12

    Here, ionic liquid gated field effect transistors have been extensively studied due to their low operation voltage, ease of processing and the realization of high electric fields at low bias voltages. Here, we report ionic liquid (IL) gated thin film transistors (TFTs) based on amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) active layers and directly compare the characteristics with a standard SiO2 gated device. The transport measurements of the top IL gated device revealed the n-channel property of the IGZO thin film with a current ON/OFF ratio ~105, a promising field effect mobility of 14.20 cm2V–1s–1, and a threshold voltage ofmore » 0.5 V. Comparable measurements on the bottom SiO2 gate insulator revealed a current ON/OFF ratio >108, a field effect mobility of 13.89 cm2V–1s–1 and a threshold voltage of 2.5 V. Furthermore, temperature-dependent measurements revealed that the ionic liquid electric double layer can be “frozen-in” by cooling below the glass transition temperature with an applied electrical bias. Positive and negative freezing bias locks-in the IGZO TFT “ON” and “OFF” state, respectively, which could lead to new switching and possibly non-volatile memory applications.« less

  8. Ionic liquid versus SiO2 gated a-IGZO thin film transistors: A direct comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony T.; Haglund, Amanda V.; Dai, Sheng; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-08-12

    Here, ionic liquid gated field effect transistors have been extensively studied due to their low operation voltage, ease of processing and the realization of high electric fields at low bias voltages. Here, we report ionic liquid (IL) gated thin film transistors (TFTs) based on amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) active layers and directly compare the characteristics with a standard SiO2 gated device. The transport measurements of the top IL gated device revealed the n-channel property of the IGZO thin film with a current ON/OFF ratio ~105, a promising field effect mobility of 14.20 cm2V–1s–1, and a threshold voltage of 0.5 V. Comparable measurements on the bottom SiO2 gate insulator revealed a current ON/OFF ratio >108, a field effect mobility of 13.89 cm2V–1s–1 and a threshold voltage of 2.5 V. Furthermore, temperature-dependent measurements revealed that the ionic liquid electric double layer can be “frozen-in” by cooling below the glass transition temperature with an applied electrical bias. Positive and negative freezing bias locks-in the IGZO TFT “ON” and “OFF” state, respectively, which could lead to new switching and possibly non-volatile memory applications.

  9. The effect of thermal annealing on pentacene thin film transistor with micro contact printing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong-Sik; Yun, Ho-Jin; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Park, Kun-Sik; Kim, Dong-Pyo; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok; Lee, Kijun; Do, Lee-Mi

    2012-07-01

    We used micro contact printing (micro-CP) to fabricate inverted coplanar pentacene thin film transistors (TFTs) with 1-microm channels. The patterning of micro-scale source/drain electrodes without etch process was successfully achieved using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer stamp. We used the Ag nano particle ink as an electrode material, and the sheet resistance and surface roughness of the Ag electrodes were effectively reduced with the 2-step thermal annealing on a hotplate, which improved the mobility, the on-off ratio, and the subthreshold slope (SS) of the pentacene TFTs. In addition, the device annealing on a hotplate in a N2 atmosphere for 30 sec can enhance the off-current and the mobility properties of OTFTs without damaging the pentacene thin films and increase the adhesion between pentacene and dielectric layer (SiO2), which was investigated with the pentacene films phase change of the XRD spectrum after device annealing.

  10. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P.; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H.; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R.; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA+ cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages. PMID:28138550

  11. Nanostructured silicon based thin film transistors processed in the plasma dark region.

    PubMed

    Pereira, L; Aguas, H; Gomes, L; Barquinha, P; Fortunato, E; Martins, R

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructured silicon (na-Si:H) thin films were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique under high silane hydrogen dilution and a discharge frequency of 27 MHz, where the substrate was located in the dark region of the plasma, protected by a grounded metal grid. By not exposing the growth surface directly to the plasma we avoid the silicon growth surface to sustain a high ion bombardment leading to a less defective surface and highly compact films. The intrinsic films grown under these conditions were used to produce the channel region of thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom gate staggered configuration, integrating different dielectric layers. The devices produced exhibit a field effect mobility close to 1.84 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), threshold voltage around 2 V, on/off ratio above 10(7) and sub-threshold slope below 0.5 V/decade, depending on the dielectric used.

  12. Critical issues in plasma deposition of microcrystalline silicon for thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Djeridane, Yassine; Bui, V. D.; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Abramov, Alexey

    2008-03-01

    After more than 20 years of research and despite improved transport properties with respect to amorphous silicon, microcrystalline silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) are not yet ready for industrial production. We review here the progress made in the understanding of the growth of this material with particular emphasis on industry relevant aspects such as deposition rate and uniformity. We show that the synthesis of silicon nanocrystals in the plasma offers unique advantages with respect to deposition rate and film properties. In particular, this allows the production of films which are similar to polycrystalline thin films produced by furnace and laser crystallization. The growth process is also discussed with respect to TFT design: top gate or bottom gate. Results on bottom gate TFTs meeting all the necessary requirements in terms of mobility, ON/OFF ratio and stability required for AMOLED applications are also reported.

  13. Recent progress in n-channel organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yugeng; Liu, Yunqi

    2010-03-26

    Particular attention has been focused on n-channel organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) during the last few years, and the potentially cost-effective circuitry-based applications in flexible electronics, such as flexible radiofrequency identity tags, smart labels, and simple displays, will benefit from this fast development. This article reviews recent progress in performance and molecular design of n-channel semiconductors in the past five years, and limitations and practicable solutions for n-channel OTFTs are dealt with from the viewpoint of OTFT constitution and geometry, molecular design, and thin-film growth conditions. Strategy methodology is especially highlighted with an aim to investigate basic issues in this field.

  14. Fabrication of InGaN thin-film transistors using pulsed sputtering deposition

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Takeki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of operational InGaN-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) on glass substrates. The key to our success was coating the glass substrate with a thin amorphous layer of HfO2, which enabled a highly c-axis-oriented growth of InGaN films using pulsed sputtering deposition. The electrical characteristics of the thin films were controlled easily by varying their In content. The optimized InGaN-TFTs exhibited a high on/off ratio of ~108, a field-effect mobility of ~22 cm2 V−1 s−1, and a maximum current density of ~30 mA/mm. These results lay the foundation for developing high-performance electronic devices on glass substrates using group III nitride semiconductors. PMID:27383148

  15. Understanding charge transport in lead iodide perovskite thin-film field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Yang, Bingyan; Thomas, Tudor H; Giesbrecht, Nadja; Huang, Wenchao; Gann, Eliot; Nair, Bhaskaran; Goedel, Karl; Guha, Suchi; Moya, Xavier; McNeill, Christopher R; Docampo, Pablo; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the charge transport physics of hybrid lead halide perovskite semiconductors is important for advancing their use in high-performance optoelectronics. We use field-effect transistors (FETs) to probe the charge transport mechanism in thin films of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). We show that through optimization of thin-film microstructure and source-drain contact modifications, it is possible to significantly minimize instability and hysteresis in FET characteristics and demonstrate an electron field-effect mobility (μFET) of 0.5 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. Temperature-dependent transport studies revealed a negative coefficient of mobility with three different temperature regimes. On the basis of electrical and spectroscopic studies, we attribute the three different regimes to transport limited by ion migration due to point defects associated with grain boundaries, polarization disorder of the MA(+) cations, and thermal vibrations of the lead halide inorganic cages.

  16. Fabrication of InGaN thin-film transistors using pulsed sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takeki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ueno, Kohei; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We report the first demonstration of operational InGaN-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) on glass substrates. The key to our success was coating the glass substrate with a thin amorphous layer of HfO2, which enabled a highly c-axis-oriented growth of InGaN films using pulsed sputtering deposition. The electrical characteristics of the thin films were controlled easily by varying their In content. The optimized InGaN-TFTs exhibited a high on/off ratio of ~108, a field-effect mobility of ~22 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, and a maximum current density of ~30 mA/mm. These results lay the foundation for developing high-performance electronic devices on glass substrates using group III nitride semiconductors.

  17. Fabrication of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistor-driven flexible thermal and pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ick-Joon; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Bosul; Cheong, Woo-Seok; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we present the results concerning the use of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) as a driving transistor of the flexible thermal and pressure sensors which are applicable to artificial skin systems. Although the a-IGZO TFT has been attracting much attention as a driving transistor of the next-generation flat panel displays, no study has been performed about the application of this new device to the driving transistor of the flexible sensors yet. The proposed thermal sensor pixel is composed of the series-connected a-IGZO TFT and ZnO-based thermistor fabricated on a polished metal foil, and the ZnO-based thermistor is replaced by the pressure sensitive rubber in the pressure sensor pixel. In both sensor pixels, the a-IGZO TFT acts as the driving transistor and the temperature/pressure-dependent resistance of the ZnO-based thermistor/pressure-sensitive rubber mainly determines the magnitude of the output currents. The fabricated a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible thermal sensor shows around a seven times increase in the output current as the temperature increases from 20 °C to 100 °C, and the a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible pressure sensors also exhibit high sensitivity under various pressure environments.

  18. Electrochemical characterization of thin film electrodes toward developing a DNA transistor.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Stefan; Ahmed, Shafaat; Afzali-Ardakani, Ali; Luan, Binquan; Waggoner, Philip S; Shao, Xiaoyan; Peng, Hongbo; Goldfarb, Dario L; Martyna, Glenn J; Rossnagel, Stephen M; Deligianni, Lili; Stolovitzky, Gustavo A

    2010-12-21

    The DNA-Transistor is a device designed to control the translocation of single-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore. Functionality of the device is enabled by three electrodes exposed to the DNA-containing electrolyte solution within the pore and the application of a dynamic electrostatic potential well between the electrodes to temporarily trap a DNA molecule. Optimizing the surface chemistry and electrochemical behavior of the device is a necessary (but by no means sufficient) step toward the development of a functional device. In particular, effects to be eliminated are (i) electrochemically induced surface alteration through corrosion or reduction of the electrode surface and (ii) formation of hydrogen or oxygen bubbles inside the pore through water decomposition. Even though our motivation is to solve problems encountered in DNA transistor technology, in this paper we report on generic surface chemistry results. We investigated a variety of electrode-electrolyte-solvent systems with respect to their capability of suppressing water decomposition and maintaining surface integrity. We employed cyclic voltammetry and long-term amperometry as electrochemical test schemes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning, as well as transmission electron microscopy as analytical tools. Characterized electrode materials include thin films of Ru, Pt, nonstoichiometric TiN, and nonstoichiometric TiN carrying a custom-developed titanium oxide layer, as well as custom-oxidized nonstoichiometric TiN coated with a monolayer of hexadecylphosphonic acid (HDPA). We used distilled water as well as aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-300) and glycerol as solvents. One millimolar KCl was employed as electrolyte in all solutions. Our results show that the HDPA-coated custom-developed titanium oxide layer effectively passivates the underlying TiN layer, eliminating any surface alterations through corrosion or reduction within a voltage

  19. Nano-crystallization in ZnO-doped In2O3 thin films via excimer laser annealing for thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Ishihara, Ryoichi; van der Cingel, Johan; Mofrad, Mohammad R. T.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo Soria; Kawashima, Emi; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2016-06-01

    In a previous work, we reported the high field effect mobility of ZnO-doped In2O3 (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) [M. Fujii et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 122107 (2013)]. However, a deeper understanding of the effect of ELA on the IZO film characteristics based on crystallinity, carrier concentrations, and optical properties is needed to control localized carrier concentrations for fabricating self-aligned structures in the same oxide film and to adequately explain the physical characteristics. In the case of as-deposited IZO film used as the channel, a high carrier concentration due to a high density of oxygen vacancies was observed; such a film does not show the required TFT characteristics but can act as a conductive film. We achieved a decrease in the carrier concentration of IZO films by crystallization using ELA. This means that ELA can form localized conductive or semi-conductive areas on the IZO film. We confirmed that the reason for the carrier concentration decrease was the decrease of oxygen-deficient regions and film crystallization. The annealed IZO films showed nano-crystalline phase, and the temperature at the substrate was substantially less than the temperature limit for flexible films such as plastic, which is 50°C. This paves the way for the formation of self-aligned structures and separately formed conductive and semi-conductive regions in the same oxide film.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of thin-film transistor materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, David

    A class of inorganic thin-film transistor (TFT) semiconductor materials has emerged involving oxides composed of post-transitional cations with (n-1)d 10ns0 (n≥4) electronic configurations. This thesis is devoted to the pursuit of topics involving the development of these materials for TFT applications: Deposition of zinc oxide and zinc tin oxide semiconductor layers via reactive sputtering from a metal target, and the characterization of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based TFTs utilizing various insulator materials as the gate dielectric. The first topic involves the deposition of oxide semiconductor layers via reactive sputtering from a metal target. Two oxide semiconductors are utilized for fabricating TFTs via reactive sputtering from a metal target: zinc oxide and zinc tin oxide. With optimized processing parameters, zinc oxide and zinc tin oxide via this deposition method exhibit similar characteristics to TFTs fabricated via sputtering from a ceramic target. Additionally the effects of gate capacitance density and gate dielectric material are explored utilizing TFTs with IGZO as the semiconductor layers. IGZO-based TFTs exhibit ideal behavior with improved TFT performance such as higher current drive at a given overvoltage, a decrease in the subthreshold swing, and a decrease in the magnitude of the turn-on voltage. Additionally it is shown that silicon dioxide is the preferred dielectric material, with silicon nitride a poor choice for oxide-based TFTs. Finally a simple method to characterize the band tail state distribution near the conduction band minimum of a semiconductor by analyzing two-terminal current-voltage characteristics of a TFT with a floating gate is presented. The characteristics trap energy (ET) as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature is shown to correlate very well with IGZO TFT performance, with a lower value of E T, corresponding to a more abrupt distribution of band tail states, correlating with improved TFT mobility

  1. Testing of flexible InGaZnO-based thin-film transistors under mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, N. S.; Cherenack, K. H.; Tröster, G.

    2011-08-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrates are an integral part of future flexible large-area electronic devices like displays and smart textiles. Devices for such applications require stable electrical performance under electrical stress and also during applied mechanical stress induced by bending of the flexible substrate. Mechanical stress can be tensile or compressive strain depending on whether the TFT is located outside or inside of the bending plane. Especially the impact of compressive bending on TFT performance is hard to measure, because the device is covered with the substrate in this case. We present a method which allows us to continuously measure the electrical performance parameters of amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) based TFTs exposed to arbitrary compressive and tensile bending radii. To measure the influence of strain on a TFT it is attached and electrically connected to a flexible carrier foil, which afterwards is fastened to two plates in our bending tester. The bending radius can be adjusted by changing the distance between these plates. Thus it is possible to apply bending radii in the range between a totally flat substrate and ≈1 mm, corresponding to a strain of ≈3.5%. The tested bottom-gate TFTs are especially designed for use with our bending tester and fabricated on 50 μm thick flexible Kapton® E polyimide substrates. To show the different application areas of our bending method we characterized our TFTs while they are bent to different tensile and compressive bending radii. These measurements show that the field effect mobilities and threshold voltages of the tested a-IGZO TFTs are nearly, but not absolutely, stable under applied strain, compared to the initial values the mobilities shift by ≈3.5% in the tensile case and ≈-1.5% in the compressive one, at a bending radius of 8 mm. We also measured the influence of repeated bending (2500 cycles over ≈70 h), where a shift of the

  2. Studies of tetracene- and pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors fabricated by the neutral cluster beam deposition method.

    PubMed

    Abthagir, P Syed; Ha, Young-Geun; You, Eun-Ah; Jeong, Seon-Hwa; Seo, Hoon-Seok; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2005-12-22

    The neutral cluster beam deposition (NCBD) method has been applied to produce and characterize organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) based upon tetracene and pentacene molecules as active layers. Organic thin films were prepared by the NCBD method on hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)-untreated and -pretreated silicon dioxide (SiO2) substrates at room temperature. The surface morphology and structures for the tetracene and pentacene thin films were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The measurements demonstrate that the weakly bound and highly directional neutral cluster beams are efficient in producing high-quality single-crystalline thin films with uniform, smooth surfaces and that SiO2 surface treatment with HMDS enhances the crystallinity of the pentacene thin-film phase. Tetracene- and pentacene-based OTFTs with the top-contact structure showed typical source-drain current modulation behavior with different gate voltages. Device parameters such as hole carrier mobility, current on/off ratio, threshold voltage, and subthreshold slope have been derived from the current-voltage characteristics together with the effects of surface treatment with HMDS. In particular, the high field-effect room-temperature mobilities for the HMDS-untreated OTFTs are found to be comparable to the most widely reported values for the respective untreated tetracene and pentacene thin-film transistors. The device performance strongly correlates with the surface morphology, and the structural properties of the organic thin films are discussed.

  3. Tips pentacene crystal alignment for improving performance of solution processed organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhengran

    A newly-developed p-type organic semiconductor 6,13-bis (triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS pentacene) demonstrates various advantages such as high mobility, air stability and solution processibility, but at the same time its application is restricted by major issues, such as crystal misorientation and performance variation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This dissertation demonstrates several different approaches to address these issues. As a result, both crystal orientation and areal coverage can be effectively improved, leading to an enhancement of average mobility and performance consistency of OTFTs. Chapter 1 presents an introduction and background of this dissertation. Chapter 2 explores the usage of inorganic silica nanoparticles to manipulate the morphology of TIPS pentacene thin films and the performance of solution-processed organic OTFTs. The resultant drop-cast films yield improved morphological uniformity at ~10% SiO2 loading, which also leads to a 3-fold increase in average mobility and nearly 4-times reduction in the ratio of standard deviation of mobility (μStdev) to average mobility (μAvg). The experimental results suggest that the SiO2 nanoparticles mostly aggregate at TIPS pentacene grain boundaries, and that 10% nanoparticle concentration effectively reduces the undesirable crystal misorientation without considerably compromising TIPS pentacene crystallinity. Chapter 3 discusses the utilization of air flow to effectively reduce the TIPS pentacene crystal anisotropy and enhance performance consistency in OTFTs. Under air-flow navigation (AFN), TIPS pentacene forms thin films with improved crystal orientation and increased areal coverage, which subsequently lead to a four-fold increase of average hole mobility and one order of magnitude enhancement in performance consistency. Chapter 4 investigates the critical roles of lateral and vertical phase separation in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic

  4. Design of Novel Organic Thin Film Transistors for Wearable Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    OF ANATASE HIGH DIELECTRIC CONSTANT TITANIA 12 5.0 NANOCOMPOSITE LEAD SULPHIDE EMBEDDED IN PHTHALOCYANINE MATRIX 13 6.0 SCOPE OF...public release; distribution is unlimited. 12 4.0 CATHODIC ELECTRODEPOSITION OF ANATASE HIGH DİELECTRIC CONSTANT TITANIA Polycrystalline... titania (TiO2) films were prepared on the indium tin oxide glass substrate on high temperature annealing of TiO2 hydrates electrodeposited from the

  5. Critical invisible defect detection system of thin film transistor panels using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yonmook; Heo, Keun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a novel method that can perform measurements of the contact potential difference (CPD) between a tip and a thin film transistor (TFT) panel using the Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is proposed for inspection of critical invisible defects on TFT panels. In this application, the surface potential of a TFT panel is inferred from the electrostatic interaction force between a tip and a TFT panel induced by the electric field. The experimental results are given to illustrate that the KPFM provides a novel and feasible way to detect the most critical invisible defects on TFT panels.

  6. All solution processed organic thin film transistor-backplane with printing technology for electrophoretic display

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Song, C.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution processes were developed for backplane using an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) as a driving device for an electrophoretic display (EPD) panel. The processes covered not only the key device of OTFTs but also interlayer and pixel electrodes. The various materials and printing processes were adopted to achieve the requirements of devices and functioning layers. The performance of OTFT of the backplane was sufficient to drive EPD sheet by producing a mobility of 0.12 cm2/v x sec and on/off current ratio of 10(5).

  7. Technological Innovation of Thin-Film Transistors: Technology Development, History, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshitaka

    2012-06-01

    The scale of the liquid crystal display industry has expanded rapidly, driven by technological innovations for thin-film transistors (TFTs). The TFT technology, which started from amorphous silicon (a-Si), has produced large TVs, and low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) has become a core technology for small displays, such as mobile phones. Recently, various TFT technological seeds have been realized, indicating that new information appliances that match new lifestyles and information infrastructures will be available in the near future. In this article, I review the history of TFT technology and discuss the future of TFT technological development from the technological innovation viewpoint.

  8. Electrical stress in CdS thin film transistors using HfO2 gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R.; Mejia, I.; Molinar-Solis, J. E.; Salas-Villasenor, A. L.; Morales, A.; García, B.; Quevedo-Lopez, M. A.; Alemán, M.

    2013-05-01

    During thin film transistor (TFT) operation, gate dielectric is under a bias stress condition. In this work, bias stress effect for CdS TFT using HfO2 as gate dielectric is analyzed. Threshold voltage, Ion/Ioff ratio, and subthreshold slope were studied in order to understand changes produced at the dielectric semiconductor interface. We observed that threshold voltage shift is related with negative charge trapping in the dielectric/semiconductor interface and for this phenomenon we propose a trapping charge model. Finally, the TFT output characteristic was modeled considering a shift in the threshold voltage for each gate voltage curve.

  9. Self-aligned imprint lithography for top-gate amorphous silicon thin-film transistor fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lausecker, E.; Huang, Y.; Fromherz, T.; Sturm, J. C.; Wagner, S.

    2010-06-01

    We developed self-aligned imprint lithography (SAIL) for top-gate amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Our SAIL process enables a device pattern definition in a single imprint step that uses a three-level mold. The various levels of the mold are defined by a stepwise opening of a chromium hardmask and subsequent dry-etching. For TFT fabrication we imprint, and consecutively etch the imprint resist levels and device layers. The imprinted top-gate a-Si TFTs have nickel silicide source/drain self-aligned to the gate with mobilities of ˜0.4 cm2/V s.

  10. Dithienocoronenediimide-based copolymers as novel ambipolar semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Usta, Hakan; Newman, Christopher; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio

    2012-07-17

    A new class of ambipolar donor-acceptor π-conjugated polymers based on a dithienocoronenediimide core is presented. Solution-processed top-gate/bottom-contact thin film transistors (TFTs) exhibit electron and hole mobilities of up to 0.30 cm(2)/V·s and 0.04 cm(2)/V·s, respectively, which are the highest reported to date for an ambipolar polymer in ambient conditions. The polymers presented here are the first examples of coronenediimide-based semiconductors showing high organic TFT performances.

  11. Determination of the surface potential in thin-film transistors from C{endash}V measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Migliorato, P.; Tam, S. W.-B.; Lui, O. K. B.; Shimoda, T.

    2001-06-01

    In this article we present a method for the determination of the gate voltage versus surface potential (V{sub GS}{minus}{psi}{sub S}) relationship in thin-film transistors (TFTs), from low frequency capacitance{endash}voltage (C{endash}V) characteristics. This information is very important for device design, process characterization, and modeling of TFTs and provides the basis for extracting the gap density of states. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of C{endash}V data generated by two-dimensional simulations. Its application to laser recrystallized polysilicon TFTs is presented. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors via pressure-induced nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Koo; Kim, Si Joon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-10-31

    We report a method to improve the performance of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) via pressure-induced nucleation (PIN). During the PIN process, spatial variation in the local solidification temperature occurs because of a non-uniform pressure distribution during laser irradiation of the amorphous Si layer, which is capped with an SiO2 layer. This leads to a four-fold increase in the grain size of the poly-Si thin-films formed using the PIN process, compared with those formed using conventional excimer laser annealing. We find that thin films with optimal electrical properties can be achieved with a reduction in the number of laser irradiations from 20 to 6, as well as the preservation of the interface between the poly-Si and the SiO2 gate insulator. This interface preservation becomes possible to remove the cleaning process prior to gate insulator deposition, and we report devices with a field-effect mobility greater than 160 cm(2)/Vs.

  13. Grain Boundary Induced Bias Instability in Soluble Acene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ky V.; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John E.; Lee, Jung Hun; Song, Eunjoo; Kang, Boseok; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Since the grain boundaries (GBs) within the semiconductor layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have a strong influence on device performance, a substantial number of studies have been devoted to controlling the crystallization characteristics of organic semiconductors. We studied the intrinsic effects of GBs within 5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl) anthradithiophene (TES-ADT) thin films on the electrical properties of OFETs. The GB density was easily changed by controlling nulceation event in TES-ADT thin films. When the mixing time was increased, the number of aggregates in as-spun TES-ADT thin films were increased and subsequent exposure of the films to 1,2-dichloroethane vapor led to a significant increase in the number of nuleation sites, thereby increasing the GB density of TES-ADT spherulites. The density of GBs strongly influences the angular spread and crystallographic orientation of TES-ADT spherulites. Accordingly, the FETs with higher GB densities showed much poorer electrical characteristics than devices with lower GB density. Especially, GBs provide charge trapping sites which are responsible for bias-stress driven electrical instability. Dielectric surface treatment with a polystyrene brush layer clarified the GB-induced charge trapping by reducing charge trapping at the semiconductor-dielectric interface. Our study provides an understanding on GB induced bias instability for the development of high performance OFETs. PMID:27615358

  14. Present status of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Toshio; Nomura, Kenji; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-08-01

    The present status and recent research results on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) and their thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reviewed. AOSs represented by amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) are expected to be the channel material of TFTs in next-generation flat-panel displays because a-IGZO TFTs satisfy almost all the requirements for organic light-emitting-diode displays, large and fast liquid crystal and three-dimensional (3D) displays, which cannot be satisfied using conventional silicon and organic TFTs. The major insights of this review are summarized as follows. (i) Most device issues, such as uniformity, long-term stability against bias stress and TFT performance, are solved for a-IGZO TFTs. (ii) A sixth-generation (6G) process is demonstrated for 32″ and 37″ displays. (iii) An 8G sputtering apparatus and a sputtering target have been developed. (iv) The important effect of deep subgap states on illumination instability is revealed. (v) Illumination instability under negative bias has been intensively studied, and some mechanisms are proposed. (vi) Degradation mechanisms are classified into back-channel effects, the creation of traps at an interface and in the gate insulator, and the creation of donor states in annealed a-IGZO TFTs by the Joule heating; the creation of bulk defects should also be considered in the case of unannealed a-IGZO TFTs. (vii) Dense passivation layers improve the stability and photoresponse and are necessary for practical applications. (viii) Sufficient knowledge of electronic structures and electron transport in a-IGZO has been accumulated to construct device simulation models.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Present status of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Toshio; Nomura, Kenji; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-08-01

    The present status and recent research results on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) and their thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reviewed. AOSs represented by amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) are expected to be the channel material of TFTs in next-generation flat-panel displays because a-IGZO TFTs satisfy almost all the requirements for organic light-emitting-diode displays, large and fast liquid crystal and three-dimensional (3D) displays, which cannot be satisfied using conventional silicon and organic TFTs. The major insights of this review are summarized as follows. (i) Most device issues, such as uniformity, long-term stability against bias stress and TFT performance, are solved for a-IGZO TFTs. (ii) A sixth-generation (6G) process is demonstrated for 32'' and 37'' displays. (iii) An 8G sputtering apparatus and a sputtering target have been developed. (iv) The important effect of deep subgap states on illumination instability is revealed. (v) Illumination instability under negative bias has been intensively studied, and some mechanisms are proposed. (vi) Degradation mechanisms are classified into back-channel effects, the creation of traps at an interface and in the gate insulator, and the creation of donor states in annealed a-IGZO TFTs by the Joule heating; the creation of bulk defects should also be considered in the case of unannealed a-IGZO TFTs. (vii) Dense passivation layers improve the stability and photoresponse and are necessary for practical applications. (viii) Sufficient knowledge of electronic structures and electron transport in a-IGZO has been accumulated to construct device simulation models.

  16. Present status of amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Toshio; Nomura, Kenji; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The present status and recent research results on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) and their thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reviewed. AOSs represented by amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) are expected to be the channel material of TFTs in next-generation flat-panel displays because a-IGZO TFTs satisfy almost all the requirements for organic light-emitting-diode displays, large and fast liquid crystal and three-dimensional (3D) displays, which cannot be satisfied using conventional silicon and organic TFTs. The major insights of this review are summarized as follows. (i) Most device issues, such as uniformity, long-term stability against bias stress and TFT performance, are solved for a-IGZO TFTs. (ii) A sixth-generation (6G) process is demonstrated for 32″ and 37″ displays. (iii) An 8G sputtering apparatus and a sputtering target have been developed. (iv) The important effect of deep subgap states on illumination instability is revealed. (v) Illumination instability under negative bias has been intensively studied, and some mechanisms are proposed. (vi) Degradation mechanisms are classified into back-channel effects, the creation of traps at an interface and in the gate insulator, and the creation of donor states in annealed a-IGZO TFTs by the Joule heating; the creation of bulk defects should also be considered in the case of unannealed a-IGZO TFTs. (vii) Dense passivation layers improve the stability and photoresponse and are necessary for practical applications. (viii) Sufficient knowledge of electronic structures and electron transport in a-IGZO has been accumulated to construct device simulation models. PMID:27877346

  17. Bismuth ferrite based thin films, nanofibers, and field effect transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Beltran, Rut

    In this research an attempt has been made to explore bismuth ferrite thin films with low leakage current and nanofibers with high photoconductivity. Thin films were deposited with pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. An attempt has been made to develop thin films under different deposition parameters with following target compositions: i) 0.6BiFeO3-0.4(Bi0.5 K0.5)TiO3 (BFO-BKT) and ii) bi-layered 0.88Bi 0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08Bi0.5K0.5TiO 3-0.04BaTiO3/BiFeO3 (BNT-BKT-BT/BFO). BFO-BKT thin film shows suppressed leakage current by about four orders of magnitude which in turn improve the ferroelectric and dielectric properties of the films. The optimum remnant polarization is 19 muC.cm-2 at the oxygen partial pressure of 300 mtorr. The BNT-BKT-BT/BFO bi-layered thin films exhibited ferroelectric behavior as: Pr = 22.0 muC.cm-2, Ec = 100 kV.cm-1 and epsilonr = 140. The leakage current of bi-layered thin films have been reduced two orders of magnitude compare to un-doped bismuth ferrite. Bismuth ferrite nanofibers were developed by electrospinning technique and its electronic properties such as photoconductivity and field effect transistor performance were investigated extensively. Nanofibers were deposited by electrospinning of sol-gel solution on SiO2/Si substrate at driving voltage of 10 kV followed by heat treatment at 550 °C for 2 hours. The composition analysis through energy dispersive detector and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed the heterogeneous nature of the composition with Bi rich and Fe deficient regions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the combination of Fe3+ and Fe2+ valence state in the fibers. The photoresponse result is almost hundred times higher for a fiber of 40 nm diameter compared to a fiber with 100 nm diameter. This effect is described by a size dependent surface recombination mechanism. A single and multiple BFO nanofibers field effect transistors devices were fabricated and characterized. Bismuth ferrite FET behaves

  18. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O.'

    2015-06-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness.

  19. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2015-06-30

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness.

  20. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong, Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’

    2015-01-01

    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thin films, alterations to commonly used precursors can be made that facilitate controlled thin film deposition. The effects of polymer assisted deposition and changes in solvent-alkoxide dilution on the morphology, structure, optoelectronic properties and crystallinity of vanadium pentoxide thin films was studied using a dip-coating method using a substrate withdrawal speed within the fast-rate draining regime. The formation of sub-100 nm thin films could be achieved rapidly from dilute alkoxide based precursor solutions with high optical transmission in the visible, linked to the phase and film structure. The effects of the polymer addition was shown to change the crystallized vanadium pentoxide thin films from a granular surface structure to a polycrystalline structure composed of a high density of smaller in-plane grains, resulting in a uniform surface morphology with lower thickness and roughness. PMID:26123117

  1. Reactive pulsed magnetron-sputtered tantalum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Matthew Christian

    Current high speed, advanced packaging applications require the use of integrated capacitors. Tantalum oxide is one material currently being considered for use in the capacitors; however, the deposition technique used to make the thin film dielectric can alter its performance. Pulsed magnetron reactive sputtering was investigated in this thesis as it offers a robust, clean, and low temperature deposition alternative. This is a new deposition technique created to control the negative effects of target poisoning; however, to understand the relationships between the deposition variables and the resultant film properties a thorough investigation is needed. The instantaneous voltage at the target was captured using a high speed digital oscilloscope. Three target oxidation states were imaged and identified to be that of the metallic and oxidized states with an abrupt transition region separating the two. Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy the bonding present in the deposited films was correlated to the oxidation state of the target. While operating the target in the metallic mode, a mix of oxidized, sub-oxide and metallic states were discovered. Alternatively, the bonding present in the films deposited when the target was in the oxidized state were that of fully oxidized tantalum pentoxide. The films deposited above the critical partial pressure demonstrated excellent leakage current densities. The exact magnitude of the leakage current density inversely scaled to the relative amount of oxygen included into the sputtering atmosphere. Detailed plot analysis showed that there were two different conduction mechanisms controlling the current flow in the capacitors. High frequency test vehicles were measured up to 10 GHz in order to determine the frequency response of the dielectric material. A circuit equivalent model describing the testing system and samples was created and utilized to fit the collected data. Overall, the technique of pulsed magnetron

  2. Metal Induced Growth of Si Thin Films and NiSi Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    Zinc Oxide Over MIG Silicon- We have been studying the formation of ZnO films by RF sputtering. Part of this study deals with...about 50 nm. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Thin film silicon, solar cells, thin film transistors , nanowires, metal induced growth 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to achieve, µc-Si is more desirable than a-Si due to its increased mobility. Thin film µc-Si is also a popular material for thin film transistors

  3. Organic Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Plastic Substrates with a Polymeric Gate Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Gi Heon; Lim, Sang Chul; Jang, Jin; Zyung, Taehyoung

    2003-05-01

    An organic thin-film transistor using pentacene as an active layer was fabricated on plastic substrate. An organic layer such as thermal curable polymer (JSS-362, Japan Synthetic Rubber (JSR)) was used as the gate dielectrics. The JSS-362 may act not only as a dielectric layer but also as a surface smoothing layer. From the electrical measurement, typical ID-VD characteristics of the field-effect transistor (FET) were observed. The field effect mobility μ was calculated to be 0.12 cm2\\cdotV-1\\cdots-1, while the threshold voltage VT was approximately -15 V. The on/off ratio was above 104 when VG was scanned from -75 V to +0 V.

  4. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Kroeger, J.; Haddad, T.; Rosei, F.

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  5. Transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors based on multilayer transparent source-drain electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Hu, Yongsheng; Lin, Jie; Li, Yantao; Liu, Xingyuan

    2016-08-01

    A fabrication method for transparent ambipolar organic thin film transistors with transparent Sb2O3/Ag/Sb2O3 (SAS) source and drain electrodes has been developed. A pentacene/N,N'-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic di-imide (PTCDI-C13) bilayer heterojunction is used as the active semiconductor. The electrodes are deposited by room temperature electron beam evaporation. The devices are fabricated without damaging the active layers. The SAS electrodes have high transmittance (82.5%) and low sheet resistance (8 Ω/sq). High performance devices with hole and electron mobilities of 0.3 cm2/V s and 0.027 cm2/V s, respectively, and average visible range transmittance of 72% were obtained. These transistors have potential for transparent logic integrated circuit applications.

  6. Dual-gate thin-film transistors, integrated circuits and sensors.

    PubMed

    Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Myny, Kris; Smits, Edsger C P; Heremans, Paul; Blom, Paul W M; de Leeuw, Dago M

    2011-08-02

    The first dual-gate thin-film transistor (DGTFT) was reported in 1981 with CdSe as the semiconductor. Other TFT technologies such as a-Si:H and organic semiconductors have led to additional ways of making DGTFTs. DGTFTs contain a second gate dielectric with a second gate positioned opposite of the first gate. The main advantage is that the threshold voltage can be set as a function of the applied second gate bias. The shift depends on the ratio of the capacitances of the two gate dielectrics. Here we review the fast growing field of DGTFTs. We summarize the reported operational mechanisms, and the application in logic gates and integrated circuits. The second emerging application of DGTFTs is sensitivity enhancement of existing ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFET). The reported sensing mechanism is discussed and an outlook is presented.

  7. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  8. Electrical and mechanical characteristics of fully transparent IZO thin-film transistors on stress-relieving bendable substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sukhyung; Cho, Kyoungah; Oh, Hyungon; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we report the electrical and mechanical characteristics of fully transparent indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on stress-relieving bendable substrates. An IZO TFT on a stress-relieving substrate can operate normally at a bending radius of 6 mm, while an IZO TFT on a normal plastic substrate fails to operate normally at a bending radius of 15 mm. A plastic island with high Young's modulus embedded on a soft elastomer layer with low Young's modulus plays the role of a stress-relieving substrate for the operation of the bent IZO TFT. The stress and strain distributions over the IZO TFT will be analyzed in detail in this paper.

  9. ZnO thin-film transistors with a polymeric gate insulator built on a polyethersulfone substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Park, Jaehoon; Koo, Ja Ryong; Choi, Kyung Min; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou Sik; Kim, Yong Seog; Kim, Young Kwan

    2012-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (c-PVA) insulator are fabricated on a polyethersulfone substrate. The ZnO film, formed by atomic layer deposition, shows a polycrystalline hexagonal structure with a band gap energy of about 3.37 eV. The fabricated ZnO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 0.38 cm2/Vs and a threshold voltage of 0.2 V. The hysteresis of the device is mainly caused by trapped electrons at the c-PVA/ZnO interface, whereas the positive threshold voltage shift occurs as a consequence of constant positive gate bias stress after 5000 s due to an electron injection from the ZnO film into the c-PVA insulator.

  10. The effect of Ta doping in polycrystalline TiO{sub x} and the associated thin film transistor properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, Kyung-Chul Park, Yoseb Park, Jin-Seong E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr; Chung, Kwun-Bum E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-18

    Tantalum (Ta) is suggested to act as an electron donor and crystal phase stabilizer in titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}). A transition occurs from an amorphous state to a crystalline phase at an annealing temperature above 300 °C in a vacuum ambient. As the annealing temperature increases from 300 °C to 450 °C, the mobility increases drastically from 0.07 cm{sup 2}/Vs to 0.61 cm{sup 2}/Vs. The remarkable enhancement of thin film transistor performance is suggested to be due to the splitting of Ti 3d band orbitals as well as the increase in Ta{sup 5+} ions that can act as electron donors.

  11. Conducting glasses recovered from thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastes for dye-sensitized solar cell cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Chang, F-C; Peng, C Y; Wang, H Paul

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive glasses such as thin film transistor (TFT) array and colour filter glasses were recovered from the TFT-liquid crystal display panel wastes by dismantling and sonic cleaning. Noble metals (i.e. platinum (Pt)) and indium tin oxide (ITO) are generally used in the cathode of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). To reduce the DSSC cost, Pt was replaced with nano nickel-encapsulated carbon-shell (Ni@C) nanoparticles, which were prepared by carbonization of Ni²⁺-β-cyclodextrin at 673 K for 2 h. The recovered conductive glasses were used in the DSSC electrodes in the substitution of relatively expensive ITO. Interestingly, the efficiency of the DSSC having the Ni@C-coated cathode is as high as 2.54%. Moreover, the cost of the DSSC using the recovered materials can be reduced by at least 24%.

  12. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; ...

    2016-10-10

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. But, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. We designed devices with unique ring-type structures andmore » use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.« less

  13. Subgap states in p-channel tin monoxide thin-film transistors from temperature-dependent field-effect characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Lee, Daeun; Han, Young-Joon; Choi, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2015-08-01

    This paper experimentally investigates the subgap density of states (DOS) in p-type tin monoxide (SnO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) for the first time by using temperature-dependent field-effect measurements. As the temperature increases, the turn-on voltage moves in the positive direction, and the off-current and subthreshold slope continuously increase. We found that the conductivity of the SnO TFT obeys the Meyer-Neldel (MN) rule with a characteristic MN parameter of 28.6 eV-1 in the subthreshold region, from which we successfully extracted the subgap DOS by combing the field-effect method and the MN relation. The extracted subgap DOS from fabricated p-type SnO TFTs are exponentially distributed in energy, and exhibit around two orders of magnitude higher values compared to those of the n-type amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs.

  14. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. However, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. The devices are designed with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass. PMID:27721484

  15. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-10-10

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. But, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. We designed devices with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.

  16. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-10-01

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. However, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. The devices are designed with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.

  17. MgZnO High Voltage Thin Film Transistors on Glass for Inverters in Building Integrated Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wen-Chiang; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Li, Rui; Abbaslou, Siamak; Reyes, Pavel; Wang, Szu-Ying; Li, Guangyuan; Lu, Ming; Sheng, Kuang; Lu, Yicheng

    2016-10-10

    Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) have attracted considerable interests because of its aesthetically attractive appearance and overall low cost. In BIPV, system integration on a glass substrate like windows is essential to cover a large area of a building with low cost. However, the conventional high voltage devices in inverters have to be built on the specially selected single crystal substrates, limiting its application for large area electronic systems, such as the BIPV. We demonstrate a Magnesium Zinc Oxide (MZO) based high voltage thin film transistor (HVTFT) built on a transparent glass substrate. The devices are designed with unique ring-type structures and use modulated Mg doping in the channel - gate dielectric interface, resulting in a blocking voltage of over 600 V. In addition to BIPV, the MZO HVTFT based inverter technology also creates new opportunities for emerging self-powered smart glass.

  18. Thickness dependent low-frequency noise characteristics of a-InZnO thin-film transistors under light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyun-Sik; Jeon, Sanghun

    2014-01-13

    The influence of illumination on the electrical characteristics of amorphous indium–zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) has been investigated. The electrical properties are found to depend significantly on the active thickness (T{sub IZO}) of the a-IZO TFT. The active thickness is seen to play a major role in the carrier transport mechanism. Based on the carrier fluctuation model, the low-frequency noise (LFN) characteristics of a-IZO devices of varying thicknesses were evaluated before as well as after illumination. Similar to the results of DC and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements, the LFN characteristics too show that the light-induced carrier transport becomes significantly enhanced for relatively thick (T{sub IZO} ≥ 60 nm) a-IZO devices.

  19. Rational Design of ZnO:H/ZnO Bilayer Structure for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablat; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wang, Jingli; Xu, Lei; Liao, Lei; Xiao, Xiangheng; Wu, Wen-Wei; Fan, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Guo, Shishang; Liu, Chuansheng; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-03-01

    The intriguing properties of zinc oxide-based semiconductors are being extensively studied as they are attractive alternatives to current silicon-based semiconductors for applications in transparent and flexible electronics. Although they have promising properties, significant improvements on performance and electrical reliability of ZnO-based thin film transistors (TFTs) should be achieved before they can be applied widely in practical applications. This work demonstrates a rational and elegant design of TFT, composed of poly crystalline ZnO:H/ZnO bilayer structure without using other metal elements for doping. The field-effect mobility and gate bias stability of the bilayer structured devices have been improved. In this device structure, the hydrogenated ultrathin ZnO:H active layer (∼3 nm) could provide suitable carrier concentration and decrease the interface trap density, while thick pure-ZnO layer could control channel conductance. Based on this novel structure, a high field-effect mobility of 42.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a high on/off current ratio of 10(8) and a small subthreshold swing of 0.13 V dec(-1) have been achieved. Additionally, the bias stress stability of the bilayer structured devices is enhanced compared to the simple single channel layer ZnO device. These results suggest that the bilayer ZnO:H/ZnO TFTs have a great potential for low-cost thin-film electronics.

  20. Development and Research on the Mechanism of Novel Mist Etching Method for Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    A novel etching process with etchant mist was developed and applied to oxide thin films such as zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc magnesium oxide (ZnMgO), and indium tin oxide (ITO). By using this process, it was shown that precise control of the etching characteristics is possible with a reasonable etching rate, for example, in the range of 10-100 nm/min, and a fine pattern of high accuracy can also be realized, even though this is usually very difficult by conventional wet etching processes, for ZnO and ZnMgO. The mist etching process was found to be similarly and successfully applied to ITO. The mechanism of mist etching has been studied by examining the etching temperature dependence of pattern accuracy, and it was shown that the mechanism was different from that of conventional liquid-phase spray etching. It was ascertained that fine pattern etching was attained using mist droplets completely (or partly) gasified by the heat applied to the substrate. This technique was applied to the fabrication of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) with a ZnO active channel length of 4 µm. The electrical properties of the TFT were found to be excellent with fine uniformity over the entire 4-in. wafer.

  1. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using organic-inorganic hybrid films deposited by low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for all dielectric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chao-Jui; Chang, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Kuei-Ming; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the deposition of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid dielectric films by low-temperature (close to room temperature) inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)/O2 precursor gas. The hybrid films exhibited low leakage currents and high breakdown fields, suitable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. They were successfully integrated into the gate insulator, the etch-stop layer, and the passivation layer for bottom-gate staggered amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs having the etch-stop configuration. With the double-active-layer configuration having a buffer a-IGZO back-channel layer grown in oxygen-rich atmosphere for better immunity against plasma damage, the etch-stop-type bottom-gate staggered a-IGZO TFTs with good TFT characteristics were successfully demonstrated. The TFTs showed good field-effect mobility (μFE), threshold voltage (V th), subthreshold swing (SS), and on/off ratio (I on/off) of 7.5 cm2 V-1 s-1, 2.38 V, 0.38 V/decade, and 2.2 × 108, respectively, manifesting their usefulness for a-IGZO TFTs.

  2. Chemical Strain Engineering of Magnetism in Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Copie, Olivier; Varignon, Julien; Rotella, Hélène; Steciuk, Gwladys; Boullay, Philippe; Pautrat, Alain; David, Adrian; Mercey, Bernard; Ghosez, Philippe; Prellier, Wilfrid

    2017-04-03

    Transition metal oxides having a perovskite structure form a wide and technologically important class of compounds. In these systems, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, ferroelastic, or even orbital and charge orderings can develop and eventually coexist. These orderings can be tuned by external electric, magnetic, or stress field, and the cross-couplings between them enable important multifunctional properties, such as piezoelectricity, magneto-electricity, or magneto-elasticity. Recently, it has been proposed that additional to typical fields, the chemical potential that controls the concentration of ion vacancies in these systems may reveal an efficient alternative parameter to further tune their properties and achieve new functionalities. In this study, concretizing this proposal, the authors show that the control of the content of oxygen vacancies in perovskite thin films can indeed be used to tune their magnetic properties. Growing PrVO3 thin films epitaxially on an SrTiO3 substrate, the authors reveal a concrete pathway to achieve this effect. The authors demonstrate that monitoring the concentration of oxygen vacancies through the oxygen partial pressure or the growth temperature can produce a substantial macroscopic tensile strain of a few percent. In turn, this strain affects the exchange interactions, producing a nontrivial evolution of Néel temperature in a range of 30 K.

  3. Electronic properties of organic thin film transistors with nanoscale tapered electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeongwon

    2008-10-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have received increasing attention because of their potential applications in displays, optoelectronics, logic circuits, and sensors. Ultrathin OTFTs are of technical interest as a possible route toward reduced bias stress in standard OTFTs and enhanced sensitivity in chemical field-effect transistors (ChemFETs). ChemFETs are OTFTs whose output characteristics are sensitive to the presence of analytes via changes in the channel mobility and/or threshold voltage induced by analyte chemisorption onto the channel materials. The fundamental understanding of charge transport properties of organic thin-films is critical for the applications. OTFT has been demonstrated by many groups; however, there has been much less progress towards more reliable contact structure between organic materials and electrodes. This thesis investigates the electrical properties of metal phthalocyanine thin-film devices. In chapter 1, the basic electrical properties in OTFTs are reviewed. In chapter 2, we have investigated the microfabrication process of OTFTs to control the contact morphology and the charge transport properties of phthalocyanine thin-film devices. In chapter 3, the channel thickness dependence of the mobility was investigated in bottom-contact copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) OTFTs. The current-voltage characteristics of bottom contact CuPc OTFTs with low contact resistance fabricated by the bilayer photoresist lift-off process were analyzed to determine the mobility, threshold voltage and contact resistance. The independence of measured electronic properties from channel thickness is due to the contact resistance being negligible for all channel thicknesses. For practical applications, the aging and recovery process in CuPc OTFTs were investigated in chapter 4. An origin of the aging process on CuPc OTFTs has been investigated based on the responses of thick 1000ML CuPc OTFTs under a controlled atmosphere. The recovery process under 30

  4. Nickel oxide thin film from electrodeposited nickel sulfide thin film: peroxide sensing and photo-decomposition of phenol.

    PubMed

    Jana, Sumanta; Samai, Subhasis; Mitra, Bibhas C; Bera, Pulakesh; Mondal, Anup

    2014-09-14

    A novel non-enzymatic peroxide sensor has been constructed by using nickel oxide (NiO) thin films as sensing material, which were prepared by a two-step process: (i) electrodeposition of nickel sulfide (NiS) and (ii) thermal air oxidation of as-deposited NiS to NiO. The resultant material is highly porous and comprises interconnected nanofibers. UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used for a complete characterization of nanostructured NiO thin films. Cyclic voltammetry study shows that NiO/ITO electrode facilitates the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide and exhibits excellent catalytic activity towards its sensing. The amperometric study of NiO/ITO was carried out to determine the sensitivity, linear range, detection limit of the proposed sensor. The sensor exhibits prominent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of H2O2 with a wide linear range and a low detection limit. The possible use of the synthesized NiO thin films as an effective photocatalyst for the decomposition of phenol is also discussed.

  5. A flexible organic active matrix circuit fabricated using novel organic thin film transistors and organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Heredia, G.; González, L. A.; Alshareef, H. N.; Gnade, B. E.; Quevedo-López, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present an active matrix circuit fabricated on plastic (polyethylene naphthalene, PEN) and glass substrates using organic thin film transistors and organic capacitors to control organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The basic circuit is fabricated using two pentacene-based transistors and a capacitor using a novel aluminum oxide/parylene stack (Al2O3/parylene) as the dielectric for both the transistor and the capacitor. We report that our circuit can deliver up to 15 µA to each OLED pixel. To achieve 200 cd m-2 of brightness a 10 µA current is needed; therefore, our approach can initially deliver 1.5× the required current to drive a single pixel. In contrast to parylene-only devices, the Al2O3/parylene stack does not fail after stressing at a field of 1.7 MV cm-1 for >10 000 s, whereas 'parylene only' devices show breakdown at approximately 1000 s. Details of the integration scheme are presented.

  6. Enhanced electrochromism in cerium doped molybdenum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanasankar, M.; Purushothaman, K.K.; Muralidharan, G.

    2010-12-15

    Cerium (5-15% by weight) doped molybdenum oxide thin films have been prepared on FTO coated glass substrate at 250 {sup o}C using sol-gel dip coating method. The structural and morphological changes were observed with the help of XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. The amorphous structure of the Ce doped samples, favours easy intercalation and deintercalation processes. Mo oxide films with 10 wt.% of Ce exhibit maximum anodic diffusion coefficient of 24.99 x 10{sup -11} cm{sup 2}/s and the change in optical transmittance of ({Delta}T at 550 nm) of 79.28% between coloured and bleached state with the optical density of ({Delta}OD) 1.15.

  7. Intrinsically stretchable and transparent thin-film transistors based on printable silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes and an elastomeric dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Chen, Dustin; Hajagos, Tibor; Ren, Zhi; Chou, Shu-Yu; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film field-effect transistor is a fundamental component behind various mordern electronics. The development of stretchable electronics poses fundamental challenges in developing new electronic materials for stretchable thin-film transistors that are mechanically compliant and solution processable. Here we report the fabrication of transparent thin-film transistors that behave like an elastomer film. The entire fabrication is carried out by solution-based techniques, and the resulting devices exhibit a mobility of ∼30 cm2 V−1 s−1, on/off ratio of 103–104, switching current >100 μA, transconductance >50 μS and relative low operating voltages. The devices can be stretched by up to 50% strain and subjected to 500 cycles of repeated stretching to 20% strain without significant loss in electrical property. The thin-film transistors are also used to drive organic light-emitting diodes. The approach and results represent an important progress toward the development of stretchable active-matrix displays. PMID:26173436

  8. Intrinsically stretchable and transparent thin-film transistors based on printable silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes and an elastomeric dielectric.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Chen, Dustin; Hajagos, Tibor; Ren, Zhi; Chou, Shu-Yu; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film field-effect transistor is a fundamental component behind various mordern electronics. The development of stretchable electronics poses fundamental challenges in developing new electronic materials for stretchable thin-film transistors that are mechanically compliant and solution processable. Here we report the fabrication of transparent thin-film transistors that behave like an elastomer film. The entire fabrication is carried out by solution-based techniques, and the resulting devices exhibit a mobility of ∼30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), on/off ratio of 10(3)-10(4), switching current >100 μA, transconductance >50 μS and relative low operating voltages. The devices can be stretched by up to 50% strain and subjected to 500 cycles of repeated stretching to 20% strain without significant loss in electrical property. The thin-film transistors are also used to drive organic light-emitting diodes. The approach and results represent an important progress toward the development of stretchable active-matrix displays.

  9. Noise Characterization of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors for X-ray Imagers Based on Active Pixel Architectures.

    PubMed

    Antonuk, L E; Koniczek, M; McDonald, J; El-Mohri, Y; Zhao, Q; Behravan, M

    2008-01-01

    An examination of the noise of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors, in the context of flat panel x-ray imager development, is reported. The study was conducted in the spirit of exploring how the 1/f, shot and thermal noise components of poly-Si TFTs, determined from current noise power spectral density measurements, as well as through calculation, can be used to assist in the development of imagers incorporating pixel amplification circuits based on such transistors.

  10. Aqueous combustion synthesis of aluminum oxide thin films and application as gate dielectric in GZTO solution-based TFTs.

    PubMed

    Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Santos, Lídia; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2014-11-26

    Solution processing has been recently considered as an option when trying to reduce the costs associated with deposition under vacuum. In this context, most of the research efforts have been centered in the development of the semiconductors processes nevertheless the development of the most suitable dielectrics for oxide based transistors is as relevant as the semiconductor layer itself. In this work we explore the solution combustion synthesis and report on a completely new and green route for the preparation of amorphous aluminum oxide thin films; introducing water as solvent. Optimized dielectric layers were obtained for a water based precursor solution with 0.1 M concentration and demonstrated high capacitance, 625 nF cm(-2) at 10 kHz, and a permittivity of 7.1. These thin films were successfully applied as gate dielectric in solution processed gallium-zinc-tin oxide (GZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) yielding good electrical performance such as subthreshold slope of about 0.3 V dec(-1) and mobility above 1.3 cm2 V(-1) s(-1).

  11. Studies on nickel-tungsten oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usha, K. S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Nickel-Tungsten oxide (95:5) thin films were prepared by rf sputtering at 200W rf power with various substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction study reveals the amorphous nature of films. The substrate temperature induced decrease in energy band gap with a maximum transmittance of 71%1 was observed. The Micro-Raman study shows broad peaks at 560 cm{sup −1} and 1100 cm{sup −1} correspond to Ni-O vibration and the peak at 860 cm{sup −1} can be assigned to the vibration of W-O-W bond. Photoluminescence spectra show two peaks centered on 420 nm and 485 nm corresponding to the band edge emission and vacancies created due to the addition of tungsten, respectively.

  12. Work function recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Irfan; James Turinske, Alexander; Bao, Zhenan; Gao, Yongli

    2012-08-01

    We report substantial work function (WF) recovery of air exposed molybdenum oxide thin films with vacuum annealing. We observed a sharp reduction in the MoOx WF (from 6.8 eV to 5.6 eV) as well as a very thin layer of oxygen rich adsorbate on the MoOx film after an hour of air exposure. The WF of the exposed MoOx film started to gradually recover with increasing annealing temperature in vacuum, and the saturation in the WF recovery was observed at 450 °C with WF ˜6.4 eV. We further studied the interface formation between the annealed MoOx and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of CuPc was observed to be almost pinned to the Fermi level, strongly suggesting the possibility of efficient hole injection with the vacuum annealed MoOx film.

  13. Benzothienobenzothiophene-based conjugated oligomers as semiconductors for stable organic thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Li, Weili; Tian, Hongkun; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang; Zhang, Jingping; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2014-04-09

    Two benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-based conjugated oligomers, i.e., 2,2'-bi[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (1) and 5,5'-bis([1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophen-2-yl)-2,2'-bithiophene (2), were prepared and characterized. Both oligomers exhibit excellent thermal stability, with 5% weight-loss temperatures (T(L)) above 370 °C; no phase transition was observed before decomposition. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of 1 and 2 are -5.3 and -4.9 eV, respectively, as measured by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Thin-film X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy characterizations indicate that both oligomers form highly crystalline films with large domain sizes on octadecyltrimethoxysilane-modified substrates. Organic thin-film transistors with top-contact and bottom-gate geometry based on 1 and 2 exhibited mobilities up to 2.12 cm(2)/V·s for 1 and 1.39 cm(2)/V·s for 2 in an ambient atmosphere. 1-based devices exhibited great air and thermal stabilities, as evidenced by the slight performance degradation after 2 months of storage under ambient conditions and after thermal annealing at temperatures below 250 °C.

  14. Carbon nanotube thin film transistors fabricated by an etching based manufacturing compatible process.

    PubMed

    Tian, Boyuan; Liang, Xuelei; Xia, Jiye; Zhang, Han; Dong, Guodong; Huang, Qi; Peng, Lianmao; Xie, Sishen

    2017-03-17

    Carbon nanotube thin film transistors (CNT-TFTs) have been regarded as strong competitors to currently commercialized TFT technologies. Though much progress has been achieved recently, CNT-TFT research is still in the stage of laboratory research. One critical challenge for commercializing CNT-TFT technology is that the commonly used device fabrication method is a lift-off based process, which is not suitable for mass production. In this paper, we report an etching based fabrication process for CNT-TFTs, which is fully manufacturing compatible. In our process, the CNT thin film channel was patterned by dry etching, while wet etching was used for patterning the layers of metal and insulator. The CNT-TFTs were successfully fabricated on a 4 inch wafer in both top-gate and buried-gate geometries with low Schottky barrier contact and pretty uniform performance. High output current (>1.2 μA μm(-1)), high on/off current ratio (>10(5)) and high mobility (>30 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) were obtained. Though the fabrication process still needs to be optimized, we believe our research on the etching fabrication process pushes CNT-TFT technology a step forward towards real applications in the near future.

  15. Air-stable solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors with polymerenhanced morphology

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhengran; Shaik, Shoieb; Bi, Sheng; Chen, Jihua; Li, Dawen

    2015-05-04

    N,N0-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN2) is an n-type semiconductor exhibiting high electron mobility and excellent air stability. However, the reported electron mobility based on spin-coated PDIF-CN2 film is much lower than the value of PDIF-CN2 single crystals made from vapor phase deposition, indicating significant room for mobility enhancement. In this study, various insulating polymers, including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PaMS), are pre-coated on silicon substrate aiming to enhance the morphology of the PDIF-CN2 thin film, thereby improving the charge transport and air stability. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that with the pre-deposition of PaMS or PMMA polymers, the morphology of the PDIF-CN2 polycrystalline films is optimized in semiconducting crystal connectivity, domain size, and surface roughness, which leads to significant improvement of organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) performance. Particularly, an electron mobility of up to 0.55 cm2/V s has been achieved from OTFTs based on the PDIF-CN2 film with the pre-deposition of PaMS polymer.

  16. Spin Coated Nano Scale PMMA Films for Organic Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar, B. Chandar; Sathish, S.; Sengoden, R.

    Nano scale poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) films are prepared by spin coating the solution of PMMA on to p-Si substrate. The thickness of the films coated is measured by Ellipsometry. The SA-XRD spectrum of the as grown and annealed films indicated the amorphous nature. The SEM analysis revealed no pinholes, pits and dendritic features on the surface. Both as grown and annealed films indicated smooth surface and amorphous structure. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) behaviour of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with Al/PMMA/p-Si has been studied. The C-V behaviour carried out for various frequencies (f) ranging from 20 kHz to 1 MHz and for a bias voltage range of -20 V to +20 V. Both as grown and annealed films showed a small flat band voltage (VFB) shift towards the negative voltage. The small shift in the VFB observed may be due to charge traps and de-traps. The obtained C-V behaviour for as grown and annealed films indicated that as grown PMMA nano scale thin films do not have many defects such as voids and inhomogeneity etc. The observed C-V behavior, a very low shift in the flat band voltage (VFB 0); reasonably higher dielectric constant values; thermal stability up to 2800C; amorphous and smooth surface implies that nano scale thin PMMA film coated by spin coating could be used as an efficient dielectric layer in field effect organic thin film transistors (OTFTs).

  17. Air-stable solution-processed n-channel organic thin film transistors with polymerenhanced morphology

    DOE PAGES

    He, Zhengran; Shaik, Shoieb; Bi, Sheng; ...

    2015-05-04

    N,N0-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDIF-CN2) is an n-type semiconductor exhibiting high electron mobility and excellent air stability. However, the reported electron mobility based on spin-coated PDIF-CN2 film is much lower than the value of PDIF-CN2 single crystals made from vapor phase deposition, indicating significant room for mobility enhancement. In this study, various insulating polymers, including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PaMS), are pre-coated on silicon substrate aiming to enhance the morphology of the PDIF-CN2 thin film, thereby improving the charge transport and air stability. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that with the pre-deposition of PaMS or PMMA polymers, the morphologymore » of the PDIF-CN2 polycrystalline films is optimized in semiconducting crystal connectivity, domain size, and surface roughness, which leads to significant improvement of organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) performance. Particularly, an electron mobility of up to 0.55 cm2/V s has been achieved from OTFTs based on the PDIF-CN2 film with the pre-deposition of PaMS polymer.« less

  18. Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael; Small, Joshua P; Steiner, Mathias; Freitag, Marcus; Green, Alexander A; Hersam, Mark C; Avouris, Phaedon

    2008-12-23

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) are now poised to revolutionize the display, sensor, and flexible electronics markets. However, there is a limited choice of channel materials compatible with low-temperature processing. This has inhibited the fabrication of high electrical performance TFTs. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have very high mobilities and can be solution-processed, making thin film CNT-based TFTs a natural direction for exploration. The two main challenges facing CNT-TFTs are the difficulty of placing and aligning CNTs over large areas and low on/off current ratios due to admixture of metallic nanotubes. Here, we report the self-assembly and self-alignment of CNTs from solution into micron-wide strips that form regular arrays of dense and highly aligned CNT films covering the entire chip, which is ideally suitable for device fabrication. The films are formed from pre-separated, 99% purely semiconducting CNTs and, as a result, the CNT-TFTs exhibit simultaneously high drive currents and large on/off current ratios. Moreover, they deliver strong photocurrents and are also both photo- and electroluminescent.

  19. Characterizing p-channel thin film transistors using ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol as the conducting channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liau, Leo Chau-Kuang; Hsu, Tzu-Hsien; Lo, Pei-Hsuan

    2014-08-01

    We report the characteristics of p-channel thin film transistors (p-TFTs) with ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (ZnO/PVA) conducting channels. The metal-oxide-semiconductor structure of the p-TFTs was composed of indium tin oxide (ITO)/SiO2/ZnO/PVA layers. The TFT was assembled using PVA gel, which was glued to ITO substrates patterned to form source and drain electrodes. The ZnO/PVA composite film acted as an effective conducting film because of the chemisorption reaction at the film interface where free electrons can be generated. The formation of the conducting channel was also affected by VG applied to the TFT. The ZnO/PVA-based TFTs demonstrated p-channel transistor performance, shown by current-voltage (I-V) data analysis. The electrical parameters of the device were evaluated, including the on/off ratio (˜103), threshold voltage (Vth, -1 V), and subthreshold swing (-2.2 V/dec). The PVA/ZnO-based p-TFTs were fabricated using simple and cost-effective approaches instead of doping methods.

  20. Characterizing p-channel thin film transistors using ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol as the conducting channel

    SciTech Connect

    Liau, Leo Chau-Kuang Hsu, Tzu-Hsien; Lo, Pei-Hsuan

    2014-08-11

    We report the characteristics of p-channel thin film transistors (p-TFTs) with ZnO/hydrated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (ZnO/PVA) conducting channels. The metal-oxide-semiconductor structure of the p-TFTs was composed of indium tin oxide (ITO)/SiO{sub 2}/ZnO/PVA layers. The TFT was assembled using PVA gel, which was glued to ITO substrates patterned to form source and drain electrodes. The ZnO/PVA composite film acted as an effective conducting film because of the chemisorption reaction at the film interface where free electrons can be generated. The formation of the conducting channel was also affected by V{sub G} applied to the TFT. The ZnO/PVA-based TFTs demonstrated p-channel transistor performance, shown by current-voltage (I-V) data analysis. The electrical parameters of the device were evaluated, including the on/off ratio (∼10{sup 3}), threshold voltage (V{sub th}, −1 V), and subthreshold swing (−2.2 V/dec). The PVA/ZnO-based p-TFTs were fabricated using simple and cost-effective approaches instead of doping methods.

  1. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  2. A light-stimulated synaptic transistor with synaptic plasticity and memory functions based on InGaZnOx-Al2O3 thin film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. K.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Lee, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a synaptic transistor based on the indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film structure, which uses ultraviolet (UV) light pulses as the pre-synaptic stimulus, has been demonstrated. The synaptic transistor exhibits the behavior of synaptic plasticity like the paired-pulse facilitation. In addition, it also shows the brain's memory behaviors including the transition from short-term memory to long-term memory and the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. The synapse-like behavior and memory behaviors of the transistor are due to the trapping and detrapping processes of the holes, which are generated by the UV pulses, at the IGZO/Al2O3 interface and/or in the Al2O3 layer.

  3. Statistical Origin of the Meyer-Neldel Rule in Amorphous Semiconductor Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Minoru

    1990-09-01

    The origin of the Meyer-Neldel (MN) rule [G0{\\propto}\\exp (AEσ)] in the dc conductance of amorphous semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFT) is investigated based on the statistical model. We analyzed the temperature derivative of the band bending energy eVs(T) at the semiconductor interface as a function of Vs. It is shown that the condition for the validity of the rule, i.e., the linearity of the derivative deVs/dkT to Vs, certainly holds as a natural consequence of the interplay between the steep tail states and the low gap density of states spectrum. An expression is derived which relates the parameter A in the rule to the gap states spectrum. Model calculations show a magnitude of A in fair agreement with the experimental observations. The effects of the Fermi level position and the magnitude of the midgap density of states are also discussed.

  4. Ambient effect on thermal stability of amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianeng; Wu, Qi; Xu, Ling; Xie, Haiting; Liu, Guochao; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Chengyuan

    2016-12-01

    The thermal stability of amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with various ambient gases was investigated. The a-IGZO TFTs in air were more thermally stable than the devices in the ambient argon. Oxygen, rather than nitrogen and moisture, was responsible for this improvement. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the a-IGZO TFTs improved with the increasing oxygen content in the surrounding atmosphere. The related physical mechanism was examined, indicating that the higher ambient oxygen content induced more combinations of the oxygen vacancies and adsorbed oxygen ions in the a-IGZO, which resulted in the larger defect formation energy. This larger defect formation energy led to the smaller variation in the threshold voltage for the corresponding TFT devices.

  5. DC sputtered amorphous In-Sn-Zn-O thin-film transistors: Electrical properties and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Mitsuru; Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of DC sputtered amorphous In-Sn-Zn-O (a-ITZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated under various process conditions. Fabricated a-ITZO TFTs achieved a threshold voltage (VT) of 1.0 V, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.38 V/dec and field-effect mobility (μeff) of around 30 cm2/V s. An analytical field-effect mobility model is proposed for a-ITZO TFTs with key parameters extracted using different methods. The impacts of a-ITZO channel thickness and oxygen gas flow ratio on device performance were evaluated. Finally, the a-ITZO TFT bias-temperature stress (BTS) induced electrical instability was studied. In comparison to amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) TFTs, improved electrical stability was observed for a-ITZO TFTs using exactly the same BTS conditions.

  6. Enhancement of photodetection based on perovskite/MoS2 hybrid thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fengjing; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Liang; Cai, Xiaoyong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Gongtang

    2017-03-01

    Perovskite/MoS2 hybrid thin film transistor photodetectors consist of few-layered MoS2 and CH3NH3PbI3 film with various thickness prepared by two-step vacuum deposition. By implementing perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 film onto the MoS2 flake, the perovskite/MoS2 hybrid photodetector exhibited a photoresponsivity of 104 A/W and fast response time of about 40 ms. Improvement of photodetection performance is attributed to the balance between light absorption in the perovskite layer and an effective transfer of photogenerated carriers from perovskite entering the MoS2 channel. This work may provide guidance to develop high-performance hybrid structure optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11374070, 61327009 214320051) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDA09040201).

  7. Effects of oxygen flow rate on the electrical stability of zinc oxynitride thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of the oxygen flow rate (OFR) during the deposition of a zinc oxynitride (ZnON) channel layer on the electrical performance and stability of high-mobility ZnON thin-film transistors (TFTs). The ZnON TFTs prepared at a lower OFR exhibited higher electrical performance characteristics and a higher electrical stability under positive gate bias stresses than those prepared at a higher OFR, but showed a lower electrical stability under negative gate bias stresses. The lower density of subgap states within the channel layer and the higher hole concentration due to the small bandgap were considered as physical mechanisms responsible for the observed phenomena, respectively.

  8. Influence of curvature on the device physics of thin film transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Amalraj, Rex; Sambandan, Sanjiv

    2014-10-28

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) on elastomers promise flexible electronics with stretching and bending. Recently, there have been several experimental studies reporting the behavior of TFTs under bending and buckling. In the presence of stress, the insulator capacitance is influenced due to two reasons. The first is the variation in insulator thickness depending on the Poisson ratio and strain. The second is the geometric influence of the curvature of the insulator-semiconductor interface during bending or buckling. This paper models the role of curvature on TFT performance and brings to light an elegant result wherein the TFT characteristics is dependent on the area under the capacitance-distance curve. The paper compares models with simulations and explains several experimental findings reported in literature.

  9. High-performance ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Kim, Young-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Han, Jin-Woo; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Tae-Won; Kim, Kwang-Young; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2011-08-01

    We report the fabrication and characteristics of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) using a 50 nm thick ZnO film as an active layer on an Al2O3 gate dielectric film deposited by atomic layer deposition. Lowering the deposition temperature allowed the control of the carrier concentration of the active channel layer (ZnO film) in the TFT device. The ZnO TFT fabricated at 110 °C exhibited high-performance TFT characteristics including a saturation field-effect mobility of 11.86 cm2 V-1 s-1, an on-to-off current ratio of 3.09 × 107 and a sub-threshold gate-voltage swing of 0.72 V decade-1.

  10. Anomalous capacitance change in low-temperature grown ZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, O.; Kim, H.; Jo, J.

    2010-10-01

    We studied capacitance-voltage characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFT's), grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We compared two ZnO TFT's: one grown at 450 °C and the other at 350 °C. ZnO grown at 450 °C showed smooth capacitance profile with electron density of 1.5×1020 cm-3. In contrast, ZnO grown at 350 °C showed a capacitance jump when gate voltage was changed to negative voltages. Current-voltage characteristics measured in the two samples did not show much difference. We explain that the capacitance jump is related to p-type ZnO layer formed at the SiO2 interface. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage data support that our ZnO films have anisotropic conductivity.

  11. Numerical Analysis on the Mechanical Properties of Organic Thin Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Lee, D. K.; Seol, Y. G.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, N. E.; Kim, Y. J.

    The organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrate electroplated electrodes has many advantages as in the fabrication of low cost sensors, e-paper, smart cards, and flexible displays. In this study, we simulated the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the OTFT with various voltage conditions by using COMSOL. The model consisting of a channel, source and drain was employed to investigate the temperature distribution and thermal stress concentration. The channel length is 40 µm and the voltage ranged between -20V and -40V. The OTFT was fabricated using pentacene as a semiconducting layer and electroplated Ni as a gate electrode. Mechanical properties of the fabricated OTFT were characterized by thermal stress which was predicted with the result of stress distribution.

  12. Review on thin-film transistor technology, its applications, and possible new applications to biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Ihida, Satoshi; Ségard, Bertrand-David; Cathcart, Grant A.; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a review on state-of-the-art of thin-film transistor (TFT) technology and its wide range of applications, not only in liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), but also in sensing devices. The history of the evolution of the technology is first given. Then the standard applications of TFT-LCDs, and X-ray detectors, followed by state-of-the-art applications in the field of chemical and biochemical sensing are presented. TFT technology allows the fabrication of dense arrays of independent and transparent microelectrodes on large glass substrates. The potential of these devices as electrical substrates for biological cell applications is then described. The possibility of using TFT array substrates as new tools for electrical experiments on biological cells has been investigated for the first time by our group. Dielectrophoresis experiments and impedance measurements on yeast cells are presented here. Their promising results open the door towards new applications of TFT technology.

  13. Phthalocyanine-Based Organic Thin-Film Transistors: A Review of Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Melville, Owen A; Lessard, Benoît H; Bender, Timothy P

    2015-06-24

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) are versatile conjugated macrocycles that have attracted a great deal of interest as active components in modern organic electronic devices. In particular, the charge transport properties of MPcs, their chemical stability, and their synthetic versatility make them ideal candidate materials for use in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). This article reviews recent progress in both the material design and device engineering of MPc-based OTFTs, including the introduction of solubilizing groups on the MPcs and the surface modification of substrates to induce favorable MPc self-assembly. Finally, a discussion on emerging niche applications based on MPc OTFTs will be explored, in addition to a perspective and outlook on these promising materials in OTFTs. The scope of this review is focused primarily on the advances made in the field of MPc-based OTFTs since 2008.

  14. Organic thin-film transistors based on solution-processable benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Takeshi; Toake, Hitoshi; Osuga, Hideji; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups (2C6-BDT-dimer) were investigated as solution-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Since 2C6-BDT-dimer crystals have an anisotropic shape, flow coating was adopted to grow polycrystalline films. The flow-coated films were inferior to the vacuum-evaporated ones in terms of their crystallinity estimated from X-ray diffraction data. However, the hole mobility of the OTFTs with the flow-coated films, which was 1.7 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at maximum, was higher than that of the OTFTs with vacuum-evaporated films because the one-dimensional thin crystals of the flow-coated films were aligned in the flow-coating direction.

  15. Trap states and transport characteristics in picene thin film field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Naoko; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Hideki; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yamaji, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Transport characteristics and trap states are investigated in picene thin film field-effect transistor under O2 atmosphere on the basis of multiple shallow trap and release (MTR) model. The channel transport is dominated by MTR below 300 K. It has been clarified on the basis of MTR model that the O2-exposure induces a drastic reduction in shallow trap density to increase both the field-effect mobility μ and on-off ratio. We also found that the O2-exposure never caused an increase in hole carrier density. Actually, a very high μ value of 3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 is realized under 500 Torr of O2.

  16. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-02-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design.

  17. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-01-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design. PMID:28145438

  18. Inkjet printed circuits based on ambipolar and p-type carbon nanotube thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bongjun; Geier, Michael L.; Hersam, Mark C.; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2017-02-01

    Ambipolar and p-type single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reliably integrated into various complementary-like circuits on the same substrate by inkjet printing. We describe the fabrication and characteristics of inverters, ring oscillators, and NAND gates based on complementary-like circuits fabricated with such TFTs as building blocks. We also show that complementary-like circuits have potential use as chemical sensors in ambient conditions since changes to the TFT characteristics of the p-channel TFTs in the circuit alter the overall operating characteristics of the circuit. The use of circuits rather than individual devices as sensors integrates sensing and signal processing functions, thereby simplifying overall system design.

  19. The ergonomics approach for thin film transistor-liquid crystal display manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.

  20. Screen printing as a scalable and low-cost approach for rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuan; Chen, Haitian; Gu, Xiaofei; Liu, Bilu; Wang, Wenli; Cao, Yu; Wu, Fanqi; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-12-23

    Semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes are very promising materials in printed electronics due to their excellent mechanical and electrical property, outstanding printability, and great potential for flexible electronics. Nonetheless, developing scalable and low-cost approaches for manufacturing fully printed high-performance single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors remains a major challenge. Here we report that screen printing, which is a simple, scalable, and cost-effective technique, can be used to produce both rigid and flexible thin-film transistors using separated single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our fully printed top-gated nanotube thin-film transistors on rigid and flexible substrates exhibit decent performance, with mobility up to 7.67 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), on/off ratio of 10(4)∼10(5), minimal hysteresis, and low operation voltage (<10 V). In addition, outstanding mechanical flexibility of printed nanotube thin-film transistors (bent with radius of curvature down to 3 mm) and driving capability for organic light-emitting diode have been demonstrated. Given the high performance of the fully screen-printed single-wall carbon nanotube thin-film transistors, we believe screen printing stands as a low-cost, scalable, and reliable approach to manufacture high-performance nanotube thin-film transistors for application in display electronics. Moreover, this technique may be used to fabricate thin-film transistors based on other materials for large-area flexible macroelectronics, and low-cost display electronics.