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Sample records for oxygen isotope record

  1. What does the oxygen isotope composition of rodent teeth record?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Aurélien; Lécuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Amiot, Romain; Legendre, Serge; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Jeannet, Marcel; Martineau, François

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of tooth phosphate (δ18Op) were measured in 107 samples defined on the basis of teeth obtained from 375 specimens of extant rodents. These rodents were sampled from pellets collected in Europe from 38°N (Portugal) to 65°N (Finland) with most samples coming from sites located in France and Spain. Large oxygen isotopic variability in δ18Op is observed both at the intra- and inter-species scale within pellets from a given location. This isotopic variability is partly explained by heterochrony in tooth formation related to the short time of mineralization for all rodent species as well as the duration of mineralization that is species-dependent. Consequently, tooth phosphate of rodents records a short seasonal interval in the oxygen isotope compositions of meteoric waters (δ18Omw). In addition, inter-species isotopic variability observed in the same pellets suggests behavioural differences implying distinct isotopic compositions for species living in the same location. At the scale of Europe, a robust linear oxygen isotope fractionation equation was determined for Muroidea between the midrange δ18Op values and δ18Omw values: δ18Op=1.21(±0.20)δ18Omw+24.76(±2.70) with R2=0.79 (n=9; p<0.0001).

  2. Chromium Isotopes Record Fluctuations in Precambrian Biospheric Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Gaucher, C.; Poulton, S. W.; Canfield, D. E.

    2009-12-01

    There is a direct relationship between life, oxygen, and the surface chemistry of the Earth. Geochemical data suggest that oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere occurred in two broad steps, near the beginning and the end of the Proterozoic Eon (2500 to 542 million years ago), but the details of this history are unclear. The geochemical behaviour of chromium (Cr) is highly sensitive to the redox state of the surface environment as oxidative weathering processes produce the oxidised hexavalent [Cr(VI)] form. Oxidation of reduced trivaltent [Cr(III)] chromium on land is accompanied by an isotopic fractionation, leading to enrichment of the mobile hexavalent form in the heavier isotope. The fractionated Cr isotope signature is then tranfered by riverine transport to the sea. Here, we use Cr stable isotopes from banded iron formations (BIFs) to track the presence of Cr(VI) in Precambrian oceans, providing a time-resolved picture of the oxygenation history of Earth’s atmosphere-hydrosphere system. Fractionated Cr isotopes indicate the accumulation of Cr(VI) in ocean surface waters ~2.8 to 2.6 billion years (Gyr) ago and a likely transient elevation in atmospheric and surface ocean oxygen prior to the first great rise of oxygen 2.45-2.2 Gyr ago (the Great Oxidation Event; GOE). In contrast, Cr isotopes in ~1.88 Gyr old BIFs are not fractionated, indicating a major decline in atmospheric oxygen and demonstrating that the GOE did not lead to a unidirectional stepwise increase in atmospheric oxygen. In the late Neoproterozoic, ~800 to 542 million years (Myr) ago, we observe strong positive fractionations in Cr isotopes (δ53Cr up to +4.9 ‰) providing independent support for increased surface oxygenation at this time. This may have stimulated rapid evolution of macroscopic multicellular life. Our chromium isotope data thus provide new insights into the oxygenation history of the Earth, and highlight its use as a powerful redox tracer in aquatic systems.

  3. Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Frei, Robert; Gaucher, Claudio; Poulton, Simon W; Canfield, Don E

    2009-09-10

    Geochemical data suggest that oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere occurred in two broad steps. The first rise in atmospheric oxygen is thought to have occurred between approximately 2.45 and 2.2 Gyr ago, leading to a significant increase in atmospheric oxygen concentrations and concomitant oxygenation of the shallow surface ocean. The second increase in atmospheric oxygen appears to have taken place in distinct stages during the late Neoproterozoic era ( approximately 800-542 Myr ago), ultimately leading to oxygenation of the deep ocean approximately 580 Myr ago, but details of the evolution of atmospheric oxygenation remain uncertain. Here we use chromium (Cr) stable isotopes from banded iron formations (BIFs) to track the presence of Cr(VI) in Precambrian oceans, providing a time-resolved picture of the oxygenation history of the Earth's atmosphere-hydrosphere system. The geochemical behaviour of Cr is highly sensitive to the redox state of the surface environment because oxidative weathering processes produce the oxidized hexavalent [Cr(VI)] form. Oxidation of reduced trivalent [Cr(III)] chromium on land is accompanied by an isotopic fractionation, leading to enrichment of the mobile hexavalent form in the heavier isotope. Our fractionated Cr isotope data indicate the accumulation of Cr(VI) in ocean surface waters approximately 2.8 to 2.6 Gyr ago and a likely transient elevation in atmospheric and surface ocean oxygenation before the first great rise of oxygen 2.45-2.2 Gyr ago (the Great Oxidation Event). In approximately 1.88-Gyr-old BIFs we find that Cr isotopes are not fractionated, indicating a decline in atmospheric oxygen. Our findings suggest that the Great Oxidation Event did not lead to a unidirectional stepwise increase in atmospheric oxygen. In the late Neoproterozoic, we observe strong positive fractionations in Cr isotopes (delta(53)Cr up to +4.9 per thousand), providing independent support for increased surface oxygenation at that time, which may

  4. Sea Surface Temperature and Seawater Oxygen Isotope Variability Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Dullo, W. Chr; Eisenhauer, A.

    2003-04-01

    We analysed a 336 year coral oxygen isotope record off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel. Based on temporal variability of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface temperatures are reconstructed for the period from 1659 to 1995. Sr/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688 to 1710) to validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes. The coral proxy data were validated against gridded SST data sets. The coral oxygen isotope record is coherent with Kaplan-SST and GISST2.3b on an interdecadal frequency of 17 years, which is the most prominent frequency band observed in this region. The Sr/Ca-SST agree well with SST observations in the validation period (1863 to 1910), whereas the d18O derived SST show largest discrepencies during this time interval. By taking into account the SST values derived from coral Sr/Ca, we were able to reconstruct d18O seawater variability. This indicates that d18O seawater variations contributed significantly to interannual and interdecadal variations in coral d18O. We propose that the local surface-ocean evaporation-precipitation balance and remote forcing by ENSO via South Equatorial Current and/or Indonesian throughflow variability may contribute to observed d18O variability. Our results indicate that coral d18O may be used to reconstruct temporal variations in the fresh water balance within the Indian Ocean on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  5. Oxygenation of Ediacaran Ocean recorded by iron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haifeng; Zhu, Xiangkun; Wen, Hanjie; Yan, Bin; Li, Jin; Feng, Lianjun

    2014-09-01

    The increase in atmospheric oxygen during the late Neoproterozoic Era (ca. 800-542 Ma) may have stimulated the oxygenation of the deep oceans and the evolution of macroscopic multicellular organisms. However, the mechanism and magnitude of Neoproterozoic oxygenation remain uncertain. We present Fe isotopes, Fe species and other geochemical data for two sections of the Doushantuo Formation (ca. 635-551 Ma) deposited after the Nantuo glacial episode in the Yangtze Gorge area, South China. It is highlighted that highly positive δ56Fe values reflect a lower oxidation rate of Fe(II)aq under ferruginous conditions, and in turn near zero δ56Fe values indicate oxidizing conditions. Our study suggests that during the deposition of the bottom of Member II of the Doushantuo Formation the shallow seawater was oxic, but the deep water was characterized by ferruginous conditions, which is consistent with a redox chemical stratification model. Subsequent anoxic conditions under shallow seawater, represented by positive δ56Fe and negative δ13Ccarb excursions, should be ascribed to the upwelling of Fe(II)aq and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich anoxic deep seawater. The oxidation of Fe (II)aq and DOC-rich anoxic deep seawater upon mixing with oxic shallow water provides an innovative explanation for the well-known negative δ13Ccarb excursions (ENC2) and positive δ56Fe excursions in the middle of Doushantuo Formation. Meanwhile, the upwelling Fe (II)aq- and DOC-rich anoxic deep seawater could increase photosynthetic activity. The balance between oxygen consumption and production was most important criteria for the oxygenation of Early Ediacaran Ocean and diversity of eukaryotic organisms.

  6. Oxygen Isotope Records in Modern Oyster Shells from Chi Ku, Tainan and Their Implication of Seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. C.; Mii, H. S.; Li, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    To exam whether oxygen isotope records of Crassostrea gigasoysters can be used as proxies of environment, 133 cultivated oysters and 21 water samples were collected from Chi Ku area, Tainan City, southern Taiwan in December of 2012, and from March, 2013 to July, 2014. Instrumental air and water temperatures and precipitation records were obtained from a nearest Central Weather Bureau (CWB) station roughly 16 km north of Chi Ku. The oxygen and carbon isotope values of the ligamental area of the modern oyster shells are from -6.92‰ to -0.08‰ (-3.05 ± 1.17‰, N = 2280; 1σ; VPDB) and from -5.57‰ to 0.63‰ (-1.88 ± 0.81‰), respectively. Oxygen isotope values of the water samples are mainly between -0.28‰ and 0.74‰ (0.18 ± 0.29‰, N = 20; 1σ; VSMOW). However, water oxygen isotope value of -2.75‰ was observed for the water sample collected immediately after a typhoon heavy rainfall. Seasonal temperature fluctuation pattern of estimated oxygen isotope temperatures from modern shells is similar to that of CWB instrumental records. However, the oxygen isotope temperatures are respectively about 3 °C and 10°C higher than those of instrumental records for winter and summer. Higher estimated oxygen isotope temperatures are most likely caused by underestimated fraction of freshwater. We analyzed 5 archaeological oyster shells of Siraya culture (500~250B.P.) collected from Wu Chien Tuso North (WCTN) archaeological site of Tainan branch of Southern Taiwan Science Park to infer the harvest season of mollusks. Oxygen isotope values of the ligamental area of the archaeological oyster shells are between -5.98‰ and -1.26‰ (-3.34 ± 1.37‰, N = 60; 1σ), and carbon isotope values are between -3.21‰ and 0.60‰ (-2.04‰ ± 0.55‰). The oxygen isotope records of archaeological oyster shells also showed clear seasonality. Most of the oysters were collected in autumn and winter. Oxygen isotope values of archaeological oyster shells was 1‰ greater than that

  7. Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings: A 345 Year Record of Precipitation in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Evans, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon basin is one of the world's key centers of atmospheric convection and acts as an engine for global hydrologic circulation. Despite its importance, a paucity of high resolution climate data exists for this region, in large part due to a poor instrumental record. The oxygen isotopic measurement of meteoric water has been used extensively to reconstruct past temperatures derived from ice cores, corals, and tree rings but is only recently recognized as a precipitation proxy in the tropics. Here we present a continuous, highly resolved (intra-annual), 345 year oxygen isotopic record from the Madre de Dios department in Southeastern Peru. Using tropical hardwood species Dipteryx micrantha, we present oxygen (and carbon) isotopic data from digested tree ring cellulose. We also present some of the first intra-annual (early wood versus late wood) isotopic data on this old growth tropical species. We demonstrate the utility of Amazon tropical tree rings to accurately record rainfall. We also identify that this meteoric water was delivered to the region via the South American Low-level Jet (SALLJ), which develops over the Atlantic and is the major water source during the South American Summer Monsoon.

  8. Tree-ring Oxygen Isotope Records of Climate Modes Influencing North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C. I.; Miller, D. L.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Kocis, W. N.; Lewis, D. B.

    2006-12-01

    The relatively short instrumental record hinders our ability to discern the linkages between low frequency modes of climate variability and tropical cyclone activity and to differentiate natural versus anthropogenic components of these trends. The development of biological proxies for tropical cyclone activity and climate provides a basis for evaluation of these linkages over much longer time frames. The oxygen isotope composition of tree-ring cellulose, sampled at high resolution (seasonal or better), provides a new proxy for tropical cyclone activity that preserves a concurrent isotope time series reflecting the influence of climate variability. This proxy archive potentially extends many centuries beyond the instrumental and historical (documentary) record of climate and tropical cyclone activity. Isotope time series for longleaf pines (Pinus palustris Mill.) in southern Georgia and South Carolina preserve distinct tropical cyclone histories, yet similar, long term trends in cellulose δ 18O compositions. The isotope time series correlate to various climate modes proposed to impact hurricane formation and frequency. Tree-ring cellulose δ 18O values at the Georgia study site show a significant negative correlation with AMO indices from 1875 to about 1950, and a weaker, positive correlation from about 1965 to 1990. The "crossover" parallels a change in the predominant ontogeny of North Atlantic tropical cyclones from tropical-only to baroclinically-enhanced hurricanes. The intervening 1950s is marked by greater correspondence to ENSO indices. Reduced seasonality in the isotope record (i.e., the difference between earlywood and latewood δ 18O values) corresponds to warm phases of the PDO. An isotope series for 1580 to 1650 suggests little tropical cyclone activity coinciding with a period (1560-1625) of severe drought in the African Sahel. Although preliminary, these results suggest that tree-ring oxygen isotope compositions are sensitive to changes in climate

  9. Sea Surface Temperature and Seawater Oxygen Isotope Variability Recorded in a Madagascar Coral Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2002-12-01

    Within KIHZ a coral from the lagoon of Ifaty off southwest Madagascar in the Mozambique Channel was examined. Based on temporal variability of skeletal oxygen isotopes annual mean sea surface temperatures are reconstructed for the period from 1658 to 1995. Sr/Ca ratios were measured for selected windows with monthly resolution (1973 to 1995, 1863 to 1910, 1784 to 1809, 1688 to 1710) to validate the SST reconstructions derived from oxygen isotopes. The coral proxy data were validated against gridded SST data sets. The Sr/Ca-SST agree well with SST observations in the validation period (1863 to 1910), whereas the d18O derived SST show largest discrepencies during this time interval. By taking into account the SST values derived from coral Sr/Ca, we were able to reconstruct d18O seawater variability. This indicates that d18O seawater variations contributed significantly to interannual and interdecadal variations in coral d18O. We propose that remote forcing by South Equatorial Current and/or Indonesian throughflow variability may contribute to observed d18O variability. The local surface-ocean evaporation-precipitation balance is also of importance. Our results indicate that coral d18O may be used to reconstruct temporal variations in the fresh water balance within the Indian Ocean on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  10. Influence of changing deep ocean circulation on the Phanerozoic oxygen isotopic record

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, L.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Isotopic segregation in seawater caused by changing ocean circulation may in part explain the enigmatic oxygen isotopic record of Phanerozoic marine carbonates. Paleoceanographic evidence suggests that circulation of warm saline deep waters has occurred during at least two periods of warm global climate; those saline deep waters should have preferentially stored {sup 18}O in the deep oceans. Corresponding depletion of {sup 18}O in surface waters would have resulted in lower {delta}{sup 18}O of marine carbonates deposited on continental shelves. Modeling of paleoceanographic isotopic data suggests that this storage effect is similar in magnitude (but opposite in sign) to that of modern enrichment of {sup 18}O in the oceans by glacial storage. Modeling of carbonate compositions through time that takes into account such storage effects (as predicted by changing global climate) suggests that large changes in the mean oceanic isotopic composition, but neither extreme temperatures nor sudden changes in mean ocean compositions are needed to explain the isotopic record.

  11. Fidelity of Stable Oxygen Isotope Ratios as Environmental Recorders Using Multiple Coral Cores From Coastal Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, T.; Carter, B.; Abbott, S.; Field, B.; Zhu, H.; Wilson, G.; Alloway, B.; Edwards, S.; Pillans, B.; Barker, A.; Niessen, F.; Maslen, G.; Beu, A.; Fleitmann, D.; Dunbar, R. B.; Mucciarone, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Climate variability in the western equatorial Indian Ocean reflects the combined influence of seasonally changing sea surface temperature (SST), ocean currents, and monsoon circulation, as well as inter-annual to -decadal variability associated with ENSO in the Pacific. However, the Indian Ocean also exhibits variability that appears unrelated to ENSO in the Pacific. The nature of interactions between air-sea variability in the Indian and Pacific oceans is not yet fully resolved, in part because of the lack of long-term, high-resolution SST records from key localities in the Indian Ocean. Such records are now being obtained using oxygen isotope profiles measured on corals from East Africa, Indonesia, Australia, and Indian Oceania (Maldives, Seychelles), with the longest coral-based time series from Malindi, Kenya, covering the last 300 years at near-monthly resolution. The value of these developing coral records depends on the fidelity with which they record regional climate variability. In order to assess the fidelity of oxygen isotope ratios (\\delta18O) in Indian Ocean corals as a proxy for sea surface temperature, we have generated stable isotopic time series from multiple Porites lutea coral heads collected along the coast of Kenya. Coral-based isotopic paleoclimatology is labor and time-intensive so detailed analyses using multiple coral heads from different sites within a region are extremely rare. Most published records are produced from a single coral head, yet questions have been raised about the accuracy of such records. To address such concerns, near-monthly resolution isotopic profiles, spanning 10 to 50 years prior to 1997, were measured on a total of 8 cores from five sites along a north-south transect between 2° and 4° S (Kiwayu: 2° 2'S, 41° 2'E, Malindi: 3° 14'S, 40° 8'E, Watamu: 3° 23'S, 39° 52'E, Mombasa: 3° 59'S, 39° 5'E, and Kisite: 4° 43'S, 39° 23'E. Correlations among individual \\delta18O time series (r values range from 0.65 to

  12. Paired oxygen isotope records reveal modern North American atmospheric dynamics during the Holocene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfang; Yoshimura, Kei; Bowen, Gabriel J; Buenning, Nikolaus H; Risi, Camille; Welker, Jeffrey M; Yuan, Fasong

    2014-04-16

    The Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection has a strong influence on North American climate. Instrumental records and century-scale reconstructions indicate an accelerating tendency towards the positive PNA state since the mid-1850s, but much less is known about long-term PNA variability. Here we reconstruct PNA-like climate variability during the mid- and late Holocene using paired oxygen isotope records from two regions in North America with robust, anticorrelated isotopic response to the modern PNA. We identify mean states of more negative and positive PNA-like climate during the mid- and late Holocene, respectively. Superimposed on the secular change between states is a robust, quasi-200-year oscillation, which we associate with the de Vries solar cycle. These findings suggest the persistence of PNA-like climate variability throughout the mid- and late Holocene, provide evidence for modulation of PNA over multiple timescales and may help researchers de-convolve PNA pattern variation from other factors reflected in palaeorecords.

  13. Oxygen isotope records of Holocene climate variability in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Pompeani, David P.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Mihindukulasooriya, Lorita N.; Hillman, Aubrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) measurements of authigenic carbonate from Cleland Lake (southeastern British Columbia), Paradise Lake (central British Columbia), and Lime Lake (eastern Washington) provide a ∼9000 year Holocene record of precipitation-evaporation balance variations in the Pacific Northwest. Both Cleland Lake and Paradise Lake are small, surficially closed-basin systems with no active inflows or outflows. Lime Lake is surficially open with a seasonally active overflow. Water isotope values from Cleland and Paradise plot along the local evaporation line, indicating that precipitation-evaporation balance is a strong influence on lake hydrology. In contrast, Lime Lake water isotope values plot on the local meteoric water line, signifying minimal influence by evaporation. To infer past hydrologic balance variations at a high temporal resolution, we sampled the Cleland, Paradise, and Lime Lake sediment cores at 1-60 mm intervals (∼3-33 years per sample on average) and measured the isotopic composition of fine-grained (<63 μm) authigenic CaCO3 in each sample. Negative δ18O values, which indicate wetter conditions in closed-basin lakes, occur in Cleland Lake sediment from 7600 to 2200 years before present (yr BP), and are followed by more positive δ18O values, which suggest drier conditions, after 2200 yr BP. Highly negative δ18O values in the Cleland Lake record centered on ∼2400 yr BP suggest that lake levels were high (and that the lake may have been overflowing) at this time as a result of a substantially wetter climate. Similarly, Paradise Lake sediment δ18O values are relatively low from 7600 to 4000 yr BP and increase from ∼4000 to 3000 yr BP and from ∼2000 yr BP to present, indicating that climate became drier from the middle through the late Holocene. The δ18O record from Lime Lake, which principally reflects changes in the isotopic composition of precipitation, exhibits less variability than the closed-basin lake records and follows a

  14. Chironomid oxygen isotope record of mid- to late Holocene climate evolution from southern Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, Laura; Kurki, Eija; Wooller, Matthew; Luoto, Tomi; Zajączkowski, Marek; Ojala, Antti

    2017-04-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of head capsule chitin of chironomid larvae picked from a sediment core covering the past 5500 years from lake Svartvatnet in southern Spitsbergen was used to reconstruct the isotopic composition of oxygen in lake water (δ18Olw) and local precipitation. Consistent with the gradual cooling of climate over the Neoglacial period, the δ18Olw record displays a gentle decreasing trend over the study period. The Svartvatnet δ18Olwrecord shows a maximum at ca. 1900-1800 cal BP, consistent with the timing of the Roman Warm Period, and three negative excursions increasing in intensity towards the present-day at 3400-3200, 1250-1100 and 350-50 cal BP, which are tentatively linked to multidecadal periods of low solar activity amplified by oceanic and atmospheric feedbacks. The time period of the Little Ice Age shows a two-step decrease in δ18Olwvalues, with a remarkable, 8-9‰ drop at 350-50 cal BP construed to predominantly represent significantly decreased winter temperatures during a period of increased seasonal differences and extended sea ice cover inducing changes in moisture source regions. Similarity of the trends between the δ18Olwrecord and a July-T reconstruction based on chironomid assemblages (Luoto et al., in review) from the same core suggests that air temperature exerts a significant control over the δ18Olwvalues, but the record is most likely influenced by changes in sea ice extent and possibly the seasonal distribution of precipitation. Reference: Luoto TP, Ojala A, Brooks S et al. Synchronized proxy-based temperature reconstructions reveal mid-to late Holocene climate oscillations in High Arctic Svalbard. Journal of Quaternary Science, submitted.

  15. Dual temperature effects on oxygen isotopic ratio of shallow-water coral skeleton: Consequences on seasonal and interannual records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2009-04-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratio from coral skeleton is regarded for a long time as promising climate archives at seasonal scale. Although in isotopic disequilibrium relative to seawater, it is supposed to obey to the isotope thermometer. Indeed, coral oxygen isotopic records are strongly temperature dependent, but d18O-temperature calibrations derived from different corals are highly variable. The isotope thermometer assumption does not take into account vital effects due to biogenic origin of the mineral. Corals are animals living in symbiosis with algae (zooxanthellae). Interactions between symbiont photosynthesis and coral skeleton carbonation have been abundantly observed but they remain poorly understood and the effects of photosynthesis on coral growth and skeleton oxygen ratio are ignored. Coral cultured under two light conditions enabled to relate metabolic parameters and oxygen isotopic variability with photosynthetic activity. By examining responses provided by each colony they revealed that photosynthesis significantly affected d18O, by an opposite sense compared with the sole temperature influence. Since temperature and light changes are associated during seasonal variations, this complicates the interpretation of seasonal record. Additionally, this complexity is amplified because photosynthetic activity is also directly impacted by temperature variability. Thus, the annual isotopic amplitude due to the "physical" temperature influence is partly compensated through photosynthesis. Similar opposite effect is also shown by extension rate of the cultured colonies. First, we will examine and quantify consequences of photosynthesis on growth rate and oxygen isotopic signature, from cultured corals. Second, we will consider the consequences of this vital effect on data series, at seasonal and interannual time scales.

  16. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIs Record Varying Composition of Protosolar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-03-01

    High-resolution O-isotopic zoning profiles obtained by NanoSIMS indicate a progressive and cyclic record of exchange between CAIs and distinct nebular gases. Numerical models are used to constrain conditions and duration of these exchange events.

  17. Obliquity forcing of East Asian summer monsoon: oxygen isotopic records from Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Zhang, Zeke; An, Zhisheng; Li, Tao

    2016-04-01

    East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is the largest monsoon system out of the tropics. The temporal changes of EASM on orbital time scale have been highly debated largely due to the lack of proxy purely recording monsoonal rainfall. Oxygen isotope of rain water is a widely used hydrological tracer and has been well documented in the cave deposits of South Asia. The speleothem δ18O, which is dominated by procession cycles of ~23 kyrs, is believed to be controlled by upstream depletion that reflects tropical convections modulated by solar insolation of low latitudes. A δ18O record of monsoonal rainfall in higher latitudes of East Asia therefore is desired to investigate the variation of EASM. Here we reconstruct δ18O of summer precipitation over the past 500 kyrs based on microcodium, an authigenic carbonate in the loess deposits. Two parallel sections on Chinese Loess Plateau show consistent fluctuations of δ18O featured by strong obliquity cycles of ~41 kyrs and weaker precession cycles of ~23 kyrs. The procession signal may inherit from tropics as seen in the speleothem. However, the presence ~41 cycles in microcodium δ18O record argues that obliquity may influence the intensity of EASM and thus the integrated amount of precipitation between the speleothem sites and Chinese Loess Plateau. The obliquity signal cannot be generated by the effects of ice-volume, temperature, or pCO2 on EASM because the predominant glacial cycles of ~100 kyrs in these variables have not been detected in the δ18O records. Summer insolation of mid-latitudes also cannot produce a higher obliquity signal compared to that of precession. We propose that the obliquity forcing of EASM may originate from the meridional gradient of summer insolation that modifies the thermal contrast between Asian inland at relatively higher latitudes and surrounding oceans at relatively lower latitudes.

  18. Sulfur Isotope Trends in Archean Microbialite Facies Record Early Oxygen Production and Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerkle, A.; Meyer, N.; Izon, G.; Poulton, S.; Farquhar, J.; Claire, M.

    2014-12-01

    The major and minor sulfur isotope composition (δ34S and Δ33S) of pyrites preserved in ~2.65-2.5 billion-year-old (Ga) microbialites record localized oxygen production and consumption near the mat surface. These trends are preserved in two separate drill cores (GKF01 and BH1-Sacha) transecting the Campbellrand-Malmani carbonate platform (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa; Zerkle et al., 2012; Izon et al., in review). Microbialite pyrites possess positive Δ33S values, plotting parallel to typical Archean trends (with a Δ33S/δ34S slope of ~0.9) but enriched in 34S by ~3 to 7‰. We propose that these 34S-enriched pyrites were formed from a residual pool of sulfide that was partially oxidized via molecular oxygen produced by surface mat-dwelling cyanobacteria. Sulfide, carrying the range of Archean Δ33S values, could have been produced deeper within the microbial mat by the reduction of sulfate and elemental sulfur, then fractionated upon reaction with O2 produced by oxygenic photosynthesis. Preservation of this positive 34S offset requires that: 1) sulfide was only partially (50­­-80%) consumed by oxidation, meaning H2S was locally more abundant (or more rapidly produced) than O2, and 2) the majority of the sulfate produced via oxidation was not immediately reduced to sulfide, implying either that the sulfate pool was much larger than the sulfide pool, or that the sulfate formed near the mat surface was transported and reduced in another part of the system. Contrastingly, older microbialite facies (> 2.7 Ga; Thomazo et al., 2013) appear to lack these observed 34S enrichments. Consequently, the onset of 34S enrichments could mark a shift in mat ecology, from communities dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesizers to cyanobacteria. Here, we test these hypotheses with new spatially resolved mm-scale trends in sulfur isotope measurements from pyritized stromatolites of the Vryburg Formation, sampled in the lower part of the BH1-Sacha core. Millimeter

  19. A 14,000-year oxygen isotope record from diatom silica in two alpine lakes on Mt. Kenya.

    PubMed

    Barker, P A; Street-Perrott, F A; Leng, M J; Greenwood, P B; Swain, D L; Perrott, R A; Telford, R J; Ficken, K J

    2001-06-22

    Oxygen isotopes are sensitive tracers of climate change in tropical regions. Abrupt shifts of up to 18 per mil in the oxygen isotope ratio of diatom silica have been found in a 14,000-year record from two alpine lakes on Mt. Kenya. Interpretation of tropical-montane isotope records is controversial, especially concerning the relative roles of precipitation and temperature. Here, we argue that Holocene variations in delta(18)O are better explained by lake moisture balance than by temperature-induced fractionation. Episodes of heavy convective precipitation dated approximately 11,100 to 8600, 6700 to 5600, 2900 to 1900, and <1300 years before the present were linked to enhanced soil erosion, neoglacial ice advances, and forest expansion on Mt. Kenya.

  20. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    types of stellar sources, corresponding to the r-process, s-process, and p-process. Presolar silicon carbide grains, extracted from primitive meteorites, contain molybdenum that has been subject to s-process neutron capture in red-giant stars, resulting in large enrichments of isotopes at masses 95, 96, 97, 98, and severe depletions (up to 100%) of isotopes at masses 92 and 94 (p-process) and 100 (r-process) (Nicolussi et al., 1998). Complementary patterns have been found in whole-rock samples of several meteorites, with >1,000-fold smaller amplitude, suggesting the preservation of a small fraction of the initial isotopic heterogeneity ( Yin et al., 2002; Dauphas et al., 2002). Oxygen is another element for which primordial isotopic heterogeneity might be preserved. This is discussed further below.It would be highly desirable to have samples of oxygen-rich mineral grains that have formed in stellar atmospheres and have recorded the nucleosynthetic processes in individual stars. Similar samples are already available for carbon-rich grains, in the form of SiC and graphite, primarily from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and supernovae (Anders and Zinner, 1993). These presolar grains have provided a wealth of detailed information concerning nucleosynthesis of carbon, nitrogen, silicon, calcium, titanium, and heavier elements (see Chapter 1.02). It is thought that such carbon-rich minerals should form only in environments with C/O>1, as in the late stages of AGB evolution, or in carbon-rich layers of supernovae. By analogy, one would expect to form oxide and silicate minerals in environments with C/O<1, as is common for most stars. Indeed there is evidence in infrared spectra for the formation of Al2O3 (corundum) and silicates, such as olivine (Speck et al., 2000) around evolved oxygen-rich stars. However, searches for such grains in meteorites have yielded only a very small population of corundum grains, a few grains of spinel and hibonite, and no silicates ( Nittler et

  1. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    , and variations up to 6.5‰ in Cima Bonze garnets suggest significant metasomatic replacement from external fluids. The combination of oxygen isotopes, trace element geochemistry and P-T modelling allows reconstructing the major stages of metasomatism, as well as identifying the nature of the fluid interacting with the rock at each metamorphic stage. REFERENCES Lardeaux, J. M., & Spalla, M. I. (1991). From granulites to eclogites in the Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps): A record of the opening and closure of the Piedmont ocean. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 9, 35-59. Regis, D., Rubatto, D., Darling, J., Cenki-Tok, B., Zucali, M., & Engi, M. (2014). Multiple metamorphic stages within an eclogite-facies terrane (Sesia Zone, Western Alps) revealed by Th-U-Pb petrochronology. Journal of Petrology, 55(7), 1429-1456. Robyr, M., Darbellay, B., & Baumgartner, L. P. (2014). Matrix-dependent garnet growth in polymetamorphic rocks of the Sesia zone, Italian Alps. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 32(1), 3-24.

  2. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  3. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  4. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brienen, Roel J. W.; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18Otr). Interannual variation in δ18Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ13C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ18Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly 18O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ18Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ18Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ18O and that interannual variation in δ18Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ18O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in disentangling the processes

  5. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ(18)O and amount effects in the south of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brienen, Roel J W; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    [1] Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18)Otr). Interannual variation in δ(18)Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ(13)C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ(18)Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly (18)O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ(18)Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ(18)Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ(18)O and that interannual variation in δ(18)Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ(18)O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in

  6. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings record variation in precipitation δ18O and amount effects in the south of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Brienen, Roel J W; Hietz, Peter; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gloor, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [1] Natural archives of oxygen isotopes in precipitation may be used to study changes in the hydrological cycle in the tropics, but their interpretation is not straightforward. We studied to which degree tree rings of Mimosa acantholoba from southern Mexico record variation in isotopic composition of precipitation and which climatic processes influence oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18Otr). Interannual variation in δ18Otr was highly synchronized between trees and closely related to isotopic composition of rain measured at San Salvador, 710 km to the southwest. Correlations with δ13C, growth, or local climate variables (temperature, cloud cover, vapor pressure deficit (VPD)) were relatively low, indicating weak plant physiological influences. Interannual variation in δ18Otr correlated negatively with local rainfall amount and intensity. Correlations with the amount of precipitation extended along a 1000 km long stretch of the Pacific Central American coast, probably as a result of organized storm systems uniformly affecting rainfall in the region and its isotope signal; episodic heavy precipitation events, of which some are related to cyclones, deposit strongly 18O-depleted rain in the region and seem to have affected the δ18Otr signal. Large-scale controls on the isotope signature include variation in sea surface temperatures of tropical north Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In conclusion, we show that δ18Otr of M. acantholoba can be used as a proxy for source water δ18O and that interannual variation in δ18Oprec is caused by a regional amount effect. This contrasts with δ18O signatures at continental sites where cumulative rainout processes dominate and thus provide a proxy for precipitation integrated over a much larger scale. Our results confirm that processes influencing climate-isotope relations differ between sites located, e.g., in the western Amazon versus coastal Mexico, and that tree ring isotope records can help in disentangling the processes

  7. Does Oxygen Isotopic Heterogeneity in Refractory Inclusions and Their Wark-Lovering Rims Record Nebular Repressing?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2013-01-01

    Large systematic variations in O-isotopic compositions found within individual mineral layers of rims surrounding Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and at the margins of some CAIs imply formation from distinct environments [e.g., 1-3]. The O-isotope compositions of many CAIs preserve a record of the Solar nebula gas believed to initially be O-16-rich (delta O-17 less than or equal to -25%0) [4-5]. Data from a recent study of the compact Type A Allende CAI, A37, preserve a diffusion profile in the outermost 70 micrometers of the inclusion and show greater than 25%0 variations in delta O-17 within its 100 micrometer-thick Wark-Lovering rim (WL-rim) [3]. This and comparable heterogeneity measured in several other CAIs have been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a planetary-like isotopic composition, e.g., [1,2,3,6]. However, there is mineralogical and isotopic evidence from the interiors of CAIs, in particular those from Allende, for parent body alteration. At issue is how to distinguish the record of secondary reprocessing in the nebula from that which occurred on the parent body. We have undertaken the task to study a range of CAI types with varying mineralogies, in part, to address this problem.

  8. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  9. High-resolution conodont oxygen isotope record of Ordovician climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Algeo, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Ordovician Period was characterized by several major events, including a prolonged 'super greenhouse' during the Early Ordovician, the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE)' of the Middle and early Late Ordovician, and the Hirnantian ice age and mass extinction of the latest Ordovician (Webby et al., 2004, The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, Columbia University Press). The cause of the rapid diversification of marine invertebrates during the GOBE is not clear, however, and several scenarios have been proposed including widespread development of shallow cratonic seas, strong magmatic and tectonic activity, and climate moderation. In order to investigate relationships between climate change and marine ecosystem evolution during the Ordovician, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of single coniform conodonts using a Cameca secondary ion mass spectrometer. Our δ18O profile shows a shift at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition that is indicative of a rapid 6 to 8 °C cooling. This cooling event marks the termination of the Early Ordovician 'super greenhouse' and may have established cooler tropical seawater temperatures that were more favorable for invertebrate animals, setting the stage for the GOBE. Additional cooling episodes occurred during the early Sandbian, early Katian, and Hirnantian, the last culminating in a short-lived (<1-Myr) end-Ordovician ice age. The much cooler conditions that prevailed at that time may have been an important factor in the end-Ordovician mass extinction. Our results differ from those of Trotter et al. (2008, 'Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry,' Science 321:550-554). Instead of a slow, protracted cooling through the Early and Middle Ordovician, our high-resolution record shows that cooling occurred in several discrete steps, with the largest step being at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition.

  10. An 8,000 year oxygen isotope record of hydroclimatic change from Paradise Lake, central British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, A. L.; Abbott, M. B.; Steinman, B. A.; Pompeani, D. P.; Cwiklik, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Climate in the Pacific Northwest over the Holocene has primarily been controlled by the position of the Aleutian Low (AL), which is interconnected to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Stable isotopes of authigenic calcite precipitated from lake water and archived as lake sediment can be used to reconstruct changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance over timescales ranging from individual years to millennia. Several records of this type from southern British Columbia and northern Washington (e.g., Castor and Cleland Lakes), as well as from the southern Yukon Territory (e.g., Marcella and Rantin Lakes) have been produced, but few records from between these two regions exist. Here, we present a record of δ18O and δ13C measurements of authigenic calcite from Paradise Lake, British Columbia (54.68259°N, 122.61154°W), a surficially closed basin, groundwater throughflow lake located in the central interior of British Columbia. A total of 14 AMS radiocarbon dates were used to provide age control for the Paradise Lake record. In sediment from 8,000-4,500 years BP, oxygen isotope values vary around a mean value of -18.0‰. From 4,500-2,000 years BP, a general trend towards more positive oxygen isotope values occurs, with increased variability in both δ18O and δ13C. A gradual shift of ~2‰ in δ18O measurements (to a mean value of -16.0‰) occurs over the last 2,000 years of the record, likely due to lower lake levels. The large magnitude mean state shifts in oxygen isotopes over the last 8,000 years are similar to that observed in the Marcella Lake record (Anderson et al., 2007), although they are of a smaller magnitude. We hypothesize that significant groundwater throughflow at Paradise Lake likely causes a muted hydrologic and isotopic response to climate forcing relative to Marcella Lake, which has more isotopically enriched water and loses a greater proportion of water via evaporation. The Paradise lake

  11. Mo isotope record of shales points to deep ocean oxygenation in the early Paleoproterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asael, Dan; Scott, Clint; Rouxel, Olivier; Poulton, Simon; Lyons, Timothy; Javaux, Emmanuelle; Bekker, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Two steps in Earth's surface oxidation lie at either end of the Proterozoic Eon. The first step, known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), occurred at ca. 2.32 Ga (1), when atmospheric oxygen first exceeded 0.001% of present atmospheric levels (2). The second step, occurred at ca. 0.58 Ga, resulting in the pervasive oxygenation of the deep oceans, a feature that persisted through most of the Phanerozoic (3). The conventional model envisions two progressive and unidirectional increases in free oxygen. However, recent studies have challenged this simplistic view of the GOE (4, 5). A dramatic increase and decline in Earth oxidation state between 2.3 and 2.0 Ga is now well supported (6-9) and raises the question of how well-oxygenated the Earth surface was in the immediate aftermath of the GOE. In order to constrain the response of the deep oceans to the GOE, we present a study of Mo isotope composition and Mo concentration from three key early Paleoproterozoic black shale units with ages ranging from 2.32 to 2.06 Ga. Our results suggest high and unstable surface oxygen levels at 2.32 Ga, leading to an abrupt increase in Mo supply to the still globally anoxic ocean, and producing extreme seawater Mo isotopic enrichments in these black shales. We thus infer a period of significant Mo isotopic Rayleigh effects and non-steady state behaviour of the Mo oceanic system at the beginning of the GOE. Between 2.2-2.1 Ga, we observe smaller Mo isotopic variations and estimate the δ98Mo of seawater to be 1.42 ± 0.27 ‰W conclude that oxygen levels must have stabilized at a relatively high level and that the deep oceans were oxygenated for the first time in Earth's history. By ca. 2.06 Ga, immediately after the Lomagundi Event, the Mo isotopic composition decreased dramatically to δ98MoSW = 0.80 ± 0.21 o reflecting the end of deep ocean oxygenation and the return of largely anoxic deep oceans. References: [1] A. Bekker et al., 2004, Nature 427, 117-20. [2] A. Pavlov and J

  12. Resolving seasonality in tropical trees: multi-decade, high-resolution oxygen and carbon isotope records from Indonesia and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poussart, Pascale F.; Evans, Michael N.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2004-02-01

    Dendrochronological techniques have found limited applications in the tropics because of invisible or indistinct banding in wood. The seasonal cycles of rainfall and relative humidity in these regions, while not sufficient to produce distinct visible rings, may still generate seasonal signals in the oxygen isotopic composition of tree cellulose which can be used for climate reconstruction and chronology. We explore this approach using trees from Indonesia and Thailand, from three different families. Multi-decade δ 18O records from Javanese cross-dated teak rings and bomb radiocarbon-dated Suar wood lacking visible rings demonstrate the reproducibility of the signal between trees grown at the same locality as well as from wider geographical regions. These results confirm predictions that the trees oxygen isotopic signatures reflect an external climatic forcing. High-resolution δ 18O records reveal large seasonal cycles: up to 4‰ for Javanese Suar samples and up to 18‰ for a Thai Podocarpus sample. We show that the six δ 18O and δ 13C cycles measured on a Podocarpus match the number of growth years for the period spanning the time of wounding and cutting of the wedge section. This result demonstrates that the isotopic cycles found in this tree with indistinct annual rings are indeed seasonal and could be used for chronology. We present evidence that stable isotope chronologies of tropical trees also contain insights in tropical tree physiology and growth dynamics.

  13. Wavelet analysis of oxygen isotope and paleotemperature records from NGRIP Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokinski, A.; Kobylinski, Z.

    The recent completion of drilling of ice core at the North Greenland NGRIP has allowed the studies of climate back to 123000 years before the present That high resolution oxygen 18 isotopic composition data with 100 yrs sampling averages are investigated by means of wavelet transform and wavelet coherence methods Torrence and Compo 1996 and Grinsted et al 2004 The obtained wavelet spectrum indicates that the stronger variability of the oxygen 18 content are related to cooler glacial seasons when clear oscillations in data occur with the periods of about 1 5 - 4 ky Such oscillations were significant at the 95 confidence level in the time intervals 10-12 ky 34-36 5 ky and 72-76 ky back in time The warmer interglacial times are much more quiet and the climate is more stable then The implications of the results are discussed The results are compared with similar studies in which other advanced spectral methods were used

  14. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz.

    PubMed

    Budd, David A; Troll, Valentin R; Deegan, Frances M; Jolis, Ester M; Smith, Victoria C; Whitehouse, Martin J; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A; Bindeman, Ilya N

    2017-01-25

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ(18)O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ(18)O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ(18)O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ(18)O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ(18)O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  15. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    PubMed Central

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core−rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems. PMID:28120860

  16. Magma reservoir dynamics at Toba caldera, Indonesia, recorded by oxygen isotope zoning in quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd, David A.; Troll, Valentin R.; Deegan, Frances M.; Jolis, Ester M.; Smith, Victoria C.; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Harris, Chris; Freda, Carmela; Hilton, David R.; Halldórsson, Sæmundur A.; Bindeman, Ilya N.

    2017-01-01

    Quartz is a common phase in high-silica igneous rocks and is resistant to post-eruptive alteration, thus offering a reliable record of magmatic processes in silicic magma systems. Here we employ the 75 ka Toba super-eruption as a case study to show that quartz can resolve late-stage temporal changes in magmatic δ18O values. Overall, Toba quartz crystals exhibit comparatively high δ18O values, up to 10.2‰, due to magma residence within, and assimilation of, local granite basement. However, some 40% of the analysed quartz crystals display a decrease in δ18O values in outermost growth zones compared to their cores, with values as low as 6.7‰ (maximum ∆core-rim = 1.8‰). These lower values are consistent with the limited zircon record available for Toba, and the crystallisation history of Toba quartz traces an influx of a low-δ18O component into the magma reservoir just prior to eruption. Here we argue that this late-stage low-δ18O component is derived from hydrothermally-altered roof material. Our study demonstrates that quartz isotope stratigraphy can resolve magmatic events that may remain undetected by whole-rock or zircon isotope studies, and that assimilation of altered roof material may represent a viable eruption trigger in large Toba-style magmatic systems.

  17. A High-resolution Detrital and Oxygen Isotope Record from Flemish Pass, Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deJesus, E.; Hoffman, J. S.; Clark, P. U.; Mix, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution records of deglacial paleoceanographic change along the Labrador shelf are scarce. However, they are required in order to characterize and understand possible ice-ocean interactions involving the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). We have generated a high-resolution stable isotope and detrital stratigraphic record for core HU2001043-008 (990m, 48° N, 45° W) from Flemish Pass, Labrador Sea, to better understand the role of LIS ice-rafting events in abrupt climate changes during the last glaciation. Samples at two-centimeter resolution were disaggregated, washed, and picked for Neogloboquandrina pachyderma (sinistral) for stable isotope and radiocarbon analysis. The δ18O signal in foraminiferal calcite allows us to examine surface-ocean changes that may indicate an influx of freshwater, which may or may not be related to an LIS ice-rafting event. Our results will help in developing a better understanding of the source of LIS ice-rafting events, precursory indicators of the events, and how these events are associated with changes in deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea.

  18. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope record of central Lake Erie sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tevesz, M.J.S.; Spongberg, A.L.; Fuller, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusc aragonite extracted from sediment cores provide new information on the origin and history of sedimentation in the southwestern area of the central basin of Lake Erie. Sediments infilling the Sandusky subbasin consist of three lithologic units overlying glacial deposits. The lowest of these is a soft gray mud overlain by a shell hash layer containing Sphaerium striatinum fragments. A fluid mud unit caps the shell hash layer and extends upwards to the sediment-water interface. New stable isotope data suggest that the soft gray mud unit is of postglacial, rather than proglacial, origin. These data also suggest that the shell hash layer was derived from erosional winnowing of the underlying soft gray mud layer. This winnowing event may have occurred as a result of the Nipissing flood. The Pelee-Lorain moraine, which forms the eastern boundary of the Sandusky subbasin, is an elevated area of till capped by a sand deposit that originated as a beach. The presence of both the shell hash layer and relict beach deposit strengthens the interpretation that the Nipissing flood was a critical event in the development of the southwestern area of the central basin of Lake Erie. This event, which returned drainage from the upper lakes to the Lake Erie basin, was a dominant influence on regional stratigraphy, bathymetry, and depositional setting.

  19. Oxygen isotope record of the 1997-1998 El Niño in Peruvian sea catfish (Galeichthys peruvianus) otoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, C. Fred T.; Crowe, Douglas E.; Romanek, Christopher S.

    2002-12-01

    Sagittal otoliths of the Peruvian sea catfish Galeichthys peruvianus were collected from the north coast of Peru during and after the 1997-1998 El Niño. The otoliths were analyzed via laser microprobe and micromilling techniques for oxygen isotope composition through ontogeny to document their use as an El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) proxy. Results were compared to theoretical calculations for the δ18O of otolith aragonite using measured sea surface temperatures (SST) and δ18O values for local seawater assuming equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation was achieved. All otoliths recorded the 1997-1998 El Niño event as well as seasonal temperature variations. These ENSO events were recorded in otolith aragonite as significant negative excursions in δ18O that reflected the increased temperature of local marine waters. The combined otolith data were used to create a 10-year SST record, including ENSO events and local seasonal temperature variation, validating the use of otolith δ18O as a temperature proxy.

  20. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in otoliths record spatial isolation of Patagonian toothfish ( Dissostichus eleginoides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashford, Julian; Jones, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Strong contrasts in ambient isotope ratios and in diet suggest stable isotopes in the otoliths of oceanic fish can resolve water masses and geographic areas, promising a powerful multivariate approach for examining population structure and provenance. To test this, whole otoliths were taken from Patagonian toothfish ( Dissostichus eleginoides) sampled off the Patagonian Shelf and South Georgia, on either side of a population boundary, and otolith δ 18O and δ 13C values were measured to see if they could distinguish South American-caught fish from those taken in the Antarctic. Values of otolith δ 18O and δ 13C predicted capture area with 100% success, validating their use for distinguishing provenance and corroborating the prior evidence of population isolation. Values of δ 18O in the otoliths reflected ambient values as well as seawater temperature: low values in Patagonian Shelf fish were consistent with exposure to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), and high values in South Georgia fish were consistent with exposure to Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). In contrast, differences in otolith δ 13C appeared to reflect diet: relative depletion of otolith δ 13C at South Georgia compared to the Patagonian Shelf were most likely linked to differences in sources of metabolic carbon, as well as δ 13C in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of seawater. These contrasting properties strongly suggest that stable isotopes can resolve the provenance of toothfish from Antarctic sampling areas that hitherto have been difficult to separate. These results show that, by using the chemistry recorded in otoliths, researchers can exploit biogeochemical variation in fully marine environments to examine the spatial ecology of oceanic fish.

  1. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses of bowhead whale baleen as biochemical recorders of migration and arctic environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deHart, Pieter A. P.; Picco, Candace M.

    2015-06-01

    An analysis of the stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) was used to examine the linkage between sea ice concentration and the migration of western arctic bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus; WABW). We compared δ18O and δD variability along the length of WABW baleen with isotopic values of zooplankton prey from different WABW habitat, with published δ13C and δ15N data, and with historical sea ice records. Zooplankton signatures varied widely (δ18O = -13‰-56‰; δD = -220‰ to -75‰), with regional separation between winter (Bering Sea) and summer (eastern Beaufort Sea) habitats of WABW observable in δD. The δ18O and δD of WABW varied significantly along the length of baleen (δ18O = 8-18‰; δD = -180 to -80‰), confirming seasonal migration and reflecting distinct regional dietary variation in isotopes. WABW migration appears to have varied concomitant with temporal sea ice concentration (SIC) changes; in years with high SIC, the difference in δD of WABW baleen between seasonal habitats was significantly greater than low SIC periods. This work shows that SIC is not only a determinant of habitat accessibility for WABW, but baleen may also be a record of historical SIC and Arctic climate.

  2. Silicate-SiO reaction in a protoplanetary disk recorded by oxygen isotopes in chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Eizo

    2017-07-01

    The formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos during the earliest stages of the solar protoplanetary disk largely determined the composition and structure of the terrestrial planets. Within a few million years of the birth of the Solar System, chondrule formation and the accretion of the parent bodies of differentiated achondrites and the terrestrial planets took place in the inner protoplanetary disk 1,2 . Here we show that, for chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites, high-precision Δ17O values (where Δ17O is the deviation of the δ17O value from a terrestrial silicate fractionation line) vary significantly (ranging from -0.49 to +0.84‰) and fall on an array with a steep slope of 1.27 on a three-oxygen-isotope plot. This array can be explained by the reaction between an olivine-rich chondrule melt and an SiO-rich gas derived from vaporized dust and nebular gas. Our study suggests that a large proportion of the building blocks of planetary embryos formed by successive silicate-gas interaction processes: silicate-H2O followed by silicate-SiO interactions under more oxidized and reduced conditions, respectively, within a few million years of the formation of the Solar System.

  3. Oxygen isotope trajectories of crystallizing melts: Insights from modeling and the plutonic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucholz, Claire E.; Jagoutz, Oliver; VanTongeren, Jill A.; Setera, Jacob; Wang, Zhengrong

    2017-06-01

    Elevated oxygen isotope values in igneous rocks are often used to fingerprint supracrustal alteration or assimilation of material that once resided near the surface of the earth. The δ18O value of a melt, however, can also increase through closed-system fractional crystallization. In order to quantify the change in melt δ18O due to crystallization, we develop a detailed closed-system fractional crystallization mass balance model and apply it to six experimentally- and naturally-determined liquid lines of descent (LLDs), which cover nearly complete crystallization intervals (melt fractions of 1 to <0.1). The studied LLDs vary from anhydrous tholeiitic basalts to hydrous high-K and calc-alkaline basalts and are characterized by distinct melt temperature-SiO2 trajectories, as well as, crystallizing phase relationships. Our model results demonstrate that melt fraction-temperature-SiO2 relationships of crystallizing melts, which are strongly a function of magmatic water content, will control the specific δ18O path of a crystallizing melt. Hydrous melts, typical of subduction zones, undergo larger increases in δ18O during early stages of crystallization due to their lower magmatic temperatures, greater initial increases in SiO2 content, and high temperature stability of low δ18O phases, such as oxides, amphibole, and anorthitic plagioclase (versus albite). Conversely, relatively dry, tholeiitic melts only experience significant increases in δ18O at degrees of crystallization greater than 80%. Total calculated increases in melt δ18O of 1.0-1.5‰ can be attributed to crystallization from ∼50 to 70 wt.% SiO2 for modeled closed-system crystallizing melt compositions. As an example application, we compare our closed system model results to oxygen isotope mineral data from two natural plutonic sequences, a relatively dry, tholeiitic sequence from the Upper and Upper Main Zones (UUMZ) of the Bushveld Complex (South Africa) and a high-K, hydrous sequence from the arc

  4. Characterizing seawater oxygen isotopic variability in a regional ocean modeling framework: Implications for coral proxy records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, S.; Powell, B. S.; Merrifield, M. A.; Cobb, K. M.; Nusbaumer, J.; Noone, D.

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructions of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are often created using the oxygen isotopic ratio in tropical coral skeletons (δ18O). However, coral δ18O can be difficult to interpret quantitatively, as it reflects changes in both temperature and the δ18O value of seawater. Small-scale (10-100 km) processes affecting local temperature and seawater δ18O are also poorly quantified and contribute an unknown amount to intercoral δ18O offsets. A new version of the Regional Ocean Modeling System capable of directly simulating seawater δ18O (isoROMS) is therefore presented to address these issues. The model is used to simulate δ18O variations over the 1979-2009 period throughout the Pacific at coarse (O(50 km)) resolution, in addition to 10 km downscaling experiments covering the central equatorial Pacific Line Islands, a preferred site for paleo-ENSO reconstruction from corals. A major impact of downscaling at the Line Islands is the ability to resolve fronts associated with tropical instability waves (TIWs), which generate large excursions in both temperature and seawater δ18O at Palmyra Atoll (5.9°N, 162.1°W). TIW-related sea surface temperature gradients are smaller at neighboring Christmas Island (1.9°N, 157.5°W), but the interaction of mesoscale features with the steep island topography nonetheless generates cross-island temperature differences of up to 1°C. These nonlinear processes alter the slope of the salinity:seawater δ18O relationship at Palmyra and Christmas, as well as affect the relation between coral δ18O and indices of ENSO variability. Consideration of the full physical oceanographic context of reef environments is therefore crucial for improving δ18O-based ENSO reconstructions.

  5. A cryptic record of magma mixing in diorites revealed by high-precision SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, S. K.; Graham, C. M.; Gillespie, M. R.; Hinton, R. W.; Oliver, G. J. H.; EIMF

    2008-05-01

    High-precision in-situ ion microprobe (SIMS) oxygen isotope analysis of zircons from two diorite intrusions associated with the late Caledonian Lochnagar pluton in Scotland has revealed large differences in the degree of heterogeneity in zircon δ18O between the diorites. Zircon crystals from the Cul nan Gad diorite (CnG) show a unimodal distribution of oxygen isotope values ( δ18O = 6.0 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) and no or only minor grain-scale variation. Those from the Allt Darrarie diorite (AD1) show a large range in δ18O and an apparent bimodal distribution with modes of 6.6 ± 0.4‰ and 7.3 ± 0.4‰. Variations of up to 1.2‰ occur between and within grains; both an increase and decrease in δ18O with zircon growth has been observed. The δ18O composition of growing zircon can only change if open-system processes affect the magma composition, i.e. if material of contrasting δ18O composition is added to the magma. The variability in AD1 is interpreted to represent a cryptic record of magma mixing. A 'deep crustal hot zone' is a likely site for generation of the dioritic magmas which developed by mixing of residual melts and crustal partial melts or by melting of mafic lower crustal rocks. The overall small number of zircons with mantle-like δ18O values (5.3 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) in the Lochnagar diorites is largely the product of crustal differentiation rather than crustal growth. The δ18O of quartz from the CnG and AD1 diorites shows only minor variation (CnG: 10.9 ± 0.5‰ (2 σ), AD1: 11.7 ± 0.6‰ (2 σ)) within single populations, with no evidence of mixing. Quartz-zircon isotopic disequilibrium is consistent with later crystallisation of quartz from late magmatic fluids, and in case of the AD1 diorite after the inferred magma mixing from a homogenised, higher δ18O melt. High-precision SIMS oxygen isotope analysis of zircon provides a new approach to identifying and resolving previously undetected early-stage magma mixing and constraining the compositions

  6. The origin of variations in the isotopic record of scleractinian corals: I. Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, J. J.; Swart, P. K.; Szmant, A. M.; Dodge, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    Previous investigations of the δ18O of the skeletons of Florida specimens of the reef coral Montastraea annularis have failed to produce the full temperature range suggested by calibration studies of other corals. Explanations for this phenomenon include different relationships between temperature and the δ18O of skeletons of Floridian corals, changing δ18O of the water, physiological variables ("vital effects"), and an insufficient number of samples taken per year with consequent superposition of calcium carbonate precipitated at different times within an individual sample. In this study, we investigate all of these hypotheses, by measuring the δ18O of corals grown in the field which were periodically stained with alizarin-red S and where the δ18O of the water was measured and the temperature continuously recorded. We compare the effect of sampling the coral skeletons at different resolutions and the effect of sampling within different skeletal elements. Our study shows that discrete, high-resolution sampling of coral exotheca (fifty samples a year) is necessary to reproduce temperatures for this species in Florida waters. Coral skeletons sampled using lower resolution methods showed an artificial attenuation of the annual range in skeletal δ18O, with similar δ18O minima during the skeleton represented by the summer months, but larger differences in the winter δ18O maxima. Replicate isotope transects from fast and slow growing areas and different regions of the corallite were also compared. The δ18O of rapidly growing (8 mm/y) portions of the colony was 0.1 to 0.2‰ heavier than the slowest growing (1.1 mm/y) portions of the colony. This difference as well as the difference between the skeleton sampled at high and low resolutions appears to result in part from the attenuation of the δ18O signal as a result of the reduced sampling rate in slower growing sections of the coral and is not solely a result of variable kinetic effects.

  7. Paleomagnetic record from Academician Ridge, Lake Baikal: a reversal excursion at the base of marine oxygen isotope stage 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ikehara, K.; Nakano, T.; Nishimura, M.; Khlystov, O.

    2002-08-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic studies on a hydraulic piston core (Ver98-1, St.6) from Academician Ridge, Lake Baikal showed the occurrence of a reversal excursion at 670-696 cm depth, which is at the base of marine oxygen isotope stage 6. A correlation of X-ray CT values, as a proxy of relative density, to the marine oxygen isotope record provides an age of 177-183 ka for this reversal excursion. It can be correlated with other excursion records from Lake Baikal, found in Core 287-K2 from Academician Ridge [King et al., Russ. Geol. Geophys. 34 (1993) 148-162] and in core BDP93-1 drilled on the Buguldeika saddle [BDP-93, Quat. Int. 37 (1997) 3-17]. We correlate the Lake Baikal reversal excursion with a well documented excursion in the Brunhes Chron, the Iceland Basin event (186-189 ka) from ODP Sites 983 and 984 in the North Atlantic [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951]. Also the relative paleointensity record agrees well with that from ODP Site 983 [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951]. The Lake Baikal excursion and the Iceland Basin event correspond to the minimum of relative intensity at 188 ka in Sint-800 [Guyodo and Valet, Nature 399 (1999) 249-252]. We argue that it is distinct from the Jamaica/Pringle Falls excursion, estimated at 205-215 ka [Langereis et al., Geophys. J. Int. 129 (1997) 75-94]. This is supported by the recalibration of the age of another excursion found in Core St.16 in Lake Baikal [Sakai et al., Bull. Nagoya Univ. Furukawa Mus. 13 (1997) 11-22] with an age of ˜223 ka, which is close to the age of the Jamaica/Pringle Falls excursion, as suggested earlier [King et al., Russ. Geol. Geophys. 34 (1993) 148-162]. The VGP path of the reversal excursion (177-183 ka) consists of a southward swing through the North Atlantic, followed by a loop through Africa and the Indian Ocean. The path morphology is similar to that of the Iceland Basin event from the North Atlantic [Channell, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (1999) 22937-22951].

  8. The oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. Alex

    The properties of the oxygen isotopes provide diverse examples of progress made in experiments and theory. This chain of isotopes has been studied from beyond the proton drip line in 12O to beyond the neutron drip line in 25,26O. This short survey starts with the microscopic G matrix approach for 18O of Kuo and Brown in the 1960’s and shows how theory has evolved. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 24O is particularly simple in terms of the nuclear shell model. The nuclear structure around the doubly-magic nucleus 16O exhibits the coexistence of single-particle and collective structure.

  9. Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Records from Tridacna derasa Shells: Toward Establishing a Reliable Proxy for Sea Surface Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Junpei; Takayanagi, Hideko; Isaji, Ayaka; Asami, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We report the carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records of three modern Tridacna derasa shells from Ishigaki-jima, southwestern Japan. The high-resolution δ13C profiles of samples from the inner shell layer on cross-sections fall within similar narrow ranges and display no regular variations or trends, such as an ontogenetic trend or abrupt short-term drops likely to be related to reproductive activity. This suggests that the calcification site of this species is not likely affected by photosynthetic CO2 uptake or CO2 incorporation during respiration. The δ18O profiles show distinct seasonal cycles. The intraspecific variability in the δ18O values is small in parts of the shell precipitated in the adult stage, but is not negligible in the juvenile and senescent stages. The differences in the monthly and seasonally resolved δ18O values among shells are less than 0.51‰ and 0.76‰, respectively. The shell δ18O values are nearly identical or close to the δ18O values for aragonite precipitated in oxygen isotope equilibrium with ambient seawater (δ18OEA). The largest differences between the shell δ18O and δ18OEA values calculated from the monthly and seasonally resolved data correspond to an overestimate of the seawater temperature by as much as 1.7°C and 2.3°C, respectively. However, these differences are smaller in the adult stage (<0.25‰) than in the other stages. This small difference allows an accurate reconstruction of the seawater temperature with an error of <1.1°C. Consequently, we recommend that multiple shell records be obtained because of the non-negligible intraspecific variations in their δ18O values. Growth banding, composed of alternating narrow white bands and wide light-grey bands, is discernible on cross-sections of the inner shell layer. The δ18Oshell data indicate that they were formed in winter and the other seasons, respectively. PMID:27327430

  10. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoot, Emma; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on) causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals’ homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific homeland should

  11. On the Use of Biomineral Oxygen Isotope Data to Identify Human Migrants in the Archaeological Record: Intra-Sample Variation, Statistical Methods and Geographical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Emma; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analysis of archaeological skeletal remains is an increasingly popular tool to study past human migrations. It is based on the assumption that human body chemistry preserves the δ18O of precipitation in such a way as to be a useful technique for identifying migrants and, potentially, their homelands. In this study, the first such global survey, we draw on published human tooth enamel and bone bioapatite data to explore the validity of using oxygen isotope analyses to identify migrants in the archaeological record. We use human δ18O results to show that there are large variations in human oxygen isotope values within a population sample. This may relate to physiological factors influencing the preservation of the primary isotope signal, or due to human activities (such as brewing, boiling, stewing, differential access to water sources and so on) causing variation in ingested water and food isotope values. We compare the number of outliers identified using various statistical methods. We determine that the most appropriate method for identifying migrants is dependent on the data but is likely to be the IQR or median absolute deviation from the median under most archaeological circumstances. Finally, through a spatial assessment of the dataset, we show that the degree of overlap in human isotope values from different locations across Europe is such that identifying individuals' homelands on the basis of oxygen isotope analysis alone is not possible for the regions analysed to date. Oxygen isotope analysis is a valid method for identifying first-generation migrants from an archaeological site when used appropriately, however it is difficult to identify migrants using statistical methods for a sample size of less than c. 25 individuals. In the absence of local previous analyses, each sample should be treated as an individual dataset and statistical techniques can be used to identify migrants, but in most cases pinpointing a specific homeland should not

  12. The carbon and oxygen isotope records of reef-dwelling foraminifers subjected to five varied pCO2 seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikami, M.; Ishimura, T.; Suzuki, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) in response to rising atmospheric pCO2 is generally expected to reduce rates of calcification by reef calcifying organisms, with potentially severe implications for coral reef ecosystems. Reef dwelling foraminifera is one of the most important primary and carbonate producers in coral reef environments. Their shells are composed of high-Mg calcite and they are host to algal endosymbionts. In our previous culture experiment with two algal reef dwelling foraminifers, Amphisorus kudakajimensis and Calcarina gaudichaudii in the seawater of five different pCO2 conditions, net calcification of A. kudakajimensis was reduced under higher pCO2, whereas net calcification of C. gaudichaudii showed continued increasing trend with pCO2. These contrasting responses between the two species are possibly due to differences in calcification mechanisms and to links between calcification by the foraminifers and photosynthesis by the algal endosymbionts. But the factors affecting these calcification mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to get a better understanding of the effect of OA on their calcification, we cultured three reef dwelling foraminifers: Amphisorus hemprichii, belong to imperforate species, Baculogypsina sphaerulata, and C. gaudichaudii belong to perforate species, in the seawater of five different pCO2 conditions and we address the response of carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate shells of foraminifers. The oxygen isotope ratio of cultured foraminiferal tests under five varied pCO2 seawater indicated no significant correlation to pCO2 values. On the other hand, the carbon isotope ratio of foraminiferal tests indicated heavy trend with rising pCO2 in all species. Alteration of carbonate chemistry result from ocean acidification may be effect strongly on carbon isotope composition relate to metabolic system (i.e. photosynthesis and respiration). In perforate species, both of oxygen and carbon isotope ratio were lighter than that

  13. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, John W.; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R.; McLelland, James M.

    1994-09-01

    ranging from 39 to 75 wt% SiO2. Only olivine metagabbros have lower average values (6.4/mil), consistent with the hypothesis that they represent nearly pristine samples of the anorthosite's parent magma. Whole-rock values of delta (O-18) are also high in the AMCG suite and increase with SiO2 content, as predicted for a process of assimilation and fractional crystallization. Taken together, these data suggest that the elevated values of oxygen isotope ratios result from partial melting and contamination involving metasediments in the deep crust, before the crystallization of zircon. More normal values elsewhere in the Grenville Province record deep-seated, pre-1150 Ma regional differences.

  14. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  15. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation during food cooking: Implications for the interpretation of the fossil human record.

    PubMed

    Royer, Aurélien; Daux, Valérie; Fourel, François; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope data provide insight into the reconstruction of ancient human diet. However, cooking may alter the original stable isotope compositions of food due to losses and modifications of biochemical and water components. To address this issue, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were measured on meat aliquots sampled from various animals such as pork, beef, duck and chicken, and also from the flesh of fishes such as salmon, European seabass, European pilchard, sole, gilt-head bream, and tuna. For each specimen, three pieces were cooked according to the three most commonly-known cooking practices: boiling, frying and roasting on a barbecue. Our data show that cooking produced isotopic shifts up to 1.8‰, 3.5‰, and 5.2‰ for δ(13) C, δ(15) N, and δ(18) O values, respectively. Such variations between raw and cooked food are much greater than previously estimated in the literature; they are more sensitive to the type of food rather than to the cooking process itself, except in the case of boiling. Reconstructions of paleodietary may thus suffer slight bias in cases of populations with undiversified diets that are restrained toward a specific raw or cooked product, or using a specific cooking mode. In cases of oxygen isotope compositions from skeletal remains (bones, teeth), they not only constitute a valuable proxy for reconstructing past climatic conditions, but they could also be used to improve our knowledge of past human diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Early Cenomanian "hot greenhouse" revealed by oxygen isotope record of exceptionally well-preserved foraminifera from Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Atsushi; Huber, Brian T.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Watkins, David K.

    2015-11-01

    The search into Earth's mid-Cretaceous greenhouse conditions has recently been stimulated by the Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) which has recovered exceptionally well-preserved biogenic carbonates from subsurface pre-Neogene marine sediments in the eastern margin of central Africa. Published Tanzanian oxygen isotope records measured on exquisitely preserved foraminiferal tests, dating to as old as ~93 Ma, provided evidence for a Turonian "hot greenhouse" with very high and stable water-column temperatures. We have generated a comparable data set of exceptionally well-preserved foraminifera from a lower Cenomanian interval of TDP Site 24 spanning 99.9-95.9 Ma (planktonic foraminiferal Thalmanninella globotruncanoides Zone; nannofossil Corollithion kennedyi to Lithraphidites eccentricus Zones), thereby extending the age coverage of the Tanzanian foraminiferal δ18O record back by ~7 million years. Throughout the interval analyzed, the new foraminiferal δ18O data are consistently around -4.3‰ for surface-dwelling planktonic taxa and -1.9‰ for benthic Lenticulina spp., which translate to conservative paleotemperature estimates of >31°C at the surface and >17°C at the sea floor (upper bathyal depths). Considering the ~40°S Cenomanian paleolatitude of TDP Site 24, these estimates are higher than computer simulation results for accepted "normal" greenhouse conditions (those with up to 4X preindustrial pCO2 level) and suggest that the climate mode of the early Cenomanian was very similar to the Turonian hot greenhouse. Taking account of other comparable data sources from different regions, the hot greenhouse mode within the normal mid-Cretaceous greenhouse may have begun by the latest Albian, but the precise timing of the critical transition remains uncertain.

  17. Triple oxygen isotopes and clumped isotopes in modern vertebrate and dinosaur biominerals: Records of paleoecology, paleoaridity, and paleo-carbon-cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Passey, B. H.; Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Montanari, S.; Chin, K.; Johnson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The parameter Δ17O describes the departure of δ17O from an expected equilibrium relationship with δ18O, which can be caused by factors such as evaporation of parent waters, and photochemical reactions among oxygen-bearing gases in stratosphere. Hence, the Δ17O of water records information about environmental aridity, and the Δ17O of atmospheric O2 is related to atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and O2, and gross primary productivity (GPP). Vertebrates incorporate Δ17O signals of input water (e.g. drinking water and free food water) and atmospheric O2 into body water through respiration, and biominerals forming in equilibrium with body water can preserve this signal over geological timescales. The preservation of fossil biominerals can be evaluated by clumped isotopes as they record the temperature of mineralization, be it primary mineralization in the living animal (at body temperature), or secondary mineralization during diagenesis. We can distinguish the alteration of samples from the deviation between observed clumped isotope temperatures and plausible body temperatures. Meanwhile, diagenesis tends to moderate Δ17O of biominerals towards Δ17O of meteoric waters, such that measured Δ17O values reflect the minimum anomaly in fossil samples. Thus, preservation of anomalous Δ17O indicates at least partial preservation of the original signal. We present Δ17O data from both modern vertebrate and fossil dinosaur biominerals. We use a 17O-enabled body water model to explore the influence of aridity and dietary ecology on animal Δ17O, and to predict the degree of dilution of the atmospheric O2 Δ17O signal by other sources of oxygen to the animal. We observe: 1) animals consuming more leaf water than drinking water are "evaporation sensitive" (ES) animals, and have lower Δ17O relative to "evaporation insensitive" animals in the same climates; 2) ES animals from arid climates have lower Δ17O values compared to ES animals from humid climates, which forms the

  18. Isotopic and hydrologic responses of small, closed lakes to climate variability: Comparison of measured and modeled lake level and sediment core oxygen isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, Byron A.; Abbott, Mark B.; Nelson, Daniel B.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Finney, Bruce P.; Bain, Daniel J.; Rosenmeier, Michael F.

    2013-03-01

    Simulations conducted using a coupled lake-catchment isotope mass balance model forced with continuous precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity data successfully reproduce (within uncertainty limits) long-term (i.e., multidecadal) trends in reconstructed lake surface elevations and sediment core oxygen isotope (δ18O) values at Castor Lake and Scanlon Lake, north-central Washington. Error inherent in sediment core dating methods and uncertainty in climate data contribute to differences in model reconstructed and measured short-term (i.e., sub-decadal) sediment (i.e., endogenic and/or biogenic carbonate) δ18O values, suggesting that model isotopic performance over sub-decadal time periods cannot be successfully investigated without better constrained climate data and sediment core chronologies. Model reconstructions of past lake surface elevations are consistent with estimates obtained from aerial photography. Simulation results suggest that precipitation is the strongest control on lake isotopic and hydrologic dynamics, with secondary influence by temperature and relative humidity. This model validation exercise demonstrates that lake-catchment oxygen isotope mass balance models forced with instrumental climate data can reproduce lake hydrologic and isotopic variability over multidecadal (or longer) timescales, and therefore, that such models could potentially be used for quantitative investigations of paleo-lake responses to hydroclimatic change.

  19. Long-distance relationship between large-scale tropical SSTs and ice core-derived oxygen isotopic records in the Third Pole Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. G.; Yao, T.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Lin, P.

    2012-12-01

    The tropical hydrological cycle is a key factor coupling isotopic records from ice core, speleothem and lake records with tropical SSTs and the vertical amplification of temperature in the Tropics. Stable isotopic ratios, particularly of oxygen, preserved in glacier ice provide high resolution records of climate changes over long time periods. In polar ice sheets the isotopic signal is driven primarily by temperature while in low-latitudes it depends on a variety of hydrologic and thermal influences in the broad geographic region that supplies moisture to the mountain glaciers. The strong correlation between ice core-derived isotopic records throughout the low- and mid-latitudes and tropical SSTs likely reflects the dominance of tropical evaporation in the flux of water vapor to the atmosphere and provides a possible explanation for the large-scale isotopic links among low- and mid-latitude paleoclimate records. Many low- to mid-latitude ice fields provide continuous, annually-resolved proxy records of climatic and environmental variability recorded by many preserved and measurable parameters including oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios and net mass balance (accumulation). These records present an opportunity to examine the nature of climate variability in these regions in greater detail and to extract new information about long-distance relationships in the climate system. Understanding these relationships is essential for proper interpretation of the isotopic records archived in glaciers, lakes, speleothems and other paleo-archives in the Third Pole (TP) Region. Here we compare high resolution records from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya, a speleothem record from Wanxiang Cave in Gansu Province on the TP and the annually resolved ice core records from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Andes of South America. The purpose is to explore the role of long-distance processes in determining the isotopic composition of paleo archives on the TP. Running correlations

  20. Oxygen isotope geospeedometry by SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamici, C. E.; Valley, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Geospeedometry, a discipline closely related and complimentary to thermochronology, exploits the phenomenon of diffusion in order to extract rate and duration information for segments of a rock's thermal history. Geospeedometry data, when anchored in absolute time by geochronologic data, allow for the construction of detailed temperature-time paths for specific terranes and geologic processes. We highlight the developing field of SIMS-based oxygen isotope geospeedometry with an application from granulites of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and discuss potential future applications based on a recently updated and expanded modeling tool, the Fast Grain Boundary diffusion program (FGB; Eiler et al. 1994). Equilibrium oxygen isotope ratios in minerals are a function of temperature and bulk rock composition. In dynamic systems, intragrain oxygen isotope zoning can develop in response to geologic events that affect the thermal state of a rock and/or induce recrystallization, especially tectonic deformation and fluid infiltration. As an example, titanite grains from late-Grenville shear zones in the northwestern Adirondack Mountains exhibit a range of δ18O zoning patterns that record post-peak metamorphic cooling, episodic fluid infiltration, and deformation-facilitated recrystallization. Many titanite grains preserve smooth, core-to-rim decreasing, diffusional δ18O profiles, which are amenable to diffusion modeling. FGB models that best fit the measured δ18O profiles indicate cooling from ~700-500°C in just 2-5 m.y., a rapid thermal change signaling the final gravitational collapse of the late-Grenville orogen. Titanite can also be utilized as a U-Pb chronometer, and comparison of δ18O and U-Pb age zoning patterns within the Adirondack titanites pins the episode of rapid cooling inferred from the δ18O record to some time between 1054 and 1047 Ma. The expanded capabilities of FGB also allow for evaluation of a range of heating-cooling histories for the

  1. Living on the edge: The oxygen isotope record of Eocene Basins at the margin of the Cenozoic North American plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Chamberlain, Page

    2013-04-01

    Topography has a strong impact on atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns and is a key element in reconstructing the dynamics of mountain building processes. The topographic evolution of the world's major orogens remains one of the most important questions when discussing the interactions among tectonics, climate, and Earth surface processes. Here, we focus on the spatial and temporal development of topography and relief in the western North American Cordillera and how changes in the topography may have affected precipitation patterns and vice versa. In this context, we sampled more than 20 sections in Eocene to Oligocene terrestrial (intermontane?) basins (Chumstick, Swauk, and Chuckanut) in western and central Washington (USA) to the W and E of the modern Cascades. Oxygen isotope analysis of pedogenic carbonate in these sections allows us to reconstruct the isotopic composition of ancient soilwater or groundwater, and ultimately precipitation. Oxygen isotope measurements of pedogenic concretions and calcic horizons interestingly yield uniformly low δ18O values of 10 to 13‰ SMOW despite the proximity of all sections to the Pacific moisture source. These extremely low oxygen isotope values can result from (1) highly 18O-depleted meteoric waters (soil- or groundwater), (2) burial diagenesis at moderate temperatures and interaction with 18O-depleted (ground)water, and (3) high burial temperatures and and exchange with basins brines. Vitrinite reflectance data and preservation of primary soil structures such as rootlets, root casts, burrows, or even preserved wood fragments clearly show that some of the low-d18O sections were not affected by high degrees of burial diagenesis. Thus, we believe that the primary isotopic signal of ancient soil- or groundwater is preserved at least in parts (if not in all) of these basins. Low δ18O values of pedogenic carbonate require highly 18O-depleted meteoric water, which in turn, would require high elevation either at

  2. Chronological study of oxygen isotope composition for the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Fluffy Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) containing reversely zoned melilite crystals are suggested to be aggregates of direct condensates from solar nebular gas. We conducted an investigation of 26Al-26Mg systematics of a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano, named V2-01, with known oxygen isotopic distributions of reversely zoned melilite crystals; we also conducted oxygen isotope measurements of coexisting minerals. Two of six reversely zoned melilite crystals show continuous variations in magnesium isotopic composition, with δ25Mg decreasing along the inferred direction of crystal growth, which supports the idea that they originated through condensation. Petrography suggests that the constituent minerals of V2-01 formed in the following order: first spinel and fassaite enclosed by melilite, then reversely zoned melilite crystals, and spinel and diopside in the Wark-Lovering rim. The spinel enclosed by melilite has 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O ∼ -24‰) and on an Al-Mg evolutionary diagram plots along model isochron with an initial value of (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The fassaite enclosed by melilite crystals shows variable oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O ∼ -12‰ and -17‰) and plots on an isochron with (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The oxygen isotopic compositions of reversely zoned melilite showed continuous variations in Δ17O along the inferred direction of crystal growth, suggesting that surrounding nebular gas, during the formation of the reversely zoned melilite, changed from 16O-poor (Δ17O values larger than -10‰) to 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -25‰). The six reversely zoned melilite crystals show indistinguishable initial 26Al/27Al values with an average (26Al/27Al)0 of (4.7 ± 0.3) × 10-5, which is clearly distinguishable from the value of enclosed spinel and fassaite, indicating a younger formation age than the enclosed spinel and fassaite. The spinel and diopside from the Wark-Lovering rim show 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O

  3. Stable carbon isotopes of C3 plant resins and ambers record changes in atmospheric oxygen since the Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, Ralf; McKellar, Ryan C.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Tappert, Michelle C.; Ortega-Blanco, Jaime; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2013-11-01

    Estimating the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen (pO2) in the geological past has been challenging because of the lack of reliable proxies. Here we develop a technique to estimate paleo-pO2 using the stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of plant resins-including amber, copal, and resinite-from a wide range of localities and ages (Triassic to modern). Plant resins are particularly suitable as proxies because their highly cross-linked terpenoid structures allow the preservation of pristine δ13C signatures over geological timescales. The distribution of δ13C values of modern resins (n = 126) indicates that (a) resin-producing plant families generally have a similar fractionation behavior during resin biosynthesis, and (b) the fractionation observed in resins is similar to that of bulk plant matter. Resins exhibit a natural variability in δ13C of around 8‰ (δ13C range: -31‰ to -23‰, mean: -27‰), which is caused by local environmental and ecological factors (e.g., water availability, water composition, light exposure, temperature, nutrient availability). To minimize the effects of local conditions and to determine long-term changes in the δ13C of resins, we used mean δ13C values (δ13Cmeanresin) for each geological resin deposit. Fossil resins (n = 412) are generally enriched in 13C compared to their modern counterparts, with shifts in δ13Cmeanresin of up to 6‰. These isotopic shifts follow distinctive trends through time, which are unrelated to post-depositional processes including polymerization and diagenesis. The most enriched fossil resin samples, with a δ13Cmeanresin between -22‰ and -21‰, formed during the Triassic, the mid-Cretaceous, and the early Eocene. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that neither change in pCO2 nor in the δ13C of atmospheric CO2 can account for the observed shifts in δ13Cmeanresin. The fractionation of 13C in resin-producing plants (Δ13C), instead, is primarily influenced by

  4. Petrography, classification, oxygen isotopes, noble gases, and cosmogenic records of Kamargaon (L6) meteorite: The latest fall in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D.; Mahajan, R. R.; Shukla, A. D.; Goswami, T. K.; Chakraborty, S.

    2017-08-01

    A single piece of meteorite fell on Kamargaon village in the state of Assam in India on November 13, 2015. Based on mineralogical, chemical, and oxygen isotope data, Kamargaon is classified as an L-chondrite. Homogeneous olivine (Fa: 25 ± 0.7) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs: 21 ± 0.4) compositions with percent mean deviation of <2, further suggest that Kamargaon is a coarsely equilibrated, petrologic type 6 chondrite. Kamargaon is thermally metamorphosed with an estimated peak metamorphic temperature of 800 °C as determined by two-pyroxene thermometry. Shock metamorphism studies suggest that this meteorite include portions of different shock stages, e.g., S3 and S4 (Stöffler et al.; however, local presence of quenched metal-sulfide melt within shock veins/pockets suggest disequilibrium melting and relatively higher shock stage of up to S5 (Bennett and McSween). Based on noble gas isotopes, the cosmic-ray exposure age is estimated as 7.03 ± 1.60 Ma and nitrogen isotope composition (δ15N = 18‰) also correspond well with the L-chondrite group. The He-U, Th, and K-Ar yield younger ages (170 ± 25 Ma 684 ± 93, respectively) and are discordant. A loss of He during the resetting event is implied by the lower He-U and Th age. Elemental ratios of trapped Ar, Kr, and Xe can be explained through the presence of a normal Q noble gas component. Relatively low activity of 26Al (39 dpm/kg) and the absence of 60Co activity suggest a likely low shielding depth and envisage a small preatmospheric size of the meteoroid (<10 cm in radius). The Kr isotopic ratios (82Kr/84Kr) further argue that the meteorite was derived from a shallow depth.

  5. Oxygen and carbon isotopic growth record in a reef coral from the florida keys and a deep-sea coral from blake plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emiliani, C.; Harold, Hudson J.; Shinn, E.A.; George, R.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis through a 30-year (1944 to 1974) growth of Montastrea annularis from Hen and Chickens Reef (Florida Keys) shows a strong yearly variation in the abundances of both carbon-13 and oxygen-18 and a broad inverse relationship between the two isotopes. Normal annual dense bands are formed during the summer and are characterized by heavy carbon and light oxygen. "Stress bands" are formed during particularly severe winters and are characterized by heavy carbon and heavy oxygen. The isotopic effect of Zooxanthellae metabolism dominates the temperature effect on the oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratio. The isotopic results on the deep-sea solitary coral Bathypsammia tintinnabulum, where Zooxanthellae are nonexistent, indicates that the abundance of the heavy isotopes carbon-13 and oxygen-18 is inversely related to the growth rate, with both carbon and oxygen approaching equilibrium values with increasing skeletal age.

  6. Paleoceanographic changes of surface and deep water based on oxygen and carbon isotope records during the last 130 kyr identified in MD179 cores, off Joetsu, Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihama, Saeko; Oi, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shiro; Matsumoto, Ryo

    2014-08-01

    We reconstructed the paleoenvironmental history of surface and deep water over the last 130 kyr from oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of planktonic and benthic foraminifera in two cores (MD179-3312 and MD179-3304) from the Joetsu Basin, eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Our data showed that paleoceanographic changes such as influx of surface currents and vertical circulation were associated with global glacial-interglacial sea level change. Surface water conditions were influenced by the influx of Tsushima Current, East China Sea coastal or off-shore waters through the Tsushima Strait during interglacial or interstadial stages, and strongly affected by freshwater input during the glacial maximum. During interglacial maximums such as Marine Isotope Stages 1 and 5e, development of well-oxygenated bottom water was indicated. A density-stratified ocean with weak ventilation was inferred from the isotopic records of benthic foraminifera during the Last Glacial Maximum. Local negative excursions in carbon isotopes during deglacial or interglacial periods may suggest the dissolution of gas hydrates or methane seep activities.

  7. Early to middle Miocene climate evolution: benthic oxygen and carbon isotope records from Walvis Ridge Site 1264.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourens, L. J.; Beddow, H.; Liebrand, D.; Schrader, C.; Hilgen, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Across the early to middle Miocene, high-resolution records from the Pacific Ocean indicate a dynamic climate system, encompassing a 2 Myr global warming event from 17 Ma to 14.7 Ma, followed by a major Cenozoic cooling step at 14.2 Ma -13.8 Ma. Currently, no high-resolution benthic record from the Atlantic Ocean exists covering both events, limiting global coverage of this intriguing period in Cenozoic climate evolution. Here, we present the first early to middle Miocene high-resolution from the Atlantic basin. These records, from Site 1264 on the Walvis Ridge, span a 5.5 Myr long interval (13.24-18.90 ma) in high temporal resolution ( 4 kyr) and are tuned to eccentricity. The d18O record shows a sudden (high-latitude) warming/deglaciation on Antarctica at 17.1 Ma, a rapid cooling/glaciation of Antarctica at 13.8 Ma, and high-amplitude ( 1‰) variability on astronomical time-scales throughout this interval. Together with other records from this time interval located in the Pacific, which show similar features, the data strongly suggests a highly dynamic global climate system. We find cooling steps in d18O at 14.7, 14.2 and 13.8 Ma, suggesting concurrent cooling in the Pacific and Atlantic deep waters during the MMCT. The benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records reveal that the dominant astronomical frequencies present at ODP Site 1264 during the early to middle Miocene interval are the 405 kyr and 110 kyr eccentricity periodicities. This is a contrast to other early to middle Miocene records from drill-sites in the Pacific and South China Sea, which show a strong expression of obliquity in particular between 14.2 and 14.7 Ma.

  8. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity of arc magma recorded in plagioclase from the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Anastassia Y.; Gurenko, Andrey A.; Martel, Caroline; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Cathala, Annick; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Pratomo, Indyo; Sumarti, Sri

    2016-10-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of magmatic crystals provide important information to distinguish between deep juvenile and crustal contributions. In this work, high-resolution multicollector secondary ion mass spectrometry data reveal strong variations of δ18O values in three plagioclase crystals (800-1700 μm) from two representative basaltic andesite samples of the 2010 Merapi eruption (Central Java, Indonesia). The δ18O values (from 4.6‰ to 7.9‰) are interpreted to reflect oxygen isotope heterogeneity in the melt composition during plagioclase growth. The lowest δ18O values (4.6-6.6‰) are found in anorthite-rich cores (An82-97), whereas higher δ18O values (5.7-7.9‰) are found in anorthite-poorer zones (An33-86), typically in crystal rims. Combining these new plagioclase δ18O data with δ18O of calc-silicate crustal xenoliths erupted between 1994 and 1998, the composition of glass inclusions hosted by the anorthite-rich plagioclase (An82-92), available experimental data, and the results of thermodynamic modeling using the Magma Chamber Simulator code, we conclude that the abundant anorthite-rich cores crystallized from a mantle-derived hydrous basaltic to basaltic trachyandesite melt that recharged a deeper (200-600 MPa) magma storage zone, whereas lower anorthite zones crystallized at shallower levels (100-200 MPa). The oxygen isotope variations in the plagioclase are explained by a two-stage model of interaction of the hydrous, mafic mantle-derived magma (1) with old crustal rocks depleted in 18O due to high temperature alteration that yielded the low δ18O values in the anorthite-rich cores at deep levels (13-20 km), and later (2) with 18O-enriched carbonate material that yielded the high δ18O values in anorthite-poorer zones at shallow levels (∼4.5-9 km). Thermodynamic modeling is consistent with ∼18 wt.% assimilation of crustal calc-silicate material at 925-950 °C and 100-200 MPa by the 2010 Merapi basaltic andesite magma prior to

  9. Discovery of Lower Pleistocene Shallow-marine Deposits on Mayaguana Island, Bahamas. Implications for Eustatic Sea-Level Curves Derived From Deep-Sea Oxygen-Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godefroid, F.; Kindler, P.; Chiaradia, M.; Hasler, C.; Samankassou, E.

    2008-12-01

    87Sr/86Sr-dated marine and beach sediments exposed along the north shore of Mayaguana Island (Bahamas) provide new estimates of the elevation of high sea stands during the Early Pleistocene that will contribute to better calibrate eustatic sea-level curves derived from deep-sea oxygen-isotope records. A newly investigated sea cliff located to the west of Mount Misery Point on the northern coast of Mayaguana, in the SE part of the Bahamian archipelago, includes two vertically stacked sequences of shallow-marine carbonates separated and capped by paleosols and eolianites. The lower unit, reaching up to 5.5 m above modern sea level, consists of coarse laminated calcarenites containing numerous mollusk and red-algal fragments, and large in-situ coral specimens (Diploria strigosa). The second unit, exposed between 7.3 and 10 m, includes bioturbated, coral-rich limestones, overlain by thinly bedded calcarenites characterized by an early generation of fibrous rim cement. 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured from these carbonates range from 0.709123 at the base of the section to 0.709142 at its top. The first unit can be interpreted as a peri-reefal facies deposited when relative sea level was at least 5.5 m above present. The second unit corresponds to one shallowing-upward sequence of subtidal and beach deposits generated when sea level was around 9 m above its actual stand. Sr-isotope ratios indicate that both units were formed during the Early Pleistocene, likely between 1.6 and 1.0 Ma BP. Comparison with existing oxygen-isotope records from deep- sea sediments suggests that the identified sea-level highstands could correspond to negative δ18O peaks estimated at 1.45 and 1.50 Ma BP. Based on the elevation of fossil reefs dating from the last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5e) and the occurrence of Upper Miocene shallow-marine deposits close to modern sea level, Mayaguana can be considered as tectonically stable. The elevation values obtained for these Early Pleistocene

  10. A 16-ka oxygen-isotope record from Genggahai Lake on the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Hydroclimatic evolution and changes in atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Mingrui; Song, Lei; Jin, Yanxiang; Li, Yuan; Liu, Li; Zhang, Jiawu; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    Moisture source history and changes in atmospheric circulation are the most important attributes for portraying past climate changes and for estimating possible future trends. However, few climate records reflecting these attributes are available from the marginal zones of the Asian summer monsoon. Here, we present a record of the oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates (δ18Ocarb) of sequential sediments from Genggahai Lake in the northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Isotopic analyses were performed on the fine-grained carbonate fraction (<38 μm), mollusc shells, and stem encrustations from submerged plants. The stratigraphic variations of the δ18O record from the different carbonate components exhibit a remarkably similar pattern, probably reflecting the fact that δ18Ocarb variability was controlled primarily by changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the lake water (δ18OLW). Disequilibrium effects and water temperature are precluded as major factors affecting the δ18Ocarb variations. Genggahai Lake is hydrologically open and characterized by a rapid discharge rate, as indicated by analysis of the hydrological setting of the lake system and by the observed significant positive correlation between δ18OLW and the oxygen isotopic composition of the inflowing water (δ18OI). Under such hydrological conditions, we argue that the isotopic signals of different moisture sources should be reflected in the carbonate isotopic composition. Furthermore, placing the δ18Ocarb record in the context of regional palaeoclimate archives, we found that the isotopic signals, particularly the negative shifts from the average values, cannot be interpreted consistently, despite a process of evaporative enrichment at the lake surface. During the early- to mid-Holocene, low δ18Ocarb values during 10.6-9.4 and 7.4-6.3 ka were associated with higher lake levels, and thus the record may have been significantly affected by a strengthened Asian summer monsoon

  11. Spatial and temporal oxygen isotope variability in northern Greenland - implications for a new climate record over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weißbach, S.; Wegner, A.; Opel, T.; Oerter, H.; Vinther, B. M.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present for the first time all 12 δ18O records obtained from ice cores drilled in the framework of the North Greenland Traverse (NGT) between 1993 and 1995 in northern Greenland. The cores cover an area of 680 km × 317 km, 10 % of the Greenland ice sheet. Depending on core length (100-175 m) and accumulation rate (90-200 kg m-2 a-1) the single records reflect an isotope-temperature history over the last 500-1100 years. Lowest δ18O mean values occur north of the summit and east of the main divide as a consequence of Greenland's topography. In general, ice cores drilled on the main ice divide show different results than those drilled east of the main ice divide that might be influenced by secondary regional moisture sources. A stack of all NGT records and the NGRIP record is presented with improved signal-to-noise ratio. Compared to single records, this stack represents the mean δ18O signal for northern Greenland that is interpreted as proxy for temperature. Our northern Greenland δ18O stack indicates distinctly enriched δ18O values during medieval times, about AD 1420 ± 20 and from AD 1870 onwards. The period between AD 1420 and AD 1850 has depleted δ18O values compared to the average for the entire millennium and represents the Little Ice Age. The δ18O values of the 20th century are comparable to the medieval period but are lower than that about AD 1420.

  12. A model-based test of accuracy of seawater oxygen isotope ratio record derived from a coral dual proxy method at southeastern Luzon Island, the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Kojima, Keitaro; Yoshimura, Kei; Okai, Takashi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Oki, Taikan; Siringan, Fernando P.; Yoneda, Minoru; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    The oxygen isotope ratio in seawater (δ18Osw) is an important indicator of past hydroclimatic conditions in the tropics. In this study, we apply a dual proxy approach using δ18O and Sr/Ca in coral skeletons to estimate δ18Osw. Due to a lack of long-term continuous observational data for δ18Osw, a simplified one-dimensional box model of the ocean surface associated with historical surface atmospheric data is used for comparison with coral-derived δ18Osw record. The atmospheric data consist of the precipitation and evaporation values, together with their δ18O compositions from the global isotope reanalysis data. The model successfully reproduces a multidecadal time series for δ18Osw at southeastern Luzon Island, the Philippines, for the period 1979-2001 (r = 0.57, p < 0.01). The result suggests that the coral records are an accurate indicator of hydrological cycle changes at the site. A discrepancy between the reproduction and the coral record in the wet season (December-February) may be caused by seasonal variation in the depth of the mixed layer and upwelling, since these factors are not accounted for in the model. The reproduction is in good agreement with the coral records in the dry season (April-June), implying that δ18Osw estimated using the coral dual proxy method is more robust at this time of year.

  13. Middle Pleistocene climate and habitat change at Zhoukoudian, China, from the carbon and oxygen isotopic record from herbivore tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboardi, Mabry; Deng, Tao; Wang, Yang

    2005-05-01

    The Pleistocene deposits at Zhoukoudian, often referred to as the "Peking Man" site, contain dental remains from a diverse group of herbivores, including Equus sanmeniensis, Cervus elaphus, Cervus nippon, Megaloceros pachyosteus, Sus lydekkeri, and Dicerorhinus choukoutienensis. The carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of structural carbonate within the enamel of these teeth are used to reconstruct the paleodiet and paleoenvironment of the mammals. The δ13C values of enamel from Zhoukoudian range from -2.3‰ to -13.0‰, indicating that these mammals consumed between ˜25% and 100% C 3 plants. The presence of significant amounts of C 4 plants in the diets of some herbivore species indicates that at the onset of the Middle Pleistocene local habitats included mixed C 3/C 4 vegetation. By approximately 470,000 yr ago, C 3 plants dominated the diets of herbivores studied, suggesting that the abundance of C 4 flora had decreased in the area. For all deer analyzed in this study, the values of δ13C and δ18O decrease substantially from about 720,000 to 470,000 yr ago. This trend may be due to a strengthening of the winter monsoon during the Middle Pleistocene.

  14. Evolution of Sulfur Isotopes and Oceanic Oxygenation Recorded in a Neoproterozoic Cap Carbonate From the Chaidam Block, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.; Xiao, S.; Kaufman, A.; Zhou, C.

    2006-12-01

    Neoproterozoic successions in the Chaidam Block, northwestern China, include the Hongtiegou Formation, which consists of a 20-meter thick, reddish diamictite with widespread dropstones and outsized clasts. The age of the Hongtiegou diamictite is unknown, but recent biostratigraphic correlations support a Neoproterozoic assignment. The glacial deposit is immediately overlain by a 5-meter thick carbonate of the basal Zhoujieshan Formation, which we interpret as a classic post-glacial cap carbonate. However, carbon isotope compositions of samples from this unit are near zero or slightly positive (up to ~ 2‰), which contrasts with the strongly negative (ca. -5‰) values recorded in the basal portions of most other post-glacial Neoproterozoic caps. Trace sulfate concentrations in samples of the carbonate are notably high, with an average of 366 ± 266 ppm. In the lower 2.5 meters of the Zhoujieshan cap (stage I) sulfur isotope compositions of both carbonate associated sulfate (CAS) and sulfides isolated from the same sample are indistinguishable from each other, and rise in concert by over 10% to values around +22‰. Above this level (stage II), 34S abundances of sulfides continue to increase to a peak of +27‰, but CAS values fall back to ~15‰. As a result isotopic differences between sulfides and sulfates are near zero in stage I and around 10% in stage II. The evolution of both systems in the lower half of the deposit suggests that seawater sulfate must have evolved to progressively heavier 34S compositions, and that sulfate in pore waters ¨C where sulfate reducing bacteria were active ¨C was quantitatively reduced to pyrite. This might result from the progressive distillation of sulfate from seawater by an enhanced rain of carbonate, in addition to bacterial reduction of sulfate, in the glacial aftermath. The anomalous isotope systematics of stage II are difficult to model, but might signal a new source and higher abundances of oceanic sulfate, based on

  15. Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Fulgurites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, F.; Javoy, M.

    1992-07-01

    Two occurrences of vitreous rocks (fulgurites) that have resulted from the fusion of Etnean lavas, have been ascribed to the result of lightning striking the basalts and melting fresh volcanic rocks [1]. Rapidly quenched melts appear as tubular cavities that preserve the path of the discharge. Glass droplets (D <= 500 micrometers) are always dispersed around the fused lava tube and show several petrographic similarities with chondrules found in ordinary chondrites (presence of melilite, radiating skeletal fassaite, etc). In this process, high temperatures (T>1800 K) have probably been reached during timescales <=10 sec. Because it has been suggested that lightning discharges may have played an important role in the formation of chondrules [2], we have analyzed the oxygen isotope compositions of these fulgurites (our experimental protocol is described elsewhere [3]). The glass (free from any contamination from the unmelted basalt) is 1.5o/oo depleted in ^18O relative to its measured initial isotopic composition (delta^18O = +5.6o/oo); most of the data define a mass-dependent fractionation relationship (i.e. delta^17O = 0.52 x delta^18O). Therefore the data clearly do not reproduce the oxygen isotope anomaly defined for meteorites, which has a slope of 1 in the diagram delta^17O versus delta^18O (i.e. delta^17O = 1.0 x delta^18O). Nevertheless, it should be noted that some glass samples scatter around this canonical value of 0.52 with minor departures from a purely mass-dependent fractionation. If these results are confirmed by additional determinations (now in progress) on the separated glassy droplets, the following conclusions can be proposed: 1) lightning discharges do not yield oxygen isotope anomalies similar to those measured in chondrules and 2) an isotope exchange between hot chondrules and their parent nebular gas--presumably "anomalous" in its oxygen isotopes-- seems difficult to achieve within the duration of the rapid cooling of the melt. This last point

  16. A 430 year record of hydroclimate variability for NE-Germany based on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes from pine and oak tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, Gerhard; Baschek, Heiko; Heinrich, Ingo; Navabzadeh, Nadia; Riedel, Frank; Wilmking, Martin; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    European lowlands experience many direct and indirect influences of global warming, particularly related to the hydrological cycle which lately faces increasing flood and drought events. Although important for humans and the ecosystems in which they live, little is known about the long-term spatiotemporal hydrological changes in various European regions. Here we present the first 430-year stable carbon and oxygen chronologies from tree ring cellulose in lowland oak and pine trees (P. sylvestris, Q. petraea) for the region of NE-Germany and provide annually resolved high quality hydroclimatic reconstructions. When compared to ring width data isotope data can be used with only minor adjustments to their means (besides correction of short juvenile trends) and sample depths of 4-5 trees are normally enough for a significant expressed population signal being representative for a site. For this study more than 20 individual tree ring sub-samples for isotopic analyses were obtained from well replicated tree ring chronologies built using living trees as well as historical timber originating from four different lowland sites (50-90m asl.). By a calibration and verification approach we have evaluated the response to instrumental climate and trends of atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (13C, only) data. While ring widths shows strong correlation to winter temperature, highly significant correlations with summer (JJA) hydroclimate conditions were found for both tree ring 13C and 18O. Strongest relationships were found with summer water vapour pressure deficit (13C and 18O) and Tmax (JJA). Although significant, relationships between 13C and climate data were found considerably weaker than climate/18O relations. On the other hand, the 13C record reveals high similarity with solar irradiance, whereas 18O does not. Based on this profound calibration the presentation will show and discuss annually resolved hydroclimatic variability of the region from our multi-centennial isotope

  17. Sea surface temperatures in the central southern Indian Ocean over the period 1790 to 2007 inferred from two monthly resolved Sr/Ca and oxygen isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinke, J.; Wassenburg, J.; Hardman, E.

    2009-04-01

    We obtained two monthly resolved Sr/Ca records from Rodrigues island (Mauritius) located in the trade wind belt of the central southern Indian Ocean. The longest core was obtained at a nearshore fringing reef and covers the period 1790-2005. This coral records surface air temperatures from the local weather station available from 1950 to the present. The most remarkable signal is a slight cooling after the 1950's. The second core was obtained from the open ocean and records a long-term warming trend between 1947 to 2007. The warming accelerated after the late 1970's in agreement with instrumental data. The oxygen isotope record is affected by salinity variations and shows a strong freshening trend after the late 1970's. The freshening trend is probably related to advection of low salinity waters with the South Equatorial Current and/or increased cyclonicity. We will discuss our results in light of interannual and decadal variability and present long-term seawater monitoring data.

  18. Ordinary Chondrite Chondrules: Oxygen Isotope Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, K.; Pack, A.; Hezel, D. C.

    2017-02-01

    Chondrules in some H and LL chondrites show positive/negative correlations between size and oxygen isotopic composition. This indicates that they exchanged oxygen with different oxygen reservoirs and cannot stem from a common chondrule population.

  19. Analysis of the interdecadal variability of summer precipitation in central Japan using a reconstructed 106 year long oxygen isotope record from tree ring cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Naoyuki; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Keiko; Mitsutani, Takumi; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2016-10-01

    We present a unique proxy for reconstructing the interannual variability of summer precipitation associated with the quasi-stationary front (Baiu front) in central Japan. The rainfall from the Baiu front has a relatively lower oxygen isotopic composition than other types of nonfrontal precipitation. The variability in the oxygen isotopes in summer rainfall is closely related to the Baiu frontal activity. In this study we used a mechanistic tree ring isotope model to reconstruct a 106 year long oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation during the early rainy season (June) based on the oxygen isotopic compositions of the annual rings of Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl trees from central Japan. The year-to-year variations of the isotopes over the most recent 25 years are associated with several teleconnection patterns that often lead to the Baiu precipitation anomalies in central Japan (such as the Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern, Silk Road pattern, and wave train pattern along the polar jet). Yet none of these external forcing mechanisms apply further back in time. From the 1950s to 1980s, the interannual isotopic variability is predominantly related to local factors such as anomalous intensification/weakening of the Bonin High. Before the 1950s, the variability of the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation is mainly associated with a wave train pattern along the polar jet. The isotopic variability is predominantly linked to the PJ pattern, while the PJ index is correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation. These findings suggest that the teleconnection patterns influencing Baiu precipitation variability vary according to interdecadal time scales during the twentieth century.

  20. Speleothem chronology with sub-annual resolution in a near-entrance cave setting using oxygen isotope and trace element records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. E.; Miller, N. R.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.

    2016-12-01

    Speleothems that grow in well-ventilated zones of caves are typically avoided when selecting specimens for paleoclimate reconstruction, due to concerns about evaporation and kinetic isotope effects. Near-entrance cave environments are characterized by near-ambient CO2 concentrations year-round and are influenced by surface temperature fluctuations. At Westcave Preserve (Westcave), a shallow, well-ventilated cave in central Texas, we have found seasonal temperature differences recorded in both the oxygen isotope and trace element compositions of speleothem calcite. The seasonal nature of these records has been confirmed by monitoring the chemical composition of drip water and substrate calcite since 2009 (Feng et al., 2014; Casteel and Banner, 2015). We present an ultrahigh-resolution (weekly to monthly) record of δ18O, Mg, Sr, and Ba in Westcave stalagmite WC-3, as well as monthly measurements of drip water geochemistry. We find drip water δ18O and [Mg] are essentially invariant, while seasonal variations in stalagmite calcite δ18O and Mg compositions are in good agreement with predicted temperature-dependent fractionation between water and calcite. Both drip water and speleothem calcite Sr and Ba vary seasonally, which we hypothesize is due to seasonal changes in moisture conditions in the epikarst. We use each of these annual geochemical cycles as independent chronological controls in order to develop a single age model for the stalagmite. These independent chronological counts are consistent with each other, and with 14C bomb-peak and U-series evidence. We argue that the potential for this kind of multi-proxy, seasonally-resolved dating in near-entrance stalagmites makes them especially valuable paleoclimate archives that should not be ignored in speleothem studies.

  1. The δ18O of Atmospheric Water Vapour is Recorded in the Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Leaf water and Organic Molecules at High Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, M. M.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Schmid, L.; Siegwolf, R. T.; Gessler, A.; Saurer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The oxygen stable isotope ratios (δ18O) of water and organic molecules in plants hold information about plant physiology, ecohydrology, and environmental conditions. For instance, the δ18O ratio of leaf water reflects both the δ18O ratios of water in the soil and in the atmosphere. This water, which is incorporated into organic molecules at the time of synthesis, thus serves to record the environment in which the plant was growing. However, how δ18O of atmospheric water vapour affects the δ18O ratio of organic molecules remains poorly understood. In order to investigate the effects of fog and rain (e.g. high atmospheric water availability) on δ18O ratios of leaf water and organic molecules, we exposed oak tree saplings (Quercus robur) in wet and dry soil treatments to 18O-depleted water vapour at ca. 90% relative humidity for 5 h. We harvested plant material over 24 h to trace the movement of the isotopic label in water and organics throughout the plant from the leaves to the stem. The atmospheric water vapour caused a strong 18O-depletion in leaf and xylem water, as well as in leaf carbohydrates, with the most negative ratios observed at the end of the fogging. Moreover, the label was clearly observed in twig and stem phloem carbohydrates following a short delay. A detailed compound-specific isotope analysis of the leaf carbohydrates revealed that the label caused an 18O-depletion in fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Quercitol, an oak-specific alditol, did not show 18O-depletion. Clear soil moisture treatment effects were only observed for twig phloem carbohydrates, with a stronger 18O-depletion in wet plants than in dry plants, suggesting retarded leaf-to-phloem sugar export in trees under drought. We demonstrate that labelling with 18O-depleted water is a potential tool to trace the movement and incorporation of oxygen stable isotopes in plants. We clearly show that changes in δ18O of atmospheric water vapour are quickly imprinted on leaf water and

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in tree-ring α-cellulose oxygen and hydrogen isotope values as a record of water availability in the Atacama Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, E. J.; Dodd, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have documented that tree ring oxygen and hydrogen isotopes primarily reflect source water; however, biosynthetic fractionation processes modify this signal and can have a varied response to environmental conditions. The degree to which source water contributes to δ2H and δ18O values of plant α-cellulose is species-specific and modern calibration studies are necessary. Here we present a calibration data set of P. tamarugo α-cellulose δ2H and δ18O values from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. P. tamarugo trees are endemic to the region and have adapted to the extremely arid environment where average annual precipitation is < 5mm/yr. This modern isotope chronology has been constructed from living P. tamarugo trees (n=12) from the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin in the northern Atacama. Generally, the tree-ring α-cellulose δ18O values are poorly correlated with meteorological data from coastal stations (i.e. Iquique); however, there is good agreement between regional groundwater depth and α-cellulose δ18O values. Most notably, average α-cellulose δ18O values increase by >2 ‰ over the past 20 years associated with a ~1.1 m lowering of the local groundwater table throughout the area. The correlation between a-cellulose isotope values and hydrologic conditions in modern times provides a baseline for interpretation of tree-ring isotope chronologies from the past 9.5 kya. A high-resolution Holocene (1.8-9.1 kya) age record of Prosopis sp. tree ring α-cellulose δ18O values provides a proxy for climatic and hydrologic conditions. During the early Holocene δ18O values range from 31 to 35‰ (2σ=0.58‰), while during the late Holocene values are much more variable (27.4 to 41‰; 2σ=2.64‰). Anthropogenic demand on local water sources is the most significant environmental factor affecting the variation in modern α-cellulose δ18O values; however, climate induced changes in regional water availability are the dominant driver of variability

  3. The Late Quaternary Oxygen Isotope Composition of Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Crowe, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    We present stable isotope records for porewater (oxygen, hydrogen) and biogenic carbonates (oxygen, carbon; ostracode and clam shells) in sediment cores from the Chippewa, Milwaukee and South Chippewa Basins of Lake Michigan. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of porewater from the South Chippewa Basin core showed very little variation with depth. At the maximum depth of 16.6m, δ18O values were within 2‰ and δD values were within 12‰ of modern Lake Michigan water (average δ18O = -5.9‰; average δD = -45‰); original porewater compositions have not been preserved. The oxygen isotope results for the biogenic carbonates, by comparison, provide a record of the isotopic composition of Lake Michigan over the last ~11,000 years, including significant incursions of very low-18O water, as first reported by Colman et al. (1990) and Forester et al. (1994). The low-18O waters originated from the retreating Laurentide ice sheet and may have been routed through Lakes Agassiz and Superior and discharged as large volumes over very short intervals of time. Periods characterized by much higher oxygen isotope compositions likely record the isotopic composition of regional precipitation over the catchment area. In summary, the large variations in the oxygen isotope composition of early Lake Michigan water arose from regional climate change and changing water sources during the times of ice-sheet retreat.

  4. On the timing and forcing mechanisms of late Pleistocene glacial terminations: Insights from a new high-resolution benthic stable oxygen isotope record of the eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konijnendijk, T. Y. M.; Ziegler, M.; Lourens, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic oxygen isotope records of deep marine sedimentary archives have yielded a wealth of information regarding ice sheet dynamics and climate change during the Pleistocene. However, since they often lack independent age control, these records are generally bound by a fixed phase relationship between orbital forcing and the climate response, e.g. ice volume changes. We present the first long (∼1.2 Ma) benthic oxygen isotope record from the eastern Mediterranean, based on ODP Sites 967 and 968, which clearly reflects the behavior of global climate on a glacial-interglacial scale throughout the late Pleistocene time period. The age model for our record is based on tuning the elemental ratio of titanium versus aluminum (Ti/Al) against insolation. The Ti/Al record is dominated by the precession-related changes in northern African climate, i.e. monsoonal forcing, and hence largely independent of glacial-interglacial variability. We found the largest offset between our chronology and that of the widely applied, open ocean stacked record LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005) for TVII (∼624 ka), which occurred ∼9 kyr earlier according to our estimates, though in agreement with the AICC2012 δDice chronology of EPICA Dome C (Bazin et al., 2013). Spectral cross-correlation analysis between our benthic δ18O record and 65°N summer insolation reveals significant amounts of power in the obliquity and precession range, with an average lag of 5.5 ± 0.8 kyr for obliquity, and 6.0 ± 1.0 kyr for precession. In addition, our results show that the obliquity-related time lag was smaller (3.0 ± 3.3 kyr) prior to ∼900 ka than after (5.7 ± 1.1 kyr), suggesting that on average the glacial response time to obliquity forcing increased during the mid-Pleistocene transition, much later than assumed by Lisiecki and Raymo (2005). Finally, we found that almost all glacial terminations have a consistent phase relationship of ∼45 ± 45° with respect to the precession and obliquity

  5. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.; Sander, Robert K.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  6. Carbon and oxygen isotope records and paleoclimate reconstruction (140-250 ka B.P.) from a stalagmite of Shuinan Cave, Guilin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiliang, Zhang; Hai, Cheng; Daoxian, Yuan; Xiaoyan, Zhu; Yushi, Lin; Jiaming, Qin; Edwards, R. L.

    2006-03-01

    The time sequence of paleoclimatic changes from 245.2 to 147.9 ka B.P. has been established by high precision U-series dating by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and the analysis of the oxygen isotopes from a stalagmite of Shuinan Cave in Guilin. The oxygen isotope pattern is divided into three main intervals. The top part of the stalagmite (interval C) displays mainly relatively heavy oxygen isotopes, mostly -7 to -5‰VPDB, but at a depth of 86.5 cm below the top, there is a sharp change to values lighter than -8 ‰. This boundary, dated at 192.6 ±3.9 ka B.P. is correlated with the boundary between marine oxygen isotope stages 6 and 7. The underlying interval B has δ18O values consistently between -7.5 and -8.5‰ until 271 cm depth when there is a sharp rise in δ18O values towards values as heavy as -5‰. The upper position of this change is dated at 242.5±6.4 ka B.P. and is correlated with the boundary between marine isotope stages 7 and 8. Carbon isotope values lie between -8.5 and -11‰ and are not uniquely high or low in the three intervals, but also show rapid changes at the boundaries between intervals in the same sense as the shifts in δ18O. The pronounced shifts in δ18O are attributed to changes in the paleo-monsoon intensity which reflect major reorganizations of the climate system, but some regional characteristics are also present. The results are also consistent with previous studies of climate proxies from loess-palaesol sequences in northern China. These characteristics show that paleo-climate evolution since the late stage of the middle Pleistocene Epoch in the Guilin area not only follows the global characteristics, but also has the strong district or regional patterns.

  7. Triple oxygen isotope variations in sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Naomi E.; Raub, Timothy D.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Eiler, John M.

    2014-08-01

    Relatively large (⩾0.2‰) 17O anomalies in the geologic record have been used to recognize atmospheric processes such as photochemical reactions and to trace changes in the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere through time. However, recent oxygen isotope measurements of terrestrial rocks, minerals and waters also reveal common, smaller (but statistically significant) deviations from a single mass-dependent fractionation line. These subtle anomalies have been explained through differences in mass-dependent isotopic fractionations for various equilibrium and kinetic mechanisms. Here we present triple oxygen isotope data on sedimentary silica and oxides, including Archean and Phanerozoic cherts, and iron formations. The distribution of data reflects the mass fractionation laws of low-temperature precipitation reactions during growth of authigenic minerals, variation in Δ17O of the waters from which sedimentary minerals precipitate, and equilibrium exchange after initial authigenic formation. We use these results to illustrate the potential for small, mass-dependent variations in Δ17O values of sedimentary rocks to provide constraints on the environmental and climatic conditions in which they formed.

  8. Oxygen isotopes in deep-sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Brownlee, Donald E.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured on several size fractions of deep-sea spherules of extraterrestrial origin. The silicate spherules have an isotopic composition unlike that of any known macrometeorite. Their pre-terrestrial compositions may have been similar to those of C3 chondrites or the anhydrous component of C2 chondrites, the latter being preferred on chemical grounds. Metallic particles oxidize in the upper atmosphere, and sample a region for which no previous oxygen isotope data exist. This part of the atmosphere, above about 100 km, is apparently strongly enriched in the heavy isotopes of oxygen.

  9. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Max Berkelhammer,; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-01-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean–atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north–south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean–atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean–atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north–south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean–atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the

  10. On the Timing and Forcing Mechanisms of Late Pleistocene Glacial Terminations: Insights from a New High-Resolution Benthic Stable Oxygen Isotope Record of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourens, L. J.; Konijnendijk, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first long (~1.2 Ma) benthic oxygen isotope record from the eastern Mediterranean, based on ODP Sites 967 and 968, which clearly reflects the behavior of global climate on a glacial-interglacial scale. The age model for our record is based on tuning the elemental ratio of titanium versus aluminum (Ti/Al) against insolation. The Ti/Al record is dominated by the precession-related changes in northern African climate, i.e. monsoonal forcing, and hence largely independent of glacial-interglacial variability. We found the largest offset between our chronology and that of the widely applied, open ocean stacked record LR04 (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005) for TVII (~624 ka), which occurred ~9 kyr earlier according to our estimates, though in agreement with the AICC2012 δDice chronology of EPICA Dome C (Bazin et al., 2013). Spectral cross-correlation analysis between our benthic δ18O record and 65°N summer insolation reveals significant amounts of power in the obliquity and precession range, with an average lag of 5.5±0.8 kyr for obliquity, and 6.0±1.0 kyr for precession. In addition, our results show that the obliquity-related time lag was smaller (3.0±3.3 kyr) prior to ~900 ka than after (5.7±1.1 kyr), suggesting that on average the glacial response time to obliquity forcing increased during the mid-Pleistocene transition, much later than assumed by Lisiecki and Raymo (2005). Finally, we found that almost all glacial terminations have a consistent phase relationship of ~45±45 degrees with respect to the precession and obliquity-driven increases in 65°N summer insolation, consistent with the general consensus that both obliquity and precession are important for deglaciation during the Late Pleistocene. Exceptions are glacial terminations TIIIb, T36 and potentially T32 (and TVII T24 and T34), which show this consistent phase relationship only with precession (only with obliquity). Our findings point towards an early (>1200 ka) onset of the Mid Pleistocene

  11. Lake oxygen isotopes as recorders of North American Rocky Mountain hydroclimate: Holocene patterns and variability at multi-decadal to millennial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lesleigh; Berkelhammer, Max; Barron, John A.; Steinman, Byron A.; Finney, Bruce P.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-02-01

    Lake sediment oxygen isotope records (calcium carbonate-δ18O) in the western North American Cordillera developed during the past decade provide substantial evidence of Pacific ocean-atmosphere forcing of hydroclimatic variability during the Holocene. Here we present an overview of 18 lake sediment δ18O records along with a new compilation of lake water δ18O and δ2H that are used to characterize lake sediment sensitivity to precipitation-δ18O in contrast to fractionation by evaporation. Of the 18 records, 14 have substantial sensitivity to evaporation. Two records reflect precipitation-δ18O since the middle Holocene, Jellybean and Bison Lakes, and are geographically positioned in the northern and southern regions of the study area. Their comparative analysis indicates a sequence of time-varying north-south precipitation-δ18O patterns that is evidence for a highly non-stationary influence by Pacific ocean-atmosphere processes on the hydroclimate of western North America. These observations are discussed within the context of previous research on North Pacific precipitation-δ18O based on empirical and modeling methods. The Jellybean and Bison Lake records indicate that a prominent precipitation-δ18O dipole (enriched-north and depleted-south) was sustained between ~ 3.5 and 1.5 ka, which contrasts with earlier Holocene patterns, and appears to indicate the onset of a dominant tropical control on North Pacific ocean-atmosphere dynamics. This remains the state of the system today. Higher frequency reversals of the north-south precipitation-δ18O dipole between ~ 2.5 and 1.5 ka, and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, also suggest more varieties of Pacific ocean-atmosphere modes than a single Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) type analogue. Results indicate that further investigation of precipitation-δ18O patterns on short (observational) and long (Holocene) time scales is needed to improve our understanding of the processes that drive

  12. A deglacial and Holocene record of climate variability in south-central Alaska from stable oxygen isotopes and plant macrofossils in peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Miriam C.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    We used stable oxygen isotopes derived from bulk peat (δ18OTOM), in conjunction with plant macrofossils and previously published carbon accumulation records, in a ∼14,500 cal yr BP peat core (HT Fen) from the Kenai lowlands in south-central Alaska to reconstruct the climate history of the area. We find that patterns are broadly consistent with those from lacustrine records across the region, and agree with the interpretation that major shifts in δ18OTOM values indicate changes in strength and position of the Aleutian Low (AL), a semi-permanent low-pressure cell that delivers winter moisture to the region. We find decreased strength or a more westerly position of the AL (relatively higher δ18OTOM values) during the Bølling-Allerød, Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), and late Holocene, which also correspond to warmer climate regimes. These intervals coincide with greater peat preservation and enhanced carbon (C) accumulation rates at the HT Fen and with peatland expansion across Alaska. The HTM in particular may have experienced greater summer precipitation as a result of an enhanced Pacific subtropical high, a pattern consistent with modern δ18O values for summer precipitation. The combined warm summer temperatures and greater summer precipitation helped promote the observed rapid peat accumulation. A strengthened AL (relatively lower δ18OTOM values) is most evident during the Younger Dryas, Neoglaciation, and the Little Ice Age, consistent with lower peat preservation and C accumulation at the HT Fen, suggesting less precipitation reaches the leeward side of the Kenai Mountains during periods of enhanced AL strength. The peatlands on the Kenai Peninsula thrive when the AL is weak and the contribution of summer precipitation is higher, highlighting the importance of precipitation seasonality in promoting peat accumulation. This study demonstrates that δ18OTOM values in peat can be applied toward understand large-scale shifts in atmospheric circulation

  13. Oxygen stable isotope ratios from British oak tree-rings provide a strong and consistent record of past changes in summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Giles H. F.; Loader, Neil J.; McCarroll, Danny; Bale, Roderick J.; Demmler, Joanne C.; Miles, Daniel; Nayling, Nigel T.; Rinne, Katja T.; Robertson, Iain; Watts, Camilla; Whitney, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    United Kingdom (UK) summers dominated by anti-cyclonic circulation patterns are characterised by clear skies, warm temperatures, low precipitation totals, low air humidity and more enriched oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) in precipitation. Such conditions usually result in relatively more positive (enriched) oxygen isotope ratios in tree leaf sugars and ultimately in the tree-ring cellulose formed in that year, the converse being true in cooler, wet summers dominated by westerly air flow and cyclonic conditions. There should therefore be a strong link between tree-ring δ18O and the amount of summer precipitation. Stable oxygen isotope ratios from the latewood cellulose of 40 oak trees sampled at eight locations across Great Britain produce a mean δ18O chronology that correlates strongly and significantly with summer indices of total shear vorticity, surface air pressure, and the amount of summer precipitation across the England and Wales region of the United Kingdom. The isotope-based rainfall signal is stronger and much more stable over time than reconstructions based upon oak ring widths. Using recently developed methods that are precise, efficient and highly cost-effective it is possible to measure both carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope ratios simultaneously from the same tree-ring cellulose. In our study region, these two measurements from multiple trees can be used to reconstruct summer temperature (δ13C) and summer precipitation (δ18O) with sufficient independence to allow the evolution of these climate parameters to be reconstructed with high levels of confidence. The existence of long, well-replicated oak tree-ring chronologies across the British Isles mean that it should now be possible to reconstruct both summer temperature and precipitation over many centuries and potentially millennia.

  14. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbo, S. P.; Korte, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Jurassic comprises some 55 million years of Earth history. However, within the Jurassic, only one major environmental change (hyperthermal) event is really well known - the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) at ~183 Ma - and until very recently the extent to which the accompanying environmental changes were global has been strongly debated. Nevertheless, partly as a result of the international effort to define Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs), much more is now being discovered about environmental changes taking place at and around the other Jurassic Age (Stage) boundaries, to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope signature), but also some significant contrasts (oxygen-isotope based paleotemperatures which provide no evidence for warming). Significant contrast in oxygen- and carbon-isotope co-variation also occurs on a long timescale. There appear to be two modes in the co-variation of carbon and oxygen isotopes through this time interval: mode 1 shows positive correlation and may be explained by conventional sources and sinks for carbon-dioxide; mode 2, representing negative

  15. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF SOLAR CORUNDUM GRAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2009-11-20

    .0), Bishunpur (LL3.1), Roosevelt County 075 (H3.2)) and unmetamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (Orgueil (CI1), Murray (CM2), and Alan Hills A77307 (CO3.0)) measured with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe. All corundum grains, except two, are {sup 16}O-rich (DELTA{sup 17}O = -22.7 per mille +- 8.5 per mille, 2sigma), and compositionally similar to the mineralogically pristine CAIs from the CR carbonaceous chondrites (-23.3 per mille +- 1.9 per mille, 2sigma), and solar wind returned by the Genesis spacecraft (-27 per mille +- 6 per mille, 2sigma). One corundum grain is highly {sup 17}O-enriched (delta{sup 17}O approx +60 per mille, delta{sup 18}O approx -40 per mille) and is probably of the presolar origin; the origin of another {sup 17}O-rich grain (delta{sup 17}O approx -15 per mille , delta{sup 18}O approx -35 per mille) is unclear. We conclude that the {sup 16}O-rich corundum grains in the acid-resistant residues from unequilibrated ordinary and unmetamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites recorded initial oxygen isotopic composition of the solar nebula, and, hence, of the Sun. Our inferred oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is inconsistent with the more extreme {sup 16}O-rich value (DELTA{sup 17}O approx -35 per mille) proposed by Gounelle et al. on the basis of two extremely {sup 16}O-rich CAIs from the CH/CB-like chondrite Isheyevo and with the {sup 16}O-poor value observed as a component of the solar wind implanted into the metallic particles in lunar soil (Ireland et al.).

  16. A continuous 250,000 yr record of oxygen and carbon isotopes in ostracode and bulk-sediment carbonate from Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Jordon; Kaufman, D.S.; Forester, R.M.; Dean, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopes from a continuous, 120-m-long, carbonate-rich core from Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, document dramatic fluctuations in the hydrologic budget of the lake over the last 250,000 yr. Isotopic analyses of bulk sediment samples capture millennial-scale variability. Ostracode calcite was analyzed from 78 levels, mainly from the upper half of the core where valves are better preserved, to compare the isotopic value of purely endogenic carbonate with the bulk sediment, which comprises both endogenic and detrital components. The long core exhibits three relatively brief intervals with abundant endogenic aragonite (50??10%) and enriched ??18O and ??13C. These intervals are interpreted as warm/dry periods when the lake retracted into a topographically closed basin. We correlate these intervals with the interglacial periods of marine oxygen-isotope stages 1, 5e, and 7a, consistent with the presently available geochronological control. During most of the time represented by the core, the lake was fresher than the modern lake, as evidenced by depleted ??18O and ??13C in bulk-sediment carbonate. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxygen isotopes implanted in the LDEF spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxton, J. M.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vanlierde, P.; Gilmour, J. D.; Turner, G.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to study oxygen implanted in the surface of copper from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Oxidation that occurred in orbit shows a characteristic oxygen isotope composition, depleted in O-18. The measured depletion is comparable to the predicted depletion (45 percent) based on a model of the gravitational separation of the oxygen isotopes. The anomalous oxygen was contained within 10nm of the surface. Tray E10 was calculated to have received 5.14 x 10(exp 21) atoms of oxygen cm(sup -2) during the LDEF mission and so there is sufficient anomalous implanted oxygen present in the surface to obtain a reliable isotopic profile.

  18. Variations in groundwater availability during the past 9,000 years in the Atacama Desert, Chile: A subannual record of oxygen isotope values from Prosopis tamarugo tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. P.; Rivera, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Atacama Desert is among the driest regions on Earth; therefore, access to water is critical to human populations throughout the Pampa del Tamarugal region of northern Chile (20° to 22°S, 69° to 70°W). Presently, the region receives <5 mm of precipitation annually, and seasonal runoff and groundwater recharge from higher altitudes in the Andes Mountains is the primary source of water in the Pampa del Tamarugal. Oxygen isotope data from Prosopis tamarugo tree rings indicate that the region has become increasingly arid over the past 9ka, likely as a result of decreased water transport from these recharge areas. Oxygen isotope values from α-cellulose of P. tamarugo tree rings from the Llamara Basin (9130 ±145 and 7910 to 7870 ±10 Cal BP), Ramaditas (2615 ±135 Cal BP), and La Tirana Refresco (modern) record sub-annual variations in groundwater availability in the Pampa del Tamarugal. Low δ18O values (23.8 to 32.8‰) in the P. tamarugo samples from the Llamara Basin indicate wetter conditions prior to 7.8 ka; however, sub-annual variability in the δ18O values remains relatively high with an average range in intra-ring values of 3.0‰ (2σ=1.1‰). P. tamarugo logs that were used as building materials and grown in agricultural fields at Ramaditas (~2.6ka), an archeological site in the Pampa del Tamarugal, have a wider range of δ18O values (17.5 to 35.6‰) and greater intra-ring variability (ave. 4.5‰, 2σ=3.2‰). The greater range in interannual and subannual δ18O values most likely reflects a period with highly variable fluxes of runoff/recharge water. The development and eventual abandonment of Ramaditas and other settlements appear to coincide with changes in the availability of water in the region. Modern P. tamarugo from La Tirana Refresco collected in 2008 have δ18O values that are consistently higher (33.1 to 36.3‰) with much lower intra-ring variability (1.5‰, 2σ=0.9‰), indicating persistently drier conditions and greater evaporative

  19. The oxygen isotope evolution of parent body aqueous solutions as recorded by multiple carbonate generations in the Lonewolf Nunataks 94101 CM2 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. R.; Sofe, M. R.; Lindgren, P.; Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-11-01

    The CM2 carbonaceous chondrite LON 94101 contains aragonite and two generations of calcite that provide snapshots of the chemical and isotopic evolution of aqueous solutions during parent body alteration. Aragonite was the first carbonate to crystallize. It is rare, heterogeneously distributed within the meteorite matrix, and its mean oxygen isotope values are δ18O 39.9 ± 0.6‰, Δ17O -0.3 ± 1.0‰ (1σ). Calcite precipitated soon afterwards, and following a fall in solution Mg/Ca ratios, to produce small equant grains with a mean oxygen isotope value of δ18O 37.5 ± 0.7‰, Δ17O 1.4 ± 1.1‰ (1σ). These grains were partially or completely replaced by serpentine and tochilinite prior to precipitation of the second generation of calcite, which occluded an open fracture to form a millimetre-sized vein, and replaced anhydrous silicates within chondrules and the matrix. The vein calcite has a mean composition of δ18O 18.4 ± 0.3‰, Δ17O -0.5 ± 0.5‰ (1σ). Petrographic and isotopic results therefore reveal two discrete episodes of mineralisation that produced calcite generations with contrasting δ18O, and mean Δ17O values. The aragonite and equant calcite crystallized over a relatively brief period early in the aqueous alteration history of the parent body, and from static fluids that were evolving chemically in response to mineral dissolution and precipitation. The second calcite generation crystallized from solutions of a lower Δ17O, and a lower δ18O and/or higher temperature. As two generations of calcite whose petrographic characteristics and oxygen isotopic compositions are similar to those in LON 94101 occur in at least one other CM2, multiphase carbonate mineralisation could be the typical outcome of the sequence of chemical reactions during parent body aqueous alteration. It is equally possible however that the second generation of calcite formed in response to an event such as impact fracturing and concomitant fluid mobilisation that affected

  20. A Deglacial and Holocene Record of Climate Variability in South-Central Alaska from Stable Oxygen Isotopes and Plant Macrofossils in Peat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Wooller, Matthew; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    We used stable oxygen isotopes derived from bulk peat (delta-O-18(sub TOM) in conjunction with plant macrofossils and previously published carbon accumulation records, in a approximately14,500 cal yr BP peat core (HT Fen) from the Kenai lowlands in south-central Alaska to reconstruct the climate history of the area. We find that patterns are broadly consistent with those from lacustrine records across the region, and agree with the interpretation that major shifts in delta-O-18(sub TOM) values indicate changes in strength and position of the Aleutian Low (AL), a semi-permanent low-pressure cell that delivers winter moisture to the region. We find decreased strength or a more westerly position of the AL (relatively higher delta-O-18(sub TOM) values) during the Bolling-Allerod, Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM), and late Holocene, which also correspond to warmer climate regimes. These intervals coincide with greater peat preservation and enhanced carbon (C) accumulation rates at the HT Fen and with peatland expansion across Alaska. The HTM in particular may have experienced greater summer precipitation as a result of an enhanced Pacific subtropical high, a pattern consistent with modern delta-O-18 values for summer precipitation. The combined warm summer temperatures and greater summer precipitation helped promote the observed rapid peat accumulation. A strengthened AL (relatively lower delta-O-18(sub TOM) values) is most evident during the Younger Dryas, Neoglaciation, and the Little Ice Age, consistent with lower peat preservation and C accumulation at the HT Fen, suggesting less precipitation reaches the leeward side of the Kenai Mountains during periods of enhanced AL strength. The peatlands on the Kenai Peninsula thrive when the AL is weak and the contribution of summer precipitation is higher, highlighting the importance of precipitation seasonality in promoting peat accumulation. This study demonstrates that delta-O-18(sub TOM) values in peat can be applied

  1. Oxygen isotope perspective on crustal evolution on early Earth: A record of Precambrian shales with emphasis on Paleoproterozoic glaciations and Great Oxygenation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.

    2016-03-01

    We present stable isotope and chemical data for 206 Precambrian bulk shale and tillite samples that were collected mostly from drillholes on all continents and span the age range from 0.5 to 3.5 Ga with a dense coverage for 2.5-2.2 Ga time interval when Earth experienced four Snowball Earth glaciations and the irreversible rise in atmospheric O2. We observe significant, downward shift of several ‰ and a smaller range of δ18 O values (7 to 9‰) in shales that are associated with the Paleoproterozoic and, potentially, Neoproterozoic glaciations. The Paleoproterozoic samples consist of more than 50% mica minerals and have equal or higher chemical index of alteration than overlying and underlying formations and thus underwent equal or greater degrees of chemical weathering. Their pervasively low δ18 O and δD (down to - 85 ‰) values provide strong evidence of alteration and diagenesis in contact with ultra-low δ18 O glacial meltwaters in lacustrine, deltaic or periglacial lake (sikussak-type) environments associated with the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. The δDsilicate values for the rest of Precambrian shales range from -75 to - 50 ‰ and are comparable to those for Phanerozoic and Archean shales. Likewise, these samples have similar ranges in δ13Corg values (-23 to - 33 ‰ PDB) and Corg content (0.0 to 10 wt%) to Phanerozoic shales. Precambrian shales have a large range of δ18 O values comparable to that of the Phanerozoic shales in each age group and formation, suggesting similar variability in the provenance and intensity of chemical weathering, except for the earliest 3.3-3.5 Ga Archean shales, which have consistently lower δ18 O values. Moreover, Paleoproterozoic shales that bracket in age the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) overlap in δ18 O values. Absence of a step-wise increase in δ18 O and δD values suggests that despite the first-order change in the composition of the atmosphere, weathering cycle was not dramatically affected by the GOE at ∼2

  2. Oxygen isotope relationships in iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Olsen, E. J.; Prinz, M.

    1983-01-01

    Iron meteorites with oxygen-bearing phases can be classified in terms of their oxygen isotopic abundances. These iron meteorite classes are isotopically similar to various stony meteorite classes, which may indicate a common origin. The group IAB and IIICD irons may be related to the winonaites; group IIE irons may be related to H chondrites; group IVA irons may be related to L or LL chondrites.

  3. The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic record from a coral growing in Florida Bay: a 160 year record of climatic and anthropogenic influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swart, Peter K.; Healy, Genevieve F.; Dodge, Richard E.; Kramer, Philip; Hudson, J. Harold; Halley, Robert B.; Robblee, Michael B.

    1996-01-01

    A 160 year record of skeletal δ13C and δ18O was examined in a specimen of the coral Solenastrea bournonigrowing in Florida Bay. Variations in the δ18O of the skeleton can be correlated to changes in salinity while changes in the δ13C reflect cycling of organic material within the Bay. Based on the correlation between salinity and skeletal δ18O, we have concluded that there has been no long term increase in salinity in this area of Florida Bay over the past 160 years. Using salinity correlations between the various basins obtained from instrumental data, we have been able to extend our interpretations to other parts of Florida Bay reaching similar conclusions. In contrast to current ideas which have focused on changes in Florida Bay water quality over the past 20-yr history of the Bay as causative in its decline, we have determined that changes in water quality in this basin were already set in motion between 1905 and 1912 by the construction of the Florida East Coast Railway from Miami to Key West. The construction of the railway resulted in the restriction of the exchange of water between the Florida reef tract and the Gulf of Mexico causing Florida Bay to become more eutrophic. Evidence of this process is observed in the sudden shift to relatively lower δ13C values coincident with railway construction. Natural events also appear to have influenced the water in the Bay. Between 1912 and 1948 frequent hurricanes had the effect of increasing exchange of water between the Bay and reef tract and removing large quantities of organic rich sediments. However, since 1948 the number of hurricanes affecting the area has decreased and the products of the oxidation of organic material have been increasingly retained within the basin promoting the initiation of eutrophic conditions.

  4. Oxygen isotopes in deep sea spherules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeda, T. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the genetic relationships between the dust and small particles in the solar system, and the meteorites and larger bodies are examined. Oxygen isotopes proved useful in the identification of such relationships between one meteorite group and another. Of the various samples of submillimeter extraterrestrial particles available for laboratory study, only the deep sea spherules are abundant enough for precise oxygen isotope analysis using existing techniques. Complications arise in interpretation of the isotopic data, since these particles were melted during passage through the Earth's atmosphere, and have been in contact with seawater for prolonged periods. Spherules that were originally silicates are considered with the originally metallic ones to deduce their preterrestrial isotopic compositions. The type 1 spherules which enter the atmosphere as metallic particles, contain only atmospheric oxygen. The type S spherules contain a mixture of atmospheric oxygen and their original extraterrestrial oxygen. It is suggested that the Earth's mesosphere is strongly enriched in heavy isotopes of oxygen at altitudes near 90 km at which the iron particles are oxidized. Fractionation due to the combined diffusion of O atoms and O2 molecules may be responsible.

  5. A latitudinal study of oxygen isotopes within horsehair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, E.; Bronk Ramsey, C.; McConnell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to explore the hypothesis that 'if oxygen isotope ratios deplete with decreasing temperature then a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horsehair from Oxfordshire to Iceland will show a latitudinal depletion gradient'. By looking at oxygen isotope values at different geographical positions, we can track the relationship with latitude and with different regional climate features. This will provide a firmer understanding of how to compare climate records from different locations. Additionally, a comparison of the horse breeds from this study to those analysed within previous studies will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horsehair. A total of 24 horses were sampled on the 7th March from Thordale Stud in Shetland, the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland, the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. By starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. The samples were analysed for oxygen isotope values using an IRMS coupled within a Sercon HTEA. Preliminary results show a latitudinal gradient is evident on comparison between the locations, consistent with the findings of Darling and Talbot's study of fresh water isotopes in the British Isles (2003). These results support the hypothesis, showing that a study of oxygen isotope ratios within horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland showing a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures. Darling, W. and Talbot, J. (2003). The O and H stable isotope composition of freshwaters in the British Isles. 1. Rainfall. Hydrol. Earth System Science, 7(2), pp.163-181.

  6. Tree-ring isotope records of tropical cyclone activity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Dana L; Mora, Claudia I; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; Mock, Cary J; Uhle, Maria E; Sharp, Zachary

    2006-09-26

    The destruction wrought by North Atlantic hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 dramatically emphasizes the need for better understanding of tropical cyclone activity apart from the records provided by meteorological data and historical documentation. We present a 220-year record of oxygen isotope values of alpha-cellulose in longleaf pine tree rings that preserves anomalously low isotope values in the latewood portion of the ring in years corresponding with known 19th and 20th century landfalling/near-coastal tropical storms and hurricanes. Our results suggest the potential for a tree-ring oxygen isotope proxy record of tropical cyclone occurrence extending back many centuries based on remnant pine wood from protected areas in the southeastern U.S.

  7. Tree-ring isotope records of tropical cyclone activity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Dana L.; Mora, Claudia I.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Mock, Cary J.; Uhle, Maria E.; Sharp, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    The destruction wrought by North Atlantic hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 dramatically emphasizes the need for better understanding of tropical cyclone activity apart from the records provided by meteorological data and historical documentation. We present a 220-year record of oxygen isotope values of α-cellulose in longleaf pine tree rings that preserves anomalously low isotope values in the latewood portion of the ring in years corresponding with known 19th and 20th century landfalling/near-coastal tropical storms and hurricanes. Our results suggest the potential for a tree-ring oxygen isotope proxy record of tropical cyclone occurrence extending back many centuries based on remnant pine wood from protected areas in the southeastern U.S. PMID:16984996

  8. A 1000-year record of dry conditions in the eastern Canadian prairies reconstructed from oxygen and carbon isotope measurements on Lake Winnipeg sediment organics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhay, W.M.; Simpson, S.; Thorleifson, H.; Lewis, M.; King, J.; Telka, A.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Babb, J.; Timsic, S.; Bailey, D.

    2009-01-01

    A short sediment core (162 cm), covering the period AD 920-1999, was sampled from the south basin of Lake Winnipeg for a suite of multi-proxy analyses leading towards a detailed characterisation of the recent millennial lake environment and hydroclimate of southern Manitoba, Canada. Information on the frequency and duration of major dry periods in southern Manitoba, in light of the changes that are likely to occur as a result of an increasingly warming atmosphere, is of specific interest in this study. Intervals of relatively enriched lake sediment cellulose oxygen isotope values (??18Ocellulose) were found to occur from AD 1180 to 1230 (error range: AD 1104-1231 to 1160-1280), 1610-1640 (error range: AD 1571-1634 to 1603-1662), 1670-1720 (error range: AD 1643-1697 to 1692-1738) and 1750-1780 (error range: AD 1724-1766 to 1756-1794). Regional water balance, inferred from calculated Lake Winnipeg water oxygen isotope values (??18Oinf-lw), suggest that the ratio of lake evaporation to catchment input may have been 25-40% higher during these isotopically distinct periods. Associated with the enriched d??18Ocellulose intervals are some depleted carbon isotope values associated with more abundantly preserved sediment organic matter (d??13COM). These suggest reduced microbial oxidation of terrestrially derived organic matter and/or subdued lake productivity during periods of minimised input of nutrients from the catchment area. With reference to other corroborating evidence, it is suggested that the AD 1180-1230, 1610-1640, 1670-1720 and 1750-1780 intervals represent four distinctly drier periods (droughts) in southern Manitoba, Canada. Additionally, lower-magnitude and duration dry periods may have also occurred from 1320 to 1340 (error range: AD 1257-1363), 1530-1540 (error range: AD 1490-1565 to 1498-1572) and 1570-1580 (error range: AD 1531-1599 to 1539-1606). ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Distinguishing Biotic from Abiotic Phosphate Oxygen Isotopic Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, R.; Moyer, C.; Colman, A.; Liang, Y.; Dogru, D.

    2006-05-01

    On earth, phosphate has a strong biological oxygen isotope signature due to its concentration and intense cycling by living organisms as an essential nutrient. Phosphate does not undergo oxygen isotope exchange with water at low temperature without enzymatic catalysis, making the oxygen isotope ratio (18O/16O) of phosphate, δ18OP, an attractive biosignature in the search for early and extraterrestrial life. Recent laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the δ18OP value of dissolved inorganic phosphate (PO4) records specific microbial activity and enzymatic reaction pathways in both laboratory cultures and natural waters/sediments (Blake et al., 2005; Colman et al 2005; Liang and Blake, 2005). Phosphate oxygen isotope biosignatures may be distinguished from abiotic signatures by: (1) evaluating the degree of temperature-dependent PO4-water oxygen isotope exchange in aqueous systems and deviation from equilibrium; and (2) evolution from an abiotic P reservoir signature towards a biotic P reservoir signature. Important abiotic processes potentially affecting phosphate δ18OP values include dissolution/precipitation, adsorption/desorption, recrystallization of PO4 mineral phases, diagenesis and metamorphism. For most of these processes, the recording, retention and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures have not been evaluated. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are an ideal system in which to study the preservation and alteration of δ18OP biosignatures, as well as potential look-alikes produced by heat-promoted PO4 -water oxygen isotope exchange. Results from recent studies of δ18OP biosignatures in hydrothermal deposits near 9 and 21 degrees N. EPR and at Loihi seamount will be presented.

  10. What does oxygen isotopic variation in paleo-archives reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, N.

    2012-12-01

    An oxygen isotope (d18O) records from various paleo-archives (such as stalagmite, cellulose, sediments) are interpreted as a proxy to reconstruct paleo precipitation in the Asia and the Indo-Pacific region. This is based on two reasons: 1) oxygen isotope records reflect the isotopic variation in past precipitation and 2) there is significant negative correlation with the amount of local precipitation (P) (the so called as amount effect). However, the amount effect is not robust everywhere. Under present-day condition, a clear negative relationship can be only seen at selected tropical marine island stations. In the other stations located in the lower latitude region, the d18O-P relationship shows weak correlation or has different slope at each station. Although several model studies have proposed several hypothesizes to explain this empirical relationship, comprehensive theory explaining the whole observed characteristics remain a significant challenge. These results raise the question whether paleo precipitation amount can reconstruct from oxygen isotope proxy. Thus, to strengthen the interpretation of oxygen isotope proxy, we will examine a main driver of the oxygen isotopic variation in present-day precipitation over this region. In this study we use newly available shipboard observation data for water isotopes. A survey of water isotopologues (HDO, H218O) in marine vapor and precipitation over the Indian - Pacific Ocean has been carried out since 2006. More than 1500 water vapor samples and 500 precipitation samples have been collected from this region. Because isotopic values of evaporated moisture from sea surface are homogeneous in the subtropics and tropics region, isotopic variation in marine vapor mainly depends on the precipitation processes. Thus, this dataset is suitable to examine the physical background of the amount effect. The first assessment of this data provides some interesting results. Although the relationship between the oxygen isotope

  11. The deep sea oxygen isotopic record: Significance for tertiary global ice volume history, with emphasis on the latest Miocene/early Pliocene

    SciTech Connect

    Prentice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Planktonic and benthic isotopic records as well as carbonate sedimentation records extending from 6.1 to 4.1 Ma for eastern South Atlantic Holes 526A and 525B are presented. These data suggest ice volume variations about a constant mean sufficient to drive sea level between 10 m and 75 m below present. Isotopic records at the deeper (2500 m) site have been enriched by up to 0.5% by dissolution. Carbonate accumulation rates at both sites quadrupled at 4.6 Ma primarily because of increased production and, secondarily, decreased dissolution. The second part presents a Cenozoic-long composite {delta}{sup 18}O curve for tropical shallow-dwelling planktonic foraminifers and the benthic foraminifer Cibicides at 2-4 km depths. Surface {delta}{sup 18}O gradients between various low-and-mid latitude sites reflect: (1) widespread SST stability through the Cenozoic and (2) significant change in Tasman Sea SST through the Tertiary. Assuming average SST for tropical non-upwelling areas was constant, the planktonic composite suggest that global ice volume for the last 40 my has not been significantly less than today. Residual benthic {delta}{sup 18}O reflect relatively warm and saline deep water until the early Miocene after which time deep water progressively cooled. The third part presents {delta}{sup 18}O for Recent Orbulina universa from 44 core-tops distributed through the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that Orbulina calcifies at constant temperature and so records only ice volume changes. Orbulina commonly calcifies at intermediate depths over a wide range of temperatures salinities, and densities. These physical factors are not the primary controls on the spatial and vertical distribution of Orbulina.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation in double carbonates.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Böttcher, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionations in double carbonates of different crystal structures were calculated by the increment method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 60 °C and 100 °C to determine oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations involving PbMg[CO3]2. The calculations suggest that the double carbonates of calcite structure are systematically enriched in (18)O relative to those of aragonite and mixture structures. Internally consistent oxygen isotope fractionation factors are obtained for these minerals with respect to quartz, calcite and water at a temperature range of 0-1200 °C. The calculated fractionation factors for double carbonate-water systems are generally consistent with the data available from laboratory experiments. The experimentally determined fractionation factors for PbMg[CO3]2, BaMg[CO3]2 and CaMg[CO3]2 against H2O not only fall between fractionation factors involving pure carbonate end-members but are also close to the calculated fractionation factors. In contrast, experimentally determined carbon isotope fractionation factors between PbMg[CO3]2 and CO2 are much closer to theoretical predictions for the cerussite-CO2 system than for the magnesite-CO2 system, similar to the fractionation behavior for BaMg[CO3]2. Therefore, the combined theoretical and experimental results provide insights into the effects of crystal structure and exchange kinetics on oxygen isotope partitioning in double carbonates.

  13. Oxygen isotope ratios in eclogites from kimberlites.

    PubMed

    Garlick, G D; Macgregor, I D; Vogel, D E

    1971-06-04

    The oxygen isotope compositions (delta(18)O) of eclogitic xenoliths from the Roberts Victor kimberlite range from 2 to 8 per mil relative to SMOW (standard mean ocean water). This surprising variation appears to be due to fractional crystallization: the eclogites rich in oxygen-18 represent early crystal accumulates; the eclogites poor in oxygen-18 represent residual liquids. Crystal-melt partitioning probably exceeded 3 per mil and is interpreted to be pressure-dependent. Anomalous enrichment of oxygen-18 in cumulate eclogites relative to ultramafic xenoliths suggests that crystal-melt partitioning increased after melt-formation but prior to crystallization.

  14. Laboratory constraints on the stability of oxygen isotopes in sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Rennie, V.

    2012-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4) is a powerful new tool for exploring the transformations of sulfur in laboratory experiments and the natural environment. The δ18OSO4 is central to our understanding of bacterial sulfate reduction because variations in δ18OSO4 reflect differences in the rates of various metabolic steps. Additionally, the δ18OSO4 provides key information on the pathways of both biotic and abiotic sulfide oxidation. If preserved in the geological record, the δ18OSO4, along with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate, provides unique insight into the long-term variability of the sulfur cycle. Use of the δ18OSO4 rests on the assumption that there is minimal abiotic exchange between sulfate-oxygen and water-oxygen during the variety of conditions imposed by sample storage and laboratory processing. Previous work has shown that oxygen isotope exchange between sulfate and water does occur at high temperatures (>100°C) and/or at low pH values (<1). Estimates of the timescales for exchange under laboratory temperatures and pH values have been extrapolated from highly dissimilar conditions. The controls on abiotic oxygen isotope exchange between sulfate and water under laboratory conditions thus remain enigmatic. We explore two mechanisms that could allow for isotope exchange and thus interfere with the interpretation of δ18OSO4: oxygen isotope exchange under low pH and oxygen isotope exchange in the presence of sulfide by the formation and subsequent reaction of thiosulfate complexes. Our results definitively rule out short and medium-term exchange of sulfate-oxygen with water-oxygen over a range of acidic conditions. Furthermore, although it has been suggested that thiosulfate complexes will form from coexisting aqueous sulfide and sulfate, we demonstrate that this mechanism does not facilitate sulfate-oxygen isotope exchange at low temperatures. Our results confirm that the δ18OSO4 is robust to standard laboratory conditions.

  15. Isotopic Composition of Oxygen in Lunar Zircons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of heavy oxygen in zircons from the Jack Hills conglomerates Wilde et al. and Mojzsis et al. was interpreted as an indication of presence of liquid water on the surface of Early Earth. The distribution of ages of Jack Hills zircons and lunar zircons appears to be very similar and therefore analysis of oxygen in the lunar grains may provide a reference frame for further study of the early history of the Earth as well as give additional information regarding processes that operated on the Moon. In the present study we have analysed the oxygen isotopic composition of zircon grains from three lunar samples using the Swedish Museum of Natural History CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The samples were selected as likely tests for variations in lunar oxygen isotopic composition. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  16. A 200,000-Year Record of Change in Oxygen Isotope Composition of Sulfate in a Saline Sediment Core, Death Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenbo; Krouse, H. Roy; Spencer, Ronald J.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Hutcheon, Ian E.; Ku, Teh-Lung; Li, Jianren; Roberts, Sheila M.; Brown, Christopher B.

    1999-03-01

    δ 18O values of sulfate minerals from a 186-m core (past 200,000 years) in Death Valley varied from +9 to +23‰ (V-SMOW). Sulfates that accumulated in the past ephemeral saline lake, salt pans, and mud flats have relatively low δ 18O values similar to those of present-day local inflows. Sulfates that accumulated during two perennial lake intervals, however, have higher δ 18O values, reflecting changes in temperature, lake water levels, and/or sulfur redox reactions. Over the same time interval, the δ 18O record for sulfate had excursions that bear similarities to those found for carbonate in the Death Valley core, marine carbonate (SPECMAP), and polar ice in the Summit ice core, Greenland. The δ 18O record differed considerably from the records reported for carbonate at Owens Lake and Devils Hole, which probably relates to different water sources. Death Valley, Owens Lake, and Devils Hole are responding to the same climatic changes but manifesting them differently. In Death Valley sediments, the isotopic composition of sulfate may have potential as an indicator of paleoenvironmental changes.

  17. Defining uncertainty and error in planktic foraminiferal oxygen isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraass, A. J.; Lowery, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    Foraminifera are the backbone of paleoceanography. Planktic foraminifera are one of the leading tools for reconstructing water column structure. However, there are unconstrained variables when dealing with uncertainty in the reproducibility of oxygen isotope measurements. This study presents the first results from a simple model of foraminiferal calcification (Foraminiferal Isotope Reproducibility Model; FIRM), designed to estimate uncertainty in oxygen isotope measurements. FIRM uses parameters including location, depth habitat, season, number of individuals included in measurement, diagenesis, misidentification, size variation, and vital effects to produce synthetic isotope data in a manner reflecting natural processes. Reproducibility is then tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Importantly, this is not an attempt to fully model the entire complicated process of foraminiferal calcification; instead, we are trying to include only enough parameters to estimate the uncertainty in foraminiferal δ18O records. Two well-constrained empirical data sets are simulated successfully, demonstrating the validity of our model. The results from a series of experiments with the model show that reproducibility is not only largely controlled by the number of individuals in each measurement but also strongly a function of local oceanography if the number of individuals is held constant. Parameters like diagenesis or misidentification have an impact on both the precision and the accuracy of the data. FIRM is a tool to estimate isotopic uncertainty values and to explore the impact of myriad factors on the fidelity of paleoceanographic records, particularly for the Holocene.

  18. Oxygen isotope variation in stony-iron meteorites.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, R C; Franchi, I A; Jambon, A; Barrat, J A; Burbine, T H

    2006-09-22

    Asteroidal material, delivered to Earth as meteorites, preserves a record of the earliest stages of planetary formation. High-precision oxygen isotope analyses for the two major groups of stony-iron meteorites (main-group pallasites and mesosiderites) demonstrate that each group is from a distinct asteroidal source. Mesosiderites are isotopically identical to the howardite-eucrite-diogenite clan and, like them, are probably derived from the asteroid 4 Vesta. Main-group pallasites represent intermixed core-mantle material from a single disrupted asteroid and have no known equivalents among the basaltic meteorites. The stony-iron meteorites demonstrate that intense asteroidal deformation accompanied planetary accretion in the early Solar System.

  19. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  20. Triple Oxygen Isotopes: Fundamental Relationships and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiming; Cao, Xiaobin; Hayles, Justin A.

    2016-06-01

    The element oxygen has three stable isotopes: 16O, 17O, and 18O. For a defined process, a change in 18O/16O scales with the corresponding change in 17O/16O, or the fractionation factors 18α and 17α have a relationship of θ = ln17α/ln18α, in which the triple oxygen isotope exponent θ is relatively fixed but does vary with reaction path, temperature, and species involved. When the small variation is of interest, the distinction of three concepts—θ, S (a slope through data points in δ17O-δ18O space), and C (an arbitrary referencing number for the degree of 17O deviation)—becomes important. Triple oxygen isotope variations can be measured by modern instruments and thus offer an additional line of information on the underlying reaction processes and conditions. Analytical methods and Earth science applications have recently been developed for air oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, silicates, oxides, sulfates, carbonates, and phosphates.

  1. Very high-frequency and seasonal cave atmosphere PCO 2 variability: Implications for stalagmite growth and oxygen isotope-based paleoclimate records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, James U. L.; McDermott, Frank; Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Richards, David A.; Clipson, Nicholas

    2008-07-01

    Cave air PCO 2 at two Irish sites varied dramatically on daily to seasonal timescales, potentially affecting the timing of calcite deposition and consequently climate proxy records derived from stalagmites collected at the same sites. Temperature-dependent biochemical processes in the soil control CO 2 production, resulting in high summer PCO 2 values and low winter values at both sites. Large Large-amplitude, high-frequency variations superimposed on this seasonal cycle reflect cave air circulation. Here we model stalagmite growth rates, which are controlled partly by CO 2 degassing rates from drip water, by considering both the seasonal and high-frequency cave air PCO 2 variations. Modeled hourly growth rates for stalagmite CC-Bil from Crag Cave in SW Ireland reach maxima in late December (0.063 μm h - 1 ) and minima in late June/early July (0.033 μm h - 1 ). For well-mixed 'diffuse flow' cave drips such as those that feed CC-Bil, high summer cave air PCO 2 depresses summer calcite deposition, while low winter PCO 2 promotes degassing and enhances deposition rates. In stalagmites fed by well-mixed drips lacking seasonal variations in δ18O, integrated annual stalagmite calcite δ18O is unaffected; however, seasonality in cave air PCO 2 may influence non-conservative geochemical climate proxies (e.g., δ13C, Sr/Ca). Stalagmites fed by 'seasonal' drips whose hydrochemical properties vary in response to seasonality may have higher growth rates in summer because soil air PCO 2 may increase relative to cave air PCO 2 due to higher soil temperatures. This in turn may bias stalagmite calcite δ18O records towards isotopically heavier summer drip water δ18O values, resulting in elevated calcite δ18O values compared to the 'equilibrium' values predicted by calcite-water isotope fractionation equations. Interpretations of stalagmite-based paleoclimate proxies should therefore consider the consequences of cave air PCO 2 variability and the resulting intra

  2. Stable isotope analyses of palaeo-pollen records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, D.; Loader, N.

    2002-12-01

    Pollen stratigraphy is one of the most widely used tools for studying climate and vegetation dynamics over global and multi-millennial scales. Since the isotopic compositions of photosynthates that are used to form the pollen structure reflect environmental conditions during the time of pollen formation, the stable carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D) of the pollen grains may reflect this environmental information. Although there are many preliminary tests and methodological problems to overcome before we can fully utilise palaeo-pollen records, it is the general goal of our research to use pollen isotope records together with conventional palynological analyses to provide additional, independent spatial and temporal palaeo-environmental information and to provide new data on terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, including the timing of environmental changes, phase relationships of vegetation responses and regional and temporal variations in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O and δ{}D. These isotopic records will facilitate in the modelling of palaeo-environments. By separating and analysing different pollen species, including C3 and C4, we also aim to assess species-specific climatic responses. We present results describing some recent investigations concerning the nature of the isotopic signal contained within pollen, the methodological developments we have made to measure the pollen isotopic composition and the future challenges that must be overcome before this potentially powerful quantitative terrestrial palaeo-archive can be fully and correctly utilised.

  3. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  4. Oxygen Isotope Systematics of Almahata Sitta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Goodrich, C. A.; Herrin, J. S.; Shaddad, M. H.; Jenniskens, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta (hereafter "AHS") meteorite was derived from an impact of asteroid 2008TC3 on Earth and is classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite. More than 600 meteorite fragments have been recovered from the strewnfield. Previous reports indicate that these fragments consist mainly of ureilitic materials with textures and compositions, while some fragments are found to be chondrites of a wide range of chemical classes. Bulk oxygen three isotope analyses of ureilitic fragments from AHS fall close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line similar to ureilites. In order to further compare AHS with known ureilites, we performed high precision SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) oxygen isotope analyses of some AHS samples

  5. Oxygen isotope record of fluid-rock-SiO 2 interaction during Variscan progressive deformation and quartz veining in the meta-volcanosediments of Belle-Ile (Southern Brittany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Audren, Claude; Triboulet, Claude

    2002-08-01

    Belle-Ile in the South Armorican Domain is composed of Palaeozoic volcano-detrital sequences with sericite phyllites and porphyroids. Fine-banded and folded meta-tuffites, microquartzites and graphitic quartzites occur in the basal part at Plage de Bordardoué. Phengite compositions constrain that Variscan metamorphism did not exceed 430 °C/4.5 kbar. Four generations (1-4) of centimeter-thick quartz veins were precipitated during Variscan progressive deformation and recorded changing fluid compositions. Values of 26‰ δ18OSMOW in vein 1 quartz exceed high δ18OSMOW in the host rocks. Decrease of quartz δ18OSMOW from margins to centers can be observed from the syntaxial veins. Younger veins 4 have lower δ18O. Their inclusions indicate lower salinities and traces of CH4 in the fluid when compared with veins 1. Veins 1 were overprinted by shearing and fissuring. Subgrain rotation recrystallization occurred along briquette structures and subgrain boundaries. The initial isotope values have been preserved. Larger domains with small-grained quartz can be identified by lower values of δ18O. Homogeneous isotopic compositions are found in hinges of folded veins 2 with grain boundary migration recrystallization. The small-scale oxygen isotope variations and the changing fluid compositions point to a locally hosted fluid system with a limited contribution of meteoric water during multiphase deformation and vein formation.

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  7. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  8. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine W.; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.

    2013-09-01

    We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-scale paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115-15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one core locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age-depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular core sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice cores: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2-5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of 'Dansgaard-Oeschger' climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.

  9. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeegan, K. D.; Kallio, A.; Heber, V. S.; Jarzebinski, G.; Mao, P.; Coath, C.; Kunihiro, T.; Wiens, R. C.; Judith, A.; Burnett, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An accurate and precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the Sun is the highest priority scientific goal of the Genesis Mission [1] as such data would provide a baseline from which one could interpret the oxygen isotopic anomalies found at all spatial scales in inner solar system materials. We have measured oxygen isotope compositions of implanted solar wind in 40 spots along a radial traverse of the Genesis SiC target sample 60001 by depth profiling with the UCLA MegaSIMS [2]. Mass-dependent fractionation induced by the solar wind concentrator [3] ion optics was corrected by comparison of the concentrator 22Ne/20Ne with that measured in a bulk solar wind target (diamond-like carbon on Si, [4]). The solar wind captured at L1 has an isotopic composition of (δ18O, δ17O) ≈ (-99, -79)‰, a value which is far removed from the terrestrial mass fractionation line. Profiles from the central portion of the target, where solar concentrations are highest and background corrections minimal, yield a mean Δ17O = -28.3 ± 1.8 ‰ indicating that the Earth and other planetary materials from the inner solar system are highly depleted in 16O relative to the solar wind. A mass-dependent fractionation of ~ -20%/amu in the acceleration of solar wind is required if we hypothesize that the photospheric oxygen isotope value, which represents the bulk starting composition of the solar system, is on the 16O-mixing line characteristic of refractory phase in primitive meteorites [5]. With this assumption, our preferred value for the bulk solar oxygen isotope composition is δ18O ≈ δ17O ≈ -57‰. A mechanism is required to fractionate oxygen isotopes in a non-mass-dependent manner to deplete 16O by ~6 to 7% in the rocky materials of the solar nebula. As oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system, and the most abundant in the terrestrial planets, this mechanism must operate on a large scale. Isotope-selective photochemistry, for example as in

  10. Towards high-resolution and accurate calendar chronologies of long-term records of Pleistocene lacustrine-formations by integration of U-series and oxygen isotopes data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, M.; Torfstein, A.; Waldmann, N.; Kolodny, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The establishment of accurate and high-resolution calendar chronologies of long-term lacustrine records of the Quaternary time, represents a central and in many cases formidable task in the reconstruction of paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental histories of various geographical environments. Lake carbonates that comprise a potential target for U-series dating for mid to late Pleistocene time intervals typically suffer from contamination by detrital material and presence of initial Th that hamper the direct analysis of U-Th ages and require correction procedures. It turned out, however, that oxygen isotopes in primary lake carbonates are sensitive recorders of the δ18O ratios in contemporaneously foraminifera recovered from deep sea cores in marine sources of regional rain and eventually lake waters. This allows the application of oxygen isotopes in the lacustrine carbonates as floating chronometers that can be combined with U-series data to establish the desired accurate and high-resolution chronology. We tried this approach for the establishment of the chronology of the lacustrine formations that were deposited in the tectonic basin of the Dead Sea (the Pleistocene Amora and Lisan Fms.) covering the past ~ 800 ka. Our study also demonstrated that while the long-term δ18O of the primary carbonates reflect mainly the marine source of the humidity, the short-term, fluctuations in δ18O are sensitive recorders of floods or abrupt arid intervals (in the decade to annual scale). This information combined with lake level reconstruction and integrated with other regional paleohydrological inventories (e.g. corals, travertines, speleothems) revealed changes in the sources of the Levant region humidity; whereas winter precipitation during glacial times reflect Atlantic-Polar cold fronts and Mediterranean cyclones, the relatively arid interglacials were characterized by flood regime and southern intrusions of Red Sea lows and tropical storms.

  11. Defining Uncertainty and Error in Planktic Foraminiferal Oxygen Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraass, A. J.; Lowery, C.

    2016-12-01

    Foraminifera are the backbone of paleoceanography, and planktic foraminifera are one of the leading tools for reconstructing water column structure. Currently, there are unconstrained variables when dealing with the reproducibility of oxygen isotope measurements. This study presents the first results from a simple model of foraminiferal calcification (Foraminiferal Isotope Reproducibility Model; FIRM), designed to estimate the precision and accuracy of oxygen isotope measurements. FIRM produces synthetic isotope data using parameters including location, depth habitat, season, number of individuals included in measurement, diagenesis, misidentification, size variation, and vital effects. Reproducibility is then tested using Monte Carlo simulations. The results from a series of experiments show that reproducibility is largely controlled by the number of individuals in each measurement, but also strongly a function of local oceanography if the number of individuals is held constant. Parameters like diagenesis or misidentification have an impact on both the precision and the accuracy of the data. Currently FIRM is a tool to estimate isotopic error values best employed in the Holocene. It is also a tool to explore the impact of myriad factors on the fidelity of paleoceanographic records. FIRM was constructed in the open-source computing environment R and is freely available via GitHub. We invite modification and expansion, and have planned inclusions for benthic foram reproducibility and stratigraphic uncertainty.

  12. Miocene stable isotope record: a detailed deep Pacific Ocean study and its paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, F.; Savin, S.M.; Douglas, R.G.

    1981-05-08

    Deep Sea Drilling Project site 289 in the western equatorial Pacific has yielded an extremely detailed record of the carbon and oxygen isotopic changes in the Miocene deep ocean. The isotopic record reflects major changes in paleoclimate and paleoceanography, probably dominated by a major phase of Antarctic ice-cap growth.

  13. Devils Hole paleotemperatures and implications for oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Tobias; Affek, Hagit P.; Dublyansky, Yuri; Spötl, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Subaqueous calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada, was growing continuously from slightly super-saturated groundwater, providing a 570 kyr-long δO18 paleoclimate record. Due to its very slow growth it has been assumed to have grown under conditions of isotopic equilibrium. However, its Holocene δO18 value is 1.5‰ higher than predicted by laboratory-precipitation-based oxygen isotope thermometer calibrations. The suggestion that Devils Hole calcite anchors the isotope thermometer to more 18O-enriched values has stirred a debate as to which paleothermometer calibration is relevant for paleoclimate and casts doubt on the validity of δO18-based paleotemperatures. We used clumped isotopes to test the assumptions of the Devils Hole alternative 18O-thermometer. Carbonate clumped isotopes are a temperature proxy that measures the abundance of 13Csbnd 18O bonds in CaCO3. This proxy is independent of the water composition and therefore gives independent estimates of temperatures when calcite forms at thermodynamic and isotopic equilibrium. We find that Devils Hole water paleotemperatures were constant at 30.6±2.6 °C between 27 and 180 ka, similarly to the modern groundwater temperature of 32.8-34.3 °C. The proximity of the Devils Hole clumped isotope data to values expected based on modern groundwater temperatures supports the notion that Devils Hole calcite grew under equilibrium conditions. Therefore, the commonly used laboratory-based δO18-temperature calibrations should be reconsidered. The constant water temperature over the glacial-interglacial cycles indicates that the long Devils Hole δO18 record reflects only variations in the groundwater δO18 values and as such, represents a valuable archive of paleoclimate and isotope paleohydrology.

  14. Oxygen isotope composition of trinitite postdetonation materials.

    PubMed

    Koeman, Elizabeth C; Simonetti, Antonio; Chen, Wei; Burns, Peter C

    2013-12-17

    Trinitite is the melt glass produced subsequent the first nuclear bomb test conducted on July 16, 1945, at White Sands Range (Alamagordo, NM). The geological background of the latter consists of arkosic sand that was fused with radioactive debris and anthropogenic materials at ground zero subsequent detonation of the device. Postdetonation materials from historic nuclear weapon test sites provide ideal samples for development of novel forensic methods for attribution and studying the chemical/isotopic effects of the explosion on the natural geological environment. In particular, the latter effects can be evaluated relative to their spatial distribution from ground zero. We report here δ(18)O(‰) values for nonmelted, precursor minerals phases (quartz, feldspar, calcite), "feldspathic-rich" glass, "average" melt glass, and bulk (natural) unmelted sand from the Trinity site. Prior to oxygen isotope analysis, grains/crystals were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to determine their corresponding major element composition. δ(18)O values for bulk trinitite samples exhibit a large range (11.2-15.5‰) and do not correlate with activity levels for activation product (152)Eu; the latter levels are a function of their spatial distribution relative to ground zero. Therefore, the slow neutron flux associated with the nuclear explosion did not perturb the (18)O/(16)O isotope systematics. The oxygen isotope values do correlate with the abundances of major elements derived from precursor minerals present within the arkosic sand. Hence, the O isotope ratios documented here for trinitite melt glass can be attributed to a mixture of the respective signatures for precursor minerals at the Trinity site prior to the nuclear explosion.

  15. Oxygen isotopes implanted in the LDEF spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxton, J. M.; Lyon, I. C.; Chatzitheodoredis, E.; Gilmour, J. D.; Turner, G.

    1992-01-01

    Depth profiles of O-16 and O-18/O-16 were measured on stainless steel nuts and copper sheet (from a grounding strap) recovered from the leading edge of LDEF (Tray E10). The measurements were obtained by dynamic SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) using a VG Isolab 54 ion microprobe. Plots of O-18/O-16 against time, show large depletions of up to a factor of 2 compared to the O-18/O-16 value at sea level. The O-16 current decreases by 2 orders of magnitude in the interior of the metal, and the corresponding profile of anomalous O-16 is strongly peaked in the outer few tens of nanometers of the surface. This depth scale is a tentative one based on estimated sputtering rates. Plots of O-18/O-16 against 1/O-16 should be linear if two isotopically distinct components, one of variable concentration (orbital component) and one of fixed concentration (normal oxygen), are mixed. Data to be presented at the meeting show departures from linearity which result from variability in the concentration of normal oxygen, but may also arise from the implantation of oxygen with a range of fractionation due to the decaying orbit of the LDEF, sputtering of the surface by atomic oxygen, and the different momenta of the two isotopes due to their equal velocities. The potential for using this method as a means of identifying exposure to low-Earth orbit, de-convoluting the effects of space exposure from terrestrial contamination, and using the implanted anomolous oxygen as a means of studying the atomic oxygen density and upper atmosphere temperature height profile will be discussed at the meeting.

  16. Oxygen isotopes in nitrite: Analysis, calibration, and equilibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casciotti, K.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; McIlvin, M.R.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is a central intermediate in the nitrogen cycle and can persist in significant concentrations in ocean waters, sediment pore waters, and terrestrial groundwaters. To fully interpret the effect of microbial processes on nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), and nitrous oxide (N2O) cycling in these systems, the nitrite pool must be accessible to isotopic analysis. Furthermore, because nitrite interferes with most methods of nitrate isotopic analysis, accurate isotopic analysis of nitrite is essential for correct measurement of nitrate isotopes in a sample that contains nitrite. In this study, nitrite salts with varying oxygen isotopic compositions were prepared and calibrated and then used to test the denitrifier method for nitrite oxygen isotopic analysis. The oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrite reduction to N2O by Pseudomonas aureofaciens was lower than for nitrate conversion to N2O, while oxygen isotopic exchange between nitrite and water during the reaction was similar. These results enable the extension of the denitrifier method to oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite (in the absence of nitrate) and correction of nitrate isotopes for the presence of nitrite in "mixed" samples. We tested storage conditions for seawater and freshwater samples that contain nitrite and provide recommendations for accurate oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite by any method. Finally, we report preliminary results on the equilibrium isotope effect between nitrite and water, which can play an important role in determining the oxygen isotopic value of nitrite where equilibration with water is significant. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  17. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (p<0.05) to the isotope composition in meteoric water in a regression analysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  18. Paleoclimate Reconstruction at Lamanai, Belize Using Oxygen-Isotope Tropical Dendrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, A.; Webb, E. A.; White, C. D.; Graham, E.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical dendrochronology can be complicated because many trees growing in these areas lack distinct visible annual rings. However, the oxygen-isotope composition of wood growing in tropical regions can provide a record of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of precipitation even when visible rings are absent. Variations in the oxygen-isotope compositions of cellulose as the trees grow can be related to the relative timing of wet and dry seasons and used to identify periods of drought. In this study, the oxygen-isotope composition was determined for cellulose extracted from living trees at the site of Lamanai, Belize to assess the variation in oxygen-isotope values that result from heterogeneity within individual tree rings and seasonal fluctuations in amount of precipitation. In temperate regions, the latewood rings that form during periods of reduced growth are traditionally selected for oxygen-isotope analysis of cellulose because their oxygen-isotope compositions are more directly influenced by climate and precipitation during the growing season. However, in tropical isotope dendrochronology, when visible rings are present, detailed sampling of both the light coloured earlywood and the denser latewood is required. At Lamanai, a seasonal signal was evident in the oxygen- isotope composition of the cellulose when tree rings were sectioned in very small increments (approximately every mm), sub-sampling both earlywood and latewood. However, the visible rings did not always correspond with minimum or maximum oxygen-isotope values. As a result, the amplitude of the oxygen-isotope signal obtained by considering only latewood samples is smaller than that obtained from fine-increment sampling. Hence, the oxygen-isotope values of latewood samples alone did not provide accurate data for climate reconstruction. Multiple series of latewood samples extracted from different cross-sections of the same tree did not consistently show the same trends in oxygen isotope values

  19. Deconvolving the Carbon Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, B. S.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of the whole-ocean δ 13C value, under an assumption of steady state with respect to mass, can be modeled as: \\[ {d \\over dt}\\delta_\\Sigma(t)+{\\delta_\\Sigma(t) \\over \\tau_C}={1 \\over \\tau_C}\\delta_F(t) \\] where δ Σ is the whole-ocean δ 13C value, τ C is the residence time of carbon and a net instantaneous δ 13C forcing function is defined: \\[ \\delta_F=\\delta_i-f_{carb}\\Delta_{carb}-\\(1-f_{carb}\\)\\Delta_{org} \\] where δ i is the δ 13C value of carbon input (e.g. weathering and volcanism), fcarb is the fraction of carbon removed through burial of carbonates as opposed to organic carbon, and Δ carb and Δ org are the differences between δ Σ and δ 13C values for buried carbonate and organic carbon. The solution to this differential equation is: \\[ \\delta_\\Sigma\\(t\\)={1 \\over \\tau_C}\\int_0^t{{\\delta_F\\(t^\\prime\\)}e^{\\(-{t-t^\\prime \\over \\tau_C}\\)}dt^\\prime} \\] which can be expressed as a convolution \\[ \\delta_\\Sigma\\(t\\)={1 \\over \\tau_C} {{\\delta_F\\(t^\\prime\\)} \\otimes e^{\\(-{t-t^\\prime \\over \\tau_C}\\)}} \\] revealing that the evolution of the whole ocean δ 13C value is determined by the instantaneous δ 13C forcing (δ F) subjected to a causal (i.e. phase-shifting) low-pass filter whose frequency response is dependent only on the carbon residence time. One consequence of this observation is that variance in δ 13C records should be concentrated at wavelengths >0.1 m.y., thereby explaining the persistent appearance of cyclicity dependent on orbital eccentricity ( ˜0.1~and ˜0.4 m.y.~periods) in δ 13C records. I demonstrate that an assumption of non-linear forcing of fcarb by orbitally-forced variations in insolation can explain most of the structure of high-resolution δ 13C records throughout the Cenozoic. A second consequence is that τ C and δ F should be separable by numerical manipulation of δ 13C records. Two applications are 1) estimation of the residence time of carbon at

  20. Modeling Calcite-Water Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Cave Calcites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha, A. L.; Banner, J.; Jenson, J. W.; Partin, J. W.; Hardt, B. F.; Moore, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling Calcite-Water Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in Cave CalcitesMost speleothem proxy system models are concerned with modeling the effect of karst processes on cave drip water oxygen isotope ratios, generally opting for simple mixing models, and assume fractionation between calcite and water can be modeled as equilibrium. However, measured cave calcite oxygen isotope ratios are rarely in agreement with theoretically and experimentally derived predictions of equilibrium isotopic fractionation, frequently deviating from equilibrium values by up to 1 per mil. Here we use the result of 8 yrs of monthly collection of drip water and cave calcite at Jinapsan Cave, Guam to test existing models of isotope fractionation during cave calcite precipitation. We find that modeling calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation as a Rayleigh process, and using the experimentally determined fractionation factor of Affek and Zaarur, [2014] yields good agreement with observed cave calcite oxygen isotope ratios. This confirms that drip rate is a key control on both speleothem oxygen isotope ratios and calcite deposition rate, and therefore we argue that while simple models of karst hydrology are adequate for accurate modeling of water oxygen isotope ratio, they are inadequate for accurate models of calcite oxygen isotope ratios. We provide recommendations on the minimum required site specific data for effective characterization of karst processes, and consider multi-proxy and multi-archive approaches to producing robust climate interpretations in the PRYSM [Dee et al., 2015] framework.

  1. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  2. Cyclostratigraphy and eccentricity tuning of the early Oligocene through early Miocene (30.1-17.1 Ma): Cibicides mundulus stable oxygen and carbon isotope records from Walvis Ridge Site 1264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebrand, Diederik; Beddow, Helen M.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Pälike, Heiko; Raffi, Isabella; Bohaty, Steven M.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Saes, Mischa J. M.; Wilson, Paul A.; van Dijk, Arnold E.; Hodell, David A.; Kroon, Dick; Huck, Claire E.; Batenburg, Sietske J.

    2016-09-01

    Few astronomically calibrated high-resolution (≤5 kyr) climate records exist that span the Oligocene-Miocene time interval. Notably, available proxy records show responses varying in amplitude at frequencies related to astronomical forcing, and the main pacemakers of global change on astronomical time-scales remain debated. Here we present newly generated X-ray fluorescence core scanning and benthic foraminiferal stable oxygen and carbon isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1264 (Walvis Ridge, southeastern Atlantic Ocean). Complemented by data from nearby Site 1265, the Site 1264 benthic stable isotope records span a continuous ∼13-Myr interval of the Oligo-Miocene (30.1-17.1 Ma) at high resolution (∼3.0 kyr). Spectral analyses in the stratigraphic depth domain indicate that the largest amplitude variability of all proxy records is associated with periods of ∼ 3.4 m and ∼ 0.9 m, which correspond to 405- and ∼110-kyr eccentricity, using a magnetobiostratigraphic age model. Maxima in CaCO3 content, δ18O and δ13C are interpreted to coincide with ∼110 kyr eccentricity minima. The strong expression of these cycles in combination with the weakness of the precession- and obliquity-related signals allow construction of an astronomical age model that is solely based on tuning the CaCO3 content to the nominal (La2011_ecc3L) eccentricity solution. Very long-period eccentricity maxima (∼2.4-Myr) are marked by recurrent episodes of high-amplitude ∼110-kyr δ18O cycles at Walvis Ridge, indicating greater sensitivity of the climate/cryosphere system to short eccentricity modulation of climatic precession. In contrast, the responses of the global (high-latitude) climate system, cryosphere, and carbon cycle to the 405-kyr cycle, as expressed in benthic δ18O and especially δ13C signals, are more pronounced during ∼2.4-Myr minima. The relationship between the recurrent episodes of high-amplitude ∼110-kyr δ18O cycles and the ∼1.2-Myr amplitude

  3. Stable isotope systematics in Pleistocene deep-sea sediment records

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffelbein, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon in deep-sea sediments is a prime information carrier in paleoceanography. Isotope stratigraphies from deep-sea cores provide a tool for correlation, as well as an index for monitoring paleoclimate. Stable isotope systematics have been examined at several levels: 1) Data precision. Stable isotope data quality for a number of foraminifera species and size fractions is assessed by performing multiple analyses on subgroups of a given sample. Error measures have been determined which can be used to plan sampling. 2) Benthic mixing. Stratigraphic signals recovered from the deep-sea have been subjected to distortion from the activity of benthic organisms. A quantitative look at the effects of the mixing on the recovery of stratigraphic signals is presented. The unmixing problem, that is the problem of recovering high-frequency information lost in the mixing process, is also examined. A technique is developed, which allows determination of the benthic mixing parameters from certain stratigraphic relationships in multiple delta/sup 18/O signals. 3) Sedimentation rate nonlinearity. Spectral analyses are almost routinely performed on deep-sea delta/sup 18/O records, usually with the intent of finding climatic driving signals. This type of analysis assumes a linear sedimentation rate. Nonlinearity of sedimentation rate is examined at two levels. A long period (500 ka) dissolution cycle in the late Pleistocene is examined. It is demonstrated that this dissolution has affected stable isotopes and that considerable carbonate material has been dissolved.

  4. Oxygen isotope corrections for online δ34S analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, B.; Silva, S.R.; Kendall, C.; Anderson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental analyzers have been successfully coupled to stable-isotope-ratio mass spectrometers for online measurements of the δ34S isotopic composition of plants, animals and soils. We found that the online technology for automated δ34S isotopic determinations did not yield reproducible oxygen isotopic compositions in the SO2 produced, and as a result calculated δ34S values were often 1–3‰ too high versus their correct values, particularly for plant and animal samples with high C/S ratio. Here we provide empirical and analytical methods for correcting the S isotope values for oxygen isotope variations, and further detail a new SO2-SiO2 buffering method that minimizes detrimental oxygen isotope variations in SO2.

  5. Triple oxygen isotopes and clumped isotope thermometry applied to East African water balance over the last 500ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerman, J. W.; Levin, N. E.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A. L.; DeLuca, N. M.; Lehmann, S. B.; Passey, B. H.; Potts, R.

    2016-12-01

    Disentangling local from regional influences is critical for using oxygen isotopes in terrestrial records as indicators of past hydroclimate variability. This is of particular importance for isotopic records from sediment cores recently recovered by the Olorgesailie Drilling Project from the Koora Plain south of outcrops of the Olorgesailie basin in the southern Kenya Rift Valley, where local variations in water balance likely influenced human evolution and migration in eastern Africa. While the Olorgesailie cores are carbonate-rich and extremely well-dated, the basin fluctuated between lacustrine and subaerial conditions over the past 500,000 years, resulting in various modes of carbonate formation. To better constrain the complex climatic and depositional controls on the Olorgesailie carbonate record, we present an approach that combines triple oxygen isotopes (Δ17O) with clumped isotope thermometry [T(Δ47)] and traditional stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O). Carbonate δ18O values average -0.4 ± 1.9‰ (n=141), while T(Δ47) and reconstructed parent water δ18O values range from 14-32°C and -1 to 5‰, respectively (both n=28). The range of Δ17O values is approximately 150 per meg (n = 29), exceeding that reported for freshwater sources today (≤ 80 per meg; Luz and Barkan, 2010; Li et al., 2015). We observe a strong negative correlation between Δ17O and δ18O values, consistent with evaporative enrichment of heavy isotopes in water. Together, these results suggest evaporation within the basin is an important control on the Olorgesailie carbonate δ18O record. This multiproxy approach makes it possible to better distinguish local and regional influences on hydroclimate variability in eastern Africa since 500 ka. With this study, we demonstrate the crucial insight triple oxygen isotopes provide to carbonate δ18O-based hydroclimate records, particularly for those where evaporation is expected to play a significant role on water balance.

  6. The oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite species and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Inigo A.; Brunner, Benjamin; Breuer, Christian; Coleman, Max; Bach, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Sulfite is an important sulfoxy intermediate in oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling in the marine and terrestrial environment. Different aqueous sulfite species exist, such as dissolved sulfur dioxide (SO2), bisulfite (HSO3-), pyrosulfite (S2O52-) and sulfite sensu stricto (SO32-), whereas their relative abundance in solution depends on the concentration and the pH. Conversion of one species into another is rapid and involves in many cases incorporation of oxygen from, or release of oxygen to, water (e.g. SO2 + H2O ↔ HSO3- + H+), resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange between sulfite species and water. Consequently, the oxygen isotope composition of sulfite is strongly influenced by the oxygen isotope composition of water. Since sulfate does not exchange oxygen isotopes with water under most earth surface conditions, it can preserve the sulfite oxygen isotope signature that it inherits via oxidative and reductive sulfur cycling. Therefore, interpretation of δO values strongly hinges on the oxygen isotope equilibrium fractionation between sulfite and water which is poorly constrained. This is in large part due to technical difficulties in extraction of sulfite from solution for oxygen isotope analysis.

  7. A model predicting hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of mammalian hair at the landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehleringer, J.; Podlesak, D.; Cerling, T.; Chesson, L.; Bowen, G.

    2006-12-01

    A model has been developed to predict hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of keratin in hair of mammalian herbivores and omnivores, incorporating the influences of drinking water and dietary input. The isotopic composition of carbohydrates in food sources and the water in blood and tissues are predicted as intermediate components linking drinking water and dietary sources (environment) with hair (environmental recorder). This model is scaled to landscape and regional levels using geographic information system map predictions of the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of drinking waters and anticipated hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of carbohydrate food sources. The model was tested using isotope ratios of human hair (an omnivore) from across the USA. We discuss the application of this model as a tool for providing spatially integrated information about the quality of primary productivity relevant to mammalian herbivores over time, through the effects of varying primary productivity on protein nitrogen balance of the herbivore.

  8. Frequency of extreme daily temperatures (HadEX2) over Eurasia documented in a northern Red Sea coral oxygen isotope record during the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Felis, Thomas; Rimbu, Norel; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    The potential of a bimonthly-resolved northern Red Sea coral δ18O record as an archive for the occurrence of extreme daily temperature phenomena over Eurasia during Northern Hemisphere winter is investigated for the 1901-1995 period using extreme indices provided by the HadEX2 dataset (e.g., frost days, ice days, cold nights and cold days). The coral δ18O record reflects a combined signal of temperature and salinity variations in the surface waters of the northern Red Sea, and has been previously shown to provide a proxy for atmospheric circulation changes over the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes at interannual to decadal time scales. Here we show, by applying composite analysis, that cooler/more arid (warmer/less arid) winter conditions in the northern Red Sea region, indicated by positive (negative) coral δ18O anomalies (January-February), are related to a strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere polar vortex and, as a consequence, to a decreased (increased) number of days characterized by very cold temperatures and frost over Scandinavia and Central Europe. This situation is associated with an increased (decreased) number of days characterized by very cold temperatures and frost over the Balkan region. The occurrence of these daily temperature extremes is modulated by the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the British Isles and Central Europe, and a shift in the direction of the North Atlantic storm tracks. Importantly, coral records provide a bimonthly to monthly resolution, compared to other high-resolution proxy records which have either an annual resolution (e.g., ice cores, varved sediments) or an annual resolution with a signal that is biased towards a specific season that in most cases is not winter (e.g., tree rings). We argue that bimonthly-resolved northern Red Sea coral δ18O records provide an archive of interannual to decadal variations in the occurrence of extreme daily temperature events over wintertime Eurasia prior to the start of instrumental

  9. Oxygen isotope compositions of phosphate from arvicoline teeth and Quaternary climatic changes, Gigny, French Jura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Montuire, Sophie; Langlois, Cyril; Martineau, François

    2004-09-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphates from mammals are widely used as proxies of the isotopic compositions of meteoric waters that are roughly linearly related to the air temperature at high- and mid-latitudes. An oxygen isotope fractionation equation was determined by using present-day European arvicoline (rodents) tooth phosphate: δ18O p = 20.98(±0.59) + 0.572(±0.065) δ18O w. This fractionation equation was applied to the Late Pleistocene karstic sequence of Gigny, French Jura. Comparison between the oxygen isotope compositions of arvicoline tooth phosphate and Greenland ice core records suggests to reconsider the previously established hypothetical chronology of the sequence. According to the δ18O value of meteoric water-mean air temperature relationships, the δ18O value of arvicoline teeth records variations in mean air temperatures that range from 0° to 15°C.

  10. Genesis SW-Oxygen Corrected for SW/SUN Isotopic Fractionation is Closer to Earth Oxygen than to CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Suzuki, T. K.; Yamada, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Genesis project gave a convincing isotopic composition of oxygen in bulk solar wind sample, but correction for putative isotopic fractionation between SW and the Sun is still needed to conclude the solar oxygen-isotopic composition.

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen in brine shrimp chitin reflect environmental water and dietary isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Kristine E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2010-03-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of the common structural biopolymer chitin are a potential recorder of ecological and environmental information, but our understanding of the mechanisms of incorporation of H and O from environmental substrates into chitin is limited. We report the results of a set of experiments in which the isotopic compositions of environmental water and diet were varied independently in order to assess the contribution of these variables to the H and O isotopic composition of Artemia franciscana chitin. Hydrogen isotope ratios of chitin were strongly linearly correlated with both food and water, with approximately 26% of the hydrogen signal reflecting food and approximately 38% reflecting water. Oxygen isotopes were also strongly correlated with the isotopic composition of water and food, but whereas 69% of oxygen in chitin exchanged with environmental water, only 10% was derived from food. We propose that these observations reflect the position-specific, partial exchange of H and O atoms with brine shrimp body water during the processes of digestion and chitin biosynthesis. Comparison of culture experiments with a set of natural samples collected from the Great Salt Lake, UT in 2006 shows that, with some exceptions, oxygen isotope compositions of chitin track those of water, whereas hydrogen isotopes vary inversely with those of lake water. The different behavior of the two isotopic systems can be explained in terms of a dietary shift from allochthonous particulate matter with relatively higher δ 2H values in the early spring to autochthonous particulate matter with significantly lower δ 2H values in the late summer to autumn. These results suggest oxygen in chitin may be a valuable proxy for the oxygen isotopic composition of environmental water, whereas hydrogen isotope values from the same molecule may reveal ecological and biogeochemical changes within lakes.

  12. Triple oxygen isotope systematics of structurally bonded water in gypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Surma, Jakub; Voigt, Claudia; Assonov, Sergey; Staubwasser, Michael

    2017-07-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum mother water (gmw) is recorded in structurally bonded water in gypsum (gsbw). Respective fractionation factors have been determined experimentally for 18O/16O and 17O/16O. By taking previous experiments into account we suggest using 18αgsbw-gmw = 1.0037; 17αgsbw-gmw = 1.00195 and θgsbw-gmw = 0.5285 as fractionation factors in triple oxygen isotope space. Recent gypsum was sampled from a series of 10 ponds located in the Salar de Llamara in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Total dissolved solids (TDS) in these ponds show a gradual increase from 23 g/l to 182 g/l that is accompanied by an increase in pond water 18O/16O. Gsbw falls on a parallel curve to the ambient water from the saline ponds. The offset is mainly due to the equilibrium fractionation between gsbw and gmw. However, gsbw represents a time integrated signal biased towards times of strong evaporation, hence the estimated gmw comprises elevated 18O/16O compositions when compared to pond water samples taken on site. Gypsum precipitation is associated with algae mats in the ponds with lower salinity. No evidence for respective vital effects on the triple oxygen isotopic composition of gypsum hydration water is observed, nor are such effects expected. In principle, the array of δ18Ogsbw vs. 17Oexcess can be used to: (1) provide information on the degree of evaporation during gypsum formation; (2) estimate pristine meteoric water compositions; and (3) estimate local relative humidity which is the controlling parameter of the slope of the array for simple hydrological situations. In our case study, local mining activities may have decreased deep groundwater recharge, causing a recent change of the local hydrology.

  13. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of The Geysers reservoir rocks, California

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Richard P.; Moore, Joseph N.

    1994-01-20

    Whole-rock oxygen isotopic compositions of Late Mesozoic graywacke, the dominant host rock at The Geysers, record evidence of a large liquid-dominated hydrothermal system that extended beyond the limits of the present steam reservoir. The graywackes show vertical and lateral isotopic variations that resulted from gradients in temperature, permeability, and fluid composition during this early liquid-dominated system. All of these effects are interpreted to have resulted from the emplacement of the granitic "felsite" intrusion 1-2 million years ago. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke are strongly zoned around a northwest-southeast trending low located near the center of and similar in shape to the present steam system. Vertical isotopic gradients show a close relationship to the felsite intrusion. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke decrease from approximately 15 per mil near the surface to 4-7 per mil 300 to 600 m above the intrusive contact. The {delta}{sup 18}O values then increase downward to 8-10 per mil at the felsite contact, thereafter remaining nearly constant within the intrusion itself. The large downward decrease in {delta}{sup 18}O values are interpreted to be controlled by variations in temperature during the intrusive event, ranging from 150{degree}C near the surface to about 425{degree}C near the intrusive contact. The upswing in {delta}{sup 18}O values near the intrusive contact appears to have been caused by lower rock permeability and/or heavier fluid isotopic composition there. Lateral variations in the isotopic distributions suggests that the effects of temperature were further modified by variations in rock permeability and/or fluid-isotopic composition. Time-integrated water:rock ratios are thought to have been highest within the central isotopic low where the greatest isotopic depletions are observed. We suggest that this region of the field was an area of high permeability within the main upflow zone of the liquid

  14. The origin of hydrous, high-δ18O voluminous volcanism: diverse oxygen isotope values and high magmatic water contents within the volcanic record of Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Sara; Bindeman, Ilya; Wallace, Paul; Ponomareva, Vera; Portnyagin, Maxim

    2009-02-01

    Klyuchevskoy volcano, in Kamchatka’s subduction zone, is one of the most active arc volcanoes in the world and contains some of the highest δ18O values for olivines and basalts. We present an oxygen isotope and melt inclusion study of olivine phenocrysts in conjunction with major and trace element analyses of 14C- and tephrochronologically-dated tephra layers and lavas spanning the eruptive history of Klyuchevskoy. Whole-rock and groundmass analyses of tephra layers and lava samples demonstrate that both high-Mg (7-12.5 wt% MgO) and high-Al (17-19 wt% Al2O3, 3-6.5 wt% MgO) basalt and basaltic andesite erupted coevally from the central vent and flank cones. Individual and bulk olivine δ18O range from normal MORB values of 5.1‰ to values as high as 7.6‰. Likewise, tephra and lava matrix glass have high-δ18O values of 5.8-8.1‰. High-Al basalts dominate volumetrically in Klyuchevskoy’s volcanic record and are mostly high in δ18O. High-δ18O olivines and more normal-δ18O olivines occur in both high-Mg and high-Al samples. Most olivines in either high-Al or high-Mg basalts are not in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with their host glasses, and Δ18Oolivine-glass values are out of equilibrium by up to 1.5‰. Olivines are also out of Fe-Mg equilibrium with the host glasses, but to a lesser extent. Water concentrations in olivine-hosted melt inclusions from five tephra samples range from 0.4 to 7.1 wt%. Melt inclusion CO2 concentrations vary from below detection (<50 ppm) to 1,900 ppm. These values indicate depths of crystallization up to ~17 km (5 kbar). The variable H2O and CO2 concentrations likely reflect crystallization of olivine and entrapment of inclusions in ascending and degassing magma. Oxygen isotope and Fe-Mg disequilibria together with melt inclusion data indicate that olivine was mixed and recycled between high-Al and high-Mg basaltic melts and cumulates, and Fe-Mg and δ18O re-equilibration processes were incomplete. Major and trace elements in

  15. Climate and human impacts on vegetation changes in central Guizhou, China: Carbon and oxygen isotopic records in a stalagmite from Yelang Cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Liu, Z.; Li, H.; Shen, C.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution δ18O and δ13C records of a 13.5-cm long stalagmite from Yelang Cave, 60 km west of Guiyang in the southwestern China, have been established by 750 measurements. With low U (10~40 ppb) and Th (0.01~0.367 ppb), four ICP-MS 230Th/U dates indicate that the upper 5.5 cm part is younger than 1000 years, with clear calcite deposition. Below 6 cm depth where the age suddenly changed from late Holocene to late Pleistocene, the stalagmite shows the deposition alternating between white-pure calcite layers and dark-dirty carbonate layers. The dating samples below 6 cm depth have low U contents (26~41 ppb) but high Th concentrations (10~22 ppb) showing 230Th/U dates ranging from 11 ka to 25 ka with large uncertainties. Based on current chronologies, the δ18O and δ13C records exhibit different features in the late Holocene and late Pleistocene. During the past 1000 yrs (0~5.5 cm), the δ18O ranges from -12.0‰ to -9.0‰ (PDB), containing many 10-100 yrs variations with Δδ18O >1‰. The δ13C during this period varies between -7.4‰ and -1.9‰, showing no correlation with the δ18O. Prior to 10.7 ka (below 6 cm), the δ18O and δ13C strongly co-varied, indicating climatic control on the surface vegetation with wet climates (lighter δ18O) resulting in better vegetation (lighter δ13C). The δ13C during the past 1000 yrs had three long-term increasing trends and a sharp decreasing trend, reflecting human impacts on the surface vegetation. The δ13C increased from about -6‰ at ca. AD 1370 to -3.2‰ around AD 1580, illustrating the first deforestation caused by human activity due to large immigration in Ming Dynasty to the region. The δ13C fluctuated between -4.5‰ and -3.0‰ from AD 1580 to AD 1740, then increased to -2.0‰ around AD 1770 with an opposite δ18O trend. This second deforestation event might be caused a strong immigration in early Qing Dynasty due to mining demand. Karst desertification occurred in the area reflected by heavy δ13C

  16. Oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules in Allende and ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Molini-Velsko, C.; Onuma, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Olsen, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The ferromagnesian chondrules in Allende follow a trend in the oxygen three-isotope plot that diverges significantly from the 16-O mixing line defined by light and dark inclusions and the matrix of the meteorite. The trend probably results from isotopic exchange with an external gaseous reservoir during the process of chondrule formation sometime after the establishment of the isotopic compositions of the inclusions and matrix. The Allende chondrules approach, but do not reach, the isotopic compositions of chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, implying exchange with a similar ambient gas, but isotopically different solid precursors for the two types of meteorite.

  17. Argon isotopes as recorders of magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, P. W.; Gardner, J. E.; Mora Chaparro, J. C.; Arce, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Argon isotopic ratios vary enough between different reservoirs (atmosphere, crust, mantle) and diffuse fast enough through most minerals at magmatic temperatures (700-1200 C) to make them ideal for looking at magma chamber dynamics. Indeed, diffusion is sufficiently fast to allow short time scales to be deciphered, setting argon apart from many other isotopic methods. A mineral's ability to retain "excess" argon (40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric value and apparent ages older than the known eruption age) during post-eruption cooling is key to Ar studies. Previous work shows that both phenocrysts (crystallizing in the magma chamber; e.g. Mt St. Helens; Layer and Gardner, 2001) and xenocrysts (introduced into the magma chamber; e.g Toba; Gardner et al., 2002) preserve excess argon, which enables magma chamber processes to be deciphered through the variable diffusion rates between crystal phases. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of biotite from the 10.5 ka eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico indicates that they are xenocrystic and resided for only a short (< 1 year) time in the magma before it erupted. The biotite has reaction rims of hornblende, orthopyroxene and plagioclase, and failed to grow experimentally at pressure-temperature conditions of the magma, confirming the xenocrystic nature of this phase. Single-step fusion of plagioclase phenocrysts from eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico, shows evidence of excess (mantle) argon, whereas hornblende from the same eruptions contains little or none. In this case, faster diffusion of Ar in plagioclase than in hornblende allow plagioclase to incorporate excess argon during magma recharge; hornblende does not. Combining such results with other isotopic systems may in fact better determine magma chamber processes. At El Chichon, Sr isotopes suggest magma recharges ocurred (Tepley et al., 2000), whereas the argon isotopes suggest such pulses occurred just before each eruption. The fast and

  18. Oxygen Isotopes and Geothermometry of Secondary Minerals in CR Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilly, C. E.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Schrader, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    We report oxygen isotopes measured from secondary calcite and magnetite in QUE 99177, a weakly altered CR chondrite, and discuss implications for temperature and fluid chemistry during aqueous alteration on the CR parent body.

  19. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands.

    PubMed

    Linzmeier, Benjamin J; Kozdon, Reinhard; Peters, Shanan E; Valley, John W

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands.

  20. Oxygen Isotope Variability within Nautilus Shell Growth Bands

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis of oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. To create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands. PMID:27100183

  1. Meteorites and their parent bodies: Evidence from oxygen isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    Isotopic abundance variations among meteorites are used to establish genetic associations between meteorite classes. Oxygen isotope distributions between group II E irons with H-group ordinary chondrites and enstatic meteorites indicate that the parent bodies were formed out of pre-solar material that was not fully mixed at the time condensation occurred within the solar nebula.

  2. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures of Northeast Atlantic water masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Antje H. L.; Colman, Albert; Olack, Gerard; Waniek, Joanna J.; Hodell, David

    2015-06-01

    Only a few studies have examined the variation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of seawater in NE Atlantic water masses, and data are especially sparse for intermediate and deep-water masses. The current study greatly expands this record with 527 δ18O values from 47 stations located throughout the mid- to low-latitude NE Atlantic. In addition, δD was analyzed in the 192 samples collected along the GEOTRACES North Atlantic Transect GA03 (GA03_e=KN199-4) and the 115 Iberia-Forams cruise samples from the western and southern Iberian margin. An intercomparison study between the two stable isotope measurement techniques (cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy and magnetic-sector isotope ratio mass spectrometry) used to analyze GA03_e samples reveals relatively good agreement for both hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios. The surface (0-100 m) and central (100-500 m) water isotope data show the typical, evaporation related trend of increasing values equatorward with the exception for the zonal transect off Cape Blanc, NW Africa. Off Cape Blanc, surface water isotope signatures are modified by the upwelling of fresher Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) that generally has isotopic values of 0.0 to 0.5‰ for δ18O and 0 to 2‰ for δD. Along the Iberian margin the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is clearly distinguished by its high δ18O (0.5-1.1‰) and δD (3-6‰) values that can be traced into the open Atlantic. Isotopic values in the NE Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW) are relatively low (δ18O: -0.1 to 0.5‰; δD: -1 to 4‰) and show a broader range than observed previously in the northern and southern convection areas. The NEADW is best observed at GA03_e Stations 5 and 7 in the central NE Atlantic basin. Antarctic Bottom Water isotope values are relatively high indicating modification of the original Antarctic source water along the flow path. The reconstructed δ18O-salinity relationship for the complete data set has a slope of 0.51, i.e., slightly steeper than the 0

  3. Multiple Oxygen Isotope Photochemistry of Nitrate in Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, J. R.; Boxe, C. S.; Colussi, A.; Hoffman, M. R.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrate (NO3 -) is a major anion in polar ice [de Angelis and Legrand, 1995;Dibb et al., 1998;Silvente and Legrand, 1995]. As the primary sink for atmospheric NOx, nitrate's chemical history is a link to understanding the nitrogen budget and oxidation capacity of the polar atmosphere over time. Our understanding of variations in ice core nitrate concentrations has been limited by depositional and post-depositional loss processes, associated with temperature, accumulation rate, diffusion, photochemistry and volatilization [Wolff, 1995]. The first report of multiple oxygen isotope composition of nitrate in ice cores (Alexander et al., 2004) demonstrates the ability to observe changes in the oxidation capacity of past atmospheres. To accurately interpret this and future isotopic data, we need to ascertain the oxygen isotope fractionation (δ 17O, δ ^{18}O) associated with the photolysis of nitrate in ice. Post-depositional processes, such as nitrate photolysis and volatilization may alter the initial isotopic signal of nitrate in the snowpack. A series of nitrate photolysis experiments were conducted on 10 mM solutions of Fisher KNO_{3} and USGS-35 NaNO_{3} at 313 ± 20 nm over 12 to 48 hours and between -30 and 25 ° C. With initial mass-dependent nitrate, a strict mass-dependent fractionation was observed in the residual irradiated nitrate. However, after 12 and 24 hours of irradiation, mass-independent USGS-35 NaNO3 (Δ 17O = 21.0 \\pm 0.4 ‰ ) displayed a decrease of 1.6 ± 0.4 and 2.0 \\pm 0.4 % at 25 \\degC, 1.2 ± 0.4 and 1.3 \\pm 0.4 ‰ at -5\\degC, 0.2 ± 0.4 \\permil and 1.1 \\pm 0.4 ‰ at -30\\degC, respectively. The greater isotope effect at higher temperatures may be due to a thicker quasi-liquid layer (QLL) allowing faster rates for secondary nitrate producing reactions between H_{2}O and photoproducts NO, NO_{2}, NO_{2}$-. In the aqueous phase this effect is even greater. Hence, we infer that the production of nitrate via these 'secondary processes

  4. Stalagmite stable isotope record of recent tropical cyclone events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit Frappier, Amy; Sahagian, Dork; Carpenter, Scott J.; González, Luis A.; Frappier, Brian R.

    2007-02-01

    We present a 23 yr stalagmite record (1977 2000) of oxygen isotope variation, associated with 11 tropical cyclones (TCs), from Actun Tunichil Muknal cave in central Belize. High-resolution microsampling yielded a record of monthly to weekly temporal resolution that contains abrupt decreases (negative excursions) in calcite δ18O values that correspond with recent TC rain events nearby. A logistic discriminant model reliably identified TC proxy signals using the measurable parameters δ18O and δ13C values, and single point changes in δ18O value. The logistic model correctly identified 80% of excursions as TC events and incorrectly classified only 1 of nearly 1200 nonstorm sampling points. In addition to enabling high-resolution TC frequency reconstruction, this geologic proxy also provides information about the intensity of individual TCs. A multiple regression predicted TC intensity (R2 = 0.465, p = 0.034) using sampling frequency and excursion amplitude. Consistent with previous low-resolution studies, we found that the decadal average δ18O value was lower during the 1990s when several TCs produced rainfall in the area, but higher during the 1980s when only one TC struck. Longer, accurately dated, high-resolution speleothem stable isotope records may be a useful new tool for paleotempestology, to clarify associations between highly variable TC activity and the dynamic range of Quaternary climate.

  5. Chemical production of chondrule oxygen isotopic composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiemens, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Defining the source of observed meteoritic O isotopic anomalies remains a fundamental challenge. The O isotopic composition of chondrules are particularly striking. There are at least three types of chemical processes that produce the isotopic compositions observed in chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's). The processes are rather general, viz, they require no specialized processes and the processes associated with chondrule production are likely to produce the observed compositions.

  6. Triple oxygen isotopes in biogenic and sedimentary carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Hu, Huanting; Ji, Haoyuan; Montanari, Shaena; Li, Shuning; Henkes, Gregory A.; Levin, Naomi E.

    2014-09-01

    The 17O anomaly (Δ17O) of natural waters has been shown to be sensitive to evaporation in a way analogous to deuterium excess, with evaporated bodies of water (e.g., leaf waters, lake waters, animal body waters) tending to have lower Δ17O than primary meteoric waters. In animal body water, Δ17O relates to the intake of evaporated waters, evaporative effluxes of water, and the Δ17O value of atmospheric O2, which itself carries signatures of global carbon cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Carbonates have the potential to record the triple oxygen isotope compositions of parent waters, allowing reconstruction of past water compositions, but such investigations have awaited development of methods for high-precision measurement of Δ17O of carbonate. We describe optimized methods based on a sequential acid digestion/reduction/fluorination approach that yield Δ17O data with the high precision (∼0.010‰, 1σ) needed to resolve subtle environmental signals. We report the first high-precision Δ17O dataset for terrestrial carbonates, focusing on vertebrate biogenic carbonates and soil carbonates, but also including marine invertebrates and high-temperature carbonates. We determine apparent three-isotope fractionation factors between the O2 analyte derived from carbonate and the parent waters of the carbonate. These in combination with appropriate temperature estimates (from clumped isotope thermometry, or known or estimated body temperatures) are used to calculate the δ18O and Δ17O of parent waters. The clearest pattern to emerge is the strong 17O-depletion in avian, dinosaurian, and mammalian body water (from analyses of eggshell and tooth enamel) relative to meteoric waters, following expected influences of evaporated water (e.g., leaf water) and atmospheric O2 on vertebrate body water. Parent waters of the soil carbonates studied here have Δ17O values that are similar to or slightly lower than global precipitation. Our results suggest

  7. Simulating oxygen isotope ratios in tree ring cellulose using a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, Sonja G.; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Saurer, Matthias; Weigt, Rosemarie B.; Klesse, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Records of stable oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings are valuable tools to reconstruct past climatic conditions and investigate the response of trees to those conditions. So far the use of stable oxygen isotope signatures of tree rings has not been systematically evaluated in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). DGVMs integrate many hydrological and physiological processes and their application could improve proxy-model comparisons and the interpretation of oxygen isotope records. Here we present an approach to simulate leaf water and stem cellulose δ18O of trees using the LPX-Bern DGVM (LPX-Bern). Our results lie within a few per mil of measured tree ring δ18O of 31 different forest stands mainly located in Europe. Temporal means over the last 5 decades as well as interannual variations for a subset of sites in Switzerland are captured. A sensitivity analysis reveals that relative humidity, temperature, and the water isotope boundary conditions have the largest influence on simulated stem cellulose δ18O, followed by all climatic factors combined, whereas increasing atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen deposition exert no impact. We conclude that simulations with LPX-Bern are useful for investigating large-scale oxygen isotope patterns of tree ring cellulose to elucidate the importance of different environmental factors on isotope variations and therefore help to reduce uncertainties in the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings.

  8. Galena oxidation investigations on oxygen and sulphur isotopes.

    PubMed

    Heidel, Claudia; Tichomirowa, Marion

    2011-06-01

    Batch experiments with the lead sulphide ore mineral galena were carried out in order to get information about the oxidation mechanisms and to contribute to the understanding of field data, especially those obtained from the mining-affected sites. Results indicate that oxygen and sulphur isotopes of dissolved sulphate may be useful tools for the investigation of galena oxidation mechanisms. However, some methodological modifications are necessary to obtain sufficient sulphate yields, which are a prerequisite for the reduction of the analytical uncertainty. Surface and hydrochemical investigations indicated that galena was dissolved non-oxidatively during the experiment at initial pH 2, whereas the oxidative dissolution of galena dominated in experiments at initial pH 6 and 8. No isotope results could be obtained from the experiment at initial pH 2 due to the low sulphate production. The oxidative dissolution of galena resulted in somewhat higher sulphate yields. Thus, the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate produced from galena oxidation could be determined for the first time. Oxygen in sulphate derived largely from water molecules; but minor amounts of molecular oxygen could be also observed. Both molecular oxygen and ferric iron may act as oxidants of galena. A variety of intermediate reactions allow for a variable oxygen isotope composition of sulphate. Sulphur isotopes of sulphate showed an enrichment of (32)S in sulphate (relative to galena), which increases with increasing pH. Sulphur isotope enrichment processes may be associated with the formation of anglesite.

  9. Foraminifera isotopic records... with special attention to high northern latitudes and the impact of sea-ice distillation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2011-05-01

    Since the reassessment of oxygen isotope paleotemperatures by N. Shackleton in the late 60s, most papers using isotopic records from planktic or benthic foraminifers imply a direct relationship between oxygen isotopes in seawater and the ice/ocean volume, thus some linkage with salinity, sea level, etc. Such assumptions are also made when incorporating "isotopic modules" in coupled models. Here, we will further examine the linkages between salinity and oxygen isotope ratios of sea-water recorded by foraminifers, and their potential temporal and spatial variability, especially in the northern North Atlantic and the Arctic oceans. If temporal and spatial changes in the isotopic composition of precipitations and ice meltwaters tune the isotopic properties of the fresh water end-member that dilutes the ocean, rates of sea-ice formation and evaporation at the ocean surface play a further role on the salt and oxygen isotope contents of water masses. Thus, the oxygen 18-salinity relationship carries a specific isotopic signature for any given water mass. At the ocean scale, residence time and mixing of these water masses, as well as the time dependent-achievement of proxy-tracer equilibrium, will also result in variable recordings of mass transfers into the hydrosphere, notable between ice-sheets and ocean. Since these records in water mass may vary in both amplitude and time, direct correlations of isotopic records will potentially be misleading. Implications of such issues on the interpretation of oxygen isotope records from the sub-arctic seas will be discussed, as well as the inherent flaws of such records due to sedimentological and or ecological parameters.

  10. Atmospheric methane isotope records during MIS 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, Todd; Bock, Michael; Mitchell, Hailey

    2014-05-01

    The long-term δ13CH4record has led to a new paradigm in our thinking of the biogeochemistry of atmospheric CH4 (Möller et al. 2013). Throughout the last glacial period, abrupt D/O CH4changes appear to be decoupled from δ13CH4, while for δDCH4 we are still missing the big picture. The lack of a clear long-term relationship between loading changes and the isotopic composition of atmospheric CH4suggests multiple sources/sinks were responsible for the observed changes and/or that the characteristic isotope value for some of these sources may have changed over time. During the early part of MIS 4, we observed a ~4o increase in δ13CH4during a period when CH4changes were less than 50 ppb. We measured 12 ice core samples from the NEEM core for δDCH4 covering DO 8 and the MIS 5-4 transition. These new δDCH4 data compliment previously published δDCH4 data from EDML covering the same period (Möller et al. 2013). Replicate analyses of NEEM ice from DO 8 agreed with previously measured samples from NGRIP (Bock et al., 2010). External precision of the analyses based on replicate air standards run throughout each analytical day were ±1.8‰These data were overlain on previously measured δ13CH4data from the Vostok and EDML ice cores from the same periods. The δ13CH4data for the MIS4 start at ~ -48o around 75ka and increase to -44o at 65ka and then decrease to -46o by 59ka. In contrast, NEEM δDCH4 values start at -90o at 70ka and decrease to -97o at 64ka before increasing to -92o by 59ka. These two records appear to be roughly in phase with one another but opposite in the sign of their changes. Comparison between NEEM and EDML δDCH4 data for MIS4 suggest the interpolar δDCH4 difference increases somewhat during the δ13CH4transition. We plan to discuss these records in terms of constraints on the biogeochemistry of atmospheric methane during MIS 4. Bock, M., J. Schmitt, L. Möller, R. Spahni, T. Blunier and H. Fischer (2010). "Hydrogen Isotopes Preclude Marine

  11. Oxygen isotope fractionation between aragonite and seawater: Developing a novel kinetic oxygen isotope fractionation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengrong; Gaetani, Glenn; Liu, Chao; Cohen, Anne

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors between aragonite and seawater are studied at T = 25-55 °C and pH = 7.4-8.1 in a set of 'free-drift' precipitation experiments with various CO2-degassing rates (0-75 cc/min). The measured fractionation factors correlate weakly with degassing rate, but strongly with temperature in the following form (R2 = 0.998): 1000lnα=22.5(±0.5)(103/T)-46.1(±1.6) where α is the fractionation factor and T is the temperature in Kelvin. Along with results from previous studies, these experiments help calibrate two extreme cases of a new kinetic model - extremely fast (e.g., during spontaneous precipitation) and slow aragonite precipitation processes (e.g., during slow 'free-drift' precipitation experiments) - at pH >7.5, T = 0-55 °C and salinity = ˜5-39.6‰. The model assumes little isotopic fractionation between DIC species and aragonite during their attachment and detachment on aragonite surfaces at low temperatures and the δ18O value of aragonite equals the average δ18O value of all contributing DIC species. During the fast precipitation of aragonite, the contribution of each DIC species to the δ18O value of aragonite is proportional to its concentration, whereas in a slow precipitation process when the system reaches a steady state, the contribution is determined by both its concentration and a modifying factor. Although the physical meaning of this modifying factor depends on the method of derivation and other assumptions made, three different derivations based on precipitation/dissolution kinetics, isotope exchange reactions, and isotope disequilibrium among DIC species all lead to the same formulation. At pH >7.5, the natural logarithm of the modifying factor (k) for adjusting the contribution of the bicarbonate ion relative to the carbonate ion is calibrated, using experimental data covering a range of temperature, salinity, pH, and precipitation rate, as follows: lnk=(2.22±0.08)×(pH-pH)+{(846±78)·S-(40.3±2.1)×103}/{RT

  12. Pliocene diatom and sponge spicule oxygen isotope ratios from the Bering Sea: isotopic offsets and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelling, A. M.; Swann, G. E. A.; Pike, J.; Leng, M. J.

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of different size fractions of Pliocene diatoms (δ18Odiatom) from the Bering Sea show no evidence of an isotope offset and support the use of bulk diatom species samples for palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Additional samples containing concentrations of sponge spicules produce δ18O values several per mille (‰) lower than δ18Odiatom with a calculated mean offset of 3.9‰ ± 1.5. This difference is significantly greater than modern-day variations in water δ18O through the regional water column. Despite the potential for oxygen isotope disequilibrium within δ18Osponge, there appears to be some similarity between δ18Osponge and a global stacked benthic δ18Oforam record. This highlights the potential for δ18Osponge in palaeoenvironmental research at sites where carbonates are not readily preserved.

  13. Pliocene diatom and sponge spicule oxygen isotope ratios from the Bering Sea: isotopic offsets and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelling, A. M.; Swann, G. E. A.; Pike, J.; Leng, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of different size fractions of Pliocene diatoms (δ18Odiatom) from the Bering Sea show no evidence of an isotope offset and support the use of bulk diatom species samples for palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Additional samples containing concentrations of sponge spicules produce δ18O values several per mille lower than δ18Odiatom with a calculated mean offset of 3.6‰ ± 0.7. This difference is significantly greater than modern day variations in water δ18O through the regional water column. Despite the potential for oxygen isotope disequilibrium within δ18Osponge, there appears to be some similarity between δ18Osponge and a global stacked benthic δ18Oforam record. This highlights the potential for δ18Osponge in palaeoenvironmental research at sites where carbonates are not readily preserved.

  14. Behaviour of Structural Carbonate Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Compositions in Bioapatite During Burning of Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, L. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.; White, C. D.

    2003-12-01

    about 8-10‰ below 500° C, 5-6‰ between 500-700° C, and 8-10‰ above 700° C. CI and oxygen isotopic compositions of carbonate and phosphate are not well correlated. Only modest CI changes are recorded from 25-675° C, compared with much larger changes in oxygen isotopic composition, especially above 300° C. On average, original isotopic compositions are largely preserved for both phosphate (+/-1‰ ) and carbonate (+/-2‰ ) oxygen at <300° C. At higher temperatures, however, both phosphate and carbonate oxygen in the bioapatite are systematically depleted of oxygen-18 relative to original values.

  15. Genetic algorithm as a correlation tool - speleothems stable isotope records example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, J.; Hercman, H.

    2012-04-01

    The isotopic composition of oxygen and carbon in cave speleothems is a valuable source of paleoenvironmental information. Oxygen isotopic composition reflects the mean annual temperature at the cave area and the isotopic composition of the infiltering water. Carbon isotopic composition reflects the level of development of soil and vegetation type at the surface. Calcites from cave speleothems can be usually dated by U- series method but U-series method has limitations. One of the most critical is cleanest of analysed calcite. Any detrital admixtures make contamination by initial thorium and dating results are not reliable. In such a situation there is a problem with the time scale estimation of isotopic data. Oxygen stratigraphy of carbonate marine sediments base on the correlation of oxygen isotopic sequence from studied profile with the global standard curve. Similar solution could be applied to the isotopic profiles obtained from cave speleothems. In this case any isotopic record can be correlated with a record which has well defined age. Such correlations can be made on the basis of arbitrary decisions of the researcher however, such procedure may be suffered by subjectively evaluation. Therefore we decided to develop a tool that will enable the correlation of isotopic profiles. Cave speleothems grown with a variable crystallization rate, so similar stretch of time can be represented by the sediments of varying thickness. The process of correlation of isotope curves consists on free shifting of data points ( accordance with the rule of superposition ) belonging to the record with undetermined age, relative to the record with well defined age. Each generated position is evaluated. The best position is accepted as a true position. Such procedure requires the use of an algorithm, which is able to efficient search of large (almost infinite) set of possible positions. Genetic algorithm is a tool that could find the optimal solution in a set of large number of

  16. Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Anna K.; Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Huang, Yongsong; Shuman, Bryan N.; Williams, John W.

    2010-12-01

    Middle-Holocene (8 to 4 ka BP) warmth and aridity are well recorded in sediment archives from midcontinental North America. However, neither the climatic driver nor the seasonal character of precipitation during this period is well understood because of the limitations of available proxy indicators. For example, an important challenge is to distinguish among the interacting effects of evaporation, temperature, or precipitation seasonality in existing δ 18O records from the region. Here we combine hydrogen isotopes of palmitic acid and oxygen isotopes of carbonate to derive lake-water isotopic values during the Holocene at Steel Lake in north-central Minnesota. In combination, these data enable us to separate variations in evaporation from variations in the isotopic composition of input-waters to lake. Variations in evaporation are used as a proxy for aridity and lake-water input isotopic values are used as a proxy for the isotopic values of meteoric precipitation. Our results suggest that lake-water input isotopic values were more negative during the middle Holocene than at present. To test whether these more negative values are related to temperature or precipitation seasonality, we compare pollen-inferred temperatures and the expected isotopic value of precipitation resulting from these temperatures to the reconstructed precipitation isotopic values. Results suggest that middle Holocene warmth and aridity were associated with increased evaporation rates and decreased summer precipitation. These inferences are consistent with climate simulations that highlight the role of seasonal insolation and sea surface temperatures in driving variations in precipitation seasonality during the Holocene. Results also suggest that changes in Holocene precipitation seasonality may have influenced the expansion of the prairie-forest border in Minnesota as well as regional variations in grassland community composition. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the dual hydrogen and

  17. Silicon and oxygen isotopic trends in Mesozoic radiolarites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bôle, Maximlien; Baumgartner Peter, O.; Lukas, Baumgartner; Anne-Sophie, Bouvier; Rie, Hori; Masayuki, Ikeda

    2016-04-01

    Silicon and oxygen isotopes (δ30Si and δ18O) of siliceous tests (diatoms, sponges and radiolarians) preserve environmental signatures in unconsolidated sediments, but few studies show such signatures for ancient biosilicieous rocks. In Precambrian cherts from greenstone belts, small scaled isotopic variations were interpreted as a primary diagenetic feature. They were used, coupled to mean δ18O, to reconstruct seawater temperature at which cherts precipitated. Here, we examine stable isotopes in Mesozoic biogenic cherts that may also preserve an environmental signature. We measured δ30Si and δ18O in situ by SIMS, in the chalcedony of individual radiolarian tests preserved in Mesozoic radiolarites. Microanalysis of chalcedony, rather than the bulk rock isotopic composition, is likely to reveal a palaeoenvironmental signal, since it is derived from biogenic opal, the most mobile silica phase during earliest diagenesis. Our data reveal clear trends through several Mesozoic radiolarite sections from Panthalassa (Kiso River, Japan) and Western Tethys (Sogno, Italy). δ18O records measured in radiolarites show a relatively good correlation to δ18O-variations of Mesozoic low magnesium calcite shells, which are commonly used as a palaeotemperature proxy. Once these variations, attributed to seawater temperature, are removed, the residual δ18O trends are opposite to the δ30Si trends. δ30Si increases from Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic in the Kiso River sections and decrease during the Middle Jurassic in the Sogno section. The observed d30Si-trends are likely to represent a palaeoenvironmental signal, because they are not compatible with simple models of progressive diagenesis along P/T-paths (or depth below sea bottom in drill holes). Among the palaeoenvironmental factors that may have influenced these trends are the oceanic silica cycle changing though time, oceanic circulation and/or the palaeogeographic location of each studied site. Siliceous organisms are

  18. Methane isotope records from Antarctic firn air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T. A.; Battle, M.

    2007-12-01

    and isotopic) to accumulate deeper in the firn relative to the lighter gases. We use δ15N of N2 measurements to identify the depth of the convective zone and to correct for gravitational settling. We developed a physically based air transport model to account for the diffusive properties of the firn that allows us to test various historical records spanning the 20th century in a forward modeling exercise. Preliminary results suggest atmospheric δ13C and δ D values near the start of the 20th century were 1.8‰ and 11‰ lower than present day values, respectively. The increasing isotope trends throughout the last century are primarily the result of increased CH4 emissions with elevated isotope signatures (e.g. fossil fuel and biomass burning).

  19. Oxygen-isotope fractionation between marine biogenic silica and seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Matheney, R.K.; Knauth, L.P. )

    1989-12-01

    A stepwise fluorination technique has been used to selectively react away the water component of hydrous silica in order to better investigate the oxygen-isotope fractionation between biogenic opal and seawater, and to determine whether all taxa produce opal which is suitable for oxygen isotope paleothermometry. {delta}{sup 18}O of the tetrahedrally coordinated silicate oxygen of siliceous sponge spicules grown at a wide variety of temperatures varies independently of temperature. {delta}{sup 18}O from an Eocene radiolarian ooze sample is much more enriched than would be expected from any reasonable isotopic temperature curve, given the probable growing temperature of the sample. {delta}{sup 18}O of diatom samples seems to vary systematically with temperature and to conform approximately to the isotopic temperature curve for diatom frustules obtained by Labeyrie and coworkers using an entirely different analytical technique. Sponges appear to precipitate silica in isotopic disequilibrium with seawater oxygen, and old radiolarian silica may exchange readily with could oceanic bottom water. Neither will apparently be useful for paleoclimate reconstructions. Diatoms maybe useful in deducing ancient surface-water temperatures, but the systematic variation of {alpha} with temperature for diatoms may not be related to the quartz-H{sub 2}O equilibrium isotope fractionation.

  20. Improved Quaternary North Atlantic stratigraphy using relative paleointensity (RPI), oxygen isotopes, and magnetic excursions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Improving the resolution of Quaternary marine stratigraphy is one of the major challenges in paleoceanography. IODP Expedition 303/306, and ODP Legs 162 and 172, have yielded multiple high-resolution records (mean sedimentation rates in the 7-20 cm/kyr range) of relative paleointensity (RPI) that are accompanied by oxygen isotope data and extend through much of the Quaternary. Tandem fit of RPI and oxygen isotope data to calibrated templates (LR04 and PISO), using the Match protocol, yields largely consistent stratigraphies, implying that both RPI and oxygen isotope data are dominated by regional/global signals. Based on the recent geomagnetic field, RPI can be expected to be a global signal (i.e. dominated by the axial dipole field) when recorded at sedimentation rates less than several decimeters/kyr. Magnetic susceptibility, on the other hand, is a local/regional lithologic signal, and therefore less useful for long-distance correlation. Magnetic excursions are directional phenomena and, when adequately recorded, are manifest as paired reversals in which the virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) reach high latitudes in the opposite hemisphere, and they occupy minima in RPI records. Reversed VGPs imply that excursions are attributable to the main axial dipole, and therefore provide global stratigraphy. The so-called Iceland Basin excursion is recorded at many IODP/ODP sites and lies at the MIS 6/7 boundary at ~188 ka, with a duration of 2-3 kyr. Other excursions in the Brunhes chron are less commonly recorded because their duration (perhaps <~1 kyr) requires sedimentation rates >20 cm/kyr to be adequately recorded. On the other hand, several excursions within the Matuyama Chron are more commonly recorded in North Atlantic drift sediments due to relatively elevated durations. With some notable exceptions (e.g. Iberian Margin), high quality RPI records from North Atlantic sediments, together with magnetic excursions, can be used in tandem with oxygen isotope data to

  1. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudraswami, N. G.; Prasad, M. Shyam; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R. H.

    2015-09-01

    Most olivine relict grains in cosmic spherules selected for the present study are pristine and have not been disturbed during their atmospheric entry, thereby preserving their chemical, mineralogical and isotopic compositions. In order to understand the origin of the particles, oxygen isotope compositions of relict olivine grains in twelve cosmic spherules collected from deep sea sediments of the Indian Ocean were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Most of the data lie close to the CCAM (Carbonaceous Chondrite Anhydrous Mineral) line, with Δ17O ranging from -5‰ to 0‰. The data overlap oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites such as CV, CK, CR and CM, which suggests that chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites are the source of relict grains in cosmic spherules. Chemical compositions of olivine in cosmic spherules are also very similar to chondrule olivine from carbonaceous chondrites. Several olivine relict grains in three cosmic spherules are 16O-rich (Δ17O -21.9‰ to -18.7‰), similar to oxygen isotopic compositions observed in calcium aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine grains from two cosmic spherules have δ18O values >+20‰, which could be interpreted as mixing with stratospheric oxygen during atmospheric entry.

  2. A marine Mo-isotope record across OAE1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, G. J.; Cohen, A. S.; Coe, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    Although the oceans have remained well oxygenated for most of the Phanerozoic, the stratigraphic record is punctuated by transient events reflecting an apparent worldwide increase in marine anoxia. The Cretaceous oceans appear to have been particularly prone to the development of marine anoxia, and feature a number of discrete oceanic anoxic events (OAEs; [1]). Research has shown that OAEs were broadly contemporaneous with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs), abrupt global warming and significant marine biotic changes. OAEs were also associated with substantial changes in the global carbon cycle, intensification of the hydrological cycle and ocean acidification. Whilst it is clear from direct observation that unusually high levels of marine organic carbon accumulated globally during OAEs, it is much harder to quantify the lateral increase in marine anoxia. Most redox proxies reflect local conditions either within the water column or beneath the sediment water interface. In contrast, the Mo-isotope system has, under certain circumstances, the unique potential to reflect the areal extent of marine anoxia globally [2, 3]. Here we present new Mo-isotope results and a comprehensive suite of other geochemical data derived from a section across Cretaceous OAE 1a (the Selli event) at Gorgo a Cerbera, in the Umbria-Marche region of Italy. Integration of our new data with an existing Os-isotope stratigraphy [4] enables us to track the course and development of marine redox fluctuations during the OAE in relation to the emplacement of the coeval Ontong-Java LIP. We observe significant shifts in the Mo-isotopic composition of seawater to light isotopic ratios. Taken together, the isotopic and trace element data provide unique insights into how the chemical composition and redox state of the Cretaceous oceans, and the contemporaneous marine biota, were affected by the emplacement of the Ontong-Java volcanics. [1] Schlanger, S. O. & Jenkyns, H. C. (1976). Geologie

  3. The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.

    2009-12-01

    Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (CAIs) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The CAI oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in CAIs is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the CAI oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the CAI oxygen

  4. Impact of flood events on lacustrine carbonate isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Lucas; Plessen, Birgit; Lauterbach, Stefan; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; Höllerer, Hannes; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Stable oxygen (δ 18O) and carbon (δ 13C) isotope compositions of lacustrine carbonates are among the most frequently used proxies in palaeolimnological / -environmental studies. Stable isotope analyses are often carried out on bulk carbonate samples, which are prone to contamination with detrital carbonates, transported into the lake by runoff processes and carrying the isotopic signal of catchment rocks, thus hampering the interpretation of the data in terms of past climatic and/or environmental changes. Despite the awareness of a likely detrital bias, the degree of contamination in most cases remains unknown and discrete contaminated samples undetected due to a lack of methods to disentangle endogenic and detrital carbonates in sediment records. To address this issue and provide more comprehensive insights into effects of flood-related detrital input on the bulk carbonate isotopic composition, we conducted stable isotope measurements on sediments trapped on a 3-12 day basis over a three-year period (January 2011 to November 2013) at two locations in pre-Alpine Lake Mondsee, close to the inflow of the main tributary and in the deepest part of the lake basin. Lake Mondsee was chosen for the monitoring since the pelagic sediments are annually laminated consisting of couplets of light calcite layers and dark layers made up by a mixture of detrital clastic and organic matter. Maximum calcite flux rates >1.5 g m2 d-1 were trapped between May and September, indicating the seasonal endogenic precipitation of calcite crystals. The comparison of the δ 18O composition of trapped carbonates, rain and epilimnion lake water revealed equilibrium calcite precipitation, allowing us to infer purely endogenic δ 18O (-9 to -11.3‰ VPDB) and δ 13C values (-6 to -9‰ VPDB) throughout the summer season. The endogenic calcite precipitation was interrupted by 14 peaks in carbonate flux (4 to 175 g m2 d-1) triggered by runoff events of different magnitudes (10-110 m3 s-1 peak

  5. Baseline shifts in coral skeletal oxygen isotopic composition: a signature of symbiont shuffling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J. E.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Decades-long records of the stable isotopic composition of coral skeletal cores were analyzed from four sites on the Mesoamerican Reef. Two of the sites exhibited baseline shifts in oxygen isotopic composition after known coral bleaching events. Changes in pH at the calcification site caused by a change in the associated symbiont community are invoked to explain the observed shift in the isotopic composition. To test the hypothesis that changes in symbiont clade could affect skeletal chemistry, additional coral samples were collected from Belize for paired Symbiodinium identification and skeletal stable isotopic analysis. We found some evidence that skeletal stable isotopic composition may be affected by symbiont clade and suggest this is an important topic for future investigation. If different Symbiodinium clades leave consistent signatures in skeletal geochemical composition, the signature will provide a method to quantify past symbiont shuffling events, important for understanding how corals are likely to respond to climate change.

  6. Linking the Fe-, Mo-, and Cr isotope records with the multiple S isotope record of Archean sedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Watanabe, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have interpreted the isotopic data of redox sensitive elements (e.g., Fe, Mo and Cr) in Archean- and Proterozoic-aged sedimentary rocks within a framework of an atmospheric O2 evolution model that relied on an interpretation of the multiple sulfur isotopic record of sedimentary rocks. The current paradigm is that the anomalous isotopic fractionations of sulfur (AIF-S, or MIF-S) in sedimentary rocks were created by the UV photolysis of volcanic SO2 in an O2-poor (i.e., pO2 < 1 ppm) atmosphere, and that the rise of atmospheric pO2 to > 1 ppm occurred at ~2.45 Ga. However, this paradigm has recently encountered the following serious problems: (1) UV photolysis of SO2 by a broad-band UV lamp, which simulates the UV spectra of the sun light, produced the δ34S-Δ33S values for the S0 and SO4 that are significantly different from >90% of data on natural samples. (2) Many Archean-age sedimentary rocks do not exhibit AIF-S signatures. (3) Strong AIF-S signatures are typically found in organic C- and pyrite rich Archean-age black shales that were altered by submarine hydrothermal fluids during the early diagenetic stage of the rocks. (4) H2S, rather than SO2, was probably the dominant S-bearing volcanic gas on an anoxic Earth. Yet, UV photolysis of H2S does not generate AIF-S. (5) Some post-2.0 Ga natural samples were found to possess strong AIF-S signatures, such as sulfates in air pollutants that were produced by coal burning in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Lasaga et al. (2008) demonstrated theoretically that chemisorption reactions between some solid surfaces and S-bearing aqueous (or gaseous) species, such as between organic matter and aqueous sulfate, may generate AIF-S. Watanabe et al. (2009; in prep.) demonstrated experimentally that reactions between simple amino acid crystals and sulfate under hydrothermal conditions produced AIF-S signatures that matched with more than 90% of data on natural samples. These studies, as well as the observed correlations

  7. Oxygen isotope composition of mafic magmas at Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, L.; Cioni, R.; Boschi, C.; D'Oriano, C.

    2009-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of olivine and clinopyroxene from four plinian (AD 79 Pompeii, 3960 BP Avellino), subplinian (AD 472 Pollena) and violent strombolian (Middle Age activity) eruptions were measured to constrain the nature and evolution of the primary magmas of the last 4000 years of Mt. Vesuvius activity. A large set of mm-sized crystals was accurately separated from selected juvenile material of the four eruptions. Crystals were analyzed for their major and trace element compositions (EPMA, Laser Ablation ICP-MS), and for 18O/16O ratios. As oxygen isotope composition of uncontaminated mantle rocks on world-wide scale is well constrained (δ18Oolivine = 5.2 ± 0.3; δ18Ocpx = 5.6 ± 0.3 ‰), the measured values can be conveniently used to monitor the effects of assimilation/contamination of crustal rocks in the evolution of the primary magmas. Instead, typically uncontaminated mantle values are hardly recovered in Italian Quaternary magmas, mostly due to the widespread occurrence of crustal contamination of the primary magmas during their ascent to the surface (e.g. Alban Hills, Ernici Mts., and Aeolian Islands). Low δ18O values have been measured in olivine from Pompeii eruption (δ18Oolivine = 5.54 ± 0.03‰), whereas higher O-compositions are recorded in mafic minerals from pumices or scoria of the other three eruptions. Measured olivine and clinopyroxene share quite homogeneous chemical compositions (Olivine Fo 85-90 ; Diopside En 45-48, respectively), and represent phases crystallized in near primary mafic magmas, as also constrained by their trace element compositions. Data on melt inclusions hosted in crystals of these compositions have been largely collected in the past demonstrating that they crystallized from mafic melt, basaltic to tephritic in composition. Published data on volatile content of these melt inclusions reveal the coexistence of dissolved water and carbon dioxide, and a minimum trapping pressure around 200-300 MPa, suggesting

  8. Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Yongfei Zheng )

    1991-08-01

    A theoretical model calculating the thermodynamic isotope factors of oxygen in metal oxides of geochemcial interest is presented for temperatures between 0 and 1200C on the basis of the modified increment method. The following order of [sup 18]O-enrichment is obtained: cassiterite [gt] rutile [gt] magnetite [gt] ilmenite [gt] ulvoespinel [gt] hematite [gt] uraninite [gt] chromite [gt] corundum [gt] spinel. The results are expressed as 10[sup 3] ln [alpha] = A [times] 10[sup 6]/T[sup 2] + B [times] 10[sup 3]/T + C, which compare well with existing theoretical, experimental, and empirical calibrations on quartz-oxides and oxides-water systems. The present calculations enable not only estimation of the oxygen isotope composition of fluids from which the metal oxides were precipitated when independent temperature information is available, but can also be applied as oxygen isotope geothermometers to igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  9. Rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masanori; Poulson, Simon R

    2012-04-17

    The rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water was investigated at conditions of 10 to 80 °C and pH -0.6 to 4.4. Oxygen isotope exchange proceeds as a first-order reaction, and the exchange rate is strongly affected by reaction temperature and pH, with increased rates of isotope exchange at higher temperature and lower pH. Selenate speciation (HSeO(4)(-) vs SeO(4)(2-)) also has a significant effect on the rate of isotope exchange. The half-life for isotope exchange at example natural conditions (25 °C and pH 7) is estimated to be significantly in excess of 10(6) years. The very slow rate of oxygen isotope exchange between selenate and water under most environmental conditions demonstrates that selenate-δ(18)O signatures produced by biogeochemical processes will be preserved and hence that it will be possible to use the value of selenate-δ(18)O to investigate the biogeochemical behavior of selenate, in an analogous fashion to the use of sulfate-δ(18)O to study the biogeochemical behavior of sulfate.

  10. Oxygen isotope variability within Nautilus shell growth bands

    DOE PAGES

    Linzmeier, Benjamin J.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Peters, Shanan E.; ...

    2016-04-21

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis ofmore » oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. In addition, to create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands.« less

  11. Three-nucleon forces for exotic oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The oxygen isotopes, with an experimentally well established dripline (N = 16) anomalously close to the valley of stability, provide an ideal laboratory to study the structure of extreme neutron-rich nuclei at and beyond the limits of existence. The emergence of N = 14 , 16 as new magic numbers and properties of the unbound 25,26O isotopes pose particularly challenging benchmarks for models of nuclear forces and many-body methods aiming at a description of exotic medium-mass nuclei. At the heart of these efforts is three-nucleon (3N) forces, whose impact represents a current frontier in nuclear structure theory. I will discuss the first microscopic framework, based on chiral effective field theory and renormalization group methods, in which neutron-rich oxygen isotopes were explored from a systematic treatment of NN and 3N forces. In this approach we found that the repulsive effects of 3N forces were decisive in explaining why 24O is the heaviest oxygen isotope. Furthermore, 3N forces play a key role in reproducing spectra, including signatures of doubly-magic 22,24O, and unbound properties without empirical adjustments. Finally I will discuss subsequent progress in ab-initio efforts with 3N forces such as coupled cluster theory, in-medium similarity renormilazation group, and Green's function theory, where a consistent picture of the oxygen isotopic chain emerges, which is highly encouraging for first-principles calculations of exotic nuclei well into the medium mass region.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  13. Oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water - An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation between analcime and water is studied to test the feasibility of using zeolites as low-temperature thermometers. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes between natural analcime and water is determined at 300, 350, and 400 C, and at fluid pressures ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 kbar. Also, isotope ratios for the analcime framework, the channel water, and bulk water are obtained. The results suggest that the channel water is depleted in O-18 relative to bulk water by a constant value of about 5 percent, nearly independent of temperature. The analcime-water fractionation curve is presented, showing that the exchange has little effect on grain morphology and does not involve recrystallization. The exchange is faster than any other observed for a silicate. The exchange rates suggest that zeolites in active high-temperature geothermal areas are in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient fluids. It is concluded that calibrated zeolites may be excellent low-temperature oxygen isotope geothermometers.

  14. On the mean oxygen isotope composition of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozima, M.; Podosek, F. A.; Higuchi, T.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Yamada, A.

    2007-02-01

    Since the first discovery of extraordinary oxygen isotope compositions in carbonaceous meteorites by Clayton et al. [Clayton, R.N., Grossman, L., Mayeda, T.K., 1973. Science 182, 485-488], numerous studies have been done to explain the unusual mass-independent isotope fractionation, but the problem is still unresolved to this day. Clayton's latest interpretation [Clayton, R.N., 2002. Nature 415, 860-861] sheds new light on the problem, and possible hypotheses now seem to be fairly well defined. A key issue is to resolve whether the oxygen isotopes in the Solar System represented by the Sun (solar oxygen) are the same as oxygen isotopes in planetary objects such as bulk meteorites, Mars, Earth, and Moon, or whether the solar oxygen is more similar to the lightest oxygen isotopes observed in CAIs (Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions) in primitive meteorites. Here, we examined the problem using oxygen isotope analytical data of about 400 bulk meteorite samples of various classes or types (data compiled by K. Lodders). We used in our discussion exclusively the parameter Δ 17O, a direct measure of the degree of mass-independent isotope fractionation of oxygen isotopes. When Δ 17O is arranged according to a characteristic size of their host planetary object, it shows a systematic trend: (1) Δ 17O values scatter around zero; (2) the scatter from the mean (Δ 17O=0) decreases with increasing representative size of the respective host planetary object. This systematic trend is easily understood on the basis of a hierarchical scenario of planetary formation, that is, larger planetary objects have formed by progressive accretion of planetesimals by random sampling over a wide spectrum of proto-solar materials. If this progressive random sampling of planetesimals were the essential process of planetary formation, the isotopic composition of planetary oxygen should approach that of the solar oxygen. To test this random sampling hypothesis, we applied a multiscale, multistep

  15. Tooth enamel maturation reequilibrates oxygen isotope compositions and supports simple sampling methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, Robin B.; Kohn, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen isotope and major element zoning patterns of several disparate ungulate teeth were collected to evaluate the timing and geometry of enamel formation, records of isotope zoning, and tooth enamel sampling strategies. Isotopic zoning in mammalian tooth enamel encodes a sub-annual time series of isotopic variation of an animal's body water composition, with a damping factor that depends on the specifics of how enamel mineralizes. Enamel formation comprises two stages: precipitation of appositional enamel with a high CO3:PO4 ratio, followed by precipitation of maturational enamel with a lower CO3:PO4. If appositional and maturational enamel both contribute to isotope compositions (but with different CO3:PO4), and if isotope compositions vary seasonally, paired δ18O values from CO3 and PO4 profiles should show a spatial separation. CO3 isotope patterns should be shifted earlier seasonally than PO4 isotope patterns. Such paired profiles for new and published data show no resolvable shifts, i.e. CO3 and PO4 δ18O profiles show coincident maxima and minima. This coincidence suggests that enamel maturation reequilibrates appositional isotope compositions. If enamel maturation establishes enamel isotope compositions, the geometry of maturation, not apposition, should be considered when devising sampling protocols. X-ray maps of Ca zoning show that the majority of enamel (inner and middle layers) mineralizes heavily at a high angle to the external tooth surface and the enamel-dentine junction over length scales of 2-4 mm, while the outer enamel surface mineralizes more slowly. These data suggest that isotopic sampling strategies should parallel maturational geometry and focus on interior enamel to improve data fidelity. The magnitude of isotopic damping is also smaller than implied in previous studies, so tooth enamel zoning more closely reflects original body water isotopic variations than previously assumed.

  16. Controls, variation, and a record of climate change in detailed stable isotope record in a single bryozoan skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.

    2004-03-01

    The long-lived (about 20 yr) bryozoan Adeonellopsis sp. from Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, precipitates aragonite in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, exerting no metabolic or kinetic effects. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ 18O) in 61 subsamples (along three branches of a single unaltered colony) range from -0.09 to +0.68‰ PDB (mean = +0.36‰ PDB). Carbon isotope ratios (δ 13C) range from +0.84 to +2.18‰ PDB (mean = +1.69‰ PDB). Typical of cool-water carbonates, δ 18O-derived water temperatures range from 14.2 to 17.5 °C. Adeonellopsis has a minimum temperature growth threshold of 14 °C, recording only a partial record of environmental variation. By correlating seawater temperatures derived from δ 18O with the Southern Oscillation Index, however, we were able to detect major events such as the 1983 El Niño. Interannual climatic variation can be recorded in skeletal carbonate isotopes. The range of within-colony isotopic variability found in this study (0.77‰ in δ 18O and 1.34 in δ 13C) means that among-colony variation must be treated cautiously. Temperate bryozoan isotopes have been tested in less than 2% of described extant species — this highly variable phylum is not yet fully understood.

  17. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  18. Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Clayton, R.N.; Mayeda, T.K.

    1969-01-01

    Equilibrium fractionation factors for the distribution of 18O between alkaline-earth carbonates and water have been measured over the temperature range 0-500??C. The fractionation factors ?? can be represented by the equations CaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.78(106 T-2)-3.39, SrCO3-H 2O, 1000 ln??=2.69(106 T-2)-3.74, BaCO3-H2O, 1000 ln??=2.57(106 T -2)-4.73. Measurements on MnCO3, CdCO3, and PbCO3 were made at isolated temperatures. A statistical-mechanical calculation of the isotopic partition function ratios gives reasonably good agreement with experiment. Both cationic size and mass are important in isotopic fractionation, the former predominantly in its effect on the internal vibrations of the anion, the latter in its effect on the lattice vibrations.

  19. Microbial cycling, oxidative weathering, and the triple oxygen isotope consequences for marine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, D. T.; Cowie, B.; Turchyn, A. V.; Antler, G.; Gill, B. C.; Berelson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms are responsible for most geochemical sulfur cycling in the ocean. On both modern and geological time scales, stable isotope ratios often serve as a mechanism to track conspicuous or coupled microbial processes, which in turn inform burial fluxes. The most common example of this approach is the use of sulfur isotopes in sulfate and sulfide (both aqueous and in mineral form) to track everything from rates of microbial processes through to the presence/absence of certain metabolic processes in a given environment. The use of oxygen isotope ratios in sulfate has developed in a similar fashion, providing complementary information to that of sulfur isotopes. Through our current work, we will extend the application of oxygen isotopes to include the trace stable oxygen isotope, 17O. These data are facilitated by a new laser F2 fluorination technique running at Harvard, and accompanied by the calibration of a suite of common sulfate standards. At first blush, 16O - 17O - 18O systematics should carry mass-dependent microbial fractionations with process-specific mass laws that are resolvable at the level of our analytical precision. We look to calibrate these biogeochemical effects through the integrated picture captured in marine pore water sulfate profiles, where the 18O/16O is known to evolve. In compliment, riverine sulfate (the sulfate input to the ocean) is an oxidative weathering product and is posited to carry a memory effect of tropospheric O2. Interestingly, the 17O/16O of that O2 carries a mass-independent signal reflecting the balance between stratospheric reactions and Earth surface biospheric fluxes. Through this presentation, we look to calibrate the controls on the balance between biospheric and atmospheric contributions to the marine sulfate reservoir. This is enabled by a series of isotope mass-balance models and with the ultimate goal of developing the geological triple oxygen isotope records of sulfate as a new environmental proxy for paleo

  20. Photosynthetic fractionation of the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, R.D. ); Fogel, M.L.; Berry, J.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2] was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([triangle], where 1 + [triangle]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k[sup 16]/k[sup 18] or k[sup 12]/k[sup 13]) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2]). The [triangle] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per thousand]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per thousand] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope dicrimination: 30.3[per thousand] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per thousand] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [triangle] for O[sub 2] consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per thousand]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesopyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta][sup 18]O of dissolved O[sub 2] came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per thousand] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global oxygen cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. 47 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Calcium and Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Calcium Carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayr, Andrea; Eisenhauer, Anton; Böhm, Florian; Kisakürek, Basak; Balzer, Isabelle; Immenhauser, Adrian; Jürgen Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Different isotopic systems are influenced in multiple ways corresponding to the crystal structure, dehydration, deprotonation, adsorption, desorption, isotope exchange and diffusion processes. In this study we investigated the structural and kinetic effects on fractionation of stable Ca- and O-isotopes during CaCO3 precipitation. Calcite, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated using the CO2 diffusion technique[1]at a constant pH of 8.3, but various temperatures (6, 10, 25 and 40° C) and precipitation rates R (101.5 to 105 μmol h-1 m-2). The calcium isotopic fractionation between solution and vaterite is lower (Δ44/40Ca= -0.10 to -0.55 ‰) compared to calcite (-0.69 to -2.04 ‰) and aragonite (-0.91 to -1.55 ‰). In contrast the fractionation of oxygen isotopes is highest for vaterite (32.1 ‰), followed by aragonite (29.2 ‰) and calcite (27.6 ‰) at 25° C and equilibrium. The enrichment of 18O vs. 16O in all polymorphs decreases with increasing precipitation rate by around -0.7 ‰ per log(R). The calcium isotopic fractionation between calcite/ vaterite and aqueous Ca2+ increases with increasing precipitation rate by ˜0.45 ‰ per log(R) and ˜0.1 ‰ per log(R) at 25° C and 40° C, respectively. In contrast the fractionation of Ca-isotopes between aragonite and aqueous Ca2+ decreases with increasing precipitation rates. The large enrichment of 18O vs. 16O isotopes in carbonates is related to the strong bond of oxygen to the small and highly charged C4+-ion. In contrast equilibrium isotopic fractionation between solution and calcite or vaterite is nearly zero as the Ca-O bond length is similar for calcite, vaterite and the hydrated Ca. Aragonite incorporates preferentially the lighter 40Ca isotope as it has very large Ca-O bonds in comparison to the hydrated Ca. At the crystal surface the lighter 40Ca isotopes are preferentially incorporated as dehydration and diffusion of lighter isotopes are faster. Consequently, the surface becomes enriched in 40

  2. Miocene stable isotope record: a detailed deep pacific ocean study and its paleoclimatic implications.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, F; Savin, S M; Douglas, R G

    1981-05-08

    Deep Sea Drilling Project site 289 in the western equatorial Pacific has yielded an extremely detailed record of the carbon and oxygen isotopic changes in the Miocene deep ocean. The isotopic record reflects major changes in paleoclimate and paleoceanography, probably dominated by a major phase of Antarctic ice-cap growth. The transition from a relatively unglaciated world to one similar to today occurred between 16.5 x 10(6) and 13 x 10(6) years before the present, with the greatest change occurring between approximately 14.8 x 10(6) and 14.0 x 10(6) years before the present.

  3. Rapid biologically mediated oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, Adina; Kolodny, Yehoshua; Neori, Amir; Luz, Boaz

    2002-03-01

    In order to better constrain the rate of oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of controlled experiments were conducted in 1988 at the Aquaculture Plant in Elat, Israel. Different species of algae and other organisms were grown in seawater tanks under controlled conditions, and the water temperature and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18Ow) were monitored. The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate (δ18Op) in the organisms' food source, tissues, and the δ18Op of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured at different stages of the experiments. Results indicate that intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water is very rapid and occurs at all levels of the food chain. Through these reactions the soft tissue δ18Op values become 23-26‰ higher than δ18Ow, and δ18Op values of DIP become ~20‰ higher than δ18Ow. No correlation between δ18Op values and either temperature or P concentrations in these experiments was observed. Our data imply that biogenic recycling and intracellular phosphorus turnover, which involves kinetic fractionation effects, are the major parameters controlling the δ18Op values of P compounds dissolved in aquatic systems. This information is fundamental to any application of δ18Op of dissolved organic or inorganic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems.

  4. Modelling of Oxygen Isotopes and Major Element Chemistry of Ureilites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, N.; Downes, H.; Smith, C. L.

    2015-07-01

    We used a combination of all chondritic meteorite types (CH, CI, CK, CM, CO, CR, CB, EH, EL, H, L, LL, R), Fe-rich and Fe-poor chondrules, using oxygen isotope signatures and a range of elemental ratios to model the building blocks of the ureilite parent body.

  5. Determining the oxygen isotope composition of evapotranspiration with eddy covariance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oxygen isotope componsition of evapotranspiration (dF) represents an important tracer in the study of biosphere-atmosphere interactions, hydrology, paleoclimate, and carbon cycling. Here we demonstrate direct measurement of dF based on eddy covariance (EC) and tunable diode laser (EC-TDL) techni...

  6. Oxygen Isotopes and Origin of Opal in an Antarctic Ureilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, H.; Beard, A. D.; Franchi, I. A.; Greenwood, R. C.

    2016-08-01

    Fragments of opal (SiO2.nH2O) in several internal chips of a single Antarctic polymict ureilite meteorite Elephant Moraine (EET) 83309 have been studied by NanoSIMS to determine their oxygen isotope compositions and hence constrain their origin.

  7. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciotti, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  8. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    PubMed

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  9. Oxygen isotopes and the moon-forming giant impact.

    PubMed

    Wiechert, U; Halliday, A N; Lee, D C; Snyder, G A; Taylor, L A; Rumble, D

    2001-10-12

    We have determined the abundances of 16O, 17O, and 18O in 31 lunar samples from Apollo missions 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17 using a high-precision laser fluorination technique. All oxygen isotope compositions plot within +/-0.016 per mil (2 standard deviations) on a single mass-dependent fractionation line that is identical to the terrestrial fractionation line within uncertainties. This observation is consistent with the Giant Impact model, provided that the proto-Earth and the smaller impactor planet (named Theia) formed from an identical mix of components. The similarity between the proto-Earth and Theia is consistent with formation at about the same heliocentric distance. The three oxygen isotopes (delta17O) provide no evidence that isotopic heterogeneity on the Moon was created by lunar impacts.

  10. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  11. Exploring the oxygen isotope fingerprint of Dansgaard-Oeschger variability and Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagniewski, Witold; Meissner, Katrin J.; Menviel, Laurie

    2017-03-01

    We present the first transient simulations of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) performed with an oxygen isotope-enabled climate model. Our simulations span several Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles and three Heinrich stadials and are directly compared with oxygen isotope records from 13 sediment and 2 ice cores. Our results are consistent with a 30-50% weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during Dansgaard-Oeschger stadials and a complete shutdown during Heinrich stadials. We find that the simulated δ18 O anomalies differ significantly between Heinrich stadials and non-Heinrich stadials. This difference is mainly due to different responses in ocean circulation, and therefore climate, impacting oceanic δ18 O, while the volume of 18O-depleted meltwater plays a secondary role.

  12. Constraints on the vital effect in coccolithophore and dinoflagellate calcite by oxygen isotopic modification of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, Michaël; Horner, Tristan J.; Minoletti, Fabrice; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2014-09-01

    dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii exhibits different behaviour for both isotopic systems, in particular with respect to its very negative carbon isotope composition, owing to coeval intra and extracellular biomineralisation in this group. In this study, we also investigate the sensitivity of 18O/16O fractionation to varying ambient oxygen isotope composition of the medium for inorganic, coccolithophore, and dinoflagellate calcite precipitated under controlled laboratory conditions. The varying responses of different taxa to increased oxygen isotope composition of the growth medium may point to a potential bias in sea surface temperature reconstructions that are based on the oxygen isotopic compositions of sedimentary calcite, especially during times of changing seawater oxygen isotopic composition. Overall, this study represents an important step towards establishing a mechanistic understanding of the “vital effect” in coccolith and dinoflagellate calcite, and provides valuable information for interpreting the geochemistry of the calcareous nannofossils in the sedimentary record, at both monospecific and interspecies levels.

  13. Photosynthetic Fractionation of the Stable Isotopes of Oxygen and Carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Guy, R. D.; Fogel, M. L.; Berry, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of O2 and CO2 was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. Evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. Similar results were obtained with Anacystis nidulans Richter and Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin cultures purged with helium. For consumptive reactions, discrimination ([delta], where 1 + [delta]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k16/k18 or k12/k13) was determined by analysis of residual substrate (O2 or CO2). The [delta] for the Mehler reaction, mediated by ferredoxin or methylviologen, was 15.3[per mille (thousand) sign]. Oxygen isotope discrimination during oxygenation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) catalyzed by RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was 21.3[per mille (thousand) sign] and independent of enzyme source, unlike carbon isotope discrimination: 30.3[per mille (thousand) sign] for spinach enzyme and 19.6 to 23[per mille (thousand) sign] for Rhodospirillum rubrum and A. nidulans enzymes, depending on reaction conditions. The [delta] for O2 consumption catalyzed by glycolate oxidase was 22.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. The expected overall [delta] for photorespiration is about 21.7[per mille (thousand) sign]. Consistent with this, when Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells approached the compensation point within a sealed vessel, the [delta]18O of dissolved O2 came to a steady-state value of about 21.5[per mille (thousand) sign] relative to the source water. The results provide improved estimates of discrimination factors in several reactions prominent in the global O cycle and indicate that photorespiration plays a significant part in determining the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen. PMID:12231663

  14. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V; Wu, Zhigang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Hemley, Russell J; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2007-03-06

    High-temperature superconductivity in cuprates was discovered almost exactly 20 years ago, but a satisfactory theoretical explanation for this phenomenon is still lacking. The isotope effect has played an important role in establishing electron-phonon interaction as the dominant interaction in conventional superconductors. Here we present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon-mediated d-wave pairing model within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory. We show that this model accounts for the magnitude of the isotope exponent as functions of the doping level as well as the variation between different cuprate superconductors. The isotope effect on the superconducting transition is also found to resemble the effect of pressure on the transition. These results indicate that the role of phonons should not be overlooked for explaining the superconductivity in cuprates.

  15. Investigations of the oxidation capacities of polar atmospheres with multiple oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, Justin R.

    contains results and interpretations of nitrate oxygen isotopes from South Pole, Antarctica measured in aerosol and surface snow during 2004 and a 6-meter snow pit that provides a record 1977 to 2003. The isotope measurements from South Pole are compared to instrumental measurements of October-November-December column ozone, October-November-December UV, annual surface ozone, the quasi-biennial oscillation, and solar variability. A summary of related work on the oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition of volcanic sulfate from the Masaya volcano in Nicaragua is presented in the appendix along with measurements of ion chemistry used to establish a chronology in the South Pole snow pit. The nitrogen cycle has been drastically altered by human influence; however the sources of nitrogen to the Antarctic are expected to be relatively unaffected by human activity and may provide a means of establishing natural variability of nitrogen sources. Unfortunately, two significant problems exist. One, the sources to Antarctica are quite uncertain, and two, the records are difficult to interpret as a result of post-depositional effects in the ice. Through the use of multiple oxygen isotopes, the present work provides new insights into Antarctic nitrate records. The results suggest that greater knowledge of the influence of post-depositional effects (volatilization, photochemistry and diffusion) emerges from multiple oxygen isotope measurements in aerosol, surface snow and firn nitrate. The seasonal variation in winter stratospheric and summer tropospheric values of oxygen isotopes in Antarctic nitrate aerosol is preserved in surface snow. Evidence of stratospheric nitrate in snow at the South Pole suggests the potential for a proxy of ozone hole variability and solar variability; however, the location and meteorology of the South Pole create a site best suited for understanding boundary layer oxidation conditions across the Antarctic plateau. Changes in these conditions are driven by

  16. Oxygen Isotope Signatures of Biogenic Manganese(III/IV) Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, K. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are pervasive throughout a number of surface earth environments as rock varnishes, ferromanganese nodules, crusts around deep-sea vents, and cave deposits among many other marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. Mn(III,IV) oxides are also among the strongest sorbents and oxidants in surface earth environments and are crucial to understanding the fate of organic matter in sedimentary environments. The precipitation of Mn oxide minerals proceeds via both abiotic and biotic oxidation pathways, the latter due to the indirect or direct activity of Mn(II)- oxidizing microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Although the precipitation of Mn oxides is believed to be primarily controlled by Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms in most surface earth environments, confirmation of this generally held notion has remained illusive and limits our understanding of their formation on Earth and beyond (e.g., Mars). Previous work provided evidence that O atom incorporation by specific Mn oxidation pathways may exhibit unique and predictable isotopic fractionation. In this study, we expand upon this evidence by measuring the oxygen isotope signature of several biogenic and abiogenic Mn oxide minerals synthesized under a range of oxygen-18 labeled water. These results allow us to determine the relative amount oxygen atoms derived from water and molecular oxygen that are incorporated in the oxide and shed light on corresponding isotope fractionation factors. Additionally, we show that, once precipitated, Mn oxide isotope signatures are robust with respect to aqueous oxygen isotope exchange. The study provides a foundation on which to study and interpret Mn oxides in natural environments and determine which environmental controls may govern Mn(II) oxidation.

  17. Oxygen isotopes in spinels from Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurat, G.; Hoppe, P.; Walter, J.; Engrand, C.; Maurette, M.

    1994-07-01

    Spinel-rich inclusions were found in a large unmelted micrometeorite (MM) from Antarctica. This particle (MM92/15-23) consists of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilicates that enclose a few small olivines, one large chromite, and several spinel-rich inclusions. The latter form elongated to rounded bodies up to 35 microns in length and consist of a spinel core enveloped by a Fe-rich silicate phase that probably is a (dehydrated?) phyllosilicate -- too small to be analyzed with the electron microprobe. A few very small perovskite grains are enclosed within the spinel. The chemical composition of the spinel is that of a Mg-Al spinel. On top of the Fe-rich silicate envelopes there is a discontinuous rim of aluminous Ca-rich pyroxene with a fairly high FeO content. The trace-element content is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of these inclusions resembles that of group II CAIs. Meanwhile we have found a second Antartic micrometeorite containing a few spinel grains. This spinel is associated with some tiny ilmenite grains and embedded in the foamy melt matrix of scoriaceous micrometeorite particle MM94/1-28. The chemical composition of the spinel is that of a Mg-Al-spinel containing small amounts of FeO (0.6 wt%), but no Cr2O3. We have successfully analyzed the O isotopic composition of two spinels from MM92/15-23 and one from MM94/1-28. The most common matter accreting onto the Earth today and represented by unmelted and partially melted micrometeorites consists of a matter similar, but not identical, to CM carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of spinel-rich Ca-Al rich inclusions (CAIs) with trace-element contents and O isotopic compositions of group II inclusions provides an additional support of that view.

  18. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Geske, A.; Spötl, C.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-05-01

    Here we explore the potential of time-series magnesium (δ26Mg) isotope data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco), the warm-temperate (Germany), the equatorial-humid (Peru) and the cold-humid (Austria) climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are placed against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rain water or snow as well as soil and hostrock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: -4.26 ± 0.07 ‰ and HK3: -4.17 ± 0.15 ‰) and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: -3.96 ± 0.04 ‰) but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is in concert with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: -4.01 ± 0.07 ‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: -4.20 ± 0.10 ‰) record changes in outside air temperature as driving factor rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: -3.00 ± 0.73 ‰; SPA 59: -3.70 ± 0.43 ‰) are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity and weathering balance. Several data points in the Austrian and two data points in the

  19. Oxygen isotope fractionation in phosphates: the role of dissolved complex anions in isotope exchange.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors for phosphates were calculated by means of the increment method. The results suggest that Ag3PO4 and BiPO4 are enriched in (18)O relative to AgPO4, and the three phosphates are consistently depleted in (18)O relative to Ba3[PO4]2; fluorapatite and chlorapatite exhibit a similar behaviour of oxygen isotope fractionation with consistent enrichment of (18)O relative to hydroxyapatite. The valence, radii and coordination of metal cations play a quantitative role in dictating the (18)O/(16)O partitioning in these phosphates of different compositions. The calculated fractionation factors for the Ag3PO4-H2O system are in agreement with experimental determinations derived from enzyme-catalysed isotope exchange between dissolved inorganic phosphate and water at the longest reaction durations at low temperatures. This demonstrates that the precipitated Ag3PO4 has completely captured the oxygen isotope fractionation in the dissolved inorganic phosphate. The calculated fractionation factors for the F/Cl-apatite-water systems are in agreement with the enzyme-catalysed experimental fractionations for the dissolved phosphate-water system at the longest reaction durations but larger than fractionations derived from bacteria-facilitated exchange and inorganic precipitation experiments as well as natural observations. For the experimental calibrations of oxygen isotope fractionation involving the precipitation of dissolved phosphate species from aqueous solutions, the fractionation between precipitate and water is primarily dictated by the isotope equilibration between the dissolved complex anions and water prior to the precipitation. Therefore, the present results provide a quantitative means to interpret the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation in inorganic and biogenic phosphates.

  20. Clumped-Isotope Thermometry and Oxygen Isotope Systematics in Speleothem Calcite From a Near Cave-Entrance Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. E.; Banner, J.; Breecker, D.; Affek, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Speleothems that grow in well-ventilated zones of caves have not been widely used in paleoclimate studies, yet may provide paleotemperature records. These zones are characterized by low CO2 concentrations year-round and, in temperate climates, large seasonal temperature fluctuations. They are typically avoided for paleoclimate reconstruction due to concerns about kinetic isotope effects (KIE). However, speleothems in general seem to be sensitive to KIE, even in non-ventilated areas and can nonetheless provide useful paleoclimate records. At Westcave Preserve (Westcave), a shallow, well-ventilated cave in central Texas, we have found seasonal temperature differences recorded in both the oxygen isotope and clumped isotope compositions of speleothem calcite grown on glass-plate substrates harvested from active drips. Although growth rates in this cave are relatively rapid, speleothem analogs in Westcave are growing near oxygen-isotopic equilibrium with their drip waters (between the calibrations of Kim and O'Neil, 1997 and Coplen, 2007). We have tested the compatibility of the Zaarur et al. (2013) clumped isotope bulk solution thermometer calibration to glass-substrate calcite in the cave collected during various months. This technique can provide absolute temperatures, but is sensitive to kinetic isotope effects, often significantly overestimating growth temperatures of speleothems. When this thermometer was applied to calcite collected from near where the plates were impacted by drip water, it overestimated measured temperatures by 7.7 ± 4.3°C, showing moderate KIE. When applied to calcite away from the drip impact, it overestimated temperatures by 18.7 ± 4.2°C, showing KIE increasing away from the drip. Measured monthly average temperatures in the cave ranged seasonally between 8 and 28°C, and daily temperatures vary significantly. At Westcave, calcite growth rates increase with temperature, and the calcite may therefore preferentially record warmer daily or

  1. Local and regional oscillations of carbon and oxygen isotopes in terestrial carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipitytė, Raminta; Stančikaitė, Miglė

    2014-05-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in sediment carbonates are used as a tool to identify climatic changes in the past [1], [2]. Carbon is more related to humidity whereas oxygen is thought to respond the temperature [2]. Nevertheless number of questions about local, regional and global scale impacts to these records is left. In this research work carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in lacustrine carbonates are used to identify palaeoenvironmental dynamics of different locations. Samples of lacutrine carbonates were obtained from 8 sequences of different sites in Lithuania (4), Poland (1), Belarus (1) and Kaliningrad (1). Every sequence was divided into 2 cm intervals. The study showed differences in average carbon and oxygen isotope ratios between Lithuania and other countries (Poland, Belarus and Kaliningrad). Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in 4 sites in Lithuania are: ¯U la δ13C -4.72± 2.11, o and δ18O -9.46± 1.9, o ; Zervynos δ13C -4.79± 1.82, o and δ18O -9.57± 1.69, o ; Rudnia δ13C -4.94± 7.53, o and δ18O -9.3± 3.92, o ; Pauliai δ13C -4.15± 0.67, o and δ18O -9.94± 1.07, o : In other countries: Poland δ13C -1.07± 1.94, o and δ18O -7.69± 0.95, o ; Belarus δ13C 0.97± 1.94, o and δ18O -7.61± 1.42, o ; Kaliningrad δ13C -1.14± 1.43, o and δ18O -6.51± 1.00, o : Average stable carbon and oxygen isotope values from four sites in Lithuania were -4.65 o for carbon and -9.51 o for oxygen. Despite homogeneity of average isotope signals in these four sites there are relatively large oscillations of isotopic values in Rudnia and relatively small in Pauliai. These oscillations could be related to local characteristics of particular place such as environmental conditions, water balance, input of terrigenous materials into basin, etc. Total amount of CaCO3 could also play a significant role in reconstructing palaeoenvironment from stable isotopes and creating isomaps. The comparison of isotope records from different locations could enable to

  2. Oxygen and carbon isotope disequilibria in Galapagos corals: isotopic thermometry and calcification physiology

    SciTech Connect

    McConnaughey, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Biological carbonate skeletons are built largely from carbon dioxide, which reacts to form carbonate ion within thin extracellular solutions. The light isotopes of carbon and oxygen react faster than the heavy isotopes, depleting the resulting carbonate ions in /sup 13/C and /sup 18/O. Calcium carbonate precipitation occurs sufficiently fast that the skeleton remains out of isotopic equilibrium with surrounding fluids. This explanation for isotopic disequilibrium in biological carbonates was partially simulated in vitro, producing results similar to those seen in non-photosynthetic corals. Photosynthetic corals have higher /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios due to the preferential removal of /sup 12/C (as organic carbon) from the reservoir of dissolved inorganic carbon. The oxygen isotopic variations in corals can be used to reconstruct past sea surface temperatures to an accuracy of about 0.5/sup 0/C. The carbon isotopic content of photosynthetic corals provides an indication of cloudiness. Using isotopic data from Galapagos corals, it was possible to construct proxy histories of the El Nino phenomenon. The physiology of skeletogenesis appears to be surprisingly similar in calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and silica precipitating systems.

  3. Planetary Accretion, Oxygen Isotopes and the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of presolar dust into increasingly larger aggregates (CAIs and Chondrules, Asteroids, Planets) should result in a very drastic reduction in the numerical spread in oxygen isotopic composition between bodies of similar size, in accord with the Central Limit Theorem. Observed variations in oxygen isotopic composition are many orders of magnitude larger than would be predicted by a simple, random accumulation model that begins in a well-mixed nebula - no matter which size-scale objects are used as the beginning or end points of the calculation. This discrepancy implies either that some as yet unspecified process acted on the solids in the Solar Nebula to increase the spread in oxygen isotopic composition during each and every stage of accumulation or that the nebula was heterogeneous and maintained this heterogeneity throughout most of nebular history. Large-scale nebular heterogeneity would have significant consequences for many areas of cosmochemistry, including the application of some well-known isotopic systems to the dating of nebular events or the prediction of bulk compositions of planetary bodies on the basis of a uniform cosmic abundance.

  4. Dehydroxylation and diagenetic variations in diatom oxygen isotope values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Justin P.; Wiedenheft, Wilson; Schwartz, Joshua M.

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented changes in the dissolution and reactivity of biogenic silica as it is transferred from the water column to sediment archives; here we present the first experimental data that demonstrate a physical mechanism by which the oxygen isotope (δ18Osil) values of biogenic silica (diatoms) are altered during early diagenesis. The δ18Osil value of diatom silica cultured at 19.3 °C was +31.9‰ ± 0.2‰ (n = 6); the same silica experimentally aged in an artificial seawater media at near silica saturation at 85 °C had an average δ18Osil value of +27.1‰ ± 0.6‰ (n = 20). The most significant change in the δ18Osil value was coincident with an initial reduction in the total silanol abundance, indicating that the timing of dehydroxylation reactions in natural sedimentary environments is associated with diagenetic changes in the recorded δ18Osil values. The rate of change in the experimental aging environment at 85 °C was rapid, with significant changes in both silanol abundance and δ18Osil values. Additionally, the silica-water fractionation relationship recorded by the experimentally-aged samples approaches the equilibrium quartz-water fractionation factor. The linear rate law was used to estimate the timing of these changes in low temperature environments; the initial and most significant change in silica reactivity and δ18Osil values is likely to occur on the order of 10's of years at 4 °C. Published silica-water fractionation factors for sedimentary diatoms most likely represent a combination of growth and diagenetic environments, and the δ18O value of diagenetic water needs to be addressed when using δ18Osil values to reconstruct paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental conditions.

  5. Oxygenation of a Cryogenian ocean (Nanhua Basin, South China) revealed by pyrite Fe isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feifei; Zhu, Xiangkun; Yan, Bin; Kendall, Brian; Peng, Xi; Li, Jin; Algeo, Thomas J.; Romaniello, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    was likely responsible for the return of lighter, seawater-like Fe isotope compositions in pyrite. Our pyrite Fe isotope profile thus records increased oxygenation in the Nanhua Basin between the Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations. The increased oxygenation of Nanhua Basin seawater deduced from pyrite Fe isotopes could have resulted from either local or global controls. Further work will be needed to determine whether this increasing oxygenation extended to the global scale.

  6. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, M.; Werner, R. A.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Jansen, H. G.; Brand, W. A.; Geilmann, H.; Neubert, R. E. M.

    2011-02-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O) abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires), and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning) in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects on the order of up to 26%permil; became obvious in the derived CO2 from combustion of different kinds of material, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature), sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios) and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive) transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original total 18O signature of the material appeared to have little influence, however, a contribution of specific bio-chemical compounds to

  7. Oxygen isotopic signature of CO2 from combustion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, M.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Jansen, H. G.; Brand, W. A.; Geilmann, H.; Werner, R. A.

    2008-11-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the global carbon cycle precise knowledge of all processes is necessary. Stable isotope (13C and 18O) abundances provide information for the qualification and the quantification of the diverse source and sink processes. This study focuses on the δ18O signature of CO2 from combustion processes, which are widely present both naturally (wild fires), and human induced (fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning) in the carbon cycle. All these combustion processes use atmospheric oxygen, of which the isotopic signature is assumed to be constant with time throughout the whole atmosphere. The combustion is generally presumed to take place at high temperatures, thus minimizing isotopic fractionation. Therefore it is generally supposed that the 18O signature of the produced CO2 is equal to that of the atmospheric oxygen. This study, however, reveals that the situation is much more complicated and that important fractionation effects do occur. From laboratory studies fractionation effects in the order of about 26‰ became obvious, a clear differentiation of about 7‰ was also found in car exhausts which were sampled directly under ambient atmospheric conditions. We investigated a wide range of materials (both different raw materials and similar materials with different inherent 18O signature), sample geometries (e.g. texture and surface-volume ratios) and combustion circumstances. We found that the main factor influencing the specific isotopic signatures of the combustion-derived CO2 and of the concomitantly released oxygen-containing side products, is the case-specific rate of combustion. This points firmly into the direction of (diffusive) transport of oxygen to the reaction zone as the cause of the isotope fractionation. The original 18O signature of the material appeared to have little or no influence.

  8. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water Extracted from Lunar Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn Martinez, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen exists in lunar materials in distinct phases having unique sources and equilibration histories. The oxygen isotopic composition (δ17O, δ18O) of various components of lunar materials has been studied extensively, but analyses of water in these samples are relatively sparse [1-3]. Samples collected on the lunar surface reflect not only the composition of their source reservoirs but also contributions from asteroidal and cometary impacts, interactions with solar wind and cosmic radiation, among other surface processes. Isotopic characterization of oxygen in lunar water could help resolve the major source of water in the Earth-Moon system by revealing if lunar water is primordial, asteroidal, or cometary in origin [1]. Methods: A lunar rock/soil sample is pumped to high vacuum to remove physisorbed water before heating step-wise to 50, 150, and 1000°C to extract extraterrestrial water without terrestrial contamination. The temperature at which water is evolved is proportional to the strength with which the water is bound in the sample and the relative difficulty of exchanging oxygen atoms in that water. This allows for the isolated extraction of water bound in different phases, which could have different source reservoirs and/or histories, as evidenced by the mass (in)dependence of oxygen compositions. A low blank procedure was developed to accommodate the low water content of lunar material [4]. Results: Oxygen isotopic analyses of lunar water extracted by stepwise heating lunar basalts and breccias with a range of compositions, petrologic types, and surface exposure ages will be presented. The cosmic ray exposure age of these samples varies by two orders of magnitude, and we will consider this in discussing the effects of solar wind and cosmic radiation on the oxygen isotopic composition (Δ17O). I will examine the implications of our water analyses for the composition of the oxygen-bearing reservoir from which that water formed, the effects of surface

  9. Box-modeling of bone and tooth phosphate oxygen isotope compositions as a function of environmental and physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Langlois, C; Simon, L; Lécuyer, Ch

    2003-12-01

    A time-dependent box model is developed to calculate oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate as a function of environmental and physiological parameters. Input and output oxygen fluxes related to body water and bone reservoirs are scaled to the body mass. The oxygen fluxes are evaluated by stoichiometric scaling to the calcium accretion and resorption rates, assuming a pure hydroxylapatite composition for the bone and tooth mineral. The model shows how the diet composition, body mass, ambient relative humidity and temperature may control the oxygen isotope composition of bone phosphate. The model also computes how bones and teeth record short-term variations in relative humidity, air temperature and delta18O of drinking water, depending on body mass. The documented diversity of oxygen isotope fractionation equations for vertebrates is accounted for by our model when for each specimen the physiological and diet parameters are adjusted in the living range of environmental conditions.

  10. Understanding oxygen isotope environmental signals in tree ring sequences from New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Kirby, M. E.; Griggs, C.; Patterson, W. P.; Brasseur, J. M.; Mullins, H. T.; Burnett, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    The development of proxy climate records and analyses that allow for investigation and comparison of widespread regions will enhance the global understanding of past climate change through better correlations of significant events among different locations. Trees with a global distribution ranging from the tropics to the subarctic are an ideal medium from which to develop high-resolution isotopic records equivalent to those from varved lake sequences. However, in order to interpret the isotope record in the tree rings, proper calibration sites must be selected and studied. Here we present the results of a constructed calibration data set of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (1942 to 2003 A.D.) from four different locations, ranging from western, south central, central and southeastern New York State. Species studied for this project include eastern hemlock, eastern white pine, white spruce and tuliptree. The data set indicates that there is a clear regional signal in the oxygen isotope data, which indicates different precipitation sources areas for the four sites; these data have a total range of 25 to 33 V-SMOW. It is anticipated that this calibration data set will be used to calibrate older time-series spanning the Holocene from NE USA.

  11. Extreme oxygen isotope ratios in the early Solar System.

    PubMed

    Aléon, Jérôme; Robert, François; Duprat, Jean; Derenne, Sylvie

    2005-09-15

    The origins of the building blocks of the Solar System can be studied using the isotopic composition of early planetary and meteoritic material. Oxygen isotopes in planetary materials show variations at the per cent level that are not related to the mass of the isotopes; rather, they result from the mixture of components having different nucleosynthetic or chemical origins. Isotopic variations reaching orders of magnitude in minute meteoritic grains are usually attributed to stellar nucleosynthesis before the birth of the Solar System, whereby different grains were contributed by different stars. Here we report the discovery of abundant silica-rich grains embedded in meteoritic organic matter, having the most extreme 18O/16O and 17O/16O ratios observed (both approximately 10(-1)) together with a solar silicon isotopic composition. Both O and Si isotopes indicate a single nucleosynthetic process. These compositions can be accounted for by one of two processes: a single exotic evolved star seeding the young Solar System, or irradiation of the circumsolar gas by high energy particles accelerated during an active phase of the young Sun. We favour the latter interpretation, because the observed compositions are usually not expected from nucleosynthetic processes in evolved stars, whereas they are predicted by the selective trapping of irradiation products.

  12. Oxygen-isotope exchange rates for three isostructural polyoxometalate ions.

    PubMed

    Villa, Eric M; Ohlin, C André; Casey, William H

    2010-04-14

    We compare oxygen-isotope exchange rates for all structural oxygens in three polyoxoniobate ions that differ by systematic metal substitutions of Ti(IV) --> Nb(V). The [H(x)Nb(10)O(28)]((6-x)-), [H(x)TiNb(9)O(28)]((7-x)-), and [H(x)Ti(2)Nb(8)O(28)]((8-x)-) ions are all isostructural yet have different Brønsted properties. Rates for sites within a particular molecule in the series differ by at least approximately 10(4), but the relative reactivities of the oxygen sites rank in nearly the same relative order for all ions in the series. Within a single ion, most structural oxygens exhibit rates of isotopic exchange that vary similarly with pH, indicating that each structure responds as a whole to changes in pH. Across the series of molecules, however, the pH dependencies for isotope exchanges and dissociation are distinctly different, reflecting different contributions from proton- or base-enhanced pathways. The proton-enhanced pathway for isotope exchange dominates at most pH conditions for the [H(x)Ti(2)Nb(8)O(28)]((8-x)-) ion, but the base-enhanced pathways are increasingly important for the [H(x)TiNb(9)O(28)]((7-x)-) and [H(x)Nb(10)O(28)]((6-x)-) structures at higher pH. The local effect of Ti(IV) substitution could be assessed by comparing rates for structurally similar oxygens on each side of the [H(x)TiNb(9)O(28)]((7-x)-) ion and is surprisingly small. Interestingly, these nanometer-size structures seem to manifest the same general averaged amphoteric chemistry that is familiar for other reactions affecting oxides in water, including interface dissolution by proton- and hydroxyl-enhanced pathways.

  13. Oxygen Isotopes in Chondritic Interplanetary Dust: Parent-Bodies and Nebular Oxygen Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Aleon, J; McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L

    2006-02-14

    Planetary objects have preserved various amounts of oxygen issued from isotopically different oxygen reservoirs reflecting their origin and physico-chemical history. An {sup 16}O-rich component is preserved in refractory inclusions (CAIs) whereas meteorites matrices are enriched in an {sup 16}O-poor component. The origin of these components is still unclear. The most recent models are based on isotope selective photodissociation of CO in a {sup 16}O-rich nebula/presolr cloud resulting in a {sup 16}O-poor gas in the outer part of the nebula. However because most meteorite components are thought to be formed in the inner 3AU of the solar nebula, the precise isotopic composition of outer solar system components is yet unknown. In that respect, the oxygen isotopic composition of cometary dust is a key to understand the origin of the solar system. The Stardust mission will bring back to the Earth dust samples from comet Wild2, a short period comet from the Jupiter family. A precise determination of the oxygen isotope composition of Wild2 dust grains is essential to decipher the oxygen reservoirs of the outer solar system. However, Stardust samples may be extremely fragmented upon impact in the collector. In addition, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are likely to contain comet samples. Therefore, they started to investigate the oxygen isotopic composition of a suite of chondritic interplanetary dust particles that includes IDPs of potential cometary origin using a refined procedure to increase the lateral resolution for the analysis of Stardust grains or IDP subcomponents down to {approx} 3 {micro}m. High precision data for 4 IDPs were previously reported, here they have measured 6 additional IDPs.

  14. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Geske, A.; Spötl, C.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-11-01

    Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg) isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco), the warm-temperate (Germany), the equatorial-humid (Peru) and the cold-humid (Austria) climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: -4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: -4.17 ± 0.15‰), and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: -3.96 ± 0.04‰) but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: -4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: -4.20 ± 0.10‰) suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: -3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: -3.70 ± 0.43‰) are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity and weathering balance. Several δ26Mg values of the Austrian and two

  15. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  16. Oxygen Isotope Composition of Nitrate Produced by Freshwater Nitrification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshers, D.; Granger, J.; Bohlke, J. K.

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of the naturally occurring nitrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of nitrate (NO3-), δ15N and δ18O, can be used to determine the source, dispersal, and fate of natural and contaminant NO3- in aquatic environments. To this end, it is necessary to know the extent to which NO3- isotopologues are modified by biological reactions, as heavy and light isotopes have different reaction rates. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the δ18O of ambient water on the isotope composition of NO3- produced during nitrification, the biological oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-) and then NO3-, which is poorly constrained in freshwater systems. To determine the δ18O of NO3- produced by nitrification in freshwater, we collected water from a stream in New England, which we amended with NH4+ and with increments of 18O-enriched water, to monitor the isotope composition of NO3- produced by a natural consortium of nitrifiers. Added NH4+ was completely oxidized to NO3- over 26 days. The final δ18O of nitrified NO3- revealed sensitivity to the δ18O of water mediated by (a) isotopic equilibration between water and NO2- and (b) kinetic isotope fractionation during O-atom incorporation from water into NO2- and NO3-. Our results concur with nitrifying culture experiments that have demonstrated analogous sensitivity of the δ18O of nitrified NO3- to equilibrium and kinetic O isotope effects (Buchwald et al. 2012), as well as show that these dynamics need to be considered to interpret NO3- isotope distribution in freshwater environments.

  17. Biological oxygen productivity during the last 60,000 years from triple oxygen isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunier, Thomas; Barnett, Bruce; Bender, Michael L.; Hendricks, Melissa B.

    2002-07-01

    The oxygen isotope signature of atmospheric O2 is linked to the isotopic signature of seawater (H2O) through photosynthesis and respiration. Fractionation during these processes is mass dependent, affecting δ17O about half as much as δ18O. An ``anomalous'' fractionation process, which changes δ17O and δ18O of O2 about equally, takes place during isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 in the stratosphere. The relative rates of biologic O2 production and stratospheric processing determine the relationship between δ17O and δ18O of O2 in the atmosphere. Variations of this relationship thus allow us to estimate changes in the rate of mass-dependent O2 production by photosynthesis versus the rate of O2-CO2 exchange in the stratosphere with about equal fractionations of δ17O and δ18O. In this study we reconstruct total oxygen productivity for the last glacial, the last glacial termination, and the early Holocene from the triple isotope composition of atmospheric oxygen trapped in ice cores. With a box model we estimate that total biogenic productivity was only ~76-83% of today for the glacial and was probably lower than today during the glacial-interglacial transition and the early Holocene. Depending on how reduced the oxygen flux from the land biosphere was during the glacial, the oxygen flux from the glacial ocean biosphere was 88-140% of its present value.

  18. Chromium Isotopes in Carbonate Rocks: New Insights into Proterozoic Atmospheric Oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kah, L. C.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Frei, R.; Kaufman, A. J.; Azmy, K.; Bartley, J. K.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    There has been a long-standing debate in geobiology about the role that Earth's oxygenation played in the evolution of complex life. Temporal linkages exist between the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) and the evolution of eukaryotes, as well as Neoproterozoic rise in oxygen and the diversification of metazoans. Further advances have been hampered, however, by the lack of direct proxies that mark specific levels of atmospheric pO2 in the geologic past. Chromium (Cr) isotopes show promise in this regard because the oxidation of Cr during terrestrial weathering—which results in isotopic fractionation—is dependent on a specific threshold of atmospheric pO2 (0.1-1% of the present atmospheric level [PAL]). This threshold value broadly coincides with recent estimates of the oxygen requirements of early animals. Here we report new Cr-isotope data from four late Mesoproterozoic carbonate-dominated successions. Samples were collected from the Turukhansk Uplift (Siberia), the El Mreiti Group (Mauritania), the Vazante Group (Brazil), and the Angmaat Formation (Canada). We emphasize the application of Cr-isotopes to carbonate rocks because the broad temporal range of this lithology in the geologic record provides an opportunity to significantly expand our understanding of Proterozoic oxygenation on shorter time scales. Our data indicate that pO2 levels required to support early animals were attained long before Neoproterozoic metazoan diversification, although the large degree of isotopic heterogeneity in our dataset may indicate that pO2 > 0.1-1% PAL was only a transient phenomenon in the Mesoproterozoic. This study demonstrates the utility of Cr-isotopes as an atmospheric redox proxy in carbonate rocks and helps inform future avenues of research on Proterozoic pO2 thresholds.

  19. Iron isotope fractionation and the oxygen fugacity of the mantle.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen M; McCammon, Catherine A; Peslier, Anne H; Halliday, Alex N; Teutsch, Nadya; Levasseur, Sylvain; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2004-06-11

    The oxygen fugacity of the mantle exerts a fundamental influence on mantle melting, volatile speciation, and the development of the atmosphere. However, its evolution through time is poorly understood. Changes in mantle oxidation state should be reflected in the Fe3+/Fe2+ of mantle minerals, and hence in stable iron isotope fractionation. Here it is shown that there are substantial (1.7 per mil) systematic variations in the iron isotope compositions (delta57/54Fe) of mantle spinels. Spinel delta57/54Fe values correlate with relative oxygen fugacity, Fe3+/sigmaFe, and chromium number, and provide a proxy of changes in mantle oxidation state, melting, and volatile recycling.

  20. Enrichment of oxygen heavy isotopes during photosynthesis in phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Eisenstadt, Doron; Barkan, Eugeni; Luz, Boaz; Kaplan, Aaron

    2010-02-01

    Some of the oxygen produced during oxygenic photosynthesis is consumed but little is known about the extent of the processes involved. We measured the (17)O/(16)O and (18)O/(16)O ratios in O(2) produced by certain marine and freshwater phytoplankton representing important groups of primary producers. When the cells were performing photosynthesis under very low dissolved oxygen concentrations (< 3 μM), we observed significant enrichment in both (18)O and (17)O with respect to the substrate water. The difference in δ(18)O between O(2) and water was about 4.5, 3, 5.5, and 7‱ in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae), the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. The difference in δ(17)O was about 0.52 that of δ(18)O. As explained, the observed enrichments most probably stem from considerable oxygen consumption during photosynthesis even when major O(2)-consuming reactions such as photorespiration were minimized. These enrichments increased linearly with rising O(2) levels but with different δ(17)O/δ(18)O slopes for the various organisms, suggesting engagements of different O(2)-consuming reactions with rising O(2) levels. Consumption of O(2) may be important for energy dissipation during photosynthesis. The isotope enrichment observed here, not accounted for in earlier assessments, closes an important gap in our understanding of the difference between the isotopic compositions of atmospheric oxygen and that of seawater, i.e., the Dole effect.

  1. Phosphate oxygen isotope analysis on microsamples of bioapatite: removal of organic contamination and minimization of sample size.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann-Bidlack, Felicitas B; Colman, Albert S; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2008-06-01

    Modern and fossil teeth record seasonal information on climate, diet, and migration through stable isotope compositions in enamel and dentine. Climatic signals such as seasonal variation in meteoric water isotopic composition can be recovered through a microscale histology-based sampling and isotopic analysis of enamel phosphate oxygen. The phosphate moiety in bioapatite is particularly resistant to post mortem diagenesis. In order to determine the phosphate oxygen isotope composition of enamel, phosphate must be chemically purified from other oxygen sources in the enamel lattice and matrix, mainly hydroxyl and carbonate ions, and trace quantities of organics. We present a wet chemical technique for purifying phosphate from microsampled enamel and dentine. This technique uses a sodium hypochlorite oxidation step to remove interferences from residual organic constituents of the enamel and/or dentine scaffold, isolates phosphate as relatively large and easily manipulated Ag(3)PO(4) crystals by using a strongly buffered, moderate-temperature microprecipitation, and preserves the oxygen isotope composition of the initial tooth phosphate. The reproducibility of phosphate oxygen isotope compositions thus determined (measured as delta(18)O, V-SMOW scale) is typically 0.2-0.3 per thousand (1 s.d.) on samples as small as 300 microg of enamel or dentine, a considerable improvement over available techniques for analyses of bioapatite phosphate oxygen.

  2. Oxygen isotopic disequilibrium in coccolith carbonate from phytoplankton blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, Charles K.; Balch, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Particulate carbonate was concentrated with a flow centrifuge out of the waters from a coccolithophore bloom in the Gulf of Maine for δ 18O CaCO 3 measurement. The particulate samples were composed of diverse organic materials, but most samples were observed to be dominated by Emiliana huxleyi CaCO 3. The oxygen isotopic fractionation associated with these E. huxleyi populations were determined by comparing oxygen isotope ratios in coccoliths with those of anbient waters at the time of collection. The observed isotopic fractionations were large (up to 2.8%), but did not match well with the expected values based on previous laboratory experiments. The temperatures calculated from the isotopic values of surface samples averaged 7.4°C cooler than the waters from which this carbonate was collected. These discrepancies may indicate that the coccoliths were precipatated in cooler water 10-20 m below the surface waters were they were captured, or that the waters had warmed since the coccoliths grew.

  3. Oxygen isotope constraints on the petrogenesis of Aleutian arc magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.S.; O'Neil, J.R. ); Brophy, J.G. )

    1992-04-01

    The first measurement of {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and titanomagnetite phenocrysts from modern Aleutian island-arc lavas provides new insight and independent constraints on magma sources and intracrustal processes. Basalts are heterogeneous on the scale of the entire arc and individual volcanic centers. Combined with Sr isotope and trace element data {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values suggest a variable magma source characterized by differences in the mantle wedge or the subducted sediment component along the volcanic front. Seven tholeiitic basalt to rhyodacite lavas from the Seguam volcanic center have nearly identical {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 6.0{per thousand} {plus minus} 0.2{per thousand}, reflecting extensive closed-system plagioclase-dominated crystal fractionation. Oxygen isotope thermometry and pyroxene and oxide equilibria indicate that differentiation occurred between 1,150 {plus minus} 100C (basalt) and 950 {plus minus} 100C (rhyodacite). In contrast, {delta}{sup 18}O{sub plag} values of 12 calc-alkalic basaltic andesites and andesites from the smaller Kanaga volcanic center span a broader range of 5.9{per thousand}-6.6{per thousand}, and consist of mostly higher values. Isotopic disequilibrium in the Kanaga system is manifest in two ways: two types of basaltic inclusions with contrasting {delta}{sup 18}O values occur in one andesite, and in two other andesites plagioclase-titanomagnetite and clinopyroxene-titanomagnetite oxygen isotope temperatures are inconsistent.

  4. Authigenic Molybdenum Isotopes Record Lake Baikal in the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, E.; Liu, H.; Lee, D.

    2013-12-01

    Authigenic molybdenum isotope signatures in marine sediments reflect the mechanisms of deposits under both oxic and reducing conditions. The studies are mainly focusing on marine environment, and the application on lake record is rare. A three-meters long gravity core (GC-99; 52°05'23'N, 105°50'24'E; water depth 201m) from Lake Baikal is studied for Mo isotopes and concentration. The result is using to examine the sources of material or/and the changes in conditions of Lake Baikal with climate changes. To approach on extracting Mo isotope signal directly related to lake water, a sequential leaching technique to extract the Mo isotopes coating on the Fe-Mn oxides and a robust chromatography technique to purify molybdenum isotopes is modified and used for all lake sediment samples. Then, Mo isotope composition is measured by applying double spike method with Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). According to the Mo concentration and its isotope composition δ98/95Mo relative to NIST-SRM-3134, the results imply Lake Baikal stayed oxic condition over the last 24 ka. Moreover, the sediment core GC-99 from Lake Baikal imply two stages fluctuations of the lake environment separated at core depth of 100cm (around 12ka); and the shifting of δ98/95Mo isotope composition shows that the lake during interglacial period was more oxic than the last glacial period due to absence of ice cover.

  5. Oxygen Isotope Character of the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, T.; Strickland, A.; Valley, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of zircons from lavas and tuffs from the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of east central Oregon unequivocally demonstrate the presence of mid-Miocene low-δ18O magmas (δ18Ozrc<4.7 ‰). Despite the growing data set of low-δ18O melts within, and proximal to, the Snake River Plain (SRP) Large Igneous Province, debate persists regarding both the mechanisms for low-δ18O magma petrogenesis, and their relative influence in the SRP. The LOVF is associated with widespread silicic volcanism roughly concurrent with the eruption of the Steens-Columbia River Basalt Group between ~17-15Ma. Silicic activity in the LOVF is limited to 16-15Ma, when an estimated 1100km3 of weakly peralkaline to metaluminous rhyolitic lavas and ignimbrites erupted from a series of fissures and calderas. Geographically, the LOVF overlaps the Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG), and straddles the 87Sr/86Sr= 0.704 line which, together with the 0.706 line to the east, delineate the regional transition from the North American Precambrian continental crust to the east to younger Phanerozoic accreted terranes to the west. Here we report high accuracy ion microprobe analyses of δ18O in zircons using a 10-15μm spot, with average spot-to-spot precision ±0.28‰ (2SD), to investigate intra-grain and intra-unit δ18Ozrc trends for LOVF rhyolites. Due to its high closure temperature, chemical and physical resistance, and slow oxygen diffusion rates, zircon offers a robust record of magmatic oxygen isotope ratios during crystallization and provides constraints on the petrogenesis of Snake River Plain (SRP) low-δ18O melts. Individual zircons from LOVF rhyolites show no evidence of core-rim δ18O zoning, and populations exhibit ≤0.42‰ (2SD) intra-unit variability. Unit averages range from 2.2 to 4.3‰, with the lowest values in caldera-forming ignimbrites, but all units show evidence of crystallization from low-δ18O melts. Quartz and feldspar analyses by laser fluorination (precision

  6. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in body water and hair: modeling isotope dynamics in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Shannon P; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Remien, Christopher H; Enright, Lindsey E; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R; Wagner, Janice D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2012-07-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water ((2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O expressed as δ(2) H and δ(18)O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of gut water and the (18)O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (α(ow)). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of α(ow) was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems.

  7. Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Body Water and Hair: Modeling Isotope Dynamics in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Shannon P.; Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Remien, Christopher H.; Enright, Lindsey E.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Wagner, Janice D.; Cerling, Thure E.; Ehleringer, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of drinking water, diet, and atmospheric oxygen influence the isotopic composition of body water (2H/1H, 18O/16O expressed as δ2H and δ18O). In turn, body water influences the isotopic composition of organic matter in tissues, such as hair and teeth, which are often used to reconstruct historical dietary and movement patterns of animals and humans. Here, we used a nonhuman primate system (Macaca fascicularis) to test the robustness of two different mechanistic stable isotope models: a model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and a second model to predict the δ2H and δ18O values of hair. In contrast to previous human-based studies, use of nonhuman primates fed controlled diets allowed us to further constrain model parameter values and evaluate model predictions. Both models reliably predicted the δ2H and δ18O values of body water and of hair. Moreover, the isotope data allowed us to better quantify values for two critical variables in the models: the δ2H and δ18O values of gut water and the 18O isotope fractionation associated with a carbonyl oxygen-water interaction in the gut (αow). Our modeling efforts indicated that better predictions for body water and hair isotope values were achieved by making the isotopic composition of gut water approached that of body water. Additionally, the value of αow was 1.0164, in close agreement with the only other previously measured observation (microbial spore cell walls), suggesting robustness of this fractionation factor across different biological systems. PMID:22553163

  8. Nitrogen Isotope Tracing of Eutrophication Sources on a Watershed Scale: Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes of Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, W. J.; Genna, B.; Karr, J.

    2001-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of shallow aquifers and surface waters associated with agricultural activities has become a major concern in river basins, like the Neuse, where significant agricultural land use is coupled with growing numbers of intensive animal operations (ILO's). The development of effective management practices to preserve water quality, or remediation strategies for basins already polluted requires source identification. The stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate has been used as tracers to evaluate nitrogen sources on small scales, such as agricultural fields, or small watersheds with one dominate land use. This discrimination is possible because of the large fractionation associated with the volatilization of ammonia from animal wastes. Using stable isotopes on larger scales to evaluate nutrient sources is complicated by multiple sources, overlapping point and non-point sources, and co-existing biogeochemical processes that alter nitrate concentrations. To evaluate the potential of stable isotopes to determine the character of nutrient fluxes on larger scales, the isotopic/discharge relationship was examined for a watershed with little agricultural activity, an urban watershed, a watershed with mixed urban and agricultural land use, a watershed dominated by swine ILO's, and a watershed dominated by poultry ILO's. The watershed with little agricultural activity and the poultry watershed have similar isotope/discharge relationships with isotopic values at natural background levels and no change in concentration or isotopic composition in different discharge states. The urban watershed is dominated by point source isotopic values at all flow levels, the mixed urban and agricultural watershed is dominated by point source values during low flow conditions, and fertilizer non-point source values during high flow conditions. In this watershed nutrient concentrations also increase during low flow conditions. The swine watershed is dominated by

  9. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas

    PubMed

    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa

    1998-12-04

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  10. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in Allende and solar nebula gas.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, H; Ito, M; Nagasawa, H

    1998-12-04

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope composition (approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  11. Recent variability in the hydrological cycle of tropical Asia from oxygen isotopes of tree cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mengfan

    This dissertation investigates hydrological variability within tropical Asia over the past several few centuries as reflected in the stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric moisture. High-resolution water isotope records are developed from trees collected from northern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau. These records are examined to assess whether and how the 20th century is unique in terms of the hydrological conditions in tropical Asia under the influences of both monsoon and ENSO with the observed temperature changes. In northern Thailand, the oxygen isotopic composition (δ 18O) of tree cellulose samples of Pinus kesiya from a montane forest has been analyzed in subannual resolution for the past 80 years. The cellulose δ18O values exhibit a distinctive annual cycle with an amplitude of up to 12 ‰, which is interpreted to reflect primarily the seasonal cycle of precipitation δ18 O. The cellulose δ18O annual mean values correlate significantly with the amount of summer monsoon precipitation over the India subcontinent, corroborating recent studies that suggest the so-called "isotope amount effect" in the tropical precipitation δ18O reflects the hydrological processes of the upstream or the moisture source regions instead of the rainfall amount at the local site. No obvious trend in the summer monsoon precipitation is detected from the cellulose δ 18O record. However, the record does suggest a temporal weakening relationship between the Indian Monsoon and ENSO over the 20th century. The annual maxima in the cellulose δ18O values are representative of the moisture balance during the winter dry season, and possibly document a decreasing trend in the isotopically-distinct fog water input during the dry season because of the warming in the 20th century. Isotope chronologies of Pinus merkusii from a coastal lowland forest in Cambodia have been generated to investigate hydrological variability over the Indo

  12. Interpreting the Ca isotope record of marine biogenic carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Neil G.; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Tipper, Edward T.; Tripati, Aradhna; Galy, Albert; Bickle, Michael J.

    2007-08-01

    An 18 million year record of the Ca isotopic composition (δ 44/42Ca) of planktonic foraminiferans from ODP site 925, in the Atlantic, on the Ceara Rise, provides the opportunity for critical analysis of Ca isotope-based reconstructions of the Ca cycle. δ 44/42Ca in this record averages +0.37 ± 0.05 (1 σ SD) and ranges from +0.21‰ to +0.52‰. The record is a good match to previously published Neogene Ca isotope records based on foraminiferans, but is not similar to the record based on bulk carbonates, which has values that are as much as 0.25‰ lower. Bulk carbonate and planktonic foraminiferans from core tops differ slightly in their δ 44/42Ca (i.e., by 0.06 ± 0.06‰ ( n = 5)), while the difference between bulk carbonate and foraminiferan values further back in time is markedly larger, leaving open the question of the cause of the difference. Modeling the global Ca cycle from downcore variations in δ 44/42Ca by assuming fixed values for the isotopic composition of weathering inputs (δ 44/42Ca w) and for isotope fractionation associated with the production of carbonate sediments (Δ sed) results in unrealistically large variations in the total mass of Ca 2+ in the oceans over the Neogene. Alternatively, variations of ±0.05‰ in the Ca isotope composition of weathering inputs or in the extent of fractionation of Ca isotopes during calcareous sediment formation could entirely account for variations in the Ca isotopic composition of marine carbonates. Ca isotope fractionation during continental weathering, such as has been recently observed, could easily result in variations in δ 44/42Ca w of a few tenths of permil. Likewise a difference in the fractionation factors associated with aragonite versus calcite formation could drive shifts in Δ sed of tenths of permil with shifts in the relative output of calcite and aragonite from the ocean. Until better constraints on variations in δ 44/42Ca w and Δ sed have been established, modeling the Ca 2+ content

  13. Tree-ring Cellulose Oxygen Isotopes: A Rich Archive of Southeastern Climate and Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, C. I.; Nelson, W. L.; Johnson, E. J.; Miller, D. L.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2008-12-01

    Stable isotope dendroclimatology takes advantage of our mechanistic understanding of the influence of physiological, ecological and climatic processes on isotope fractionation during assimilation and formation of cellulose. The magnitude of physiological effects is large, but tends to be similar for a given species grown in the same or similar environment. Thus, inter- and intra-annual differences in the oxygen isotope composition of cellulose from a given species grown under similar conditions largely reflect changes in the source water composition, itself keyed to precipitation. Tree ring cellulose oxygen isotope time series therefore potentially yield a rich archive of climate information, including long-term, regional trends reflecting a variety of climate modes and factors, as well as evidence for local, extreme events, such as drought and hurricanes. Examples of the types of climate information captured by the longest, seasonally-resolved (earlywood, latewood) oxygen isotope time series for the southeastern United States (1580-1997, Valdosta GA; 1707-2004, Pensacola FL; 1940-2000, Francis Marion National Forest and Sandy Isle, SC) include: (1) Isotopic anomalies yielding records of past hurricanes (negative anomalies) and drought (positive anomalies), many unknown in the historical (documentary) record; (2) evidence for increased hurricane activity associated with decreased sunspot activity (Maunder minimum, 1640-1710); (3) Decadal-scale (10-40 yr) variability in the isotope time series, as well as in hurricane frequency; (4) Inverse relationship between hurricane frequency along the Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast; (5) Time series periodicities which may relate to known phenomena, such as ENSO, sunspot activity, and others; (6) Correlation of time series and/or extreme events to climate modes, including NAO, AMO, and PDO; (7) Changes in "seasonality" (i.e., the difference between earlywood and latewood) associated with changes in the PDO. Few climate proxies

  14. Oxygen and carbon isotopic systematics of aragonite speleothems and water in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting-Yong; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Li, Hong-Chun; Li, Jun-Yun; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Song, Sheng-Rong; Yuan, Dao-Xian; Lin, Chris D.-J.; Gao, Pan; Zhou, Liping; Wang, Jian-Li; Ye, Ming-Yang; Tang, Liang-Liang; Xie, Shi-You

    2011-08-01

    To understand oxygen and carbon stable isotopic characteristics of aragonite stalagmites and evaluate their applicability to paleoclimate, the isotopic compositions of active and fossil aragonite speleothems and water samples from an in situ multi-year (October 2005-July 2010) monitoring program in Furong Cave located in Chongqing of China have been examined. The observations during October 2005-June 2007 show that the meteoric water is well mixed in the overlying 300-500-m bedrock aquifer, reflected by relatively constant δ 18O, ±0.11-0.14‰ (1 σ), of drip waters in the cave, which represents the annual status of rainfall water. Active cave aragonite speleothems are at oxygen isotopic equilibrium with drip water and their δ 18O values capture the surface-water oxygen isotopic signal. Aragonite-to-calcite transformation since the last glaciation is not noticeable in Furong stalagmites. Our multi-year field experiment approves that aragonite stalagmite δ 18O records in this cave are suitable for paleoclimate reconstruction. With high U, 0.5-7.2 ppm, and low Th, 20-1270 ppt, the Furong aragonite stalagmites provide very precise chronology (as good as ±20s yrs (2 σ)) of the climatic variations since the last deglaciation. The synchroneity of Chinese stalagmite δ 18O records at the transition into the Bølling-Allerød (t-BA) and the Younger Dryas from Furong, Hulu and Dongge Caves supports the fidelity of the reconstructed East Asian monsoon evolution. However, the Furong record shows that the cold Older Dryas (OD) occurred at 14.0 thousand years ago, agreeing with Greenland ice core δ 18O records but ˜200 yrs younger than that in the Hulu record. The OD age discrepancy between Chinese caves can be attributable to different regionally climatic/environmental conditions or chronological uncertainty of stalagmite proxy records, which is limited by changes in growth rate and subsampling intervals in absolute dating. Seasonal dissolved inorganic carbon δ 13C

  15. Assessment of the clumped isotope composition of fossil bone carbonate as a recorder of subsurface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Marina B.; Passey, Benjamin H.

    2014-09-01

    Bone is susceptible to early diagenesis, and its carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions have been suggested to reflect conditions in the soil environment and shallow subsurface during fossilization. This implies open-system recrystallization involving mass exchange of carbon and oxygen among bioapatite, soil water, and DIC. Such recrystallization would also redistribute isotopic clumping (including 13C-18O bonds), leading to the possibility that the carbonate clumped isotope compositions of fossil bone record ground temperature during early diagenesis. We assess this possibility by studying Quaternary mammalian fossil bone from subtropical to polar latitudes: if recrystallization is early and pervasive, clumped isotope derived temperatures, T(Δ47), should closely mirror latitudinal gradients in ground temperature. Excluding results from a mummified specimen yielding T(Δ47) = 38 °C (that is, indistinguishable from mammalian body temperature), we find that T(Δ47) values are intermediate between mammalian body temperature and ground temperature, suggesting partial recrystallization of bone carbonate. XRD analyses show that the nature and extent of diagenesis varies among the samples and does not relate in a straightforward manner to T(Δ47). No clear correlation exists between T(Δ47) and mean annual temperature or mean warm season temperature. Furthermore, bone tends to retain the 18O-enriched signature of body water, suggesting incomplete oxygen isotope exchange with meteoric waters. Incomplete carbon and oxygen isotope exchange between bone carbonate and soil waters is also indicated for a set of late Miocene bone-enamel pairs from a sequence of stacked paleosols in northern China. Analysis of bone as old as Early Cretaceous shows that bone carbonate is susceptible to later diagenesis at elevated burial temperatures, although T(Δ47) does not closely conform to maximum burial temperature, again suggesting partial recrystallization, or recrystallization during

  16. The use of the oxygen isotopes from diatom silica as a proxy for North Atlantic Oscillation reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Leng, Melanie J.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vázquez-Loureiro, David; Bao, Roberto; Sloane, Hilary J.; Rubio-Inglés, Maria J.; Sánchez-López, Guiomar; Gonçalves, Vitor; Raposeiro, Pedro M.; Sáez, Alberto; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the main atmospheric circulation mode controlling climate variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Instrumental records of the NAO are relatively short, and therefore proxy approaches are essential to understand its evolution over longer time periods. Diatom oxygen isotope ratios are increasingly being used for palaeoclimatic reconstructions in lacustrine sedimentary records. However, application of this proxy to annual-to-decadal resolution lacustrine records is still in its infancy. To our knowledge, oxygen isotope ratios from diatoms at annual-to-decadal resolution has not been attempted, mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining large enough samples suitable for analysis at this temporal scale. Here we present a high-resolution, ca. 200-year-long, proxy record based on 56 oxygen isotope measurements from Lake Santiago (37° 50' N - 25° 47'W, Azores Archipelago, Portugal). This record will be compared to instrumental data of precipitation and NAO index values to test its robustness to conduct an ancient NAO reconstruction. In detail the oxygen isotope data shows an isotope depletion trend (-3o), with several interannual oscillations, from 1830 cal yr AD until present. The entire record can be divided into two intervals. The interval, from 1830 to 1938 cal yr AD, displays values above the average (+33o), whereas the interval from 1939 to 2012 cal yr AD shows values below the mean. Since Lake Santiago is a hydrologically closed lake, the oxygen isotope variations are mostly related to the precipitation-evaporation ratio. These results exhibit a good agreement with the rainfall instrumental data with an increase of net rainfall amount through the last decades in the Azores archipelago. Besides this, the short-term recorded isotope excursions (±3.5o) are related to the rainfall interannual variability. These patterns suggest that the isotope data from diatom silica in Lake Santiago sediments are directly linked to past

  17. Intraseasonal variability in South America recorded in stable water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Christophe; Vimeux, FrançOise; Krinner, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    The recent number isotopic records extracted from Andean ice cores (South America) has illustrated the key role such archives can play in past climate reconstructions. Nevertheless, interpreting isotopic archives as quantified climate proxies requires an understanding of which climate parameters control the stable isotopic composition of water. Mesoscale modeling sheds new light on the meteorological mechanisms dominant during austral summer. Here we focus on the variability of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and its repercussions on upstream regions. The SACZ is a major component of the South American Monsoon System (SAMS). The present study uses the isotopic signature of the SAMS, as simulated by the stable water isotope enabled regional circulation model REMOiso to answer the question: how does the SAMS affect the isotopic composition of precipitation during the wet season? In order to analyze the internal, purely atmospheric variability mode, the model was forced by climatological sea-surface temperatures. We investigate the concurrent intraseasonal variability of meteorological and isotopic parameters at pentad (5 days) interval using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). REMOiso reproduces the main meteorological characteristics of the SAMS consistent with observations as well as previous modeling studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that δ18O integrates both circulation and precipitation variability. This new evidence contributes to the comprehension of the δ18O signal in tropical South America, highlighting the internal atmospheric variability, as opposed to external forcing by Pacific and Atlantic sea-surface temperature.

  18. Miocene benthic foraminiferal isotope records: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savin, S.M.; Douglas, R.G.; Keller, G.; Killingley, J.S.; Shaughnessy, L.; Sommer, M.A.; Vincent, E.; Woodruff, F.

    1981-01-01

    18O 16O and 13C 12C ratios of Miocene benthic foraminifera from a number of Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean DSDP sites (71, 77B, 206, 208, 238, 279, 289, 296, 329, 357 and 366A) have been compiled. These provide a rather detailed history of Miocene deep water especially in the Pacific Ocean. Bottom-water temperatures rose during the early Miocene and then declined rapidly during the middle Miocene. This decline was accompanied by an increase in Antarctic glaciation. Late Miocene bottom temperatures and Antarctic ice volumes are inferred to be similar to today's, but exhibited some fluctuation. The early Miocene ocean was less thermally stratified at intermediate and abyssal depths while the late Miocene deep ocean had a thermal structure generally similar to the modern ocean. Foraminiferal carbon isotope ratios at most of the sites varied quasi-sympathetically throughout the Miocene. These variations must reflect comparable variations in the mean 13C 12C of marine HCO3-. However, the causes of such variations are not yet clear. ?? 1981.

  19. Interpreting the Marine Calcium Isotope Record: Influence of Reef Builders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, F.; Eisenhauer, A.; Farkas, J.; Kiessling, W.; Veizer, J.; Wallmann, K.

    2008-12-01

    The calcium isotopic composition of seawater as recorded in brachiopod shells varied substantially during the Paleozoic (Farkas et al. 2007, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 5117-5134). The most prominent feature of the record is an excursion to higher 44Ca/40Ca values that started during the Early Carboniferous and lasted until the Permian. The shift occurred shortly after the transition from a calcite-sea to an aragonite-sea (Sandberg 1983, Nature 305, 19-22; Stanley and Hardie 1998, Pal3, 144, 3-19). It therefore has been interpreted to reflect a change in the average calcium isotope fractionation of carbonates produced in the oceans. Aragonite is depleted by about 0.6 permil in 44Ca/40Ca compared to calcite (Gussone et al. 2005, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 69, 4485-4494). Consequently a transient shift from calcite dominated to an aragonite dominated calcium carbonate sedimentation could have caused the observed 0.5 permil isotope shift. We compare the marine calcium isotope record with a new compilation of the Phanerozoic trends in the skeletal mineralogy of marine invertebrates (Kiessling et al. 2008, Nature Geoscience, 1, 527-530). The compilation is based on data collected in the PaleoReef database and the Paleobiology Database, which include information on Phanerozoic reef complexes and taxonomic collection data of Phanerozoic biota, respectively. We find a strong positive correlation between the calcium isotope ratios and the abundance of aragonitic reef builders from the Silurian until the Permian at a sample resolution of about 10 million years. The two records, however, diverge in the Triassic, when reefs were dominated by aragonite but the calcium isotope values remained at a relatively low level. We also find a good correlation between calcium isotopes and the proportion of aragonite in the general record of Phanerozoic biota. However, in this case the records start to diverge already in the latest Carboniferous. The observations suggest that the

  20. Sulfur isotope fractionation in modern euxinic systems: Implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of paired sulfate-sulfide isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Maya L.; Hurtgen, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur (S) isotope difference between sulfates and sulfides preserved in sedimentary rocks (Δ34S) has been utilized to reconstruct ancient marine sulfate levels with implications for oxygenation of the Earth surface and biogeochemical cycling. S isotope data from modern, low-sulfate euxinic systems illustrate that preserved Δ34S values are positively correlated with sulfate concentration. However, absolute constraints on the range of low-sulfate levels over which preserved Δ34S values vary with sulfate concentration remain poorly constrained. Here, we present a compilation of S isotope data for modern euxinic systems demonstrating that preserved Δ34S values increase with sulfate concentration at low sulfate levels and approach values that are similar to in situ S isotope fractionation values from microbial sulfate reduction at high sulfate levels. We compare these results to a closed system model of S isotope cycling in a euxinic ocean in order to evaluate when the size of the sulfate reservoir is sufficiently small that Rayleigh fractionation affects the preservation of S isotope signatures. We conclude that the reservoir effect places constraints on Δ34S values deposited in euxinic settings at sulfate concentrations <5 mM. Thus, over this range, Δ34S values can be used to evaluate ancient sulfate levels. At higher sulfate levels (>10 mM), Δ34S values are similar to the kinetic isotope fractionation due to microbial sulfate reduction and therefore provide information about biological and environmental controls on sulfate reduction rates and location of pyrite formation. The results of this compilation provide an improved model for the use of Δ34S records to evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions in euxinic depositional environments.

  1. Pore fluid constraints on the temperature and oxygen isotopic composition of the glacial ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, D.P.; Hampt, G.; Murray, D.W.

    1996-06-28

    Pore fluids from the upper 60 meters of sediment 3000 meters below the surface of the tropical Atlantic indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O) of seawater at this site during the last glacial maximum was 0.8 {plus_minus} 0.1 per mil higher than it is today. Combined with the {delta}{sup 18}O change in benthic foraminifera from this region, the elevated ratio indicates that the temperature of deep water in the tropical Atlantic Ocean was 4{degree}C colder during the last glacial maximum. Extrapolation from this site to a global average suggests that the ice volume contribution to the change in {delta}{sup 18}O of foraminifera is 1.0 per mil, which partially reconciles the foraminiferal oxygen isotope record of tropical sea surface temperatures with estimates from Barbados corals and terrestrial climate proxies. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Does the Shuram δ13C excursion record Ediacaran oxygenation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, J. M.; Maloof, A. C.; Schoene, B.; Higgins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The most negative carbon isotope excursion in Earth history is found in carbonate rocks of the Ediacaran Period (635-542 Ma). Known colloquially as the the 'Shuram' excursion, workers have long noted its tantalizing, broad concordance with the rise of abundant macro-scale fossils in the rock record, variously interpreted as animals, giant protists, macro-algae and lichen, and known as the 'Ediacaran Biota.' Thus, the Shuram excursion has been interpreted by many in the context of a dramatically changing redox state of the Ediacaran oceans - e.g., a result of methane cycling in a low O2 atmosphere, the final destruction of a large pool of recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the step-wise oxidation of the Ediacaran oceans. More recently, diagenetic interpretations of the Shuram excursion - e.g. sedimentary in-growth of very δ13C depleted authigenic carbonates, meteoric alteration of Ediacaran carbonates, late-stage burial diagenesis - have challenged the various Ediacaran redox models. A rigorous geologic context is required to discriminate between these explanatory models, and determine whether the Shuram excursion can be used to evaluate terminal Neoproterozoic oxygenation. Here, we present chemo-stratigraphic data (δ13C, δ18O, δ44/42Ca and redox sensitive trace element abundances) from 12 measured sections of the Ediacaran-aged Wonoka Formation (Fm.) of South Australia that require a syn-depositional age for the extraordinary range of δ13C values (-12 to +4‰) observed in the formation. In some locations, the Wonoka Fm. is ~700 meters (m) of mixed shelf limestones and siliclastics that record the full 16 ‰ δ13C excursion in a remarkably consistent fashion across 100s of square kilometers of basin area. Fabric-altering diagenesis, where present, occurs at the sub-meter vertical scale, only results in sub-permil offsets in δ13C and cannot be used to explain the full δ13C excursion. In other places, the Wonoka Fm. is host to deep (1 km

  3. Biological Oxygen Productivity Over The Last Glacial Termination From Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunier, T.; Bender, M. L.; Hendricks, M. B.

    The atmospheric oxygen isotope signature of O2 is linked to the oxygen signature of seawater through photosynthesis and respiration. Fractionation during these pro- cesses is mass dependent affecting 17O about half as much as 18O. A mass indepen- dent fractionation process takes place during isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 in the stratosphere (Thiemens, 1999; Luz et al., 1999). The magnitude of the mass- independent anomaly in the triple isotope composition of O2 depends on relative rates of biological O2 cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Variations of this anomaly thus allows us to estimate changes of mass dependent O2 production by photosynthesis versus mass independent O2-CO2 exchange in the stratosphere. We reconstruct total oxygen productivity for the past from 17O and 18O measure- ments of O2 trapped in ice cores. With a box model we estimate that the total biogenic productivity was only 76-83 % of today for the glacial and was probably still lower than today during the glacial-interglacial transition and the early Holocene. In principle we can calculate the oxygen flux from the ocean biosphere if we know the oxygen flux from the land biosphere. Calculated ocean production is very sensitive to the estimate of land biosphere production. The latter term remains uncertain, however, and we can presently only constrain glacial ocean production to 88 to 140 % of the present value.

  4. Biological Oxygen Productivity Over the Last Glacial Termination From Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunier, T.; Bender, M. L.; Hendricks, M. B.

    2001-05-01

    The atmospheric oxygen isotope signature of O2 is linked to the oxygen signature of seawater through photosynthesis and respiration. Fractionation during these processes is mass dependent affecting δ 17O about half as much as δ 18O. A mass independent fractionation process takes place during isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 in the stratosphere (Thiemens, 1999; Luz et al., 1999). The magnitude of the mass-independent anomaly in the triple isotope composition of O2 depends on relative rates of biological O2 cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Variations of this anomaly thus allows us to estimate changes of mass dependent O2 production by photosynthesis versus mass independent O2-CO2 exchange in the stratosphere. We reconstruct total oxygen productivity for the past from δ ^ {17}O and δ ^ {18}O measurements of O2 trapped in ice cores. With a box model we estimate that the total biogenic productivity was only ~70-80 % of today for the glacial and was probably still lower than today during the glacial-interglacial transition and the early Holocene. In principle we can calculate the oxygen flux from the ocean biosphere if we know the oxygen flux from the land biosphere. Calculated ocean production is very sensitive to the estimate of land biosphere production. The latter term remains uncertain, however, and we can presently only constrain glacial ocean production to 70 to 140 % of the present value.

  5. Triple oxygen isotope composition of the Campi Flegrei magma systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Raffaella Silvia; Wörner, Gerhard; Pack, Andreas; Sengupta, Sukanya; Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; Arienzo, Ilenia; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    Sr-O isotope relationships in igneous rocks are a powerful tool to distinguish magma sources and quantify assimilation processes in magmatic rocks. Isotopic (87Sr/86Sr and 18O/16O-17O/16O) data have been acquired on whole rocks and separated minerals (feldspar, Fe-cpx, Mg-cpx, olivine phenocrysts) from pyroclastic products of the Campi Flegrei volcanic complex (Gulf of Naples, Southern Italy). Oxygen isotope ratios were measured by infrared laser fluorination using a Thermo MAT253 gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometer in dual inlet mode, on ˜2 mg of hand-picked phenocrysts. Variations in triple oxygen isotope ratios (17O/16O, 18O/16O) are expressed as the δ notation relative to VSMOW. Sr isotopic compositions were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry after standard cation-exchange methods on separated hand-picked phenocrysts (˜300 mg), and on whole rocks, in case of insufficient sample size to separate crystals. Sr-isotopes in Campi Flegrei minerals range from 0.707305 to 0.707605 and δ18O varies from 6.5 to 8.3‰ . Recalculated δ18Omelt values accordingly show a large range between 7.2 and 8.6‰ . Our data, compared with published δ18O-isotope data from other Italian volcanic centers (Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia, Mt. Vesuvius, Aeolian Islands, Tuscany and Sardinia) and from subduction zones worldwide (Kamchatka, Lesser Antilles, Indonesia and Central Andean ignimbrites), show compositions that are very different from typical mantle values. Distinct trends and sources are recognized in our compilation from global data: (1) serpentinized mantle (Kamchatka), (2) sediment-enrichment in the mantle source (Indonesia, Lesser Antilles, Eolian arc), (3) assimilation of old radiogenic continental crust affecting magmas derived from sediment-modified mantle sources (Tuscany, Sardinia), (4) assimilation of lower crustal lithologies (Central Andes, Alban Hills, Mts. Ernici, Ischia). Sr-O-isotope values of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius magmas

  6. Palaeoclimate signal recorded by stable isotopes in cave ice: a modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, A.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2012-04-01

    Ice accumulations in caves preserve a large variety of geochemical information as candidate proxies for both past climate and environmental changes, one of the most significant being the stable isotopic composition of the ice. A series of recent studies have targeted oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in cave ice as proxies for past air temperatures, but the results are far from being as straightforward as they are in high latitude and altitude glaciers and ice caps. The main problems emerging from these studies are related to the mechanisms of cave ice formation (i.e., freezing of water) and post-formation processes (melting and refreezing), which both alter the original isotopic signal in water. Different methods have been put forward to solve these issues and a fair understanding of the present-day link between stable isotopes in precipitation and cave ice exists now. However, the main issues still lays unsolved: 1) is it possible to extend this link to older ice and thus reconstruct past changes in air temperature?; 2) to what extent are ice dynamics processes modifying the original climatic signal and 3) what is the best method to be used in extracting a climatic signal from stable isotopes in cave ice? To respond to these questions, we have conducted a modeling experiment, in which a theoretical cave ice stable isotope record was constructed using present-day observations on stable isotope behavior in cave ice and ice dynamics, and different methods (presently used for both polar and cave glaciers), were used to reconstruct the original, known, isotopic values. Our results show that it is possible to remove the effects of ice melting and refreezing on stable isotope composition of cave ice, and thus reconstruct the original isotopic signal, and further the climatic one.

  7. Isotopic study of oxygen diffusion in oxide coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.; Kren, Lawrence A.; Dever, Therese M.

    1989-01-01

    Diffusion of oxygen in thin films of silicon dioxide was studied using oxygen isotopically enriched in oxygen of atomic mass 18 (O-18). This subject is of interest because thin films of dielectrics such as SiO2 are proposed for use as a protective coatings for solar mirrors in low Earth orbit, which is a strongly oxidizing environment. Films of this material were prepared with a direct current magnetron using reactive sputtering techniques. To produce (O-18)- enriched SiO2, a standard 3.5-in.-diameter silicon wafer was reactively sputtered using (O-18)-enriched (95 percent) oxygen as the plasma feed gas. The films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) to establish stoichiometry and purity. Subsequently, the films were exposed to an air-derived oxygen plasma in a standard laboratory plasma reactor for durations of up to 10 hr. The concentration ratio of O-16 as a function of depth was determined using SIMS profiling and compared to a baseline, nonplasma exposed sample. A value for the diffusivity of oxygen near the surface of these films was obtained and found to be about 10(-15)sq cm/sec.

  8. Oxygen-isotope variations in post-glacial Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hladyniuk, Ryan; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2016-02-01

    The role of glacial meltwater input to the Atlantic Ocean in triggering the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling event has been the subject of controversy in recent literature. Lake Ontario is ideally situated to test for possible meltwater passage from upstream glacial lakes and the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) to the Atlantic Ocean via the lower Great Lakes. Here, we use the oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracode valves and clam shells from three Lake Ontario sediment cores to identify glacial meltwater contributions to ancient Lake Ontario since the retreat of the LIS (∼16,500 cal [13,300 14C] BP). Differences in mineralogy and sediment grain size are also used to identify changes in the hydrologic regime. The average lakewater δ18O of -17.5‰ (determined from ostracode compositions) indicates a significant contribution from glacial meltwater. Upon LIS retreat from the St. Lawrence lowlands, ancient Lake Ontario (glacial Lake Iroquois) lakewater δ18O increased to -12‰ largely because of the loss of low-18O glacial meltwater input. A subsequent decrease in lakewater δ18O (from -12 to -14‰), accompanied by a median sediment grain size increase to 9 μm, indicates that post-glacial Lake Ontario received a final pulse of meltwater (∼13,000-12,500 cal [11,100-10,500 14C] BP) before the onset of hydrologic closure. This meltwater pulse, which is also recorded in a previously reported brief freshening of the neighbouring Champlain Valley (Cronin et al., 2012), may have contributed to a weakening of thermohaline circulation in the Atlantic Ocean. After 12,900 cal [11,020 14C] BP, the meltwater presence in the Ontario basin continued to inhibit entry of Champlain seawater into early Lake Ontario. Opening of the North Bay outlet diverted upper Great Lakes water from the lower Great Lakes causing a period (12,300-8300 cal [10,400-7500 14C] BP) of hydrologic closure in Lake Ontario (Anderson and Lewis, 2012). This change is demarcated by a shift to higher δ18Olakewater

  9. Oxygen isotope fractionation of dissolved oxygen during reduction by ferrous iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Poulson, Simon R.

    2009-01-01

    The oxygen isotope fractionation factor of dissolved oxygen gas has been measured during inorganic reduction by aqueous FeSO 4 at 10-54 °C under neutral (pH 7) and acidic (pH 2) conditions, with Fe(II) concentrations ranging up to 0.67 mol L -1, in order to better understand the geochemical behavior of oxygen in ferrous iron-rich groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes. The rate of oxygen reduction increased with increasing temperature and increasing Fe(II) concentration, with the pseudo-first-order rate constant k ranging from 2.3 to 82.9 × 10 -6 s -1 under neutral conditions and 2.1 to 37.4 × 10 -7 s -1 under acidic conditions. The activation energy of oxygen reduction was 30.9 ± 6.6 kJ mol -1 and 49.7 ± 13.0 kJ mol -1 under neutral and acidic conditions, respectively. Oxygen isotope enrichment factors ( ɛ) become smaller with increasing temperature, increasing ferrous iron concentration, and increasing reaction rate under acidic conditions, with ɛ values ranging from -4.5‰ to -11.6‰. Under neutral conditions, ɛ does not show any systematic trends vs. temperature or ferrous iron concentration, with ɛ values ranging from -7.3 to -10.3‰. Characterization of the oxygen isotope fractionation factor associated with O 2 reduction by Fe(II) will have application to elucidating the process or processes responsible for oxygen consumption in environments such as groundwater and acidic mine pit lakes, where a number of possible processes (e.g. biological respiration, reduction by reduced species) may have taken place.

  10. Oxygen isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the middle atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao-Chang; Blake, Geoffrey A; Lewis, Brenton R; Yung, Yuk L

    2007-01-02

    The isotopic composition of long-lived trace molecules provides a window into atmospheric transport and chemistry. Carbon dioxide is a particularly powerful tracer, because its abundance remains >100 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in the mesosphere. Here, we successfully reproduce the isotopic composition of CO(2) in the middle atmosphere, which has not been previously reported. The mass-independent fractionation of oxygen in CO(2) can be satisfactorily explained by the exchange reaction with O((1)D). In the stratosphere, the major source of O((1)D) is O(3) photolysis. Higher in the mesosphere, we discover that the photolysis of (16)O(17)O and (16)O(18)O by solar Lyman-alpha radiation yields O((1)D) 10-100 times more enriched in (17)O and (18)O than that from ozone photodissociation at lower altitudes. This latter source of heavy O((1)D) has not been considered in atmospheric simulations, yet it may potentially affect the "anomalous" oxygen signature in tropospheric CO(2) that should reflect the gross carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere. Additional laboratory and atmospheric measurements are therefore proposed to test our model and validate the use of CO(2) isotopic fractionation as a tracer of atmospheric chemical and dynamical processes.

  11. Uranium Stable Isotopes: A Proxy For Productivity Or Ocean Oxygenation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    Uranium elemental abundances in sediments have traditionally been used to reconstruct primary productivity and carbon flux in the ocean. 238U/235U isotope compositions, in contrast, are currently understood to reflect the extent of bottom water anoxia in the ocean. A review of our current understanding of authigenic U enrichment mechanism into reducing sediments suggests that a revision of this interpretation is warranted. Specifically, the current interpretation of U isotope effects in suboxic vs. anoxic deposits has not taken into account the well-documented linear relationship with organic C burial rates. Although organic C rain rates (i.e., surface productivity) and bottom water oxygenation are clearly related, distinction between these two environmental controls is conceptually important as it relates to the mechanism of enhanced C burial and ultimately the strength of the biological pump. Here we will review new and existing data to test the hypothesis that the isotope composition of authigenic U in reducing sediments are best described by their relationship with parameters related to organic carbon delivery and burial, rather than bottom water oxygen concentration.

  12. Isotope fractionation during oxidation of tetravalent uranium by dissolved oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lundstrom, Craig C.

    2015-02-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate isotopic fractionations during oxidation of tetravalent uranium, U(IV), by dissolved oxygen. In hydrochloric acid media with the U(IV) dissolved, the δ238U value of the remaining U(IV) increased as the extent of oxidation increased. The δ238U value of the product U(VI) paralleled, but was offset to 1.1 ± 0.2‰ lower than the remaining U(IV). In contrast, oxidation of solid U(IV) by dissolved oxygen in 20 mM NaHCO3 solution at pH = 9.4 caused only a weak fractionation (∼0.1‰ to 0.3‰), with δ238U being higher in the dissolved U(VI) relative to the solid U(IV). We suggest that isotope fractionation during oxidation of solid U(IV) is inhibited by a "rind effect", where the surface layer of the solid U(IV) must be completely oxidized before the next layer is exposed to oxidant. The necessity of complete conversion of each layer results in minimal isotopic effect. The weak shift in δ238U of U(VI) is attributed to adsorption of part of the product U(VI) to the solid U(IV) surfaces.

  13. Crustal evolution reflected in seawater Sr and Nd isotope records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.

    2013-12-01

    Radiogenic isotope ratios record time-integrated parent-daughter ratios, and are thus sensitive to chemical composition and time. The oceans recieve the integrated runoff from the continental surface and preserve these signals in marine sedimentary records. Radiogenic isotope records of seawater and marine sediments have been reconstructed over the past five decades for many of the radiogenic isotope systems. For some systems (Sr) excellent records do exist that integrate seawater signals for the entire ocean. In contrast, globally averaged records of radiogenic isotopes with short marine residence times (Nd, Pb) are much more difficult to establish. Here, I attempt to link long-term (Phanerozoic) records of marine radiogenic isotope systems to records of the evolution of the continental surface that interacts with the hydrologic cycle. For the present we can show that the dissolved and particulate loads from the continents integrate different portions of the continental surface (Peucker-Ehrenbrink et al., 2010, G-cubed 11, doi: 10.1029/2009GC002869). For instance, the areas generating the dissolved load are characterized by significantly older bedrock (~400 Myr) than those generating the particulate load (~320 Myr). The fact that both are younger than the mean bedrock age of the non-glaciated, exorheic portion of the continental surface (~450 Myr) reflects the disproportionate role active margins, high-standing ocean island, and weathering and erosion of young sedimentary strata play in exporting dissolved matter and sedimnent to the oceans. Using present-day systematics as a guide, I argue that the first-order trough-like shape of the Phanerozoic marine Sr isotope record reflects the rejuvenation of the continental surface involved in exporting Sr to the ocean from the early Phanerozoic to the mid Jurassic that is followed by an 'aging' that continues into the Quaternary. This long-term evolution of the continental surface is mirrored by a similar - though more

  14. Oxygen isotope variations in phosphate of deer bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Boaz; Cormie, Allison B.; Schwarcz, Henry P.

    1990-06-01

    Variations of δ 18O of bone phosphate (δ p) of white tailed deer were studied in samples with wide geographic distribution in North America. Bones from the same locality have similar isotopic values, and the difference between specimens (0.4‰) is not large relative to the measurement error (0.3‰). The total range of δ p values is about 12‰. This indicates that deer use water from a relatively small area, and thus their δ p indicates local environmental conditions. Multiple regression analysis between oxygen isotope composition of deer bone phosphate and of local relative humidity and precipitation (δ w) yields a high correlation coefficient (0.95). This correlation is significantly better than the linear correlation (0.81) between δ p and δ w of precipitation alone. Thus δ p depends on both isotopic composition of precipitation and on relative humidity. This is because deer obtain most of their water from leaves, the isotopic composition of which is partly controlled by relative humidity through evaporation/transpiration.

  15. Isotopic records in CM hibonites: Implications for timescales of mixing of isotope reservoirs in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Goswami, Jitendra N.; Marhas, Kuljeet K.; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Ireland, Trevor R.; Davis, Andrew M.

    2009-09-01

    The magnesium isotopic compositions of 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions from the CM chondrite Murchison, as well as isotopic measurements on a subset of these samples for oxygen, titanium, and lithium-beryllium-boron are reported along with oxygen isotopic data for an additional 13 hibonites that were previously investigated for other isotope systems (magnesium, potassium, calcium, and titanium) and rare earth element concentrations. Magnesium isotopic compositions divide CM hibonites into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with their mineralogy and morphology, as previously discovered by Ireland [Ireland T. R. (1988) Correlated morphological, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of hibonites from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta52, 2827-2839]: Spinel-HIBonite spherules (SHIBs) bear evidence of in situ26Al decay, whereas PLAty-Crystals (PLACs) and Blue AGgregates (BAGs) either lack resolvable 26Mg-excesses or exhibit 26Mg deficits by up to ˜4‰. High precision, multiple collector SIMS analyses show that 6 of 7 SHIBs investigated fall on a single correlation line implying 26Al/ 27Al = (4.5 ± 0.2) × 10 -5 at the time of isotopic closure, consistent with the "canonical" 26Al abundance characteristic of internal isochrons in many calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). One SHIB sample exhibits Δ 26Mg ∗ consistent with a "supracanonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of (6.4 ± 0.5) × 10 -5. The PLAC hibonites contain highly anomalous titanium isotopic compositions, with δ 50Ti values ranging from -80‰ to almost +200‰, whereas SHIBs generally lack large Ti isotopic anomalies. Eight out of 11 26Al-free PLAC hibonite grains record 10B/ 11B excesses that correlate with Be/B; the inferred initial 10Be/ 9Be ratio of (5.1 ± 1.4) × 10 -4 is lower than the best-constrained 10Be/ 9Be of (8.8 ± 0.6) × 10 -4 in a CV CAI. The data demonstrate that 10Be cannot be used as a relative chronometer for these objects and that most of the

  16. Kinetic theory of oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Gregory, R.T.; Taylor, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Kinetic and mass conservation equations are used to describe oxygen isotopic exchange between minerals and water in "closed" and open hydrothermal systems. In cases where n coexisting mineral phases having different reaction rates are present, the exchange process is described by a system of n + 1 simultaneous differential equations consisting of n pseudo first-order rate equations and a conservation of mass equation. The simultaneous solutions to these equations generate curved exchange trajectories on ??-?? plots. Families of such trajectories generated under conditions allowing for different fluid mole fractions, different fluid isotopic compositions, or different fluid flow rates are connected by positive-sloped isochronous lines. These isochrons reproduce the effects observed in hydrothermally exchanged mineral pairs including 1) steep positive slopes, 2) common reversals in the measured fractionation factors (??), and 3) measured fractionations that are highly variable over short distances where no thermal gradient can be geologically demonstrated. ?? 1987.

  17. Oxygen isotope constraints on the alteration temperatures of CM chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Marrocchi, Yves; Avice, Guillaume; Roskosz, Mathieu; Gurenko, Andrey; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    We report a systematic oxygen isotopic survey of Ca-carbonates in nine different CM chondrites characterized by different degrees of alteration, from the least altered known to date (Paris, 2.7-2.8) to the most altered (ALH 88045, CM1). Our data define a continuous trend that crosses the Terrestrial Fractionation Line (TFL), with a general relationship that is indistinguishable within errors from the trend defined by both matrix phyllosilicates and bulk O-isotopic compositions of CM chondrites. This bulk-matrix-carbonate (BMC) trend does not correspond to a mass-dependent fractionation (i.e., slope 0.52) as it would be expected during fluid circulation along a temperature gradient. It is instead a direct proxy of the degree of O-isotopic equilibration between 17,18O-rich fluids and 16O-rich anhydrous minerals. Our O-isotopic survey revealed that, for a given CM, no carbonate is in O-isotopic equilibrium with its respective surrounding matrix. This precludes direct calculation of the temperature of carbonate precipitation. However, the O-isotopic compositions of alteration water in different CMs (inferred from isotopic mass-balance calculation and direct measurements) define another trend (CMW for CM Water), parallel to BMC but with a different intercept. The distance between the BMC and CMW trends is directly related to the temperature of CM alteration and corresponds to average carbonates and serpentine formation temperatures of 110 °C and 75 °C, respectively. However, carbonate O-isotopic variations around the BMC trend indicate that they formed at various temperatures ranging between 50 and 300 °C, with 50% of the carbonates studied here showing precipitation temperature higher than 100 °C. The average Δ17O and the average carbonate precipitation temperature per chondrite are correlated, revealing that all CMs underwent similar maximum temperature peaks, but that altered CMs experienced protracted carbonate precipitation event(s) at lower temperatures than

  18. Do foraminifera accurately record seawater neodymium isotope composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrivner, Adam; Skinner, Luke; Vance, Derek

    2010-05-01

    Palaeoclimate studies involving the reconstruction of past Atlantic meridional overturning circulation increasingly employ isotopes of neodymium (Nd), measured on a variety of sample media (Frank, 2002). In the open ocean, Nd isotopes are a conservative tracer of water mass mixing and are unaffected by biological and low-temperature fractionation processes (Piepgras and Wasserburg, 1987; Lacan and Jeandel, 2005). For decades, benthic foraminifera have been widely utilised in stable isotope and geochemical studies, but have only recently begun to be exploited as a widely distributed, high-resolution Nd isotope archive (Klevenz et al., 2008), potentially circumventing the difficulties associated with other methods used to recover past deep-water Nd isotopes (Klevenz et al., 2008; Rutberg et al., 2000; Tachikawa et al., 2004). Thus far, a single pilot study (Klevenz et al., 2008) has indicated that core-top sedimentary benthic foraminifera record a Nd isotope composition in agreement with the nearest available bottom seawater data, and has suggested that this archive is potentially useful on both millennial and million-year timescales. Here we present seawater and proximal core-top foraminifer Nd isotope data for samples recovered during the 2008 "RETRO" cruise of the Marion Dufresne. The foraminifer samples comprise a depth-transect spanning 3000m of the water column in the Angola Basin and permit a direct comparison between high-resolution water column and core-top foraminiferal Nd isotope data. We use these data to assess the reliability of both planktonic and benthic foraminifera as recorders of water column neodymium isotope composition. Frank, M., 2002. Radiogenic isotopes: Tracers of past ocean circulation and erosional input, Rev. Geophys., 40 (1), 1001, doi:10.1029/2000RG000094. Klevenz, V., Vance, D., Schmidt, D.N., and Mezger, K., 2008. Neodymium isotopes in benthic foraminifera: Core-top systematics and a down-core record from the Neogene south Atlantic

  19. Triple oxygen isotope evidence for elevated CO2 levels after a Neoproterozoic glaciation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Lyons, J R; Zhou, Chuanming

    2008-05-22

    Understanding the composition of the atmosphere over geological time is critical to understanding the history of the Earth system, as the atmosphere is closely linked to the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Although much of the history of the lithosphere and hydrosphere is contained in rock and mineral records, corresponding information about the atmosphere is scarce and elusive owing to the lack of direct records. Geologists have used sedimentary minerals, fossils and geochemical models to place constraints on the concentrations of carbon dioxide, oxygen or methane in the past. Here we show that the triple oxygen isotope composition of sulphate from ancient evaporites and barites shows variable negative oxygen-17 isotope anomalies over the past 750 million years. We propose that these anomalies track those of atmospheric oxygen and in turn reflect the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)) in the past through a photochemical reaction network linking stratospheric ozone to carbon dioxide and to oxygen. Our results suggest that P(CO2) was much higher in the early Cambrian than in younger eras, agreeing with previous modelling results. We also find that the (17)O isotope anomalies of barites from Marinoan (approximately 635 million years ago) cap carbonates display a distinct negative spike (around -0.70 per thousand), suggesting that by the time barite was precipitating in the immediate aftermath of a Neoproterozoic global glaciation, the P(CO2) was at its highest level in the past 750 million years. Our finding is consistent with the 'snowball Earth' hypothesis and/or a massive methane release after the Marinoan glaciation.

  20. A Carbonate Li Isotope Record Through Earth's History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asael, D.; Kalderon-Asael, B.; Planavsky, N.

    2016-12-01

    Lithium (Li) isotopes emerge as a powerful geochemical proxy for tracking continental weathering through time. Extensive work on Li fractionation in modern systems has brought to a profound understanding of the modern Li budget as well as to a consensus that marine carbonates faithfully record seawater Li isotope signature. As such record is essential in order to track global-scale changes in weathering processes and intensity through Earth's history, we have generated Li isotope data from marine carbonates from over 40 units, ranging in age from 3.0 Ga to modern. Preliminary results provide evidence for strongly inhibited weathering-mediated clay formation prior to the Paleozoic, which we attribute to the pre-Paleozoic lack of land plants. The initial rise in the Li isotope values is observed during the Ordovician, which is followed by a subsequent drop to background values and then begins the generally increasing trend that is already well reported. These findings are open for interpretation but they still support the view that the emergence of land plants dramatically changed the process of weathering and it seems that biomass has a potentially significant role in mineral breakdown in soils. Li isotopes provide a novel perspective on weathering and the impact on the Earth system of the rise of land plants - one of the most significant transitions in Earth's history.

  1. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the amphiboles: Isotope effects of cation substitutions in minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, M.J.; Valley, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of coexisting amphiboles in rocks and the likelihood of concurrent isotope closure allows equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations among the amphiboles to be recovered from natural samples. Oxygen isotope analyses of mineral separates using laser fluorination show that coexisting amphiboles increasingly partition {sup 18}O in the order: hornblende {much_lt} gedrite < cummingtonite {le} anthophyllite. The observed fractionations at {approximately}575 C are: {Delta}(Ged-Hbl) = 0.8%, {Delta}(Cum-Hbl) = 0.9, {Delta}(Cum-Ged) = 0.2, {Delta}(Ath-Ged) = 0.3, and {Delta}(Ath-Hbl) > 0.9. Previously published data for hornblende, actinolite, glaucophane, and garnet show that {Delta}(Act-Hbl) {approximately} 0.2, {Delta}(Gin-Grt) {much_gt} 1, and {Delta}(Hbl-Grt) {approximately} 0. Thus, glaucophane strongly partitions {sup 18}O relative to the calcic amphiboles. The fractionation between two amphiboles of arbitrary composition can be predicted from the known fractionations for mica endmembers, pyroxene endmembers, and exchange components. Applications of the exchange component method reproduce measured amphibole fractionations to within {+-}0.1 to {+-}0.2%, whereas other predictive methods cause misfit for typical metamorphic hornblende of {ge}0.5% at 575 C. Although the isotope effects of cation exchanges may be small at high-T, they magnify dramatically for minerals formed in surficial, diagenetic, and low-T metamorphic environments. Different composition clays are predicted to have equilibrium {delta}{sup 18}O differences of 2--9%. If the isotope fractionation can be determined for one mineral endmember, then calibrated exchanges allow accurate prediction of the isotope fractionations for intermediate compositions of most ortho-, ring-, chain-, and sheet-silicates.

  2. The Isotopic Record of Elevation Thresholds in Continental Plateaus to Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulch, A.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Graham, S. A.; Teyssier, C.; Cosca, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    High-elevation orogenic plateaus and mountain ranges exert a strong control on global climate and precipitation patterns and interact with lithospheric and upper mantle tectonic processes as well as atmospheric circulation. Reconstructing the history of surface elevation thus not only provides a critical link between erosional and tectonic processes but also ties Earth surface processes to the long-term climate history of our planet. This interaction, however, has important implications when using stable isotopes (O, H) as proxies for landscape and terrestrial climate evolution as interacting land surface properties (elevation, relief, vegetation cover) and atmospheric circulation patterns (upstream moisture path) may attain threshold conditions that can cloak or amplify the impact of topography on isotopes in precipitation. A large number of stable isotope studies in lacustrine and pedogenic environments of intermontane basins record the isotopic and sedimentologic fingerprint of the evolving landscape of the Cenozoic western North American Cordillera. In general we observe the onset of strong oxygen isotope in precipitation gradients along the eastward and westward flanks of the Cordilleran orogen and associated 18O-depleted moisture within the Cordilleran hinterland to develop no later than 50-55 Ma in British Columbia and Washington, 49 Ma in Montana, and 39-40 Ma in Nevada. However, some of these shifts to very low oxygen isotope compositions in meteoric water occur at rates that by far exceed those that could be attributed to tectonic surface uplift alone. Here we present a multi-proxy approach from the Elko Basin (NV) that ties stable and radiogenic tracers of landscape evolution with high resolution Ar-Ar geochronology. In pedogenic and lacustrine deposits of the Elko basin we observe a change in oxygen isotope ratios that is far too large (6-8 %) and rapid (<200 000 a) to be solely due to changes in elevation. Rather we suggest that the combined effects of

  3. Lightning and Mass Independent Oxygen Isotopic Fractionation in Nebular Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning has long been postulated as the agent of Chondru|e formation in the solar nebula, but it may have an additional role to play as well. Lightning bolts of almost any scale will both vaporize dust and liberate oxygen atoms that will then interact with both nebular gases as well as the refractory silicate vapor as it re-condenses. Such processes should result in the addition of the heavy oxygen isotopes to the growing silicate grains while the light oxygen-16 becomes part of the gas phase water. This process will proceed to some extent throughout the history of any turbulent nebula and will result in the gradual increase of O-16 in the gas phase and in a much larger relative increase in the O-17 and O-18 content of the nebular dust. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated the production of such "heavy oxygen enriched", non-mass-dependently-fractionated dust grains in a high voltage discharge in a hydrogen rich gas containing small quantities of silane, pentacarbonyl iron and oxygen.

  4. An Archean Terrestrial Fractionation Line for Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumble, D.; Blake, R. E.; Bao, H.; Bowring, S.; Komiya, T.; Rosing, M.; Ueno, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Terrestrial Fractionation Line (TFL) for oxygen isotopes is defined by 17O/16O and 18O/16O analyses of meteoric waters, seawater, sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks and constituent minerals. Interlaboratory measurements of the slope of the TFL on a plot of d18O vs. d17O revealed eclogitic garnets with a slope of 0.526 and hydrothermal quartz of 0.524 from rocks younger than 0.8 Ga (Giga years before present). New measurements show Archean metamorphic rocks and minerals from Barberton, (3.2 Ga, S. Africa), Isua (3.8 Ga, Greenland), and Acasta (4.0 Ga, Canada) have a slope of 0.524 +/- 0.002 (95% confidence, MSWD = 0.66). Analysis of Ag3PO4 prepared from apatite mineral separates from Isua meta-sediments gives a slope of 0.509 +/- 0.022 (95% confidence, MSWD = 0.59). Taken at face value, steeper slopes on a d17O vs. d18O diagram indicate an approach towards isotope exchange equilibrium. Lower slopes are expected when isotope fractionation is kinetically controlled. The lower slope of 0.509 for Isua apatite suggests that the formation of orthophosphate was kinetically controlled. Kinetic fractionations are known to occur during catalysis of reactions by enzymes secreted by microbes. Enzymatic catalysis confers an advantage on organisms because energy-producing reactions may be induced to occur at lower temperature conditions more accessible to the organism. May it be definitively concluded that enzymatic catalysis was responsible for the measured 0.509 slope? No, abiotic kinetic fractionation cannot be disproven with existing data. The preparation of Ag3PO4 from apatite may have introduced kinetic fractionation as an analytical artifact. Conclusions fully supported by the data suggest: (1) Mixing accompanying the violent birth of the Earth- Moon system had already succeeded in establishing Earth's current oxygen isotope composition by 4.0 Ga; and (2) No trace of an episode of late heavy meteorite bombardment remains in the oxygen isotope compositions of

  5. Climatic forcing of carbon-oxygen isotopic covariance in temperate-region marl lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, C. N.; Patterson, W. P.; Walker, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen stable isotopic compositions of lacustrine carbonate from a southeastern Michigan marl lake display linear covariance over a range of 4.0% Peedee belemnite (PDB) in oxygen and 3.9% (PDB) in carbon. Mechanisms of delta 13 C-delta 18 O coupling conventionally attributed to lake closure in arid-region basins are inapplicable to hydrologically open lake systems. Thus, an alternative explanation of isotopic covariance in temperate region dimictic marl lakes is required. We propose that isotopic covariance is a direct record of change in regional climate. In short-residence-time temperate-region lake basins, summer meteoric precipitation is enriched in 18O relative to winter values, and summer organic productivity enriches epilimnic dissolved inorganic carbon in 13C. Thus, climate change toward longer summers and/or shorter winters could result in greater proportions of warm-month meteoric precipitation, longer durations of warm-month productivity, and net long-term enrichment in carbonate 18O and 13C. Isotopic covariance observed in the Michigan marl lake cores is interpreted to reflect postglacial warming from 10 to 3 ka followed by cooler mean annual temperature, a shift toward greater proportions of seasonal summer precipitation, a shortening of the winter season, or some combination of these three factors.

  6. Oxygen Isotopes in porewater sulfate: evidence for unrecognized sulfur cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Sivan, O.; Schrag, D. P.

    2005-12-01

    Changes in the major element and related isotope profiles in porewaters of organic-rich sediments suggest that various microbial processes using a succession of electron acceptors are in play during the remineralization of organic matter. Of the electron acceptors, sulfate is by far the most abundant and bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is responsible for most organic matter remineralization in sediments. In addition, nearly all the methane produced during methanogenesis below the sulfate minimum zone is oxidized anaerobically through sulfate reduction (anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO)). In places where AMO occurs, recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of the sulfate is reduced by methane. This results in linear diffusive profiles of sulfate concentrations over tens and even hundreds of meters. Oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate (δ18OSO4) from porewater profiles from ODP leg 175 were measured to better understand microbial sulfur cycling and the coupling between sulfate reduction and methane oxidation. In these sites, sulfate concentrations are depleted with depth, mainly through AMO. The δ18OSO4profiles show a rapid increase near the top of all sites from seawater values of 9% to maximums between 22 and 25%. The δ18OSO4 remains enriched and constant (between 22 and 25%) through the rest of the core as sulfate is continually depleted, then decreases at the bottom of the core as sulfate is consumed in the zone of AMO. The δ18OSO4 increase at the top of the cores is difficult to explain without significant rates of sulfate reduction, yet reoxidation rates must approach 100 percent because of the lack of depletion in sulfate concentrations and lack of change in sulfur isotopes. This suggests that sulfate is recycled in the system. The isotopic decrease in δ18OSO4 into the zone of AMO in all cores indicates that isotopically heavier sulfate is preferentially reduced during sulfate reduction associated with methane oxidation.

  7. Oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of gases respired by humans.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, S; Zeiri, L

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen-isotope fractionation associated with respiration in human individuals at rest is linearly related to the fraction of the O2 utilized in the respiration process. The slope of this relationship is affected by a history of smoking, by vigorous exercise, and by the N2/O2 ratio of the inhaled gas. For patients who suffer anemia-related diseases, the slope of this relationship is directly proportional to their level of hemoglobin. These results introduce a new approach for studying the mechanisms of O2 consumption in human respiration and how they are affected by related diseases. PMID:3162303

  8. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  9. Kinetic control on Zn isotope signatures recorded in marine diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köbberich, Michael; Vance, Derek

    2017-08-01

    Marine diatoms dominate the oceanic cycle of the essential micronutrient zinc (Zn). The stable isotopes of zinc and other metals are increasingly used to understand trace metal micronutrient cycling in the oceans. One clear feature of the early isotope data is the heavy Zn isotope signature of the average oceanic dissolved pool relative to the inputs, potentially driven by uptake of light isotopes into phytoplankton cells and export to sediments. However, despite the fact that diatoms strip Zn from surface waters across the Antarctic polar front in the Southern Ocean, the local upper ocean is not isotopically heavy. Here we use culturing experiments to quantify the extent of Zn isotope fractionation by diatoms and to elucidate the mechanisms driving it. We have cultured two different open-ocean diatom species (T. oceanica and Chaetoceros sp.) in a series of experiments at constant medium Zn concentration but at bioavailable medium Fe ranging from limiting to replete. We find that T. oceanica can maintain high growth rates and Zn uptake rates over the full range of bioavailable iron (Fe) investigated, and that the Zn taken up has a δ66Zn that is unfractionated relative to that of the bioavailable free Zn in the medium. The studied representative of the genus Chaetoceros, on the other hand, shows more significantly reduced Zn uptake rates at low Fe and records more variable biomass δ66Zn signatures, of up to 0.85‰ heavier than the medium. We interpret the preferential uptake of heavy isotopes at extremely low Zn uptake rates as potentially due to either of the following two mechanisms. First, the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), at low Fe levels, may preferentially scavenge heavy Zn isotopes. Second, the Zn uptake rate may be slow enough to establish pseudo-equilibrium conditions at the transporter site, with heavy Zn isotopes forming more stable surface complexes. Thus we find that, in our experiments, Fe-limitation exerts a key control that

  10. Dentine oxygen isotopes (δ (18)O) as a proxy for odontocete distributions and movements.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Cory J D; Longstaffe, Fred J; Ferguson, Steven H

    2016-07-01

    Spatial variation in marine oxygen isotope ratios (δ (18)O) resulting from differential evaporation rates and precipitation inputs is potentially useful for characterizing marine mammal distributions and tracking movements across δ (18)O gradients. Dentine hydroxyapatite contains carbonate and phosphate that precipitate in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with body water, which in odontocetes closely tracks the isotopic composition of ambient water. To test whether dentine oxygen isotope composition reliably records that of ambient water and can therefore serve as a proxy for odontocete distribution and movement patterns, we measured δ (18)O values of dentine structural carbonate (δ (18) OSC) and phosphate (δ (18) OP) of seven odontocete species (n = 55 individuals) from regional marine water bodies spanning a surface water δ (18)O range of several per mil. Mean dentine δ (18) OSC (range +21.2 to +25.5‰ VSMOW) and δ (18) OP (+16.7 to +20.3‰) values were strongly correlated with marine surface water δ (18)O values, with lower dentine δ (18) OSC and δ (18) OP values in high-latitude regions (Arctic and Eastern North Pacific) and higher values in the Gulf of California, Gulf of Mexico, and Mediterranean Sea. Correlations between dentine δ (18) OSC and δ (18) OP values with marine surface water δ (18)O values indicate that sequential δ (18)O measurements along dentine, which grows incrementally and archives intra- and interannual isotopic composition over the lifetime of the animal, would be useful for characterizing residency within and movements among water bodies with strong δ (18)O gradients, particularly between polar and lower latitudes, or between oceans and marginal basins.

  11. Oxygen Isotope of Phytoliths in Modern Wetland Plants and the Application to Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Webb, E. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2009-05-01

    Because the oxygen-isotope composition of phytoliths in modern plants is controlled primarily by the oxygen- isotope composition of source water, temperature and relative humidity, isotope analyses of ancient phytoliths extracted from soils have the potential to reveal paleoclimate information. A controlled-temperature, growth- chamber experiment was conducted to determine the relationships among temperature, relative humidity, soil water evaporation, plant-water isotope composition and oxygen-isotope composition of phytoliths in cattails and horsetails. Typha, a cattail species that grows in wetland conditions, and Equisetum, a horsetail species that prefers dry soils, were each grown in four separate chambers at 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees Celsius. The oxygen- and hydrogen-isotope compositions of watering water, soil water, vapour in the growth chambers and plant water from the leaves and stems were analyzed throughout the eight-month long artificial growing season. The oxygen-isotope compositions of phytoliths extracted from the transpiring tissues of the plants at the end of the growing season were also analyzed.The results show that the oxygen-isotope composition of phytoliths is strongly correlated with oxygen isotope composition of average plant water from late growing season, rather than plant water extracted earlier in the season or from the stem, leaf-base or leaf- apex alone. As the temperature increases, the oxygen-isotope fractionation between phytoliths and plant water decreases. This trend is comparable to the oxygen-isotope thermometer equation developed by Shahack- Gross et al. (1996: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60, 3949-3953), but the separation in oxygen-isotope values between silica and water at a given temperature is about 4 ‰ lower. This discrepancy is likely from uncertainties in the oxygen-isotope value of leaf water at the site of phytolith precipitation, which varied over the growing season as a result of fluctuations in relative humidity and

  12. Three-Body Forces and the Limit of Oxygen Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuka, Takaharu; Suzuki, Toshio; Holt, Jason D.; Schwenk, Achim; Akaishi, Yoshinori

    2010-07-16

    The limit of neutron-rich nuclei, the neutron drip line, evolves regularly from light to medium-mass nuclei except for a striking anomaly in the oxygen isotopes. This anomaly is not reproduced in shell-model calculations derived from microscopic two-nucleon forces. Here, we present the first microscopic explanation of the oxygen anomaly based on three-nucleon forces that have been established in few-body systems. This leads to repulsive contributions to the interactions among excess neutrons that change the location of the neutron drip line from {sup 28}O to the experimentally observed {sup 24}O. Since the mechanism is robust and general, our findings impact the prediction of the most neutron-rich nuclei and the synthesis of heavy elements in neutron-rich environments.

  13. Carbon and oxygen isotope variations of the Middle-Late Triassic Al Aziziyah Formation, northwest Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, Mohamed S. H.; Pope, Michael C.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Mriheel, Ibrahim Y.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents the δ13C and δ18O records from whole rock samples of the Middle-Late Triassic (Ladinian-Carnian) Al Aziziyah Formation that were deposited on a gently sloping carbonate ramp within the Jifarah Basin of Northwest Libya. The Al Aziziyah Formation consists of gray limestone, dolomite, and dolomitic limestone interbedded with shale. The Ghryan Dome and Kaf Bates sections were sampled and analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy to integrate high-resolution carbon isotope data with an outcrop-based stratigraphy, to provide better age control of the Al Aziziyah Formation. This study also discusses the relation between the facies architecture of the Al Aziziyah Formation and the carbon isotope values. Seven stages of relative sea level rise and fall within the Ghryan Dome were identified based on facies stacking patterns, field observations and carbon stable isotopes. The Al Aziziyah Formation δ13C chemostratigraphic curve can be partially correlated with the Triassic global δ13C curve. This correlation indicates that the Al Aziziyah Formation was deposited during the Ladinian and early Carnian. No straight-forward relationship is seen between δ13C and relative sea level probably because local influences complicated systematic environmental and diagenetic isotopic effects associated with sea level change.

  14. In Situ Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Conodonts by SIMS and Its Implication for Paleo-sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Wang, R.; Tang, G.; Li, X.; Lv, J.; Zhuang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen isotope composition of biogenic apatite is potentially useful in paleotemperature reconstruction of contemporaneous surface seawater temperature (SST). Combined with abundant researches on their biostratigraphy, the geochemical analysis of conodonts contains more significant signatures indicating paleoenvironmental changes. However, the small size is always a limited factor for the accurate analysis. In this work, we tested the oxygen isotope of conodont using Cameca IMS-1280 secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the first time and acquired reliable records on contemporaneous SST. We found that SST raised rapidly following the Late Permian biocrisis, implying that the rapid increase in paleo-temperature may have been one of the crucial killers responsible for the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Compared with the previous Ag3PO4 method, our analysis technique is faster with both high resolution and high spatial resolution, so we can avoid the position easily contaminated during the late diagensis and acquire the original oxygen isotopic compositions.

  15. Oxygen isotope fractionation in ferric oxide-water systems: Low temperature synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiming; Koch, Paul L.

    1999-03-01

    The magnitude and temperature-sensitivity of oxygen isotope fractionation in ferric oxide-water systems remain uncertain. In this study, three different synthetic methods are used to investigate the temperature dependence of the fractionation between water and hematite, akaganeite, and goethite at near-surface temperatures. Our results reveal two similarities among these ferric oxide-water systems. First, the fractionation of oxygen isotopes between water and ferric oxide is small (i.e., ferric oxide-water fractionation factors [α] are very close to 1.000). Second, these α values are relatively insensitive to change in temperature ( T). Hematite-water has a slightly higher α value and a greater temperature sensitivity than goethite-water at surface temperatures. While the issue requires further study, we speculate that differences in the washing and drying protocols applied to final precipitates may be one of the factors that have contributed to the discrepancies among published α- T curves. Owing to the rapid exchange of oxygen among the various hydrolytic Fe(III) species and ambient water, oxygen isotope equilibrium is probably attained between water and the ferric oxide gels and poorly-ordered ferrihydrite that are the initial precipitates in nearly all natural settings. Aging experiments suggest that isotopic compositions carried by ferric oxide gels and ferrihydrite are almost entirely erased by later exchange with ambient water during the maturation processes leading to formation of either hematite or goethite. These results suggest that dissolution and reprecipitation occur in the supposedly "solid-state transformation" from ferrihydrite to hematite. Thus the δ 18O value of natural crystalline ferric oxides may provide a record of the long-term average δ 18O value of local surface water, rather than that of the water from which the solid ferric oxide first formed.

  16. Oxygen isotope variations in granulite-grade iron formations: constraints on oxygen diffusion and retrograde isotopic exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Z.D.; O'Neil, J.R.; Essene, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    The oxygen isotope ratios of various minerals were measured in a granulite-grade iron formation in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Estimates of temperature and pressure for the terrane using well calibrated geothermometers and geobarometers are 730??50?? C and 5.5??0.5 kbar. The mineral constraints on fluid compositions in the iron formation during retrogression require either very CO2-rich fluids or no fluid at all. In the iron formation, isotopic temperature estimates from quartz-magnetite fractionations are controlled by the proximity to the enclosing granitic gneiss, and range from 500?? C (??qz - mt=10.0???) within 2-3 meters of the orthogneiss contact to 600?? C (??qz - mt=8.0???) farther from the contact. Temperature estimates from other isotopic thermometers are in good agreement with those derived from the quartz-magnetite fractionations. During prograde metamorphism, the isotopic composition of the iron formation was lowered by the infiltration of an external fluid. Equilibrium was achieved over tens of meters. Closed-system retrograde exchange is consistent with the nearly constant whole-rock ??18Owr value of 8.0??0.6???. The greater ??qz-mt values in the iron formation near the orthogneiss contact are most likely due to a lower oxygen blocking temperature related to greater exchange-ability of deformed minerals at the contact. Cooling rates required to preserve the quartz-magnetite fractionations in the central portion of the iron formation are unreasonably high (???800?? C/Ma). In order to preserve the 600?? C isotopic temperature, the diffusion coefficient D (for ??-quartz) should be two orders of magnitude lower than the experimentally determined value of 2.5??10-16 cm2/s at 833 K. There are no values for the activation energy (Q) and pre-exponential diffusion coefficient (D0), consistent with the experimentally determined values, that will result in reasonable cooling rates for the Wind River iron formation. The discrepancy between the diffusion

  17. Oxygen isotope variations in granulite-grade iron formations: constraints on oxygen diffusion and retrograde isotopic exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Z. D.; O'Neil, J. R.; Essene, E. J.

    1988-04-01

    The oxygen isotope ratios of various minerals were measured in a granulite-grade iron formation in the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Estimates of temperature and pressure for the terrane using well calibrated geothermometers and geobarometers are 730±50° C and 5.5±0.5 kbar. The mineral constraints on fluid compositions in the iron formation during retrogression require either very CO2-rich fluids or no fluid at all. In the iron formation, isotopic temperature estimates from quartz-magnetite fractionations are controlled by the proximity to the enclosing granitic gneiss, and range from 500° C ( Δ qz - mt=10.0‰) within 2 3 meters of the orthogneiss contact to 600° C ( Δ qz - mt=8.0‰) farther from the contact. Temperature estimates from other isotopic thermometers are in good agreement with those derived from the quartz-magnetite fractionations. During prograde metamorphism, the isotopic composition of the iron formation was lowered by the infiltration of an external fluid. Equilibrium was achieved over tens of meters. Closed-system retrograde exchange is consistent with the nearly constant whole-rock δ 18Owr value of 8.0±0.6‰. The greater Δ qz-mt values in the iron formation near the orthogneiss contact are most likely due to a lower oxygen blocking temperature related to greater exchange-ability of deformed minerals at the contact. Cooling rates required to preserve the quartz-magnetite fractionations in the central portion of the iron formation are unreasonably high (˜800° C/Ma). In order to preserve the 600° C isotopic temperature, the diffusion coefficient D (for α-quartz) should be two orders of magnitude lower than the experimentally determined value of 2.5×10-16 cm2/s at 833 K. There are no values for the activation energy ( Q) and pre-exponential diffusion coefficient ( D 0), consistent with the experimentally determined values, that will result in reasonable cooling rates for the Wind River iron formation. The discrepancy between the

  18. Turnover of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the body water, CO 2, hair, and enamel of a small mammal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlesak, David W.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Ehleringer, James R.; Dearing, M. Denise; Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope signatures of animal tissues are strongly correlated with the isotope signature of local precipitation and as a result, isotope signatures of tissues are commonly used to study resource utilization and migration in animals and to reconstruct climate. To better understand the mechanisms behind these correlations, we manipulated the isotope composition of the drinking water and food supplied to captive woodrats to quantify the relationships between drinking water ( δdw), body water ( δbw), and tissue ( δt). Woodrats were fed an isotopically constant food but were supplied with isotopically depleted or enriched water. Some animals were switched between these waters, allowing simultaneous determination of body water turnover, isotope change recorded in teeth and hair, and fractional contributions of atmospheric O 2, drinking water, and food to the oxygen and hydrogen budgets of the animals. The half-life of the body water turnover was 3-6 days. A mass balance model estimated that drinking water, atmospheric O 2, and food were responsible for 56%, 30%, and 15% of the oxygen in the body water, respectively. Drinking water and food were responsible for 71% and 29% of the hydrogen in the body water, respectively. Published generalized models for lab rats and humans accurately estimated δbw, as did an updated version of a specific model for woodrats. The change in drinking water was clearly recorded in hair and tooth enamel, and multiple-pool and tooth enamel forward models closely predicted these changes in hair and enamel, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the drinking water strongly influence the composition of the body water and tissues such as hair and tooth enamel; however, food and atmospheric O 2 also contribute oxygen and/or hydrogen atoms to tissue. Controlled experiments allow researchers to validate models that estimate δt based on δdw and so will increase the reliability of estimates of resource utilization and climate

  19. Quantification of the impact of moisture source regions on the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation over Eagle Cave, central Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krklec, Kristina; Domínguez-Villar, David

    2014-06-01

    The 5-day reconstruction of air mass history for the days with precipitation at Eagle Cave (central Spain), together with the determination of moisture uptake locations along back trajectories, is used to identify the moisture sources of precipitation for this site from 2009 to 2011. During this 3-year period, around 30% of precipitation at Eagle Cave originated from the moisture recycled within the Iberian Peninsula (IP), with the Proximal Atlantic being also a main source region of moisture, whereas the Mediterranean Sea and the Distal Atlantic have large variability during the studied period and other source regions are minor precipitation contributors. The comparison of monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation at Eagle Cave with the monthly percentage of precipitation originated in source regions shows a significant negative correlation for the IP region. Thus, the moisture recycling process in the IP region explains 12% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation (p-value < 0.1). However, when temperature, amount of precipitation and all source regions are considered, 74% of the variability of the monthly oxygen isotope composition of precipitation is explained (p-value < 0.05). Therefore, although for Eagle Cave amount of precipitation and temperature are main contributors of the precipitation oxygen isotope variability (r2 = 0.54; p-value < 0.001), the moisture uptake distribution among source regions is a substantial control and should be considered when interpreting oxygen isotope speleothem records from this cave. This

  20. Unlocking the ice house: Oligocene-Miocene oxygen isotopes, eustasy, and margin erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.G. Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY ); Wright, J.D.; Fairbanks, R.G. )

    1991-04-10

    Benthic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O records place limits on the history of glaciation, suggesting the presence of ice sheets at least intermittently since the earliest Oligocene. The best indicator of ice growth is a coeval increase in global benthic and western equatorial planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records. Although planktonic isotope records from the western equatorial regions are limited, subtropical planktonic foraminifera may also record such ice volume changes. It is difficult to apply these established principles to the Cenozoic {delta}{sup 18}O record because of the lack of adequate data and problems in stratigraphic correlations that obscure isotope events. The authors improved Oligocene to Miocene correlations of {delta}{sup 18}O records and erected eight oxygen isotope zones (Oi1-Oi2, Mi1-Mi6). Benthic foraminiferal {delta}{sup 18}O increases which can be linked with {delta}{sup 18}O increases in subtropical planktonic foraminifera and with intervals of glacial sedimentation on or near Antarctica. These new correlations of middle Miocene benthic and western equatorial planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records show remarkable agreement in timing and amplitude. They interpret benthic-planktonic covariance to reflect substantial ice volume increases near the bases of Zones Mi2 (circa 16.1 Ma), Mi3 (circa 13.6 Ma), and possibly Mi5 (circa 11.3 Ma). Possible glacioeustatic lowerings are associated with the {delta}{sup 18}O increases which culminated with the bases of Zone Mi4 (circa 12.6 Ma) and Mi6 (circa 9.6 Ma), although low-latitude planktonic {delta}{sup 18}O records are required to test this. These inferred glacioeustatic lowerings can be linked to seismic and rock disconformities.

  1. Oxygen isotope thermometry of basic lavas and mantle nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyser, T.K.; O'Neil, J.R.; Carmichael, I.S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the oxygen isotope and chemical composition of glass and phenocrysts in lavas and coexisting minerals in mantle nodules. Temperatures of formation of these assemblages have been estimated from various chemical thermometers and range from 855?? to 1,300?? C. The permil fractionations between coexisting orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the lavas and nodules are all near zero. The fractionations between pyroxene and olivine vary from +1.2 to -1.4 and are a smooth function of temperature over the entire range. This function is given by T(?? C)=1151-173?? (px-d)-68??2(px-d) and has an uncertainty of ??60?? (2??). At temperatures above 1,150?? C, olivine in the nodules becomes more18O-rich than coexisting clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and plagioclase. In combination with the experimental work of Muehlenbachs and Kushiro (1974), the olivine-pyroxene fractionations indicate that olivine also becomes substantially more18O-rich than basaltic liquids above 1,200?? C. Geothermometers based on the oxygen isotope equilibration of basaltic liquid with olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase are presented. ?? 1981 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Oxygen isotope fractionation between hydroxide minerals and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei

    The modified increment method has been applied to the calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation factors for hydroxide minerals. The results suggest the following sequence of 18O-enrichment in the common hydroxides: limonite > gibbsite > goethite > brucite > diaspore. The hydroxides are significantly enriched in 18O relative to the corresponding oxides. The sequence of 18O-enrichment in the hydroxides and oxides of trivalent cations is as follows: M(OH)3 > MO(OH) > M2O3. There are also considerable fractionations within the polymorphos of Al(OH)3. The internally consistent fractionation factors for hydroxide-water systems are obtained for the temperature range of 0 to 1200 °C, which are comparable with the data derived from synthesis experiments and natural samples at surficial temperatures. Temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionations between goethite, gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore and water are significant enough for the purpose of geothermometry. Thus the hydroxide-water pairs hold great promise of serving as reliable paleothermometers in surficial geological environments.

  3. Sources and Contributions of Oxygen During Microbial Pyrite Oxidation: the Triple Oxygen Isotopes of Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, K.; Coleman, M. L.; Mielke, R. E.; Young, E. D.

    2008-12-01

    The triple isotopes of oxygen (Δ17O' = δ17O'-0.528 × δ18O' using logarithmic deltas) can trace the oxygen sources of sulfate produced during sulfide oxidation, an important biogeochemical process on Earth's surface and possibly also on Mars [1]. δ18OSO4 compositions are determined by the isotopic selectivity of the mechanism(s) responsible for their changes, and the δ18O value of the reactants (O2 vs. H2O). The relative proportional importance and contribution of each of those sources and mechanisms, as well as their associated isotopic fractionations, are not well understood. We are investigating the use of Δ 17O as a quantitative and qualitative tracer for the different processes and oxygen sources involved in sulfate production. Δ17O signatures are distinct fingerprints of these reservoirs, independent of fractionation factors that can be ambiguous. We conducted controlled abiotic and biotic (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, A.f.) laboratory experiments in which water was spiked with 18O, allowing us to quantify the sources of sulfate oxygen and therefore the processes attending sulfate formation. Results of this Δ17O tracer study show that A.f. microbes initiate pyrite S-oxidation within hours of exposure, and that sulfate is produced from ~90% atmospheric oxygen. This initial lag-phase (< 3 days) is characterized by subtle and multiple changes in oxygen source and contribution that is likely due to the adjustment of the microbial metabolism from S to Fe2+-oxidation. A more detailed understanding of the microbial mechanisms and behavior in the initial lag-phase will aid in the understanding of the ecological conditions required for microbial populations to establish and survive. An exponential phase of growth, facilitated by microbial Fe2+-oxidation, follows. The source of sulfate rapidly switches to abiotic sulfide oxidation during exponential growth and the source of oxygen switches from atmospheric O2 to nearly ~100% water. Pending acquisition of

  4. A non-mass-dependent oxygen isotope effect in the production of ozone from molecular oxygen - The role of molecular symmetry in isotope chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidenreich, J. E., III; Thiemens, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It was previously reported that the reaction products from the synthesis of ozone in an electric discharge through molecular oxygen display a nonmass-dependent (NoMaDic) oxygen isotope effect. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the isotope effect, including the effect of molecular oxygen pressure, and the presence of a chemically inert third body (helium), is reported. The NoMaDic effect is due to an isotopically selective stabilization of the O3 formation reaction intermediate, possibly resulting from the ability of the different isotopomers to exhibit different molecular symmetries.

  5. Oxygen isotope perspective on Precambrian crustal growth and maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, W.H.; King, E.M.; Valley, J.W.

    2000-04-01

    In this study the authors contrast insights on Precambrian crustal growth and maturation from radiogenic and oxygen isotope systematics in the Superior (3.0--2.7 Ga) and Grenville (1.3--1.0 Ga) Provinces of the Canadian shield. Oxygen isotope ratios in zircon provide the best evidence of supracrustal input into ancient orogens. Archean Superior Province zircons have relatively low {delta}{sup 18}O values and a limited range (5.7{per_thousand} {+-} 0.6{per_thousand}), while Proterozoic Grenville Province zircons have elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values and a wider range (8.2{per_thousand} {+-} 1.7{per_thousand}). These data reflect fundamental differences in crustal evolution and maturation between the Superior and the Grenville Provinces. In the Grenville Province, radiogenically juvenile supracrustal material with high {delta}{sup 18}O values was buried (or subducted) to the base of the crust within 150 m.y. of initial crust production, causing high magmatic {delta}{sup 18}O values ({delta}{sup 18}O [zircon] {ge} 8{per_thousand}) in anorthosite suite and subsequent plutons. Information about large volumes and rapid recycling of Grenville crust is not accessible from radiogenic isotope data alone. The Grenville data contrast with the restricted {delta}{sup 18}O values of Superior Province magmatism, where subtle ({approximately}1{per_thousand}) elevation in {delta}{sup 18}O occurs only in volumetrically minor, late to postorogenic (sanukitoid) plutons. Differences in sediment {delta}{sup 18}O values between the Superior and Grenville Provinces are predominantly a function of the {delta}{sup 18}O of source materials, rather than differences in chemical maturity or erosion styles. This study shows that zircon is a robust reference mineral to compare igneous processes in rocks that have undergone radically different histories.

  6. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Legendre, Serge; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Adolfssen, Jan; André, Aurore; Bojar, Ana Voica; Canoville, Aurore; Barral, Abel; Goedert, Jean; Halas, Stanislaw; Kusuhashi, Nao; Pestchevitskaya, Ekaterina; Rey, Kevin; Royer, Aurélien; Saraiva, Antônio Álamo Feitosa; Savary-Sismondini, Bérengère; Siméon, Jean-Luc; Touzeau, Alexandra; Zhou, Zhonghe; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ18Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ18Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ18Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16.0 to -1.0‰ V-SMOW). Linear least square fitting of data provided the following isotopic fractionation equation: δ18Ow = 1.119 (±0.040) δ18Op - 24.222 (±0.644); R 2 = 0.98. The δ18Op-δ18Ow couples of five extant mallard ducks, a common buzzard, a European herring gull, a common ostrich, and a greater rhea fall within the predicted range of the equation, indicating that the relationship established for extant chickens can also be applied to birds of various ecologies and body masses. Applied to published oxygen isotope compositions of Miocene and Pliocene penguins from Peru, this new equation computes estimates of local seawater similar to those previously calculated. Applied to the basal bird Confuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China, our equation gives a slightly higher δ18Ow value compared to the previously estimated one, possibly as a result of lower body temperature. These data indicate that caution should be exercised when the relationship estimated for modern birds is applied to their basal counterparts that likely had a metabolism intermediate between that of their theropod dinosaur ancestors and that of advanced ornithurines.

  7. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird bone phosphate and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Legendre, Serge; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Adolfssen, Jan; André, Aurore; Bojar, Ana Voica; Canoville, Aurore; Barral, Abel; Goedert, Jean; Halas, Stanislaw; Kusuhashi, Nao; Pestchevitskaya, Ekaterina; Rey, Kevin; Royer, Aurélien; Saraiva, Antônio Álamo Feitosa; Savary-Sismondini, Bérengère; Siméon, Jean-Luc; Touzeau, Alexandra; Zhou, Zhonghe; Lécuyer, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions of bone phosphate (δ(18)Op) were measured in broiler chickens reared in 21 farms worldwide characterized by contrasted latitudes and local climates. These sedentary birds were raised during an approximately 3 to 4-month period, and local precipitation was the ultimate source of their drinking water. This sampling strategy allowed the relationship to be determined between the bone phosphate δ(18)Op values (from 9.8 to 22.5‰ V-SMOW) and the local rainfall δ(18)Ow values estimated from nearby IAEA/WMO stations (from -16.0 to -1.0‰ V-SMOW). Linear least square fitting of data provided the following isotopic fractionation equation: δ(18)Ow = 1.119 (±0.040) δ(18)Op - 24.222 (±0.644); R (2) = 0.98. The δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow couples of five extant mallard ducks, a common buzzard, a European herring gull, a common ostrich, and a greater rhea fall within the predicted range of the equation, indicating that the relationship established for extant chickens can also be applied to birds of various ecologies and body masses. Applied to published oxygen isotope compositions of Miocene and Pliocene penguins from Peru, this new equation computes estimates of local seawater similar to those previously calculated. Applied to the basal bird Confuciusornis from the Early Cretaceous of Northeastern China, our equation gives a slightly higher δ(18)Ow value compared to the previously estimated one, possibly as a result of lower body temperature. These data indicate that caution should be exercised when the relationship estimated for modern birds is applied to their basal counterparts that likely had a metabolism intermediate between that of their theropod dinosaur ancestors and that of advanced ornithurines.

  8. Fractionation of Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes During Microbial Nitrate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, M. F.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Reichert, P.; Barbieri, A.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Lakes represent an important continental sink of fixed nitrogen. Besides the burial of particulate nitrogen, fixed nitrogen is eliminated from lakes by emission of N2 and N2O to the atmosphere during dissimilative nitrate reduction within suboxic and anoxic waters or sediments. The understanding and quantification of this efficient nitrogen removal process in eutrophic lakes is crucial for nitrogen budget modelling and the application and evaluation of lake restoration measures. In order to use natural abundance N and O isotope ratios as tracers for microbial nitrate reduction and to obtain quantitative estimates on its intensity, it is crucial to constrain the associated isotope fractionation. This is the first report of nitrogen and oxygen isotope effects associated with microbial nitrate reduction in lacustrine environments. Nitrate reduction in suboxic and anoxic waters of the southern basin of Lake Lugano (Switzerland) is demonstrated by a progressive nitrate depletion coupled to increasing δ 15N and δ 18O values for residual nitrate. 15N and 18O enrichment factors (ɛ ) were estimated using a closed-system (Rayleigh-distillation) model and a dynamic reaction-diffusion model. Calculated enrichment factors ɛ ranged between -11.2 and -22‰ for 15N and between -6.6 and -11.3‰ for 18O with both nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation being greatest during times with the highest nitrate reduction rates. The closed-system model neglects vertical diffusive mixing and does not distinguish between sedimentary and water-column nitrate reduction. Therefore, it tends to underestimate the intrinsic isotope effect of microbial nitrate reduction. Based upon results from earlier studies that indicate that nitrate reduction in sediments displays a highly reduced N-isotope effect (Brandes and Devol, 1997), model-derived enrichment factors could be used to discern the relative importance of nitrate reduction in the water column and in the sediment. Sedimentary nitrate

  9. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2012-09-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and kitchen middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (< ~19), because the mussels appear to cease growing. This implies that M. edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and kitchen middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  10. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteegh, E. A. A.; Blicher, M. E.; Mortensen, J.; Rysgaard, S.; Als, T. D.; Wanamaker, A. D., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland), where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow) values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (< ~ 19), because the mussels appear to cease growing. This implies that Mytilus edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid-region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south-north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  11. New views on the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, B.

    2001-05-01

    Air oxygen is enriched in O-18 with respect to ocean water by about 23 permil. This enrichment is named "Dole effect" after its discoverer. Air oxygen originates from marine and terrestrial photosynthesis that produces oxygen gas without fractionation with respect to the substrate water. The O-18 enrichment results primarily from preferential removal of O-16 during respiratory uptake. However, the discrimination against O-18 in ordinary dark respiration is only 18 permil, and cannot account for the entire magnitude of the Dole effect. Part of the discrepancy may be explained by enrichment of the substrate water in terrestrial evapo-transpiration. But the existing evidence on the magnitude of this enrichment shows that this mechanism alone cannot explain the discrepancy. In an attempt to better understand the Dole effect we have studied the overall fractionation in soil and aquatic oxygen uptake. Due to slow gas diffusion in soils and roots the discrimination is smaller than in respiration. This result thus increases the discrepancy. On the other hand, our new estimates show that discrimination in aquatic oxygen uptake is considerably greater than previously assumed. Oxygen uptake in the surface waters of oceans and lakes takes place by ordinary dark respiration as well as by cyanide resistant respiration in both dark and light conditions, and by photorespiration and Mehler reaction that occur only during illumination. Thus in order to study the overall discrimination in aquatic systems it is necessary to evaluate its effects in both light and dark conditions and to separate the effect of photosynthetic production of oxygen. Such separation is possible if gross rates of oxygen production and consumption are known. We have estimated these rates from in situ incubation experiments and from the natural distribution of O-16, O-17, O-18 and the ratio of dissolved oxygen/argon. We have used isotopic and elemental budgets to derive the overall respiratory fractionation in

  12. The triple isotopic composition of oxygen in leaf water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, A.; Barkan, E.; Yakir, D.; Luz, B.

    2006-08-01

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 depends on the rates of oxygen cycling in photosynthesis, respiration, photochemical reactions in the stratosphere and on δ17O and δ18O of ocean and leaf water. While most of the factors affecting δ17O and δ18O of air O 2 have been studied extensively in recent years, δ17O of leaf water—the substrate for all terrestrial photosynthesis—remained unknown. In order to understand the isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 at present and in fossil air in ice cores, we studied leaf water in field experiments in Israel and in a European survey. We measured the difference in δ17O and δ18O between stem and leaf water, which is the result of isotope enrichment during transpiration. We calculated the slopes of the lines linking the isotopic compositions of stem and leaf water. The obtained slopes in ln( δ17O + 1) vs. ln( δ18O + 1) plots are characterized by very high precision (˜0.001) despite of relatively large differences between duplicates in both δ17O and δ18O (0.02-0.05‰). This is so because the errors in δ18O and δ17O are mass-dependent. The slope of the leaf transpiration process varied between 0.5111 ± 0.0013 and 0.5204 ± 0.0005, which is considerably smaller than the slope linking liquid water and vapor at equilibrium (0.529). We further found that the slope of the transpiration process decreases with atmospheric relative humidity ( h) as 0.522-0.008 × h, for h in the range 0.3-1. This slope is neither influenced by the plant species, nor by the environmental conditions where plants grow nor does it show strong variations along long leaves.

  13. Developing stable isotopic records from organic material preserved in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, A.; Baker, A.

    2011-12-01

    Speleothems form excellent archives of environmental change as they are easy to date and preserve multiple environmental records. However, although the stable isotopic composition of speleothem calcite is well characterised, the isotopic composition of organic matter in speleothems has not been investigated in-depth. The approach has considerable potential value in providing isotopic records directly linked to the overlying ecosystem. For stable carbon isotopes, this will provide records independent of the calcite signal, and enable identification of the local primary controls (vegetation type, climate, soil conditions). However, the detailed measurement of isotopic records in speleothem organic matter is hindered by methodological constraints, including extraction of sufficient material, and recovery without adding carbon contamination. Here we present results from a number of methodological techniques and discuss which show most potential for future palaeoenvironmental work. Isotopic records in organic matter can be divided into two main types - analyses of the bulk organic fraction, and compound-specific analyses of molecules of interest (e.g. plant waxes, bacterial lipids etc.). From the point of view of sample size, bulk analysis is the most amenable. Our work shows that TOC in stalagmites can be as low as <0.1 mg/g calcite. However, this is still sufficient to produce bulk organic signals at a sample size of between 100 and 500 mg of calcite powder, which provides a workable temporal resolution at a decadal-centennial scale on many samples. The main obstacle is the recovery of bulk organics without carbon contamination, but whilst avoiding excess acid salts which might damage the instrumentation. One method we propose is the use of an iTOC-CDRS analyser, which measures total organic carbon, and also 12C and 13C isotopes. The approach has the advantage of requiring minimal sample preparation, with drilled powders simply being dissolved in acid. The major

  14. Sulfur isotopic zoning in apatite crystals: A new record of dynamic sulfur behavior in magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economos, Rita; Boehnke, Patrick; Burgisser, Alain

    2017-10-01

    The mobility and geochemical behavior of sulfur in magmas is complex due to its multi-phase (solid, immiscible liquid, gaseous, dissolved ions) and multi-valent (from S2- to S6+) nature. Sulfur behavior is closely linked with the evolution of oxygen fugacity (fO2) in magmas; the record of fO2 evolution is often enigmatic to extract from rock records, particularly for intrusive systems. We apply a novel method of measuring S isotopic ratios in zoned apatite crystals that we interpret as a record of open-system magmatic processes. We interrogate the S concentration and isotopic variations preserved in multiple apatite crystals from single hand specimens from the Cadiz Valley Batholith, CA via electron microprobe and ion microprobe. Isotopic variations in single apatite crystals ranged from 0 to 3.8‰ δ34S and total variation within a single hand sample was 6.1‰ δ34S. High S concentration cores yielded high isotopic ratios while low S concentration rims yielded low isotopic ratios. We discuss a range of possible natural scenarios and favor an explanation of a combination of magma mixing and open-system, ascent-driven degassing under moderately reduced conditions: fO2 at or below NNO+1, although the synchronous crystallization of apatite and anhydrite is also a viable scenario. Our conclusions have implications for the coupled S and fO2 evolution of granitic plutons and suggest that in-situ apatite S isotopic measurements could be a powerful new tool for evaluating redox and S systematics in magmatic systems.

  15. Oxygen isotope fractionation between human phosphate and water revisited.

    PubMed

    Daux, Valérie; Lécuyer, Christophe; Héran, Marie-Anne; Amiot, Romain; Simon, Laurent; Fourel, François; Martineau, François; Lynnerup, Niels; Reychler, Hervé; Escarguel, Gilles

    2008-12-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of human phosphatic tissues (delta18OP) has great potential for reconstructing climate and population migration, but this technique has not been applied to early human evolution. To facilitate this application we analyzed delta18OP values of modern human teeth collected at 12 sites located at latitudes ranging from 4 degrees N to 70 degrees N together with the corresponding oxygen composition of tap waters (delta18OW) from these areas. In addition, the delta18O of some raw and boiled foods were determined and simple mass balance calculations were performed to investigate the impact of solid food consumption on the oxygen isotope composition of the total ingested water (drinking water+solid food water). The results, along with those from three, smaller published data sets, can be considered as random estimates of a unique delta18OW/delta18OP linear relationship: delta18OW=1.54(+/-0.09)xdelta18OP-33.72(+/-1.51)(R2=0.87: p [H0:R2=0]=2x10(-19)). The delta18O of cooked food is higher than that of the drinking water. As a consequence, in a modern diet the delta18O of ingested water is +1.05 to 1.2 per thousand higher than that of drinking water in the area. In meat-dominated and cereal-free diets, which may have been the diets of some of our early ancestors, the shift is a little higher and the application of the regression equation would slightly overestimate delta18OW in these cases.

  16. The Oxygen Isotope Composition of Dark Inclusions in HEDs, Ordinary and Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Zolensky, M. E.; Buchanan, P. C.; Franchi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dark inclusions (DIs) are lithic fragments that form a volumetrically small, but important, component in carbonaceous chondrites. Carbonaceous clasts similar to DIs are also found in some ordinary chondrites and HEDs. DIs are of particular interest because they provide a record of nebular and planetary processes distinct from that of their host meteorite. DIs may be representative of the material that delivered water and other volatiles to early Earth as a late veneer. Here we focus on the oxygen isotopic composition of DIs in a variety of settings with the aim of understanding their formational history and relationship to the enclosing host meteorite.

  17. Oxygen isotope activities and concentrations in aqueous salt solutions at elevated temperatures: Consequences for isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the effect of dissolved salts on the oxygen isotope activity ratio of water have been extended to 275??C. Dehydrated salts were added to water of known isotope composition and the solutions were equilibrated with CO2 which was sampled for analysis. For comparison similar studies were made using pure water. Results on water nearly coincide with earlier calculations. Salt effects diminish with increasing temperature only for solutions of MgCl2 and LiCl. Other salt solutions show complex behavior due to the temperature-dependent formation of ion pairs of changing character. Equilibrium fractionations (103 ln ??) between 1 molal solutions and pure water at 25, 100, and 275??C are: NaCl 0.0, -1.5, +1.0; KCl 0.0, -1.0, +2.0; LiCl -1.0, -0.6, -0.5; CaCl2 -0.4, -1.8, +0.8; MgCl2 -1.1, -0.7, -0.3; MgSO4 -1.1, +0.1, -; NaF (0.8 m) 0.0, -1.5, -0.3; and NH4Cl (0.55 m) 0.0, -1.2, -1.3. These effects are significant in the isotope study of hot saline fluids responsible for ore deposition and of fluids found in certain geothermal systems. Minor modification of published isotope geothermometers may be required. ?? 1974.

  18. Skeletal isotope records of growth perturbations in Porites corals during the 1997-1998 mass bleaching event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Gagan, M.; Fabricius, K.; Isdale, P.; Yukino, I.; Kawahata, H.

    2003-04-01

    Severe coral bleaching occurred throughout the tropics in 1997/98. We report skeletal UV fluorescence, oxygen isotope, and carbon isotope evidence for perturbations in coral skeletal growth due to bleaching at Ishigaki Island, Japan, and Pandora Reef, Great Barrier Reef. Bleached corals showed abrupt reductions in skeletal extension rate immediately after summer temperature maxima, indicating that bleaching inhibits coral calcification. A colony growing at the low tide line in Ishigaki exhibited clear blue UV fluorescent bands associated with recurrent growth interruptions. Based on the length of time-gaps observed in the annual isotopic cycle, the typical time required for a coral to recover from bleaching is estimated to be about 5--6 months. The effect of bleaching on the oxygen isotope ratio -- temperature relationship was negligible. However, the Ishigaki corals showed lower carbon isotope ratios during bleaching indicating depressed coral metabolism associated with a reduction in calcification. In contrast, skeletal carbon isotope ratios in the Pandora Reef corals exhibited little change in response to bleaching. This is because the records for Pandora Reef were derived from the shaded sides of coral colonies, where algal photosynthesis was particularly slow prior to bleaching, thus subduing the carbon isotope response to bleaching. Taken together, the isotopic and UV fluorescence signals can be used to reconstruct past bleaching events.

  19. Stable Isotopic Variations in Columnar Cacti: are Responses to Climate Recorded in Spines?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Dettman, D. L.; Williams, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The behavior of the North American monsoon (NAM), particularly with respect to times of continental drought and its relationship to the Pacific-North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and water managers. Long-term instrumental precipitation and tree ring records in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico at low elevations are sparse and this has hindered research on NAM variability at interannual timescales. Saguaro cacti (Carnegiea gigantea) and other columnar cacti in North and South America are long-lived and have the potential to record climate variability on land with high temporal and spatial resolution. The vertical sequence of spines on the saguaro's exterior represents a high resolution (4 to 6 per year), and long (over 150 years) record of environmental change. We present results from an experiment where we tracked the oxygen isotopic values in the source waters, stem tissue waters and spine tissue for three treatments over the course of three months. These data are then compared to a previously developed mechanistic model of isotopic variation that reflects the physiological responses of Saguaro to climate variation over seasonal to century long time-scales. We also present the rationale for a new method to determine the growth rate of columnar cacti using the radiocarbon bomb spike. Our measurements reveal that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic variation among the sequentially produced and persistent spines covering the saguaro body record fluctuations in saguaro water balance. The model successfully predicts isotopic variation in spines and constrains controlling variables, yielding a powerful and high-resolution stable isotope index of water stress in the low desert. The development and refinement of an isotopic model for saguaro will serve as the basis for models applied to other species of columnar cacti in North and South America. The role of the

  20. Oxygen isotopes in garnet and accessory minerals to constrain fluids in subducted crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Gauthiez-Putallaz, Laure; Regis, Daniele; Rosa Scicchitano, Maria; Vho, Alice; Williams, Morgan

    2017-04-01

    Fluids are considered a fundamental agent for chemical exchanges between different rock types in the subduction system. Constraints on the sources and pathways of subduction fluids thus provide crucial information to reconstruct subduction processes. Garnet and U-Pb accessory minerals constitute some of the most robust and ubiquitous minerals in subducted crust and can preserve multiple growth zones that track the metamorphic evolution of the sample they are hosted in. Microbeam investigation of the chemical (major and trace elements) and isotopic composition (oxygen and U-Pb) of garnet and accessory minerals is used to track significant fluid-rock interaction at different stages of the subduction system. This approach requires consideration of the diffusivity of oxygen isotopes particularly in garnet, which has been investigated experimentally. The nature of the protolith and ocean floor alteration is preserved in relict accessory phases within eclogites that have been fully modified at HP conditions (e.g. Monviso and Dora Maira units in the Western Alps). Minerals in the lawsonite-blueschists of the Tavsanli zone in Turkey record pervasive fluid exchange between mafic and sedimentary blocks at the early stage of subduction. High pressure shear zones and lithological boundaries show evidence of intense fluid metasomatism at depth along discontinuities in Monviso and Corsica. In the UHP oceanic crust of the Zermatt-Saas Zone, garnet oxygen isotopes and tourmaline boron isotopes indicate multistage fluid infiltration during prograde metamorphism. Localized exchanges of aqueous fluids are also observed in the subducted continental crust of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone. In most cases analyses of distinct mineral zones enable identification of multiple pulses of fluids during the rock evolution.

  1. Ocean redox structure across the Late Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event: A nitrogen isotope perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ader, Magali; Sansjofre, Pierre; Halverson, Galen P.; Busigny, Vincent; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.

    2014-06-01

    The end of the Neoproterozoic Era (1000 to 541 Ma) is widely believed to have seen the transition from a dominantly anoxic to an oxygenated deep ocean. This purported redox transition appears to be closely linked temporally with metazoan radiation and extraordinary perturbations to the global carbon cycle. However, the geochemical record of this transition is not straightforward, and individual data sets have been variably interpreted to indicate full oxygenation by the early Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) and deep ocean anoxia persevering as late as the early Cambrian. Because any change in marine redox structure would have profoundly impacted nitrogen nutrient cycling in the global ocean, the N isotope signature of sedimentary rocks (δ15Nsed) should reflect the Neoproterozoic deep-ocean redox transition. We present new N isotope data from Amazonia, northwest Canada, northeast Svalbard, and South China that span the Cryogenian glaciations (˜750 to 580 Ma). These and previously published data reveal a N-isotope distribution that closely resembles modern marine sediments, with a mode in δ15N close to +4‰ and range from -4 to +11‰. No apparent change is seen between the Cryogenian and Ediacarian. Data from earlier Proterozoic samples show a similar distribution, but shifted slightly towards more negative δ15N values and with a wider range. The most parsimonious explanation for the similarity of these N-isotope distribution is that as in the modern ocean, nitrate (and hence O2) was stable in most of the middle-late Neoproterozoic ocean, and possibly much of Proterozoic Eon. However, nitrate would likely have been depleted in partially restricted basins and oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which may have been more widespread than in the modern ocean.

  2. The temperature and carbonate ion influence on Pleistocene high latitude planktonic foraminiferal carbon isotopic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, C.; Foreman, A. D.; Munson, J.; Slowey, N. C.; Hodell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing a credible record of the carbon isotopic composition of high latitude surface ocean DIC over ice ages has been an enormous challenge, because the possible archives of this important variable in deep sea sediments all incorporate complex effects of the biomineralization process. For example, culture experiments (by Spero and colleagues) demonstrate a strong temperature and carbonate ion effect on the carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides--the taxon of planktonic foraminifera that is most abundant in the majority of subpolar sediment sequences. Here we capitalize on the fortuitous observation of exceptionally strong covariation between the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides in multiple sediment sequences from the Benguela upwelling region. The covariation is most clear during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (an interval when the isotopic composition of the seawater was least variable) and undoubtedly results from the precipitation of tests under variable conditions of temperature and carbonate ion. The unusually clear isotopic relationship in planktonic foraminifera observed off Namibia constitutes a field calibration of the biomineralization effects observed in culture, and we apply it to previously published high latitude carbon isotopic records throughout the Southern Ocean. We find that many of the excursions toward lower planktonic foraminiferal δ13C that have been interpreted previously as the upwelling of nutrient rich water during deglaciations are better explained as increases in upper ocean temperature and carbonate ion. Conversely, the excursions toward high δ13C during ice age intervals that have been interpreted previously as increased export production (purportedly stimulated by dust) are also better explained by temperature and carbonate ion variability. After removal of the inferred temperature and carbonate ion signal from the planktonic foraminiferal time series, the residual is essentially (but not exactly) the same

  3. Growth patterns of an intertidal gastropod as revealed by oxygen isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Hill, T. M.; Guerra, C.

    2007-12-01

    The size and morphology of mollusk shells are affected by environmental conditions. As a result, it is difficult to assess growth rate, population age structure, shell morphologies associated with ontogenetic stages, and to compare life history patterns across various environments. Oxygen isotope analysis is a useful tool for estimating minimum ages and growth rates of calcium carbonate secreting organisms. Calcite shell material from members of two northern California populations of the intertidal muricid gastropod Acanthinucella spirata was sampled for isotopic analysis. Individual shells were sampled from apex to margin, thus providing a sequential record of juvenile and adult growth. A. spirata were collected from a sheltered habitat in Tomales Bay and from an exposed reef in Bolinas. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, wave exposure, and substrate consistency, and biotic composition differ significantly between these sites, possibly resulting in local adaptations and variation in life history and growth patterns. Shell morphology of A. spirata changes with age as internal shell margin thickenings of denticle rows associated with external growth bands are irregularly accreted. It is not known when, either seasonally and/or ontogentically, these thickenings and bands form or whether inter or intra-populational variation exists. Preliminary results demonstrate the seasonal oxygen isotopic variability present at the two coastal sites, indicating 5-6 degC changes from winter to summertime temperatures; these data are consistent with local intertidal temperature records. Analysis of the seasonal patterns indicate that: 1) differences in growth rate and seasonal growth patterns at different ontogenetic stages within populations, and 2) differences in growth patterns and possibly age structure between the two A. spirata populations. These findings indicate that isotopic analyses, in addition to field observations and morphological measurements, are necessary to

  4. Episodic growth of the Gondwana supercontinent from hafnium and oxygen isotopes in zircon.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A I S; Hawkesworth, C J; Paterson, B A; Kinny, P D

    2006-02-02

    It is thought that continental crust existed as early as 150 million years after planetary accretion, but assessing the rates and processes of subsequent crustal growth requires linking the apparently contradictory information from the igneous and sedimentary rock records. For example, the striking global peaks in juvenile igneous activity 2.7, 1.9 and 1.2 Gyr ago imply rapid crustal generation in response to the emplacement of mantle 'super-plumes', rather than by the continuous process of subduction. Yet uncertainties persist over whether these age peaks are artefacts of selective preservation, and over how to reconcile episodic crust formation with the smooth crustal evolution curves inferred from neodymium isotope variations of sedimentary rocks. Detrital zircons encapsulate a more representative record of igneous events than the exposed geology and their hafnium isotope ratios reflect the time since the source of the parental magmas separated from the mantle. These 'model' ages are only meaningful if the host magma lacked a mixed or sedimentary source component, but the latter can be diagnosed by oxygen isotopes, which are strongly fractionated by rock-hydrosphere interactions. Here we report the first study that integrates hafnium and oxygen isotopes, all measured in situ on the same, precisely dated detrital zircon grains. The data reveal that crust generation in part of Gondwana was limited to major pulses at 1.9 and 3.3 Gyr ago, and that the zircons crystallized during repeated reworking of crust formed at these times. The implication is that the mechanisms of crust formation differed from those of crustal differentiation in ancient orogenic belts.

  5. Pb concentrations and isotopic record preserved in northwest Greenland snow.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Hwang, Heejin; Han, Changhee; Hur, Soon Do; Kim, Seong-Joong; Hong, Sungmin

    2017-11-01

    We present high-resolution lead (Pb) concentrations and isotopic ratios from a northwest Greenland snow pit covering a six-year period between 2003 and 2009. Pb concentrations ranged widely from 2.7 pg g(-1) to 97.3 pg g(-1), with a mean concentration of 21.6 pg g(-1). These values are higher than those recorded for the pre-industrial period. Pb concentrations exhibit seasonal spikes in winter-spring layers. Crustal Pb enrichment factors (EF) suggest that the northwest Greenland snow pit is highly enriched with Pb of predominantly anthropogenic origin. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios ranged from 1.144 to 1.169 with a mean value of 1.156, which fall between less radiogenic Eurasian-type and more radiogenic Canadian-type signatures. This result suggests that several potential source areas of Pb impact on northwest Greenland. Abrupt changes in Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios were observed and related to seasonal shifts in source regions of aerosol transport. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotope ratio increased gradually between 2003 and 2009. The similarity of the three-isotope plot ((206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb) between some of our samples and Chinese urban aerosols suggests a steadily increasing contribution of Chinese Pb to northwest Greenland snow. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Integrated climate model-oxygen isotope evidence for a North American monsoon during the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Foreman, Brady Z.; Sewall, Jacob O.

    2010-01-01

    During the Late Cretaceous, western North America was characterized by a close geographic association between the Sevier highlands and the Western Interior Seaway. In this paper, an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) is used to simulate the impact of this geographic association on surface pressure, wind direction, and precipitation, and it is predicted that seasonal changes in these variables resulted in a strong monsoon along the eastern flank of the Sevier Highlands. Confirmation that these model simulations are accurate is provided by isotopic data from foreland basin sediments. In particular oxygen isotope records from different environments (large rivers, small streams and ponds) and proxies (unionid bivalve shells and paleosol carbonates) indicate that foreland basin streams were recharged by local precipitation with high oxygen isotope ratios while large trunk rivers were recharged by high-elevation precipitation. This hydrologic pattern is observed from Alberta to Utah and is consistent with east to west monsoonal air mass movements and associated seasonal rainfall. Recognition of a highland-driven monsoon has implication in regard to studies of fossil taphonomy, of water vapor transport, and of links between climate and mountain uplift and exhumation in this region.

  7. Late Eocene-Middle Miocene paleoclimates of the south-west Pacific: oxygen isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Kennett, J.P.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    High resolution oxygen isotopic stratigraphy is presented for Late Eocene-Middle Miocene sequences in a traverse of 6 DSDP sites from the southwest Pacific at water depths ranging from 1300 to 2000 m and from the warm subtropics to the cool temperature water masses. The data record the progressive increase of latitudinal temperature gradients from the late Eocene. A pattern of increasing isotopic offset between the latitudinally distributed sites is linked to the establishment and strengthening of the circum-Antarctic Current. The intensification of this current system progressively decoupled the warm subtropical gyres from cool polar circulation, in turn leading to Antarctic glaciation. Enriched oxygen isotopic values clustering in the middle Oligocene, are interpreted to represent accumulations of Antarctic ice, although this must have been temporary and of relatively low volume. This Antarctic ice must have disappeared by the Early Miocene when delta/sup 18/O values were relatively depleted, reaching minimum values during the late Early Miocene (19.5 to 16.5), the climax of Neogene warmth. This climatic optimum was immediately followed by a major enrichment in benthic delta/sup 18/O values between approx. 16.5 and 13.5 Ma, which is interpreted to represent major, permanent accumulation of the East Antarctic ice sheet and cooling of bottom waters.

  8. A Simple Approach to Simulate the Complexity of Planktonic Foraminifer Oxygen Isotope Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelbroeck, C.; Roche, D. M.; Caley, T.; Kucera, M.; Jonkers, L.; Vazquez Riveiros, N.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic curves measured on different planktonic foraminifer species at the same site often exhibit a variable offset. This means that the habitats of the involved species may change through time, which affects the interpretation of the paleoclimatic records. Here we propose to investigate the effect of habitat change by comparing measured and mechanistically computed calcite oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) for N. pachyderma left and right coiling, G. bulloides, and G. ruber. To this end we developed the module "Foraminifers as Modeled Entities" (FAME) using species and temperature-dependent growth rates to predict the vertical and seasonal habitat of each species. FAME is forced by hydrography and water δ18O taken from observations or models, and predicts sedimentary average δ18O for each planktonic foraminifer species. FAME yields excellent agreement with MARGO Late Holocene and core top planktonic δ18O data when forced with WOA13 temperature and GISS water δ18O data, in contrast to the calculation of calcite equilibrium δ18O without correction for foraminifer habitat. We explore the applicability of the module to the past by forcing it with vertical temperature and water δ18O profiles computed by the isotope-enabled Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity iLOVECLIM and compare δ18O simulations with fossil data for the LGM time slice and for the last deglaciation.

  9. Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

  10. Oxygen-18 Carbon Dioxide Isotope Ratio in Mars Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostiuk, T.; Livengood, T. A.; Hewagama, T.; Smith, R.; Fast, K. E.; Annen, J.; Sonnabend, G.; Sornig, M.

    2012-09-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios on Mars is important to the study of atmospheric evolution [1]. The relative abundance of isotopes of CO2 provides insight into the loss of Mars' primordial atmosphere. Isotopic ratios also provide markers in the study of geochemistry of Mars meteorites and future returned samples formed in equilibrium with ambient atmosphere, and are probes of biogenic and abiotic chemistry, which differ in isotope fractionation. Due to its lesser gravity and relatively thin residual atmosphere, Mars' atmosphere should be enriched in heavy isotopes [1]. However Viking [2] results indicated an Earth-like singly substituted oxygen-18 CO2 isotopic ratio, 18OCO/OCO, with δ18O = 0±50‰ relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW). By comparison, isotopic ratios in Earth atmospheric CO2 are not uniquely defined due to seasonal and biotic variability, but have a range 0-41‰ relative to VSMOW [3, 4]. Phoenix lander TEGA [3] measurements found a modest enrichment of δ18O = 31.0±5.7‰. Only the Viking and Phoenix landers have carried a mass spectrometer to Mars, so far, until the arrival of Mars Science Laboratory in August 2012. Using ground-based spectroscopic techniques Krasnopolsky et al. [5] also found modest enrichment δ18O = 18±18‰. We present results from fully resolved spectroscopic measurements near 10.6 μm of both the normal and singly substituted oxygen- 18 CO2 lines, taken with the Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds And Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Measurements with spectral resolving power λ/Δλ=107 were obtained in October 2007 with an instantaneous field-of-view on the planet of ~1 arcsec, at the locations shown in Fig. 1 as open squares. The solid and broken line tracks show Mars SPICAM measurements of ozone corresponding to ozone measurements also obtained with HIPWAC and shown as hatched and solid regions [6]. Figure 1

  11. Oxygen isotope evidence for shallow emplacement of Adirondack anorthosite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic analysis of wollastonites from the Willsboro Mine, Adirondack Mountains, New York reveals a 400-ft wide zone of 18O depletion at anorthosite contacts. Values of ??18O vary more sharply with distance and are lower (to -1.3) than any yet reported for a granulite fades terrain. Exchange with circulating hot meteoric water best explains these results and implies that the anorthosite was emplaced at relatively shallow depths, <10 km, in marked contrast to the depth of granulite fades metamorphism (23 km). These 18O depletions offer the first strong evidence for shallow emplacement of anorthosite within the Grenville Province and suggest that regional metamorphism was a later and tectonically distinct event. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Thermophysiology of Tyrannosaurus rex: Evidence from Oxygen Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Barrick, R E; Showers, W J

    1994-07-08

    The oxygen isotopic composition of vertebrate bone phosphate (delta(p)) is related to ingested water and to the body temperature at which the bone forms. The delta(p) is in equilibrium with the individual's body water, which is at a physiological steady state throughout the body. Therefore, intrabone temperature variation and the mean interbone temperature differences of well-preserved fossil vertebrates can be determined from the deltap variation. Values of delta(p) from a well-preserved Tyrannosaurus rex suggest that this species maintained homeothermy with less than 4 degrees C of variability in body temperature. Maintenance of homeothermy implies a relatively high metabolic rate that is similar to that of endotherms.

  13. Oxygen Isotopes and Emerald Trade Routes Since Antiquity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Chaussidon, Marc; Schubnel, Henri-Jean; Piat, Daniel H.; Rollion-Bard, Claire; France-Lanord, Christian; Giard, Didier; de Narvaez, Daniel; Rondeau, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of historical emerald artifacts from the Gallo-Roman period to the 18th century indicate that during historical times, artisans worked emeralds originating from deposits supposedly discovered in the 20th century. In antiquity, Pakistani and Egyptian emeralds were traded by way of the Silk Route. Together with Austrian stones, they were the only source of gem-quality emeralds. Immediately after the discovery of the Colombian mines by Spaniards in the 16th century, a new trade route was established, first via Spain to Europe and India and then directly via the Philippines to India. Since then, Colombian emeralds have dominated the emerald trade, and most of the high-quality emeralds cut in the 18th century in India originated from Colombia.

  14. Oxygen isotopes and emerald trade routes since antiquity

    PubMed

    Giuliani; Chaussidon; Schubnel; Piat; Rollion-Bard; France-Lanord; Giard; de Narvaez D; Rondeau

    2000-01-28

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of historical emerald artifacts from the Gallo-Roman period to the 18th century indicate that during historical times, artisans worked emeralds originating from deposits supposedly discovered in the 20th century. In antiquity, Pakistani and Egyptian emeralds were traded by way of the Silk Route. Together with Austrian stones, they were the only source of gem-quality emeralds. Immediately after the discovery of the Colombian mines by Spaniards in the 16th century, a new trade route was established, first via Spain to Europe and India and then directly via the Philippines to India. Since then, Colombian emeralds have dominated the emerald trade, and most of the high-quality emeralds cut in the 18th century in India originated from Colombia.

  15. Oxygen isotope values of precipitation and the thermal climate in Europe during the middle to late Weichselian ice age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arppe, L.; Karhu, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    The oxygen isotope compositions of 28 mammoth tooth enamel samples from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Denmark provide new quantitative records of the middle to late Weichselian climate in northern Europe. The new δ18O data was combined with records of oxygen isotope values from earlier investigations on European mammoth tooth enamel and palaeogroundwaters to study the spatial patterns and temporal variations in the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the thermal climate over much of Europe. The reconstructed geographical distribution of δ18O in precipitation during 52-24 ka reflects the progressive isotopic depletion of air masses moving northeast, consistent with a westerly source of moisture for the entire region, and a circulation pattern similar to that of the present-day. Regional long-term average δ18O w values were 0.6-4.1‰ lower than at present, the largest changes recorded for the currently maritime influenced southern Sweden and the Baltic region. The application of regionally varied δ/ T-slopes, estimated from palaeogroundwater data and modern correlations, yield reasonable estimates of glacial surface temperatures in Europe and imply 2-9 °C lower long-term mean annual surface temperatures during the glacial period.

  16. Oxygen isotopes in tree rings are a good proxy for Amazon precipitation and El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability.

    PubMed

    Brienen, Roel J W; Helle, Gerd; Pons, Thijs L; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Gloor, Manuel

    2012-10-16

    We present a unique proxy for the reconstruction of variation in precipitation over the Amazon: oxygen isotope ratios in annual rings in tropical cedar (Cedrela odorata). A century-long record from northern Bolivia shows that tree rings preserve the signal of oxygen isotopes in precipitation during the wet season, with weaker influences of temperature and vapor pressure. Tree ring δ(18)O correlates strongly with δ(18)O in precipitation from distant stations in the center and west of the basin, and with Andean ice core δ(18)O showing that the signal is coherent over large areas. The signal correlates most strongly with basin-wide precipitation and Amazon river discharge. We attribute the strength of this (negative) correlation mainly to the cumulative rainout processes of oxygen isotopes (Rayleigh distillation) in air parcels during westward transport across the basin. We further find a clear signature of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the record, with strong ENSO influences over recent decades, but weaker influence from 1925 to 1975 indicating decadal scale variation in the controls on the hydrological cycle. The record exhibits a significant increase in δ(18)O over the 20th century consistent with increases in Andean δ(18)O ice core and lake records, which we tentatively attribute to increased water vapor transport into the basin. Taking these data together, our record reveals a fresh path to diagnose and improve our understanding of variation and trends of the hydrological cycle of the world's largest river catchment.

  17. Oxygen isotopic composition of opaline phytoliths: Potential for terrestrial climatic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Shahack-Gross, R.; Weiner, S.; Shemesh, A.; Yakir, D.

    1996-10-01

    Opaline mineralized bodies are produced by many terrestrial plants and accumulate in certain soils and archaeological sites. Analyses of the oxygen isotopic compositions of these so-called phytoliths from stems and leaves of wheat plants grown in a greenhouse showed a linear relationship with stem and leaf water isotopic compositions and hence, indirectly, rain water isotopic composition. Analyses of wheat plants grown in fields showed that stem phytoliths isotopic composition directly reflects the seasonal air temperature change, whereas leaf phytoliths isotopic composition reflects both temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and the oxygen isotopic composition of stem phytoliths were related by an equation similar to that proposed for marine opal. Oxygen isotopic compositions of fossil phytoliths, and in particular those from stems, could be valuable for reconstructing past terrestrial climate change.

  18. Vertical distribution of triple oxygen isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen in the northwestern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Osamu; Honda, Makio; Saino, Toshiro

    2013-04-01

    Oxygen-17 excess of dissolved oxygen calculated from δ18O and δ17O is not affected by oxygen consumption process but controlled only by processes of primary production and air-water gas transfer. Evaluating gross primary productivity using the 17O-excess in ocean surface water are one of the most advanced geochemical researches for last 10 years. Oxygen-17 excess below ocean mixed/photic layer has not been much investigated because it might be out of focus for estimating present primary productivity, except for the purpose to correct diapycnal mixing effect on surface water. In principle, water mass which has not been affected both by photosynthesis and gas transfer after its separation from ocean surface could preserve 17O-excess value where the water mass was at the surface. The purpose of this study is to determine the vertical distribution of 17O-excess from the surface to the bottom of northwestern Pacific to know whether 17O-excess could really preserve its "original" value after the long and dark travel. Near stations K2 and KNOT, water mass which has a density of 26.8 ?? is observed at depth between 100 and 300 m. This water mass is mainly originated from bottom water in the Okhotsk Sea and spreading widely to entire northwestern Pacific, which is called North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). NPIW is found at depth of 700 m at station S1. Samplings were conducted by two R/V Mirai cruises (MR10-06, Oct-Nov 2010; MR11-02, Feb-Mar 2011). Dissolved oxygen gas was purified by the method of Sarma et al. (2003) and its isotopic composition was determined by dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific Delta Plus). Gross primary productivities at mixed layer estimated by 17O-excess were well consistent with those by conventional light and dark bottle incubations for stations K2 and S1.

  19. Climatic influences on the oxygen isotopic composition of biogenic silica in prairie grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Elizabeth A.; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2002-06-01

    Samples of Calamovilfa longifolia were collected from across the North American prairies to investigate the relationship between the oxygen-isotope composition of biogenic silica (phytoliths) deposited in this grass and relative humidity, temperature, and the oxygen-18 enrichment of soil water relative to local precipitation. The δ18O values of silica in nontranspiring tissues were controlled by soil-water composition and temperature, whereas the oxygen-18 content of silica formed in leaf and inflorescence tissues was enriched further by transpiration. Accurate calculation of growing temperature was possible only when the oxygen-isotope compositions of both stem silica and soil water were known. However, the oxygen-isotope values of stem phytoliths can be used to calculate the variation in the isotopic composition of soil water across a North American temperature gradient. As plant organic matter decays and phytoliths are transferred to the soil, the temperature and soil-water signals carried by the oxygen-isotope composition of silica from nontranspiring tissues can be masked by the oxygen-18 enrichment of phytoliths from transpiring tissues. However, the overall oxygen-isotope composition of a soil-phytolith assemblage can be related to temperature using an empirical relationship based on temperature and the difference between soil-phytolith and estimated soil-water oxygen-isotope compositions.

  20. Alpine Holocene Tree Ring Isotope Records - A Synthesis of a Multi-Proxy Approach in Dendroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziehmer, Malin Michelle; Nicolussi, Kurt; Schlüchter, Christian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution climate reconstructions based on tree-ring proxies are often limited by the individual segment length of living trees selected at the defined sampling sites, which mostly results in relatively short multi-centennial proxy series. A potential extension of living wood records comprise the addition of subfossil and archeological wood remains resulting in chronologies and associated climate reconstructions which are able to cover a few millennia in central Europe (e.g. Büntgen et al., 2011). However, existing multi-millennial tree-ring width chronologies in central Europe rank among the longest continuous chronologies world-wide and span the entire Holocene (Becker et al., 1993; Nicolussi et al. 2009). So far, these chronologies have mainly been used for dating subfossil wood samples, floating chronologies and archeological artifacts, but only in parts for reconstructing climate. Finds of Holocene wood remains in glacier forefields, peat bogs and small lakes allow us not only to establish such long-term tree-ring width records; further they offer the possibility to establish multi-millennial proxy records for the entire Holocene by using a multi-proxy approach which includes both tree-ring width and triple stable isotope ratios. As temperature limits tree growth at the Alpine upper tree line, the existing tree-ring width records are currently limited to reconstruct a single environmental variable. In the framework of the project Alpine Holocene Tree Ring Isotope Records, we combine tree-ring width, cellulose content as well as carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotope series in a multi-proxy approach which allows the reconstruction of past environments by combining both Holocene wood remains and recent tree samples from two Alpine tree-line species. For this purpose, α-cellulose is prepared from 5-year tree ring blocks following the procedure after Boettger et al. (2007) and subsequently crushed by ultrasonic homogenization (Laumer et al., 2009). The

  1. Anomalous Oxygen Isotopic Fractionation in Vacuum Ultraviolet Photodissociation of Carbon Monoxide and Test of Self-Shielding: Relevance for Meteorite Oxygen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Ahmed, M.; Jackson, T. L.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    Oxygen is the predominant elemental constituent of rocky planets and asteroids. It is the third most abundant element in the solar system after hydrogen and helium. The isotopic compo-sition of oxygen in three-isotope space (δ18O vs. δ17O plot) exhibits large heterogeneity among different bodies formed from the same primordial gas and dust mixture, termed the solar nebula. It is not possible to fully understand the formation and evolution of our own planetary system, unless we resolve the source of the oxygen isotopes. At present, there are two models: self shielding photochemistry in the solar nebula, and symmetry driven gas-phase and/or surface chemistry in the solar nebula, which can also involve photochemistry, but isn't required. Photochemistry is a dominant process at the outer layers of the nebular disk and isotopically selective photodissociation (a process known as isotopic self-shielding) of carbon monoxide, the most abundant nebular oxygen bearing molecule, has been suggested as a source of isotopically anomalous oxygen in the solar reservoir [1-3]. However, these models have had no experimental verification of the relevant isotopic fractionation associated with VUV-CO photodissociation at the relevant wavelengths. Recently, we have performed a series of CO photodissociation experiment with a windowless flow chamber at the Advanced Light Source (LBNL) synchrotron at Berkeley. These experiments demonstrate an anomalously enriched atomic oxygen reservoir is generated through CO photo-dissociation, but, without requiring isotopic self shielding [4]. These results emphasize the importance of chemistry in the solar nebula as we have previously demonstrated through recent laboratory experiments [5]. It is clear that the mass- independent oxygen isotopic composition, as observed in some of the first condensed solids in the solar system (Calcium-Aluminum rich Inclusions- CAIs, Chondrules etc.), can be generated through symmetry driven gas-phase chemical

  2. Delineating the effect of El-Nino Southern Oscillations using oxygen and sulfur isotope anomalies of sulfate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, R.; Abaunza Quintero, M. M.; Jackson, T.; McCabe, J.; Savarino, J. P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols, unlike greenhouse gases, contribute to global cooling by acting as cloud condensation nuclei in the troposphere and by directly reflecting solar radiation in the stratosphere. To understand the long-term effect of natural and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol on the climate cycle, it is critical to obtain a clear picture of the factors controlling the transport and transformation of sulfate aerosols. We have employed both oxygen triple isotopes and sulfur quadruple isotopes on sulfates from Antarctic ice samples to define the oxidation history, long range transport dynamics, and sources of sulfate aerosols over time. The measurements are used to deconvolve the impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on the stratospheric sulfate aerosol composition. Sulfate aerosols were extracted from a snow pit at the South Pole (1979-2002) with a high resolution temporal (6 month) record of the winter and summer seasons covering two largest volcanic events, Pinatubo and El-chichon and three largest ENSO events of the century. All three oxygen and four sulfur isotopes were measured on the extracted sulfate (Shaheen et al., 2013). The high temperature pyrolysis (1000oC) of silver sulfate yielded O2 and SO2. The oxygen triple isotopic composition of the O2 gas was used to determine the oxidation history of sulfate aerosol and SO2 gas obtained during this reaction was utilized to measure sulfur quadruple isotopes following appropriate reaction chemistry (Farquhar et al., 2001). The data revealed that oxygen isotope anomalies in Antarctic aerosols (Δ17O = 0.8-3.7‰) from 1990 to 2001 are strongly linked to the variation in ozone levels in the upper stratosphere/lower stratosphere. The variations in ozone levels are reflective of the intensity of the ENSO events and changes in relative humidity in the atmosphere during this time period. Sulfate concentrations and sulfur quadruple isotopic composition and associated anomalies were used to elucidate the sources of

  3. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (δ18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate δ18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate δ18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and δ18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate δ18OP values was negligible and that the δ18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the δ18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic

  4. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borysiuk, Maciek; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: 16O, 17O and 18O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes 16O and 18O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from 17O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect 18O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with 16O was clearly visible.

  5. Determination of triple oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate by using continuous-flow isotope ratio MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, D. D.; Ohkubo, S.; Ishimura, T.; Nakagawa, F.; Tsunogai, U.

    2006-12-01

    The triple oxygen isotopic compositions (18O/16O and 17O/16O) of nitrate in natural waters can be a useful tracer to clarify the sources. The triple oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate have been usually determined by using conventional IRMS system using O2 molecule converted from nitrate through multiple reaction/purification steps. The traditional methods, however, required at least 1-100 μmol quantities of nitrate so that applications of the methods to various environmental nitrate samples were difficult. Thus, we developed a rapid and sensitive analytical system to determine the triple oxygen isotopic compositions of nitrate in nmol quantities using continuous-flow IRMS (CF-IRMS) without the cumbersome and time-consuming pretreatments. Our method is based on the isotopic analysis of N2O quantitatively converted from nitrate based on the simple reactions using spongy cadmium and sodium azide in an acetic acid buffer. However, we cannot determine 17O/16O ratio of N2O directly by measuring the masses 44, 45, and 46 of N2O introduced to IRMS, because the measured output of mass 45 from IRMS consists of 14N15N16O, 15N14N16O, and 14N14N17O. Thus, addition to the N2O isotopic analysis at the masses 44, 45, and 46, the 15N/14N ratio is determined separately for the same sample N2O. To attain this purpose, two instrumental approaches were done. In the first system, the N2+ fragment ion beams of N2O at masses 28 and 29 were used to determine the 15N/14N ratio of N2O. While the analytical precisions better than 0.5 ‰ for 20 nmol N2O injections and better than 1.0 ‰ for 7 nmol N2O injections were obtained for 15N/14N ratio, we found that the accuracy strongly depended on the quantities introduced. In the second system, the N2 molecules, converted from N2O using an on line Cu reduction furnace (720 degree) was used to determine the 15N/14N ratio of N2O. The analytical precisions better than 0.1 ‰ for 5 nmol N2O injections and better than 0.4 ‰ for 1 nmol N2O

  6. Reconstructing seasonal climate from high-resolution carbon and oxygen isotope measurements across tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, H.

    2014-12-01

    Intra-annual records of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements across tree rings reveal significant changes in δ13C and δ18O value across each growing season. We previously found that across a broad range of climate regimes, the seasonal change in δ13C measured within tree rings reflects changes in seasonal precipitation amount, and demonstrated its utility for quantifying seasonal paleo-precipitation from non-permineralized, fossil wood. Here we produce an equation relating intra-ring changes in δ18O to seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation amount, but the equation yields for unknowns (summer and winter precipitation amounts, and cold and warm month mean temperatures). By combining high-resolution δ13C and δ18O records with independent estimates of mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation, we show how our general, global relationships could be used to quantify seasonal climate information from fossil sites. We validate our approach using high-resolution δ13C and δ18O data from trees growing at five modern sites (Hawaii, Alaska, Norway, Guyana, and Kenya). The reconstructed estimates of seasonal precipitation and temperature showed excellent agreement with the known climate data for each site (precipitation: R2 = 0.98; temperature: R2 = 0.91). These results confirm that across diverse sites and tree species, seasonal climate information can be accurately quantified using a combination of carbon and oxygen intra-ring isotope profiles.

  7. Isotopic record of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles in pelagic carbonates: Revisiting historical data from the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, Michaël

    2016-04-01

    The glacial/interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene were first recognised by variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera from cores in the Caribbean Sea. Since this pioneering work by Emiliani, this proxy has been extensively applied to a variety of carbonate biominerals over the entirety of the Meso-Cenozoic. However, palaeoceanographic studies have overwhelmingly focused on foraminifera compared to other calcifying microorganism fossils, such as the coccoliths. In this study, I revisit coccolith stable isotopic data obtained from the classic P6304-4 core in light of recent developments in the biogeochemistry of coccolithophores. In particular, I show that the coccolith stable isotope record of the last 13 Marine Isotope Stages (∼480 kyrs) is significantly biased by large vital effects. The magnitude of coccolith carbon and oxygen isotope vital effects is not uniform, but shows remarkable co-variance with the Vostok CO2 ice record. During periods of relatively elevated CO2 (interstadials), the expression of the vital effect is relatively small, whereas it can as high as +3‰ for the oxygen isotopes during glacial stadials, which I argue is a result of enhanced CO2 limitation of coccolithophores. Using this paradigm, I propose that coccolithophore vital effects are not a complicating factor, but rather the signal of interest. As the magnitude of the coccolith vital effect is shown to scale with pCO2, coccolith carbon and oxygen isotopes may be used in conjunction with foraminifera data to reconstruct and refine aqueous CO2 concentrations in the past.

  8. Determination and application of the equilibrium oxygen isotope effect between water and sulfite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankel, Scott D.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Eldridge, Daniel L.; Johnston, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The information encoded by the two stable isotope systems in sulfate (δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4) has been widely applied to aid reconstructions of both modern and ancient environments. Interpretation of δ18OSO4 records has been complicated by rapid oxygen isotope equilibration between sulfoxyanions and water. Specifically, the apparent relationship that develops between δ18OSO4 and δ18Owater during microbial sulfate reduction is thought to result from rapid oxygen isotope equilibrium between intracellular water and aqueous sulfite - a reactive intermediate of the sulfate reduction network that can back-react to produce sulfate. Here, we describe the oxygen equilibrium isotope effect between water and sulfite (referring to all the sum of all S(IV)-oxyanions including sulfite and both isomers and the dimer of bisulfite). Based on experiments conducted over a range of pH (4.5-9.8) and temperature (2-95 °C), where ε = 1000 * (α - 1), we find εSO3-H2O=13.61-0.299∗pH-0.081∗T °C. Thus, at a pH (7.0) and temperature (25 °C) typifying commonly used experimental conditions for sulfate reducing bacterial cultures, sulfite is enriched in 18O by 9.5‰ (±0.8‰) relative to ambient water. We examine the implication of these results in a sulfate reduction network that has been revised to reflect our understanding of the reactions involving oxygen. By evaluating previously published data within this new architecture, our results are consistent with previous suggestions of high reversibility of the sulfate reduction biochemical network. We also demonstrate that intracellular exchange rates between SO32- and water must be on average 1-3 orders of magnitude more rapid than intracellular fluxes of sulfate reduction intermediates and that kinetic isotope effects upstream of SO32- are required to explain previous laboratory and environmental studies of δ18OSO4 resulting as a consequence of sulfate reduction.

  9. Do oxygen stable isotopes track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant dominated peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, D.; Amesbury, M. J.; Newnham, R.; Loader, N.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Royles, J.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature and humidity dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives. Exploitation of this record from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, has been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with limited application in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. Throughout New Zealand (NZ), the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) forms deep peat deposits. NZ provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because sites are ideally suited to single taxon analysis, preserve potentially high resolution full Holocene palaeoclimate records and are situated in the climatically sensitive SH mid-latitudes. Crucially, large gradients exist in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. We test the capacity for δ18O analysis of Empodisma alpha cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ to provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records. We took surface plant, water and precipitation samples over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. We found a strong link between the isotopic compositions of surface root water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in surface root water. The link between source water and plant

  10. Kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotope variation on a latitudinal transect in southern Australia: implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brookman, Tom H; Ambrose, Stanley H

    2013-02-01

    Tooth enamel apatite carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of modern kangaroos (Macropus spp.) collected on a 900-km latitudinal transect spanning a C(3)-C(4) transition zone were analysed to create a reference set for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in southern Australia. The carbon isotope composition of enamel carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C(3) and C(4) vegetation, and its oxygen isotope composition reflects that of ingested water. Tooth enamel forms incrementally, recording dietary and environmental changes during mineralisation. Analyses show only weak correlations between climate records and latitudinal changes in δ(13)C and δ(18)O. No species achieved the δ(13)C values (~-1.0 ‰) expected for 100 % C(4) grazing diets; kangaroos at low latitudes that are classified as feeding primarily on C(4) grasses (grazers) have δ(13)C of up to -3.5 ‰. In these areas, δ(13)C below -12 ‰ suggests a 100 % C(3) grass and/or leafy plant (browse) diet while animals from higher latitude have lower δ(13)C. Animals from semi-arid areas have δ(18)O of 34-40 ‰, while grazers from temperate areas have lower values (~28-30 ‰). Three patterns with implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction emerge: (1) all species in semi-arid areas regularly browse to supplement limited grass resources; (2) all species within an environmental zone have similar carbon and oxygen isotope compositions, meaning data from different kangaroo species can be pooled for palaeoenvironmental investigations; (3) relatively small regional environmental differences can be distinguished when δ(13)C and δ(18)O data are used together. These data demonstrate that diet-isotope and climate-isotope relationships should be evaluated in modern ecosystems before application to the regional fossil record.

  11. 500,000-year stable carbon isotopic record from Devils Hole, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Winograd, I.J.; Landwehr, J.M.; Riggs, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The record of carbon-13 (??13C) variations in DH-11 vein calcite core from Devils Hole, Nevada, shows four prominent minima near glacial terminations (glacial-interglacial transitions) V to II. The ??13C time series is inversely correlated with the DH-11 oxygen isotope ratio time series and leads it by as much as 7000 years. The ??13C variations likely record fluctuations in the ??13C of dissolved inorganic carbon of water recharging the aquifer. How such variations are transported 80 kilometers to Devils Hole without obliteration by waterrock reaction remains an enigma. The record may reflect (i) global variations in the ??13C of atmospheric CO2 and, hence, the ??13C of continental biomass or (ii) variations in extent and density of vegetation in the southern Great Basin. In the latter case, ??13C minima at 414, 334, 246, and 133 thousand years ago mark times of maximum vegetation.

  12. Independent support for leaf homeothermy during carbon uptake and the implications for the interpretation of tree-ring oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helliker, B. R.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Desai, A. R.; Goulden, M. L.; Davis, K. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Munger, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Tree rings provide an annual record of plant responses to climatic variability and the oxygen isotope ratio of tree-ring cellulose is thought to provide a record of leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit. We recently developed a method to resolve tree-canopy leaf temperature when most carbon uptake occurs by using the oxygen isotope ratio of tree-ring cellulose and ambient relative humidity. We found a remarkably constant leaf temperature of 21.4 ± 2.2 °C in 39 tree species across 50° of latitude. There are two general mechanisms for this perceived leaf temperature homeostasis: (i) leaf temperature equals ambient air temperature and most photosynthesis occurs when ambient temperatures are near 21 °C. (ii) When carbon assimilation is maximal, the physiological and morphological properties of tree leaves and branches serve to maintain canopy leaf temperatures near 21 °C. To address these questions we calculated a temperature-weighted value for daytime net ecosystem exchange during the growing season for several biomes from published eddy covariance data. The results support the observation of a photosynthesis-weighted temperature near 21 °C determined through our isotope analysis. The results suggest that the controlling mechanism is likely a combination of points (i) and (ii) above. Further, these characteristics of tree ecophysiology must be considered when interpreting evaporative signals contained in tree ring oxygen isotopes- particularly those at high latitudes/altitudes.

  13. Stable oxygen isotopes ( δ 18O) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F. A.; Siegwolf, R.; Boninsegna, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ( δ 18O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved δ 18O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual δ 18O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  14. Stable oxygen isotopes (delta18(O)) in Austrocedrus chilensis tree rings reflect climate variability in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roig, F A; Siegwolf, R; Boninsegna, J A

    2006-11-01

    The stable oxygen isotope (delta (18)O) composition of Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Endl. (Cupressaceae) tree rings potentially provide retrospective views of changes in environment and climate in the semi-arid lands of Patagonia. We report the development of the first annually resolved delta (18)O tree-ring chronology obtained from natural forests of the foothills of the northwestern Patagonian Andes. The isotope record spans between 1890 and 1994 AD. We explore the probable links between this record and the climate of the region. Air temperatures during summer conditions are significantly, but not strongly, inversely correlated with annual delta (18)O values from Austrocedrus tree rings. The strongest correlations are between the southern oscillation index (SOI) and the tree rings. The existence of millennial-age Austrocedrus trees in northern Patagonia provides interesting possibilities for examining these climate-related isotopic signals over most of the last 1,000 years.

  15. Molybdenum isotope records as a potential new proxy for paleoceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christopher; Nägler, Thomas F.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Kramers, Jan D.

    2003-06-01

    New high-precision isotope ratios of dissolved Mo in seawater from different ocean basins and depths show a homogeneous isotope composition ('mean ocean water 98Mo/95Mo' (MOMO)), as expected from its long ocean residence time (800 kyr). This composition appears to have been constant for the past 60 Myr at a 1-3 Myr time resolution as indicated from thick sections of Fe-Mn crusts from the Atlantic and Pacific. These records yield a constant offset from MOMO (average of -3.1 and -2.9‰). They are similar to our new data on recent oxic Mo sinks: pelagic sediments and six Fe-Mn crust surface layers range from -2.7 to -2.9‰ and -2.7 to -3.1‰, respectively. Recent suboxic Mo sinks from open ocean basins display heavier and more variable isotope ratios (-0.7 to -1.6‰ relative to MOMO). Crustal Mo sources were characterized by measuring two granites (and a mild acid leach of one granite), seven volcanic rocks and two clastic sediments. All show a narrow range of compositions (-2.0 to -2.3‰). These data indicate that isotope fractionation by chemical weathering and magmatic processes is insignificant on a global scale. They therefore represent good estimates of the composition of dissolved Mo input to the oceans and that of the average continental crust. Thus, the Mo input into the oceans appears to be distributed into lighter oxic sinks and heavier reducing sinks. This is consistent with steady-state conditions in the modern ocean. The constant isotope offset between oxic sediments and seawater suggests that the relative amounts of oxic and reducing Mo removal fluxes have not varied by more than 10% over the last 60 Myr. An equilibrium fractionation process is proposed assuming that Mo isotope fractionation occurs between (dominant) MoO42- and (minor) Mo(OH)6 species in solution, of which the latter is preferentially scavenged.

  16. Oxygen isotopes in calcite grown under cave-analogue conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, C. C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2011-07-01

    Speleothem oxygen isotopes and growth rates are valuable proxies for reconstructing climate history. There is debate, however, about the conditions that allow speleothems to grow in oxygen isotope equilibrium, and about the correct equilibrium fractionation factors. We report results from a series of carbonate growth experiments in karst-analogue conditions in the laboratory. The setup closely mimics natural processes (e.g. precipitation driven by CO 2-degassing, low ionic strength solution, thin solution film) but with a tight control on growth conditions (temperature, pCO 2, drip rate, calcite saturation index and the composition of the initial solution). Calcite is dissolved in water in a 20,000 ppmV pCO 2 environment. This solution is dripped onto glass plates (coated with seed-carbonate) in a lower pCO 2 environment (<2500 ppmV), where degassing leads to calcite growth. Experiments were performed at 7, 15, 25 and 35 °C. At each temperature, calcite was grown at three drip rates (2, 6 and 10 drips per minute) on separate plates. The mass of calcite grown in these experiments varies with temperature ( T in K) and drip rate ( d_ r in drips min -1) according to the relationship daily growth mass = 1.254 + 1.478 ∗ 10 -9 ∗ e0.0679 T + ( e0.00248 T - 2) ∗ (-0.779 d_ r2 + 10.05 d_ r + 11.69). This relationship indicates a substantial increase of growth mass with temperature, a smaller influence of drip rate on growth mass at low temperature and a non-linear relationship between drip rate and growth mass at higher temperatures. Low temperature, fast dripping conditions are found to be the most favourable for reducing effects associated with evaporation and rapid depletion of the dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir (rapid DIC-depletion). The impact of evaporation can be large so caves with high relative humidity are also preferable for palaeoclimate reconstruction. Even allowing for the maximum offsets that may have been induced by evaporation and rapid DIC

  17. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic variations in modern Rabdotus land snail shells in the southern Great Plains, USA, and their relation to environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Ellis, G. Lain

    2002-06-01

    Variations of stable isotopic ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) were investigated in modern shells of two species of Rabdotus land snails (R. dealbatus and R. alternatus) in the southern Great Plains. Geographic variation in relation to climate and vegetation, microgeographic variation, variability among individuals, and detailed records of seasonal variations within individual shells were studied. Stable carbon isotopic ratios in shell carbonate are primarily a function of the isotopic composition of the diet of the snails, as represented by the isotopic composition of shell organic matter. This in turn reflects the presence or absence of CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) or C4 plants. Vegetation density may have a small effect on the carbon isotope ratios. Microgeographic variation (samples within 25 to 300 m) is greater than that seen across different climatic regions and points to very local control of isotopic variations, predominantly related to vegetation. Seasonal variations, as assessed through serial analysis of individual shells (up to 35 samples per shell), may provide a means for distinguishing between isotopic influences of perennial CAM vs. annual C4 plants. Carbon isotopic variations in time-series of shells from a site provide a means of reconstructing temporal changes in environment and climate. Oxygen isotopic values of shell carbonate are uniform across the region and also show no significant microgeographic variation. The oxygen isotopic composition appears to be mainly a function of the rainwater isotopic composition, with no direct influence of rainfall amount or evaporative effects. The δ18O values are only 2‰ enriched relative to estimated equilibrium with rainwater. Variability is low (SD of 0.8‰ among sites), so the isotopic composition of fossil Rabdotus shells can provide a precise record of changes in the isotopic composition of rain over time.

  18. Oxygen and iron isotope studies of magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandernack, K.W.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bullen, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of carefully controlled laboratory studies was carried out to investigate oxygen and iron isotope fractionation during the intracellular production of magnetite (Fe3O4) by two different species of magnetotactic bacteria at temperatures between 4??and 35??C under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. No detectable fractionation of iron isotopes in the bacterial magnetites was observed. However, oxygen isotope measurements indicated a temperature-dependent fractionation for Fe3O4 and water that is consistent with that observed for Fe3O4 produced extracellularly by thermophilic Fe3+-reducing bacteria. These results contrast with established fractionation curves estimated from either high-temperature experiments or theoretical calculations. With the fractionation curve established in this report, oxygen-18 isotope values of bacterial Fe3O4 may be useful in paleoenvironmental studies for determining the oxygen-18 isotope values of formation waters and for inferring paleotemperatures.

  19. A Bat's-Eye View of Holocene Climate Change in the Southwest: Resolving Ambiguities in Cave Isotopic Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E.; Truebe, S. A.; Harrington, M. D.; Woodhead, J. D.; Overpeck, J. T.; Hlohowskyj, S.; Henderson, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    In dry environments, speleothems provide an outstanding archive of information on past climate change, particularly since lakes are typically absent or intermittent. Speleothem stable isotopes are widely used for climate reconstruction, but the isotope-climate relationship is complex in arid-region precipitation, and within-cave processes further complicate climate interpretations. Our isotope results from 3 southeastern Arizona caves, spanning the past 3.5-12 kyr, collectively indicate a weakening monsoon from 7kyr to present. These records exhibit substantial multidecadal-multicentury variability that is sometimes shared, and sometimes independent among caves. Strategies to overcome ambiguities in isotope records include long-term monitoring of cave dripwaters, multi-site comparisons, and multiproxy measurements. Monthly dripwater measurements from two caves spanning several years highlight substantial seasonal biases that create distinct differences in the climate sensitivity of individual cave records. These biases can lead to lack of correlation between records, but also creates opportunities for seasonally specific moisture reconstructions. New preliminary analyses suggest that elemental data can help to unravel the multivariate signal contained in speleothem oxygen isotope records.

  20. Testing Organic-Rich Sediments as Recorders of the Seawater Os Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquay, F.; Ravizza, G.

    2006-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments of Eocene to Oligocene age, deposited under anoxic to moderately reducing conditions from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 on the continental margin of the Cote d'Ivoire- Ghana were investigated in order to empirically test the fidelity of organic-rich marine sediments as recorders of past seawater Os isotope variations. Although initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios derived from Re-Os isochrons provide the best available constraints on the Mesozoic and Paleozoic portions of the marine Os isotope record, no systematic study comparing Re-Os analyses of organic-rich marine sediments to a well established portion of the Cenozoic marine Os isotope record has been made. Forty-two bulk sediment Os analyses from Site 959 reveal that Os concentrations range from 80 to 550 pg/g, indicating the dominance of hydrogenous Os. Measured ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios range from 0.48 to 1.40 and are larger than the ^{187}Os/^{188}Os of contemporaneous seawater. Variability among replicate analyses clearly indicates significant powder heterogeneity in some samples. A small subset of these samples has been subjected to an oxidative partial dissolution that allows analyses of Re and Os on the same sample splits, and calculation of initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios using an age model constrained by biostratigraphy. Comparison of leach analyses to bulk sediment analyses indicates that all the Re and in excess of 90% of the Os is liberated during leaching. In most cases the ^{187}Os/^{188}Os of leachable Os is indistinguishable from that of the bulk sediment. The resulting calculated initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios are in general agreement with the independently established Os isotope record of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. In particular, one sample analyzed records the pronounced minimum in the seawater ^{187}Os/^{188}Os record during the late Eocene. In total these results indicate that the Re-Os systematics of Cenozoic organic-rich sediments effectively record

  1. Oxygen isotope equilibrium between eclogite minerals and its constraints on mineral Sm-Nd chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Wang, Zheng-Rong; Li, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2002-02-01

    Sm-Nd and oxygen isotope analyses were carried out for mineral separates of ultrahigh pressure eclogites from the Sulu terrane in eastern China. The results show a direct correspondence in equilibrium or disequilibrium state between the oxygen and Sm-Nd isotope systems of eclogite minerals. The omphacite-garnet pairs of oxygen isotope equilibrium at eclogite-facies conditions yield meaningful Triassic Sm-Nd isochron ages, whereas those of oxygen isotope disequilibrium give non-Triassic ages of geological meaninglessness. This can be reasonably interpreted by the fact that the rates of oxygen diffusion in garnet and pyroxene are lower than, or close to, those of Nd diffusion, and thus attainment of isotopic equilibrium in the omphacite-garnet O system suggests achievement of Nd isotope equilibrium in the same mineral pairs. The presence or absence of fluid in the eclogite protoliths is a major rate-controlling factor for isotopic equilibration during high-grade metamorphism. It appears that the state of oxygen isotope equilibrium between cogenetic minerals can provide a critical test for the validity of the Sm-Nd mineral chronometer. In addition, the exact timing of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism in the Dabie-Sulu terranes is constrained at Early Triassic rather than Late Triassic.

  2. Petrologic and oxygen isotopic study of ALH 85085-like chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Ebihara, M.

    1994-07-01

    Four meteorites (PAT 91546, PCA 91328, PCA 91452, PCA 91467) petrologically similar to ALH 85085 chondrite have now been found. Previous studies of ALH 85085 showed it be a new kind of CR-related microchondrule-bearing chondrite, although one called it a sub-chondrite. The purpose of this study is to learn more about ALH 85085-like meteorites and their relationship to CR and CR-related (LEW 85332, Acfer 182, Bencubbin) chondrites. The methods used included petrology, INA bulk chemical analysis (PAT 91546, PCA 91467), and O isotopic analyses of the whole rocks and separated chondrules and dark inclusions (DIs) from PAT 91546. Since microchondrules and fragments are approximately 20 microns it was necessary to analyze composite samples for O; one was of approximately 100 chondrules, and another was of 5 DIs. Petrologically, the four meteorites are similar to ALH 85085, and there is no basis for determining if all of them, or any combinations, are paired. Mineralogically, olivine and pyroxene are highly magnesian FeNi metal generally has 3-10% Ni, and has a positive Ni-Co correlation similar to that in CR and CR-related chondrites. Refractory inclusions are similar in size to the chondrules and have the following assemblages: (1) hibonite-perovskite, (2) melilite-fassaite-forsterite, (3) grossite (Ca-dialuminate)-melilite-perovskite, (4) spinel-melilite, and (5) spinel-pyroxene aggregates. Chemically, INA analyses indicate that PAT 91546 and PCA 91467 are generally similar to ALH 85085. Oxygen isotopic analyses of the four whole-rock compositions fall along the CR mixing line as does ALH 85085; they are also close to LEW 85332, Acfer 182, and Bencubbin. This supports the concept that these are all CR-related chondrites. Even stronger support is found in the compositions of the chondrules and DIs in PAT 91546, which also plot on or near the CR line.

  3. ON THE OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gaidos, Eric; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R. E-mail: sasha@higp.hawaii.ed

    2009-11-10

    The {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of the solar system is 5.2 while that of the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects is approx4. This difference cannot be explained by pollution of the Sun's natal molecular cloud by {sup 18}O-rich supernova ejecta because (1) the necessary B-star progenitors live longer than the duration of star formation in molecular clouds, (2) the delivery of ejecta gas is too inefficient and the amount of dust in supernova ejecta is too small compared to the required pollution (2% of total mass or approx20% of oxygen), and (3) the predicted amounts of concomitant short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) conflicts with the abundances of {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca in the early solar system. Proposals for the introduction of {sup 18}O-rich material must also be consistent with any explanation for the origin of the observed slope-one relationship between {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O in the high-temperature components of primitive meteorites. The difference in {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratios can be explained by enrichment of the ISM by the {sup 17}O-rich winds of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the sequestration of comparatively {sup 18}O-rich gas from star-forming regions into long-lived, low-mass stars, and a monotonic decrease in the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O ratio of interstellar gas. At plausible rates of star formation and gas infall, Galactic chemical evolution does not follow a slope-one line in a three-isotope plot, but instead moves along a steeper trajectory toward an {sup 17}O-rich state. Evolution of the ISM and star-forming gas by AGB winds also explains the difference in the carbon isotope ratios of the solar system and ISM.

  4. Precision performance of a Cavity Ring-down isotope spectrometer for carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K. L.; Hoffnagle, J.; He, Y.; Fleck, D.; Saad, N.; Dennis, K.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a novel laser spectrometer intended specifically for the measurement of δ18O and δ13C in solid carbonate material. Carbonate carbon and oxygen isotopes provide key contributions into our understanding of climate, biogeochemical processes and the carbon cycle. For this reason, the isotopic measurements of carbonates are one of the most abundant measures made by Earth scientists today. Conventional measurement techniques using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), although optimized and prevalent, require dedicated personnel and can be expensive to operate. Here we present a new laser-based technique that will simplify measurements of δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb without compromising precision. To date, there have been no laser-based instruments with a demonstrated ability to meet the requirements of the carbonates community -- typically better than 0.1 ‰ for δ13C and δ18O for CO2 evolved from 1 mg of pure CaCO3. We will present data showing that the new Picarro G2171-i spectrometer meets these requirements. The spectrometer uses the laser-based spectroscopy technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS), a technology that has been successfully applied to many other isotopic ratio measurements including δ13C of CO2, δ13C of CH4, and δ18O and δD of H2O. The spectrometer has been optimized to analyze the absorption spectra of concentrated CO2, specifically the isotopologues 12C16O16O, 13C16O16O, 12C16O18O, and 12C18O16O. We employ a new sample delivery technique that enables a longer integration time period, and hence more precise data. Long-term results for a run of 540 pulses of tank CO2 (90 hours) records a 1σ standard deviation precision for δ18O and δ13C of < 0.08 ‰ and < 0.055 ‰, respectively. We coupled the CRDS spectrometer to an optimized sample acidification system and analyzed standards to assess the accuracy of the CRDS. We will present an inter-comparison between CRDS and IRMS for carbonates using standards commonly used

  5. Holocene climate change in Newfoundland reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Steinman, Byron A.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonate minerals that precipitate from open-basin lakes can provide archives of past variations in the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18Oppt). Holocene δ18Oppt records from the circum- North Atlantic region exhibit large fluctuations during times of rapid ice sheet deglaciation, followed by more stable conditions when interglacial boundary conditions were achieved. However, the timing, magnitude, and climatic controls on century to millennial-scale variations in δ18Oppt in northeastern North America are unclear principally because of a dearth of paleo-proxy data. Here we present a lacustrine sediment oxygen isotope (δ18O) record spanning 10,200 to 1200 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) from Cheeseman Lake, a small, alkaline, hydrologically open lake basin located in west-central Newfoundland, Canada. Stable isotope data from regional lakes, rivers, and precipitation indicate that Cheeseman Lake water δ18O values are consistent with the isotopic composition of inflowing meteoric water. In light of the open-basin hydrology and relatively short water residence time of the lake, we interpret down-core variations in calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Ocal) values to primarily reflect changes in δ18Oppt and atmospheric temperature, although other factors such as changes in the seasonality of precipitation may be a minor influence. We conducted a series of climate sensitivity simulations with a lake hydrologic and isotope mass balance model to investigate theoretical lake water δ18O responses to climate change. Results from these experiments suggest that Cheeseman Lake δ18O values are primarily controlled by temperature and to a much lesser extent, the seasonality of precipitation. Increasing and more positive δ18Ocal values between 10,200 and 8000 cal yr BP are interpreted to reflect the waning influence of the Laurentide Ice Sheet on atmospheric circulation, warming temperatures, and rapidly changing surface ocean δ18O from the input of

  6. What drives interannual variation in tree ring oxygen isotopes in the Amazon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Tindall, J. C.; Clerici, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings (δ18OTR) from northern Bolivia record local precipitation δ18O and correlate strongly with Amazon basin-wide rainfall. While this is encouraging evidence that δ18OTR can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions, it remains unclear whether variation in δ18OTR is truly driven by within-basin processes, thus recording Amazon climate directly, or if the isotope signal may already be imprinted on incoming vapor, perhaps reflecting a pan-tropical climate signal. We use atmospheric back trajectories combined with satellite observations of precipitation, together with water vapor transport analysis to show that δ18OTR in Bolivia are indeed controlled by basin-intrinsic processes, with rainout over the basin the most important factor. Furthermore, interannual variation in basin-wide precipitation and atmospheric circulation are both shown to affect δ18OTR. These findings suggest δ18OTR can be reliably used to reconstruct Amazon precipitation and have implications for the interpretation of other paleoproxy records from the Amazon basin.

  7. Oxygen isotope mass balance of atmospheric nitrate at Dome C, East Antarctica, during the OPALE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarino, Joël; Vicars, William C.; Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Suzanne; Jourdain, Bruno; Frey, Markus M.; Kukui, Alexandre; Caillon, Nicolas; Gil Roca, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric nitrate act as novel tools for studying oxidative processes taking place in the troposphere. They provide both qualitative and quantitative constraints on the pathways determining the fate of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx). The unique and distinctive 17O excess (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O) of ozone, which is transferred to NOx via oxidation, is a particularly useful isotopic fingerprint in studies of NOx transformations. Constraining the propagation of 17O excess within the NOx cycle is critical in polar areas, where there exists the possibility of extending atmospheric investigations to the glacial-interglacial timescale using deep ice core records of nitrate. Here we present measurements of the comprehensive isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate collected at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau) during the austral summer of 2011/2012. Nitrate isotope analysis has been here combined for the first time with key precursors involved in nitrate production (NOx, O3, OH, HO2, RO2, etc.) and direct observations of the transferrable Δ17O of surface ozone, which was measured at Dome C throughout 2012 using our recently developed analytical approach. Assuming that nitrate is mainly produced in Antarctica in summer through the OH + NO2 pathway and using concurrent measurements of OH and NO2, we calculated a Δ17O signature for nitrate on the order of (21-22 ± 3) ‰. These values are lower than the measured values that ranged between 27 and 31 ‰. This discrepancy between expected and observed Δ17O(NO3-) values suggests the existence of an unknown process that contributes significantly to the atmospheric nitrate budget over this East Antarctic region. However, systematic errors or false isotopic balance transfer functions are not totally excluded.

  8. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of mafic magmas at Mt. Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallai, Luigi; Raffaello, Cioni; Chiara, Boschi; Claudia, D'oriano

    2010-05-01

    above the range of typical mantle minerals. The δ18Oolivine and δ18Ocpxof the minerals from all the studied eruptions define variable degrees of carbonate interaction and magma crystallization for the different eruptions, and possibly within the same eruption, and show evidence of oxygen isotope equilibrium at high temperature. However, energy-constrained AFC model suggest that carbonate assimilation was limited. On the basis of our data, we suggest that interaction between magma and a fluxing, decarbonation-derived CO2 fluid may be partly accounted for the measured O-isotope compositions.

  9. Short-term coral bleaching is not recorded by skeletal boron isotopes.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T; Warner, Mark E; Levas, Stephen J; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D; Grottoli, Andréa G

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of

  10. Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2014-01-01

    Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment, or alternatively show a consistent increase due to impaired photosynthesis and calcification. Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca were affected by coral bleaching in some of the coral species, but the observed patterns could not be satisfactorily explained by temperature dependence or changes in coral physiology. This demonstrates that coral boron isotopes do not record short-term bleaching events, and therefore cannot be used as a proxy for past bleaching events. The robustness of coral boron isotopes to changes in coral physiology, however, suggests that reconstruction of

  11. The value of oxygen-isotope data and multiple discharge records in calibrating a fully-distributed, physically-based rainfall-runoff model (CRUM3) to improve predictive capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Aaron; Reaney, Sim

    2015-04-01

    Fully-distributed, physically-based rainfall-runoff models attempt to capture some of the complexity of the runoff processes that operate within a catchment, and have been used to address a variety of issues including water quality and the effect of climate change on flood frequency. Two key issues are prevalent, however, which call into question the predictive capability of such models. The first is the issue of parameter equifinality which can be responsible for large amounts of uncertainty. The second is whether such models make the right predictions for the right reasons - are the processes operating within a catchment correctly represented, or do the predictive abilities of these models result only from the calibration process? The use of additional data sources, such as environmental tracers, has been shown to help address both of these issues, by allowing for multi-criteria model calibration to be undertaken, and by permitting a greater understanding of the processes operating in a catchment and hence a more thorough evaluation of how well catchment processes are represented in a model. Using discharge and oxygen-18 data sets, the ability of the fully-distributed, physically-based CRUM3 model to represent the runoff processes in three sub-catchments in Cumbria, NW England has been evaluated. These catchments (Morland, Dacre and Pow) are part of the of the River Eden demonstration test catchment project. The oxygen-18 data set was firstly used to derive transit-time distributions and mean residence times of water for each of the catchments to gain an integrated overview of the types of processes that were operating. A generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation procedure was then used to calibrate the CRUM3 model for each catchment based on a single discharge data set from each catchment. Transit-time distributions and mean residence times of water obtained from the model using the top 100 behavioural parameter sets for each catchment were then compared to

  12. Trace Elements and Oxygen Isotope Zoning of the Sidewinder Skarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, C.; Gevedon, M. L.; Barnes, J.; Lackey, J. S.; Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    Skarns of the Verde Antique Quarry and White Horse Mountain areas of the Sidewinder Range give insight into the paleohydrothermal systems operating in the California's Jurassic arc in the Southwestern Mojave Desert. Garnet from these skarns is iron rich: Xand= 55-100. Laser fluorination measurements show oxygen isotope (δ18O) compositions of garnet crystals and crystals domains have large ranges: -3.1‰ to +4.4‰ and -8.9‰ to +3.4‰, respectively. In general, the garnet cores have more negative δ18O values than rims, although oscillations are present. Negative values have been interpreted as influx of meteoric fluid and positive values as increased magmatic input. Here we report major and trace element concentrations for 17 core to rim Sidewinder garnet transects. REEs concentrations are low in all crystals, with total REE concentrations ranging from 0.710 ppm to 33.7 ppm, values that are lower than Cretaceous skarn garnets in the Sierra Nevada in the White Chief and Empire Mt skarns. Such low concentrations are likely due to the higher fraction of meteoric fluids during formation of the Sidewinder skarns. REE concentrations decrease from core to rim (REE core average=12.2ppm, REE rim average=7.21ppm). This is slightly more pronounced in the LREEs than in the HREEs (LaN/YbN core average= 10.9; rim average= 9.73, normalized to Chondrite). X­and tends to decrease core to rim in the Verde Antique skarn, whereas, Xand of the White Horse skarn does not correlate with distance from core. A large positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 3­-30) in garnet from both skarns suggests oxidizing fluid conditions. Oxygen isotope data from garnet in these same skarns show periods of time with increased proportion of magmatic derived fluids in the total fluid budget. However, there is no corresponding widespread increase in total REE concentrations. Other studies of skarns from the western Sierra Nevadan arc (White Chief and Empire Mountain) observe complete decoupling of d18O values

  13. ENSO variability reflected in precipitation oxygen isotopes across the Asian Summer Monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhongyin; Tian, Lide; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen isotope signals (δ18O) from paleo-archives are important proxies for past Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) climate reconstruction. However, causes of interannual variation in the δ18O values of modern precipitation across the ASM region remain in argument. We report interannual δ18O variation in southern Tibetan Plateau precipitation based on long-term observations at Lhasa. These data, together with precipitation δ18O records from five Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) stations and two ice core δ18O records, were used to define a regional metric of ASM precipitation δ18O (ASMOI). Back-trajectory analyses for rainy season precipitation events indicate that moisture sources vary little between years with relatively high and low δ18O values, a result that is consistent for the south (Lhasa), southeast (Bangkok), and east ASM regions (Hong Kong). In contrast, δ18O values at these three locations are significantly correlated with convection in the estimated source regions and along transport paths. These results suggest that upstream convection, rather than moisture source change, causes interannual variation in ASM precipitation δ18O values. Contrasting values of the ASMOI in El Niño and La Niña years reveal a positive isotope-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response (e.g., high values corresponding to warm phases), which we interpret as a response to changes in regional convection. We show that the isotope-ENSO response is amplified at high elevation sites and during La Niña years. These findings should improve interpretations of paleo-δ18O data as a proxy for past ASM variation and provide new opportunities to use data from this region to study paleo-ENSO activity.

  14. Drought and flood signals in subtropical estuaries recorded by stable isotope ratios in bivalve shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, B. D.; Rowley, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen recorded in biogenic carbonates can be effective proxies for ambient conditions in estuaries including salinity and temperature. Together, they have the potential to allow periods of drought and flooding to be identified in subtropical estuaries that receive stochastic and aperiodic delivery of freshwater inflow. We investigated the ability of δ13C and δ18O values in shell increments from the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica sampled from subtropical estuaries in the western Gulf of Mexico to indicate differences in temperature and salinity dynamics at fine spatial scales. Oyster shells at locations that experienced both hypersalinity during droughts and dramatic decreases in salinity during floods showed distinct variations in shell δ13C and δ18O values that reflected local salinity conditions. In contrast, oysters at sites where no major salinity fluctuation occurred showed only seasonal fluctuations in isotopes reflecting temperature and possibly feeding patterns. Further, similar isotopic patterns were observed across multiple individuals from each site. Our results show that δ13C and δ18O values in shells measured together provide a powerful method to identify droughts and floods in subtropical estuaries and therefore extend records of dynamic inflow to these stressed ecosystems.

  15. Variation in oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis: intramolecular and biosynthetic effects.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Leonel; Pinzon, Maria Camila; Anderson, William T; Jahren, A Hope

    2006-10-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of plant cellulose is commonly used for the interpretations of climate, ecophysiology and dendrochronology in both modern and palaeoenvironments. Further applications of this analytical tool depends on our in-depth knowledge of the isotopic fractionations associated with the biochemical pathways leading to cellulose. Here, we test two important assumptions regarding isotopic effects resulting from the location of oxygen in the carbohydrate moiety and the biosynthetic pathway towards cellulose synthesis. We show that the oxygen isotopic fractionation of the oxygen attached to carbon 2 of the glucose moieties differs from the average fractionation of the oxygens attached to carbons 3-6 from cellulose by at least 9%, for cellulose synthesized within seedlings of two different species (Triticum aestivum L. and Ricinus communis L.). The fractionation for a given oxygen in cellulose synthesized by the Triticum seedlings, which have starch as their primary carbon source, is different than the corresponding fractionation in Ricinus seedlings, within which lipids are the primary carbon source. This observation shows that the biosynthetic pathway towards cellulose affects oxygen isotope partitioning, a fact heretofore undemonstrated. Our findings may explain the species-dependent variability in the overall oxygen isotope fractionation during cellulose synthesis, and may provide much-needed insight for palaeoclimate reconstruction using fossil cellulose.

  16. Oxygen isotopes in refractory stratospheric dust particles - Proof of extraterrestial origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckeegan, Kevin D.

    1987-01-01

    The oxygen and magnesium isotopic compositions of five individual particles that were collected from the stratosphere and that bear refractory minerals were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Four of the particles exhibit excesses of oxygen-16 similar to those observed in anhydrous mineral phases of carbonaceous chondrites and thus are extraterrestrial. The oxygen and magnesium isotopic abundances of one corundum-rich particle are consistent with a terrestial origin. Magnesium in the four extraterrestrial particles is isotopically normal. It is unlikely that these particles are derived from carbonaceous chondrites and thus such particles probably represent a new type of collected extraterrestrial material.

  17. Bioapatite Recrystallization During Burning and its Effects on Phosphate Stable Oxygen Isotope Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, L. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.; White, C. D.

    2003-04-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic compositions of phosphate from mammal bones are commonly used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. However, preservation of the primary bone oxygen isotopic composition is of concern during post-mortem alteration. Particularly in studies of archaeological interest, bone samples are often obtained from contexts where they have been heated, either in middens, or near hearths. Hence, in addition to alteration resulting from natural diagenetic processes, burning may also have contributed to modification of the primary oxygen isotopic signal. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the degree of preservation of bone during burning. Anthropologists commonly use colour comparisons (Munsell Colour Chart) to assess the temperature of burning. Recrystallization of the carbonated hydroxyapatite, i.e., bioapatite, in bone is more rigorously assessed using X-ray diffraction and infra-red spectroscopy. In this study, freshly deceased (6<8 months) white-tailed deer leg bones (Odocoileus virginianus) were collected from Pinery Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Each long bone was sectioned, incrementally burned, colour-typed, ground to a standardized grain-size (45<63mm), and analysed using differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), rotating anode X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Heating temperatures ranged from 25 to 900^oC, increasing in intervals of 25^oC. Two major stages of weight loss were recorded in the DTA/TGA data, 25-260^oC representing dehydration, and 270-600^oC reflecting incineration of organic matter. The end-product (900^oC) resembled pure hydroxyapatite. XRD patterns of the bioapatite remained virtually unchanged from 25-250^oC, after which peak intensity, sharpness and the XRD crystallinity index (XRD CI) increased from 0.80 at 250^oC to 1.26 at 900^oC. FTIR patterns showed analogous behaviour, demonstrating minimal fluctuations in the FTIR crystallinity

  18. A new isotopic reference material for stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope-ratio measurements of water—USGS50 Lake Kyoga Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Mukwaya, Christine; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS50, is intended as one of two reference waters for daily normalization of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analysis of water with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer, of use especially for isotope-hydrology laboratories analyzing freshwater samples from equatorial and tropical regions.

  19. Understanding Intrabasinal Organic Carbon Records: A New Carbon Isotope Record for the Early Cretaceous Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Suwaidi, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Aptian-Albian (~125-100 Ma, Early Cretaceous) is considered to be an interval of elevated greenhouse gases, intensified hydrologic cycle, limited polar ice, and elevated high latitude temperatures, with evidence for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAE) as recorded by organic matter and carbonate δ13C perturbations in both the marine and continental realm (Jenkyns et al., 2004; Poulsen, 2004; Robinson & Hesselbo, 2004 and Ufnar et al., 2004). In this study four cores from Aptian­-Albian marine sediments from a single offshore basin in Abu Dhabi, UAE were examined petrographically and samples were collected to generate a high resolution organic carbon δ13C chemostratigraphic profile. The cores represent sediments from the Early Cretaceous upper most Thamama and lowermost Wasia Group and represent interbedded shale and limestone units from the Arabian Shelf. Three of the cores, cores A­-C, show a 3‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg with values of -28‰ occurring with a concurrent increase in organic carbon, likely indicative of Aptian OAE 1a. These cores also show a transition from more oxic to euxinic waters as recorded in the pyrite framboid mean diameter. The remaining core, D, shows relatively isotopically light average δ13Corg values of -26‰, with an intervening positive isotope excursion and values of -23‰, and may represent a different event either earlier or later in the sequence, but due to limited biostratigraphic data could not easily be correlated using C-Isotopes alone with the other three cores. The four cores come from different localities within a single basin and highlight issues pertaining to correlating cores across a single basin for the same time interval, as well as variability in organic matter burial and oxygenation within a single basin, and may provide a useful case study specifically related to separating regional signals from global carbon isotope signals for the Aptian-Albian, and understanding how ancient Mesozoic basins are affected

  20. Herbivore tooth oxygen isotope compositions: Effects of diet and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; Valley, John W.

    1996-10-01

    The applicability of rapid and precise laser probe analysis of tooth enamel for δ18O has been verified, and the method has been applied to different modern herbivores in East Africa. Sampling and pretreatment procedures involve initial bleaching and grinding of enamel to <75 μm, and elimination of adsorbed water and organic compounds with BrF 5. Typical analytical reproducibilities for 0.5-2 mg samples are ±0.08‰ (± 1σ). Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of pretreated but unanalyzed samples show no alteration compared to fresh enamel. Solid reaction products are nearly pure CaF 2 with little evidence for residual O 2. Because laser probe fluorination extracts oxygen from all sites in the apatite structure (phosphate, structural carbonate, and hydroxyl), only unaltered tooth enamel (>95% apatite) can be analyzed reliably. Different East African herbivores exhibit previously unsuspected compositional differences. Average enamel δ18O values (V-SMOW) are approximately: 25‰ (goat), 27‰ (oryx), 28‰ (dikdik and zebra), 29‰ (topi), 30‰ (gerenuk), and 32‰ (gazelle). These compositions differ from generalized theoretical models, but are broadly consistent with expected isotope effects associated with differences in how much each animal (a) drinks, (b) eats C3 vs. C4 plants, and (c) pants vs. sweats. Consideration of diet, water turnover, and animal physiology will allow the most accurate interpretation of ancient teeth and targeting of environmentally-sensitive animals in paleoclimate studies.

  1. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Continuum effects in neutron-drip-line oxygen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Rotureau, J.; Michel, N.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2017-08-01

    The binding-energy pattern along the neutron-rich oxygen chain, governed by an interplay between shell effects and many-body correlations impacted by strong couplings to one- and two-neutron continua, make these isotopes a unique testing ground for nuclear models. In this work, we investigate ground states and low-lying excited states of O-2823 using the complex-energy Gamow shell model and density matrix renormalization group method with a finite-range two-body interaction optimized to the bound states and resonances of O-2623, assuming a core of 22O. Our results suggest that the ground state of 28O has a threshold character, i.e., is very weakly bound or slightly unbound. We also predict narrow excited resonances in 25O and 27O. The inclusion of the large continuum space significantly impacts predicted binding energies of O-2826. This implies that the careful treatment of a neutron continuum is necessary prior to assessing the spectroscopic quality of effective interactions in this region.

  3. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  4. Seasonally Resolved Oxygen Isotope Paleoclimate Proxy in Tree-Ring Cellulose from the Southeastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. L.; Mora, C. I.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Mock, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Stable isotopes in precipitation reflect changes in climate, moisture source, and extreme events such as tropical cyclones, and an oxygen isotope proxy record of these changes through time and space is preserved in tree-ring cellulose. Extreme climate events such as droughts and hurricanes are formidable natural disasters in the southeastern United States, and considerable efforts have been made to understand factors controlling their frequency, whether natural or anthropogenic. Tree rings offer an unusually well-resolved, dateable record of climate events extending beyond modern or historical (documentary) records. Oxygen isotopes in alpha-cellulose of shallowly-rooted conifers predominately reflect the composition of precipitation. Tropical storm convection results in marked 18O depletion in storm precipitation, to -15‰ relative to source seawater (~0‰ ). The depletion increases towards the eyewall of the cyclone, however, isotopically depleted precipitation may extend outward many 100's of km. Storm water 18O depletion translates to soil water 18O depletion that may persist for many weeks until ameliorated by soil water evaporation. Tree growth during that time will take up the anomalous isotopic compositions. Distinctive earlywood (EW ~March-June) versus latewood (LW ~July-October) growth allows the rings to be resolved at an intra-annual (seasonal) scale. By comparison to average soil water, droughts result in 18O-enriched soil water compositions. Seasonal drought or years of continued drought will be similarly captured in the isotope compositions of tree-ring cellulose. A 227-year (1770-1997) seasonally-resolved record of tropical cyclone and drought activity was obtained from cross-sections of felled slash pines (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and remnant longleaf pines (Pinus palustris Mill.) from southern Georgia. Interpretations of drought or hurricane events were tested by comparison with recent, detailed meteorological records. The 227-year record reveals

  5. Oxygen isotope composition of diatoms as Late Holocene climate proxy at Two-Yurts Lake, Central Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; Hoff, Ulrike; Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Especially in combination with other proxies, the oxygen isotope composition of diatom silica (δ18Odiatom) from lake sediments is useful for interpreting past climate conditions. This paper presents the first oxygen isotope data of fossil diatoms from Kamchatka, Russia, derived from sediment cores from Two-Yurts Lake (TYL). For reconstructing Late Holocene climate change, palaeolimnological investigations also included diatom, pollen and chironomid analysis. The most recent diatom sample (δ18Odiatom = + 23.3‰) corresponds well with the present day isotopic composition of the TYL water (mean δ18O = - 14.8‰) displaying a reasonable isotope fractionation in the system silica-water. Nonetheless, the TYL δ18Odiatom record is mainly controlled by changes in the isotopic composition of the lake water. TYL is considered as a dynamic system triggered by differential environmental changes closely linked with lake-internal hydrological factors. The diatom silica isotope record displays large variations in δ18Odiatom from + 27.3‰ to + 23.3‰ from about ~ 4.5 kyr BP until today. A continuous depletion in δ18Odiatom of 4.0‰ is observed in the past 4.5 kyr, which is in good accordance with other hemispheric environmental changes (i.e. a summer insolation-driven Mid- to Late Holocene cooling). The overall cooling trend is superimposed by regional hydrological and atmospheric-oceanic changes. These are related to the interplay between Siberian High and Aleutian Low as well as to the ice dynamics in the Sea of Okhotsk. Additionally, combined δ18Odiatom and chironomid interpretations provide new information on changes related to meltwater input to lakes. Hence, this diatom isotope study provides further insight into hydrology and climate dynamics of this remote, rarely investigated area.

  6. Tropical Cyclone Activity and Climate Fluctuations Captured by Oxygen Isotopes in Tree-Ring Cellulose From the Southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. L.; Mora, C. I.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Mock, C. J.; Uhle, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    Tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico fluctuates on seasonal to century scales. Large climate oscillations, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation may affect this tropical cyclone activity. To better discern and understand factors influencing long-term trends in hurricane occurrence, proxies are needed that extend the record beyond historical documents. Tree rings preserve excellent records of climate that can be tracked on an intra-annual scale. Two trees in southern Georgia, slash and longleaf pine, were collected and dated using dendrochronological techniques and a 156- year record (1840-1997) was examined. The tree rings were processed to alpha cellulose, with intra-annual resolution, for examination of oxygen isotopes from both earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) growing seasons. In the southeastern U.S., temperature variation across the growing season for slash and longleaf pines is modest (27-33° C) and oxygen isotope compositions largely reflect the composition of precipitation. Tropical cyclones produce precipitation that is significantly depleted in 18O compared to average seasonal rainfall and generally occur during the LW growing season. The relatively depleted oxygen isotope ratios are incorporated into LW cellulose and thus the annual ring set is marked by a large difference between EW and LW δ 18O values. For years without a significant event, EW-LW differences are expected to be nominal. The 156-year long tree-ring oxygen isotope record of major hurricane occurrence corresponds well with known tropical cyclone occurrence in the study area. The record also captures evidence of EW drought. The tropical cyclone record appears to be overprinted upon a much larger climate oscillation that is characterized by periods of relative separation (i.e., apart from the larger differences due to hurricanes) vs. coincidence of the EW/LW oxygen isotope compositions

  7. A Delayed Noeproterozoic Oceanic Oxygenation: Evidence from the Mo Isotope of the Cryogenian Datangpo Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, M.; Li, C.; Algeo, T. J.; Zhou, L.; Liu, X. D.; Feng, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the Neoproterozoic oxygenation event (NOE) is usually considered to be at 750-800Ma, which was supposed to have triggered the subsequent oxygenation of the earth's atmosphere-ocean system, thus removing the barrier for the emergence and rapid diversification of animals. However, the subsequent oceanic redox responses in the Cryogenian are poorly constrained. Here, we conducted an integrated Fe-S-C-Mo biogeochemical study on black shales of the Cryogenian Datangpo Formation (~660Ma, Nanhua Basin, South China). Iron speciation data indicate that these black shales were deposited under euxinic water conditions. Co-variation between Mo and TOC suggests an increasing isolation of the basin from open ocean during the deposition of the black shales. Correspondingly, the Datangpo black shales show higher δ98Mo values (+0.97‰ to +1.12‰) for the lower part (0-10m) and lower δ98Mo values (+0.44‰ to +0.53‰) for the upper part (10-20m) consistent with a global scale seawater δ98Mo recorded in the lower part but only a basin scale seawater δ98Mo recorded in the upper part. Accordingly, we estimate the seawater Mo isotope closed to +1.1‰ at ~660 Ma, which suggests substantial oceanic anoxia compared to modern oceans (+2.3‰). The seawater δ98Mo reconstructed by the Datangpo black shales is exactly the same to previously reported seawater δ98Mo at ~750 Ma and ~640 Ma, indicating a continuous oceanic anoxia throughout the Cryogenian although widespread oceanic oxygenation was suggested for the subsequent Ediacaran by multiple geochemical records. Thus, in light of previous studies, our findings indicate a delayed oceanic oxygenation relative to the onset of NOE, which may help to explain the first presence of metazoa in Cryogenian but rapid diversification occurred in Ediacaran.

  8. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica oxygen isotope values: implications for use as a paleoenvironmental proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. P.; Abbott, T.; Scherer, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    Oxygen isotope (δ18O) values of biogenic silica have enormous potential as paleoenvironmental proxies in marine and non-marine environments. Isotopic exchange and phase changes (opal-A to opal-CT) can overprint the initial δ18O values, but these diagenetic processes can also provide additional paleoenvironmental information. The timing and magnitude of isotopic exchange reactions are difficult to constrain in natural environments; however, experimental results of diatom aging indicate that changes in the δ18O values of the biogenic silca occur coincident with dehydroxylation of the silica prior to opal-CT formation. Diagenetic alteration of biogenic silica dramatically changes our interpretation of silica isotope data from sedimentary records. For example, diatom δ18O values from a Pliocene ( 4.68 to 3.44 Ma) age marine sediment core (AND-1B) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica range from +28 to +36‰. The silica-water fractionation relationship for marine diatoms of Juillet-Leclerc and Labeyrie (1987) and a standard marine δ18O water value of 0‰ results in unrealistic sea surface temperatures of >20°C. Conversely, if water temperatures of 0 to 10°C are used, the resulting water δ18O values range from -8 to -16‰. A plausible alternate scenario is that the diatom δ18O values are recording sediment pore-water conditions. Pore waters in the AND-2A core had δ18O values of -11‰, possibly as a result cryogenic brine formation (Frank et al., 2010). These low δ18O values are in close agreement with our calculated δ18O water values. Despite diagenetic overprinting of the diatom δ18O values, there is still good agreement between the measured diatom δ18O values and the stacked benthic δ18O record (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005); biogenic silica δ18O values in the AND-1B core likely record the composition of shallow sediment pore water and cryogenic brine formation. The agreement between our δ18O record and the benthic stack δ18O values suggests that brine

  9. A model of oxygen transport in Pt/ceria catalysts from isotope exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, A.; Andersson, B.; Duprez, D.

    1999-03-10

    From isotope oxygen exchange reactions and simulations of these experiments, the important steps in oxygen transport in Pt/ceria were distinguished and their rates were estimated. A Pt/alumina sample was also experimentally investigated for comparison. Oxygen surface diffusion as well as oxygen spillover from Pt to ceria was found to be fast in comparison with adsorption/desorption of oxygen on the metal and oxygen bulk diffusion. The exchange rate was found to be higher on a very-low-Pt-dispersion sample than on a high-dispersion sample, which in the model was explained by the different adsorption properties of oxygen.

  10. Miocene to Pleistocene osmium isotopic records of the Mediterranean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Junichiro; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Gennari, Rocco; Lugli, Stefano; Manzi, Vinicio; Roveri, Marco; Flecker, Rachel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Ohkouchi, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    In the late Miocene the Mediterranean Sea experienced a salinity crisis and thick sequences of evaporites precipitated across the deep and marginal basins. In this study we report Os isotopic records from Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Project cores in the Mediterranean: the Balearic Sea (Site 372), the Tyrrhenian Sea (Site 654), the Ionian Basin (Site 374), and the Florence Rise (Sites 375-376), as well as Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Site U1387 in Gulf of Cadiz, North Atlantic. Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments at all sites show 187Os/188Os values close to that of the coeval ocean water, indicating that the Mediterranean was connected to the North Atlantic. Evaporitic sediments deposited during the latest Miocene, however, have 187Os/188Os values significantly lower than coeval ocean water values. The offset of the Mediterranean evaporite 187Os/188Os is attributed to limited exchange with the North Atlantic during the Messinian salinity crisis. The source of unradiogenic Os is likely to be weathering of ultramafic rocks (ophiolites) cropping out in the Mediterranean's drainage basins. Based on a box model we estimated the amount of unradiogenic Os and the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange rate to explain this offset. Os isotopic ratios of the pre-evaporite sediments in the western Mediterranean are almost identical to that of the coeval ocean water. In contrast, equivalent sediments from the Florence Rise have significantly lower 187Os/188Os values. The offset in the Os isotopic ratio on the Florence Rise is attributed either to limited water exchange between eastern and western Mediterranean or to local effects associated with exhumation of the Troodos ophiolites (Cyprus).

  11. From snowball earth to the cambrian explosion: the interpretative potential of the isotope record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, G.

    2003-04-01

    The interval in Earth history between 750 Ma and 530 Ma represents the erratic transition between the distinctly different "Earth systems" of the Proterozoic and the Phanerozoic. Geologists have developed several indirect methods to study this key interval but perhaps none with as much wanton enthusiasm as isotope geochemistry. Here I attempt a review of the isotope record across this key transition period, with special emphasis on the interpretative role that isotopes can play in understanding events such as the "Snowball Earth" glaciations and the "Cambrian Explosion". The marine isotope record reveals the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition to have been a unique period in Earth history with first-order features in all three of the major isotope proxies: 87Sr/86Sr, 34S/32S and 13C/12C ratios. Seawater 87Sr/86Sr, increased sharply between about 900 Ma and 500 Ma from 0.704 to 0.709, the largest rise ever. Although attributed to increasing rates of continental erosion, this remains only the most plausible explanation because few aspects of the rise have been satisfactorily linked to particular tectonic events. Much of the uncertainty surrounding the Proterozoic 87Sr/86Sr record is due to poor age dating and discrepancies in stratigraphic correlation schemes, which together with diagenetic alteration have led to the current inability to realise the potential of the 87Sr/86Sr record for global stratigraphic correlation. Carbon isotopes have played a key role in recent palaeoenvironmental interpretations of the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition, most of which have already been discarded or merely forgotten. Nevertheless, it is clear that the extraordinary δ13C values of the later Neoproterozoic (and the earliest Cambrian) demand extraordinary explanations, for which there is still much scope for future invention. Carbon isotopes may also play an important supporting role in correlation, however, the role that δ13C may play in global stratigraphic correlation has

  12. Modern and Cenozoic records of seawater magnesium from foraminiferal Mg isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogge von Strandmann, P. A. E.; Forshaw, J.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2014-09-01

    Magnesium is an element critically involved in the carbon cycle, because weathering of Ca-Mg silicates removes atmospheric CO2 into rivers, and formation of Ca-Mg carbonates in the oceans removes carbon from the ocean-atmosphere system. Hence the Mg cycle holds the potential to provide valuable insights into Cenozoic climate-system history, and the shift during this time from a greenhouse to icehouse state. We present Mg isotope ratios for the past 40 Myr using planktic foraminifers as an archive. Modern foraminifera, which discriminate against elemental and isotopically heavy Mg during calcification, show no correlation between the Mg isotope composition (δ26Mg, relative to DSM-3) and temperature, Mg / Ca or other parameters such as carbonate saturation (ΔCO3). However, inter-species isotopic differences imply that only well-calibrated single species should be used for reconstruction of past seawater. Seawater δ26Mg inferred from the foraminiferal record decreased from ~0‰ at 15 Ma, to -0.83‰ at the present day, which coincides with increases in seawater lithium and oxygen isotope ratios. It strongly suggests that neither Mg concentrations nor isotope ratios are at steady state in modern oceans, given its ~10 Myr residence time. From these data, we have developed a dynamic box model to understand and constrain changes in Mg sources to the oceans (rivers) and Mg sinks (dolomitisation and hydrothermal alteration). Our estimates of seawater Mg concentrations through time are similar to those independently determined by pore waters and fluid inclusions. Modelling suggests that dolomite formation and the riverine Mg flux are the primary controls on the δ26Mg of seawater, while hydrothermal Mg removal and the δ26Mg of rivers are more minor controls. Using Mg riverine flux and isotope ratios inferred from the 87Sr / 86Sr record, the modelled Mg removal by dolomite formation shows minima in the Oligocene and at the present day (with decreasing trends from 15 Ma

  13. Seasonality of bottom water temperature in the northern North Sea reconstructed from the oxygen isotope composition of the bivalve Arctica islandica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimova, Tamara; Andersson, Carin; Bonitz, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The seasonality of temperature changes is an important characteristic of climate. However, observational data for the ocean are only available for the last 150 year from a limited number of locations. Prior to 18th century information is only available from proxy reconstructions. The vast majority of such reconstructions depend on land-based archives, primarily from dendrochronology. Established marine proxy records for the ocean, especially at high latitudes, are both sparsely distributed and poorly resolved in time. Therefore, the identification and development of proxies for studying key ocean processes at sub-annual resolution that can extend the marine instrumental record is a clear priority in marine climate science. In this study, we have developed a record of early Holocene seasonal variability of bottom water temperature from the Viking Bank in the northern most North Sea. This area is of a particular interest since the hydrography is controlled by the inflow of Atlantic water. The reconstruction is based on the oxygen isotope composition of the growth increments in two sub-fossil shells of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia), dated to 9600-9335 cal. yr BP. By combining radiocarbon dating and sclerochronological techniques a floating chronology spanning over 200 years was constructed. Using the chronology as an age model, oxygen isotope measurements from 2 shells were combined into a 22-years long record. The results from this oxygen isotope record are compared with stable oxygen isotope profiles from modern shells to estimate changes in the mean state and seasonality between present and early Holocene. Shell-derived oxygen isotope values together with ice-volume corrected oxygen isotope values for the seawater were used to calculate bottom-water temperatures on a sub-annual time-scale. Preliminary results of the reconstructed early Holocene bottom water temperature indicate higher seasonality and lower minimum temperature compared to the present.

  14. Uranium Isotope Evidence for Temporary Ocean Oxygenation Following the Sturtian Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. V.; Maher, K.; Macdonald, F. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The link between widespread ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic and the rise of animals has long been debated, largely because the timing and nature of oxygenation of the oceans remain poorly constrained. Strata deposited during the Cryogenian non-glacial interlude (660 to 635 Ma), between the Sturtian and Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciations, contain the earliest fossil evidence of animals. To quantitatively estimate patterns of seafloor oxygenation during this critical interval, we present uranium isotope (δ238U) data from limestone of the Taishir Formation (Fm) in Mongolia in two stratigraphic sections that are separated by ~75 km across the basin. The Taishir Fm hosts two large δ13C excursions that co-vary in total organic and inorganic (carbonate) carbon: a basal carbonate δ13C excursion to -4‰ in the Sturtian cap carbonate, followed by a rise to enriched values of +8‰, a second negative δ13C excursion to -7‰ referred to as the Taishir excursion, followed by a second rise to +10‰. Above the Sturtian glacial deposits, in the stratigraphic interval below the Taishir excursion, δ238U compositions have a mean value that is similar to that of modern seawater. After the Taishir excursion, the δ238U record exhibits a step decrease of ~0.3‰, and δ238U remains approximately constant until the erosional unconformity at the base of the Marinoan glacial deposits. We use a box model to constrain the uranium cycle behavior that best explains our observations. In the model, the best explanation for the less negative post-Sturtian values of δ238U is extensive oxygenation of the seafloor. Moreover, the model demonstrates that the higher δ238U values of the post-Sturtian limestones are inconsistent with an increased flux of uranium to the oceans due to post-Snowball weathering as the primary driver of the excursion. Thus, we favor a scenario in which there was a rise in oxygen levels following the Sturtian glaciation followed by a decrease in seafloor

  15. Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Cellulose from Plants Having Intermediary Photosynthetic Modes 1

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Leonel O'Reilly; Deniro, Michael J.; Ting, Irwin P.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate and oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose from species of greenhouse plants having different photosynthetic modes were determined. When hydrogen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, four clusters of points are discernible, each representing different photosynthetic modes: C3 plants, C4 plants, CAM plants, and C3 plants that can shift to CAM or show the phenomenon referred to as CAM-cycling. The combination of oxygen and carbon isotope ratios does not distinguish among the different photosynthetic modes. Analysis of the carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate should prove useful for screening different photosynthetic modes in field specimens that grew near one another. This method will be particularly useful for detection of plants which show CAM-cycling. PMID:16663360

  16. The Divnoe meteorite: Petrology, chemistry, oxygen isotopes and origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Barsukova, L. D.; Lipschultz, M. E.; Wang, M.-S.; Ariskin, A. A.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    The Divnoe meteorite is an olivine-rich primitive achondrite with subchondritic chemistry and mineralogy. It has a granoblastic, coarse-grained, olivine groundmass (CGL: coarse-grained lithology) with relatively large pyroxene-plagioclase poiklitic patches (PP) and small fine-grained domains of an opaque-rich lithology (ORL). Both PP and ORL are inhomogeneously distributed and display reaction boundaries with the groundmass. Major silicates, olivine Fa(20-28) and orthopyroxyene Fs(20-28 Wo(0.5-2.5), display systematic differences in composition between CGL and ORL as well as a complicated pattern of variations within CGL. Accessory plagioclase has low K content and displays regular igneous zoning with core compositions An(40-45) and rims An(32-37). The bulk chemical composition of Divnoe is similar to that of olivine-rich primitive achondrites, except for a depletion of incompatible elements and minor enrichment of refractory siderophiles. Oxygen isotope compositions for whole-rock and separated minerals from Divnoe fall in a narrow range, with mean delta O-18 = +4.91, delta O-17 = +2.24, and Delta O-17 = -0.26 +/- 0.11. The isotopic composition is not within the range of any previously recognized group but is very close to that of the brachinites. To understand the origin of Divnoe lithologies, partial melting and crystallization were modelled using starting compositions equal to that of Divnoe and some chondritic meteorites. It was found that the Divnoe composition could be derived from a chondritic source region by approximately 20 wt% partial melting at Ta approximately 1300 C and log(fO2) = IW-1.8, followed by approximtely 60 wt% crystallization of the partial melt formed, and removal of the still-liquid portion of the partial melt. Removal of the last partial melt resulted in depletion of the Divnoe plagioclase in Na and K. In this scenario, CGL represents the residue of partial melting, and PP is a portion of the partial melt that crystallized in situ. The

  17. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Ratios for Nearby Miras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Lebzelter, Thomas; Straniero, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios are reported for a sample of 46 Mira and SRa-type variable asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Vibration-rotation first and second-overtone CO lines in 1.5-2.5 μm spectra were measured to derive isotopic ratios for 12C/13C, 16O/17O, and 16O/18O. Comparisons with previous measurements for individual stars and with various samples of evolved stars, as available in the extant literature, are discussed. Models for solar composition AGB stars of different initial masses are used to interpret our results. We find that the majority of M-stars have main sequence masses ≤2 M ⊙ and have not experienced sizable third dredge-up (TDU) episodes. The progenitors of the four S-type stars in our sample are slightly more massive. Of the six C-stars in the sample three have clear evidence relating their origin to the occurrence of TDU. Comparisons with O-rich presolar grains from AGB stars that lived before the formation of the solar system reveal variations in the interstellar medium chemical composition. The present generation of low-mass AGB stars, as represented by our sample of long period variables (LPVs), shows a large spread of 16O/17O ratios, similar to that of group 1 presolar grains and in agreement with theoretical expectations for the composition of mass 1.2-2 M ⊙ stars after the first dredge-up. In contrast, the 16O/18O ratios of present-day LPVs are definitely smaller than those of group 1 grains. This is most probably a consequence of the the decrease with time of the 16O/18O ratio in the interstellar medium due to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way. One star in our sample has an O composition similar to that of group 2 presolar grains originating in an AGB star undergoing extra-mixing. This may indicate that the extra-mixing process is hampered at high metallicity, or, equivalently, favored at low metallicity. Similarly to O-rich grains, no star in our sample shows evidence of hot bottom burning, which is expected for

  18. Study of the influence of alcoholic fermentation and distillation on the oxygen-18/oxygen-16 isotope ratio of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Monsallier-Bitea, Claudia; Jamin, Eric; Lees, Michèle; Zhang, Ben-Li; Martin, Gérard J

    2006-01-25

    A laboratory procedure for the analysis of the oxygen-18/oxygen-16 isotope ratios of ethanol derived from sugars and fruit juices by pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been applied to the study of isotopic fractionation induced by the isotope effects of fermentation and distillation. For both processes, an experimental model has been established to describe and explain the observed fractionation phenomena. It is shown that reproducible results can be obtained when appropriate analytical conditions are used. Moreover, the ability of ethanol to act as a reliable indicator of the (18)O/(16)O ratio of sugars in orange juice (and therefore to be used as an internal reference for detecting water addition) is demonstrated both in theory and in practice.

  19. Oxygen-18 Content of Atmospheric Oxygen Does Not Affect the Oxygen Isotope Relationship between Environmental Water and Cellulose in a Submerged Aquatic Plant, Egeria densa Planch.

    PubMed

    Cooper, L W; Deniro, M J

    1989-10-01

    We determined that the oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose synthesized by a submerged plant, Egeria densa Planch., is related to the isotopic composition of environmental water by a linear function, delta(18)O cellulose = 0.48 delta(18)O water + 24.1% per thousand. The observation of a slope of less than 1 indicates that a portion of cellulose oxygen is derived from an isotopically constant source other than water. We tested whether this source might be molecular oxygen by growing plants in the presence of high concentrations of (18)O in the form of O(2) bubbled into the bottom of an aquarium. Cellulose synthesized during this experiment did not have significantly different oxygen isotope ratios than that synthesized by control plants exposed to O(2) of normal (18)O abundance. We propose that oxygen in organic matter recycled from senescent portions of the plant is incorporated into cellulose. Our findings indicate that paleoclimatic models linking the oxygen isotope composition of environmental water to cellulose from fossil plants will have to be modified to account for contributions of oxygen from this or other sources besides water.

  20. Oxygen-18 Content of Atmospheric Oxygen Does Not Affect the Oxygen Isotope Relationship between Environmental Water and Cellulose in a Submerged Aquatic Plant, Egeria densa Planch 1

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lee W.; DeNiro, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    We determined that the oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose synthesized by a submerged plant, Egeria densa Planch., is related to the isotopic composition of environmental water by a linear function, δ18O cellulose = 0.48 δ18O water + 24.1%‰. The observation of a slope of less than 1 indicates that a portion of cellulose oxygen is derived from an isotopically constant source other than water. We tested whether this source might be molecular oxygen by growing plants in the presence of high concentrations of 18O in the form of O2 bubbled into the bottom of an aquarium. Cellulose synthesized during this experiment did not have significantly different oxygen isotope ratios than that synthesized by control plants exposed to O2 of normal 18O abundance. We propose that oxygen in organic matter recycled from senescent portions of the plant is incorporated into cellulose. Our findings indicate that paleoclimatic models linking the oxygen isotope composition of environmental water to cellulose from fossil plants will have to be modified to account for contributions of oxygen from this or other sources besides water. PMID:16667066

  1. Oxygen-18 content of atmospheric oxygen does not affect the oxygen isotope relationship between environmental water and cellulose in a submerged aquatic plant, Egeria densa Planch

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.W.; DeNiro, M.J. )

    1989-10-01

    We determined that the oxygen isotopic composition of cellulose synthesized by a submerged plant, Egeria densa Planch., is related to the isotopic composition of environmental water by a linear function, {delta}{sup 18}O cellulose = 0.48 {delta}{sup 18}O water + 24.1{per thousand}. The observation of a slope of less than 1 indicates that a portion of cellulose oxygen is derived from an isotopically constant source other than water. We tested whether this source might be molecular oxygen by growing plants in the presence of high concentrations of {sup 18}O in the form of O{sub 2} bubbled into the bottom of an aquarium. Cellulose synthesized during this experiment did not have significantly different oxygen isotope ratios than that synthesized by control plants exposed to O{sub 2} of normal {sup 18}O abundance. We propose that oxygen in organic matter recycled from senescent portions of the plant is incorporated into cellulose. Our findings indicate that paleoclimatic models linking the oxygen isotope composition of environmental water to cellulose from fossil plants will have to be modified to account for contributions of oxygen from this or other sources besides water.

  2. Oxygen isotopes as a tracer of phosphate sources and cycling in aquatic systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate can provide valuable information about sources and processes affecting phosphorus as it moves through hydrologic systems. Applications of this technique in soil and water have become more common in recent years due to improvements in extraction methods and instrument capabilities, and studies in multiple aquatic environments have demonstrated that some phosphorus sources may have distinct isotopic compositions within a given system. Under normal environmental conditions, the oxygen-phosphorus bonds in dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) can only be broken by enzymatic activity. Biological cycling of DIP will bring the phosphate oxygen into a temperature-dependent equilibrium with the surrounding water, overprinting any existing isotopic source signals. However, studies conducted in a wide range of estuarine, freshwater, and groundwater systems have found that the phosphate oxygen is often out of biological equilibrium with the water, suggesting that it is common for at least a partial isotopic source signal to be retained in aquatic systems. Oxygen isotope analysis on various potential phosphate sources such as synthetic and organic fertilizers, animal waste, detergents, and septic/wastewater treatment plant effluents show that these sources span a wide range of isotopic compositions, and although there is considerable overlap between the source groups, sources may be isotopically distinct within a given study area. Recent soil studies have shown that isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen is also useful for understanding microbial cycling across different phosphorus pools, and may provide insights into controls on phosphorus leaching. Combining stable isotope information from soil and water studies will greatly improve our understanding of complex phosphate cycling, and the increasing use of this isotopic technique across different environments will provide new information regarding anthropogenic phosphate inputs and

  3. New Oxygen Isotope Measurements of Four Stardust Impact Crater Residues Show IDP-Like Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, C. J.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2015-07-01

    We have measured the oxygen isotope compositions of four Stardust impact crater residues. These analyses reveal compositions that are similar to those found in interplanetary dust particles, antarctic micrometeorites and CI chondrite components.

  4. Oxygen isotope composition as a tracer for the origins of rubies and sapphires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Fallick, Anthony E.; Garnier, Virginie; France-Lanord, Christian; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Schwarz, Dietmar

    2005-04-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions of rubies and sapphires from 106 deposits worldwide, as well as heated natural corundum, have been measured in this study. Artificially heated corundums have the same oxygen isotopic composition as unheated material. The 18O/16O ratio of natural corundum is a good indicator of its geological environment of formation. The consistently restricted δ18O range found for each type of deposit is explained by host-rock buffering during fluid-rock interaction. The δ18O constrains the geological source of the major type of gem-quality rubies sold on the market and brings new insight to gems found in placers. High-quality blue sapphires from Kashmir, Andranondambo, and Sri Lanka have specific oxygen isotopic ranges, but they overlap those of Mogok in Myanmar. Combined with traditional gemology techniques, oxygen isotope analysis will contribute toward defining the origin of some commercial high-value blue sapphires, especially from Kashmir.

  5. Oxygen Isotope Analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Sample With MegaSIMS</