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Sample records for oxygen sensing properties

  1. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K(+) currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca(2+) levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied.

  2. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K+ currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied. PMID:28533756

  3. Oxygen Sensing and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Gregg L.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of carotid bodies as sensory receptors for detecting arterial blood oxygen levels, and the identification and elucidation of the roles of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in oxygen homeostasis have propelled the field of oxygen biology. This review highlights the gas-messenger signaling mechanisms associated with oxygen sensing, as well as transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms underlying the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis by HIFs and their relevance to physiology and pathology. PMID:26328879

  4. Synthesis, characterization, photophysical and oxygen-sensing properties of a novel europium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Dawei

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and photophysical properties of a novel Eu 3+ complex of Eu(DBM) 3IPD, where DBM = 1,3-diphenyl-propane-1,3-dione and IPD = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline. Its elementary application for oxygen-sensing application is also investigated by doping it into a silica matrix of MCM-41. Experimental data suggest that the 20 mg/g doped Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 system exhibits a high sensitivity of 3.6 towards molecular oxygen with a good linear relationship of R2 = 0.9987. In addition, the 20 mg/g doped Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 system owns a quick response of 8 s towards oxygen, along with its excellent atmosphere insensitivity and photobleaching resistance. All these results suggest that both Eu(DBM) 3IPD and Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 systems are promising candidates for oxygen-sensing optical sensors.

  5. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway.

  6. A phosphorescent copper(I) complex: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical property, and oxygen-sensing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Caihong; Tao, Guoquan; Xu, Xinhua; Feng, Xiaoqing; Luo, Rongcheng

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical properties, and electronic nature of a phosphorescent Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4, where Phen-Np and POP stand for 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4 renders a yellow phosphorescence peaking at 545 nm, with a long excited state lifetime of 4.69 μs. Density functional calculation reveals that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. We electrospun composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4 and polystyrene (PS), hoping to explore the possibility of using the composite nanofibers as an oxygen sensing material. The finally obtained samples with average diameter of ˜300 nm exhibit a maximum sensitivity of 7.2 towards molecular oxygen with short response time of 7 s due to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanofibrous membranes. No photobleaching is detected in these samples.

  7. Synthesis, photophysical and oxygen-sensing properties of a novel Eu{sup 3+} complex incorporated in mesoporous MCM-41

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Qinghui; Li Bin; Zhang Liming; Wang Yinghui; Liu Yanhong; Zhang Jun; Chen Ying; Guo Lifan

    2010-07-15

    A novel Eu{sup 3+} complex of Eu(DPIQ)(TTA){sub 3} (DPIQ=10H-dipyrido [f,h] indolo [3,2-b] quinoxaline, TTA=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate) was synthesized and encapsulated in the mesoporous MCM-41, hoping to explore an oxygen-sensing system based on the long-lived Eu{sup 3+} emitter. The Eu(DPIQ)(TTA){sub 3}/MCM-41 composites were characterized by infrared spectra (IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), luminescence intensity quenching upon various oxygen concentrations, and fluorescence decay analysis. The results indicated that the composites exhibited the characteristic emission of the Eu{sup 3+} ion and the fluorescence intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2} obviously decreased with increasing oxygen concentrations. The oxygen sensing properties of the composites with different loading levels of Eu(DPIQ)(TTA){sub 3} complex were investigated. A sensitivity of 3.04, a short response time of 7 s, and good linearity were obtained for the composites with a loading level of 20 mg/g. These results are the best reported values for optical oxygen-sensing materials based on Eu{sup 3+} complexes so far. - Graphical abstract: Novel optical oxygen-sensing composites are prepared by incorporating a novel Eu{sup 3+} complex Eu(DPIQ)(TTA){sub 3} into MCM-41. The emission intensity of Eu(DPIQ)(TTA){sub 3}/MCM-41 composites exhibits a strong oxygen dependent characteristic and the composite with a loading level of 20 mg/g possesses better fluorescence quenching with increasing oxygen concentrations.

  8. Exceptional Oxygen Sensing Properties of New Blue Light-Excitable Highly Luminescent Europium(III) and Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, Sergey M.; Fischer, Roland; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    New europium(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyphenalenone antenna combine efficient absorption in the blue part of the spectrum and strong emission in polymers at room temperature. The Eu(III) complexes show characteristic red luminescence whereas the Gd(III) dyes are strongly phosphorescent. The luminescence quantum yields are about 20% for the Eu(III) complexes and 50% for the Gd(III) dyes. In contrast to most state-of-the-art Eu(III) complexes the new dyes are quenched very efficiently by molecular oxygen. The luminescence decay times of the Gd(III) complexes exceed 1 ms which ensures exceptional sensitivity even in polymers of moderate oxygen permeability. These sensors are particularly suitable for trace oxygen sensing and may be good substitutes for Pd(II) porphyrins. The photophysical and sensing properties can be tuned by varying the nature of the fourth ligand. The narrow-band emission of the Eu(III) allows efficient elimination of the background light and autofluorescence and is also very attractive for use e.g. in multi-analyte sensors. The highly photostable indicators incorporated in nanoparticles are promising for imaging applications. Due to the straightforward preparation and low cost of starting materials the new dyes represent a promising alternative to the state-of-the-art oxygen indicators particularly for such applications as e.g. food packaging. PMID:27158252

  9. Oxygen sensing using microrobots.

    PubMed

    Ergeneman, Olgac; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Gelderblom, Femke B; Pokki, Juho; Pané, Salvador; Marín Suárez Del Toro, Marta; Fernández Sánchez, Jorge F; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Nelson, B J

    2010-01-01

    We present a luminescence oxygen sensor incorporated in a wireless intraocular microrobot for minimally-invasive diagnosis. This microrobot can be accurately controlled in the intraocular cavity by applying magnetic fields. The microrobot consists of a magnetic body susceptible to magnetic fields and a sensor coating. This coating embodies Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) dyes as the luminescence material and polystyrene as a supporting matrix, and it can be wirelessly excited and read out by optical means. The sensor works based on quenching of luminescence in the presence of oxygen. The excitation and emission spectrum, response time, and oxygen sensitivity of the sensor were characterized using a spectrometer. A custom device was designed and built to use this sensor for intraocular measurements with the microrobot. Due to the intrinsic nature of luminescence lifetimes, a frequency-domain lifetime measurement approach was employed. An alternative sensor implementation using poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-MA) and PtOEP was successfully demonstrated with nanospheres to increase sensor performance.

  10. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  11. Growth concentration effect on oxygen vacancy induced band gap narrowing and optical CO gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chun Hui; Tan, Sin Tee; Lee, Hock Beng; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Band gap energy and surface defect on the nanostructure play an important role especially in determining the performance and properties of the optical based gas sensor. In this report, ZnO nanorods (ZNRs) with various growth concentrations were successfully synthesized using a facile wet chemical approach. The gas sensing performance of the ZNRs samples with different concentrations were tested toward the highly hazardous carbon monoxide (CO) gas at a concentration of 10 ppm operated at room temperature. It was found that the 40 mM ZNRs sample exhibited the highest response coupled with the shortest response time (123.3 ± 1.3 s) and recovery time (7.7 ± 0.3 s). The high response and accelerated sensing reaction were attributed to the band gap narrowing of the 40 mM ZNRs induced by the increase in oxygen vacancy related defect states, and it is directly proportional to the CO gas sensing activity. These defects acted as the oxygen trap sites which will promote the oxygen adsorption on the surface of ZNRs and enhanced its gas sensing capability. The ZNRs reported herein which exhibits a high sensitivity, fast and reversible response with rapid recovery have great potential to be used in toxic gas sensing applications at room temperature.

  12. Nanoscale upconversion for oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Presley, Kayla; Hwang, Jinwoo; Cheong, Soshan; Tilley, Richard; Collins, Josh; Viapiano, Mariano; Lannutti, John

    2017-01-01

    Optical oxygen sensors have many promising qualities but rely on excitation by violet or blue wavelengths that suffer from high levels of scattering and absorption in biological tissues. Here we demonstrate an alternative method using 980nm near-infrared light to initially stimulate ceramic upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) contained within a novel form, electrospun core-shell fibers. The emission of the UCNPs excites a molecular optical oxygen sensor, the subsequent phosphorescent emission being dynamically quenched by the presence of molecular oxygen. The potential for use of such an energy transfer within electrospun fibers widely used in biological applications is promising. However, current knowledge of such 'handshake' interactions is limited. Fiber-based carriers enabling such optical conversions provide unique opportunities for biosensing as they recapitulate the topography of the extracellular matrix. This creates a wide array of potential theranostic, fiber-based applications in disease diagnosis/imaging, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response. Using a fiber-based vehicle, we observed gaseous oxygen sensing capabilities and a linear Stern-Volmer response allowing highly accurate calibration. Configurational aspects were also studied to determine how to maximize the efficiency of this 'handshake' interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Raman, EPR and ethanol sensing properties of oxygen-Vacancies SrTiO3-δ compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, H.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.; Soares, M. J.; Sobolev, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Polycrystalline SrTiO3-δ powders with cubic perovskite phase were prepared by solid-state reaction method followed by the creation of oxygen vacancies δ-thermal activated. The Raman spectroscopic investigation was carried out in a frequency range of 100-2000 cm-1, and the second-order Raman modes were observed at room temperature. The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) results revealed that SrTiO3-δ samples had evident EPR signals that increased significantly with oxygen-vacancy concentrations. The incorporation of oxygen vacancies was found to decrease the thermal resistivity. Besides, the electrical sensing measurements showed that sensors based on SrTiO2.925 (STO1) and SrTiO2.875 (STO2) exhibited semiconductor behavior, while SrTiO2.75-based sensor (STO3) revealed the introduction of a metallic behavior at low temperature. Furthermore, these measurements confirmed that the resistivity increased after the introduction of the ethanol gas, which indicates that our samples can be considered as sensors for ethanol gas detection. The formation of oxygen vacancies under ethanol exposure at the surface of SrTiO3-δ sensors was evaluated by photoluminescence.

  14. Sensing properties of an oxygen sensor using BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{alpha}} ceramics as electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Noboru; Yasumoto, Eiichi; Nakagiri, Yasushi; Gamo, Takaharu

    1998-05-01

    Limiting-current-type oxygen sensors using BaCe{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{alpha}} (BCG) ceramics as electrolytes were constructed on a trial basis and their sensing properties investigated in order to develop a new oxygen sensor to replace the zirconia type. BCG ceramics exhibited high conductivity in the temperature range 200--1,000 C, and it was verified that the oxide ion could be a conductive carrier in BCG in oxygen at low temperatures (300 C). The oxygen sensors using BCGs worked at 300 C, and their output currents linearly increased with an increase in oxygen concentration in the range 1--22%. They could respond within 30 s between 1 and 21%, and humidity only slightly affected sensing performance. BCG seems to be a promising electrolyte material for an oxygen sensor operating at low temperatures (300 C).

  15. Enhanced oxygen sensing properties of Pt(II) complex and dye entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in sol-gel matrix.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chen-Shane; Lo, Yu-Lung; Sung, Ti-Wen

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a highly sensitive oxygen sensor that comprises an optical fiber coated at one end with platinum(II) meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (PtTFPP) and PtTFPP entrapped core-shell silica nanoparticles embedded in an n-octyltriethoxysilane (Octyl-triEOS)/tetraethylorthosilane (TEOS) composite xerogel. The sensitivity of the optical oxygen sensor is quantified in terms of the ratio I(0)/I(100), where I(0) and I(100) represent the detected fluorescence intensities in pure nitrogen and pure oxygen environments, respectively. The experimental results show that the oxygen sensor has a sensitivity (I(0)/I(100)) of 166. The response time was 1.3s when switching from pure nitrogen to pure oxygen, and 18.6s when switching in the reverse direction. The experimental results show that compared to oxygen sensors based on PtTFPP, PtOEP, or Ru(dpp)(3)(2+) dyes, the proposed optical fiber oxygen sensor has the highest sensitivity. In addition to the increased surface area per unit mass of the sensing surface, the dye entrapped in the core of silica nanoparticles also increases the sensitivity because a substantial number of aerial oxygen molecules penetrate the porous silica shell. The dye entrapped core-shell nanoparticles is more prone to oxygen quenching. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Redox signaling in acute oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; López-Barneo, José

    2017-08-01

    Acute oxygen (O2) sensing is essential for individuals to survive under hypoxic conditions. The carotid body (CB) is the main peripheral chemoreceptor, which contains excitable and O2-sensitive glomus cells with O2-regulated ion channels. Upon exposure to acute hypoxia, inhibition of K(+) channels is the signal that triggers cell depolarization, transmitter release and activation of sensory fibers that stimulate the brainstem respiratory center to produce hyperventilation. The molecular mechanisms underlying O2 sensing by glomus cells have, however, remained elusive. Here we discuss recent data demonstrating that ablation of mitochondrial Ndufs2 gene selectively abolishes sensitivity of glomus cells to hypoxia, maintaining responsiveness to hypercapnia or hypoglycemia. These data suggest that reactive oxygen species and NADH generated in mitochondrial complex I during hypoxia are signaling molecules that modulate membrane K(+) channels. We propose that the structural substrates for acute O2 sensing in CB glomus cells are "O2-sensing microdomains" formed by mitochondria and neighboring K(+) channels in the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Oxygen sensing characteristics of individual ZnO nanowire transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.H.; Liang, Y.X.; Wan, Q.; Wang, T.H.

    2004-12-27

    Individual ZnO nanowire transistors are fabricated, and their sensing properties are investigated. The transistors show a carrier density of 2300 {mu}m{sup -1} and mobility up to 6.4 cm{sup 2}/V s, which are obtained from the I{sub SD}-V{sub G} curves. The threshold voltage shifts in the positive direction and the source-drain current decreases as ambient oxygen concentration increases. However, the opposite occurs when the transistors are under illumination. Surface adsorbates on the ZnO nanowires affect both the mobility and the carrier density. Our data are helpful in understanding the sensing mechanism of the gas sensors.

  18. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Influence of Oxygen Pressure on Structural and Sensing Properties of β-Ga2O3 Nanomaterial by Thermal Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hai-Lin; Fan, Duo-Wang

    2009-11-01

    We prepare the gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) nanomaterials from gallium and oxygen by thermal evaporation in the argon atmosphere and research their oxygen sensing under UV illumination with different oxygen pressures. X-ray diffraction reveals that the synthesized product is monoclinic gallium oxide, it is further confirmed by electron diffraction of transmission electron microscope, and its morphology through the observation using scanning electron microscope reveals that β-Ga2O3 nanobelts with a breadth less than 100 nm and length of several micrometers are synthesized under low oxygen pressure, while the nano/microbelts are synthesized under high oxygen pressure. Room-temperature oxygen sensing is tested under at 254 nm illumination and it is found that the current decreases quickly first and then slowly with oxygen pressure from low to high.

  19. A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, R.W.

    1991-10-07

    An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  20. Transport properties of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roder, H. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tables of viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity of oxygen as a function of temperature and pressure from the triple point to 320 K and at pressures to 100 MPa are presented. Auxiliary tables in engineering units are also given. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are calculated from published correlations. Density and specific heat at constant pressure, required to calculate thermal diffusivity, are obtained from an equation of state. The Prandtl number can be obtained quite easily from the values tabulated.

  1. Evolution and physiology of neural oxygen sensing

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Kauê M.; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Moraes, Davi J. A.; Machado, Benedito H.

    2014-01-01

    Major evolutionary trends in animal physiology have been heavily influenced by atmospheric O2 levels. Amongst other important factors, the increase in atmospheric O2 which occurred in the Pre-Cambrian and the development of aerobic respiration beckoned the evolution of animal organ systems that were dedicated to the absorption and transportation of O2, e.g., the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of vertebrates. Global variations of O2 levels in post-Cambrian periods have also been correlated with evolutionary changes in animal physiology, especially cardiorespiratory function. Oxygen transportation systems are, in our view, ultimately controlled by the brain related mechanisms, which senses changes in O2 availability and regulates autonomic and respiratory responses that ensure the survival of the organism in the face of hypoxic challenges. In vertebrates, the major sensorial system for oxygen sensing and responding to hypoxia is the peripheral chemoreflex neuronal pathways, which includes the oxygen chemosensitive glomus cells and several brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and respiratory control. In this review we discuss the concept that regulating O2 homeostasis was one of the primordial roles of the nervous system. We also review the physiology of the peripheral chemoreflex, focusing on the integrative repercussions of chemoreflex activation and the evolutionary importance of this system, which is essential for the survival of complex organisms such as vertebrates. The contribution of hypoxia and peripheral chemoreflex for the development of diseases associated to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is also discussed in an evolutionary context. PMID:25161625

  2. Photoluminescent determination of oxygen using metalloporphyrin-polymer sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kyung; Okura, Ichiro

    1998-01-01

    Optical sensors for continuous monitoring of oxygen were presented. Oxygen sensing method was based on photoluminescence quenching of platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) by oxygen. Oxygen sensing films were fabricated by incorporating PtOEP, a strong room-temperature photoluminescent dye, into polymer matrices and their sensing performances such as dynamic response characteristics and sensitivities were studied. The response time of the optical sensors strongly depends on the type of the polymer matrices and was between 10 and 100 s. The linearity of sensor response was largely improved using modified Stern-Volmer plots. The sensing films proved to be good operational stability, and no significant bleaching was observed in over 1 year in the absence of light. From the results of the preliminary test, these sensing systems were also anticipated as oxygen sensing materials applicable to aerodynamic environments.

  3. Effect of annealing in a various oxygen atmosphere on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of MoxOy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, A.; Ouni, B.; Touihri, S.; Mhamdi, A.; Labidi, A.; Manoubi, T.

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were thermally evaporated on a glass substrate and monitored by an annealing process in a variable oxygen atmosphere. The effects of post annealing condition on the microstructural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, spectroscopic ellipsometry and impedance spectroscopy. As-deposited amorphous films crystallized into tetragonal metastable phase of Mo5O14 on annealing at 500 °C in vacuum and air. This structure transformed to stable orthorhombic of MoO3 with annealing in oxygen environment. The optical parameters such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical band gap energy and the Urbach energy were calculated from Cauchy formalism. Ellipsometric measurements reveal that the samples present optical gap located between 3.24 and 3.90 eV when the atmosphere becomes rich on oxygen. The variation of the conductivity in terms of the temperature shows an electrical behavior with oxygen environment. Finally, it has been found that MoO3 thin films had high sensitivity to ethanol, which made them as a good candidate for the ethanol sensor.

  4. Tin oxide nanoribbons with vacancy structures in luminescence-sensitive oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, H T; Xiong, S J; Wu, X L; Zhu, J; Shen, J C; Chu, Paul K

    2009-05-01

    Vacancy structures in tin oxide nanoribbons fabricated via thermal evaporation and post-processing are probed by luminescence spectroscopy, and interesting properties that bode well for oxygen sensing are observed. Besides a broad 620-nm band, the fabricated tin oxide nanoribbons show a photoluminescence band at 480 nm when the measurement temperature is <100 K. The blue band appears from nanoribbons synthesized under high oxygen pressure or annealed under oxygen. The dependence suggests that the oxygen interstitial and vacancy densities determine the electronic states that produce the blue band. Calculation of the electron structures based on the density functional theory shows that decreased oxygen vacancies or increased oxygen interstitials enhance the 480-nm band but suppress the 620-nm band. The results reported here indicate that the tin oxide nanoribbons with vacancy structures have potential applications in luminescence-sensitive oxygen sensing.

  5. L-type calcium channel: Clarifying the "oxygen sensing hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Cserne Szappanos, Henrietta; Viola, Helena; Hool, Livia C

    2017-03-18

    The heart is able to respond acutely to changes in oxygen tension. Since ion channels can respond rapidly to stimuli, the "ion channel oxygen sensing hypothesis" has been proposed to explain acute adaptation of cells to changes in oxygen demand. However the exact mechanism for oxygen sensing continues to be debated. Mitochondria consume the lion's share of oxygen in the heart, fuelling the production of ATP that drives excitation and contraction. Mitochondria also produce reactive oxygen species that are capable of altering the redox state of proteins. The cardiac L-type calcium channel is responsible for maintaining excitation and contraction. Recently, the reactive cysteine on the cardiac L-type calcium channel was identified. These data clarified that the channel does not respond directly to changes in oxygen tension, but rather responds to cellular redox state. This leads to acute alterations in cell signalling responsible for the development of arrhythmias and pathology.

  6. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2013-04-21

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

  7. Optical methods for sensing and imaging oxygen: materials, spectroscopies and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-dong; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2014-05-21

    We review the current state of optical methods for sensing oxygen. These have become powerful alternatives to electrochemical detection and in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. The article (with 694 references) is divided into main sections on direct spectroscopic sensing of oxygen, on absorptiometric and luminescent probes, on polymeric matrices and supports, on additives and related materials, on spectroscopic schemes for read-out and imaging, and on sensing formats (such as waveguide sensing, sensor arrays, multiple sensors and nanosensors). We finally discuss future trends and applications and summarize the properties of the most often used indicator probes and polymers. The ESI† (with 385 references) gives a selection of specific applications of such sensors in medicine, biology, marine and geosciences, intracellular sensing, aerodynamics, industry and biotechnology, among others.

  8. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 μm diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9±0.12 seconds – 4–10 times faster than previous reports – while the t95 for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79±0.23 s and 2.29±0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 μm would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50°C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern-Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES-PCL core-shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:23706233

  9. In vitro oxygen sensing using intraocular microrobots.

    PubMed

    Ergeneman, Olgaç; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Pokki, Juho; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sánchez, Jorge F Fernández; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J

    2012-11-01

    We present a luminescence oxygen sensor integrated with a wireless intraocular microrobot for minimally-invasive diagnosis. This microrobot can be accurately controlled in the intraocular cavity by applying magnetic fields. The microrobot consists of a magnetic body susceptible to magnetic fields and a sensor coating. This coating embodies Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) dyes as the luminescence material and polystyrene as a supporting matrix, and it can be wirelessly excited and read out by optical means. The sensor works based on quenching of luminescence in the presence of oxygen. The excitation and emission spectrum, response time, and oxygen sensitivity of the sensor were characterized using a spectrometer. A custom device was designed and built to use this sensor for intraocular measurements with the microrobot. Due to the intrinsic nature of luminescence lifetimes, a frequency-domain lifetime measurement approach was used. An alternative sensor design with increased performance was demonstrated by using poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-MA) and PtOEP nanospheres.

  10. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media. PMID:26287211

  11. Gold Corroles as Near-IR Phosphors for Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Christopher M; Powers, David C; Brothers, Penelope J; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-09-05

    The triplet state of gold(III) corroles is exploited for optical oxygen sensing. We report intense phosphorescence for gold(III) corroles in the near-IR, an optical window that is ideal for tissue transparency. Moreover, the triplet excited-state emission exhibits significant changes in intensity and lifetime over the 0-160 Torr O2 pressure range. This renders these compounds sensitive at biologically relevant pressures and overcomes the spectral limitations of palladium and platinum porphyrins for oxygen sensing in biology.

  12. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-08-14

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media.

  13. Oxygen sensing drives predictable migrations in a microbial community.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Bland J; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen sensing is widely practised by aerobic organisms ranging from bacteria to vertebrates, and a dominant oxygen-sensing mechanism may persist among all aerobes. We traced population migrations of 10 species of the larger aerobic ciliated protozoa living in lake sediment, and in the 15 m water column of Esthwaite Water in the English Lake District (UK). In so doing, we discovered that the character and dynamics of the lake sediment and water column were remarkably predictable in performance over a continuous period of almost 2 years. Increasing warming of the lake sediment, coupled with low oxygen tension, resulted in the emergence of aerobic ciliates out of the sediment and their migration into the water column. And with the annual collapse of thermal stratification in the water column, the whole annual cycle was repeated. In an unusual discovery, we found that particular ciliate species seemed to be 'linked' to other (functionally different) ciliate species partners via the ambient oxygen tension. The favoured hypothesis is that all ciliate species in a particular body-size range seek out a particular, preferred oxygen tension. If that is the case, the 'cement' providing the cohesion of the ciliate community might actually be the preferred oxygen tension. The principal aim of our study is to clarify the microbial migration itself, not the response of the different ciliate species to oxygen gradients once they have established themselves in the water column. The latter happens once the organisms have migrated out of the sediment together, driven by the ambient oxygen tension.

  14. Multifunctional mesoporous nanocomposites with magnetic, optical, and sensing features: synthesis, characterization, and their oxygen-sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Song, Hang

    2013-01-29

    In this paper, the fabrication, characterization, and application in oxygen sensing are reported for a novel multifunctional nanomaterial of [Ru(bpy)(2)phen-MMS] (bpy, 2,2'-bipyridyl; phen, phenathrolin) which was simply prepared by covalently grafting the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl compounds into the channels of magnetic mesoporous silica nanocomposites (MMS). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption, a superconducting quantum interference device, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the samples. The well-designed multifunctional nanocomposites show superparamagnetic behavior and ordered mesoporous characteristics and exhibit a strong red-orange metal-to-ligand charge transfer emission. In addition, the obtained nanocomposites give high performance in oxygen sensing with high sensitivity (I(0)/I(100) = 5.2), good Stern-Volmer characteristics (R(2) = 0.9995), and short response/recovery times (t↓ = 6 s and t↑ = 12 s). The magnetic, mesoporous, luminescent, and oxygen-sensing properties of this multifunctional nanostructure make it hold great promise as a novel multifunctional oxygen-sensing system for chemical/biosensor.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen sensing in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R; Whitfield, Nathan L

    2010-05-15

    Vertebrate cardiorespiratory homeostasis is inextricably dependent upon specialized cells that provide feedback on oxygen status in the tissues, blood, and on occasion, environment. These "oxygen sensing" cells include chemoreceptors and oxygen-sensitive chromaffin cells that initiate cardiorespiratory reflexes, vascular smooth muscle cells that adjust perfusion to metabolism or ventilation, and other cells that condition themselves in response to episodic hypoxia. Identification of how these cells sense oxygen and transduce this into the appropriate physiological response has enormous clinical applicability, but despite intense research there is no consensus regarding the initial hypoxia-effector coupling mechanism. This review examines an alternative mechanism of oxygen sensing using oxidation of endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as the O(2)-sensitive couple. Support for this hypothesis includes the similarity of effects of hypoxia and H(2)S on a variety of tissues, augmentation of hypoxic responses by precursors of H(2)S production and their inhibition by inhibitors of H(2)S synthesis, and the rapid consumption of H(2)S by O(2) in the range of intracellular/mitochondrial Po(2). These studies also indicate that, under normoxic conditions, it is doubtful that free H(2)S has longer than a transient existence in tissue or extracellular fluid.

  16. High performance oxygen sensing nanofibrous membranes of Eu(III) complex/polystyrene prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingkui, Li

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and photophysical properties of a Eu 3+ complex of Eu(TTA) 3Phen, where TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, and Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline. Its elementary application for oxygen-sensing application is also investigated by doping it into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS). Experimental data suggest that the 3 wt% doped Eu(TTA) 3Phen nanofibrous membrane exhibits a high sensitivity of 3.4 towards oxygen with a good linear relationship of R2 = 0.996. In addition, the 3 wt% doped Eu(TTA) 3Phen nanofibrous membrane owns a quick response of 9 s towards molecular oxygen, along with its excellent atmosphere insensitivity and photobleaching resistance. All these results suggest that both Eu(TTA) 3Phen and Eu(TTA) 3Phen/PS system are promising candidates for oxygen-sensing optical sensors.

  17. Sensing properties of pacemaker leads.

    PubMed

    Irnich, W

    1986-11-01

    It is already general practice to attribute sensing properties to geometry and surface structure of pacemaker leads. We have to analyze critically whether claims of having found leads with high sensitivity are in accordance with experimental and theoretical findings. From a model can be derived what kind of typical signal structure will originate from an electrode when an excitation wave crosses it, and what of this signal is influenced by electrode parameters. With decreasing surface area, the frequency content of the signal, the impedance, and, theoretically, the amplitude, increases. If the pacemaker characteristics are not matched to the lead properties, this inverse relationship becomes a direct one: If the input impedance is too low or the upper cut-off frequency of the bandpass is not high enough, the effective heart signal seems to be diminished with decreasing size. This, however, is more a pulse generator than a lead problem. If all pacers would possess an input impedance of greater than or equal to 100 K omega and an upper cut-off frequency of greater than or equal to 350 Hz, an attenuation of the heart signal would be less than or equal to 10% and thus, the results with different leads would be very similar and of equally high sensitivity.

  18. Composite nanofibers doped with a phosphorescent Re(I) complex having restricted conjugation plane in its diamine ligand: Preparation, characterization, photophysical property and oxygen-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Qi, Wang; Jing, Li

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report a Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br, where Cl-PYO stands for 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, including its synthesis, identification, molecular structure, theoretical calculation and photophysical character. Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br is found to be a yellow emitter with long excited state lifetime in pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation result suggests that this emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. By doping Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br into a polymer supporting matrix of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the emission of the resulted composite materials is found to be sensitive towards various oxygen concentrations. The maximum sensitivity is obtained to be 7.88. Owing to the porous structure of fibrous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix, a short response time of 11 s towards molecular oxygen is also realized with high photostability.

  19. Composite nanofibers doped with a phosphorescent Re(I) complex having restricted conjugation plane in its diamine ligand: preparation, characterization, photophysical property and oxygen-sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Qi, Wang; Jing, Li

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we report a Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br, where Cl-PYO stands for 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole, including its synthesis, identification, molecular structure, theoretical calculation and photophysical character. Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br is found to be a yellow emitter with long excited state lifetime in pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation result suggests that this emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. By doping Re(CO)3(Cl-PYO)Br into a polymer supporting matrix of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the emission of the resulted composite materials is found to be sensitive towards various oxygen concentrations. The maximum sensitivity is obtained to be 7.88. Owing to the porous structure of fibrous poly(vinylpyrrolidone) matrix, a short response time of 11s towards molecular oxygen is also realized with high photostability.

  20. Ceramide Mediates Acute Oxygen Sensing in Vascular Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Laura; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Morales-Cano, Daniel; Barreira, Bianca; Moreno, Enrique; Ferrarini, Alessia; Pandolfi, Rachele; Ruperez, Francisco J.; Cortijo, Julio; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Villamor, Eduardo; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: A variety of vessels, such as resistance pulmonary arteries (PA) and fetoplacental arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA) are specialized in sensing and responding to changes in oxygen tension. Despite opposite stimuli, normoxic DA contraction and hypoxic fetoplacental and PA vasoconstriction share some mechanistic features. Activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) and subsequent ceramide production has been involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Herein we aimed to study the possible role of nSMase-derived ceramide as a common factor in the acute oxygen-sensing function of specialized vascular tissues. Results: The nSMase inhibitor GW4869 and an anticeramide antibody reduced the hypoxic vasoconstriction in chicken PA and chorioallantoic arteries (CA) and the normoxic contraction of chicken DA. Incubation with interference RNA targeted to SMPD3 also inhibited HPV. Moreover, ceramide and reactive oxygen species production were increased by hypoxia in PA and by normoxia in DA. Either bacterial sphingomyelinase or ceramide mimicked the contractile responses of hypoxia in PA and CA and those of normoxia in the DA. Furthermore, ceramide inhibited voltage-gated potassium currents present in smooth muscle cells from PA and DA. Finally, the role of nSMase in acute oxygen sensing was also observed in human PA and DA. Innovation: These data provide evidence for the proposal that nSMase-derived ceramide is a critical player in acute oxygen-sensing in specialized vascular tissues. Conclusion: Our results indicate that an increase in ceramide generation is involved in the vasoconstrictor responses induced by two opposite stimuli, such as hypoxia (in PA and CA) and normoxia (in DA). Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1–14. PMID:23725018

  1. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  2. Vitamin C is dispensable for oxygen sensing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nytko, Katarzyna J.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Schläfli, Philipp; Spielmann, Patrick; Wenger, Roland H.

    2011-01-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylation is necessary for proper structural assembly of collagens and oxygen-dependent protein stability of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). In vitro function of HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes requires oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrates with iron(II) and vitamin C serving as cofactors. Although vitamin C deficiency is known to cause the collagen-disassembly disease scurvy, it is unclear whether cellular oxygen sensing is similarly affected. Here, we report that vitamin C–deprived Gulo−/− knockout mice show normal HIF-dependent gene expression. The systemic response of Gulo−/− animals to inspiratory hypoxia, as measured by plasma erythropoietin levels, was similar to that of animals supplemented with vitamin C. Hypoxic HIF induction was also essentially normal under serum- and vitamin C–free cell-culture conditions, suggesting that vitamin C is not required for oxygen sensing in vivo. Glutathione was found to fully substitute for vitamin C requirement of all 3 PHD isoforms in vitro. Consistently, glutathione also reduced HIF-1α protein levels, transactivation activity, and endogenous target gene expression in cells exposed to CoCl2. A Cys201Ser mutation in PHD2 increased basal hydroxylation rates and conferred resistance to oxidative damage in vitro, suggesting that this surface-accessible PHD2 cysteine residue is a target of antioxidative protection by vitamin C and glutathione. PMID:21346252

  3. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ► The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ► The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  4. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  5. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen Sensing under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Teng, Huajian; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Li, Hongzhu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the discovery of endogenous H2S production, many in depth studies show this gasotransmitter with a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Three enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST), are involved in enzymatic production of H2S. Emerging evidence has elucidated an important protective role of H2S in hypoxic conditions in many mammalian systems. However, the mechanisms by which H2S senses and responses to hypoxia are largely elusive. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) function as key regulators of oxygen sensing, activating target genes expression under hypoxia. Recent studies have shown that exogenous H2S regulates HIF action in different patterns. The activation of carotid bodies is a sensitive and prompt response to hypoxia, rapidly enhancing general O2 supply. H2S has been identified as an excitatory mediator of hypoxic sensing in the carotid bodies. This paper presents a brief review of the roles of these two pathways which contribute to hypoxic sensing of H2S. PMID:26078818

  6. Oxygen sensing coordinates photomorphogenesis to facilitate seedling survival.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J; Gibbs, Daniel J; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6-8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil's gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxygen Sensing Coordinates Photomorphogenesis to Facilitate Seedling Survival

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J.; Gibbs, Daniel J.; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W.; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6–8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil’s gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. PMID:25981794

  8. Oxygen-Sensing Paint-On Bandage: Calibration of a Novel Approach in Tissue Perfusion Assessment.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Pieter G L; Li, Zongxi; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Paul, Marek A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Matyal, Robina; Huang, Thomas; Evans, Conor L; Lin, Samuel J

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge of tissue oxygenation status is fundamental in the prevention of postoperative flap failure. Recently, the authors introduced a novel oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage that incorporated an oxygen-sensing porphyrin with a commercially available liquid bandage matrix. In this study, the authors extend validation of their oxygen-sensing bandage by comparing it to the use of near-infrared tissue oximetry in addition to Clark electrode measurements. The oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage was applied to the left hind limb in a rodent model. Simultaneously, a near-infrared imaging device and Clark electrode were attached to the right and left hind limbs, respectively. Tissue oxygenation was measured under normal, ischemic (aortic ligation), and reperfused conditions. On average, the oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage measured a decrease in transdermal oxygenation from 85.2 mmHg to 64.1 mmHg upon aortic ligation. The oxygen-sensing dye restored at 81.2 mmHg after unclamping. Responses in both control groups demonstrated a similar trend. Physiologic changes from normal to ischemic and reperfused conditions were statistically significantly different in all three techniques (p < 0.001). The authors' newly developed oxygen-sensing paint-on bandage exhibits a comparable trend in oxygenation recordings in a rat model similar to conventional oxygenation assessment techniques. This technique could potentially prove to be a valuable tool in the routine clinical management of flaps following free tissue transfer. Incorporating oxygen-sensing capabilities into a simple wound dressing material has the added benefit of providing both wound protection and constant wound oxygenation assessment.

  9. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  10. Restricted isometry properties and nonconvex compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Rick; Staneva, Valentina

    2008-06-01

    The recently emerged field known as compressive sensing has produced powerful results showing the ability to recover sparse signals from surprisingly few linear measurements, using ell1 minimization. In previous work, numerical experiments showed that ellp minimization with 0 < p < 1 recovers sparse signals from fewer linear measurements than does ell1 minimization. It was also shown that a weaker restricted isometry property is sufficient to guarantee perfect recovery in the ellp case. In this work, we generalize this result to an ellp variant of the restricted isometry property, and then determine how many random, Gaussian measurements are sufficient for the condition to hold with high probability. The resulting sufficient condition is met by fewer measurements for smaller p. This adds to the theoretical justification for the methods already being applied to replacing high-dose CT scans with a small number of x-rays and reducing MRI scanning time. The potential benefits extend to any application of compressive sensing.

  11. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses. PMID:25910499

  12. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  13. Growth and characterization of nanostructured CuO films via CBD approach for oxygen gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurfazliana, M. F.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Saim, H.

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured copper oxide (CuO) films were grown on portable IDE circuit silicon-based by low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at three different deposition times (3 h, 5 h and 7 h). The effect of deposition times on the morphological, structural, optical and sensing properties of the nanostructured films were investigated. From the morphological and structural properties, the nanostructured film deposited at 5 h was found to have homogenous surface of CuO nanowhiskers and high crystallinity with tenorite phase compared to 3 h and 7 h films. Besides, there is no heat treatment required in order to produce CuO nanostructures film with tenorite phase. The sensing response (resistance changes) of as-synthesized films to concentration of oxygen (O2) gas also was compared. Film resistance of CuO nanostructures was studied in an environment of dry air loaded (gas sensor chamber) with 30 % of O2 gas. The results revealed that the deposition time causes significant effect on the sensing performance of nanostructured CuO to O2 gas.

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO₂ nanorods for oxygen gas sensing at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Azam, Ameer; Habib, Sami S; Salah, Numan A; Ahmed, Faheem

    2013-01-01

    High-quality single-crystalline SnO₂ nanorods were synthesized using a microwave-assisted solution method. The nanorods were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible and Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and electrical resistance measurements. The XRD pattern indicated the formation of single-phase SnO₂ nanorods with rutile structure. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed tetragonal nanorods of about 450-500 nm in length and 60-80 nm in diameter. The nanorods showed a higher BET surface area of 288 m²/g, much higher than that of previously reported work. The Raman scattering spectra indicated a typical rutile phase of the SnO₂. The absorption spectrum showed an absorption peak centered at 340 nm, and the band-gap value was found to be 3.64 eV. The gas-sensing properties of the SnO₂ nanorods for oxygen gas with different concentrations were measured at room temperature. It was found that the value of resistance increased with the increase in oxygen gas concentration in the test chamber. The SnO₂ nanorods exhibited high sensitivity and rapid response-recovery characteristics to oxygen gas, and could detect oxygen concentration as low as 1, 3, 5, and 10 ppm.

  15. Oxygen scrubbing and sensing in plant growth chambers using solid oxide electrolyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; MacElroy, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of optimal levels of oxygen in the gaseous environment of a plant growth chamber during light and dark periods is an essential criterion for the correct growth of plants. The use of solid oxide electrolyzers to control the oxygen levels by removing the excess gaseous oxygen during periods of illumination and full-scale photosynthesis is described. A part of the oxygen removed can be stored and supplied back to the plants during dark periods. The excess oxygen can be used by the crew. The electrolizer can be additionally used in its open circuit mode, to sense the oxygen concentrations in the plant chamber. The solid oxide electrolysis process is described.

  16. Lifetime-based photoacoustic oxygen sensing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2012-05-01

    The determination of oxygen levels in blood and other tissues in vivo is critical for ensuring proper body functioning, for monitoring the status of many diseases, such as cancer, and for predicting the efficacy of therapy. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a lifetime-based photoacoustic technique for the measurement of oxygen in vivo, using an oxygen sensitive dye, enabling real time quantification of blood oxygenation. The results from the main artery in the rat tail indicated that the lifetime of the dye, quantified by the photoacoustic technique, showed a linear relationship with the blood oxygenation levels in the targeted artery.

  17. High sensitivity and accuracy dissolved oxygen (DO) detection by using PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Honglin; Wang, Ying; Tian, Yanqing; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-05

    Fluorinated acrylate polymer has received great interest in recent years due to its extraordinary characteristics such as high oxygen permeability, good stability, low surface energy and refractive index. In this work, platinum octaethylporphyrin/poly(methylmethacrylate-co-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA)) oxygen sensing film was prepared by the immobilizing of PtOEP in a poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) matrix and the technological readiness of optical properties was established based on the principle of luminescence quenching. It was found that the oxygen-sensing performance could be improved by optimizing the monomer ratio (MMA/TFEMA=1:1), tributylphosphate(TBP, 0.05mL) and PtOEP (5μg) content. Under this condition, the maximum quenching ratio I0/I100 of the oxygen sensing film is obtained to be about 8.16, Stern-Volmer equation is I0/I=1.003+2.663[O2] (R(2)=0.999), exhibiting a linear relationship, good photo-stability, high sensitivity and accuracy. Finally, the synthesized PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film was used for DO detection in different water samples.

  18. High sensitivity and accuracy dissolved oxygen (DO) detection by using PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Honglin; Wang, Ying; Tian, Yanqing; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Fluorinated acrylate polymer has received great interest in recent years due to its extraordinary characteristics such as high oxygen permeability, good stability, low surface energy and refractive index. In this work, platinum octaethylporphyrin/poly(methylmethacrylate-co-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA)) oxygen sensing film was prepared by the immobilizing of PtOEP in a poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) matrix and the technological readiness of optical properties was established based on the principle of luminescence quenching. It was found that the oxygen-sensing performance could be improved by optimizing the monomer ratio (MMA/TFEMA = 1:1), tributylphosphate(TBP, 0.05 mL) and PtOEP (5 μg) content. Under this condition, the maximum quenching ratio I0/I100 of the oxygen sensing film is obtained to be about 8.16, Stern-Volmer equation is I0/I = 1.003 + 2.663[O2] (R2 = 0.999), exhibiting a linear relationship, good photo-stability, high sensitivity and accuracy. Finally, the synthesized PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film was used for DO detection in different water samples.

  19. Oxygen-sensing by arterial chemoreceptors: Mechanisms and medical translation.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Macías, David; Pardal, Ricardo; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acute O2 sensing is necessary for the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation), which permit the survival of individuals under hypoxic environments (e.g. high altitude) or medical conditions presenting with reduced capacity for gas exchange between the lung alveoli and the blood. Changes in blood O2 tension are detected by the arterial chemoreceptors, in particular the carotid body (CB), which act in concert with the adrenal medulla (AM) to facilitate rapid adaptations to hypoxia. The field of arterial chemoreception has undergone a considerable expansion in recent years, with many of the fundamental observations made at the molecular and cellular levels serving to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of numerous medical disorders, and even to propose advances in the treatment strategies. In this review, after a short historical preface, we describe the current model of chemosensory transduction based on the modulation of membrane K(+) channels by O2 in specialized chemoreceptor cells. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channels by O2 tension, which involves mitochondrial complex I, is also discussed. The discovery in the last few years of a specific population of neural crest-derived stem cells in the CB explains the reversible growth of this organ, an intriguing and unusual property of this type of neuronal tissue that contributes to acclimatization under chronic hypoxia. The essential homeostatic role of the CB-AM axis is clearly evident in newly generated mouse models that reach adulthood, albeit with CB and AM atrophy. These animals exhibit a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB inhibition or over-activation can have important medical consequences. Respiratory depression by general anesthetics or by opioid use is a common clinical condition that frequently causes death in susceptible individuals. An exaggerated sympathetic outflow due to over

  20. Distributed fiber optical sensing of oxygen with optical time domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Eich, Susanne; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2013-05-31

    In many biological and environmental applications spatially resolved sensing of molecular oxygen is desirable. A powerful tool for distributed measurements is optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) which is often used in the field of telecommunications. We combine this technique with a novel optical oxygen sensor dye, triangular-[4] phenylene (TP), immobilized in a polymer matrix. The TP luminescence decay time is 86 ns. The short decay time of the sensor dye is suitable to achieve a spatial resolution of some meters. In this paper we present the development and characterization of a reflectometer in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as optical oxygen sensing with different fiber arrangements.

  1. Distributed Fiber Optical Sensing of Oxygen with Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Susanne; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In many biological and environmental applications spatially resolved sensing of molecular oxygen is desirable. A powerful tool for distributed measurements is optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) which is often used in the field of telecommunications. We combine this technique with a novel optical oxygen sensor dye, triangular-[4] phenylene (TP), immobilized in a polymer matrix. The TP luminescence decay time is 86 ns. The short decay time of the sensor dye is suitable to achieve a spatial resolution of some meters. In this paper we present the development and characterization of a reflectometer in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as optical oxygen sensing with different fiber arrangements. PMID:23727953

  2. Regulated oxygen sensing by protein hydroxylation in renal erythropoietin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Roland H; Hoogewijs, David

    2010-06-01

    The kidney is a major site of systemic oxygen sensing, regulating blood erythrocyte and hence oxygen content by hypoxia-inducible erythropoietin (Epo) expression. A constant ratio between blood perfusion and oxygen consumption, a stable corticomedullary oxygen gradient, and a relatively low tissue Po(2) are the prerequisites for the function of renal Epo-producing and oxygen-sensing (REPOS) cells, which are located in the juxtamedullary cortex. In kidney disease, renal oxygen consumption is decreased, leading to an increase in Po(2), dysfunction of REPOS cells, and anemia. The molecular principles of cellular oxygen sensing have been elucidated in the last few years, and genetically altered mouse models as well as hereditary diseases causing erythrocytosis have clarified the oxygen-signaling cascade leading to increased Epo expression in REPOS cells. However, the consequences of a number of recently discovered factors for the regulation of oxygen signaling in REPOS cells are unclear, asking for novel cell culture models which might be hampered by the putative neuron-like nature of this enigmatic cell type.

  3. A Pyrene@Micelle Sensor for Fluorescent Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan-xia; Peng, Hong-shang; Ping, Jian-tao; Wang, Xiao-hui; You, Fang-tian

    2015-01-01

    For most fluorescent oxygen sensors developed today, their fabrication process is either time-consuming or needs specialized knowledge. In this work, a robust fluorescent oxygen sensor is facilely constructed by dissolving pyrene molecules into CTAB aqueous solution. The as-prepared pyrene@micelle sensors have submicron-sized diameter, and the concentration of utilized pyrene can be reduced as low as 0.8 mM but still can exhibit dominant excimer emission. The excimer fluorescence is sensitive to dissolved oxygen in both intensity and lifetime, and the respective Stern-Volmer plot follows a nonlinear behavior justified by a two-site model. Because of the merits of large Stokes shift (~140 nm), easy fabrication, and robustness, the pyrene@micelle sensors are very attractive for practical determination of oxygen. PMID:26539471

  4. A rhenium complex doped in a silica molecular sieve for molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhou; Li, Yanxiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand and its Re(I) complex for potential application in oxygen sensing. The novelty of this diamine ligand localized at its increased conjugation chain which had a typical electron-withdrawing group of 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Electronic distribution of excited electrons and their lifetime were supposed to be increased, favoring oxygen sensing collision. This hypothesis was confirmed by single crystal analysis, theoretical calculation and photophysical measurement. It was found that this Re(I) complex had a long-lived emission peaking at 545 nm, favoring sensing application. By doping this complex into a silica matrix MCM-41, oxygen sensing performance and mechanism of the resulting composites were discussed in detail. Non-linear Stern-Volmer working curves were observed with maximum sensitivity of 5.54 and short response time of 6 s.

  5. A rhenium complex doped in a silica molecular sieve for molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhou; Li, Yanxiao

    2016-01-15

    This paper reported a diamine ligand and its Re(I) complex for potential application in oxygen sensing. The novelty of this diamine ligand localized at its increased conjugation chain which had a typical electron-withdrawing group of 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Electronic distribution of excited electrons and their lifetime were supposed to be increased, favoring oxygen sensing collision. This hypothesis was confirmed by single crystal analysis, theoretical calculation and photophysical measurement. It was found that this Re(I) complex had a long-lived emission peaking at 545 nm, favoring sensing application. By doping this complex into a silica matrix MCM-41, oxygen sensing performance and mechanism of the resulting composites were discussed in detail. Non-linear Stern-Volmer working curves were observed with maximum sensitivity of 5.54 and short response time of ~6 s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute oxygen sensing by the carotid body: from mitochondria to plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Chang, Andy J

    2017-08-17

    Maintaining oxygen homeostasis is crucial to the survival of animals. Mammals respond acutely to changes in blood oxygen levels by modulating cardiopulmonary function. The major sensor of blood oxygen that regulates breathing is the carotid body (CB), a small chemosensory organ located at the carotid bifurcation. When arterial blood oxygen levels drop in hypoxia, neuroendocrine cells in the CB called glomus cells are activated to signal to afferent nerves that project to the brainstem. The mechanism by which hypoxia stimulates CB sensory activity has been the subject of many studies over the last 90 years. Two discrete models emerged that argue for the seat of oxygen sensing to lie either in the plasma membrane or mitochondria of CB cells. Recent studies are bridging the gap between these models by identifying hypoxic signals generated by changes in mitochondrial function in the CB that can be sensed by plasma membrane proteins on glomus cells. The CB is important for physiological adaptation to hypoxia, and its dysfunction contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in common conditions such as sleep-disordering breathing, chronic heart failure, and insulin resistance. Understanding the basic mechanism of oxygen sensing in the CB could allow us to develop strategies to target this organ for therapy. In this short review, I will describe two historical models of CB oxygen sensing and new findings that are integrating these models. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  7. Oxygen and life on earth: an anesthesiologist's views on oxygen evolution, discovery, sensing, and utilization.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Sten G E

    2008-07-01

    The advent of oxygenic photosynthesis and the accumulation of oxygen in our atmosphere opened up new possibilities for the development of life on Earth. The availability of oxygen, the most capable electron acceptor on our planet, allowed the development of highly efficient energy production from oxidative phosphorylation, which shaped the evolutionary development of aerobic life forms from the first multicellular organisms to the vertebrates.

  8. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  9. Luminescent sensing and imaging of oxygen: Fierce competition to the Clark electrode

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence‐based sensing schemes for oxygen have experienced a fast growth and are in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. Unlike electrodes, sensing is not limited to point measurements via fiber optic microsensors, but includes additional features such as planar sensing, imaging, and intracellular assays using nanosized sensor particles. In this essay, I review and discuss the essentials of (i) common solid‐state sensor approaches based on the use of luminescent indicator dyes and host polymers; (ii) fiber optic and planar sensing schemes; (iii) nanoparticle‐based intracellular sensing; and (iv) common spectroscopies. Optical sensors are also capable of multiple simultaneous sensing (such as O2 and temperature). Sensors for O2 are produced nowadays in large quantities in industry. Fields of application include sensing of O2 in plant and animal physiology, in clinical chemistry, in marine sciences, in the chemical industry and in process biotechnology. PMID:26113255

  10. Glucose sensing molecules having selected fluorescent properties

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-27

    An analyte sensing fluorescent molecule that employs intramolecular electron transfer is designed to exhibit selected fluorescent properties in the presence of analytes such as saccharides. The selected fluorescent properties include excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, fluorescence lifetime, quantum yield, photostability, solubility, and temperature or pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl boronic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. The fluorophore and switch component are selected such that the value of the free energy for electron transfer is less than about 3.0 kcal mol.sup.-1. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  11. Oxygen sensing with an absolute optical sensor based on biluminescence (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Redondo, Caterin; Reineke, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    exciton dynamic range extended up to nine orders of magnitude between nanosecond-lifetime fluorescence and millisecond-lifetime phosphorescence. In this presentation, we will report on the oxygen sensing characteristics of this luminescent system compared to a benchmarked single state optical sensor. Such properties can be evaluated because of the sensitivity of the triplet state to oxygen and therefore, we investigate the dependence of the persistent phosphorescence on the oxygen content. Furthermore, we will address our efforts towards the potential integration of novel optical biluminescent sensing into organic electronics.

  12. Correlated oxygen-sensing PLIM, cell metabolism FLIM and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, A. C.; Kalinina, S.; Schäfer, P.; von Einem, B.; von Arnim, C.

    2017-02-01

    Correlated imaging of phosphorescence and fluorescence lifetime parameters of metabolic markers is a challenge for direct investigating mechanisms related to cell metabolism and oxygen tension. A large variety of clinical phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial defects accomplished with changes in cell metabolism. In many cases the hypoxic microenvironment of cancer cells shifts metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to anaerobic or aerobic glycolysis, a process known as "Warburg" effect. Also during stem cell differentiation a switch in cell metabolism is observed. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with hypoxia has been invoked in many complex disorders such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimeŕs disease, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, tissue inflammation and cancer. Cellular responses to oxygen tension have been studied extensively, optical imaging techniques based on time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) to detect oxygen concentration and distribution are therefore of prominent interest. Moreover, they offer the possibility by inspecting fluorescence decay characteristics of intrinsic coenzymes to directly image metabolic pathways, whereas oxygen tension can be determined by considering the phosphorescence lifetime of a phosphorescent probe. The combination of both fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of coenzymes like NAD(P)H and FAD and phosphorescence lifetime (PLIM) of phosphorescent dyes could provide valuable information about correlation of metabolic pathways and oxygen tension.

  13. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Wan; Lun, Zhao; Lisha, Wang; Guangyang, Xu

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π → π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  14. Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Pu; Zhao, Lun; Wang, Lisha; Xu, Guangyang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim π→π* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

  15. Intracellular and in vivo oxygen sensing using phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Seiji; Yoshihara, Toshitada

    2016-08-01

    Molecular oxygen plays an indispensable role as a terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Acute or chronic oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) in organisms results in various diseases, and the elucidation of the pathogenic mechanism of hypoxia-related diseases and various cellular responses to hypoxia is an urgent issue. Optical oxygen imaging methods using phosphorescent probes have opened up techniques for noninvasive imaging of the intracellular and tissue oxygen status, and oxygen-sensitive probes play a key role in the development of this approach. We expect that phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes can serve as new oxygen-sensing probes for intracellular and intravascular oxygen imaging in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Molybdenum chloride incorporated sol-gel materials for oxygen sensing above room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, D. J., III

    Maximizing the efficiency of the combustion process requires the ability to sense oxygen levels over a broad range of concentrations with fast response times under rapidly varying conditions of pressure and temperature to maintain the correct fuel/oxygen ratio in real-time. Quenching of the luminescence from organometallic compounds by oxygen has been used to develop a number of fiber-based sensors. A major drawback of these organometallic indicators for combustion applications is that the chromophores degrade with time, have a limited operational temperature range, typically room temperature +/-25°C, and lack long-term reliability. This work investigates luminescent molybdenum clusters based on Mo6Cl12 were as replacements for organometallic indicators. A study of the high temperature stability of Mo6Cl 12 in air revealed irreversible changes in the optical absorption spectrum at T >250°C and a loss of the red luminescence characteristic of the pristine clusters. Thermal aging experiments run in air and under nitrogen point to oxidation of the clusters as the cause of the change in optical properties. X-ray powder diffraction measurements on samples annealed at 300°C under controlled conditions are consistent with oxidation of Mo6Cl 12 to form MoO3. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that K2Mo6Cl14•1H2O, the alkali metal salt of Mo6Cl12, has higher thermal stability and remains luminescent after long-term aging in air at 280°C. Methods were developed for depositing K2Mo6Cl14•1H 2O-incorporated sol--gel films on planar and optical fiber substrates by dip coating and spray coating. The mechanical properties of the films depended on the film thickness; thin films were stable, but cracks often formed in the thicker films needed for sensors. This problem was addressed using two strategies: altering the components of the sol--gel solutions used to embed the clusters and by devising a composite approach to sensing layers where a slurry of fully cured sol

  17. Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Jin, L.; Chu, B. W.-K.; Li, M. J.; Yam, V. W.-W.

    2008-02-01

    This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power consumption, quick response and high analyte sensitivity in comparison to similar oxygen sensing devices. In our microfluidic oxygen sensor device, a thin layer of oxygen-sensitive luminescent organometallic dye is covalently bonded to a glass slide. Micro flow channels are formed on the glass slide using patterned PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane). Dissolved oxygen sensing is then performed by directing an optical excitation probe beam to the area of interest within the microfluidic channel. The covalent bonding approach for sensor layer formation offers many distinct advantages over the physical entrapment method including minimizing dye leaching, ensuring good stability and fabrication simplicity. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the device.

  18. Oxygen-sensing microdialysis probe for in vivo use.

    PubMed

    Osborne, P G; Li, X; Li, Y; Han, H

    2001-01-15

    Electrochemical conditions were optimized to allow the metal tube used for the shaft of commercial microdialysis (MD) probes to be coated with gold. In in vitro tests with phosphate-buffered Ringer's solution using double differential pulse amperometry (DDPA), the gold-coated shafts were capable of specifically measuring the reduction of oxygen and the oxidation of ascorbic acid in the presence of high concentrations of potentially interfering endogenous substances. By using fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), the gold-plated shaft also measured oxygen with minimal interference from high concentrations of potentially interfering endogenous substances. Concentric design MD probes were constructed that used a metal shaft (O.D = 0.4 mm), fused silica inlet and outlet tubes, and a 1.5 mm dialyzing membrane (O.D = 0.2 mm). A 0.5-0.7 mm gold collar was electroplated onto the metal shaft approximately 0.5 mm above the dialyzing membrane. The nongold outer surface of the MD probe was coated with an insulating polymer. In vivo tests demonstrated that DDPA was not suitable for use with this gold microdialyzing electrode (GMDE). However, brain oxygen levels were satisfactorily measured using FPA. In urethane-anesthetized rats, the reduction current to oxygen in the striatum was increased by brief (1 min) inhalation of O2 or CO2 and decreased by inhalation of N2. Transient application of noxious stimuli (foot pinch) increased cerebral O2, whereas bilateral carotid artery occlusion and death decreased striatal O2. The responses of the GMDE were indistinguishable from the reduction current simultaneously measured from a conventional carbon fiber electrode implanted adjacent to the gold-plated area of the MD shaft. Basal levels of striatal O(2) were 20 +/- 5 microM (n = 4) for the GMDE and 30 +/- 11 microM (n = 3) for the carbon fiber. The GMDE was robust and could be used for at least three animals. This technique can be used to provide information about the oxygen status of the

  19. Eliminating the Interference of Oxygen for Sensing Hydrogen Peroxide with the Polyaniline Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yesong; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) has been shown to possess excellent catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction, however, this molecule may interfere with the electrochemical measurement of other targets when using a polyaniline modified platinum (PANI/Pt) electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated the considerable effects of dissolved oxygen on the sensing of hydrogen peroxide with the PANI/Pt electrode. Accordingly, we proposed a strategy to eliminate the influence of dissolved oxygen with oxygen scavengers. Our results indicated that as an oxygen scavenger sodium thiosulfate was very effective in the removal of dissolved oxygen from the sample solution, and had negligible effect on the quantification of hydrogen peroxide when its applied concentration was below 1 mM. PMID:27873985

  20. Spatiotemporal Oxygen Sensing Using Dual Emissive Boron Dye–Polylactide Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenation in tissue scaffolds continues to be a limiting factor in regenerative medicine despite efforts to induce neovascularization or to use oxygen-generating materials. Unfortunately, many established methods to measure oxygen concentration, such as using electrodes, require mechanical disturbance of the tissue structure. To address the need for scaffold-based oxygen concentration monitoring, a single-component, self-referenced oxygen sensor was made into nanofibers. Electrospinning process parameters were tuned to produce a biomaterial scaffold with specific morphological features. The ratio of an oxygen sensitive phosphorescence signal to an oxygen insensitive fluorescence signal was calculated at each image pixel to determine an oxygenation value. A single component boron dye–polymer conjugate was chosen for additional investigation due to improved resistance to degradation in aqueous media compared to a boron dye polymer blend. Standardization curves show that in fully supplemented media, the fibers are responsive to dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 15 ppm. Spatial (millimeters) and temporal (minutes) ratiometric gradients were observed in vitro radiating outward from the center of a dense adherent cell grouping on scaffolds. Sensor activation in ischemia and cell transplant models in vivo show oxygenation decreases on the scale of minutes. The nanofiber construct offers a robust approach to biomaterial scaffold oxygen sensing. PMID:25426706

  1. Uncovering Algebra: Sense Making and Property Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavit, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a perspective on learning to discuss ways in which students develop personal sense and negotiate meaning in a middle school algebra context. Building on a sociocultural perspective that incorporates mental objects, learning is described as a mutually dependent process involving personal sense making and the public…

  2. Regulation of cellular gas exchange, oxygen sensing, and metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Clanton, T L; Hogan, M C; Gladden, L B

    2013-07-01

    Cells must continuously monitor and couple their metabolic requirements for ATP utilization with their ability to take up O2 for mitochondrial respiration. When O2 uptake and delivery move out of homeostasis, cells have elaborate and diverse sensing and response systems to compensate. In this review, we explore the biophysics of O2 and gas diffusion in the cell, how intracellular O2 is regulated, how intracellular O2 levels are sensed and how sensing systems impact mitochondrial respiration and shifts in metabolic pathways. Particular attention is paid to how O2 affects the redox state of the cell, as well as the NO, H2S, and CO concentrations. We also explore how these agents can affect various aspects of gas exchange and activate acute signaling pathways that promote survival. Two kinds of challenges to gas exchange are also discussed in detail: when insufficient O2 is available for respiration (hypoxia) and when metabolic requirements test the limits of gas exchange (exercising skeletal muscle). This review also focuses on responses to acute hypoxia in the context of the original "unifying theory of hypoxia tolerance" as expressed by Hochachka and colleagues. It includes discourse on the regulation of mitochondrial electron transport, metabolic suppression, shifts in metabolic pathways, and recruitment of cell survival pathways preventing collapse of membrane potential and nuclear apoptosis. Regarding exercise, the issues discussed relate to the O2 sensitivity of metabolic rate, O2 kinetics in exercise, and influences of available O2 on glycolysis and lactate production. © 2013 American Physiological Society.

  3. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  4. Correlating defect induced ferromagnetism and gas sensing properties of undoped tin oxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Vinayak B.; Umarji, Arun M.

    2014-06-01

    A correlation between gas sensing properties and defect induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTFM) is demonstrated in non-stoichiometric SnO2 prepared by solution combustion method. The presence of oxygen vacancies (VO), confirmed by RTFM is identified as the primary factor for enhanced gas sensing effect. The as-prepared SnO2 shows high saturation magnetization of ˜0.018 emu/g as compared to ˜0.002 and ˜0.0005 emu/g in annealed samples and SnO2 prepared by precipitation respectively. The SnO2 prepared by precipitation which is an equilibrium method of synthesis shows lesser defects compared to the combustion product and hence exhibits lesser sensitivity in spite of smaller crystallite size. The study utilizes RTFM as a potential tool to characterize metal oxide gas sensors and recognizes the significance of oxygen vacancies in sensing mechanism over the microstructure.

  5. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  6. Re(I) complex doped nanofibers for oxygen optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, He; Zhu, Long; Wang, Aofang; Lu, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we design and synthesize a novel diamine ligand of PTO (2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole). The crystal structure, photophysical character and electronic nature of its corresponding Re(I) complex of Re(CO)3(PTO)Br have been investigated in detail. Experimental data and theoretical calculation suggest that Re(CO)3(PTO)Br owns a long-lived yellow phosphorescence which is sensitive towards molecular oxygen. By doping Re(CO)3(PTO)Br into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS), the emission response of the resulted composite nanofibers towards molecular oxygen is studied. The optimal sample with mean diameter of 600 nm shows a maximum sensitivity of 4.14 with short response time of 14 s (here sensitivity is defined as the ratio of emission intensity in pure N2 atmosphere to that in pure O2 atmosphere). The composite nanofibers are also found to be photostable enough to experience UV radiation.

  7. Re(I) complex doped nanofibers for oxygen optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Hong, He; Zhu, Long; Wang, Aofang; Lu, Hongwei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we design and synthesize a novel diamine ligand of PTO (2-(pyridin-2-yl)-5-p-tolyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole). The crystal structure, photophysical character and electronic nature of its corresponding Re(I) complex of Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br have been investigated in detail. Experimental data and theoretical calculation suggest that Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br owns a long-lived yellow phosphorescence which is sensitive towards molecular oxygen. By doping Re(CO)(3)(PTO)Br into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS), the emission response of the resulted composite nanofibers towards molecular oxygen is studied. The optimal sample with mean diameter of 600 nm shows a maximum sensitivity of 4.14 with short response time of 14s (here sensitivity is defined as the ratio of emission intensity in pure N(2) atmosphere to that in pure O(2) atmosphere). The composite nanofibers are also found to be photostable enough to experience UV radiation.

  8. Remote sensing of atmospheric oxygen from a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rocket experiment to investigate mechanisms governing the interactions between two of the fundamental components of the solar-terrestrial system: the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The aim is to characterize the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions resulting from these interactions in terms of physical parameters so that EUV remote sensing can be gainfully employed as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and plasma environment. The payload consists of a high-resolution (about 0.5 A) spectrometer to measure the EUV emissions (980-1360 A) of the earth's dayglow, a moderate resolution (about 15 A) EUV spectrometer (250-1450 A) to measure the solar irradiation responsible for the photoelectron production, and a hydrogen Lyman Alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and geocoronal emissions.

  9. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-01-01

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width. PMID:28796167

  10. Inhomogeneous Oxygen Vacancy Distribution in Semiconductor Gas Sensors: Formation, Migration and Determination on Gas Sensing Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianqiao; Gao, Yinglin; Wu, Xu; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Liu, Huan

    2017-08-10

    The density of oxygen vacancies in semiconductor gas sensors was often assumed to be identical throughout the grain in the numerical discussion of the gas-sensing mechanism of the devices. In contrast, the actual devices had grains with inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancy under non-ideal conditions. This conflict between reality and discussion drove us to study the formation and migration of the oxygen defects in semiconductor grains. A model of the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy was proposed based on the effects of cooling rate and re-annealing on semiconductive thin films. The model established the diffusion equations of oxygen vacancy according to the defect kinetics of diffusion and exclusion. We described that the steady-state and transient-state oxygen vacancy distributions, which were used to calculate the gas-sensing characteristics of the sensor resistance and response to reducing gases under two different conditions. The gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model had the applications in simulating the sensor performances, such as the power law, the grain size effect and the effect of depletion layer width.

  11. Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

  12. Synthesis of polystyrene beads loaded with dual luminophors for self-referenced oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Im, Sang Hyuk; Khalil, Gamal E; Callis, James; Ahn, Byung Hyun; Gouterman, Martin; Xia, Younan

    2005-09-15

    Dispersion polymerization has been successfully applied to synthesize monodisperse polystyrene beads loaded with SiOEP and PtOEP for self-referenced oxygen sensing. The polystyrene beads became larger in size as the concentration of initiator was increased due to the reduction of primary particles precipitated from the polymerization medium. The dual luminophors showed similar absorption spectra but two distinctive emission spectra with peaks at 580 and 650nm for SiOEP and PtOEP, respectively. While the emission of SiOEP exhibited no response to oxygen, the luminescence intensity of PtOEP was monotonically dependent on the concentration of oxygen. From the Stern-Volmer plot, we observed a linear correlation between the intensity ratio of SiOEP at 580nm to PtOEP at 650nm and the concentration of oxygen, which could be used to reliably monitor the partial pressure of oxygen in a system.

  13. Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Jiang, Weilin; Varga, Tamas; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria doped ceria as the oxygen sensing material. Desired signal to noise ratio can be achieved in a material system with high conductivity. From previous studies it is established that 6 atomic percent samarium doping is the optimum concentration for thin film samaria doped ceria to achieve high ionic conductivity. In this study, the conductivity of the 6 atomic percent samaria doped ceria thin film is measured as a function of the sensing film thickness. Hysteresis and dynamic response of this sensing platform is tested for a range of oxygen pressures from 0.001 Torr to 100 Torr for temperatures above 673 K. An attempt has been made to understand the physics behind the thickness dependent conductivity behavior of this sensing platform by developing a hypothetical operating model and through COMSOL simulations. This study can be used to identify the parameters required to construct a fast, reliable and compact high temperature oxygen sensor.

  14. Oxygen Sensing Difluoroboron β-Diketonate Polylactide Materials with Tunable Dynamic Ranges for Wound Imaging.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Christopher A; Seaman, Scott A; Mathew, Alexander S; Gorick, Catherine M; Fan, Ziyi; Demas, James N; Peirce, Shayn M; Fraser, Cassandra L

    2016-11-23

    Difluoroboron β-diketonate poly(lactic acid) materials exhibit both fluorescence (F) and oxygen sensitive room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP). Introduction of halide heavy atoms (Br and I) is an effective strategy to control the oxygen sensitivity in these materials. A series of naphthyl-phenyl (nbm) dye derivatives with hydrogen, bromide and iodide substituents were prepared for comparison. As nanoparticles, the hydrogen derivative was hypersensitive to oxygen (0-0.3%), while the bromide analogue was suited for hypoxia detection (0-3% O2). The iodo derivative, BF2nbm(I)PLA, showed excellent F to RTP peak separation and an 0-100% oxygen sensitivity range unprecedented for metal-free RTP emitting materials. Due to the dual emission and unconventionally long RTP lifetimes of these O2 sensing materials, a portable, cost-effective camera was used to quantify oxygen levels via lifetime and red/green/blue (RGB) ratiometry. The hypersensitive H dye was well matched to lifetime detection, simultaneous lifetime and ratiometric imaging was possible for the bromide analogue, whereas the iodide material, with intense RTP emission and a shorter lifetime, was suited for RGB ratiometry. To demonstrate the prospects of this camera/material design combination for bioimaging, iodide boron dye-PLA nanoparticles were applied to a murine wound model to detect oxygen levels. Surprisingly, wound oxygen imaging was achieved without covering (i.e. without isolating from ambient conditions, air). Additionally, would healing was monitored via wound size reduction and associated oxygen recovery, from hypoxic to normoxic. These single-component materials provide a simple tunable platform for biological oxygen sensing that can be deployed to spatially resolve oxygen in a variety of environments.

  15. Cholesterol biosensors based on oxygen sensing alginate-silica microspheres.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Janak; Joshi, Abhijeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Srivastava, Rohit

    2011-09-01

    Cholesterol determination in body is important in diagnosis of diseases like coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and obstructive jaundice. This research aims at developing fluorimetric cholesterol biosensors based on self-assembled mesoporous alginate-silica (Algilica) microspheres. For preparing the biosensor, Pt-(II)-octaethylporphine (PtOEP; oxygen sensitive metalloporphyrin) dye has been loaded in the Algilica microspheres using the solvent-mediated precipitation method. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was then covalently conjugated to PtOEP/Algilica microspheres using EDC and NHS reagents. PtOEP dye and enzyme encapsulation, activity and stability were then analyzed. Layer-by-layer self-assembly was finally performed using PAH and PSS polyelectrolytes to minimize leaching of the biosensor components. The prepared biosensor exhibited linearity over a range of 0.77-2.5 mM O(2) (K(SV) : 0.097/mM of O(2) ) obtained using from Stern-Volmer plots. The biosensor response to standard cholesterol displayed a linear analytical range from 1.25 to 10 mM of cholesterol with regression coefficient of 0.996 (1.25-3.75 mM), 0.976 (1.25-6 mM), and 0.959 (1.25-10 mM) and response time of 10 min. Thus, the prepared cholesterol biosensor shows great potential in the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Optical sensor for dual sensing of oxygen and carbon dioxide based on sensing films coated on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Chu, Cheng-Shane; Syu, Jhih-Jheng

    2017-02-01

    An optical sensor for the dual sensing of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) based on sensing films coated on filter paper is proposed. Ethyl cellulose (EC) doped with platinum(II) meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (PtTFPP) and 7-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin serve as the oxygen sensing material and reference blue emission dye for the pH indicator, respectively. The CO2 sensing layer includes the pH-sensitive fluorescent indicator 1-hydroxy-3,6,8-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt immobilized within the EC. The O2- and CO2-sensitive materials can both be excited with a 405 nm LED, and the two emission wavelengths can be detected separately. The experimental result reveals that the optical O2 and CO2 sensors have sensitivities of IN2 /I100%O2 =22.8 and IN2 /I100%CO2 =3.6, respectively. The response times of the optical O2 sensor were 15 s upon switching from nitrogen to O2 and 41 s when moving from O2 to nitrogen (N2). The response times of the optical CO2 sensor were 7 s upon switching from 100% N2 to 100% CO2 and 39 s when moving from 100% CO2 to 100% N2. The proposed optical dual sensor can be used for the simultaneous sensing of O2 and CO2 concentrations in environmental applications.

  17. Cellular Oxygen and Nutrient Sensing in Microgravity Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmacinski, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen and nutrient sensing is fundamental to the understanding of cell growth and metabolism. This requires identification of optical probes and suitable detection technology without complex calibration procedures. Under this project Microcosm developed an experimental technique that allows for simultaneous imaging of intra- and inter-cellular events. The technique consists of frequency-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), a set of identified oxygen and pH probes, and methods for fabrication of microsensors. Specifications for electronic and optical components of FLIM instrumentation are provided. Hardware and software were developed for data acquisition and analysis. Principles, procedures, and representative images are demonstrated. Suitable lifetime sensitive oxygen, pH, and glucose probes for intra- and extra-cellular measurements of analyte concentrations have been identified and tested. Lifetime sensing and imaging have been performed using PBS buffer, culture media, and yeast cells as a model systems. Spectral specifications, calibration curves, and probes availability are also provided in the report.

  18. Structural properties and gas sensing behavior of sol-gel grown nanostructured zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Gadani, Keval; Rathod, K. N.; Solanki, Sapana; Kansara, S. B.; Pandya, D. D.; Shah, N. A.; Solanki, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report the results of the studies on structural properties and gas sensing behavior of nanostructured ZnO grown using acetone precursor based modified sol-gel technique. Final product of ZnO was sintered at different temperatures to vary the crystallite size while their structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement performed at room temperature. XRD results suggest the single phasic nature of all the samples and crystallite size increases from 11.53 to 20.96nm with increase in sintering temperature. Gas sensing behavior has been studied for acetone gas which indicates that lower sintered samples are more capable to sense the acetone gas and related mechanism has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystal boundary density, defect mechanism and possible chemical reaction between gas traces and various oxygen species.

  19. Structural properties and gas sensing behavior of sol-gel grown nanostructured zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Gadani, Keval; Kansara, S. B.; Pandya, D. D.; Shah, N. A.; Solanki, P. S.; Rathod, K. N.; Solanki, Sapana

    2016-05-06

    In this communication, we report the results of the studies on structural properties and gas sensing behavior of nanostructured ZnO grown using acetone precursor based modified sol-gel technique. Final product of ZnO was sintered at different temperatures to vary the crystallite size while their structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement performed at room temperature. XRD results suggest the single phasic nature of all the samples and crystallite size increases from 11.53 to 20.96 nm with increase in sintering temperature. Gas sensing behavior has been studied for acetone gas which indicates that lower sintered samples are more capable to sense the acetone gas and related mechanism has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystal boundary density, defect mechanism and possible chemical reaction between gas traces and various oxygen species.

  20. Structural and Oxygen Storage Properties of Hexagonal Manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abughayada, Castro; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Kolesnik, Stan; Chmaissem, Omar; NIU Team

    2013-03-01

    Complex oxides exhibiting superior reversible oxygen absorption/release capacities have been generating a great deal of interest due to their critical role in the development of energy related technologies, such as oxy-fuel and chemical looping combustion. Based on our previous studies of tolerance factor, we have successfully synthesized hexagonal (P63cm) RMnO3+δ manganites (R =Dy, Ho, Y) for which we discovered a large reversible oxygen storage/release capacities (within the range of oxygen content 3.0 - 3.4) at unusually low temperatures near 300 °C which make them excellent candidates for air separation and production of high purity oxygen. Resistivity, structural, magnetic, and thermal expansion properties are correlated with the oxygen content 3 + δ for these compounds. Work supported by NIU Great Journey Assistantship.

  1. Two–Photon Oxygen Sensing with Quantum Dot–Porphyrin Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Christopher M.; Karnas, Elizabeth; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of a quantum dot (QD) associated to palladium(II) porphyrins have been developed to detect oxygen (pO2) in organic solvents. Palladium porphyrins are sensitive in the 0–160 torr range, making them ideal phosphors for in vivo biological oxygen quantification. Porphyrins with meso pyridyl substituents bind to the surface of the QD to produce self–assembled nanosensors. Appreciable overlap between QD emission and porphyrin absorption features results in efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signal transduction in these sensors. The QD serves as a photon antenna, enhancing porphyrin emission under both one– and two–photon excitation, demonstrating that QD–palladium porphyrin conjugates may be used for oxygen sensing over physiological oxygen ranges. PMID:23978247

  2. Knitted Strain Sensors: Impact of Design Parameters on Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs. PMID:24608010

  3. Uncondensed Graphitic Carbon Nitride on Reduced Graphene Oxide for Oxygen Sensing via a Photoredox Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James E; Sorescu, Dan C; Burkert, Seth C; White, David L; Star, Alexander

    2017-08-16

    Melon, a polymeric, uncondensed graphitic carbon nitride with a two-dimensional structure, has been coupled with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to create an oxygen chemiresistor sensor that is active under UV photoactivation. Oxygen gas is an important sensor target in a variety of areas including industrial safety, combustion process monitoring, as well as environmental and biomedical fields. Because of the intimate electrical interface formed between melon and rGO, charge transfer of photoexcited electrons occurs between the two materials when under UV (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. A photoredox mechanism wherein oxygen is reduced on the rGO surface provides the basis for sensing oxygen gas in the concentration range 300-100 000 ppm. The sensor response was found to be logarithmically proportional to oxygen gas concentration. DFT calculations of a melon-oxidized graphene composite found that slight protonation of melon leads to charge accumulation on the rGO layer and a corresponding charge depletion on the melon layer. This work provides an example of a metal-free system for solid-gas interface sensing via a photoredox mechanism.

  4. Vanadium oxide based materials: Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayesh, Samar I.

    In recent years, the demand for gas sensors based on safety and process control requirements has been expanding. The reason for such demand sterns from environmental and safety concerns since the toxic gases released from automobile exhausts and chemical plants can directly or indirectly pollute our environment and affect our health. Among the chemicals studied, nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases are among the most dangerous air pollutants. Transition metal oxide clusters (or polyoxometalates) provide an exciting opportunity for the design and synthesis of a new generation of materials for efficient NOx sensing. Polyoxometalates are an important and fast emerging class of compounds that exhibit many remarkable properties. Chapter 1 provides introduction and background of chemical sensors. It describes the need for gas sensors and the current status of research in the area of NOx gas sensors in particular. A description of polyoxmetalates and their relevance as potential novel gas sensor materials is also given. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, manganometric titration, bond valence sum calculation, temperature dependent magnetic properties studies, electron paramagnetic resonance, and complete single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of newly prepared vanadium oxide based-systems that have been discovered during the course of this work. First, the system containing arrays of decavanadates networked by extensive hydrogen bonding with cyclic nitrogen bases are described. This is followed by the mixed-valence vanadium oxide cluster, [VV 13VIV3O42(Cl)]-7, containing a hitherto unknown vanadium oxide framework structure. Finally the synthesis of 3D-framework materials is described. These compounds have highly symmetrical closely related three-dimensional framework structures consisting vanadium oxide shells {V18O42(XO4)} linked via heterometallic atoms {M' = Cd, Zn} into three

  5. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.; Ganoe, R.

    2013-12-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle experiment has demonstrated the ability to remotely detect dissolved oxygen and nitrogen in pure water (also Chesapeake Bay water) using a 355nm Nd:YAG laser and a simple monochromater to detect the shifted Raman oxygen and nitrogen backscattered signals at 376.2 and 387.5 nm respectively. The theoretical basis for the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented. A 1.3-m water cell had an attached vertical column to house a Troll 9500 dissolved oxygen in-situ monitor (In-Situ Inc Troll 9500). The Raman oxygen signal could be calibrated with this devise. While Raman backscattered water signals are low a potential aircraft remote system was designed and will be presented.

  6. Microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO2 nanorods for oxygen gas sensing at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Habib, Sami S; Salah, Numan A; Ahmed, Faheem

    2013-01-01

    High-quality single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods were synthesized using a microwave-assisted solution method. The nanorods were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible and Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and electrical resistance measurements. The XRD pattern indicated the formation of single-phase SnO2 nanorods with rutile structure. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed tetragonal nanorods of about 450–500 nm in length and 60–80 nm in diameter. The nanorods showed a higher BET surface area of 288 m2/g, much higher than that of previously reported work. The Raman scattering spectra indicated a typical rutile phase of the SnO2. The absorption spectrum showed an absorption peak centered at 340 nm, and the band-gap value was found to be 3.64 eV. The gas-sensing properties of the SnO2 nanorods for oxygen gas with different concentrations were measured at room temperature. It was found that the value of resistance increased with the increase in oxygen gas concentration in the test chamber. The SnO2 nanorods exhibited high sensitivity and rapid response-recovery characteristics to oxygen gas, and could detect oxygen concentration as low as 1, 3, 5, and 10 ppm. PMID:24143091

  7. Mitochondrial Complex IV Subunit 4 Isoform 2 Is Essential for Acute Pulmonary Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Natascha; Hüttemann, Maik; Pak, Oleg; Scheibe, Susan; Knoepp, Fenja; Sinkler, Christopher; Malczyk, Monika; Gierhardt, Mareike; Esfandiary, Azadeh; Kraut, Simone; Jonas, Felix; Veith, Christine; Aras, Siddhesh; Sydykov, Akylbek; Alebrahimdehkordi, Nasim; Giehl, Klaudia; Hecker, Matthias; Brandes, Ralf P; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Schermuly, Ralph T; Grossman, Lawrence I; Weissmann, Norbert

    2017-08-04

    Acute pulmonary oxygen sensing is essential to avoid life-threatening hypoxemia via hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which matches perfusion to ventilation. Hypoxia-induced mitochondrial superoxide release has been suggested as a critical step in the signaling pathway underlying HPV. However, the identity of the primary oxygen sensor and the mechanism of superoxide release in acute hypoxia, as well as its relevance for chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing, remain unresolved. To investigate the role of the pulmonary-specific isoform 2 of subunit 4 of the mitochondrial complex IV (Cox4i2) and the subsequent mediators superoxide and hydrogen peroxide for pulmonary oxygen sensing and signaling. Isolated ventilated and perfused lungs from Cox4i2(-/-) mice lacked acute HPV. In parallel, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from Cox4i2(-/-) mice showed no hypoxia-induced increase of intracellular calcium. Hypoxia-induced superoxide release which was detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy in wild-type PASMCs was absent in Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs and was dependent on cysteine residues of Cox4i2. HPV could be inhibited by mitochondrial superoxide inhibitors proving the functional relevance of superoxide release for HPV. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization, which can promote mitochondrial superoxide release, was detected during acute hypoxia in wild-type but not Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs. Downstream signaling determined by patch-clamp measurements showed decreased hypoxia-induced cellular membrane depolarization in Cox4i2(-/-) PASMCs compared with wild-type PASMCs, which could be normalized by the application of hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular remodeling were not or only slightly affected by Cox4i2 deficiency, respectively. Cox4i2 is essential for acute but not chronic pulmonary oxygen sensing by triggering mitochondrial hyperpolarization and release of mitochondrial superoxide which, after

  8. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} − N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  9. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N(3) - N(4), where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  10. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N3 - N4, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  11. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.

  12. Facet effects of palladium nanocrystals for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids and for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongan; Chi, Xiaowei; Zou, Shouzhong; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2016-03-01

    Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd nanocrystals has little effect on the oxygen reduction process but significantly affects the oxidation process of the superoxide. It is found that the Pd{110}/IL interface can better stabilize superoxide radicals revealed by a more positive oxidation potential compared to that of Pd{100}. In addition, the analytical characteristic of utilizing both palladium nanocrystals as electrodes for oxygen sensing is comparable with a polycrystal platinum oxygen sensor, in which Pd{110} presents the best sensitivity and lowest detection limit. Our results demonstrate the facet-dependence of oxygen reduction in an ionic liquid medium and provide the fundamental information needed to guide the applications of palladium nanocrystals in electrochemical gas sensor and fuel cell research.Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd

  13. Saccharide sensing molecules having enhanced fluorescent properties

    DOEpatents

    Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-06

    The present invention provides formulae for fluorescent compounds that have a number of properties which make them uniquely suited for use in sensors of analytes such as saccharides. The advantageous fluorescent properties include favorable excitation wavelengths, emission wavelengths, fluorescence lifetimes, and photostability. Additional advantageous properties include enhanced aqueous solubility, as well as temperature and pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl botonic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  14. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  15. Physical Properties of Oxygen Deficient YTTRIUM(1) BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-DELTA) Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, He Bi.

    The physical properties of oxygen deficient polycrystalline rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7 -delta} superconducting materials have been systematically investigated. These properties include magnetic susceptibility, electrical transport, thermoelectric power and infrared reflectivity. A great deal of this study has concentrated on the magnetic and transport properties of these materials when they are in the mixed state. The polycrystalline specimens used in this work were prepared through a solid state reaction. The oxygen content of the specimens was controlled using several annealing methods and the oxygen deficiency delta was determined by X-ray diffraction, gas evolution, iodometric titration and neutron diffraction techniques. A new method has been developed for the investigation of magnetic relaxation in these materials using the conventional a.c. susceptibility technique after modification. This thesis represents the first detailed and systematic study of the thermal activation energy for high Tc superconductors using many different methods, including a.c. susceptibility, magnetic relaxation, electric resistivity and thermoelectric power. All the results obtained, including their numerical values and field dependence are consistent with and comparable to previously reported data. A modified critical state model has been successfully used to interpret the magnetic field dependence of the isothermal a.c. susceptibility data, including field dependent a.c. losses and the chi^' -chi^{'' } interrelationship. This study highlights the strong influence that delta exerts on the superconducting and normal state properties of polycrystalline rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-delta } material. In particular, for transport properties, delta affects the carrier doping in the CuO_2 planes, which determines the carrier concentration. Therefore increasing delta reduces the superconducting transition temperature. For the magnetic property, delta has a negative influence on the pinning energy in

  16. Hyperspectral remote sensing of postfire soil properties

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Forest fires may induce changes in soil organic properties that often lead to water repellent conditions within the soil profile that decrease soil infiltration capacity. The remote detection of water repellent soils after forest fires would lead to quicker and more accurate assessment of erosion potential. An airborne hyperspectral image was acquired over the Hayman...

  17. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Properties during CARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram Thomas

    2011-10-01

    One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small ({approx}0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 um) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

  18. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Properties for Nitrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent theoretical studies for N--N2, O--O2, N2--N2 interactions are applied to the transport properties of nitrogen and oxygen gases. The theoretical results are used to select suitable oxygen interaction energies from previous work for determining the diffusion and viscosity coefficients at high temperatures. A universal formulation is applied to determine the collision integrals for O2--O2 interactions at high temperatures and to calculate certain ratios for determining higher-order collision integrals.

  19. Effective Potential Energies and Transport Properties for Nitrogen and Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of recent theoretical studies for N--N2, O--O2, N2--N2 interactions are applied to the transport properties of nitrogen and oxygen gases. The theoretical results are used to select suitable oxygen interaction energies from previous work for determining the diffusion and viscosity coefficients at high temperatures. A universal formulation is applied to determine the collision integrals for O2--O2 interactions at high temperatures and to calculate certain ratios for determining higher-order collision integrals.

  20. Optical oxygen sensing systems for drug discovery applications: Respirometric Screening Technology (RST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Hynes, James; Fernandes, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Quenched-fluorescence oxygen sensing allows non-chemical, reversible, real-time monitoring of molecular oxygen and rates of oxygen consumption in biological samples. Using this approach we have developed Respirometric Screening Technology (RST); a platform which facilitates the convenient analysis of cellular oxygen uptake. This in turn allows the investigation of compounds and processes which affect respiratory activity. The RST platform employs soluble phosphorescent oxygen-sensitive probes, which may be assessed in standard microtitter plates on a fluorescence plate reader. New formats of RST assays and time-resolved fluorescence detection instrumentation developed by Luxcel provide improvements in assay sensitivity, miniaturization and overall performance. RST has a diverse range of applications in drug discovery area including high throughput analysis of mitochondrial function; studies of mechanisms of toxicity and apoptosis; cell and animal based screening of compound libraries and environmental samples; and, sterility testing. RST has been successfully validated with a range of practical targets and adopted by several leading pharmaceutical companies.

  1. Oxygen sensing and hypoxia signalling pathways in animals: the implications of physiology for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Studies of regulation of the haematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin led to the unexpected discovery of a widespread system of direct oxygen sensing that regulates gene expression in animals. The oxygen-sensitive signal is generated by a series of non-haem Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that catalyse the post-translational hydroxylation of specific residues in the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). These hydroxylations promote both oxygen-dependent degradation and oxygen-dependent inactivation of HIF, but are suppressed in hypoxia, leading to the accumulation of HIF and assembly of an active transcriptional complex in hypoxic cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor activates an extensive transcriptional cascade that interfaces with other cell signalling pathways, microRNA networks and RNA–protein translational control systems. The relationship of these cellular signalling pathways to the integrated physiology of oxygen homeostasis and the implication of dysregulating these massive physiological pathways in diseases such as cancer are discussed. PMID:23401619

  2. Study the gas sensing properties of boron nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Feng, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We synthesized boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) on silicon substrate. • We analyzed gas sensing properties of BNNSs-based gas-sensor device. • CH{sub 4} gas is used to measure gas-sensing properties of the device. • Quick response and recovery time of the device is recorded. • BNNSs showed excellent sensitivity to the working gas. - Abstract: In the present communication, we report on the synthesis of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and study of their gas sensing properties. BNNSs are synthesized by irradiating pyrolytic hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) target using CO{sub 2} laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopic measurements (HRTEM) revealed 2-dientional honeycomb crystal lattice structure of BNNSs. HRTEM, electron diffraction, XRD and Raman scattering measurements clearly identified h-BN. Gas sensing properties of synthesized BNNSs were analyzed with prototype gas sensor using methane as working gas. A systematic response curve of the sensor is recorded in each cycle of gas “in” and “out”; suggesting excellent sensitivity and high performance of BNNSs-based gas-sensor.

  3. Remote sensing cloud properties from simulated MODIS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. P.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Smith, William L.

    1991-01-01

    One of the objectives of the MODIS program is to establish a global cloud climatology that can address the effects of cirrus and opaque clouds on the Earth Radiation Budget. The paper describes the cloud retrieval techniques developed for MODIS-N IR observations and presents results of a study of remote sensing cloud properties using simulated MODIS observations at different cirrus cloud conditions.

  4. Temperature-sensitive europium(III) probes and their use for simultaneous luminescent sensing of temperature and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Sergey M; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2006-07-15

    Highly photostable and strongly luminescent europium(III) beta-diketonate complexes are presented that can act as new probes for optical sensing of temperature. They can be excited with the light of a 405-nm LED and possess strong brightnesses. The decay times of the probes contained in a poly(vinyl methyl ketone) film and in poly(tert-butyl styrene) microparticles are highly temperature-dependent between 0 and 70 degrees C. The temperature-sensitive microparticles were dispersed, along with oxygen-sensitive microbeads consisting of a palladium porphyrin oxygen indicator in poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), in a thin layer of a hydrogel to give a dually sensing material which is excitable by a single light source. The two emissions can be separated by appropriate optical filters. The response to oxygen and temperature is described by 3D plots, and unbiased values can be obtained for temperature and oxygen, respectively, from the two luminescence signals if refined in an iteration step. The sensing scheme is intended for use in temperature-compensated sensing of oxygen, in contactless sensing of oxygen and temperature in (micro)biological and medical applications, in high-resolution oxygen profiling, and for simultaneous imaging of air pressure and temperature in wind tunnels.

  5. Temperature Compensation of Oxygen Sensing Films Utilizing a Dynamic Dual Lifetime Calculation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    With advances to chemical sensing, methods for compensation of errors introduced by interfering analytes are needed. In this work, a dual lifetime calculation technique was developed to enable simultaneous monitoring of two luminescence decays. Utilizing a windowed time-domain luminescence approach, the response of two luminophores is separated temporally. The ability of the dual dynamic rapid lifetime determination (DDRLD) approach to determine the response of two luminophores simultaneously was investigated through mathematical modeling and experimental testing. Modeling results indicated that lifetime predictions will be most accurate when the ratio of the lifetimes from each luminophore is at least three and the ratio of intensities is near unity. In vitro experiments were performed using a porphyrin that is sensitive to both oxygen and temperature, combined with a temperature-sensitive inorganic phosphor used for compensation of the porphyrin response. In static experiments, the dual measurements were found to be highly accurate when compared to single-luminophore measurements—statistically equivalent for the long lifetime emission and an average difference of 2% for the short lifetimes. Real-time testing with dynamic windowing was successful in demonstrating dual lifetime measurements and temperature compensation of the oxygen sensitive dye. When comparing the actual oxygen and temperature values with predictions made using a dual calibration approach, an overall difference of less than 1% was obtained. Thus, this method enables rapid, accurate extraction of multiple lifetimes without requiring computationally intense curve fitting, providing a significant advancement toward multi-analyte sensing and imaging techniques. PMID:26566384

  6. Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Gas Sensing Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called “small size effect”, yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given. PMID:22736968

  7. Influence of oxygen on the optical properties of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Renteria-Tapia, V M; García-Macedo, J

    2008-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles in sol-gel silica films were obtained by annealing in hydrogen atmosphere and subsequently in oxygen atmosphere. Their properties were measured by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis. Samples prepared in a reducing atmosphere exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) located at 399 nm. Silver nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere exhibited a red shift and damping of the SPR. These optical properties were explained due to the oxidation on the surface of silver nanoparticles to silver oxide yield in an oxygen atmosphere. Silver core-silver oxide shell nanostructures were observed by HRTEM. The average size of the metallic nanoparticles obtained by TEM was used for modeling the UV-vis spectra by using the Gans theory. Good fits to the spectra under an oxidizing atmosphere were obtained considering variable refractive indexes coming from the silver oxide shells surrounding to the nanoparticles. Therefore, the interaction between oxygen and the metallic surface of the nanoparticles, sensitively alters their optical properties.

  8. Magnetic properties of solid oxygen under pressure (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, Yu. A.

    2015-11-01

    Solid oxygen is a unique crystal combining properties of a simple molecular solid and a magnet. Unlike ordinary magnets, the exchange interaction in solid oxygen acts on a background of weak Van der Waals forces, providing a significant part of the total lattice energy. Therefore, the magnetic and lattice properties of solid oxygen are very closely related. This manifests itself in a very rich phase diagram and numerous anomalies of thermal, magnetic and optical properties. Low-temperature low-pressure α-O2 is a two-sublattice collinear Neel antiferromagnet. At a pressure of ˜6 GPa, α-O2 is transformed into δ-O2, in which three different magnetic structures are realized upon increasing temperature. At ˜8 GPa δ-O2 is transformed into ɛ-O2. In this transition, O2 molecules combine into four-molecule clusters (O2)4. This transformation is accompanied by a magnetic collapse. This review describes the evolution of the magnetic structure with increasing pressure, and analyzes the causes behind this behavior.

  9. Oxygen Sensing by Arterial Chemoreceptors Depends on Mitochondrial Complex I Signaling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Gao, Lin; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Pintado, C Oscar; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; García-Flores, Paula; García-Pergañeda, Antonio; Pascual, Alberto; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; López-Barneo, José

    2015-11-03

    O2 sensing is essential for mammalian homeostasis. Peripheral chemoreceptors such as the carotid body (CB) contain cells with O2-sensitive K(+) channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia to trigger fast adaptive cardiorespiratory reflexes. How variations of O2 tension (PO2) are detected and the mechanisms whereby these changes are conveyed to membrane ion channels have remained elusive. We have studied acute O2 sensing in conditional knockout mice lacking mitochondrial complex I (MCI) genes. We inactivated Ndufs2, which encodes a protein that participates in ubiquinone binding. Ndufs2-null mice lose the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia, although they respond to hypercapnia. Ndufs2-deficient CB cells have normal functions and ATP content but are insensitive to changes in PO2. Our data suggest that chemoreceptor cells have a specialized succinate-dependent metabolism that induces an MCI state during hypoxia, characterized by the production of reactive oxygen species and accumulation of reduced pyridine nucleotides, which signal neighboring K(+) channels.

  10. Molecular evolution of the metazoan PHD-HIF oxygen-sensing system.

    PubMed

    Rytkönen, Kalle T; Williams, Tom A; Renshaw, Gillian M; Primmer, Craig R; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2011-06-01

    Metazoans rely on aerobic energy production, which requires an adequate oxygen supply. During reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia), the most profound changes in gene expression are mediated by transcription factors known as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIF alpha proteins are commonly posttranslationally regulated by prolyl-4-hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes, which are direct "sensors" of cellular oxygen levels. We examined the molecular evolution of the metazoan PHD-HIF oxygen-sensing system by constructing complete phylogenies for PHD and HIF alpha genes and used computational tools to characterize the molecular changes underlying the functional divergence of PHD and HIF alpha duplicates. The presence of PHDs in metazoan genomes predates the emergence of HIF alphas. Our analysis revealed an unexpected diversity of PHD genes and HIF alpha sequence characteristics in invertebrates, suggesting that the simple oxygen-sensing systems of Caenorhabditis and Drosophila may not be typical of other invertebrate bilaterians. We studied the early vertebrate evolution of the system by sequencing these genes in early-diverging cartilaginous fishes, elasmobranchs. Cartilaginous fishes appear to have three paralogs of both PHD and HIF alpha. The novel sequences were used as outgroups for a detailed molecular analysis of PHD and HIF alpha duplicates in a major air-breathing vertebrate lineage, the mammals, and a major water-breathing vertebrate lineage, the teleosts. In PHDs, functionally divergent amino acid sites were detected near the HIF alpha-binding channel and beta2beta3 loop that defines its substrate specificity. In HIF alphas, more functional divergence was found in teleosts than in mammals, especially in the HIF-1 alpha PAS domain and HIF-2 alpha oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains, which interact with PHDs. Overall, in the vertebrates, elevated substitution rates in the HIF-2 alpha N-terminal ODD domain, together with a functional divergence associated with the known

  11. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter for Oxygen A-Band Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A fiber-based laser transmitter has been designed for active remote-sensing spectroscopy. The transmitter uses a master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration with a distributed feedback diode-laser master oscillator and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output from the MOPA is frequency-doubled with a periodically poled nonlinear crystal. The utility of this single-frequency, wavelength-tunable, power-scalable laser has been demonstrated in a spectroscopic measurement of the diatomic oxygen A-band.

  12. Diversity of magneto-aerotactic behaviors and oxygen sensing mechanisms in cultured magnetotactic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christopher T; Bennet, Mathieu; Landau, Livnat; Vach, Peter; Pignol, David; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Frankel, Richard B; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Microorganisms living in gradient environments affect large-scale processes, including the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or sulfur, the rates and fate of primary production, and the generation of climatically active gases. Aerotaxis is a common adaptation in organisms living in the oxygen gradients of stratified environments. Magnetotactic bacteria are such gradient-inhabiting organisms that have a specific type of aerotaxis that allows them to compete at the oxic-anoxic interface. They biomineralize magnetosomes, intracellular membrane-coated magnetic nanoparticles, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole that causes the cells to align along magnetic field lines. The magnetic alignment enables them to efficiently migrate toward an optimal oxygen concentration in microaerobic niches. This phenomenon is known as magneto-aerotaxis. Magneto-aerotaxis has only been characterized in a limited number of available cultured strains. In this work, we characterize the magneto-aerotactic behavior of 12 magnetotactic bacteria with various morphologies, phylogenies, physiologies, and flagellar apparatus. We report six different magneto-aerotactic behaviors that can be described as a combination of three distinct mechanisms, including the reported (di-)polar, axial, and a previously undescribed mechanism we named unipolar. We implement a model suggesting that the three magneto-aerotactic mechanisms are related to distinct oxygen sensing mechanisms that regulate the direction of cells' motility in an oxygen gradient.

  13. Diversity of Magneto-Aerotactic Behaviors and Oxygen Sensing Mechanisms in Cultured Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Bennet, Mathieu; Landau, Livnat; Vach, Peter; Pignol, David; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Frankel, Richard B.; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms living in gradient environments affect large-scale processes, including the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or sulfur, the rates and fate of primary production, and the generation of climatically active gases. Aerotaxis is a common adaptation in organisms living in the oxygen gradients of stratified environments. Magnetotactic bacteria are such gradient-inhabiting organisms that have a specific type of aerotaxis that allows them to compete at the oxic-anoxic interface. They biomineralize magnetosomes, intracellular membrane-coated magnetic nanoparticles, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole that causes the cells to align along magnetic field lines. The magnetic alignment enables them to efficiently migrate toward an optimal oxygen concentration in microaerobic niches. This phenomenon is known as magneto-aerotaxis. Magneto-aerotaxis has only been characterized in a limited number of available cultured strains. In this work, we characterize the magneto-aerotactic behavior of 12 magnetotactic bacteria with various morphologies, phylogenies, physiologies, and flagellar apparatus. We report six different magneto-aerotactic behaviors that can be described as a combination of three distinct mechanisms, including the reported (di-)polar, axial, and a previously undescribed mechanism we named unipolar. We implement a model suggesting that the three magneto-aerotactic mechanisms are related to distinct oxygen sensing mechanisms that regulate the direction of cells’ motility in an oxygen gradient. PMID:25028894

  14. Synthesis of Ce:ZnO nanocomposites: Facile synthesis and fast acetone gas sensing response properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haixia; Yu, Hai; Cui, Shu; Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Chengyou

    2017-07-01

    Semiconductor materials are often used as gas sensor. In order to increase the sensitivity of the sensors, rare earths are usually doped to change the properties of the materials. In this paper, it is reported that the Ce:ZnO nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple chemical methods. The gas sensing properties is investigated. UV-Vis is used to investigate the optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) are employed to examine the chemical composition and microstructures. It is found that the size of ZnO crystallites is suppressed after doping Ce. When considering a variety of volatile organic compound gas and gas concentration, 2% Ce-doped ZnO nanocomposites is configured as high performance sensors to detect acetone. The fast response times (<2 s) and recovery times (12 s) are obtained. Relatively low working temperature, good repeatability and high sensitivity performances are observed. From the morphology characterizations of the Ce-doped ZnO nanocomposites, it can be found that the increasing of ratio of area to volume to enhanced capability of adsorbing oxygen on the surface. It is proposed that the oxygen species on the surface of ZnO nanocomposites is O-, but O- may play a more important role in improving gas response. The morphology dependent sensing mechanism is proposed.

  15. Effects of gemfibrozil on the oxygen transport properties of erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Scatena, R; Nocca, G; Messana, I; De Sole, P; Baroni, S; Zuppi, C; Castagnola, M; Giardina, B

    1995-01-01

    1. In the present study we have investigated the effects of the relatively low plasma concentrations of gemfibrozil (GFZ) found in clinical practice on the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of erythrocytes. 2. ODCs were measured at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C and at pH 7.4: a) both on HbA solution and erythrocytes incubated in vitro with gemfibrozil and clofibric acid; b) on erythrocytes from healthy volunteers treated with a single oral dose of gemfibrozil. 3. These experiments showed a significant drug-induced shift of the ODC towards lower O2 affinity values without any significant modification of metabolic parameters of erythrocytes such as intracellular pH and intraerythrocytic levels of ATP and DPG. 4. In our experimental conditions gemfibrozil appears to lower both in vitro and in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen required to give 50% of the haemes saturated with oxygen (P50) of erythrocytes from the control value of 24 +/- 0.5 mm Hg to 29 +/- 0.5 mm Hg (mean +/- s.d.; P < 0.02 by ANOVA). 5. These data clearly indicate that therapeutic doses of gemfibrozil may influence the oxygen transport properties of red cells. This effect could have relevant pharmacological and toxicological implications. PMID:7756095

  16. Oxygen transport properties estimation by DSMC-CT simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2014-12-09

    Coupling DSMC simulations with classical trajectories calculations is emerging as a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational rarefied gas dynamics. The considerable increase of computational effort outlined in the early application of the method (Koura,1997) can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, GPU acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time (Ferrigni,2012; Norman et al.,2013) of DSMC-CT simulations. The aim of the present work is to study rarefied Oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions through an accurate potential energy surface, obtained by molecular beams scattering (Aquilanti, et al.,1999). The accuracy of the method is assessed by calculating molecular Oxygen shear viscosity and heat conductivity following three different DSMC-CT simulation methods. In the first one, transport properties are obtained from DSMC-CT simulations of spontaneous fluctuation of an equilibrium state (Bruno et al, Phys. Fluids, 23, 093104, 2011). In the second method, the collision trajectory calculation is incorporated in a Monte Carlo integration procedure to evaluate the Taxman’s expressions for the transport properties of polyatomic gases (Taxman,1959). In the third, non-equilibrium zero and one-dimensional rarefied gas dynamic simulations are adopted and the transport properties are computed from the non-equilibrium fluxes of momentum and energy. The three methods provide close values of the transport properties, their estimated statistical error not exceeding 3%. The experimental values are slightly underestimated, the percentage deviation being, again, few percent.

  17. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  18. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E.

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. PMID:26354849

  19. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Mitochondrial cytochrome redox states and respiration in acute pulmonary oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Sommer, N; Pak, O; Schörner, S; Derfuss, T; Krug, A; Gnaiger, E; Ghofrani, H A; Schermuly, R T; Huckstorf, C; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Weissmann, N

    2010-11-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an essential mechanism to optimise lung gas exchange. We aimed to decipher the proposed oxygen sensing mechanism of mitochondria in HPV. Cytochrome redox state was assessed by remission spectrophotometry in intact lungs and isolated pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Mitochondrial respiration was quantified by high-resolution respirometry. Alterations were compared with HPV and hypoxia-induced functional and molecular readouts on the cellular level. Aortic and renal arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC and RASMC, respectively) served as controls. The hypoxia-induced decrease of mitochondrial respiration paralleled HPV in isolated lungs. In PASMC, reduction of respiration and mitochondrial cytochrome c and aa3 (complex IV), but not of cytochrome b (complex III) matched an increase in matrix superoxide levels as well as mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarisation with subsequent cytosolic calcium increase. In contrast to PASMC, RASMC displayed a lower decrease in respiration and no rise in superoxide, membrane potential or intracellular calcium. Pharmacological inhibition of mitochondria revealed analogous kinetics of cytochrome redox state and strength of HPV. Our data suggest inhibition of complex IV as an essential step in mitochondrial oxygen sensing of HPV. Concomitantly, increased superoxide release from complex III and mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarisation may initiate the cytosolic calcium increase underlying HPV.

  1. Oxygen sensing in neuroendocrine cells and other cell types: pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Zachary; Millhorn, David E

    2003-01-01

    A steady supply of oxygen is an absolute requirement for mammalian cells to maintain normal cellular functions. To answer the challenge that oxygen deprivation represents, mammals have evolved specialized cell types that can sense changes in oxygen tension and alter gene expression to enhance oxygen delivery to hypoxic areas. These oxygensensing cells are rare and difficult to study in vivo. As a result, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have become a vital in vitro model system for deciphering the molecular events that confer the hypoxia-resistant and oxygen-sensing phenotypes. Research over the last few years has revealed that the hypoxia response in PC12 cells involves the interactions of several signal transduction pathways (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases, Akt, SAPKs, and MAPKs) and transcription factors (HIFs, CREB, and c-fos/junB). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role these signal transduction pathways and transcription factors play in determining the hypoxic response.

  2. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications has been developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. We report on a fiber optic technique for detection of gas phase oxygen up to 100 C based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the luminescence from molybdenum chloride clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}. The inorganic sensing film is a composite of sol-gel particles embedded in a thin, oxygen permeable sol-gel binder. The particles are comprised of thermally stable, luminescent K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} clusters dispersed in a fully equilibrated sol-gel matrix. From 40 to 100 C, the fiber sensor switches {approx}6x in intensity in response to alternating pulses of <0.001% O2 and 21% O{sub 2} between two well defined levels with a response time of 10 s. The sensor signal is a few nW for an input pump power of 250 {micro}W. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, sensitivity at 100 C is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These parameters are well suited for in-situ, real-time monitoring of oxygen for industrial process control applications.

  3. Modulation of electronic properties of tin oxide nanobelts via thermal control of surface oxygen defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiper, Timothy D.; Barreda, Jorge L.; Zheng, Jim P.; Xiong, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Nanomaterials made from binary metal oxides are of increasing interest because of their versatility in applications from flexible electronics to portable chemical and biological sensors. Controlling the electrical properties of these materials is the first step in device implementation. Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanobelts (NB) synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism have shown much promise in this regard. We explore the modification of devices prepared with single crystalline NBs by thermal annealing in vacuum and oxygen, resulting in a viable field-effect transistor (FET) for numerous applications at ambient temperature. An oxygen annealing step initially increases the device conductance by up to a factor of 105, likely through the modification of the surface defects of the NB, leading to Schottky barrier limited devices. A multi-step annealing procedure leads to further increase of the conductance by approximately 350% and optimization of the electronic properties. The effects of each step is investigated systematically on a single NB. The optimization of the electrical properties of the NBs makes possible the consistent production of channel-limited FETs and control of the device performance. Understanding these improvements on the electrical properties over the as-grown materials provides a pathway to enhance and tailor the functionalities of tin oxide nanostructures for a wide variety of optical, electronic, optoelectronic, and sensing applications that operate at room temperature.

  4. Modulation of electronic properties of tin oxide nanobelts via thermal control of surface oxygen defects.

    PubMed

    Keiper, Timothy D; Barreda, Jorge L; Zheng, Jim P; Xiong, Peng

    2017-02-03

    Nanomaterials made from binary metal oxides are of increasing interest because of their versatility in applications from flexible electronics to portable chemical and biological sensors. Controlling the electrical properties of these materials is the first step in device implementation. Tin dioxide (SnO2) nanobelts (NB) synthesized by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism have shown much promise in this regard. We explore the modification of devices prepared with single crystalline NBs by thermal annealing in vacuum and oxygen, resulting in a viable field-effect transistor (FET) for numerous applications at ambient temperature. An oxygen annealing step initially increases the device conductance by up to a factor of 10(5), likely through the modification of the surface defects of the NB, leading to Schottky barrier limited devices. A multi-step annealing procedure leads to further increase of the conductance by approximately 350% and optimization of the electronic properties. The effects of each step is investigated systematically on a single NB. The optimization of the electrical properties of the NBs makes possible the consistent production of channel-limited FETs and control of the device performance. Understanding these improvements on the electrical properties over the as-grown materials provides a pathway to enhance and tailor the functionalities of tin oxide nanostructures for a wide variety of optical, electronic, optoelectronic, and sensing applications that operate at room temperature.

  5. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-06-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. This particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties, as compared to previous approaches. The sensor was characterized in 2-21% gas phase oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  6. Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weigen; Li, Qianzhu; Xu, Lingna; Zeng, Wen

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures have attracted increasing attention in electrochemistry, optics, magnetic, and gas sensing fields for the good properties. N-type low dimensional semiconducting oxides such as SnO2 and ZnO have been known for the detection of inflammable or toxic gases. In this paper, we fabricated the ZnO-SnO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles by hydrothermal synthesis. Microstructure characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphologies for both the pristine and doped samples were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Then we made thin film gas sensor to study the gas sensing properties of ZnO-SnO2 and SnO2 gas sensor to H2 and CO. A systematic comparison study reveals an enhanced gas sensing performance for the sensor made of SnO2 and ZnO toward H2 and CO over that of the commonly applied undecorated SnO2 nanoparticles. The improved gas sensing properties are attributed to the size of grains and pronounced electron transfer between the compound nanostructures and the absorbed oxygen species as well as to the heterojunctions of the ZnO nanoparticles to the SnO2 nanoparticles, which provide additional reaction rooms. The results represent an advance of compound nanostructures in further enhancing the functionality of gas sensors, and this facile method could be applicable to many sensing materials, offering a new avenue and direction to detect gases of interest based on composite tin oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Substitutionally doped phosphorene: electronic properties and gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvansinpan, Nawat; Hussain, Fayyaz; Zhang, Gang; Hsin Chiu, Cheng; Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorene, a new elemental two-dimensional material, has attracted increasing attention owing to its intriguing electronic properties. In particular, pristine phospohorene, due to its ultrahigh surface-volume ratio and high chemical activity, has been shown to be promising for gas sensing (Abbas et al 2015 ACS Nano 9 5618). To further enhance its sensing ability, we perform first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to study substitutionally doped phosphorene with 17 different atoms, focusing on structures, energetics, electronic properties and gas sensing. Our calculations reveal that anionic X (X = O, C and S) dopants have a large binding energy and highly dispersive electronic states, signifying the formation of covalent X-P bonds and thus strong structural stability. Alkali atom (Li and Na) doping is found to donate most of the electrons in the outer s-orbital by forming ionic bonds with P, and the band gap decreases by pushing down the conduction band, suggesting that the optical and electronic properties of the doped phosphorene can be tailored. For doping with VIIIB-group (Fe, Co and Ni) elements, a strong affinity is predicted and the binding energy and charge transfer are correlated strongly with their electronegativity. By examining NO molecule adsorption, we find that these metal doped phosphorenes (MDPs) in general exhibit a significantly enhanced chemical activity compared with pristine phosphorene. Our study suggests that substitutionally doped phosphorene shows many intriguing electronic and optic properties different from pristine phosphorene and MDPs are promising in chemical applications involving molecular adsorption and desorption processes, such as materials growth, catalysis, gas sensing and storage.

  8. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like α-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exfoliated black phosphorus gas sensing properties at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarelli, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Giancaterini, L.; Fioravanti, G.; Perrozzi, F.; Cantalini, C.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature gas sensing properties of chemically exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) to oxidizing (NO2, CO2) and reducing (NH3, H2, CO) gases in a dry air carrier have been reported. To study the gas sensing properties of BP, chemically exfoliated BP flakes have been drop casted on Si3N4 substrates provided with Pt comb-type interdigitated electrodes in N2 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations show respectively the occurrence of a mixed structure, composed of BP coarse aggregates dispersed on BP exfoliated few layer flakes bridging the electrodes, and a clear 2p doublet belonging to BP, which excludes the occurrence of surface oxidation. Room temperature electrical tests in dry air show a p-type response of multilayer BP with measured detection limits of 20 ppb and 10 ppm to NO2 and NH3 respectively. No response to CO and CO2 has been detected, while a slight but steady sensitivity to H2 has been recorded. The reported results confirm, on an experimental basis, what was previously theoretically predicted, demonstrating the promising sensing properties of exfoliated BP.

  10. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-05-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  11. Optical Properties of Volcanic Ash: Improving Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P.; Colarco, P. R.; Aquila, V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Young, K. E.; Lima, A. R.; Martins, J. V.; Carn, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation. Recent research has identified a wide range in volcanic ash optical properties among samples collected from the ground after different eruptions. The database of samples investigated remains relatively small, and measurements of optical properties at the relevant particle sizes and spectral channels are far from complete. Generalizing optical properties remains elusive, as does establishing relationships between ash composition and optical properties, which are essential for satellite retrievals. We are building a library of volcanic ash optical and microphysical properties. In this presentation we show

  12. Study on a phosphorescent copper(I) complex and its oxygen-sensing performances upon polystyrene and MCM-41 matrixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-yong; Xiao, Han-ning; Xu, Yi-ming; Zhang, Ming-jun

    In this paper, we synthesize a new ligand of 1-ethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (Phen-Np-Et) and its corresponding Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4, where POP is bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether. The single-crystal structure, electronic nature and photophysical property of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are discussed in detail. It is found that the yellow emission from [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 owns a long excited state lifetime of 287 μs under pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation on [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]+ suggests that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. Then, [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are doped into two matrixes of polystyrene and MCM-41 to investigate the oxygen-sensing performance. Finally, sensitivity maxima of 9.6 and 3.6 are achieved by the composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/polystyrene and the [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/MCM-41, respectively. Both samples are highly sensitive toward molecular oxygen, owing to the large surface-area-to-volume ratios of nanofibrous membranes and MCM-41 matrix.

  13. Molecular packing and magnetic properties of lithium naphthalocyanine crystals: hollow channels enabling permeability and paramagnetic sensitivity to molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Dolgos, Michelle; Marginean, Camelia; Woodward, Patrick M.; Hammel, P. Chris; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, structural framework, magnetic and oxygen-sensing properties of a lithium naphthalocyanine (LiNc) radical probe are presented. LiNc was synthesized in the form of a microcrystalline powder using a chemical method and characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, and mass spectrometry. X-Ray powder diffraction studies revealed a structural framework that possesses long, hollow channels running parallel to the packing direction. The channels measured approximately 5.0 × 5.4 Å2 in the two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the length of the channel, enabling diffusion of oxygen molecules (2.9 × 3.9 Å2) through the channel. The powdered LiNc exhibited a single, sharp EPR line under anoxic conditions, with a peak-to-peak linewidth of 630 mG at room temperature. The linewidth was sensitive to surrounding molecular oxygen, showing a linear increase in pO2 with an oxygen sensitivity of 31.2 mG per mmHg. The LiNc microcrystals can be further prepared as nano-sized crystals without the loss of its high oxygen-sensing properties. The thermal variation of the magnetic properties of LiNc, such as the EPR linewidth, EPR intensity and magnetic susceptibility revealed the existence of two different temperature regimes of magnetic coupling and hence differing columnar packing, both being one-dimensional antiferromagnetic chains but with differing magnitudes of exchange coupling constants. At a temperature of ∼50 K, LiNc crystals undergo a reversible phase transition. The high degree of oxygen-sensitivity of micro- and nano-sized crystals of LiNc, combined with excellent stability, should enable precise and accurate measurements of oxygen concentration in biological systems using EPR spectroscopy. PMID:19809598

  14. Dielectric properties of grain and seed and their usefulness in sensing physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of moisture measurement in grain and seed is discussed, and the usefulness of grain and seed dielectric properties in sensing moisture content of these materials is presented. Data are presented graphically for the dielectric properties of grain and seed showing their variation with...

  15. Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Uysal Unalan, Ilke; Boyacı, Derya; Ghaani, Masoud; Trabattoni, Silvia; Farris, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO) were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB), respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ) and as a function of different relative humidity (RH) values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1) value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1) was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films). Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03). The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed. PMID:28335372

  16. Oxygen content tailored magnetic and electronic properties in cobaltite double perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Zach; Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Aiping; Dowden, Paul; Mace, Brennan; Lü, Xujie; Jia, Quanxi; Chen, Chonglin

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen content in transition metal oxides is one of the most important parameters to control for the desired physical properties. Recently, we have systematically studied the oxygen content and property relationship of the double perovskite PrBaCo2O5.5+δ (PBCO) thin films deposited on the LaAlO3 substrates. The oxygen content in the films was varied by in-situ annealing in a nitrogen, oxygen, or ozone environment. Associated with the oxygen content, the out-of-plane lattice parameter progressively decreases with increasing oxygen content in the films. The saturated magnetization shows a drastic increase and resistivity is significantly reduced in the ozone annealed samples, indicating the strong coupling between physical properties and oxygen content. These results demonstrate that the magnetic properties of PBCO films are highly dependent on the oxygen contents, or the film with higher oxygen uptake has the largest magnetization.

  17. An algorithm for sensing venous oxygenation using ultrasound-modulated light enhanced by microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeysett, Jack E.; Stride, Eleanor; Deng, Jing; Leung, Terence S.

    2012-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can provide an estimate of the mean oxygen saturation in tissue. This technique is limited by optical scattering, which reduces the spatial resolution of the measurement, and by absorption, which makes the measurement insensitive to oxygenation changes in larger deep blood vessels relative to that in the superficial tissue. Acousto-optic (AO) techniques which combine focused ultrasound (US) with diffuse light have been shown to improve the spatial resolution as a result of US-modulation of the light signal, however this technique still suffers from low signal-to-noise when detecting a signal from regions of high optical absorption. Combining an US contrast agent with this hybrid technique has been proposed to amplify an AO signal. Microbubbles are a clinical contrast agent used in diagnostic US for their ability to resonate in a sound field: in this work we also make use of their optical scattering properties (modelled using Mie theory). A perturbation Monte Carlo (pMC) model of light transport in a highly absorbing blood vessel containing microbubbles surrounded by tissue is used to calculate the AO signal detected on the top surface of the tissue. An algorithm based on the modified Beer-Lambert law is derived which expresses intravenous oxygen saturation in terms of an AO signal. This is used to determine the oxygen saturation in the blood vessel from a dual wavelength microbubble-contrast AO measurement. Applying this algorithm to the simulation data shows that the venous oxygen saturation is accurately recovered, and this measurement is robust to changes in the oxygenation of the superficial tissue layer.

  18. Electrical property sensing biopsy needle for prostate cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Schned, A R; Hartov, A; Heaney, J A; Seigne, J; Halter, R J

    2013-11-01

    Significant electrical property differences have been demonstrated to exist between malignant and benign prostate tissues. We evaluated how well a custom designed clinically deployable electrical property sensing biopsy needle is able to discriminate between these tissue types in an ex vivo prostate model. An electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) sensing biopsy (Bx) needle was developed to record resistive (ρR) and reactive (ρX) components of electrical impedance from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. Standard twelve-core biopsy protocols were followed, in which the EIS-Bx device was used to gauge electrical properties prior to extracting tissue cores through biopsy needle firing from 36 ex vivo human prostates. Histopathological assessment of the cores was statistically compared to the impedance spectrum gauged from each core. The magnitudes of the mean resistive and reactive components were significantly higher in cancer tissues (P < 0.05). ROC curves showed that ρR at 63.09 kHz was optimal for discriminating cancer from benign tissues; this parameter had 75.4% specificity, 76.1% sensitivity, and ROC AUC of 0.779. Similarly, 251.1 kHz was optimal when using ρX to discriminate cancer from benign tissues; this parameter had a 77.9% specificity, 71.4% sensitivity, and ROC AUC of 0.79. Significant electrical property differences noted between benign and malignant prostate tissues suggest the potential efficacy an EIS-Bx device would provide for cancer detection in a clinical setting. By sensing a greater fraction of the prostate's volume in real-time, the EIS-Bx device has the potential to improve the accuracy of cancer grading and volume estimation made with current biopsy procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of Ce doping and humidity on UV sensing properties of electrospun ZnO nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Di; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Gong, Mao-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Long, Yun-Ze

    2017-09-01

    Pure ZnO and Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning-calcination technique. The morphology, composition, structure, humidity sensing and photoelectric properties were characterized. The field-effect curves showed that a single pure ZnO nanofiber is an n-type semiconductor and an individual Ce-ZnO nanofiber is a p-type semiconductor. The Ce doping and humidity have strong influence on the UV sensing properties of ZnO-based nanofibers. In the dark, the responses [(IVarious RH - I43% RH)/I43% RH] of pure ZnO increased gradually with the increase of humidity, while the responses of Ce-doped ZnO nanofibers decreased. When exposed to UV radiation, the response of pure ZnO nanofibers decreased with increasing humidity, while that of Ce-doped ZnO increased. And the highest responses are around 88.44 and 683.67 at 97% humidity for pure ZnO and Ce-ZnO nanofibers under UV irradiation. In addition, the UV response of Ce-ZnO with good stability and repeatability increases by two orders of magnitude than that of pure ZnO. The sensing mechanism relevant to oxygen and water-related conduction was discussed briefly. These results exhibit that the application prospects of p-type Ce-ZnO nanofibers are promising in the field of photoelectric devices.

  20. TDDFT study on recognition mechanism for the oxygen sensing of the cyclometalated platinum (II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Huan; Zhao, Zhengyan; Li, Guanglan; Gao, Liguo; Zhao, Ningjiu; Li, Peng; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Chenyang; Zhang, Mingzhen; Wang, Yong; Hao, Ce; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-08-01

    The influence of oxygen molecule on the luminescent properties of a cyclometalated Pt(II) complex Lxp1, was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. Analysis of frontier molecular orbitals and electronic configuration indicated that the highest-occupied molecular orbital of the Lxp1 has a significant mixture of metal Pt (d) as well as 2-phenylpyridine and acetyl acetone(π). The lowest-unoccupied orbital of the Lxp1 primarily locates on π* of 2-phenylpyridineligands. The emission mechanism of the cyclometalated Pt(II) complex Lxp1 is assigned to the mixing of ligand-to-metal charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer. The emission mechanism of the Lxp1-O2 complex can be attributed to the charge transfer from the oxygen molecule to the luminescent material Lxp1. Our study showed that intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the Lxp1 and oxygen molecule was strengthened by the calculation of electronic excitation, leading to a luminescence-decreasing phenomenon. The calculation of the radiative and non-radiative decay rate constants of the Lxp1 and the Lxp1-O2 complex demonstrates that the phosphorescence from T1-S0 of the Lxp1 would alter to the internal conversion from T1-T0 of the Lxp1-O2 complex. This alteration further explains the luminescence quenching phenomenon of the cyclometalated Pt(II) complex Lxp1 after interacting with oxygen molecule.

  1. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    PubMed

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  2. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  3. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  4. A green-emitting Cu complex for oxygen-sensing purpose: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Han; Wei, Li; Zhentao, Liu; Xiangen, Han

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a green-emitting Cu(I) complex [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was synthesized and fully characterized, where BT-Et = 4-(1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole, POP = bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. An ethyl group was connected onto the diamine ligand to breach π-π attraction within solid [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4, favoring O2 molecule attack and sensitivity improvement. Its molecular identity was confirmed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 emitted long-lived green emission peaking at 521 nm upon photoexcitation which was vulnerable towards O2 molecule, making itself a potential oxygen sensing material. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was then doped into a silica supporting matrix MCM-41. The resulting composite samples showed sensing behavior towards O2 molecule, with short response time of 10 s and sensitivity of 5.56.

  5. Detection of fluorescence lifetime based on solid state technology and its application to optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang R.; O'Leary, Paul; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an instrument using solid state components for luminescence lifetime based sensing. For a number of applications luminescence lifetime based sensing is the preferred method because of its inherent referencing possibility. Further, lifetime based instrumentation promises a simplified optical construction, since the measurement is, within certain limits, independent of the signal intensity. Various measurement schemes have been reported, especially for optical oxygen sensors, using dynamic fluorescence quenching as the information carrier. However, most of them require bulky and expensive instrumentation because of the need for high-frequency modulated excitation sources and detection systems. In general photo-multipliers have been required. We report on the development of a measurement scheme using low-cost semiconductor devices (light emitting diodes, photo-diodes). The detection system is based on heterodyne demodulation techniques for reduction of the signal frequency range. The basic principles of the system is described and a comparison with existing measurement schemes is presented. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated with measurements on two sensor types having luminescence lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) and 50 microsecond(s) . Finally, a custom CMOS integrated circuit is presented which implements the front-end of the detection system.

  6. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. Due to the improved mechanical properties of this approach high temperature sensor measurements were performed up to 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  7. EDTA-Decorated Nanostructured ZnO/CdS Thin Films for Oxygen Gas Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunraja, L.; Thirumoorthy, P.; Karthik, A.; Rajendran, V.; Edwinpaul, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin films were prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating and used for oxygen gas sensor applications. The structural properties of both ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured composites were comparatively characterized. The nanostructure thin film was found in a hexagonal structure with an average crystallite size reduced from 77 nm to 29 nm due to the influence of the EDTA. The optical absorption, photo luminescence, functional groups and surface morphology of the nanostructured thin films were comprehensively investigated. Oxygen was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-50 ppm at room temperature. Thus, the sensor studies reveal that the performance, response, and recovery time were enhanced in ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin film compared with ZnO/CdS.

  8. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composite Hydrogels with Engineered Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R.; Biswas, Aniket; McShane, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA), is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179%) while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol) and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions. PMID:28117762

  10. Oxygen Sensing Mesenchymal Progenitors Promote Neo-Vasculogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Ortner, Anna; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Reinisch, Andreas; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohban, Rokhsareh; Etchart, Nathalie; Fruehwirth, Margareta; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Andreeff, Michael; Strunk, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Despite insights into the molecular pathways regulating hypoxia-induced gene expression, it is not known which cell types accomplish oxygen sensing during neo-vasculogenesis. We have developed a humanized mouse model of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor co-transplantation to delineate the cellular compartments responsible for hypoxia response during vasculogenesis. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) accumulated nuclear hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α earlier and more sensitively than endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxic ECFCs showed reduced function in vitro and underwent apoptosis within 24h in vivo when used without MSPCs. Surprisingly, only in MSPCs did pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HIF-1α abrogate neo-vasculogenesis. HIF deletion in ECFCs caused no effect. ECFCs could be rescued from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by HIF-competent MSPCs resulting in the formation of patent perfused human vessels. Several angiogenic factors need to act in concert to partially substitute mesenchymal HIF-deficiency. Results demonstrate that ECFCs require HIF-competent vessel wall progenitors to initiate vasculogenesis in vivo and to bypass hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We describe a novel mechanistic role of MSPCs as oxygen sensors promoting vasculogenesis thus underscoring their importance for the development of advanced cellular therapies. PMID:22970226

  11. Oxidant and Redox Signaling in Vascular Oxygen Sensing: Implications for Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It has been well known for >100 years that systemic blood vessels dilate in response to decreases in oxygen tension (hypoxia; low Po2), and this response appears to be critical to supply blood to the stressed organ. Conversely, pulmonary vessels constrict to a decrease in alveolar Po2 to maintain a balance in the ventilation-to-perfusion ratio. Currently, although little question exists that the Po2 affects vascular reactivity and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) act as oxygen sensors, the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating the vascular reactivity are still not clearly understood. Many laboratories, including ours, have suggested that the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i), which regulates vasomotor function, is controlled by free radicals and redox signaling, including NAD(P)H and glutathione (GSH) redox. In this review article, therefore, we discuss the implications of redox and oxidant alterations seen in pulmonary and systemic hypertension, and how key targets that control [Ca2+ ]i, such as ion channels, Ca2+ release from internal stores and uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the Ca2+ sensitivity to the myofilaments, are regulated by changes in intracellular redox and oxidants associated with vascular Po2 sensing in physiologic or pathophysiologic conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1137–1152. PMID:18315496

  12. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanisms of oxygen sensing: a key to therapy of pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E K; Obreztchikova, M; Vargese, A; Cabrera, J A; Peterson, D A; Hong, Z

    2008-01-01

    Specialized tissues that sense acute changes in the local oxygen tension include type 1 cells of the carotid body, neuroepithelial bodies in the lungs, and smooth muscle cells of the resistance pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA). Hypoxia inhibits outward potassium current in carotid body type 1 cells, leading to depolarization and calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. Increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) leads to exocytosis of neurotransmitters, thus stimulating the carotid sinus nerve and respiration. The same K+ channel inhibition occurs with hypoxia in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), causing contraction and providing part of the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In the SMCs of the DA, the mechanism works in reverse. It is the shift from hypoxia to normoxia that inhibits K+ channels and causes normoxic ductal contraction. In both PA and DA, the contraction is augmented by release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, entry of Ca++ through store-operated channels (SOC) and by Ca++ sensitization. The same three ‘executive' mechanisms are partly responsible for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). While vasoconstrictor mediators constrict both PA and DA and vasodilators dilate both vessels, only redox changes mimic oxygen by having directly opposite effects on the K+ channels, membrane potential, [Ca++]i and tone in the PA and DA. There are several different hypotheses as to how redox might alter tone, which remain to be resolved. However, understanding the mechanism will facilitate drug development for pulmonary hypertension and patent DA. PMID:18641675

  14. Proteomic analysis reveals diverse proline hydroxylation-mediated oxygen-sensing cellular pathways in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing; Gao, Yankun; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Proline hydroxylation is a critical cellular mechanism regulating oxygen-response pathways in tumor initiation and progression. Yet, its substrate diversity and functions remain largely unknown. Here, we report a system-wide analysis to characterize proline hydroxylation substrates in cancer cells using an immunoaffinity-purification assisted proteomics strategy. We identified 562 sites from 272 proteins in HeLa cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that proline hydroxylation substrates are significantly enriched with mRNA processing and stress-response cellular pathways with canonical and diverse flanking sequence motifs. Structural analysis indicates a significant enrichment of proline hydroxylation participating in the secondary structure of substrate proteins. Our study identified and validated Brd4, a key transcription factor, as a novel proline hydroxylation substrate. Functional analysis showed that the inhibition of proline hydroxylation pathway significantly reduced the proline hydroxylation abundance on Brd4 and affected Brd4-mediated transcriptional activity as well as cell proliferation in AML leukemia cells. Taken together, our study identified a broad regulatory role of proline hydroxylation in cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and revealed potentially new targets that dynamically respond to hypoxia microenvironment in tumor cells. PMID:27764789

  15. Composite Hydrogels with Engineered Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Biswas, Aniket; McShane, Michael J

    2017-01-22

    There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA), is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179%) while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol) and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions.

  16. Investigation of gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Madapu, Kishore K. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Prasad, A. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in

    2015-06-24

    InN nanoparticles were grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as precursor material. Raman spectroscopic studies show the presence of the wurtzite phase of as-grown InN. Size of the nanoparticles were in range from quantum dot (<8 nm) to larger sized particles (100 nm). We studied the gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles with CH{sub 4} gas. Sensors substrates were fabricated with interdigitated Au electrodes. InN nanoparticles show high response towards CH{sub 4} with minimum detectable concentration of 50 ppm at 200 °C.

  17. Properties of polypyrrole polyvinilsulfate films for dual actuator sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Victor H.; Otero, Toribio F.; Schumacher, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    One of the challenges of modern science is the development of actuators able to sense working conditions while actuation, mimicking the way in which biological organs work. Actuation of those organs includes nervous (electric) pulses dense reactive gels, chemical reactions exchange of ions and solvent. For that purpose, conducting polymers are being widely studied. In this work the properties of self-supported films of the polypyrrole:polyvinilsulfate (PPy/PVS) blend polymer were assessed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show how during reduction / oxidation the polymer exchanges cations when immersed in a NaClO4 aqueous solution, revealing free positive charges in the electrolytic solution as the driving agents leading to the swelling/shrinking of the polymer. Eventually it is the phenomenon responsible of the actuation of the polymeric motors. Submitting the system to consecutive potential sweeps shows the reaction is really sensing the scan rate used in each cycle revealing that while actuating the system is actually sensing the electrochemical working conditions.

  18. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn

    2003-09-30

    Spectroscopy of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and heated to 200 C has been performed. Oxygen quenching of the luminescence was observed. Aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Preliminary experiments point to oxidation of the clusters as the likely cause of thermally induced changes in the physical and optical properties of the clusters.

  19. Methanol Gas-Sensing Properties of SWCNT-MIP Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Qin; Zhang, Yumin; Zhu, Zhongqi; Liu, Qingju

    2016-11-01

    The single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-molecularly imprinted powder (MIP) composites in this paper were prepared by mixing SWCNTs with MIPs. The structure and micrograph of the as-prepared SWCNTs-MIPs samples were characterized by XRD and TEM. The gas-sensing properties were tested through indirect-heating sensors based on SWCNT-MIP composites fabricating on an alumina tube with Au electrodes and Pt wires. The results showed that the structure of SWCNTs-MIPs is of orthogonal perovskite and the average particle size of the SWCNTs-MIPs was in the range of 10-30 nm. SWCNTs-MIPs exhibit good methanol gas-sensitive properties. At 90 °C, the response to 1 ppm methanol is 19.7, and the response to the interferent is lower than 5 to the other interferent gases (ethanol, formaldehyde, toluene, acetone, ammonia, and gasoline). The response time and recovery time are 50 and 58 s, respectively.

  20. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. We have extensively characterized two fiber sensors at high temperature. We obtain quenching ratios between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen as high as 3.9 x at 70 C. For the first sensor at 60 C we obtained a {+-} 1% variation in the quenching ratio over 6 cycles of measurement, and monitored the device performance over 23 days. We were able to operate the second sensor continuously for 14 hours at 70 C, and the sensor quenching ratio was stable to 5% over that time period. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  1. Plant Oxygen Sensing Is Mediated by the N-End Rule Pathway: A Milestone in Plant Anaerobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Mustroph, Angelika

    2011-01-01

    Like all aerobic organisms, plants require molecular oxygen for respiratory energy production. In plants, hypoxic conditions can occur during natural events (e.g., flooding), during developmental processes (e.g., seed germination), and in cells of compact tissues with high metabolic rates. Plant acclimation responses to hypoxia involve a modulation of gene expression leading to various biochemical, physiological, and morphological changes that stave off eventual anoxia. In contrast with the animal kingdom, a direct oxygen-sensing mechanism in plants has been elusive so far. However, two recent independent studies show that oxygen sensing in plants operates via posttranslational regulation of key hypoxia response transcription factors by the N-end rule pathway. The N-end rule is an evolutionarily conserved pathway for protein degradation that relates the fate of a protein with the identity of its N-terminal residues. Results from these studies demonstrate that oxygen-dependent modification and targeted proteolysis of members of the ethylene response factor group VII transcription factor family regulate hypoxia-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. The discovery of this plant hypoxia-sensing mechanism sets the stage for further research on plant homeostatic response to oxygen, which could be relevant to understanding plant distributions in flood-prone ecosystems and improving hypoxia tolerance of crops. PMID:22207573

  2. Effect of oxygen partial pressure and chemical oxygen demand loading on the biofilm properties in membrane-aerated bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, I X; Alien, D G; Liss, S N

    2009-03-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilms with oxygen and nutrients diffusing from the opposite sides possess distinct properties, including the ability to couple aerobic and anaerobic processes. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of oxygen partial pressure and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on biofilm properties. Two laboratory-scale membrane-aerated bioreactors were operated for a total of 283 days, with one reactor operated at 42, 60, and 89 kPa (0.41, 0.59, and 0.88 atm) oxygen, and the other reactor at 25 kPa (0.25 atm) oxygen (air control). The biofilm detached at the oxygen partial pressures of 60 and 89 kPa (0.59 and 0.88 atm) at a COD loading of 11.3 kg COD/1000 m2/d, but was sustained at the oxygen partial pressures of 25 and 42 kPa (0.25 and 0.41 atm), with a porous structure at the membrane interface at the COD loading of 11.3 kg COD/1000 m2/d. Biofilm formation was improved at a higher COD loading. It is proposed that the loss of extracellular polymeric substances at the biofilm bottom is the cause for the biofilm detachment subjected to a higher oxygen partial pressure.

  3. Enhancing the Sensing Properties of TiO2 Nanosheets with Exposed {001} Facets by a Hydrogenation and Sensing Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Liu, Junfang; Wang, Miao; Pei, Cuijin; Liu, Bin; Yuan, Yukun; Liu, Shengzhong; Yang, Heqing

    2017-02-06

    Hydrogenation is successfully employed to improve sensing performances of the gas sensors based on TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets for the first time. The hydrogenated TiO2 nanosheets show a significantly higher response toward ethanol, acetone, triethylamine, or formaldehyde than the samples without hydrogenation, and the response further increases with an increase of the hydrogenation temperature. The excellent sensing performances are ascribed to an increase of the density of unsaturated Ti5c atoms on the {001} surface resulting from the hydrogenation process. The unsaturated Ti5c atoms are considered to serve as sensing reaction active sites. They can generate noncontributing (free) electrons and adsorb oxygen molecules, and the detailed sensing mechanism is described at atomic and molecule level. The hydrogenated strategy may be employed to enhance the sensing performances of other metal oxide sensors and catalytic reaction activities of catalyst. The concept of the surface unsaturated metal atoms serving as sensing reaction active sites not only deepens the understanding of the sensing reaction and catalytic reaction mechanism but also provides new insights into the design of advanced gas sensing materials, catalysts, and photoelectronic devices.

  4. Luminescent sensing of dissolved oxygen based on Ru(II) complex embedded in sol-gel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yubing; Tao, Wei; Hu, Yanli; Mao, Yimei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    In biological cells and tissues environment, real-time monitoring and controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) provides critical information for studying cellular metabolism process, health status and pathological features. This paper developed an optical DO sensor based on fluorescence quenching principle, prepared tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride complex sol-gel sensing film, and studied its sensing performance. The principle of this sensor is that dissolved oxygen has quenching effect towards the fluorescence emitted by ruthenium complex. So the fluorescence intensity is reduced due to the existence of DO. The measurement limit of DO was 10- 100%, the response time was 20s, and the resolution was 0.02. Compared to traditional dissolved oxygen electrode probe, this luminescent fiber had many advantages, such as smaller size, shorter response time and higher stability.

  5. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality. PMID:24454538

  6. Generic properties of curvature sensing through vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality.

  7. Remote sensing of soil properties in precision agriculture: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yufeng; Thomasson, J. Alex; Sui, Ruixiu

    2011-09-01

    The success of precision agriculture (PA) depends strongly upon an efficient and accurate method for in-field soil property determination. This information is critical for farmers to calculate the proper amount of inputs for best crop performance and least environmental effect. Grid sampling, as a traditional way to explore in-field soil variation, is no longer considered appropriate since it is labor intensive, time consuming and lacks spatial exhaustiveness. Remote sensing (RS) provides a new tool for PA information gathering and has advantages of low cost, rapidity, and relatively high spatial resolution. Great progress has been made in utilizing RS for in-field soil property determination. In this article, recent publications on the subject of RS of soil properties in PA are reviewed. It was found that a large array of agriculturally-important soil properties (including textures, organic and inorganic carbon content, macro- and micro-nutrients, moisture content, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, pH, and iron) were quantified with RS successfully to the various extents. The applications varied from laboratory-analysis of soil samples with a bench-top spectrometer to field-scale soil mapping with satellite hyper-spectral imagery. The visible and near-infrared regions are most commonly used to infer soil properties, with the ultraviolet, mid-infrared, and thermal-infrared regions have been used occasionally. In terms of data analysis, MLR, PCR, and PLSR are three techniques most widely used. Limitations and possibilities of using RS for agricultural soil property characterization were also identified in this article.

  8. Ion-sensing properties of 1D vanadium pentoxide nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The application of one-dimensional (1D) V2O5·nH2O nanostructures as pH sensing material was evaluated. 1D V2O5·nH2O nanostructures were obtained by a hydrothermal method with systematic control of morphology forming different nanostructures: nanoribbons, nanowires and nanorods. Deposited onto Au-covered substrates, 1D V2O5·nH2O nanostructures were employed as gate material in pH sensors based on separative extended gate FET as an alternative to provide FET isolation from the chemical environment. 1D V2O5·nH2O nanostructures showed pH sensitivity around the expected theoretical value. Due to high pH sensing properties, flexibility and low cost, further applications of 1D V2O5·nH2O nanostructures comprise enzyme FET-based biosensors using immobilized enzymes. PMID:22709724

  9. Electrical properties and oxygen functionalities in ethanol-treated and thermally modified graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalese, S.; Baldo, S.; D'Angelo, D.; Filice, S.; Bongiorno, C.; Reitano, R.; Fazio, E.; Conoci, S.; La Magna, A.

    2017-04-01

    Graphene-based materials are among the most innovative and promising materials for the development of high-performance sensing devices, mainly due to the large surface area and the possibility to modify their reactivity by suitable functionalization. In the field of sensing applications, the peculiarities of innovative materials can be exploited only if chemical and physical properties are fully understood and correlated with each other. To this aim, in this work, graphene oxide (GO) and ethanol-treated GO (GOEt) were investigated from chemical and structural points of view. Electrical characterization was performed by depositing GO and GOEt between two electrodes by dielectrophoresis. All the investigations were repeated on GO materials after thermal treatment in a low temperature range (60 °C-300 °C). Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of GO was investigated by changing the temperature and the environment (air or N2) during the characterization: an increase in the conductivity of the as-deposited GO was observed when the device is cooled down and this effect is reversible with the temperature. GOEt and the thermally treated GO and GOEt show an opposite trend, confirming the key role of the oxygen functionalities in the conduction mechanisms and, therefore, in the conductivity of the GO layers.

  10. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  11. Melatonin and the von Hippel-Lindau/HIF-1 oxygen sensing mechanism: A review.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Jerry; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous reports that melatonin inhibits the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1α, and the HIF-1α-inducible gene, VEGF, both in vivo and in vitro. Through the inhibition of the HIF-1-VEGF pathway, melatonin reduces hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Herein we discuss the interaction of melatonin with HIF-1α and HIF-1α-inducible genes in terms of what is currently known concerning the HIF-1α hypoxia response element (HIF-1α-HRE) pathway. The von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL), also known as the VHL tumor suppressor, functions as part of a ubiquitin ligase complex which recognizes HIF-1α as a substrate. As such, VHL is part of the oxygen sensing mechanism of the cell. Under conditions of hypoxia, HIF-1α stimulates the transcription of numerous HIF-1α-induced genes, including EPO, VEGF, and PFKFB3; the latter is an enzyme which regulates glycolysis. Data from several studies show that ROS generated in mitochondria under conditions of hypoxia stimulate HIF-1α. Since melatonin acts as an antioxidant and reduces ROS, these data suggest that the antioxidant action of melatonin could account for reduced HIF-1, less VEGF, and reduced glycolysis in cancer cells (Warburg effect). A direct or indirect inhibitory action (via the reduction in ROS) of melatonin on proteasome activity would account for much of the published data.

  12. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  13. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body: mechanisms and role in adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gao, Lin; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Pardal, Ricardo; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia

    2016-04-15

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental for cell and whole-body homeostasis. Our understanding of the adaptive processes that take place in response to a lack of O2(hypoxia) has progressed significantly in recent years. The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the acute cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation) triggered by hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of cells (glomeruli) in close contact with blood vessels and nerve fibers. Glomus cells, the O2-sensitive elements in the CB, are neuron-like cells that contain O2-sensitive K(+)channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia. This leads to cell depolarization, Ca(2+)entry, and the release of transmitters to activate sensory fibers terminating at the respiratory center. The mechanism whereby O2modulates K(+)channels has remained elusive, although several appealing hypotheses have been postulated. Recent data suggest that mitochondria complex I signaling to membrane K(+)channels plays a fundamental role in acute O2sensing. CB activation during exposure to low Po2is also necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. CB growth during sustained hypoxia depends on the activation of a resident population of stem cells, which are also activated by transmitters released from the O2-sensitive glomus cells. These advances should foster further studies on the role of CB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of highly prevalent human diseases. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline diamond at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kulha, Pavel; Laposa, Alexandr; Hruska, Karel; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study describes an integrated NH3 sensor based on a hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD)-sensitive layer coated on an interdigitated electrode structure. The gas sensing properties of the sensor structure were examined using a reducing gas (NH3) at room temperature and were found to be dependent on the electrode arrangement. A pronounced response of the sensor, which was comprised of dense electrode arrays (of 50 µm separation distance), was observed. The sensor functionality was explained by the surface transfer doping effect. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the current density distribution of the hydrogenated NCD describes the transient flow of electrons between interdigitated electrodes and the hydrogenated NCD surface, that is, the formation of a closed current loop. PMID:25551062

  15. Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline diamond at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Davydova, Marina; Kulha, Pavel; Laposa, Alexandr; Hruska, Karel; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study describes an integrated NH3 sensor based on a hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD)-sensitive layer coated on an interdigitated electrode structure. The gas sensing properties of the sensor structure were examined using a reducing gas (NH3) at room temperature and were found to be dependent on the electrode arrangement. A pronounced response of the sensor, which was comprised of dense electrode arrays (of 50 µm separation distance), was observed. The sensor functionality was explained by the surface transfer doping effect. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the current density distribution of the hydrogenated NCD describes the transient flow of electrons between interdigitated electrodes and the hydrogenated NCD surface, that is, the formation of a closed current loop.

  16. Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, John J

    2002-01-01

    How do organisms sense the amount of oxygen in the environment and respond appropriately when the level of oxygen decreases? Oxygen sensing and the molecular stratagems underlying the process have been the focus of an endless number of investigations trying to find an answer to the question: "What is the identity of the oxygen sensor?" Dynamic changes in pO2 constitute a potential signaling mechanism for the regulation of the expression and activation of reduction-oxidation (redox)-sensitive and oxygen-responsive transcription factors, apoptosis-signaling molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The transition from placental to lung-based respiration causes a relatively hyperoxic shift or oxidative stress, which the perinatal, developing lung experiences during birth. This variation in ΔpO2, in particular, differentially regulates the compartmentalization and functioning of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, oxygen-evoked regulation of HIF-1α and NF-κB is closely coupled with the intracellular redox state, such that modulating redox equilibrium affects their responsiveness at the molecular level (expression/transactivation). The differential regulation of HIF-1α and NF-κB in vitro is paralleled by oxygen-sensitive and redox-dependent pathways governing the regulation of these factors during the transition from placental to lung-based respiration ex utero. The birth transition period in vivo and ex utero also regulates apoptosis signaling pathways in a redox-dependent manner, consistent with NF-κB being transcriptionally regulated in order to play an anti-apoptotic function. An association is established between oxidative stress conditions and the augmentation of an inflammatory state in pathophysiology, regulated by the oxygen- and redox-sensitive pleiotropic cytokines. PMID:12537605

  17. Investigation of the oxygen depletion properties of low density polyethylene resins filled with thermally stable oxygen scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jen-taut; Cui, Li; Sun, Yan-bin; Xu, Li-ping; Wei, Wei; Tsai, Fang-chang; Jiang, Tao; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Kan-Nan

    2009-07-01

    The thermal stability, oxygen depletion and tensile properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) resins filled with ascorbic acid (Vc), sodium ascorbate (SA), iron (Fe) and modified iron (MFe) oxygen scavengers were systematically investigated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results clearly suggest that the thermal stability of SA powder and L95(SA)5 specimen is significantly better than that of Vc powder and L95(Vc)5 specimen, respectively. The oxygen depletion efficiency of L95(SA)5 is significantly better than that of L95(Vc)5, L95(Fe)5 and L95(MFe)5 specimens, although the virgin SA powders exhibit worse oxygen depletion efficiency than Vc, Fe or MFe powders before melt blending. Moreover, at a fixed weight ratio of Vc (or SA) to MFe of the oxygen scavenger compounds, the oxygen depletion efficiency of L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series specimens is always significantly better than that of L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series specimens. In fact, at weight ratios of Vc/MFe and SA/MFe higher than 3/7 and 5/5, respectively, the residual oxygen concentration values present in the airtight flask of L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 and L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series samples at any time are even lower than those of the L95(Vc)5 and L95(SA)5 specimens, respectively. Further tensile experiments show that the tensile properties of the L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 series samples are always higher than those of the corresponding L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series samples with the same loadings of oxygen scavenger compounds, respectively. In order to understand these interesting thermal stability, oxygen depletion and tensile properties of these LDPE oxygen-scavenging plastics, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-rays analysis of the compositions on the surfaces of L95[SAx(MFe)y]5 and L95[Vcx(MFe)y]5 series samples were performed. Possible reasons accounting for these interesting properties of these LDPE oxygen-scavenging plastics are proposed.

  18. Synthesis and enhanced NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles heterojunction composites.

    PubMed

    Zou, C W; Wang, J; Xie, W

    2016-09-15

    ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles composites were synthesized and the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the NO2 sensing properties were studied in detail. The as-prepared composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, PL, I-V and gas sensing measurements. The gas sensing results demonstrated that all the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited much higher response than that of sensors based on pure ZnO nanorods. At the optimum operating temperature of 180°C, the response values of the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites decorated with TiO2 concentrations of 0, 3, 5, 8 and 10wt% were 50, 140, 310, 350 and 258, respectively. The PL and I-V results indicated that the increased charge transfer between the ZnO nanorods mediated by TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the conductivity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites. The gas sensing mechanism was also carefully analyzed. The attachment of TiO2 nanoparticles onto ZnO nanorods induced more active sites for the adsorption of oxygen molecules (O(2)) and O(2) which can be more easily adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore, the conduction channel of ZnO/TiO2 was much narrower as a result of the formation of heterojunction which may further contribute to the enhanced NO2 sensing properties.

  19. Electrical properties of oxygen ion-implanted InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Anderson, W. A.

    1992-10-01

    The effect of oxygen ion implantation on defect levels and the electrical properties of undoped InP ( n-type) and Sn-doped InP have been investigated as a function of postimplant annealing at temperatures of 300 and 400° C. The surface interruption by ion bombardment was studied by a non-invasive optical technique—photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Current-voltage (I-V) characterization and deep level transient spectros-copy (DLTS) were carried out. The free carrier compensation mechanism was studied from the microstructure behavior of defect levels associated with O+ implantation. Free carriers may be trapped in both residual and ion-bombardment-induced defect sites. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) performed at different temperatures showed that if residual traps were removed by annealing, the compensation efficiency will be enhanced. Post-implant RTA treatment showed that at the higher temperature (400°C), trapped carriers may be re-excited, resulting in a weakened compensation. Comparing the results of undoped and Sn-doped InP indicated that the carrier compensation effect is substrate doping dependent.

  20. Myofibrillar protein gel properties are influenced by oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaged minced beef.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Ertbjerg, Per

    2017-09-01

    Minced beef was stored for 8days and myofibrillar protein (MP) was extracted to investigate the effect of oxygen concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%) in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on heat-induced gel properties. Compression force of gels was lower when prepared from beef packaged in 0% oxygen, intermediate in 20 to 60% oxygen and greater in 80% oxygen. Total water loss of gels prepared from beef packaged with oxygen (20-80%) was higher and rheology measurements presented higher G' and G″ values. Additionally, gels from beef packaged without oxygen exhibited higher J (t) values during creep and recovery tests, demonstrating that oxygen exposure of meat during storage in MAP affect MP in such a way that heat-induced protein gels alter their characteristics. Generally, storage with oxygen in MAP resulted in stronger and more elastic MP gels, which was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  2. Solubility and thermodynamic properties of oxygen in solid molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. C.; Seigle, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    A formula is obtained for the solubility of oxygen in solid Mo, determined in the range from 1400 to 1900 C by equilibrating rods of zone-refined Mo with mixtures of Mo and MoO2 powders. Using the known value of the free energy of formation of MoO2, a formula is obtained for the chemical potential of oxygen in the dilute solid solution. The heat of solution of oxygen in solid Mo and the excess entropy for the interstitial solid solution are also determined, assuming that the oxygen atoms reside in the octahedral interstices of bcc Mo.

  3. Properties of centralized cooperative sensing in cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skokowski, Paweł; Malon, Krzysztof; Łopatka, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    Spectrum sensing is a functionality that enables network creation in the cognitive radio technology. Spectrum sensing is use for building the situation awareness knowledge for better use of radio resources and to adjust network parameters in case of jamming, interferences from legacy systems, decreasing link quality caused e.g. by nodes positions changes. This paper presents results from performed tests to compare cooperative centralized sensing versus local sensing. All tests were performed in created simulator developed in Matlab/Simulink environment.

  4. TiO2 Nanotubes: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis—particularly by electrochemical anodization-, growth mechanism and chemical sensing properties of pure, doped and mixed titania tubular arrays are reviewed. The first part deals on how anodization parameters affect the size, shape and morphology of titania nanotubes. In the second part fabrication of sensing devices based on titania nanotubes is presented, together with their most notable gas sensing performances. Doping largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24184919

  5. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Kelly, Ryan T; Suter, Jonathan; Anheier, Norm C

    2012-11-21

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water-wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen-sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges of oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain defined spatial structure in the sensor image.

  6. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  7. DFT study of CO sensing mechanism on hexagonal WO3 (0 0 1) surface: The role of oxygen vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, FengHui; Zhao, Linghuan; Xue, Xu-Yan; Shen, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiangfeng; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Zonghua

    2014-08-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the adsorption of CO on the oxygen deficient hexagonal WO3 (h-WO3) (0 0 1) surface. Two different situations including the O- and WO-terminated h-WO3 (0 0 1) surfaces are considered. The influence of surface defect density is also concerned. Calculations proposed that the oxygen vacancy exert negative effects on the sensing ability of the h-WO3 material. Under relatively higher defect density, the presence of the oxygen vacancy on both of the O and WO-terminated (0 0 1) surfaces all decreases their sensitivity to CO gas to some extent, while they are still sensitive enough to detect CO gas with the charge transfers of 0.498 and 0.129 e, respectively. Whereas, under lower defect density, calculations indicated that the sensitivity of the material can be lowered largely.

  8. Influence of oxygen impurities on the electronic properties of graphene nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abboodi, Mohammed H.; Ajeel, Fouad N.; Khudhair, Alaa M.

    2017-04-01

    Controlled chemical doping with oxygen impurities is a promising approach for the electronic band engineering of graphene nanoflakes (GNFs). Based on the first-principles of the density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we investigated the effect of various consternations of substitutional impurities from oxygen atoms on the electronic properties of GNFs. Our results show that the electronic properties of GNFs do not only depend on the oxygen impurity concentrations, but also depend on the geometrical pattern of oxygen impurities in the GNFs. Additionally, we also found interesting electronic properties of GNFs structure, which significantly contribute to that oxygen dopants cause a decreased energy gap. So, our results suggest that substitutional impurities are the best viable option for enhancement of desired electronic properties of GNFs.

  9. Laboratory studies of the optical properties and stability of oxygen on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baragiola, Raúl A.; Bahr, David A.

    1998-11-01

    We present measurements of the optical properties of solid O2 and O2:H2O films and on the stability of oxygen in water ice at different temperatures. The experiments are meant to test hypotheses for the location of condensed molecular oxygen in Ganymede. We find that oxygen is not retained in water ice at Ganymede's recorded surface temperatures and analyze current questions associated with the existence of oxygen in this Jovian moon. The results suggest that solid oxygen and possibly other condensed gases exist on cold patches on the heterogeneous Ganymede's surface.

  10. Local electronic, sensing and optical properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staii, Cristian

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on the electronic and optical properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (swCNs). In a first set of experiments we investigate the local electronic properties of swCNs using novel scanning probe microscopies. We use Scanning Gate Microscopy (SGM) to measure the energy of the resonant scattering centers in metallic swCNs, and to show the local nature of the memory effect observed in swCN field effect transistors (swCN-FETs). We also combine Impedance Spectroscopy and SGM to measure the high frequency properties of swCN-FETs. These experiments provide the first observations concerning the role of individual defects at high frequencies. The results are consistent with a simple parallel R-C circuit model for the swCN-FET. Furthermore, we present a quantitative model for the phase shifts observed in Scanning Conductance Microscopy (SCM) and demonstrate that this can be used to investigate the electronic properties of nanoscale samples without requiring electrical contacts. We provide a general method based on SCM that can be used to measure the dielectric constant of nanoscale objects. In a second set of experiments we demonstrate that swCN-FETs functionalized with single stranded DNA (ss-DNA) act as highly sensitive chemical sensors. The ss-DNA decorated swCN-FETs are sensitive to chemical species (odors) that do not cause a detectable response in non-functionalized swCN-FETs. Moreover, odor responses of these devices are different in sign and magnitude for different odors, and the odor response characteristics are dependent on the base sequence of the ss-DNA used to decorate the swCN. These results suggest that swCN-FET functionalized with ss-DNA and related molecules (RNA, aptamers, etc) are extremely promising candidates for sensing applications. Finally, we present photoluminescence measurements on individual swCNs, freely suspended across open apertures. These experiments show asymmetric peak line shapes, with line

  11. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. Adaptive compressed sensing recovery utilizing the property of signal's autocorrelations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Changjun; Ji, Xiangyang; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-05-01

    Perfect compressed sensing (CS) recovery can be achieved when a certain basis space is found to sparsely represent the original signal. However, due to the diversity of the signals, there does not exist a universal predetermined basis space that can sparsely represent all kinds of signals, which results in an unsatisfying performance. To improve the accuracy of recovered signal, this paper proposes an adaptive basis CS reconstruction algorithm by minimizing the rank of an accumulated matrix (MRAM), whose eigenvectors approximate the optimal basis sparsely representing the original signal. The accumulated matrix is constructed to efficiently exploit the second-order statistical property of the signal's autocorrelations. Based on the theory of matrix completion, MRAM reconstructs the original signal from its random projections under the observation that the constructed accumulated matrix is of low rank for most natural signals such as periodic signals and those coming from an autoregressive stationary process. Experimental results show that the proposed MRAM efficiently improves the reconstruction quality compared with the existing algorithms.

  13. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides the spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud properties over a wide area. In our studies large data sets are used for statistical studies on aerosol and cloud interaction in an area over Fennoscandia, the Baltic Sea and adjacent regions over the European mainland. This area spans several regimes with different influences on aerosol cloud interaction such as a the transition from relative clean air over Fennoscandia to more anthropogenically polluted air further south, and the influence maritime air over the Baltic and oceanic air advected from the North Atlantic. Anthropogenic pollution occurs in several parts of the study area, and in particular near densely populated areas and megacities, but also in industrialized areas and areas with dense traffic. The aerosol in such areas is quite different from that produced over the boreal forest and has different effects on air quality and climate. Studies have been made on the effects of aerosols on air quality and on the radiation balance in China. The aim of the study is to study the effect of these different regimes on aerosol-cloud interaction using a large aerosol and cloud data set retrieved with the (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer (A)ATSR Dual View algorithm (ADV) further developed at Finnish Meteorological Institute and aerosol and cloud data provided by MODIS. Retrieval algorithms for aerosol and clouds have been developed for the (A)ATSR, consisting of a series of instruments of which we use the second and third one: ATSR-2 which flew on the ERS-2 satellite (1995-2003) and AATSR which flew on the ENVISAT satellite (2002-2012) (both from the European Space Agency, ESA). The ADV algorithm provides aerosol data on a global scale with a default resolution of 10x10km2 (L2) and an aggregate product on 1x1 degree (L3). Optional, a 1x1 km2 retrieval products is available over smaller areas for specific studies. Since for the retrieval of AOD no prior knowledge is needed on

  14. Unconventional ratiometric-enhanced optical sensing of oxygen by mixed-phase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettieri, S.; Pallotti, D. K.; Gesuele, F.; Maddalena, P.

    2016-07-01

    We show that mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be effectively employed as an unconventional, inorganic, dual-emitting, and ratiometric optical sensor of O2. Simultaneous availability of rutile and anatase TiO2 photoluminescence (PL) and their peculiar "anti-correlated" PL responses to O2 allow using their ratio as a measurement parameter associated with the O2 concentration, leading to an experimental responsivity being by construction larger than the one obtainable for single-phase PL detection. A proof of this concept is given, showing a two-fold enhancement of the optical responsivity provided by the ratiometric approach. Besides the peculiar ratiometric-enhanced responsivity, other characteristics of mixed phase TiO2 can be envisaged as favorable for O2 optical probing, namely (a) low production costs, (b) absence of heterogeneous components, and (c) self-supporting properties. These characteristics encourage experimenting with its use for applications requiring high indicator quantities at a competitive price, possibly also tackling the need to develop supporting matrixes that carry the luminescent probes and avoiding issues related to the use of different components for ratiometric sensing.

  15. Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensors: oxygen sensing and other biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randers-Eichhorn, Lisa; Bartlett, Roscoe A.; Sipior, Jeffrey; Frey, Douglas D.; Carter, Gary M.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Rao, Govind

    1996-05-01

    Murine hybridomas were cultivated in tissue culture flasks. Dissolved oxygen tensions in the gas and liquid phases during cell growth were measured non-invasively by an optical oxygen sensor. Readings were made with caps both cracked open and completely closed. During cell growth, gas phase oxygen concentrations remained near atmospheric levels, while the oxygen tension at the bottom of the flasks eventually reached zero. These results suggest that the widespread practice of cracking open tissue culture flask caps during cell growth with a view to supplying adequate oxygen to cells is ineffective and unnecessary. The mass transfer characteristics of the tissue culture flask indicate the dominant resistance to oxygen mass transfer to the cells was the liquid media. The mass transfer rates through the liquid layer under standard laboratory conditions were found to be greater than those predicted by diffusion alone, suggesting microscale mixing. Volumetric and specific oxygen consumption rates were calculated from the sensor data, and were comparable to published values. A recently developed single fiber optic oxygen sensor is described. This new sensor will provide oxygen concentrations at various levels in the tissue culture flasks, allowing more accurate modeling of oxygen diffusion.

  16. Densification and Electrical Properties of Zinc Oxide Varistors Microwave-Sintered Under Different Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Zheng; Peng, Hu

    2012-11-01

    ZnO varistors were prepared by microwave sintering under different oxygen partial pressures. The temperature profile and the densification behavior in different atmospheres were investigated. It was found that the density of ZnO varistors during sintering was the key factor affecting the absorption of microwave energy. The electrical properties, including the nonlinear properties and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics, were also carefully studied. The results showed that the oxygen partial pressure has significant effects on the electrical properties of ZnO varistors by changing the concentration of defects through a series of reactions involving oxygen during sintering.

  17. Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ram Sevak

    2015-11-15

    Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (CNTs and BNNTs) is systematically studied using first principle calculations based on density functional theory. Energy band structures and density of states of optimized zigzag (5, 0), armchair (3, 3), and chiral (4, 2) structures of CNT and BNNT are calculated. Oxygen doping in zigzag CNT exhibits a reduction in metallicity with opening of band gap in near-infrared region while metallicity is enhanced in armchair and chiral CNTs. Unlike oxygen-doped CNTs, energy bands are drastically modulated in oxygen-doped zigzag and armchair BNNTs, showing the nanotubes to have metallic behaviour. Furthermore, oxygen impurity in chiral BNNT induces narrowing of band gap, indicating a gradual modification of electronic band structure. This study underscores the understanding of different electronic properties induced in CNTs and BNNTs under oxygen doping, and has potential in fabrication of various nanoelectronic devices.

  18. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  19. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  20. Effect of oxygen plasma modification on refractive index sensing with micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debowska, Anna K.; Dominik, Magdalena; Koba, Marcin; Janik, Monika; Bock, Wojtek; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2016-12-01

    A micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (μIMZI) is an optical sensing structure fabricated in an optical fiber. Its design allows for refractive index sensing of liquid and gas in picoliter volumes, making it suitable for biochemical and medical sensing where measured material is often scarce. The fabricated structures show satisfactory levels of sensitivity, from about 400 nm/RIU in the near-water range of solutions (nD 1.336+/-0.003 RIU) to about 16 000 nm/RIU for solutions in approximate range from nD = 1.35 RIU to nD = 1.4 RIU. The structures were subjected to oxygen plasma, the process which was supposed to modify physical parameters of the structures, i.e., cavity surface wettability and roughness, and in consequence their sensitivity. As a result of the oxygen plasma modification we have observed a improved wettability of the structure surface, what makes it easier to introduce liquid into the cavity and simplifies the measurement process. In the case where the plasma processing is preceded by biological layer deposition, the bottom surface of the structure is smoothed and slightly deepened, causing a shift in the transmission spectrum and change in sensitivity.

  1. Sensing of oxygen in microtiter plates: a novel tool for screening drugs against pathogenic yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Janine; Hassan, Rabeay Y A; Hodde, Stephan; Bardroff, Christian; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2008-07-01

    Most antibiotics were discovered via their inhibition of growth of target organisms. However, yeasts in particular have the capability to adapt metabolic pathways to the availability of nutrients e.g. yeasts can easily switch between respiratory and fermentative pathways in response to oxygen concentration, or can even use both simultaneously. Thus, we cultivated S. cerevisiae BY4741 and C. albicans 1386 in microtiter plates with integrated oxygen sensors to characterize the availability of oxygen for the organisms and to detect influences of fungicides on the oxygen consumption rates. The relevance of the respiratory pathway was indicated by the almost total consumption of oxygen during the first 1-3 h of the cultivation in the microtiter plates, when an increase in turbidity could hardly be seen. Moreover, the sensitivity of S. cerevisiae to inhibitors of the respiratory chain, such as myxothiazol, could be detected via a reduced oxygen consumption rate, whereas no inhibition of growth was observed. Thus, not only was the sensitivity of the test organism for the test compound detectable, but the affected pathway was also highlighted. Other compounds, such as pyrrolnitrin and ambruticin VS-3, inhibited growth of C. albicans 1386 and of S. cerevisiae (only pyrrolnitrin), which was additionally observed as reduced oxygen consumption rates. Thus, the determination of oxygen in microtiter plates via fluorescent dyes is a versatile supplement to standard growth inhibition tests.

  2. Triplet state characteristics and singlet oxygen generation properties of anthracyclines.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, A; Land, E J; Malatesta, V; McLean, A J; Truscott, T G

    1989-02-24

    The triplet states of adriamycin (Ad), daunomycin (D) and two daunomycin analogues, daunomycinone (Dc) and daunomycin N-trifluoroacetamide (DAc), have been studied using laser flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis techniques. Triplet lifetimes, molar absorption coefficients, energy levels and quantum yields have been obtained for Dc and DAc, and estimated for D and Ad. Time-resolved near-infrared singlet oxygen luminescence measurements have been carried out on D, Ad and 5-iminodaunomycin (5-ID) in 2H2O solution and Dc in benzene solution at room temperature. Singlet oxygen quenching by the water-soluble anthracyclines was observed and a second-order rate constant of approx. 10(8) M-1.s-1 obtained. Electron spin resonance experiments have demonstrated that D photoexcited at lambda less than or 365 nm gives rise to singlet oxygen as shown by its reaction with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone to give the corresponding nitroxyl radical. Although all the anthracyclines studied have the ability to photosensitize the formation of singlet oxygen, the quantum yields are very low (phi delta approximately 0.02-0.03), suggesting that these anthracyclines would be poor photodynamic sensitisers.

  3. Oxygen effect on low-alloy steel weld metal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, N.N. . Welding Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    It is shown that the weld metal oxygen content in submerged arc low-alloy steel welds, as well as in low-carbon steel welds is dependent on the concentration of oxides decomposed at low temperatures in a weld pool slag phase. The oxygen is mainly in the form of fine dispersed oxide inclusions of less than 0.03 [mu]m. Differentiated evaluation of silicon reduction effects in submerged arc welded low-alloy steels revealed that weld metal brittle fracture strength depends to a considerable degree on total weld metal oxide inclusion content than on silicon increment in the weld. Therefore, the increase of weld metal brittle fracture susceptibility with the growth of weld oxide inclusion content is important to know. Welds with lowered oxygen content [0] [<=] 0.02% also display the tendency to decrease in plasticity because (1) the ferritic-pearlitic matrix of improved purity is likely to generate unbalanced structures on cooling and, (2) when there are no oxide inclusions, the shape of sulfur and phosphor precipitation from the melt changes from globular to film-like. Optimal low-alloy steel weld metal oxygen content is defined in the range of 0.02-0.035.

  4. Structural and Symmetric Properties of Oxygen at 350 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, C. V.; Montoya, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    We have performed density functional electronic structure calculations for oxygen at 350 GPa, using the quantum espresso package with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and PBE exchange and correlation functional. The random search method was used to determine the enthalpies and lattice parameters of monatomic oxygen at 350 GPa. Other chalcogen elements (Po, Te, Se, S) all take a rhombohedral β-Po structure when compressed. Polonium forms its structure at zero pressure, Te at 11 GPa, Se at 60 GPa, and Sulfur at 153 GPa. As you move up the table, higher pressures are needed to make the element take a β-Po form. My hypothesis was that at pressures near 350 GPa, oxygen would have a β-Po structure as well. Within random search, several starting configurations are randomly chosen and relaxed, until the final structures, with the lowest enthalpy, are found several times. First, the crystal lattice is generated by randomly selecting cell-vector lengths between 0.5 and 1.5 (in arbitrary units) and three cell angles between 40° and 140°. The cell vectors are then scaled to match a new volume, which is also chosen randomly between 0.5 and 1.5 of some physically sensible volume. Then, atomic positions are obtained by generating three random numbers between 0 and 1 for each atom, which represents the positions of the atoms in terms of the crystal vectors. First-principles methods are then used to relax the cell towards the closest minimum in enthalpy. We performed random search using one oxygen atom per unit cell. Therefore, only the six cell degrees of freedom were necessary. 150 random starting systems were selected and then converged towards equilibrium at 350 GPa. 1000 iterations or more were necessary for each structure to reach hydrostaticity of the stress tensor. The systems' enthalpies were then calculated and the structures with the lowest enthalpies were analyzed. Eight different values for enthalpy local minima were obtained. The global minimum was obtained with 14 out

  5. Mutual antagonism between hypoxia-inducible factors 1α and 2α regulates oxygen sensing and cardio-respiratory homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoxiang; Peng, Ying-Jie; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Nanduri, Jayasri; Khan, Shakil A; Garcia, Joseph A; Kumar, Ganesh K; Semenza, Gregg L; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2013-05-07

    Breathing and blood pressure are under constant homeostatic regulation to maintain optimal oxygen delivery to the tissues. Chemosensory reflexes initiated by the carotid body and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla are the principal mechanisms for maintaining respiratory and cardiovascular homeostasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that balanced activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 is critical for oxygen sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and for their control of cardio-respiratory function. In Hif2α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-2α deficiency increased levels of HIF-1α and NADPH oxidase 2, leading to an oxidized intracellular redox state, exaggerated hypoxic sensitivity, and cardio-respiratory abnormalities, which were reversed by treatment with a HIF-1α inhibitor or a superoxide anion scavenger. Conversely, in Hif1α(+/-) mice, partial HIF-1α deficiency increased levels of HIF-2α and superoxide dismutase 2, leading to a reduced intracellular redox state, blunted oxygen sensing, and impaired carotid body and ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia, which were corrected by treatment with a HIF-2α inhibitor. None of the abnormalities observed in Hif1α(+/-) mice or Hif2α(+/-) mice were observed in Hif1α(+/-);Hif2α(+/-) mice. These observations demonstrate that redox balance, which is determined by mutual antagonism between HIF-α isoforms, establishes the set point for hypoxic sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and is required for maintenance of cardio-respiratory homeostasis.

  6. Oxygen vacancy effect on dielectric and hysteretic properties of zigzag ferroelectric iron dioxide nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zriouel, S.; Taychour, B.; Yahyaoui, F. El; Drissi, L. B.

    2017-07-01

    Zigzag FeO2 nanoribbon defected by the removal of oxygen atoms is simulated using Monte Carlo simulations. All possible arrangements of positions and number of oxygen vacancy are investigated. Temperature dependence of polarization, dielectric susceptibility, internal energy, specific heat and dielectric hysteresis loops are all studied. Results show the presence of second order phase transition and Q - type behavior. Dielectric properties dependence on ribbon's edge, positions and number of oxygen vacancy are discussed in detail. Moreover, single and square hysteresis loops are observed whatever the number of oxygen vacancy in the system.

  7. Gas sensing in microplates with optodes: influence of oxygen exchange between sample, air, and plate material.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sarina; Weiss, Svenja; Heinzle, Elmar; John, Gernot T; Krause, Christian; Klimant, Ingo

    2005-05-05

    Microplates with integrated optical oxygen sensors are a new tool to study metabolic rates and enzyme activities. Precise measurements are possible only if oxygen exchange between the sample and the environment is known. In this study we quantify gas exchange in plastic microplates. Dissolved oxygen was detected using either an oxygen-sensitive film fixed at the bottom of each well or a needle-type sensor. The diffusion of oxygen into wells sealed with different foils, paraffin oil, and paraffin wax, respectively, was quantified. Although foil covers showed the lowest oxygen permeability, they include an inevitable gas phase between sample and sealing and are difficult to manage. The use of oil was found to be critical due to the extensive shaking caused by movement of the plates during measurements in microplate readers. Thus, paraffin wax was the choice material because it avoids convection of the sample and is easy to handle. Furthermore, without shaking, significant gradients in pO2 levels within a single well of a polystyrene microplate covered with paraffin oil were detected with the needle-type sensor. Higher pO2 levels were obtained near the surface of the sample as well as near the wall of the well. A significant diffusion of oxygen through the plastic plate material was found using plates based on polystyrene. Thus, the location of a sensor element within the well has an effect on the measured pO2 level. Using a sensor film fixed on the bottom of a well or using a dissolved pO2-sensitive indicator results in pO2 offset and in apparently lower respiration rates or enzyme activities. Oxygen diffusion through a polystyrene microplate was simulated for measurements without convection--that is, for samples without oxygen diffusion through the cover and for unshaken measurements using permeable sealings. This mathematical model allows for calculation of the correct kinetic parameters. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. From critters to cancers: bridging comparative and clinical research on oxygen sensing, HIF signaling, and adaptations towards hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hoogewijs, D; Terwilliger, N B; Webster, K A; Powell-Coffman, J A; Tokishita, S; Yamagata, H; Hankeln, T; Burmester, T; Rytkönen, K T; Nikinmaa, M; Abele, D; Heise, K; Lucassen, M; Fandrey, J; Maxwell, P H; Påhlman, S; Gorr, T A

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this symposium at the First International Congress of Respiratory Biology (ICRB) was to enhance communication between comparative biologists and cancer researchers working on O(2) sensing via the HIF pathway. Representatives from both camps came together on August 13-16, 2006, in Bonn, Germany, to discuss molecular adaptations that occur after cells have been challenged by a reduced (hypoxia) or completely absent (anoxia) supply of oxygen. This brief "critters-to-cancer" survey discusses current projects and new directions aimed at improving understanding of hypoxic signaling and developing therapeutic interventions.

  9. HIF-1α in epidermis: oxygen sensing, cutaneous angiogenesis, cancer, and non-cancer disorders.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Hamid R; Ali, Nsrein; Nissen, Lars J; Harfouche, Ghida; de Verneuil, Hubert; Taïeb, Alain; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Besides lung, postnatal human epidermis is the only epithelium in direct contact with atmospheric oxygen. Skin epidermal oxygenation occurs mostly through atmospheric oxygen rather than tissue vasculature, resulting in a mildly hypoxic microenvironment that favors increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Considering the wide spectrum of biological processes, such as angiogenesis, inflammation, bioenergetics, proliferation, motility, and apoptosis, that are regulated by this transcription factor, its high expression level in the epidermis might be important to HIF-1α in skin physiology and pathophysiology. Here, we review the role of HIF-1α in cutaneous angiogenesis, skin tumorigenesis, and several skin disorders.

  10. Influence of Oxygen Content and Microstructure on the Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of Ti–15 wt%Mo Alloy Used for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José R. S.; Araújo, Raul O.; Donato, Tatiani A. G.; Arana-Chavez, Victor E.; Buzalaf, Marília A. R.; Grandini, Carlos R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti–15Mo alloy has its mechanical properties strongly altered by heat treatments and by addition of interstitial elements, such as, oxygen, for example. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of the introduction of oxygen in selected mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of Ti–15Mo alloy. The samples used in this study were prepared by arc-melting and characterized by density measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, and biocompatibility tests. Hardness measurements were shown to be sensitive to concentration of oxygen. The modulus results showed interstitial influence in value; this was verified under several conditions to which the samples were exposed. Cytotoxicity tests conducted in vitro showed that the various processing conditions did not alter the biocompatibility of the material. PMID:28788453

  11. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  12. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 54 hours at 200 C. Quenching of a factor of 1.5X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed from in-situ measurements of films heated directly at 200 C. An automated system for characterizing fiber optic oxygen sensors up to 220 C with a temporal resolution better than 10 s is under construction. We estimate a signal of 6 x 10{sup 8} photons/s after complete quenching in 21% oxygen. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  13. Dual sensing of oxygen and temperature using quantum dots and a ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Jorge, P A S; Maule, C; Silva, A J; Benrashid, R; Santos, J L; Farahi, F

    2008-01-14

    A scheme for the simultaneous determination of oxygen and temperature using quantum dots and a ruthenium complex is demonstrated. The luminescent complex [Ru(II)-tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)]2+ is immobilized in a non-hydrolytic sol-gel matrix and used as the oxygen sensor. The temperature information is provided by the luminescent emission of core-shell CdSe-ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals immobilized in the same material. Measurements of oxygen and temperature could be performed with associated errors of +/-2% of oxygen concentration and +/-1 degrees C, respectively. In addition, it is shown that while the dye luminescence intensity is quenched both by oxygen and temperature, the nanocrystals luminescent emission responds only to temperature. Results presented demonstrate that the combined luminescence response allows the simultaneous assessment of both parameters using a single optical fiber system. In particular, it was shown that a 10% error in the measured oxygen concentration, induced by a change in the sample temperature, could be compensated using the nanocrystals temperature information and a correction function.

  14. Stoichiometry dependent electron transport and gas sensing properties of indium oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gali, Pradeep; Sapkota, Gopal; Syllaios, A J; Littler, Chris; Philipose, U

    2013-06-07

    The effect of stoichiometry of single crystalline In2O3 nanowires on electrical transport and gas sensing was investigated. The nanowires were synthesized by vapor phase transport and had diameters ranging from 80 to 100 nm and lengths between 10 and 20 μm, with a growth direction of [001]. Transport measurements revealed n-type conduction, attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice. As-grown In2O3 nanowires were shown to have a carrier concentration of ≈5 × 10(17) cm(-3), while nanowires that were annealed in wet O2 showed a reduced carrier concentration of less than 10(16) cm(-3). Temperature dependent conductivity measurements on the as-grown nanowires and analysis of the thermally activated Arrhenius conduction for the temperature range of 77-350 K yielded an activation energy of 0.12 eV. This is explained on the basis of carrier exchange that occurs between the surface states and the bulk of the nanowire, resulting in a depleted surface layer of thickness of the order of the Debye length (LD), estimated to be about 3-4 nm for the as-grown nanowires and about 10 times higher for the more stoichiometric nanowires. Significant changes in the electrical conductance of individual In2O3 nanowires were also observed within several seconds of exposure to NH3 and O2 gas molecules at room temperature, thus demonstrating the potential use of In2O3 nanowires as efficient miniaturized chemical sensors. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the nanowire channel conductance, and a simple energy band diagram is used to explain the change in conductivity when gas molecules adsorbed on the nanowire surface influence its electrical properties. Less stoichiometric nanowires were found to be more sensitive to oxidizing gases while more stoichiometric nanowires showed significantly enhanced response to reducing gases.

  15. Properties of turbulence in natural gas-oxygen diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Sautet, J.C.; Ditaranto, M. ); Samaniego, J.M.; Charon, O. )

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of turbulent flow field velocities, including first and second order velocity moments and the shear stress are carried out by laser Doppler velocimetry in five different, 25 kW, turbulent natural gas-oxygen diffusion flames. The mean flow behavior is described including the velocity half value radius as well as centerline velocity. Mean radial velocity profiles are fitted by a Gaussian function. According to the initial momentum ratio, different jet dynamic behaviors are pointed out by the description of the fluctuating velocity field.

  16. Improved in vivo performance of amperometric oxygen (PO2) sensing catheters via electrochemical nitric oxide generation/release.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hang; Coughlin, Megan A; Major, Terry C; Aiello, Salvatore; Rojas Pena, Alvaro; Bartlett, Robert H; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-08-18

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of -2 ± 11% and good correlation (R(2) = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of -31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R(2) = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors.

  17. Improved in Vivo Performance of Amperometric Oxygen (PO2) Sensing Catheters via Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Generation/Release

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel electrochemically controlled release method for nitric oxide (NO) (based on electrochemical reduction of nitrite ions) is combined with an amperometric oxygen sensor within a dual lumen catheter configuration for the continuous in vivo sensing of the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in blood. The on-demand electrochemical NO generation/release method is shown to be fully compatible with amperometric PO2 sensing. The performance of the sensors is evaluated in rabbit veins and pig arteries for 7 and 21 h, respectively. Overall, the NO releasing sensors measure both venous and arterial PO2 values more accurately with an average deviation of −2 ± 11% and good correlation (R2 = 0.97) with in vitro blood measurements, whereas the corresponding control sensors without NO release show an average deviation of −31 ± 28% and poor correlation (R2 = 0.43) at time points >4 h after implantation in veins and >6 h in arteries. The NO releasing sensors induce less thrombus formation on the catheter surface in both veins and arteries (p < 0.05). This electrochemical NO generation/release method could offer a new and attractive means to improve the biocompatibility and performance of implantable chemical sensors. PMID:26201351

  18. ZnO nanotube array: Gas sensing properties at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, B.; Ganapathi, S. Kailasa; Priyam, A.; Kaur, Manmeet; Debnath, A. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, ZnO nanotube arrays were synthesized from hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires by selective chemical etching, using KCl as dissolving solution. Synthesized ZnO nanotube arrays were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature gas sensing properties of these arrays were investigated towards various toxic gases and the results were compared to that of ZnO nanowire arrays. Samples of ZnO nano tube arrays showed better sensor response to both H2S (4.2 for 5 ppm) and NO2 (13 for 1.5 ppm) as compared to samples of ZnO nanowires array which exhibited a sensor response of 3.7 towards 5 ppm H2S and 1 towards 1.5 ppm NO2. The enhancement of sensor response in nanotube arrays can be attributed to the hollow morphology of the ZnO NT which offers higher surface area. Oxygen adsorption in this case takes place on both inner and outer surfaces of the tube resulting in larger change in resistance.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the NO2-sensing properties of sputter-deposited indium tin oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, K.; Pillay, Vasanthi V.

    2011-10-01

    Transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at 648 K, under an oxygen partial pressure of 1 Pa. The effect of annealing on the electrical properties of the films was studied. Characterization of the coatings revealed an electrical resistivity below 6.5 × 10- 3 Ω cm. The ITO films deposited at 648 K were amorphous, while the crystallinity improved after annealing at 700 K. The surface morphology examined by scanning electron microscopy appears to be uniform over the entire surface area after annealing. The NO2-sensing properties of the ITO films were investigated and showed sensitivity at concentrations lower than 50 ppm, at a working temperature of 600 K.

  20. Amphiphilic Fluorinated Polymer Nanoparticle Film Formation and Dissolved Oxygen Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Zhu, Huie; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    Fluorinated polymer nanoparticle films were prepared by dissolving amphiphilic fluorinated polymer, poly (N-1H, 1H-pentadecafluorooctylmethacrylamide) (pC7F15MAA) in two miscible solvents (AK-225 and acetic acid). A superhydrophobic and porous film was obtained by dropcasting the solution on substrates. With higher ratios of AK-225 to acetic acid, pC7F15MAA was densified around acetic acid droplets, leading to the formation of pC7F15MAA nanoparticles. The condition of the nanoparticle film preparation was investigated by varying the mixing ratio or total concentration. A highly sensitive dissolved oxygen sensor system was successfully prepared utilizing a smart surface of superhydrophobic and porous pC7F15MAA nanoparticle film. The sensitivity showed I0/I40 = 126 in the range of dissolved oxygen concentration of 0 ~ 40 mg L-1. The oxygen sensitivity was compared with that of previous reports.

  1. Influence of haze layers upon remotely-sensed surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurica, G. M.; Murray, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    The possibility that the presence of hazy layers contributes to anomalous effects in airplane remote sensing data on corn blight distribution is studied. Computations of scattering angles along flightlines are used to estimate reflected intensity variations as observed in bright and dark sides along flightline of the aircraft.

  2. A 2.0 and 4.7 Heterodyne Spectrometer for Lower Thermospheric Wind, Temperature, and Atomic Oxygen Density Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J.; Wu, D. L.; Mehdi, I.; Schlecht, E.; Demajistre, R.; Talaat, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the concept of a high-sensitivity heterodyne spectrometer operating at Terahertz (THz) frequency for global lower thermospheric neutral wind, temperature and atomic oxygen density measurements from a low earth orbit. These critical measurements are needed to better understand underlying mechanisms of the upper atmospheric composition/dynamics/temperature variability and the role of neutral dynamics on the ionospheric variability. Currently, no reliable satellite remote sensing technique can provide these measurements globally in the critical 100-150 km altitude region with complete local time coverage and desired spatial resolution, precision and accuracy. The instrument, THz Limb Sounder (TLS), to be developed under NASA's Geospace Instrument Development and Enabling Science Program, is aimed to provide, for the first time, global neutral wind/temperature/density profile measurements during day and night, with focus at altitudes of 100-150 km where most of the ion-neutral energy/momentum couplings take place. The TLS concept extends the limb sounding technique employed by Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) for density/temperature/wind measurements by resolving the Doppler line shape of atomic oxygen fine structure emission at 2.0 and 4.7 THz (145 and 63 microns). These two atomic oxygen line emissions are very bright and distributed nearly uniformly globally (at all latitudes including high latitude particle precipitation regions) and temporally (at all local times during both day and night), thus ideal for thermospheric remote sensing. The TLS instrument concept, measurement methodology, and the expected performance will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Functional properties of opsins and their contribution to light-sensing physiology.

    PubMed

    Terakita, Akihisa; Nagata, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Many animals have developed systems for sensing environmental conditions during evolution. In sensory cells, receptor molecules are responsible for their sensing abilities. In light sensing, most animals capture light information via rhodopsin-like photoreceptive proteins known as opsin-based pigments. A body of evidence from comparisons of amino acid sequences and in vitro experiments demonstrates that opsins have phylogenetically and functionally diversified during evolution and suggests that the phylogenetic diversity in opsins correlates with the variety of molecular properties of opsin-based pigments. In this review, we discuss the various molecular properties of opsin-based pigments and their contribution to light-sensing ability by providing two examples: i) contribution of photoregeneration ability and Chromophore retinal binding property of an Opn3 homolog to non-visual photoreception, and ii) contribution of an absorption characteristic of a visual pigment to depth perception in jumping spiders.

  4. Toward Linking Aboveground Vegetation Properties and Soil Microbial Communities Using Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Yuki; Gilbert, Jack A.; Larsen, Peter E.; Norgaard, Madeline J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite their vital role in terrestrial ecosystem function, the distributions and dynamics of soil microbial communities (SMCs) are poorly understood. Vegetation and soil properties are the primary factors that influence SMCs. This paper discusses the potential effectiveness of remote sensing science and technologies for mapping SMC biogeography by characterizing surface biophysical properties (e.g., plant traits and community composition) strongly correlated with SMCs. Using remotely sensed biophysical properties to predict SMC distributions is extremely challenging because of the intricate interactions between biotic and abiotic factors and between above- and belowground ecosystems. However, the integration of biophysical and soil remote sensing with geospatial information about the e nvironment holds great promise for mapping SMC biogeography. Additional research needs invol ve microbial taxonomic definition, soil environmental complexity, and scaling strategies. The collaborative effort of experts from diverse disciplines is essential to linking terrestrial surface biosphere observations with subsurface microbial community distributions using remote sensing.

  5. An electrochemically driven poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic actuator: oxygen sensing and programmable flows and pH gradients.

    PubMed

    Mitrovski, Svetlana M; Nuzzo, Ralph G

    2005-06-01

    We describe the fabrication and performance of an integrated microelectrochemical reactor-a design possessing utility for multiple applications that include electrochemical sensing, the generation and manipulation of in-channel microfluidic pH gradients, and fluid actuation and flow. The device architecture is based on a three-electrode electrochemical cell design that incorporates a Pt interdigitated array (IDA) working (WE), a Pt counter (CE), and Ag pseudo-reference (RE) electrodes within a microfluidic network in which the WE is fully immersed in a liquid electrolyte confined in the channels. The microchannels are made from a conventional poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) elastomer, which serves also as a thin gas-permeable membrane through which gaseous reactants in the external ambient environment are supplied to the working electrode by diffusion. Due to the high permeability of oxygen through PDMS, the microfluidic cell supports significantly (>order of magnitude) higher current densities in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than those measured in conventional (quiescent) electrochemical cells for the same electrode areas. We demonstrate in this work that, when operated at constant potential under mass transport control, the device can be utilized as a membrane-covered oxygen sensor, the response of which can be tuned by varying the thickness of the PDMS membrane. Depending on the experimental conditions under which the electrochemical ORR is performed, the data establish that the device can be operated as both a programmable pH gradient generator and a microfluidic pump.

  6. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 1 hour at 250 C. Quenching of a factor of 4X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed for films cured directly at 200 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  7. THE OXYGEN PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF NANO CRYSTALLINE CEO2 THIN FILMS

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-09-27

    The measurement of oxygen flux across nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} cerium oxide thin films at intermediate temperature (650 to 800 C) is presented. Porous ceria support substrates were fabricated by sintering with carbon additions. The final dense film was deposited from an optimized sol-gel solution resulting in a mean grain size of 50 nm which displayed oxygen flux values of up to 0.014 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}s over the oxygen partial pressure range from air to helium gas used in the measurement at 800 C. The oxygen flux characteristics confirm mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in nanocrystalline ceria films and demonstrate the role of size dependent materials properties as a design parameter in functional membranes for oxygen separation.

  8. Sensing Properties of Cobalt-Phthalocyanine-Based Multipurpose Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Fazal; Sayyad, M. H.; Khan, Dil Nawaz; Tahir, Muhammad; Aziz, Fakhra; Khan, Rashid; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), an organic semiconductor, has been introduced as an active sensing layer in a surface-type multipurpose sensor owing to its stability, low fabrication cost, and multifunctional sensitivity. The capacitance of the sensor was recorded to increase 26.7-fold for a change in relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 92.3%, 12.6-fold for a change in illumination from 11.5 lx to 23,000 lx, and 5.2-fold for a change in temperature from 27°C to 187°C. The morphology of the active thin film of the sensor was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, revealing a rough surface favorable for moisture absorption and light harvesting. The CoPc film was amorphous in nature according to x-ray diffraction analysis. By virtue of its response to humidity, light, and temperature, this represents an attractive approach for cost-effective environmental sensing applications.

  9. Ethanol sensing properties and dominant sensing mechanism of NiO-decorated SnO2 nanorod sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Wan In; Dwivedi, Ram Prakash; Lee, Chongmu; Ko, Taegyung

    2017-05-01

    NiO-decorated SnO2 nanorods were synthesized by the thermal evaporation of Sn powders followed by the solvothermal deposition of NiO. A multi-networked p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor was fabricated by dropping the p-NiO-decorated n-SnO2 nanorods onto the interdigited electrode pattern and then annealing. The multi-networked p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor exhibited enhanced response to ethanol compared with the pristine SnO2 nanorod and NiO nanoparticle sensors. The former also exhibited a shorter sensing time for ethanol. Both sensors exhibited selectivity for ethanol over other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as HCHO, methanol, benzene and toluene and the decorated sensor exhibited superior selectivity to the other two sensors. In addition, the dominant sensing mechanism is discussed in detail by comparing the sensing properties and current-voltage characteristics of a p-NiO/ n-SnO2 heterostructured nanorod sensor with those of a pristine SnO2 nanorod sensor and a pristine NiO nanoparticle sensor. Of the two competing electronic mechanisms: a potential barrier-controlled carrier transport mechanism at a NiO-SnO2 p- n junction and a surface-depletio n-controlled carrier transport mechanism, the former has some contribution to the enhanced gas sensing performance of the p- n heterostructured nanorod sensor, however, its contribution is not as significant as that of the latter. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. High performance optical sensing nanocomposites for low and ultra-low oxygen concentrations using phase-shift measurements.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge Fernando; de la Torre-Vega, Ángel; Baranoff, Etienne; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-08-21

    The accurate and real-time measurement of low and ultra-low concentrations of oxygen using non-invasive methods is a necessity for a multitude of applications, from brewing beer to developing encapsulating barriers for optoelectronic devices. Current optical methods and sensing materials often lack the necessary sensitivity, signal intensity, or stability for practical applications. In this report we present a new optical sensing nanocomposite resulting in an outstanding overall performance when combined with the phase-shift measurement method (determination of luminescence lifetime in the frequency domain). For the first time we have incorporated the standard PtTFPP dye (PtTFPP = platinum(II) 5,10,15,20-meso-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin) into AP200/19, a nanostructured aluminium oxide-hydroxide solid support. This sensing film shows an excellent sensitivity between 0 and 1% O₂ (KSV = 3102 ± 132 bar⁻¹) and between 0 and 10% O₂ (KSV = 2568 ± 614 bar⁻¹) as well as Δτ0.05% (62.53 ± 3.66%), which makes it 62 times more sensitive than PtTFPP immobilized in polystyrene and also 8 times more sensitive than PtTFPP immobilized on silica beads. Furthermore the phase-shift measurement method results in a significant improvement (about 23 times) in stability compared to the use of intensity recording methods. The film also displays full reversibility, long shelf stability (no change observed after 12 months), and it is not affected by humidity. To establish this sensing methodology and develop sensors over the full range of the visible light, we also studied three other dye-AP200/19 nanocomposites based on phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes.

  11. Memristive properties of hexagonal WO3 nanowires induced by oxygen vacancy migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is always oxygen-deficient or non-stoichiometric under atmospheric conditions. Positively charged oxygen vacancies prefer to drift as well as electrons when the electric field is strong enough, which will alter the distribution of oxygen vacancies and then endow WO3 with memristive properties. In Au/WO3 nanowire/Au sandwich structures with two ohmic contacts, the axial distribution of oxygen vacancies and then the electrical transport properties can be more easily modulated by bias voltage. The threshold electric field for oxygen vacancy drifting in single-crystal hexagonal WO3 nanowire is about 106 V/m, one order of magnitude less than that in its granular film. At elevated temperatures, the oxygen vacancy drifts and then the memristive effect can be enhanced remarkably. When the two metallic contacts are asymmetric, the WO3 nanowire devices even demonstrate good rectifying characteristic at elevated temperatures. Based on the drift of oxygen vacancies, nanoelectronic devices such as memristor, rectifier, and two-terminal resistive random access memory can be fabricated on individual WO3 nanowires. PMID:23347429

  12. Effect of oxygen deficiency on electronic properties and local structure of amorphous tantalum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, Yus Rama; Firmansyah, Teguh; Oh, Suhk Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Yang, Dong-Seok; Heo, Sung; Chung, JaeGwan; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The effect of oxygen flow rate on electronic properties and local structure of tantalum oxide thin films was studied. • The oxygen deficiency induced the nonstoichiometric state a-TaOx. • A small peak at 1.97 eV above the valence band side appeared on nonstoichiometric Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. • The oxygen flow rate can change the local electronic structure of tantalum oxide thin films. - Abstract: The dependence of electronic properties and local structure of tantalum oxide thin film on oxygen deficiency have been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (REELS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The XPS results showed that the oxygen flow rate change results in the appearance of features in the Ta 4f at the binding energies of 23.2 eV, 24.4 eV, 25.8, and 27.3 eV whose peaks are attributed to Ta{sup 1+}, Ta{sup 2+}, Ta{sup 3+}/Ta{sup 4+}, and Ta{sup 5+}, respectively. The presence of nonstoichiometric state from tantalum oxide (TaOx) thin films could be generated by the oxygen vacancies. In addition, XAS spectra manifested both the increase of coordination number of the first Ta-O shell and a considerable reduction of the Ta-O bond distance with the decrease of oxygen deficiency.

  13. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  14. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins.

  15. Pulsation Properties of Carbon and Oxygen Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Huang, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We have used up to 12 decades of AAVSO visual observations, and the AAVSO VSTAR software package to determine new and/or improved periods of 5 pulsating biperiodic carbon (C-type) red giants, and 12 pulsating biperiodic oxygen (M-type) red giants. We have also determined improved periods for 43 additional C-type red giants, in part to search for more biperiodic C-type stars, and also for 46 M-type red giants. For a small sample of the biperiodic C-type and M-type stars, we have used wavelet analysis to determine the time scales of the cycles of amplitude increase and decrease. The C-type and M-type stars do not differ significantly in their period ratios (first overtone to fundamental). There is a marginal difference in the lengths of their amplitude cycles. The most important result of this study is that, because of the semiregularity of these stars, and the presence of alias, harmonic, and spurious periods, the periods which we and others derive for these stars—especially the smaller-amplitude ones—must be determined and interpreted with great care and caution. For instance: spurious periods of a year can produce an apparent excess of stars, at that period, in the period distribution.

  16. Low-cost microarray thin-film electrodes with ionic liquid gel-polymer electrolytes for miniaturised oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junqiao; Silvester, Debbie S

    2016-06-21

    A robust, miniaturised electrochemical gas sensor for oxygen (O2) has been constructed using a commercially available Pt microarray thin-film electrode (MATFE) with a gellified electrolyte containing the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in a 50 : 50 mass ratio. Diffusion coefficients and solubilities for oxygen in mixtures of PMMA/RTIL at different PMMA doping concentrations (0-50% mass) were derived from potential step chronoamperometry (PSCA) on a Pt microdisk electrode. The MATFE was then used with both the neat RTIL and 50% (by mass) PMMA/RTIL gel, to study the analytical behavior over a wide concentration range (0.1 to 100 vol% O2). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA) techniques were employed and it was determined that the gentler CV technique is better at higher O2 concentrations (above 60 vol%), but LTCA is more reliable and accurate at lower concentrations (especially below 0.5% O2). In particular, there was much less potential shifting (from the unstable Pt quasi-reference electrode) evident in the 50% PMMA/RTIL gel than in the neat RTIL, making this a much more suitable electrolyte for long-term continuous oxygen monitoring. The mass production and low-cost of the electrode array, along with the minimal amounts of RTIL/PMMA required, make this a viable sensing device for oxygen detection on a bulk scale in a wide range of environmental conditions.

  17. Enhanced Gas-Sensing Properties of the Hierarchical TiO₂ Hollow Microspheres with Exposed High-Energy {001} Crystal Facets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Liang, Yan; Wang, Guozhong; Liu, Liangliang; Yuan, Cailei; Yu, Ting; Li, Qinliang; Zeng, Fanyan; Gu, Gang

    2015-11-11

    Anatase hierarchical TiO2 with innovative designs (hollow microspheres with exposed high-energy {001} crystal facets, hollow microspheres without {001} crystal facets, and solid microspheres without {001} crystal facets) were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal method and characterized. Based on these materials, gas sensors were fabricated and used for gas-sensing tests. It was found that the sensor based on hierarchical TiO2 hollow microspheres with exposed high-energy {001} crystal facets exhibited enhanced acetone sensing properties compared to the sensors based on the other two materials due to the exposing of high-energy {001} crystal facets and special hierarchical hollow structure. First-principle calculations were performed to illustrate the sensing mechanism, which suggested that the adsorption process of acetone molecule on TiO2 surface was spontaneous, and the adsorption on high-energy {001} crystal facets would be more stable than that on the normally exposed {101} crystal facets. Further characterization indicated that the {001} surface was highly reactive for the adsorption of active oxygen species, which was also responsible for the enhanced sensing performance. The present studies revealed the crystal-facets-dependent gas-sensing properties of TiO2 and provided a new insight into improving the gas sensing performance by designing hierarchical hollow structure with special-crystal-facets exposure.

  18. Thermophysical properties and oxygen transport in (Thx,Pu1‑x)O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C. O. T.; Cooper, M. W. D.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.

    2016-10-01

    Using Molecular Dynamics, this paper investigates the thermophysical properties and oxygen transport of (Thx,Pu1‑x)O2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) between 300–3500 K. In particular, the superionic transition is investigated and viewed via the thermal dependence of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure. Oxygen diffusivity and activation enthalpy are also investigated. Below the superionic temperature an increase of oxygen diffusivity for certain compositions of (Thx,Pu1‑x)O2 compared to the pure end members is predicted. Oxygen defect formation enthalpies are also examined, as they underpin the superionic transition temperature and the increase in oxygen diffusivity. The increase in oxygen diffusivity for (Thx,Pu1‑x)O2 is explained in terms of lower oxygen defect formation enthalpies for (Thx,Pu1‑x)O2 than PuO2 and ThO2, while links are drawn between the superionic transition temperature and oxygen Frenkel disorder.

  19. Thermophysical properties and oxygen transport in (Thx,Pu1−x)O2

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, C. O. T.; Cooper, M. W. D.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    Using Molecular Dynamics, this paper investigates the thermophysical properties and oxygen transport of (Thx,Pu1−x)O2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) between 300–3500 K. In particular, the superionic transition is investigated and viewed via the thermal dependence of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure. Oxygen diffusivity and activation enthalpy are also investigated. Below the superionic temperature an increase of oxygen diffusivity for certain compositions of (Thx,Pu1−x)O2 compared to the pure end members is predicted. Oxygen defect formation enthalpies are also examined, as they underpin the superionic transition temperature and the increase in oxygen diffusivity. The increase in oxygen diffusivity for (Thx,Pu1−x)O2 is explained in terms of lower oxygen defect formation enthalpies for (Thx,Pu1−x)O2 than PuO2 and ThO2, while links are drawn between the superionic transition temperature and oxygen Frenkel disorder. PMID:27796314

  20. Thermophysical properties and oxygen transport in (Thx,Pu1-x)O2

    DOE PAGES

    Galvin, C. O. T.; Cooper, M. W. D.; Rushton, M. J. D.; ...

    2016-10-31

    Using Molecular Dynamics, this paper investigates the thermophysical properties and oxygen transport of (Thx,Pu1–x)O2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) between 300–3500 K. Specifically, the superionic transition is investigated and viewed via the thermal dependence of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure. Oxygen diffusivity and activation enthalpy are also investigated. Below the superionic temperature an increase of oxygen diffusivity for certain compositions of (Thx,Pu1–x)O2 compared to the pure end members is predicted. Oxygen defect formation enthalpies are also examined, as they underpin the superionic transition temperature and the increase in oxygen diffusivity. The increasemore » in oxygen diffusivity for (Thx,Pu1–x)O2 is explained in terms of lower oxygen defect formation enthalpies for (Thx,Pu1–x)O2 than PuO2 and ThO2, while links are drawn between the superionic transition temperature and oxygen Frenkel disorder.« less

  1. Effect of oxygen plasma etching on graphene’s mechanical and electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Pengfei; Pan, Fengming; Chen, Tianhang

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a study of the effect of oxygen plasma etching on the mechanical and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene. By means of scan probe microscopy (SPM), it was found that the defects were initially induced to the top graphene layer by oxygen plasma etching, which plays an incentive role in further etching. Oxygen plasma bombarding on surface of graphene enhanced the surface roughness, as well changed the tribological properties. The results of electronic transport measurements show a decrease in mobility with the increase of etching duration. These findings are valuable for studying the effects of plasma etching on graphene, and modifying the physical properties of graphene through artificially generated defects.

  2. High temperature thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate thin films with oxygen vacancy and niobium doping.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S R Sarath; Barasheed, Abeer Z; Alshareef, H N

    2013-08-14

    We report the evolution of high temperature thermoelectric properties of SrTiO3 thin films doped with Nb and oxygen vacancies. Structure-property relations in this important thermoelectric oxide are elucidated and the variation of transport properties with dopant concentrations is discussed. Oxygen vacancies are incorporated during growth or annealing in Ar/H2 above 800 K. An increase in lattice constant due to the inclusion of Nb and oxygen vacancies is found to result in an increase in carrier density and electrical conductivity with simultaneous decrease in carrier effective mass and Seebeck coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivity at 300 K is found to be 2.22 W m(-1) K(-1), and the estimated figure of merit is 0.29 at 1000 K.

  3. The disulfide relay of the intermembrane space of mitochondria: an oxygen-sensing system?

    PubMed

    Bihlmaier, Karl; Mesecke, Nikola; Kloeppel, Christine; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2008-12-01

    The intermembrane space of mitochondria contains many proteins that lack classical mitochondrial targeting sequences. Instead, these proteins often show characteristic patterns of cysteine residues that are critical for their accumulation in the organelle. Import of these proteins is catalyzed by two essential components, Mia40 and Erv1. Mia40 is a protein in the intermembrane space that directly binds newly imported proteins via disulfide bonds. By reorganization of these bonds, intramolecular disulfide bonds are formed in the imported proteins, which are thereby released from Mia40 into the intermembrane space. Because folded proteins are unable to traverse the import pore of the outer membrane, this leads to a permanent location of these proteins within the mitochondria. During this reaction, Mia40 becomes reduced and needs to be re-oxidized to regain its activity. Oxidation of Mia40 is carried out by Erv1, a conserved flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding sulfhydryl oxidase. Erv1 directly interacts with Mia40 and shuttles electrons from reduced Mia40 to oxidized cytochrome c, from whence they flow through cytochrome oxidase to molecular oxygen. The connection of the disulfide relay with the respiratory chain not only significantly increases the efficiency of the oxidase activity, but also prevents the formation of potentially deleterious hydrogen peroxide. The oxidative activity of Erv1 strongly depends on the oxygen concentration in mitochondria. Erv1, therefore, may function as a molecular switch that adapts mitochondrial activities to the oxygen levels in the cell.

  4. Self-Sensing Properties of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Josep Lluís; Baeza, Francisco Javier; Galao, Oscar; Zornoza, Emilio; Garcés, Pedro

    2013-10-22

    In recent years, several researchers have shown the good performance of alkali activated slag cement and concretes. Besides their good mechanical properties and durability, this type of cement is a good alternative to Portland cements if sustainability is considered. Moreover, multifunctional cement composites have been developed in the last decades for their functional applications (self-sensing, EMI shielding, self-heating, etc.). In this study, the strain and damage sensing possible application of carbon fiber reinforced alkali activated slag pastes has been evaluated. Cement pastes with 0, 0.29 and 0.58 vol % carbon fiber addition were prepared. Both carbon fiber dosages showed sensing properties. For strain sensing, function gage factors of up to 661 were calculated for compressive cycles. Furthermore, all composites with carbon fibers suffered a sudden increase in their resistivity when internal damages began, prior to any external signal of damage. Hence, this material may be suitable as strain or damage sensor.

  5. Properties of Aluminum Deposited by a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fueled Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Decker, T A; Gansert, R V; Gansert, D; Lee, D

    2001-06-12

    Aluminum coatings deposited by a HVOF process have been demonstrated and relevant coating properties evaluated according to two deposition parameters, the spray distance and the oxygen-to-fuel flow ratio. The coating porosity, surface roughness, and microhardness are measured. The coating properties are fairly insensitive to spray distance, the distance between the nozzle and the workpiece, and fuel ratios, the oxygen-to-fuel flow. Increasing the fuel content does appear to improve the process productivity in terms of surface roughness. Minimization of nozzle loading is discussed.

  6. Effect of Oxygen-affinity Additives on the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-H.

    We examined the effect of oxygen-affinity additives on the superconducting properties of magnesium diborides. The additives were elemental Y, Sm, Ca, Li compounds (LiH, LiBH4), polyethylene and polyethylene glycol, which have a higher oxygen-affinity than magnesium. The formation of magnesium oxide during in-situ sintering of magnesium diboride was inhibited by the addition of such materials. The critical current density was not improved by the additives of Y, Sm, Ca and lithium compounds in spite of reduced oxide phases. Only the addition of polyethylene and polyethylene glycol resulted in the enhanced superconducting property.

  7. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin film as pH-sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuang-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Yang, Po-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Li, Yu-Ren; Liao, Chan-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2015-04-01

    The high-performance pH-sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect transistors (EGFET) composed of high-conductivity horizontally aligned carbon nanotube thin films (HACNTFs) after oxygen plasma treatment is successfully demonstrated. The 10-µm-wide catalytic metal lines with 60 µm interspace produced CNT vertical plates, and the plates were mechanically pulled down and densified to form HACNTFs. A large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups are decorated on the CNTs after the oxygen plasma treatment. These functional groups act as the sensing sites and respond to the H+ or OH- ions in solutions with different pH values. Therefore, these functionalized HACNTFs as pH-EGFET-sensing membranes can achieve a high voltage sensitivity of 40 mV/pH and high current sensitivity of 0.78 µA1/2/pH. Moreover, large linearity of 0.998 is measured in a wide sensing range from pH 1 to 13. These results reveal that the oxygen plasma treatment is an effective way to improve the CNT-sensing characteristics in pH-EGFET sensors.

  8. Properties of cooperatively induced phases in sensing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart A.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    A large number of eukaryotic cells are able to directly detect external chemical gradients with great accuracy and the ultimate limit to their sensitivity has been a topic of debate for many years. Previous work has been done to understand many aspects of this process but little attention has been paid to the possibility of emergent sensing states. Here we examine how cooperation between sensors existing in a two-dimensional network, as they do on the cell's surface, can both enhance and fundamentally alter the response of the cell to a spatially varying signal. We show that weakly interacting sensors linearly amplify the cell's response to an external gradient while a network of strongly interacting sensors form a collective nonlinear response with two separate domains of active and inactive sensors forming what have called a "1/2-state." In our analysis we examine the cell's ability to sense the direction of a signal and pay special attention to the substantially different behavior realized in the strongly interacting regime.

  9. Developing Remote Sensing Capabilities for Meter-Scale Sea Ice Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Developing Remote Sensing Capabilities for Meter -Scale...Sensing Capabilities for Meter -Scale Sea Ice Properties 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with multiple polarization and capture modes. This study used HH-polarized, 50 meter resolution scenes from the

  10. Hydrazine sensing properties of microwave synthesized graphene/ZnO composites

    SciTech Connect

    Sreejesh, M. Nagaraja, H. S.; Udaya Bhat, K.

    2016-05-06

    This paper reports the synthesis of graphene/ ZnO nanocomposite using microwave method and its application in sensing of hydrazine. The morphological characteristics of the samples are studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formation of the composite is further confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) shows the presence of carbon indicating the presence of graphene. The hydrazine sensing property of the electrode is studied using cyclic voltammometry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) studeis.

  11. Hydrazine sensing properties of microwave synthesized graphene/ZnO composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejesh, M.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Udaya Bhat, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of graphene/ ZnO nanocomposite using microwave method and its application in sensing of hydrazine. The morphological characteristics of the samples are studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formation of the composite is further confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) shows the presence of carbon indicating the presence of graphene. The hydrazine sensing property of the electrode is studied using cyclic voltammometry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) studeis.

  12. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  13. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. High temperature measurements of the emission of clusters in sol gel films show that the luminescence intensity from the films follow a 1/T relationship from room temperature to 150 C, and then declines at a slower rate at higher temperatures. The large number of photons available at 230 C is consistent with simple low cost optics for fiber optic probes based on the emission from clusters in sol gel films.

  14. The polycystins are modulated by cellular oxygen-sensing pathways and regulate mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Padovano, Valeria; Kuo, Ivana Y.; Stavola, Lindsey K.; Aerni, Hans R.; Flaherty, Benjamin J.; Chapin, Hannah C.; Ma, Ming; Somlo, Stefan; Boletta, Alessandra; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Rinehart, Jesse; Caplan, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2 (PC2), which form an ion channel complex that may mediate ciliary sensory processes and regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release. Loss of PC1 expression profoundly alters cellular energy metabolism. The mechanisms that control the trafficking of PC1 and PC2, as well as their broader physiological roles, are poorly understood. We found that O2 levels regulate the subcellular localization and channel activity of the polycystin complex through its interaction with the O2-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain containing protein EGLN3 (or PHD3), which hydroxylates PC1. Moreover, cells lacking PC1 expression use less O2 and show less mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in response to bradykinin-induced ER Ca2+ release, indicating that PC1 can modulate mitochondrial function. These data suggest a novel role for the polycystins in sensing and responding to cellular O2 levels. PMID:27881662

  15. Thermophysical properties and oxygen transport in the (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Murphy, S. T.; Rushton, M. J. D.; Grimes, R. W.

    2015-06-01

    Using molecular dynamics, the thermophysical properties of the (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 system have been investigated between 300 and 3200 K. The variation with temperature of lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure, are explained in terms of defect formation and diffusivity on the oxygen sublattice. Vegard's Law is approximately observed for the thermal expansion of the solid solutions below 2000 K. Deviation from Vegard's Law above this temperature occurs due to the different superionic transition temperatures of the solid solutions (2200-2900 K). Similarly, a spike in the specific heat, associated with the superionic transition, occurs at lower temperatures in solid solutions that have a high Pu content. While oxygen diffusivity is higher in pure PuO2 than in pure UO2, lower oxygen defect enthalpies in (Ux,Pu1-x)O2 solid solutions cause higher oxygen mobility than would be expected by interpolation between the diffusivities of the end members. In comparison to UO2 and PuO2 there is considerable variety of oxygen vacancy and oxygen interstitial sites in solid solutions generating a wide range of property values. Trends in the defect enthalpies are discussed in terms of composition and the lattice parameter of (Ux,Pu1-x)O2. Comparison is made with previous work on (Ux,Th1-x)O2.

  16. Improved gas sensing and dielectric properties of Fe doped hydroxyapatite thick films: Effect of molar concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P.; Mohite, K.C.; Khairnar, Rajendra S.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We report improved gas sensing and dielectric characteristics of Fe ion exchanged HAp films. • Fe doped HAp film shows maximum gas response at relatively lower temperature. • Response and gas uptake capacity of sensors is improved for appropriate amount of Fe ions in HAp matrix. • Fe-HAp films exhibit remarkable improvement in dielectric properties compared to pure HAp. • Fe doped HAp films show significant improvement in gas sensing as well as in dielectric properties. - Abstract: In the present work Fe doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) thick films has been successfully utilized to improve the gas sensing as well as its dielectric properties. Initially, HAp nano powder is synthesized by chemical precipitation process and later on Fe ions are doped in HAp by ion exchange process. Structural and morphological modifications are observed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The sensing parameters such as operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity are experimentally determined. The Fe-HAp (0.05 M) film shows improved CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing capacity at lower operating temperature compared to pure HAp. Moreover, variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure and Fe-HAp thick films are studied as a function of frequency in the range of 10 Hz–1 MHz. The study reveals that Fe doped HAp thick films improve the sensing and dielectric characteristics as compared to pure HAp.

  17. Primary endosymbiosis and the evolution of light and oxygen sensing in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the photosynthetic organelle in eukaryotes, the plastid, changed forever the evolutionary trajectory of life on our planet. Plastids are highly specialized compartments derived from a putative single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis that occurred in the common ancestor of the supergroup Archaeplastida that comprises the Viridiplantae (green algae and plants), red algae, and glaucophyte algae. These lineages include critical primary producers of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, progenitors of which provided plastids through secondary endosymbiosis to other algae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates that are critical to marine ecosystems. Despite its broad importance and the success of algal and plant lineages, the phagotrophic origin of the plastid imposed an interesting challenge on the predatory eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. By engulfing an oxygenic photosynthetic cell, the host lineage imposed an oxidative stress upon itself in the presence of light. Adaptations to meet this challenge were thus likely to have occurred early on during the transition from a predatory phagotroph to an obligate phototroph (or mixotroph). Modern algae have recently been shown to employ linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) to respond to oxidative stress under high light. Here we explore the early events in plastid evolution and the possible ancient roles of bilins in responding to light and oxygen. PMID:25729749

  18. Haemoglobin polymorphisms affect the oxygen-binding properties in Atlantic cod populations.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Oivind; Wetten, Ola Frang; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Andre, Carl; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Colafranceschi, Mauro; Brix, Ole; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2009-03-07

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to identify the genes underlying adaptation. The oxygen-transporting haemoglobins directly link external conditions with metabolic needs and therefore represent a unique system for studying environmental effects on molecular evolution. We have discovered two haemoglobin polymorphisms in Atlantic cod populations inhabiting varying temperature and oxygen regimes in the North Atlantic. Three-dimensional modelling of the tetrameric haemoglobin structure demonstrated that the two amino acid replacements Met55beta1Val and Lys62beta1Ala are located at crucial positions of the alpha1beta1 subunit interface and haem pocket, respectively. The replacements are proposed to affect the oxygen-binding properties by modifying the haemoglobin quaternary structure and electrostatic feature. Intriguingly, the same molecular mechanism for facilitating oxygen binding is found in avian species adapted to high altitudes, illustrating convergent evolution in water- and air-breathing vertebrates to reduction in environmental oxygen availability. Cod populations inhabiting the cold Arctic waters and the low-oxygen Baltic Sea seem well adapted to these conditions by possessing the high oxygen affinity Val55-Ala62 haplotype, while the temperature-insensitive Met55-Lys62 haplotype predominates in the southern populations. The distinct distributions of the functionally different haemoglobin variants indicate that the present biogeography of this ecologically and economically important species might be seriously affected by global warming.

  19. Haemoglobin polymorphisms affect the oxygen-binding properties in Atlantic cod populations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Øivind; Wetten, Ola Frang; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Andre, Carl; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Colafranceschi, Mauro; Brix, Ole; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to identify the genes underlying adaptation. The oxygen-transporting haemoglobins directly link external conditions with metabolic needs and therefore represent a unique system for studying environmental effects on molecular evolution. We have discovered two haemoglobin polymorphisms in Atlantic cod populations inhabiting varying temperature and oxygen regimes in the North Atlantic. Three-dimensional modelling of the tetrameric haemoglobin structure demonstrated that the two amino acid replacements Met55β1Val and Lys62β1Ala are located at crucial positions of the α1β1 subunit interface and haem pocket, respectively. The replacements are proposed to affect the oxygen-binding properties by modifying the haemoglobin quaternary structure and electrostatic feature. Intriguingly, the same molecular mechanism for facilitating oxygen binding is found in avian species adapted to high altitudes, illustrating convergent evolution in water- and air-breathing vertebrates to reduction in environmental oxygen availability. Cod populations inhabiting the cold Arctic waters and the low-oxygen Baltic Sea seem well adapted to these conditions by possessing the high oxygen affinity Val55–Ala62 haplotype, while the temperature-insensitive Met55–Lys62 haplotype predominates in the southern populations. The distinct distributions of the functionally different haemoglobin variants indicate that the present biogeography of this ecologically and economically important species might be seriously affected by global warming. PMID:19033139

  20. n-Propyl gallate activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 by modulating intracellular oxygen-sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Motohide; Takabuchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Murata, Miyahiko; Nishi, Kenichiro; Oda, Seiko; Oda, Tomoyuki; Kanai, Michiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Adachi, Takehiko; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Semenza, Gregg L; Hirota, Kiichi

    2008-04-01

    HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia. The expression and transcriptional activity of the HIF-1alpha subunit is stringently controlled by intracellular oxygen tension through the action of prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases. In the present study we demonstrate that PG (n-propyl gallate) activates HIF-1 and expression of its downstream target genes under normoxic conditions in cultured cells and in mice. The stability and transcriptional activity of HIF-1alpha are increased by PG. PG treatment inhibits the interaction between HIF-1alpha and VHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) and promotes the interaction between HIF-1alpha and p300, indicating that PG inhibits the activity of both prolyl and asparaginyl HIF-1alpha hydroxylases. We conclude that PG activates HIF-1 and enhances the resultant gene expression by directly affecting the intracellular oxygen sensing system in vitro and in vivo and that PG represents a lead compound for the development of a non-toxic activator of HIF-1.

  1. Carbon nanotubes-ionic liquid nanocomposites sensing platform for NADH oxidation and oxygen, glucose detection in blood.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Wen, Dan; Yin, Jianyuan; Deng, Liu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-03-15

    An excellent electrochemical sensing platform has been designed by combining the huge specific surface area of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the remarkable conductivity of ionic liquid (IL). IL can easily untangle CNTs bundles and disperse CNTs by itself under grinding condition due to the π-π interaction between CNTs and IL. The resulting nanocomposites showed an augmentation on the voltammetric and amperometric behaviors of electrocatalytic activity toward O(2) and NADH. Therefore, such an efficient platform was developed to fabricate mediator-free oxygen sensor and glucose biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase (GDH). O(2) could be determined in the range of zero to one hundred percent of O(2) content with the detection limit of 126 μg L(-1) (S/N=3). The glucose biosensor which was constructed by entrapping GDH into chitosan on the nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode surface, exhibited good electrocatalytic oxidation toward glucose with a detection limit of 9 μM in the linear range of 0.02-1mM. We also applied the as-prepared sensors to detect oxygen and glucose in real blood samples and acquired satisfied results.

  2. PHD1 links cell-cycle progression to oxygen sensing through hydroxylation of the centrosomal protein Cep192.

    PubMed

    Moser, Sandra C; Bensaddek, Dalila; Ortmann, Brian; Maure, Jean-Francois; Mudie, Sharon; Blow, J Julian; Lamond, Angus I; Swedlow, Jason R; Rocha, Sonia

    2013-08-26

    PHD1 belongs to the family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHDs) that is responsible for posttranslational modification of prolines on specific target proteins. Because PHD activity is sensitive to oxygen levels and certain byproducts of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, PHDs act as sensors of the cell's metabolic state. Here, we identify PHD1 as a critical molecular link between oxygen sensing and cell-cycle control. We show that PHD1 function is required for centrosome duplication and maturation through modification of the critical centrosome component Cep192. Importantly, PHD1 is also required for primary cilia formation. Cep192 is hydroxylated by PHD1 on proline residue 1717. This hydroxylation is required for binding of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(Skp2), which ubiquitinates Cep192, targeting it for proteasomal degradation. By modulating Cep192 levels, PHD1 thereby affects the processes of centriole duplication and centrosome maturation and contributes to the regulation of cell-cycle progression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin from the white rhinoceros (beta 2-GLU) and the tapir.

    PubMed

    Baumann, R; Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The beta-chain of rhinoceros hemoglobin contains glutamic acid at position beta 2, and important site for the binding of organic phosphates. We have investigated the oxygen binding properties of this hemoglobin and its interaction with ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, CO2 and chloride. The results show that the presence of GLU at position beta 2 nearly abolishes the effect of organic phosphates and CO2, whereas the oxygen-linked binding of chloride is not affected. Thus rhinoceros hemoglobin has only protons and chloride anions as major allosteric effectors for the control of its oxygen affinity. From the results obtained with hemoglobin solutions it can be calculated that the blood oxygen affinity of the rhinoceros must be rather high with a P50 of about 20 torr at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C, which conforms with observations obtained for other large mammals.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  5. Sensing properties of assembled Bi2S3 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakova, G.; Meija, R.; Bite, I.; Prikulis, J.; Kosmaca, J.; Varghese, J.; Holmes, J. D.; Erts, Donats

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanowires were grown in porous aluminium oxide template and a selective chemical etching was applied to transfer the nanowires to a solution. Well aligned nanowire arrays were assembled on pre-patterned silicon substrates employing dielectrophoresis. Electron beam lithography was used to connect aligned individual nanowires to the common macroelectrode. In order to evaluate the conductometric sensing performance of the Bi2S3 nanowires, current-voltage characteristics were measured at different relative humidity (RH) levels (5-80%) / argon medium. The response of the Bi2S3 nanowires depending of RH is found to be considerably different from those reported for other types of nanowire RH sensor devices.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  7. Singlet oxygen-induced photodegradation of the polymers and dyes in optical sensing materials and the effect of stabilizers on these processes.

    PubMed

    Enko, Barbara; Borisov, Sergey M; Regensburger, Johannes; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Gescheidt, Georg; Klimant, Ingo

    2013-09-12

    A comprehensive study of photodegradation processes in optical sensing materials caused by photosensitized singlet oxygen in different polymers is presented. The stabilities of the polymers are accessed in the oxygen consumption measurements performed with help of optical oxygen sensors. Polystyrene and poly(phenylsilesquioxane) are found to be the most stable among the polymers investigated, whereas poly(2,6-dimethyl-p-phenylene oxide) and particularly poly(methyl methacrylate) and their derivatives show the fastest oxygen consumption. The effect of the stabilizers (singlet oxygen quenchers) on the oxygen consumption rates, the photostability of the sensitizer, and the total photon emission (TPE) by singlet oxygen is studied. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) was found to significantly reduce both the TPE and the oxygen consumption rates, indicating its role as a physical quencher of singlet oxygen. The addition of DABCO also significantly improved the photostability of the sensitizer. The N-alkylated derivative of DABCO and DABCO covalently grafted to the polystyrene backbone are prepared in an attempt to overcome the volatility and water solubility of the quencher. These derivatives as well as other tertiary amines investigated were found to be inefficient as stabilizing agents, and some of them even negatively affected the oxygen consumption rates.

  8. Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Arkady; Schaefer, Arseny; Chikova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi7Fe1 casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals’ microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al10SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al2O3 precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work. PMID:28773143

  9. Study of Al-Si Alloy Oxygen Saturation on Its Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arkady; Schaefer, Arseny; Chikova, Оlga; Borodianskiy, Konstantin

    2017-07-11

    One of the main goals of modern materials research is obtaining different microstructures and studying their influence on the mechanical properties of metals; aluminum alloys are particularly of interest due to their advanced performance. Traditionally, their required properties are obtained by alloying process, modification, or physical influence during solidification. The present work describes a saturation of the overheated AlSi₇Fe₁ casting alloy by oxides using oxygen blowing approach in overheated alloy. Changes in metals' microstructural and mechanical properties are also described in the work. An Al10SiFe intermetallic complex compound was obtained as a preferable component to Al₂O₃ precipitation on it, and its morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the alloy after the oxygen blowing treatment are discussed in this work.

  10. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Kazuaki; Yamasaki, Keishi; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is an ideal material for use in the development of an oxygen carrier in view of its innate biological properties. However, the vascular retention of free Hb is too short to permit a full therapeutic effect because Hb is rapidly cleared from the kidney via glomerular filtration or from the liver via the haptogloblin-CD 163 pathway when free Hb is administered in the blood circulation. Attempts have been made to develop alternate acellular and cellular types of Hb based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), in which Hb is processed via various routes in order to regulate its pharmacokinetic properties. These HBOCs have been demonstrated to have superior pharmacokinetic properties including a longer half-life than the Hb molecule in preclinical and clinical trials. The present review summarizes and compares the pharmacokinetic properties of acellular and cellular type HBOCs that have been developed through different approaches, such as polymerization, PEGylation, cross-linking, and encapsulation. PMID:28335469

  11. Comparative study on gas sensing properties of rare earth (Tb, Dy and Er) doped ZnO sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastir, Anita; Kohli, Nipin; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide and rare earth (Tb, Dy and Er) doped zinc oxide has been synthesized chemically by facile and cost effective co-precipitation method. Effect of dopant on structural, optical and morphological properties of ZnO has been studied by using various characterization techniques. Synthesized powder samples were deposited as thick films on alumina substrate and their gas sensing characteristics have been investigated for various gases at different operable temperatures. Doped ZnO samples have exhibited significant enhancement in sensor response to ethanol and reduction in optimum operable temperature as well. The study also revealed temperature dependent selectivity behavior of Tb and Er doped ZnO sensors towards ethanol and acetone. Significant increase in the gas sensor response of doped samples has been corroborated to their high surface basicity, increased surface area, morphological changes and oxygen vacancies present.

  12. Phosphorescence lifetime based oxygen micro-sensing using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Chao, Shih-Hui; Holl, Mark R; McQuaide, Sarah C; Ren, Timothy T H; Gales, Steven A; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2007-08-20

    A digital light modulation microscope (DLMM) that utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) on an epifluorescence microscope has been developed to modulate excitation light in spatial and temporal domains for phosphorescence lifetime detection. Local O2 concentration can be inferred through the detected lifetime around an O2-quenching phosphorescent porphyrin microsensor. Combined with microsensor arrays, the DLMM can sequentially address light to each microsensor element to construct a discrete lifetime image or O2 distribution. In contrast to conventional phosphorescence lifetime imaging, the new method eliminates the need for a pulsed light source and a time-gated camera. To demonstrate O2 sensing with lab-on-a-chip devices, an array of 150-mum-diameter micro-wells coated with phosphorescent porphyrin were observed. The locations of the sensor elements were automatically identified though image analysis. The goal of this platform is to measure the O2 consumption of individual cells trapped in the microwells.

  13. Blood oxygen binding properties for the burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia.

    PubMed

    Maginniss, L A; Kilgore, D L

    1989-05-01

    Isocapnic O2 equilibrium curves (O2ECs) were generated for whole blood of 4 adult burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) using thin film techniques. At in vivo pHa (7.49 +/- 0.02; mean +/- 1 SEM) and 41 degrees C, the PO2 at half saturation (P50) was 42.3 +/- 0.8 Torr. CO2 and fixed acid (H+) Bohr slopes (delta log P50/delta pH) were -0.46 +/- 0.01 and -0.42 +/- 0.02, respectively, demonstrating a small specific CO2 effect. CO2 and H+ Bohr slopes were saturation-independent between 0.1 and 0.9 S. Hill plots for Athene blood were non-linear; the Hill coefficient (n) increased from 2.6 below 0.4 S to 3.4 above 0.6 S. Owl equilibrium data were accurately described by the equation: S = [(7.7 x 10(6]/(P4 + 44P3 - 108P2 + 3.5 x 10(4)P) + 1]-1. This complex O2EC shape may result from Hb heterogeneity; isoelectric focusing showed 4 isoHbs with a molar ratio of 9:1:1:1. This study revealed no apparent adaptations of Athene blood for hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We conclude that the observed blood O2 binding properties promote tissue O2 delivery during periods of surface activity. While occupying its burrow, the owl compensates for moderate alterations in inspired gas composition partly through increased ventilation.

  14. Mechanical properties of chiral and achiral silicon carbide nanotubes under oxygen chemisorption.

    PubMed

    Ansari, R; Mirnezhad, M; Hosseinzadeh, M

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties of fully oxygenated silicon carbide nanotubes (O2-SiCNTs) are explored using a molecular mechanics model joined with the density functional theory (DFT). The closed-form analytical expressions suggested in this study can easily be adapted for nanotubes with different chiralities. The force constants of molecular mechanics model proposed herein are derived through DFT within a generalized gradient approximation. Moreover, the mechanical properties of fully oxygenated silicon carbide (O2-SiC) sheet are evaluated for the case that the oxygen atoms are adsorbed on one side of the SiC sheet. According to the results obtained for the bending stiffness of O2-SiC sheet, one can conclude that the O2-SiC sheet has isotropic characteristics.

  15. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Alkali salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were synthesized and heated to 280 C for one hour in air. Optical measurements of the thermally treated material confirm the potential of the salts as lumophores in high temperature fiber optic sensors. In addition sol-gel films containing Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were dip coated on quartz substrates and heated at 200 C for one hour. Conditions were developed for successfully immobilizing monomeric complexes that are compatible with sol-gel processing.

  16. Accurate modeling of the diagnostic 118-GHz oxygen line for remote sensing of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshelev, M. A.; Delahaye, T.; Serov, E. A.; Vilkov, I. N.; Boulet, C.; Tretyakov, M. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of laboratory investigations of the shape of the diagnostic atmospheric N = 1- oxygen line performed over a very wide range of pressures from 0.4 to 1000 Torr using two principally different spectrometers having complementary abilities. A spectrometer with a radio-acoustic detector of absorption was used for recording low pressure spectra spanning the 0.4-2 Torr range, and high pressure data from 250 to 1000 Torr were registered by a resonator spectrometer. The sensitivity of both instruments was improved significantly which allowed us to obtain signal-to-noise ratio at spectra recordings of the order of a few thousands. The spectra analysis enabled the first manifestation of the speed-dependence of the collision cross section of the line, along with considerable refinement of other parameters, including pressure broadening, intensity and line-mixing. The results are of primary importance for atmospheric applications.

  17. A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Zaigham; Canut, Matthieu; Tournaire-Roux, Colette; Martinière, Alexandre; Boursiac, Yann; Loudet, Olivier; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-09-22

    Aerobic organisms survive low oxygen (O2) through activation of diverse molecular, metabolic, and physiological responses. In most plants, root water permeability (in other words, hydraulic conductivity, Lpr) is downregulated under O2 deficiency. Here, we used a quantitative genetics approach in Arabidopsis to clone Hydraulic Conductivity of Root 1 (HCR1), a Raf-like MAPKKK that negatively controls Lpr. HCR1 accumulates and is functional under combined O2 limitation and potassium (K(+)) sufficiency. HCR1 regulates Lpr and hypoxia responsive genes, through the control of RAP2.12, a key transcriptional regulator of the core anaerobic response. A substantial variation of HCR1 in regulating Lpr is observed at the Arabidopsis species level. Thus, by combinatorially integrating two soil signals, K(+) and O2 availability, HCR1 modulates the resilience of plants to multiple flooding scenarios.

  18. Using Yttra-Stabilized Zirconium Oxide Ceramics to Sense pH and Oxygen in Hydrothermal and Geothermal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, M. F.; Grandstaff, D. E.; Ulmer, G. C.

    2002-05-01

    Zirconium-Oxide ceramics stabilized with ~8-wt% Yttrium-Oxide can be employed to sense pH in high temperature (>90oC) aqueous environments with an accuracy of 0.05 pH log units (Lvov et al., in press), and to sense the fugacity of oxygen (fO2) in low temperature (>230oC) gaseous environments with an accuracy of 0.2 (fO2) log units. The major components, in two commercially available yttria-stabilized ceramics are yttria ( ~8-wt%) and zirconia ( ~91-wt%) with minor amounts of Ti, Fe and U. The textural differences in the two ceramics produces significantly different emf vs. 10,000/T responses. Response error can be introduced by: the ionic contribution of the softening glass, the catalytic action of the Pt sensor components, and the presence of Ti and Fe in the ceramic, which has been shown to alter the oxygen diffusivity of the ceramic. (Merino et al., 1996) The first type of ceramic contains a 3-dimensionally-continuous Ca-Al-Si feldspathic glass that acts as a sintering aid during manufacturing. The glass, which has a higher ionic conductivity than the zirconia ceramic, reduces the bulk resistivity and induces an error over the temperature ranges representing the softening point of the glass. The glass also reduces durability of the ceramic. When the glass hydrates it produces zeolites, which grow primarily in the triple-grain-junctions of the ceramic. Thus mechanically weakening the ceramic generating electronic, ionic and mechanical stability problems. The second type of ceramic contains no grain boundary glass, but does contain discrete silicate phases (such as diopside, wollastonite, periclase, silica, etc.) in the triple-grain-junctions. Because there is no inter-granular glass, the type two ceramic does have a greater bulk resistivity compared with the type one ceramic. In a gas-sensing configuration, resistivity has been shown to affect the minimum temperature of sensor operation. A sensor with a higher bulk resistivity must reach a higher minimum

  19. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we immobilized the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}M{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, in a sol-gel matrix and showed that the luminescence is stable after 54 hours at 200 C, but the quenching ratios were low and the films delaminated after thermal cycling due to densification of the matrix. Three new approaches to solve decreased quenching over time and delamination of films off fiber tips were investigated. In the first approach K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were incorporated into a TEOS based sol-gel. These gave enhanced quenching (6x), but delaminated. Our second approach was to use a commercial cyanoacrylate glue to immobilize the particles onto the tip of an optical fiber. This gave better adhesion and good quenching initially, but eventually the glue degraded upon heating. Our third approach was to use a 55% OtMOS/ TEOS sol-gel binder. Films based on this new sol-gel binder show high quenching ({approx}6x) and superior mechanical stability even after thermal cycling. Sensor measurements on an optical fiber containing K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were obtained from 100 to 25 C. The signal intensity in nitrogen was stable at 2.8 {+-} 0.2 nW, and the quenching ratio (ratio of signal in N{sub 2} vs. 21 % O{sub 2}) varied from 4.4 to 6.9X. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  20. Spectral properties of Martian and other planetary glasses and their detection in remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Kevin M.; Mustard, John F.; Parman, Stephen W.; Sklute, Elizabeth C.; Dyar, M. Darby; Cooper, Reid F.

    2017-01-01

    Thirty silicate glasses were synthesized as realistic analogs to those expected to exist on Mars, the Moon, and Mercury. Samples were measured using visible/near-infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the effects of varying bulk chemistry, oxygen fugacity, and temperature on spectral properties. For Martian glasses, the fO2 during fusion strongly affects absorption band intensities in the spectra, while bulk chemistry has noticeable secondary effects on absorption band positions. Titanium and iron content drive spectral changes in lunar glasses, where Fe3+ is effectively absent. Iron-free Mercury analog glasses have much higher albedos than all other samples, and their spectral shape is a close match to some pyroclastic deposits on Mercury. Synthetic glass spectra were used as inputs into a spectral unmixing model applied to remote orbital datasets to test for the presence of glass. The model is validated against physical laboratory mixture spectra, as well as previous detections of glass-rich pyroclastic deposits on the Moon. Remote data were then used from suspected impact deposits and possible pyroclastic deposits on Mars as a new application of the model: the results reveal spatially coherent glass-rich material, and the strong spectral match of the synthetic glasses to these remotely sensed data gives new insights into the presence and character of glasses on the Martian surface. The large library of glass spectra generated here, acquired from consistently synthesized and measured samples, can serve as a resource for further studies of volcanic and impact processes on planetary bodies.

  1. Bioinspired ion-transport properties of solid-state single nanochannels and their applications in sensing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Wen, Liping; Hou, Xu; Hou, Guanglei; Jiang, Lei

    2012-07-16

    Biological ion channels are able to control ion-transport processes precisely because of their intriguing properties, such as selectivity, rectification, and gating. Learning from nature, scientists have developed a promising system--solid-state single nanochannels--to mimic biological ion-transport properties. These nanochannels have many impressive properties, such as excess surface charge, making them selective; the ability to be produced or modified asymmetrically, endowing them with rectification; and chemical reactivity of the inner surface, imparting them with desired gating properties. Based on these unique characteristics, solid-state single nanochannels have been explored in various applications, such as sensing. In this context, we summarize recent developments of bioinspired solid-state single nanochannels with ion-transport properties that resemble their biological counterparts, including selectivity, rectification, and gating; their applications in sensing are also introduced briefly. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Gelation, oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-...

  3. Air separation and oxygen storage properties of hexagonal rare-earth manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abughayada, Castro

    This dissertation presents evaluation results of hexagonal Y1-x RxMnO3+delta (R = Er, Y, Dy, Pr, La, Tb and Ho) rare-earth manganites for prospective air separation applications. In these materials, oxygen content is sensitively dependent on the surrounding conditions of temperature and/or oxygen partial pressure, and therefore they exhibit the ability to selectively absorb, store, and release significant amounts of separated oxygen from air. This study presents a full characterization of their thermogravimetric characteristics and air separation capabilities. With the expected potential impact of oxygen content on the physical properties of these materials, the scope of this work is expanded to explore other relevant properties such as magnetic, transport, and dilatometric characteristics. Single-phase polycrystalline samples of these materials were achieved in the hexagonal P63cm phase through solid state reaction at elevated temperatures. Further annealings under reducing conditions were required for samples with large rare-earth cations in order to suppress the competing perovskite structure and form in the anticipated hexagonal phase. Thermogravimetric measurements in oxygen atmospheres demonstrated that samples with the larger R ionic radii show rapid and reversible incorporation of significant amounts of excess oxygen (0.41 > delta > 0) at an unusual low temperature range ~190-325 °C. The reversible oxygen storage characteristics of HoMnO3+delta and related materials shown by the fast incorporation and release of interstitial oxygen at easily accessible elevated temperatures of ~300 °C demonstrate the feasibility and potential for low-cost thermal swing adsorption TSA process for oxygen separation and enrichment from air. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements confirmed the presence of three line compounds RMnO3+delta, the oxygen stoichiometric P6 3cm (delta = 0 for all R), the intermediate oxygen content superstructure phase R3c (delta ~ 0

  4. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  5. Solid-state electrochemical properties of oxygen-ion conducting ceramic materials and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Young

    One of the primary objectives of this work was to develop a highly conductive and stable bilayer electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation, and for reduction of carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide in lower-temperature ceramic oxygen generators (COGS). Bilayer electrolytes were formed by depositing a thin and thick layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on samaria-doped ceria (SDC) substrates, via pulsed laser deposition and dip-coating techniques. Measurements of the conductivity of SDC coated with ESB exhibited slightly higher total conductance than SDC. The electro-motive force (EMF) measurements also showed a significant increase in open-circuit potential (OCP) and transference number (ti) with the bilayer structure, as compared to the cells with a single SDC electrolyte layer. Further, improvement in the OCP and ti of bilayer SOFCs was observed with increasing relative thickness of the ESB layers. The COGS with a novel bilayer ESB/SDC design were characterized to produce pure oxygen from CO2 at 400--700°C for potential use in NASA's manned Mars exploration mission. Major factors that influence oxygen generation include oxygen-ion conductivity of the solid-oxide electrolyte, applied electric potential, operating temperatures, and CO/CO2 ratios. Higher temperatures resulted in higher oxygen generation rates due to the reduced resistance of the electrolytes. However, oxygen production per watt power (power efficiency) decreased with increasing COG operating temperature. Hence, the bilayer ESB/SDC electrolytes showed promise for SOFCs and COGS at operation below 700°C, significantly reducing the power requirement, expanding ancillary material selection, and decreasing fabrication cost. The other objective of this study was to develop simple, cheap, and highly sensitive and selective electrochemical solid-state sensors for CO. Miniature yttria-stabilized zirconia potentiometric sensors, with various n-type, p

  6. Tunability and Sensing Properties of Plasmonic/1D Photonic Crystal

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashour M.; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Hamdy, Hany

    2017-01-01

    Gold/one-dimensional photonic crystal (Au/1D-PC) is fabricated and applied for sensitive sensing of glucose and different chemical molecules of various refractive indices. The Au layer thickness is optimized to produce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the right edge of the photonic band gap (PBG). As the Au deposition time increased to 60 sec, the PBG width is increased from 46 to 86 nm in correlation with the behavior of the SPR. The selectivity of the optimized Au/1D-PC sensor is tested upon the increase of the environmental refractive index of the detected molecules. The resonance wavelength and the PBG edges increased linearly and the transmitted intensity increased nonlinearly as the environment refractive index increased. The SPR splits to two modes during the detection of chloroform molecules based on the localized capacitive coupling of Au particles. Also, this structure shows high sensitivity at different glucose concentrations. The PBG and SPR are shifted to longer wavelengths, and PBG width is decreased linearly with a rate of 16.04 Å/(μg/mm3) as the glucose concentration increased. The proposed structure merits; operation at room temperature, compact size, and easy fabrication; suggest that the proposed structure can be efficiently used for the biomedical and chemical application. PMID:28176799

  7. Tunability and Sensing Properties of Plasmonic/1D Photonic Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashour M.; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Hamdy, Hany

    2017-02-01

    Gold/one-dimensional photonic crystal (Au/1D-PC) is fabricated and applied for sensitive sensing of glucose and different chemical molecules of various refractive indices. The Au layer thickness is optimized to produce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the right edge of the photonic band gap (PBG). As the Au deposition time increased to 60 sec, the PBG width is increased from 46 to 86 nm in correlation with the behavior of the SPR. The selectivity of the optimized Au/1D-PC sensor is tested upon the increase of the environmental refractive index of the detected molecules. The resonance wavelength and the PBG edges increased linearly and the transmitted intensity increased nonlinearly as the environment refractive index increased. The SPR splits to two modes during the detection of chloroform molecules based on the localized capacitive coupling of Au particles. Also, this structure shows high sensitivity at different glucose concentrations. The PBG and SPR are shifted to longer wavelengths, and PBG width is decreased linearly with a rate of 16.04 Å/(μg/mm3) as the glucose concentration increased. The proposed structure merits; operation at room temperature, compact size, and easy fabrication; suggest that the proposed structure can be efficiently used for the biomedical and chemical application.

  8. Ocean color remote sensing using polarization properties of reflected sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, R.; Pouliquen, E.; Breon, F.-M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.

  9. Tunability and Sensing Properties of Plasmonic/1D Photonic Crystal.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashour M; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Hamdy, Hany

    2017-02-08

    Gold/one-dimensional photonic crystal (Au/1D-PC) is fabricated and applied for sensitive sensing of glucose and different chemical molecules of various refractive indices. The Au layer thickness is optimized to produce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the right edge of the photonic band gap (PBG). As the Au deposition time increased to 60 sec, the PBG width is increased from 46 to 86 nm in correlation with the behavior of the SPR. The selectivity of the optimized Au/1D-PC sensor is tested upon the increase of the environmental refractive index of the detected molecules. The resonance wavelength and the PBG edges increased linearly and the transmitted intensity increased nonlinearly as the environment refractive index increased. The SPR splits to two modes during the detection of chloroform molecules based on the localized capacitive coupling of Au particles. Also, this structure shows high sensitivity at different glucose concentrations. The PBG and SPR are shifted to longer wavelengths, and PBG width is decreased linearly with a rate of 16.04 Å/(μg/mm(3)) as the glucose concentration increased. The proposed structure merits; operation at room temperature, compact size, and easy fabrication; suggest that the proposed structure can be efficiently used for the biomedical and chemical application.

  10. The enhanced formaldehyde-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film OTFT sensor and further insight into its stability.

    PubMed

    Tai, Huiling; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yadong; Xie, Guangzhong; Du, Xiaosong

    2015-01-19

    A thin-film transistor (TFT) having an organic-inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles' hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times) and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology.

  11. The Enhanced Formaldehyde-Sensing Properties of P3HT-ZnO Hybrid Thin Film OTFT Sensor and Further Insight into Its Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Huiling; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yadong; Xie, Guangzhong; Du, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    A thin-film transistor (TFT) having an organic–inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles' hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times) and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology. PMID:25608214

  12. Remote sensing of optical properties in continuously stratified waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation is solved by Monte Carlo methods for natural waters in which the optical properties are distributed with depth. It is demonstrated that interpreting the reflectance of a continuously stratified ocean in terms of an equivalent homogeneous ocean yields the average of a particular combination of the water's optical properties over the dimensionless penetration depth. Although in general the dimensionless penetration depth cannot be remotely measured, a method is presented for estimating the actual penetration depth from the remote observations if the medium's absorption coefficient is known, independent of depth, and sufficiently large. The application of this to the remote measurement of the vertical distribution of suspended sediments is discussed in detail.

  13. Rational design of polymeric core shell ratiometric oxygen-sensing nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Jacobs, Jaco; Burke, Christopher S; Martin, Aaron; Heise, Andreas; Keyes, Tia E

    2017-09-08

    A new approach for the fabrication of luminescent ratiometric sensing nanosensors is described using core-shell nanoparticles in which the probe and reference are spatially separated into the shell and core of the nanostructure respectively. The isolation of the reference in the core of the particle ensures a stable emission reference signal unaffected by the external environment. The core shell structure was prepared by engineering structurally well-defined Ru-conjugated block copolymers which acted as emulsifiers in the miniemulsion polymerisation of BODIPY loaded styrene nanoparticles. The resulting particles are highly stable and show excellent size monodispersity. The nanosensors exhibit dual emission under a single excitation wavelength with a reversible and quantitative ratiometric response to the O2 content in aqueous media. In the presence of a low concentration of CTAB, the particles cross the cell membrane and the particles show negligible cytotoxicity. Such an approach to sensor nanoparticles should be of value across a range of applications where a stable ratiometric signal in diverse environments is required.

  14. Gas sensing properties of MWCNT layers electrochemically decorated with Au and Pd nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Alvisi, Marco; Rossi, Riccardo; Cassano, Gennaro; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-based chemiresistors were electrochemically decorated with Au and Pd nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in an improvement in the detection of gaseous pollutants as compared to sensors based on pristine MWCNTs. Electrophoresis was used to decorate MWCNTs with preformed Au or Pd NPs, thus preserving their nanometer-sized dimensions and allowing the metal content to be tuned by simply varying the deposition time. The sensing response of unmodified and metal-decorated MWCNTs was evaluated towards different gaseous pollutants (e.g., NO2, H2S, NH3 and C4H10) at a wide range of concentrations in the operating temperature range of 45–200 °C. The gas sensing results were related to the presence, type and loading of metal NPs used in the MWCNT functionalization. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, metal-decorated MWCNTs revealed a higher gas sensitivity, a faster response, a better stability, reversibility and repeatability, and a low detection limit, where all of these sensing properties were controlled by the type and loading of the deposited metal catalytic NPs. Specifically, in the NO2 gas sensing experiments, MWCNTs decorated with the lowest Au content revealed the highest sensitivity at 150 °C, while MWCNTs with the highest Pd loading showed the highest sensitivity when operated at 100 °C. Finally, considering the reported gas sensing results, sensing mechanisms have been proposed, correlating the chemical composition and gas sensing responses. PMID:28382249

  15. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  16. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties of ZnO-decorated MWCNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yong Jung; Mirzaei, Ali; Kang, Sung Yong; Choi, Myung Sik; Bang, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sang Sub; Kim, Hyoun Woo

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ZnO-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposites prepared using an in-situ method involving the thermal evaporation of Zn powders in the presence of MWCNTs. The gas sensing characteristics of the MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposites are studied, and results for the material characterizations for the synthesized nanocomposites confirm the formation of well-distributed ZnO nanoparticles onto MWCNTs, creating MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposites. The gas sensing properties of the MWCNT/ZnO nanocomposite gas sensor, such as response, cross-sensitivity, and response-recovery time, are investigated and compared with a bare MWCNT sensor. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles greatly improves the gas sensing properties of bare MWCNTs. We discussed the possible mechanisms for the enhancement of sensing capabilities. The results suggest that decoration of n-type semiconducting oxide materials, such as ZnO in the form of nanoparticles, is a promising strategy for improvement of gas sensing properties of p-MWCNTs.

  18. Oxygen sensing glucose biosensors based on alginate nano-micro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Rashmi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Srivastava, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Clinically glucose monitoring in diabetes management is done by point-measurement. However, an accurate, continuous glucose monitoring, and minimally invasive method is desirable. The research aims at developing fluorescence-mediated glucose detecting biosensors based on near-infrared radiation (NIR) oxygen sensitive dyes. Biosensors based on Glucose oxidase (GOx)-Rudpp loaded alginate microspheres (GRAM) and GOx-Platinum-octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-PLAalginate microsphere system (GPAM) were developed using air-driven atomization and characterized using optical microscopy, CLSM, fluorescence spectro-photometry etc. Biosensing studies were performed by exposing standard solutions of glucose. Uniform sized GRAM and GPAM with size 50+/-10μm were formed using atomization. CLSM imaging of biosensors suggests that Rudpp and PtOEP nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in alginate microspheres. The GRAM and GPAM showed a good regression constant of 0.974 and of 0.9648 over a range of 0-10 mM of glucose with a high sensitivity of 3.349%/mM (625 nm) and 2.38%/mM (645 nm) at 10 mM of glucose for GRAM and GPAM biosensor. GRAM and GPAM biosensors show great potential in development of an accurate and minimally invasive glucose biosensor. NIR dye based assays can aid sensitive, minimally-invasive and interference-free detection of glucose in diabetic patients.

  19. Defective Tibetan PHD2 binding to p23 links high altitude adaption to altered oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Song, Daisheng; Li, Lin-sheng; Arsenault, Patrick R; Tan, Qiulin; Bigham, Abigail W; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J; Master, Stephen R; Lee, Frank S

    2014-05-23

    The Tibetan population has adapted to the chronic hypoxia of high altitude. Tibetans bear a genetic signature in the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2/EGLN1) gene, which encodes for the central oxygen sensor of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Recent studies have focused attention on two nonsynonymous coding region substitutions, D4E and C127S, both of which are markedly enriched in the Tibetan population. These amino acids reside in a region of PHD2 that harbors a zinc finger, which we have previously discovered binds to a Pro-Xaa-Leu-Glu (PXLE) motif in the HSP90 cochaperone p23, thereby recruiting PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to facilitate HIF-α hydroxylation. We herein report that the Tibetan PHD2 haplotype (D4E/C127S) strikingly diminishes the interaction of PHD2 with p23, resulting in impaired PHD2 down-regulation of the HIF pathway. The defective binding to p23 depends on both the D4E and C127S substitutions. We also identify a PXLE motif in HSP90 itself that can mediate binding to PHD2 but find that this interaction is maintained with the D4E/C127S PHD2 haplotype. We propose that the Tibetan PHD2 variant is a loss of function (hypomorphic) allele, leading to augmented HIF activation to facilitate adaptation to high altitude. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. The luminescence of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix was measured as a function of heater temperature up to 200 C, in an inert environment. While the luminescence decreased with temperature, the integrated intensity at 200 C should be sufficient to enable detection of the luminescence in a fiber geometry. Previously we found that aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} at temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that the alkali metal salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have higher thermal stabilities and remain luminescent after aging at 280 C.

  1. Electric transport and oxygen permeation properties of lanthanum cobaltite membranes synthesized by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X.; Lin, Y.S.; Swartz, S.L.

    2000-03-01

    Dense perovskite-structured membranes with desired composition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (LSCF) were prepared from powders produced by four different methods. LSCF powders prepared by citrate, solid-state, and spray-pyrolysis methods had compositions close to the desired stoichiometry with a slight difference in cobalt concentration, whereas coprecipitated powders had a large strontium deficiency. The membrane composition was a determining factor that affected the electronic conductivity and therefore oxygen permeability. The membrane with a large strontium deficiency had much lower electronic conductivity and oxygen permeability (ionic conductivity) than the other three membranes with compositions close to the desired stoichiometry. The electronic conductivity of membranes prepared from citrate, solid-state, and spray-pyrolysis methods increases with the cobalt concentration of the membrane. For the three membranes with similar composition, the activation energy of oxygen flux decreases with increasing grain size. Oxygen pressure dependency of oxygen vacancy concentration is also influenced by the membrane microstructure and composition. LSCF membranes with same composition and similar microstructure should have similar electric and oxygen transport properties.

  2. Influence of oxygen vacancies on the dielectric properties of hafnia: First-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockayne, Eric

    2007-03-01

    First-principles calculations were used to study the effects of neutral and 2+ charged oxygen vacancies on the dielectric properties of crystalline HfO2 . In agreement with previous results, the neutral vacancy is more stable on four fold-coordinated site, while the charged vacancy is more stable on a three fold-coordinated site. For both vacancy positions, HfO2 remains insulating whether the vacancy is neutral or in the 2+ charge state. The dynamical matrix, Born effective charges, and electronic dielectric tensor were calculated for each structure. With one oxygen vacancy per 64 oxygen atoms, the static dielectric constant κs is increased by 1%-2% for neutral vacancies and suppressed by 1%-3% for 2+ charged vacancies, with the larger changes for three fold-coordinated vacancies. The exact result in the case of a charged vacancy depends on how the neutralizing charge necessary for macroscopic charge neutrality is modeled. The increase in κs for neutral oxygen vacancies arises from an enhancement of the electronic dielectric response due to a pair of electrons occupying an easily polarizable F -center defect state. The suppression in κs for charged oxygen vacancies is due to phonon hardening, which reduces the ionic response. No evidence is found for characteristic localized phonons induced by oxygen vacancies that could be detected by infrared or Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  4. Remote Sensing of Spectral Aerosol Properties: A Classroom Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2006-01-01

    Bridging the gap between current research and the classroom is a major challenge to today s instructor, especially in the sciences where progress happens quickly. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland teamed up in designing a graduate class project intended to provide a hands-on introduction to the physical basis for the retrieval of aerosol properties from state-of-the-art MODIS observations. Students learned to recognize spectral signatures of atmospheric aerosols and to perform spectral inversions. They became acquainted with the operational MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm over oceans, and methods for its evaluation, including comparisons with groundbased AERONET sun-photometer data.

  5. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Surface Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) are all hyper-spectral satellite sensors with thousands of spectral channels. Top of atmospheric radiance spectra measured by these sensors contain high information content on atmospheric, cloud, and surface properties. Exploring high information content contained in these high spectral resolution spectra is a challenging task due to computation e ort involved in modeling thousands of spectral channels. Usually, only very small fractions (4{10 percent) of the available channels are included in physical retrieval systems or numerical weather forecast (NWP) satellite data assimilations. We will describe a method of simultaneously retrieving atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface properties using all available spectral channels without sacrificing computational speed. The essence of the method is to convert channel radiance spectra into super-channels by an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) transformation. Because the EOFs are orthogonal to each other, about 100 super-channels are adequate to capture the information content of the radiance spectra. A Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is used to calculate both the super-channel magnitudes and derivatives with respect to atmospheric profiles and other properties. There is no need to perform EOF transformations to convert super channels back to spectral space at each iteration step for a one-dimensional variational retrieval or a NWP data assimilation system. The PCRTM forward model is also capable of calculating radiative contributions due to multiple-layer clouds. The multiple scattering effects of the clouds are efficiently parameterized. A physical retrieval algorithm then performs an inversion of atmospheric, cloud, and surface properties in super channel domain directly therefore both reducing the

  6. Peculiar surface-interface properties of nanocrystalline ceria-cobalt oxides with enhanced oxygen storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-11-07

    Peculiar surface-interface properties of nanocrystalline ceria-cobalt oxides were evidenced by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. It was found that cobalt foreign cations modify the surface oxygen vacancies of ceria at the atomic level, inducing the exposure of well-defined reactive faces between the ceria-host and the cobalt oxide interface. These modifications of the surface-interface structure promoted a remarkable increase in the oxygen storage capacity of ceria nanocrystals.

  7. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO, although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we closely examined the role of prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation in modifying metabolic parameters during the unique conditions of ventricular unloading provided by ECMO. Twelve male mixed breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30-49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (Group C) or pyruvate (Group P) during ECMO for 8 hours. Over the final hour piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, and [13C6]-L-leucine, as an indicator for oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of all measured CAC intermediates. Group P showed greater anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation although pyruvate oxidation relative to citrate synthase flux was similar to Group C. The groups demonstrated similar leucine fractional contributions to acetyl-CoA and fractional protein synthesis rates. Pyruvate also promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient sensitive enzymes, such as AMPK and ACC, and promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). In conclusion, prolonged pyruvate supplementation during ECMO modified anaplerotic pyruvate flux and elicited changes in important nutrient and energy sensitive pathways, while preserving protein synthesis. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of nutritional supplementation and its downstream effects on cardiac adaptation during ventricular unloading.

  8. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation activates pyruvate oxidation in an immature swine model in vivo. Twelve male mixed-breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30–49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (group C) or pyruvate (group P) during the final 6 h of 8 h of ECMO. Over the final hour, piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, as a reference substrate for oxidation, and [13C6]-l-leucine, as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of the citric acid cycle intermediates. An increase in anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation in group P occurred compared with no change in pyruvate oxidation. Additionally, pyruvate promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient-sensitive enzymes, like AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation for fatty acid oxidation. Pyruvate also promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In conclusion, although prolonged pyruvate supplementation did not alter pyruvate oxidation, it did elicit changes in nutrient- and energy-sensitive pathways. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of pyruvate and its downstream effect on cardiac function. PMID:25910802

  9. Real-time monitoring of luminescent lifetime changes of PtOEP oxygen sensing film with LED/photodiode-based time-domain lifetime device.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaomin; Wu, Wanhua; Wu, Yubo; Zhao, Taiyang; Zhou, Fuke; Yang, Yubin; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Xiaofen; Wu, Wenting; Chi, Lina; Wang, Zhonggang; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2009-05-01

    A cost-effective LED/photodiode(PD)-based time-domain luminescent lifetime measuring device with rugged electronics and simplified algorithms was assembled and successfully used to characterize oxygen sensing films, by continuously monitoring phosphorescence lifetime changes of phosphorescent platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in cardo poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer (IMPEK-C) vs. variation of the oxygen partial pressure in a gas mixture (O(2)/N(2)). The results determined by both phosphorescence lifetime and intensity monitoring were compared and the lifetime mode gave results which are in good agreement with the intensity mode. The lifetime-based linear Stern-Volmer plot indicates that the PtOEP molecules are nearly homogeneously distributed in the sensing film. The phosphorescent lifetime of the PtOEP film changes from 75 micros in neat N(2) to less than 2 micros in neat O(2). The sensing system (by combination of the PtOEP sensing film with the home-assembled lifetime device) gives a high lifetime-based O(2) sensing resolution, e.g. about 2 micros Torr(-1) for low O(2) concentration (below 3.5% O(2), V/V). This feasible lifetime device configuration is affordable to most sensor laboratories and the device may facilitate the study of O(2) sensing material with the continuous lifetime monitoring method.

  10. Preparation and gas sensing property of Ag-supported vanadium oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Yan, Shilin; Chen, Wen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Chunxia; Dai, Ying

    2014-03-01

    A facile microwave irradiation was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticle supported on vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONTs) in this paper. The VONTs on alumina tube installed with Pt electrodes were tested for gas sensing towards C2H5OH, NH3 and C6H5CH3 gases. Detailed studies showed that the sensing capabilities were greatly enhanced in comparison to those of pure nanotubes. It was found that the Ag nanoparticles supported on VONTs sensing films exhibited a high C2H5OH selectivity compared with NH3 and C6H5CH3 gases. When the sensor is exposed to C2H5OH, the ethanol molecules interact with the preadsorbed oxygen ions on the Ag nanoparticles surface. The ethanol oxidation on the Ag nanoparticles leads to the transfer of electrons into the semiconducting VONTs and this is reflected as the change in conductance of sensor. The presence of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of VONTs serves to enhance the C2H5OH oxidation due to a higher oxygen ion-chemisorption on the conductive Ag nanoparticle surfaces.

  11. A zeolitic Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework with sensing and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyang; Wen, Tian; Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian

    2015-11-01

    A zeolitic Cd(II)-boron-imidazolate-framework (BIF-51) with ABW topology has been successfully synthesized by using pre-synthesized B(im)4- ligands (im=imidazole) and [Cd(CH3COO)]- building units. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were loaded in BIF-51 by the pore confinement effect of BIFs. Sensing property of nitrobenzene on BIF-51 and catalytic property of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) on Ag@BIF-51 were also investigated.

  12. Satellite Calibration and Verification of Remotely Sensed Cloud and Radiation Properties Using ARM UAV Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Charlock, Thomas P.

    1998-01-01

    The work proposed under this agreement was designed to validate and improve remote sensing of cloud and radiation properties in the atmosphere for climate studies with special emphasis on the use of satellites for monitoring these parameters to further the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  13. Historical development of grain moisture measurement and other food quality sensing through electrical properties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review of the use of electrical properties of agricultural products for sensing moisture content and other qualities shows that their use for rapid measurements of the moisture content in grain and seed has been the most successful application. Discovery of useful correlations between the moistur...

  14. Estimating crop biophysical properties from remote sensing data by inverting linked radiative transfer and ecophysiological models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing technology can rapidly provide spatial information on crop growth status, which ideally could be used to invert radiative transfer models or ecophysiological models for estimating a variety of crop biophysical properties. However, the outcome of the model inversion procedure will be ...

  15. Significance of KATP channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and CYP450-4A enzymes in oxygen sensing in mouse cremaster muscle arterioles In vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), NO, prostaglandins, 20-HETE and L-type Ca2+ channels have all been suggested to be involved in oxygen sensing in skeletal muscle arterioles, but the role of the individual mechanisms remain controversial. We aimed to establish the importance of these mechanisms for oxygen sensing in arterioles in an in vivo model of metabolically active skeletal muscle. For this purpose we utilized the exteriorized cremaster muscle of anesthetized mice, in which the cremaster muscle was exposed to controlled perturbation of tissue PO2. Results Change from “high” oxygen tension (PO2 = 153.4 ± 3.4 mmHg) to “low” oxygen tension (PO2 = 13.8 ± 1.3 mmHg) dilated cremaster muscle arterioles from 11.0 ± 0.4 μm to 32.9 ± 0.9 μm (n = 28, P < 0.05). Glibenclamide (KATP channel blocker) caused maximal vasoconstriction, and abolished the dilation to low oxygen, whereas the KATP channel opener cromakalim caused maximal dilation and prevented the constriction to high oxygen. When adding cromakalim on top of glibenclamide or vice versa, the reactivity to oxygen was gradually restored. Inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels using 3 μM nifedipine did not fully block basal tone in the arterioles, but rendered them unresponsive to changes in PO2. Inhibition of the CYP450-4A enzyme using DDMS blocked vasoconstriction to an increase in PO2, but had no effect on dilation to low PO2. Conclusions We conclude that: 1) L-type Ca2+ channels are central to oxygen sensing, 2) KATP channels are permissive for the arteriolar response to oxygen, but are not directly involved in the oxygen sensing mechanism and 3) CYP450-4A mediated 20-HETE production is involved in vasoconstriction to high PO2. PMID:23663730

  16. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    PubMed Central

    Steven, Eden; Park, Jin Gyu; Paravastu, Anant; Lopes, Elsa Branco; Brooks, James S; Englander, Ongi; Siegrist, Theo; Kaner, Papatya; Alamo, Rufina G

    2011-01-01

    This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline) and amorphous (helical) structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size), on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates) and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain). The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating) motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof-of-concept applications of

  17. Utilizing nonlinear optical properties of nanoparticles for imaging and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yust, Brian G.; Razavi, Neema; Pedraza, Francisco; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear optical properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles are investigated as a function of size and shape. BaTiO3 is an attractive option as a nonlinear material because it can exhibit a high second and third order electronic susceptibility even at the nanoscale. These particles are employed as contrast agents/biomarkers and phase conjugate nanomirrors in imaging, utilizing second harmonic generation for two-photon microscopy and four-wave mixing for three-photon microscopy and scattering reversal image enhancement. Silver is also used to create a shell around the BaTiO3 nanoparticle to see if a core/shell structure enhances any of the nonlinear effects.

  18. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Hollow Spheres Decorated with CeO2 Nanoparticles Heterostructure Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangyang; Dai, Mingjun; Wang, Tianshuang; Sun, Peng; Liang, Xishuang; Lu, Geyu; Shimanoe, Kengo; Yamazoe, Noboru

    2016-03-01

    CeO2 decorated SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal strategy. The morphology and structures of as-obtained CeO2/SnO2 composites were analyzed by various kinds of techniques. The SnO2 hollow spheres with uniform size around 300 nm were self-assembled with SnO2 nanoparticles and were hollow with a diameter of about 100 nm. The CeO2 nanoparticles on the surface of SnO2 hollow spheres could be clearly observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ce(3+) and the increased amount of both chemisorbed oxygen and oxygen vacancy after the CeO2 decorated. Compared with pure SnO2 hollow spheres, such composites revealed excellent enhanced sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration was 100 ppm, the sensitivity of the CeO2/SnO2 composites was 37, which was 2.65-times higher than that of the primary SnO2 hollow spheres. The sensing mechanism of the enhanced gas sensing properties was also discussed.

  19. Reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios and oxygen sensing in calf and rabbit carotid body chemoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanz-Alfayate, G; Obeso, A; Agapito, M T; González, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the redox hypotheses of O2 chemoreception in the carotid body (CB). They postulate that hypoxia alters the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), causing modifications to the sulfhydryl groups/disulfide bonds of K+ channel proteins, which leads to the activation of chemoreceptor cells. We found that the GSH/GSSG ratio in normoxic calf CB (30.14 ± 4.67; n = 12) and hypoxic organs (33.03 ± 6.88; n = 10), and the absolute levels of total glutathione (0.71 ± 0.07 nmol (mg tissue)−1, normoxia vs. 0.76 ± 0.07 nmol (mg tissue)−1, hypoxia) were not statistically different. N-Acetylcysteine (2 mm; NAC), a precursor of glutathione and ROS scavenger, increased normoxic glutathione levels to 1.03 ± 0.06 nmol (mg tissue)−1 (P < 0.02) and GSH/GSSG ratios to 59.05 ± 5.05 (P < 0.001). NAC (20 μm–10 mm) did not activate or inhibit chemoreceptor cells as it did not alter the normoxic or the hypoxic release of 3H-catecholamines (3H-CAs) from rabbit and calf CBs whose CA deposits had been labelled by prior incubation with the natural CA precursor 3H-tyrosine. NAC (2 mm) was equally ineffective in altering the release of 3H-CAs induced by stimuli (high external K+ and ionomycin) that bypass the initial steps of the hypoxic cascade of activation of chemoreceptor cells, thereby excluding the possibility that the lack of effect of NAC on normoxic and hypoxic release of 3H-CAs results from a concomitant alteration of Ca2+ channels or of the exocytotic machinery. The present findings do not support the contention that O2 chemoreception in the CB is linked to variations in the GSH/GSSG quotient as the redox models propose. PMID:11711574

  20. A revisit to O2 sensing and transduction in the carotid body chemoreceptors in the context of reactive oxygen species biology.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C; Agapito, M T; Rocher, A; Gomez-Niño, A; Rigual, R; Castañeda, J; Conde, S V; Obeso, A

    2010-12-31

    Oxygen-sensing and transduction in purposeful responses in cells and organisms is of great physiological and medical interest. All animals, including humans, encounter in their lifespan many situations in which oxygen availability might be insufficient, whether acutely or chronically, physiologically or pathologically. Therefore to trace at the molecular level the sequence of events or steps connecting the oxygen deficit with the cell responses is of interest in itself as an achievement of science. In addition, it is also of great medical interest as such knowledge might facilitate the therapeutical approach to patients and to design strategies to minimize hypoxic damage. In our article we define the concepts of sensors and transducers, the steps of the hypoxic transduction cascade in the carotid body chemoreceptor cells and also discuss current models of oxygen- sensing (bioenergetic, biosynthetic and conformational) with their supportive and unsupportive data from updated literature. We envision oxygen-sensing in carotid body chemoreceptor cells as a process initiated at the level of plasma membrane and performed by a hemoprotein, which might be NOX4 or a hemoprotein not yet chemically identified. Upon oxygen-desaturation, the sensor would experience conformational changes allosterically transmitted to oxygen regulated K+ channels, the initial effectors in the transduction cascade. A decrease in their opening probability would produce cell depolarization, activation of voltage dependent calcium channels and release of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters would activate the nerve endings of the carotid body sensory nerve to convey the information of the hypoxic situation to the central nervous system that would command ventilation to fight hypoxia.

  1. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2003-01-01

    In this report, initial results pertaining to the synthesis molybdenum clusters and characterization using absorption, optical microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction are discussed. The synthesis was performed according to literature [1], but results from x-ray powder diffraction indicate that the synthesis did not give the desired compound. The absorption and optical microscopy indicate that the compound synthesized has properties similar to the desired Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} clusters [2,3], so it is unclear as of yet what happened. The sample cell for performing high temperature spectroscopy on thin films of the molybdenum clusters at elevated temperature in a controlled gas environment was designed and an initial prototype was built.

  2. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  3. Annealing effect on physical properties of evaporated molybdenum oxide thin films for ethanol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touihri, S.; Arfaoui, A.; Tarchouna, Y.; Labidi, A.; Amlouk, M.; Bernede, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with some physical investigations on molybdenum oxide thin films growing on glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method. These films have been subjected to an annealing process under vacuum, air and oxygen at various temperatures 673, 723 and 773 K. First, the physical properties of these layers were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical measurements. These techniques have been used to investigate the oxygen index in MoOx properties during the heat treatment. Second, from the reflectance and transmittance optical measurements, it was found that the direct band gap energy value increased from 3.16 to 3.90 eV. Finally, the heat treatments reveal that the oxygen index varies in such molybdenum oxides showing noticeably sensitivity toward ethanol gas.

  4. Investigation on the Electrical and Methane Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films Produced by Different Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimoori, F.; Khojier, K.; Dehnavi, N. Z.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the influence of deposition method on the structural, electrical, and methane gas-sensing properties of ZnO thin films is investigated. Sol-gel spin coating, direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, and e-beam evaporation techniques are employed for production of Zn thin films post-annealed at 500°C with a constant flow of oxygen. Detailed morphological, chemical, and structural investigations are carried out on all samples by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. DC electrical resistivity of the samples was measured using a four-point probe instrument while a Hall effect instrument was used for the Hall effect measurements. The sensing performance was optimized with respect to the deposition method as well as the operating temperature. Detection limit, reproducibility, and stability of all samples produced using different methods are also identified. An optimum operating temperature of 350°C is obtained. The best sensitivity was attributed to the deposited film by the e-beam evaporation method due to its different surface morphology, which provided a larger ratio of surface-to-bulk area, and a lower carrier concentration, which caused higher electrical resistance. All ZnO thin films deposited by different methods also showed good reproducibility and stability.

  5. Sputtering temperature dependent growth kinetics and CO2 sensing properties of ZnO deposited over porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, L.; Holguín-Momaca, J. T.; Karthik, T. V. K.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Agarwal, V.

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth kinetics and sensing properties of ZnO deposited over macro-porous silicon substrates at 400 and 600 °C using magnetron-sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphology and the particle size of the ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The grain growth kinetics was analyzed with the help of the phenomenological equation rn =k0 texp(- Q / RT) finding an activation energy Q = 13.92 kJ/mol. The grain growth exponent (n = 2.85) for the growth at 400 °C corresponds to an Ostwald ripening process, while the growth at 600 °C is described by n = 1.66 implying a higher growth rate attributed to a high surface diffusion of add-atoms contributing to the formation of larger grains. The sensing response of the complete structure has been tested at different temperatures. The highest sensitivity, S ∼10, was obtained at a sensor temperature of 300 °C on the ZnO NPs sputtered on to the porous silicon substrate at 400 °C. The high response is attributed to the infiltration, uniform and homogenous distribution of the ZnO NPs into the pores. ZnO NPs sputtered at 400 °C are found to be smaller than those grown at 600 °C, exhibiting a larger surface-area/volume ratio and hence increasing the oxygen adsorption resulting in an enhanced CO2 sensitivity.

  6. Enhanced sensing properties of ZnO-SnO2 based composite type gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Biplob; Das, Jayoti; Roychaudhuri, Chirosree; Mukharjee, Nillohit; Saha, Hiranmay

    2016-01-01

    Pure zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods and zinc-tin oxide (ZnO-SnO2) composites based gas sensors were fabricated and tested for favorable gas sensing functionality. Systematic and comparative study on sensing properties like response magnitude, selectivity, response and recovery times, etc. of both the sensors were done for three test gases viz., hydrogen, methane and carbon mono-oxide. The obtained results clearly demonstrate enhanced sensing characteristics of the sensor made up of ZnO-SnO2 composites over that of pure ZnO nanorods based one. Fabricated sensors gave highest response and selectivity towards hydrogen at a relatively low temperature of 150 °C. The improved sensing properties of the sensor based on ZnO-SnO2 composites were attributed to the combined effect of the formation of depleted layer at the surface of individual ZnO/SnO2 microstructure as well as the formation of hetero-junction between ZnO and SnO2 grains. Sensing mechanism involved in the composite type ZnO-SnO2 based sensor has also been discussed.

  7. Effect of oxygen flow on the structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siyu; Ma, Ping; Pu, Yunti; Qiao, Zhao; Zhang, Mingxiao; Lu, Zhongwen; Peng, Dongxu

    2016-10-01

    Gd2O3 thin films were deposited by Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) under the oxygen flow of 0 sccm~30 sccm. The structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films were investigated by Lambdar950 spectrophotometer, laser calorimetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When oxygen flow was less than 10 sccm, with the increase of oxygen flow, the transmittance of the films increased, at the same time absorptance and the surface roughness of the films decreased. While the flow was more than 10 sccm, with the increase of the flow rate, the surface roughness of the films increased, but the transmittance and absorptance did not show any apparent change. The results show that both the structure and optical properties are closely related to the flow of oxygen. XPS measurements demonstrated that when the oxygen flow increase from 0 sccm to 10 sccm, the defect oxygen decreases. But when the oxygen flow increase from 10 sccm to 30 sccm, the defect oxygen increase. The XPS spectra show that when the oxygen flow was 10 sccm, the defect oxygen was the least. Thus when the oxygen flow was 10 sccm, the structure and optical properties of the Gd2O3 optical films were the best.

  8. Synthesis and oxygen content dependent properties of hexagonal DyMnO[subscript 3+delta

    SciTech Connect

    Remsen, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Chmaissem, O.; Mais, J.; Szewczyk, A.

    2011-10-28

    Oxygen deficient polycrystalline samples of hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm (space group No.185) DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} ({delta} < 0) were synthesized in Ar by intentional decomposition of its perovskite phase obtained in air. The relative stability of these phases is in accord with our previous studies of the temperature and oxygen vacancy dependent tolerance factor. Thermogravimetric measurements have shown that hexagonal samples of DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} (0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.4) exhibit unusually large excess oxygen content, which readily incorporates on heating near 300 C in various partial-pressures of oxygen atmospheres. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction data show the presence of two new structural phases at {delta} {approx} 0.25 (Hex{sub 2}) and {delta} {approx} 0.40 (Hex{sub 3}). Rietveld refinements of the Hex{sub 2} phase strongly suggest it is well modeled by the R3 space group (No.146). These phases were observed to transform back to P6{sub 3}cm above {approx} 350 C when material becomes stoichiometric in oxygen content ({delta} = 0). Chemical expansion of the crystal lattice corresponding to these large changes of oxygen was found to be 3.48 x 10{sup -2} mol{sup -1}. Thermal expansion of stoichiometric phases were determined to be 11.6 x 10{sup -6} and 2.1 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} for the P6{sub 3}cm and Hex{sub 2} phases, respectively. Our measurements also indicate that the oxygen non-stoichiometry of hexagonal RMnO{sub 3+{delta}} materials may have important influence on their multiferroic properties.

  9. The oxygen-binding properties of hemocyanin from the mollusk Concholepas concholepas.

    PubMed

    González, Andrea; Nova, Esteban; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo; Ferreira, Jorge; Becker, María Inés

    2017-08-24

    Hemocyanins have highly conserved copper-containing active sites that bind oxygen. However, structural differences among the hemocyanins of various mollusks may affect their physicochemical properties. Here, we studied the oxygen-binding cooperativity and affinity of Concholepas concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) and its two isolated subunits over a wide range of temperatures and pH values. Considering the differences in the quaternary structures of CCH and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), we hypothesized that the heterodidecameric CCH has different oxygen-binding parameters than the homodidecameric KLH. A novel modification of the polarographic method was applied in which rat liver submitochondrial particles containing cytochrome c oxidase were introduced to totally deplete oxygen of the test solution using ascorbate as the electron donor. This method was both sensitive and reproducible. The results showed that CCH, like other hemocyanins, exhibits cooperativity, showing an inverse relationship between the oxygen-binding parameters and temperature. According to their Hill coefficients, KLH has greater cooperativity than CCH at physiological pH; however, CCH is less sensitive to pH changes than KLH. Appreciable differences in binding behavior were found between the CCH subunits: the cooperativity of CCH-A was not only almost double that of CCH-B, but it was also slightly superior to that of CCH, thus suggesting that the oxygen-binding domains of the CCH subunits are different in their primary structure. Collectively, these data suggest that CCH-A is the main oxygen-binding domain in CCH; CCH-B may play a more structural role, perhaps utilizing its surprising predisposition to form tubular polymers, unlike CCH-A, as demonstrated here using electron microscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Investigation into the optoelectrical properties of tungsten oxide thin films annealed in an oxygen air

    SciTech Connect

    Arfaoui, A.; Ouni, B. Touihri, S.; Mannoubi, T.

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub x}) thin film have been deposited onto glass substrates using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique, monitored by an annealing process in a variable oxygen atmosphere. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed the structural changes from orthorhombic to monoclinic which depend on the annealing temperature and the oxygen content. AFM study shows that the increase of oxygen content leads to a decrease of the root-mean-square from 94.64 nm to 2 nm. Ellipsometric measurements have been used to evaluate the optical constants. Further, it is found that when the oxygen content increases, the band gap of the annealed layer varies from 3.01 eV to 3.52 eV by against, the Urbach energy decreases. The AC conductivity plot showed a universal power law according to the Jonscher model. Moreover, at high frequency semiconductor-to-metallic behavior has been observed. Finally, the effect of annealing in oxygen atmosphere on their structural modifications, morphological, optical properties and electrical conductivity are reported.

  11. Hypoxia. Cross talk between oxygen sensing and the cell cycle machinery.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Gregg L

    2011-09-01

    A fundamental physiological property of mammalian cells is the regulation of proliferation according to O(2) availability. Progression through the cell cycle is inhibited under hypoxic conditions in many, but not all, cell types, and this G1 arrest is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. Components of the hexameric MCM helicase, which binds to replication origins before the onset of DNA synthesis, are present in large excess in mammalian cells relative to origins, suggesting that they may have additional functions. Screens for HIF-1α interacting proteins revealed that MCM7 binds to the amino-terminal PER-SIM-ARNT (PAS) domain of HIF-1α and stimulates prolyl hydroxylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1α, whereas MCM3 binds to the carboxyl terminus of HIF-1α and enhances asparaginyl hydroxylation-dependent inhibition of HIF-1α transactivation domain function. Thus MCM proteins inhibit HIF activity via two distinct O(2)-dependent mechanisms. Under prolonged hypoxic conditions, MCM mRNA expression is inhibited in a HIF-1α-dependent manner. Thus HIF and MCM proteins act in a mutually antagonistic manner, providing a novel molecular mechanism for homeostatic regulation of cell proliferation based on the relative levels of these proteins.

  12. [Biooptical properties of marine phytoplankton as they apply to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yentsch, Charles S.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers research performed over a period of 10 years from 1982 to 1992. During this time, Grant #NAGW410 was funded under three titles through a series of Supplements. The original proposal was entitled 'Photoecology, optical properties and remote sensing of warm core rings'; the second and major portion was entitled 'Continuation of studies of biooptical properties of phytoplankton and the study of mesoscale and submesoscale features using fluorescence and colorimetry'; with the final portion named 'Studies of biooptical properties of phytoplankton, with reference to identification of spectral types associated with meso- and submesoscale features in the ocean'. The focus of these projects was to try to expand our knowledge of the biooptical properties of marine phytoplankton as they apply to satellite remote sensing. We used a variety of techniques, new and old, to better measure these optical properties at appropriate scales, in some cases at the level of individual cells. We also exploited the specialized oceanic conditions that occur within certain regions and features of the ocean around the world in order to explain the tremendous variability one sees in a single remote sensing image. This document strives to provide as complete a summary as possible for this large body of work, including the pertinent publications supported by this funding.

  13. Effect of core atom modification on photophysical properties and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies: tetraphenylporphyrin analogues core-modified by oxygen and/or sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jeong-Hyon; Ko, Siwhan; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Won-young; Kim, Yong-Rok

    2001-11-01

    Photophysical properties and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies of oxa- and/or thia-porphyrins have been investigated by time-resolved and steady-state spectroscopic methods. Introduction of sulfur atom into the porphyrin core induces a slight increment in the internal conversion rate and it also largely increases the intersystem crossing rate due to spin-orbit coupling enhancement, resulting the enhanced triplet state and singlet oxygen quantum yields. However, the quantum yields of mono oxygen-substituted porphyrin are reduced due to relatively more enhanced internal conversion. These suggest that sulfur modification in the core improves the photophysical efficiency of photosensitizers in the application respect of photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  14. Correlation of oxygen vacancies to various properties of amorphous zinc tin oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Nark-Eon; Lee, Han-Koo; Chae, Keun Hwa; Singh, Jitendra Pal; Lee, Ik-Jae

    2017-08-01

    Amorphous ZnO-SnO2 (a-ZTO) films were deposited on quartz substrates at working pressures of 5 ≤ PW ≤ 12 mTorr using radio frequency sputtering. PW affected the occurrence of oxygen deficiencies in the films. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy-based spectroscopy analyses showed that oxygen vacancies (OVs) influence the evolution of the optical and electrical properties of a-ZTO films. NEXAFS reflects the onset of OVs. Low PW contributes to the evolution of a chemical structure with numerous OVs. This result can be applied to improve the electro-optical properties of a-ZTO films. As PW decreased, the carrier concentration increased, carrier mobility increased, and film resistivity decreased. Average optical transmittance in the visible region was >90%, and increased as PW decreased.

  15. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-12-01

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food.By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07647a

  16. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-14

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food.

  17. A comparison of the ethanol sensing properties of α-iron oxide nanostructures prepared via the sol-gel and electrospinning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, S. G.; Mirzaei, A.; Bonavita, A.; Santangelo, S.; Frontera, P.; Pantò, F.; Antonucci, P. L.; Neri, G.

    2016-02-01

    Haematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures were synthesized via a Pechini sol-gel method (PSG) and an electrospinning (ES) technique. Their texture and morphology were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained by the PSG method, whereas fibrous structures consisting of interconnected particles were synthesized through the ES technique. The crystallinity of the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was also studied by means of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Gas-sensing devices were fabricated by printing the synthesized samples on ceramic substrates provided with interdigitated Pt electrodes. The sensors were tested towards low concentrations of ethanol in air in the temperature range (200-400°C). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibit somewhat different gas-sensing properties and, interestingly, their sensing behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent. The availability of active sites for oxygen chemisorption and the diffusion of the analyte gas within the sensing layer structure are hypothesized to be the key factors responsible for the different sensing behaviour observed.

  18. A comparison of the ethanol sensing properties of α-iron oxide nanostructures prepared via the sol-gel and electrospinning techniques.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, S G; Mirzaei, A; Bonavita, A; Santangelo, S; Frontera, P; Pantò, F; Antonucci, P L; Neri, G

    2016-02-19

    Haematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures were synthesized via a Pechini sol-gel method (PSG) and an electrospinning (ES) technique. Their texture and morphology were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained by the PSG method, whereas fibrous structures consisting of interconnected particles were synthesized through the ES technique. The crystallinity of the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was also studied by means of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Gas-sensing devices were fabricated by printing the synthesized samples on ceramic substrates provided with interdigitated Pt electrodes. The sensors were tested towards low concentrations of ethanol in air in the temperature range (200-400 °C). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibit somewhat different gas-sensing properties and, interestingly, their sensing behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent. The availability of active sites for oxygen chemisorption and the diffusion of the analyte gas within the sensing layer structure are hypothesized to be the key factors responsible for the different sensing behaviour observed.

  19. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  20. Phosphorescent Platinum(II) and Palladium(II) Complexes with Azatetrabenzoporphyrins—New Red Laser Diode-Compatible Indicators for Optical Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A new class of oxygen indicators is described. Platinum(II) and palladium(II) complexes of azatetrabenzoporphyrins occupy an intermediate position between tetrabenzoporphyrins and phthalocyanines and combine features of both. The new dyes are excitable in the red part of the spectrum and possess strong room-temperature NIR phosphorescence. Other features include excellent spectral compatibility with the red laser diodes and 632.8 nm line of He−Ne laser, excellent photostability, and significantly shorter decay times than for the respective meso-tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrins. Applicability of the complexes for optical oxygen sensing is demonstrated. PMID:20186289

  1. Synthesis and Selective Sensing Properties of rGO/Metal-Coloaded SnO2 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Zheng, Yifang; Mirzaei, Ali; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2017-02-01

    Ternary nanocomposites containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and metal (Pt or Pd)-coloaded SnO2 nanofibers (NFs) have been successfully synthesized by an electrospinning method. Transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed the NF morphology of the synthesized products. The gas sensing properties of the synthesized materials towards 1 ppm and 5 ppm C6H6, C7H8, and CO were tested, demonstrating enhanced sensing capability of the rGO/metal (Pt or Pd)-coloaded SnO2 NF sensor compared with that of pristine or rGO-loaded SnO2 NF sensors. Furthermore, selective sensing towards either C6H6 or C7H8 can be achieved by using Pd or Pt loading, respectively. The high specific surface area due to the existence of nanograins and p-rGO/n-SnO2 heterojunctions in the NFs, nanoheterojunctions between the noble metals and SnO2, as well as a sensitizing effect of Pt and Pd were responsible for the enhanced sensing response of the rGO/metal-coloaded SnO2 NF sensors. The obtained results demonstrate the promotional effect of coloading, as well as selectivity tuning by proper choice of a noble metal, being extendable to other gas sensing materials.

  2. Synthesis and Selective Sensing Properties of rGO/Metal-Coloaded SnO2 Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Zheng, Yifang; Mirzaei, Ali; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2017-06-01

    Ternary nanocomposites containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and metal (Pt or Pd)-coloaded SnO2 nanofibers (NFs) have been successfully synthesized by an electrospinning method. Transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed the NF morphology of the synthesized products. The gas sensing properties of the synthesized materials towards 1 ppm and 5 ppm C6H6, C7H8, and CO were tested, demonstrating enhanced sensing capability of the rGO/metal (Pt or Pd)-coloaded SnO2 NF sensor compared with that of pristine or rGO-loaded SnO2 NF sensors. Furthermore, selective sensing towards either C6H6 or C7H8 can be achieved by using Pd or Pt loading, respectively. The high specific surface area due to the existence of nanograins and p-rGO/ n-SnO2 heterojunctions in the NFs, nanoheterojunctions between the noble metals and SnO2, as well as a sensitizing effect of Pt and Pd were responsible for the enhanced sensing response of the rGO/metal-coloaded SnO2 NF sensors. The obtained results demonstrate the promotional effect of coloading, as well as selectivity tuning by proper choice of a noble metal, being extendable to other gas sensing materials.

  3. Effect of toxic gases on humidity sensing property of nanocrystalline ZnO film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Shobhna; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, Atul; Shukla, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    Humidity sensing property of nanocrystalline ZnO film has been investigated over a range of 5-90RH%. Contrary to more popular electrical approach, a novel optoelectronic sensing method has been used. Performance of the humidity sensor is affected by the presence of toxic gases in atmosphere. To gauge this effect, the humidity sensing properties of the film are studied by exposing it to the environment of H2S, SO2, and CH3OH one by one. The zinc oxide film is deposited using print and fire technology. X-ray diffraction of the film shows polycrystalline structure with average grain size of 33.5nm. The effect of toxic gases on the humidity sensing behavior of the film is explained while studying surface morphology of the film. The least detectable change (LDC) in humidity is evaluated for each case. For unexposed film it is found to be 0.14RH%. The LDC in the case of SO2-exposed film is recovered back almost completely by heat treatment.

  4. Preparation and properties of new complex sensing film for fiber optic glucose sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun; Wang, Chao; Yuan, Yinquan; Wang, Hai; Ding, Liyun; Fan, Dian

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a new complex sensing film containing both optical indicator and enzyme was prepared and its sensing properties were studied, using cellulose acetate (CA) as the carrier and tris (2,2'-blpyridyl) dichloro-ruthenium (II) hexahydrate (Ru(bpy)3Cl2) as the indicator. The cross-linking method was used to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOD). The immobilization conditions were optimized: the concentration of sodium periodate as 0.2 M and the reaction time as 30 min, those for ethanediamine as 0.03 M and 2.5 hours, those for GA as 1.5% (v/v) and 2 hours, those for GOD as 35 mg/ml and 21h. The optimal temperature and pH value for the catalytic properties of the sensing film are 38 °C and 7.0, respectively. A fiber optic glucose sensor with this complex sensing film has been studied. The results show that its detecting range is 100-600 mg/dl and its response time is less than 20 seconds.

  5. Nanocrystalline CePO(4):Tb as a novel oxygen sensing material on the basis of its redox responsive reversible luminescence.

    PubMed

    Di, Weihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Ren, Xinguang

    2010-02-19

    This work reports for the first time on a new finding of luminescent CePO(4):Tb nanocrystals providing a novel oxygen sensing material on the basis of the redox responsive reversible luminescence in an oxidizing/reducing atmosphere. The origin of the luminescence quenching/recovery of nanocrystalline CePO(4):Tb was clearly demonstrated, from the surface chemistry of nanocrystals and the fluorescence decay dynamics of Tb(III). Our present work represents a preliminary demonstration of the feasibility of using nanocrystalline CePO(4):Tb as a novel oxygen sensing material since it yields several advantages including surfactant-free synthesis, dual detection functioning, rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility.

  6. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of untreated and treated copper films with oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojabri, Alireza; Hajakbari, Fatemeh; Soltanpoor, Nasrin; Hedayati, Maryam Sadat

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the copper films were deposited on quartz substrates by DC magnetron sputtering method and then, the prepared films were annealed in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures. Before annealing, some of the copper films, treated by oxygen plasma, for comparison of the results. The structural and morphological properties of the films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy, and four point probe techniques. XRD results exhibited that the cuprous oxide phase changes to cupric oxide by enhancing of annealing temperatures. Also, oxygen plasma treatment can cause the better crystallinity for the prepared copper oxide films. The results confirm that oxygen plasma treatment, affected the crystal size, grain size, average roughness, sheet resistivity and strain of the films. The optical characteristics of the oxygen plasma treated films, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient and absorption coefficient were calculated by straight forward method proposed by Swanepoel using transmittance measurements. Moreover it was found that annealing temperature augmentation lead to decrease the optical band gap energy calculated using Tauc's relation from 2.45 to 1.80 eV.

  7. Remote-Sensing Reflectance and Inherent Optical Properties for Optically Deep Waters: A Revisit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Du, Ke-Ping

    2001-01-01

    Remote-sensing reflectance (r(rs)) is defined as the ratio of upwelling radiance to downwelling irradiance. Relationships between remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties serve as the basis for ocean-color modeling, as well as for spectral deduction of oceanic constituents through analytical/semi-analytical models of ocean color. A decade ago, a simple and concise formula based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed by relating rrs to a property u, the ratio of backscattering (b(b)) to the sum of absorption (a) and backscattering (u = b(b)/(a+b(b))). This relationship generally ignored the shape differences in phase functions between molecular scattering and particle scattering. In this study, the relationship is updated with separate parameters for molecular and particle scattering, based on the Radiative Transfer Equation through use of Hydrolight numerical solutions. The new approach fits r(rs) better than an earlier traditional formula, for both clear and turbid waters.

  8. Remote-Sensing Reflectance and Inherent Optical Properties for Optically Deep Waters: A Revisit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Du, Ke-Ping

    2001-01-01

    Remote-sensing reflectance (r(rs)) is defined as the ratio of upwelling radiance to downwelling irradiance. Relationships between remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties serve as the basis for ocean-color modeling, as well as for spectral deduction of oceanic constituents through analytical/semi-analytical models of ocean color. A decade ago, a simple and concise formula based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed by relating rrs to a property u, the ratio of backscattering (b(b)) to the sum of absorption (a) and backscattering (u = b(b)/(a+b(b))). This relationship generally ignored the shape differences in phase functions between molecular scattering and particle scattering. In this study, the relationship is updated with separate parameters for molecular and particle scattering, based on the Radiative Transfer Equation through use of Hydrolight numerical solutions. The new approach fits r(rs) better than an earlier traditional formula, for both clear and turbid waters.

  9. Growth conditions effects on the H2 and CO2 gas sensing properties of Indium Tin Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, S.; Coban, O.; Shafai, C.; Tuzemen, S.; Gur, E.

    2016-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films are transparent conducting wide bandgap oxide. In this study investigated optical, structural and morphological properties of sputtered ITO thin films using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and optical absorption techniques. These measurements revealed that the oxygen gas percentage present in the ITO film deposited by RF magnetron sputter deposition showed systematic variation of its band gap, crystal orientation, growth rate, figure of merit (FOM) and dominant XRD peaks. All the thin films deposited at room temperature (RT). Once characterization of the films carried out, H2 and CO2 resistive gas sensors fabricated by depositing the ITO film on top of aluminium interdigitated contacts/electrode (IDE), that fabricated following lithography and etching processes. These devices showed reasonable sensitivity for pure H2 and CO2 at elevated temperature. A correlation found between the thin film properties of the ITO and its sensing capability for H2 and CO2, which these gases are important in many fields such as automotive, energy, biological and health-related applications.

  10. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  11. Reduced-Gravity Measurements of the Effect of Oxygen on Properties of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Lee, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Schneider, S.; SanSoucie, M.; Rogers, J.; Hyers, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium is being investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory - Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations will be put into multiple melt cycles, during which the density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, and electric conductivity will be measured at various undercooled temperatures. The facility check-up of MSL-EML and the first set of melting experiments have been successfully performed in 2015. The first zirconium sample will be tested near the end of 2015. As part of ground support activities, the thermophysical properties of zirconium and ZrO were measured using a ground-based electrostatic levitator located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of oxygen on the measured surface tension was evaluated. The results of this research will serve as reference data for those measured in ISS.

  12. Real-time endoscopic oxygenation imaging using single snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, Joseph P.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Gioux, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    With 50% of all interventional procedures in the US being minimally invasive, there is a need for objective tools to help guide surgeons in this challenging environment. Tissue oxygenation is a useful biomarker of tissue viability and suitable for surgical guidance. Here we present our efforts to perform real-time quantitative optical imaging through a rigid endoscope using Single Snapshot of Optical Properties (SSOP) imaging. In particular, in this work we introduce for the first time 3 dimensionally-corrected dual wavelength optical properties imaging using SSOP through an endoscope, allowing accurate oxygenation maps to be obtained on tissue simulating phantoms and in vivo samples. We compared the results with state-of-the-art wide-field spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). Overall, results from the novel endoscopic imaging system agreed within 10% in absorption, reduced scattering, and oxygenation. Moreover, we introduce here real-time, video-rate quantitative optical imaging with 3D profile correction through an endoscope. These results demonstrate the potential of endoscopic SSOP as an objective surgical guidance tool for the clinic.

  13. Bioinspired composites from cross-linked galactoglucomannan and microfibrillated cellulose: Thermal, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Oinonen, Petri; Krawczyk, Holger; Ek, Monica; Henriksson, Gunnar; Moriana, Rosana

    2016-01-20

    In this study, new wood-inspired films were developed from microfibrillated cellulose and galactoglucomannan-lignin networks isolated from chemothermomechanical pulping side streams and cross-linked using laccase enzymes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that cross-linked galactoglucomannan-lignin networks have been used for the potential development of composite films inspired by woody-cell wall formation. Their capability as polymeric matrices was assessed based on thermal, structural, mechanical and oxygen permeability analyses. The addition of different amounts of microfibrillated cellulose as a reinforcing agent and glycerol as a plasticizer on the film performances was evaluated. In general, an increase in microfibrillated cellulose resulted in a film with better thermal, mechanical and oxygen barrier performance. However, the presence of glycerol decreased the thermal stability, stiffness and oxygen barrier properties of the films but improved their elongation. Therefore, depending on the application, the film properties can be tailored by adjusting the amounts of reinforcing agent and plasticizer in the film formulation.

  14. Instrumented impact properties of zircaloy-oxygen and zircaloy-hydrogen alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, A.M.; Kassner, T.F.

    1980-04-01

    Instrumented-impact tests were performed on subsize Charpy speciments of Zircaloy-2 and -4 with up to approx. 1.3 wt % oxygen and approx. 2500 wt ppM hydrogen at temperatures between 373 and 823/sup 0/K. Self-consistent criteria for the ductile-to-brittle transition, based upon a total absorbed energy of approx. 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ J/m/sup 2/, a dynamic fracture toughness of approx. 10 MPa.m/sup 1/2/, and a ductility index of approx. 0, were established relative to the temperature and oxygen concentration of the transformed BETA-phase material. The effect of hydrogen concentration and hydride morphology, produced by cooling Zircaloy-2 specimens through the temperature range of the BETA ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' = hydride phase transformation at approx. 0.3 and 3 K/s, on the impact properties was determined at temperatures between 373 and 673 K. On an atom fraction basis, oxygen has a greater effect than hydrogen on the impact properties of Zircaloy at temperatures between approx. 400 and 600 K. 34 figures.

  15. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Coastal Ocean: Adaptive Sampling and Forecasting of In situ Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    We are developing an integrated rapid environmental assessment capability that will be used to feed an ocean nowcast/forecast system. The goal is to develop a capacity for predicting the dynamics in inherent optical properties in coastal waters. This is being accomplished by developing an integrated observation system that is being coupled to a data assimilative hydrodynamic bio-optical ecosystem model. The system was used adaptively to calibrate hyperspectral remote sensing sensors in optically complex nearshore coastal waters.

  16. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report a NH3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  17. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-23

    Here, we report a NH{sub 3} and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  18. Synthesis of nestlike ZnO hierarchically porous structures and analysis of their gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzhen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiurong; Wang, Fenglong; Kong, Jing; Qiu, Song; He, Cuizhu; Luan, Liqiang

    2012-02-01

    Nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures with size of 1.0-3.0 μm have been synthesized through annealing the zinc hydroxide carbonate precursor, which was obtained by a one-pot hydrothermal process with the assistance of glycine, Na(2)SO(4), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The nestlike 3D ZnO structures are built of 2D nanoflakes with the thickness of ca. 20 nm, which exhibit the nanoporous wormhole-like characteristic. The measured surface area is 36.4 m(2)g(-1) and the pore size is ca. 3-40 nm. The unique nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures provided large contacting surface area for electrons, oxygen and target gas molecules, and abundant channels for gas diffusion and mass transport. Gas sensing tests showed that the nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures exhibit excellent gas sensing performances such as high sensitivity and fast response and recovery speed, suggesting the potential applications as advanced gas sensing materials.

  19. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Johnson, Mark S.; Harding, Gordon P.; Zuccarelli, Anthony J.; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Taylor, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Domains in Aer are similar to the signaling domain in chemotaxis receptors and the putative oxygen-sensing domain of some transcriptional activators. A putative FAD-binding site in the N-terminal domain of Aer shares a consensus sequence with the NifL, Bat, and Wc-1 signal-transducing proteins that regulate gene expression in response to redox changes, oxygen, and blue light, respectively. A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of which requires the proton motive force and/or electron transport system for signaling. We propose that Aer and Tsr sense the proton motive force or cellular redox state and thereby integrate diverse signals that guide E. coli to environments where maximal energy is available for growth. PMID:9380671

  20. Monochloramine-sensitive amperometric microelectrode: optimization of gold, platinum, and carbon fiber sensing materials for removal of dissolved oxygen interference

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amperometric monochloramine detection using newly fabricated gold, platinum, and carbon-fiber microsensors was investigated to optimize sensor operation and eliminate oxygen interference. Gold and platinum microsensors exhibited no oxygen interference during monochloramine measu...

  1. Monochloramine-sensitive amperometric microelectrode: optimization of gold, platinum, and carbon fiber sensing materials for removal of dissolved oxygen interference

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amperometric monochloramine detection using newly fabricated gold, platinum, and carbon-fiber microsensors was investigated to optimize sensor operation and eliminate oxygen interference. Gold and platinum microsensors exhibited no oxygen interference during monochloramine measu...

  2. The Properties of Oxygen Investigated with Easily Accessible Instrumentation: The "One-Photon-Two-Molecule" Mechanism Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelhelm, Manfred; Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of oxygen, in particular, the blue color of the liquid phase, the red glow of its chemiluminescence, and its paramagnetism as shown by the entrapment or deflection of liquid oxygen by a magnetic field, can be investigated in a regular school setting with hand-held spectrophotometers and digital cameras. In college-level…

  3. Oxygen Vacancy-Tuned Physical Properties in Perovskite Thin Films with Multiple B-site Valance States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Aiping; Harrell, Zach; Dowden, Paul; Koskelo, Nicholas; Roback, Joseph; Janoschek, Marc; Chen, Chonglin; Jia, Quanxi

    2017-04-01

    Controlling oxygen content in perovskite oxides with ABO3 structure is one of most critical steps for tuning their functionality. Notably, there have been tremendous efforts to understand the effect of changes in oxygen content on the properties of perovskite thin films that are not composed of cations with multiple valance states. Here, we study the effect of oxygen vacancies on structural and electrical properties in epitaxial thin films of SrFeO3-δ (SFO), where SFO is a compound with multiple valance states at the B site. Various annealing treatments are used to produce different oxygen contents in the films, which has resulted in significant structural changes in the fully strained SFO films. The out-of-plane lattice parameter and tetragonality increase with decreasing oxygen concentration, indicating the crystal structure is closely related to the oxygen content. Importantly, variation of the oxygen content in the films significantly affects the dielectric properties, leakage conduction mechanisms, and the resistive hysteresis of the materials. These results establish the relationship between oxygen content and structural and functional properties for a range of multivalent transition metal oxides.

  4. Oxygen Vacancy-Tuned Physical Properties in Perovskite Thin Films with Multiple B-site Valance States

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Aiping; Harrell, Zach; Dowden, Paul; Koskelo, Nicholas; Roback, Joseph; Janoschek, Marc; Chen, Chonglin; Jia, Quanxi

    2017-01-01

    Controlling oxygen content in perovskite oxides with ABO3 structure is one of most critical steps for tuning their functionality. Notably, there have been tremendous efforts to understand the effect of changes in oxygen content on the properties of perovskite thin films that are not composed of cations with multiple valance states. Here, we study the effect of oxygen vacancies on structural and electrical properties in epitaxial thin films of SrFeO3−δ (SFO), where SFO is a compound with multiple valance states at the B site. Various annealing treatments are used to produce different oxygen contents in the films, which has resulted in significant structural changes in the fully strained SFO films. The out-of-plane lattice parameter and tetragonality increase with decreasing oxygen concentration, indicating the crystal structure is closely related to the oxygen content. Importantly, variation of the oxygen content in the films significantly affects the dielectric properties, leakage conduction mechanisms, and the resistive hysteresis of the materials. These results establish the relationship between oxygen content and structural and functional properties for a range of multivalent transition metal oxides. PMID:28417954

  5. Oxygen Vacancy-Tuned Physical Properties in Perovskite Thin Films with Multiple B-site Valance States

    DOE PAGES

    Enriquez, Erik; Chen, Aiping; Harrell, Zach; ...

    2017-04-18

    Controlling oxygen content in perovskite oxides with ABO3 structure is one of most critical steps for tuning their functionality. Notably, there have been tremendous efforts to understand the effect of changes in oxygen content on the properties of perovskite thin films that are not composed of cations with multiple valance states. Here, we study the effect of oxygen vacancies on structural and electrical properties in epitaxial thin films of SrFeO3-δ (SFO), where SFO is a compound with multiple valance states at the B site. Various annealing treatments are used to produce different oxygen contents in the films, which has resultedmore » in significant structural changes in the fully strained SFO films. The out-of-plane lattice parameter and tetragonality increase with decreasing oxygen concentration, indicating the crystal structure is closely related to the oxygen content. Importantly, variation of the oxygen content in the films significantly affects the dielectric properties, leakage conduction mechanisms, and the resistive hysteresis of the materials. These results establish the relationship between oxygen content and structural and functional properties for a range of multivalent transition metal oxides.« less

  6. The Properties of Oxygen Investigated with Easily Accessible Instrumentation: The "One-Photon-Two-Molecule" Mechanism Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelhelm, Manfred; Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of oxygen, in particular, the blue color of the liquid phase, the red glow of its chemiluminescence, and its paramagnetism as shown by the entrapment or deflection of liquid oxygen by a magnetic field, can be investigated in a regular school setting with hand-held spectrophotometers and digital cameras. In college-level…

  7. Correlation of Low-Frequency Noise to the Dynamic Properties of the Sensing Surface in Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da; Solomon, Paul; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2017-08-25

    Low-frequency noise (LFN) is of significant implications in ion sensing. As a primary component of LFN for ion sensing in electrolytes, the solid/liquid interfacial noise remains poorly explored especially regarding its relation to the surface binding/debinding dynamic properties. Here, we employ impedance spectroscopy to systematically characterize this specific noise component for its correlation to the dynamic properties of surface protonation (i.e., hydrogen binding) and deprotonation (i.e., hydrogen debinding) processes. This correlation is facilitated by applying our recently developed interfacial impedance model to ultrathin TiO2 layers grown by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a TiN metallic electrode. With an excellent fitting of the measured noise power density spectra by the model for the studied TiO2 layers, we are able to extract several characteristic dynamic parameters for the TiO2 sensing surface. The observed increase of noise with TiO2 ALD cycles can be well accounted for with an increased average binding site density. This study provides insights into how detailed surface properties may affect the noise performance of an ion sensor operating in electrolytes.

  8. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  9. Structural and optical properties of solid-phase singlet oxygen photosensitizers based on fullerene aqueous suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, I. M.; Belousov, V. P.; Kiselev, V. M.; Murav'eva, T. D.; Kislyakov, I. M.; Sirotkin, A. K.; Starodubtsev, A. M.; Kris'ko, T. K.; Bagrov, I. V.; Ermakov, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    The relationship between the structural and photosensitizing properties of solid-phase particles of fullerene C60 in aqueous suspensions is studied using the methods of absorption spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), X-ray diffraction, and spectrophotometry of solutions of singlet oxygen chemical traps—histidine in combination with p-nitrosodimethylaniline. Two new variants are proposed for obtaining aqueous suspensions of particles of solid-phase fullerene whose structures are disordered and whose degrees of amorphization are 67 and 40%, respectively. It is shown that an increase in the disorder of the structure of particles in suspensions and a decrease in their average size facilitate an increase in the formation efficiency of singlet oxygen by solid-phase fullerene presumably due to an in increase in the concentration of surface localized excitons.

  10. Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, J.; Fernandez, H.; Solis, J.; Munoz-Martin, D.; Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.; Afonso, C. N.; Fierro, J. L. G.

    2007-06-01

    The third order nonlinear optical properties of oxygen deficient lead-niobium-germanate film glasses with heavy metal contents beyond that of the bulk glass formation region have been investigated. Values of the nonlinear third order optical susceptibility up to /χ(3)/≈1.8×10-11esu have been measured by degenerate four wave mixing at 800nm in films having large heavy metal fractions (0.93). The fast buildup and decay times (≈130fs) of the nonlinear response confirm its nonresonant character. The partial reduction of Nb5+ to Nb4+ evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is associated with the oxygen deficiency, appears to be responsible for the strong enhancement of /χ(3)/.

  11. Use of nickel to improve the mechanical properties of high oxygen underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Teixeira, J.C.G.; Santos, V.R. dos; Paes, M.T.P.; Liu, S.

    1995-12-31

    The use of oxidizing electrodes for wet welding of offshore structural steels, in spite of their low susceptibility to hydrogen HAZ cracking, is limited, in part by the poor mechanical properties of their weld deposits. Low levels of carbon, manganese and other deoxidizers, together with high oxygen contents seems to be one of the reasons for this low performance. This work investigated the influence of nickel additions on the tensile strength and impact resistance of wet welds deposited at 1.1 m of water depth. It was found that maximum values of toughness and tensile strength occur for nickel contents between 2 and 3 weight percent. Nickel additions also had a strong effect in reducing the grain size of equiaxed ferrite in the reheated region of underwater wet welds thereby improving their mechanical properties. The deterioration of mechanical properties for nickel contents higher than 3 weight percent was attributed to weld metal solidification cracking.

  12. Investigation of dynamic properties of erbium fiber laser for ultrasonic sensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Okabe, Yoji; Sun, Junqiang

    2014-04-07

    Dynamic properties of an erbium fiber laser (EFL) is researched and demonstrated for ultrasonic sensing in this research. The EFL has ring cavity incorporated with a phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating. A numerical model is used to analyze its dynamic responses to quasi-static change, continuous wave and burst wave. The ultrasonic behavior of the EFL resembles the forced single degree of freedom vibration with damping. Corresponding experimental results fit the simulation results well, showing some interesting ultrasonic properties of this EFL. After certain data process method, this EFL can be used in practical ultrasonic nondestructive testing.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted pullulan/montmorillonite bionanocomposite coating with high oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Introzzi, Laura; Blomfeldt, Thomas O J; Trabattoni, Silvia; Tavazzi, Silvia; Santo, Nadia; Schiraldi, Alberto; Piergiovanni, Luciano; Farris, Stefano

    2012-07-31

    In this paper, the preparation and characterization of oxygen barrier pullulan sodium montmorillonite (Na(+)-MMT) nanocomposite coatings are presented for the first time. Full exfoliation of platelets during preparation of the coating water dispersions was mediated by ultrasonic treatment, which turned out to be a pivotal factor in the oxygen barrier performance of the final material even at high relative humidity (RH) conditions [oxygen permeability coefficients ~1.43 ± 0.39 and 258.05 ± 13.78 mL·μm·m(-2)·(24 h)(-1)·atm(-1) at 23 °C and 0% RH and 70% RH, respectively]. At the micro- and nanoscale, the reasons are discussed. The final morphology of the coatings revealed that clay lamellae were stacked on top of one another, probably due to the forced confinement of the platelets within the coating thickness after solvent evaporation. This was also confirmed by modeling the experimental oxygen permeability data with the well-known Nielsen and Cussler permeation theoretical models, which suggested a reasonable aspect ratio (α) of ~100. Electron microscopic analyses also disclosed a peculiar cell-like arrangement of the platelets. The stacking of the clay lamellae and the cell-like arrangement create the excellent oxygen barrier properties. Finally, we demonstrated that the slight haze increase in the bionanocomposite coating materials arising from the addition of the clays depends on the clay concentration but not so much on the sonication time, due to the balance of opposite effects after sonication (an increase in the number of scattering centers but a reduction in their size).

  14. Oxygen Sensing via the Ethylene Response Transcription Factor RAP2.12 Affects Plant Metabolism and Performance under Both Normoxia and Hypoxia1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Melanie Verena; Iyer, Srignanakshi; Lehmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Subgroup-VII-ethylene-response-factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of hypoxic gene expression and regulated by proteasome-mediated proteolysis via the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway. While research into ERF-VII mainly focused on their role to regulate anoxic gene expression, little is known on the impact of this oxygen-sensing system in regulating plant metabolism and growth. By comparing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing N-end-rule-sensitive and insensitive forms of the ERF-VII-factor RAP2.12, we provide evidence that oxygen-dependent RAP2.12 stability regulates central metabolic processes to sustain growth, development, and anoxic resistance of plants. (1) Under normoxia, overexpression of N-end-rule-insensitive Δ13RAP2.12 led to increased activities of fermentative enzymes and increased accumulation of fermentation products, which were accompanied by decreased adenylate energy states and starch levels, and impaired plant growth and development, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 degradation to prevent aerobic fermentation. (2) In Δ13RAP2.12-overexpressing plants, decreased carbohydrate reserves also led to a decrease in anoxic resistance, which was prevented by external Suc supply. (3) Overexpression of Δ13RAP2.12 led to decreased respiration rates, changes in the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and accumulation of a large number of amino acids, including Ala and γ-amino butyric acid, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 abundance in controlling the flux-modus of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (4) The increase in amino acids was accompanied by increased levels of immune-regulatory metabolites. These results show that oxygen-sensing, mediating RAP2.12 degradation is indispensable to optimize metabolic performance, plant growth, and development under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. PMID:27372243

  15. Mapping spatio-temporal relationships between soil properties and remote sensing-derived information for Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Brewer, Mark; Brown, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Analysis and forecast of the spatial distribution and dynamics of soil are important elements of sustainable land management. Recent studies have noted that the most successful and promising approach to estimating soil properties continuously over time and space should include a combination of remote sensing and modelling. The aim of this paper was to investigate the spatial relationships between soil properties measured or observed at various soil profiles across Scotland and indices derived from remote sensing. Methodology was implemented to exploit fully the high number of covariates in order to identify the band, index or product that best correlates with the soil property of interest. Soil properties were measured or observed across the whole of Scotland following a regular grid at more than 1000 profiles National Soil Inventory of Scotland (NSIS1). Remote sensing data were derived from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The indices considered were i) Enhanced vegetation Index, ii) Leaf Area Index, iii) Land Surface Temperature and iv) derived drought indices, such as the Normalised Difference Water Index. The models fitted show a fairly good agreement with existing data sets, presenting a consistent spatial pattern across Scotland, mainly following the morphological landscape, such as slope and river valleys and the soil type classification. The remote sensing data proved useful for predicting various soil properties such as AWC and organic matter content. The methodology provides estimates of the spatial uncertainty of the modelled values that could be used in further modelling and in the assessment of consequences of climate-change and trade-offs in land use changes. MODIS data are potentially very helpful for soil mapping in areas where soil data are not available. However a spatial calibration is often needed. This approach can contribute to improving our understanding and modelling of soil processes and function over large

  16. Effect of Oxygen on the Structural/Electrical Properties of NIZO Films on Transparent Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Wook; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Jeong, Hyeon-Taek; Ha, Tae-Won; Kim, Eun-Mi; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Young-Baek; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Ho-Saeng

    2015-10-01

    Thin film transparent oxides have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades for transparent electronic applications, such as flat panel displays, solar cells, touch-pads, and mobile devices. Metallic doped InZnO (IZO) films have been suggested for the transparent layer exhibiting semiconducting or metallic properties because of its controllable mobility and excellent electrical properties, but they show a degradation of the electrical performance under bending conditions. This study assessed Ni doped IZO (NIZO) films as a flexible transparent electrode on different flexible transparent substrates for flexible electronic applications. Thin NIZO films were deposited on cellulose, PES and glass substrates using a sputtering system with a single NIZO target (In2O3 73.8/ZnO 15.7/NiO 10.5 mol.%) at room temperature. During deposition of the NIZO films, the total flow rate of the carrier gas was maintained using a regulating system. The effects of the oxygen content in the carrier gas on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the thin films deposited on flexible substrates was characterized. The results highlight the feasibility of the transparent NIZO oxide layer on flexible substrates as a flexible electrode with a relatively high sheet resistance, which is strongly related to the crystallographic structure and oxygen content during the film deposition process.

  17. The effect of oxygen-plasma treatment on the mechanical and piezoelectrical properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Mushtaque; Khan, Azam; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus; Broitman, Esteban

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on piezoelectric response and on the mechanical stability of ZnO nanorods synthesized on FTO by using ACG method. XRD and SEM techniques have shown highly dense and uniformly distributed nanorods. The piezoelectric properties and mechanical stability of as-grown and oxygen plasma treated samples were investigated by using nanoindentation technique. The comparison of load-displacement curves showed that the oxygen plasma treated samples are much stiffer and show higher generated piezo-voltage. This study demonstrates that the oxygen-plasma treatment is a good option to fabricate reliable and efficient nanodevices for enhanced generation of piezoelectricity.

  18. Examination of two methods of describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T. H.; Suttles, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A computer study was conducted to compare the numerical behavior of two approaches to describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point. Data on the relative differences between values of specific heats at constant pressure (sub p) density, and isotherm and isochor derivatives of the equation of state are presented for selected supercritical pressures at temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K. The results of a more detailed study of the sub p representations afforded by the two methods are also presented.

  19. Physical properties of basic hydrogen peroxide solutions for use in singlet oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshin, Victor V.; Kalinovsky, V. V.; Konovalov, V. V.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Sobolev, R. E.; Shornikov, L. N.

    1998-12-01

    The physical properties of basic hydrogen peroxide solutions (BHP) such as viscosity, density, and freezing temperature as well as their variation during laser operation have been experimentally investigated. In these experiments (30 - 50%) commercial hydrogen peroxides have been used, containing stabilizers and an alkali of the following composition: 81.5% KOH and 5.5% K2CO3. The use of these substances for generation of singlet oxygen in the COIL has shown their good ability to operate. Consideration has been given to the possibilities of the basic hydrogen peroxide solutions recovery during the industrial COIL operation.

  20. First-Principles Investigations of the Phase Transition and Optical Properties of Solid Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Hui; Duan, De-Fang; Wang, Lian-Cheng; Zhu, Chun-Ye; Cui, Tian

    2010-12-01

    Using density-functional-theory calculations, a monoclinic metallic post-ζ phase (space group C2/c) is predicted at 215 GPa. The calculated phonon dispersion curves suggest that this structure is stable at least up to 310 GPa. Oxygen remains a molecular crystal and there is no dissociation in the related pressure range. Moreover, it is found that the phase transition from ζ to post-ζ phase is attributed to phonon softening. The significant change in the optical properties can be used to identify the phase transition.

  1. Gelation, oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Avena-Bustillos, R J; Chiou, B; Olsen, C W; Bechtel, P J; Olson, D A; McHugh, T H

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical, and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-water fish gelatin solutions. These differences were related to concentrations of imino acids present in each gelatin, with mammalian gelatin having the highest and cold-water fish gelatin having the lowest concentrations. Mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin films contained helical structures, whereas cold-water fish gelatin films were amorphous. This was due to the films being dried at room temperature (23 °C), which was below or near the gelation temperatures of mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin solutions and well above the gelation temperature of cold-water fish gelatin solutions. Tensile strength, percent elongation, and puncture deformation were highest in mammalian gelatin films, followed by warm-water fish gelatin film and then by cold-water fish gelatin films. Oxygen permeability values of cold-water fish gelatin films were significantly lower than those for mammalian gelatin films. These differences were most likely due to higher moisture sorption in mammalian gelatin films, leading to higher oxygen diffusivity. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  2. The physical properties of oxygen-deficient perovskite SrPbO(3-δ).

    PubMed

    Hadjarab, B; Bouguelia, A; Kadi-Hanifi, M; Trari, M

    2006-09-20

    The transport properties of oxygen-deficient perovskite SrPbO(3-δ) with mixed lead valency were investigated down to 4.2 K. The small δ-value (0.059), determined from iodometry, is due to the inert lone pair Pb(2+) that does not enjoy regular octahedral coordination in spite of collective electron behaviour. The oxide exhibits a temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility consistent with itinerant electrons. The sign of carriers like polarons is that of n-type conductivity coming from the balance charge via oxygen extraction. The thermal variation of conductivity and thermopower reveal the existence of an energy gap. The conduction mechanism occurs by polaron hopping in conformity with small activation energy. The metal-insulating transition seems to be of Anderson type, resulting from the disorder of oxygen vacancies. At low temperature, the conductivity was fitted to a variable range hopping [Formula: see text]. A comparison with SrSnO(3) will be reported. The covalency of Sn-O raises the antibonding conduction state of 5s parentage and increases the forbidden gap from 1.78 to 3.30 eV.

  3. Transparent films based on PLA and montmorillonite with tunable oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Svagan, Anna J; Åkesson, Anna; Cárdenas, Marité; Bulut, Sanja; Knudsen, Jes C; Risbo, Jens; Plackett, David

    2012-02-13

    Polylactide (PLA) is viewed as a potential material to replace synthetic plastics (e.g., poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)) in food packaging, and there have been a number of developments in this direction. However, for PLA to be competitive in more demanding uses such as the packaging of oxygen-sensitive foods, the oxygen permeability coefficient (OP) needs to be reduced by a factor of ~10. To achieve this, a layer-by-layer (Lbl) approach was used to assemble alternating layers of montmorillonite clay and chitosan on extruded PLA film surfaces. When 70 bilayers were applied, the OP was reduced by 99 and 96%, respectively, at 20 and 50% RH. These are, to our knowledge, the best improvements in oxygen barrier properties ever reported for a PLA/clay-based film. The process of assembling such multilayer structures was characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a well-ordered laminar structure in the deposited multilayer coatings, and light transmittance results demonstrated the high optical clarity of the coated PLA films.

  4. On the dependence of structural and sensing properties of sputtered MoO3 thin films on argon gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojier, K.; Savaloni, H.; Zolghadr, S.

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen and carbon oxides (CO, NO and NO2), released from combustion facilities and automobiles, are known to be extremely harmful to the human body and also are the main cause of air pollution. Therefore, effective methods to monitor and suppress the carbon and nitrogen oxides have been highly demanded for atmospheric environmental measurements and controls. It is known that molybdenum oxide (MoO3) can be a good semiconductor material for use as a gas sensor in monitoring CO, NO and NO2. In this paper we report the structural characteristics and sensing properties of the sputtered MoO3 thin films as a function of argon gas flow. MoO3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique on glass substrates at different argon gas flows in the range of 5-20 sccm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used for studying crystallographic structure. XRD results showed that all of our films were of polycrystalline structure and of α-MoO3 stable orthorhombic phase. Results also showed that crystallite size increases while compressive nano-strain in the structure of the films decreases with increasing the argon gas flow. Atomic force microscope and the field emission scanning electron microscope studies showed granular structures for all samples, which increased in size consistent with the XRD results, with argon gas flow, while the surface roughness of the films also increased with argon gas flow. Chemical composition study showed optimum reaction between oxygen and molybdenum atoms for films produced at 15 sccm flow of argon gas. The electrical response of samples was measured in the vacuum and the CO environments in the temperature range of 150-350 K. All samples showed Ohmic behavior and the electrical resistances of the films measured in the CO environment were lower than those measured in vacuum. This study showed that the sensing ability of MoO3 for CO improves with increasing the argon gas flow.

  5. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  6. Impact of 100 MeV Ag7+ SHI irradiation fluence and N incorporation on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, L.; Gokul Raj, S.; Meher, S. R.; Asokan, K.; Alex, Z. C.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the influence of Ag7+ ion irradiation fluence and N incorporation on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the retainment of ZnO wurtzite structure even at higher fluence irradiation with slight decrease in crystallinity. Photoluminescence and Hall effect measurement analysis showed an increase in density of defects for high ion fluence irradiation. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the films irradiated at high ion fluence have vertical standing needle-like morphology and also have high value of roughness compared with the films irradiated at low ion fluence. The ammonia and methanol gas sensing properties of the films have been studied at different operating temperature and gas concentration. It conveys that the films have selectivity towards ammonia than methanol and also that the films irradiated at high ion fluence exhibit better sensitivity, low response and recovery times compared with the films irradiated at low ion fluence. The film grown in oxygen ambience and irradiated at high ion fluence showed good sensing characteristics at all temperatures even at room temperature.

  7. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample.

  8. Organic Vapour Sensing Properties of Area-Ordered and Size-Controlled Silicon Nanopillar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Feng, Zhilin; Dai, Enwen; Xu, Jie; Bai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Here, a silicon nanopillar array (Si-NPA) was fabricated. It was studied as a room-temperature organic vapour sensor, and the ethanol and acetone gas sensing properties were detected with I-V curves. I-V curves show that these Si-NPA gas sensors are sensitive to ethanol and acetone organic vapours. The turn-on threshold voltage is about 0.5 V and the operating voltage is 3 V. With 1% ethanol gas vapour, the response time is 5 s, and the recovery time is 15 s. Furthermore, an evaluation of the gas sensor stability for Si-NPA was performed. The gas stability results are acceptable for practical detections. These excellent sensing characteristics can mainly be attributed to the change of the overall dielectric constant of Si-NPA caused by the physisorption of gas molecules on the pillars, and the filling of the gas vapour in the voids. PMID:27834846

  9. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and acetylene sensing properties of variety low dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qu; Chen, Weigen; Peng, Shudi; Zeng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Various morphologies of low dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including spheres, rods, sheets, and wires, were successfully synthesized using a simple and facile hydrothermal method assisted with different surfactants. Zinc acetate dihydrate was chosen as the precursors of ZnO nanostructures. We found that polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), glycine, and ethylene glycol (EG) play critical roles in the morphologies and microstructures of the synthesized nanostructures, and a series of possible growth processes were discussed in detail. Gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology, and their sensing properties towards acetylene gas (C2H2), one of the most important arc discharge characteristic gases dissolved in oil-filled power equipments, were systematically measured. The ZnO nanowires based sensor exhibits excellent C2H2 sensing behaviors than those of ZnO nanosheets, nanorods, and nanospheres, indicating a feasible way to develop high-performance C2H2 gas sensor for practical application.

  11. A Comparison of Aerosol Properties Derived by Remote Sensing and in-situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricchiazzi, P.; Gautier, C.

    2002-12-01

    In-situ measurements of aerosol scattering properties obtained by the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the ARM CART site are compared to remote sensing estimates, based on irradiance observations from a Multi Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and radiance measurements from the Whole Sky Imager (WSI). The statistical relationship between the in-situ and remote-sensing parameters are determined at set of selected times with similar surface weather conditions (wind velocity, relative humidity, temperature etc.) One of the main goals of this project is to determine if variations in measured clear-sky radiation correlate with the variability seen by the ground-based AOS. Since the AOS is part of the very wide spread AERONET observational network, such a connection, if it exists, will help explain how global trends in aerosol production and transport will affect the global radiative energy budget.

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Acetylene Sensing Properties of Variety Low Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weigen; Peng, Shudi; Zeng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Various morphologies of low dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including spheres, rods, sheets, and wires, were successfully synthesized using a simple and facile hydrothermal method assisted with different surfactants. Zinc acetate dihydrate was chosen as the precursors of ZnO nanostructures. We found that polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), glycine, and ethylene glycol (EG) play critical roles in the morphologies and microstructures of the synthesized nanostructures, and a series of possible growth processes were discussed in detail. Gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology, and their sensing properties towards acetylene gas (C2H2), one of the most important arc discharge characteristic gases dissolved in oil-filled power equipments, were systematically measured. The ZnO nanowires based sensor exhibits excellent C2H2 sensing behaviors than those of ZnO nanosheets, nanorods, and nanospheres, indicating a feasible way to develop high-performance C2H2 gas sensor for practical application. PMID:24672324

  13. Sol-gel synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphorous as oxygen sensing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Ilkyaz; Ertekin, Kadriye; Demirci, Selim; Gultekin, Serdar; Celik, Erdal

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we utilized newly synthesized Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+/Dy3+ blue-green phosphors along with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for fabrication of oxygen sensitive materials. To the best of our knowledge oxygen sensing mechanism of the offered design is totally different from the previously published works. One-component silicone: poly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne), two component phenyl bearing silicone, plasticized polymethylmethacrylate, and ethylcellulose (EC) were tested as matrix materials. Electrospun fibers, porous and smooth thin films were produced by electrospinning or knife coating technique. Oxygen induced luminescence of the phosphors at 544 nm was followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in silicone along with phosphors resulted with a 7.14 fold enhancement in the signal intensity and significant spectral response towards oxygen competing with the signals of the oxygen sensors utilizing metalloporphyrins or ruthenium complexes. We observed high sensitivity and stability, increased surface area and an enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Linearity of the calibration plots was superior for the pO2 range of 0.0-20.0% with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in signal intensity after 12 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress.

  14. Analysis of the hypoxia-induced ADH2 promoter of the respiratory yeast Pichia stipitis reveals a new mechanism for sensing of oxygen limitation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Cohn, Marita; Schäfer, Bernd; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Klinner, Ulrich

    2003-01-15

    We introduced a reporter gene system into Pichia stipitis using the gene for the artificial green fluorescent protein (GFP), variant yEGFP. This system was used to analyse hypoxia-dependent PsADH2 regulation. Reporter gene activity was only found under oxygen limitation on a fermentable carbon source. The promoter was not induced by oxygen limitation in the Crabtree-positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Promoter deletions revealed that a region of 15 bp contained the essential site for hypoxic induction. This motif was different from the known hypoxia response elements of S. cerevisiae but showed some similarity to the mammalian HIF-1 binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific protein binding to this region under oxygen limitation. Similar to the S. cerevisiae heme sensor system, the promoter was induced by Co(2+). Cyanide was not able to mimic the effect of oxygen limitation. The activation mechanism of PsADH2 also, in this respect, has similarities to the mammalian HIF-1 system, which is inducible by Co(2+) but not by cyanide. Thus, the very first promoter analysis in P. stipitis revealed a hitherto unknown mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast.

  15. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Yang, Ping; Xiao, Hai Yan; Gao, Fei

    2010-11-24

    In this paper, ab initio method has been employed to study the adsorption energies, electronic structures and magnetic properties of a BN sheet functionalized by oxygen (O) atom. The adsorption process is typically exothermic, and some unusual properties can be revealed with different adsorption sites. The energy gap of BN sheet narrows due to the strong hybridization between O and BN electronic states when O locates above a BN bond or a nitrogen atom. Upon the adsorption of O above a B3N3 ring or a boron atom, the electrons of O-adsorbed BN system are polarized, which gives rise to the magnetic moment of 2.0 μB. In this case, Fermi level crosses the valence band, resulting the O-adsorbed BN system to be metallic. Furthermore, potential energy curves analysis shows that the magnetism and matellic of BN system can be modulated by the external temperature and pressure.

  16. Dosimetric sensing and optical properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitha, Pankaj Kr.; Pal, Partha P.; Manam, J.

    2014-05-01

    In this study an effort has been made to investigate the dosimetric sensing and optical properties of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites at different pH values. The nanocomposites samples are irradiated by X-ray and then thermoluminescence (TL) analysis is carried out to investigate the response. The structural details of nanocomposites are characterized by Scanning Electron microscope, X-Ray Powder Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Similarly, optical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The XRD studies revealed good crystallnity of samples with presence of both phases, ZnO as well as SnO2 simultaneously. The SEM image revealed nanoflakes and nanoflower shape of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposite for sample synthesized at pH 7. Also, nanocube and nanosphere can be seen at higher pH value of 9. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposite contain multi peaks at 398 nm, 410 nm, 451 nm, 469 nm, 484 nm, 493 nm and 545 nm at an excitation wavelength of 225 nm, which arises mainly due to oxygen and zinc related defects. The TL glow curve shows intense glow peaks at 346°, 261°, 209° and 153° for the samples synthesized at pH 3, pH 5, pH 7 and pH 9 respectively. The peaks are found to be increased with higher pH values. The peaks are found to be shifted towards lower temperature with higher pH values. The study shows that the ZnO-SnO2 nano-composite is more developed material than singly ZnO compound or SnO2 with enhanced opto-electronic and thermal properties and great applications in thermal dosimetry.

  17. Low-Oxygen Culture Conditions Extend the Multipotent Properties of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Budd A.; Young, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Development of an effective cell-based therapy is highly dependent upon having a reproducible cell source suitable for transplantation. One potential source, isolated from the developing fetal neural retina, is the human retinal progenitor cell (hRPC). One limiting factor for the use of hRPCs is their in vitro expansion limit. As such, the aim of this study was to determine whether culturing hRPCs under 3% O2 would support their proliferative capacity while maintaining multipotency. Methods: To determine the effect of low oxygen on the ability of hRPCs to self-renew, rates of proliferation and apoptosis, telomerase activity, and expression of proliferative, stemness, and differentiation markers were assessed for hRPCs cultured in 3% and 20% oxygen conditions. Results: Culture under 3% oxygen increases the proliferation rate and shifts the proliferation limit of hRPCs to greater 40 divisions. This increased capacity for proliferation is correlated with an upregulation of Ki67, CyclinD1, and telomerase activity and a decrease in p53 expression and apoptosis. Increased expression of cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 in 3% O2 is correlated with stabilization of both HIF1α and HIF2α. The eye field development markers Pax6, Sox2, and Otx2 are present in hRPCs up to passage 16 in 3% O2. Following in vitro differentiation hRPCs expanded in the 3% O2 were able to generate specialized retinal cells, including rods and cones. Conclusions: Low-oxygen culture conditions act to maintain both multipotency and self-renewal properties of hRPCs in vitro. The extended expansion limits permit the development of a clinical-grade reagent for transplantation. PMID:24320879

  18. Effects of polymerization on the oxygen carrying and redox properties of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M S; Ryan, B B; Cashon, R E; Alayash, A I

    1995-04-27

    Human hemoglobin site specifically cross-linked with bis(3,5-dibromosalicyl)fumarate results in a low oxygen affinity hemoglobin-based red cell substitute (alpha-DBBF). Polymerization of alpha-DBBF by bis(maleoylglycylamide) polyethylene glycol (BMAA-PEG) yields poly alpha-DBBF which offers the added benefits of reduced renal clearance and increased retention in the vascular circulation. Oxygen equilibrium curves for poly alpha-DBBF are slightly left-shifted (higher O2 affinity) compared to those of alpha-DBBF; with a diminished cooperativity and a reduced Bohr effect. In rapid mixing experiments (oxygen dissociation and carbon monoxide binding), poly alpha-DBBF exhibits a several fold increase in the overall rate of deoxygenation and carbon monoxide binding kinetics over its cross-linked counterpart. The rate of nitric oxide binding to the oxidized form of poly alpha-DBBF shows little or no change compared to the intramolecularly cross-linked derivative. The reduction of cyanomet poly alpha-DBBF by dithionite is several fold faster than that of HbA0 and alpha-DBBF whereas the slow subsequent cyanide dissociation from the ferrous iron remained unchanged among all proteins. The propensity of poly alpha-DBBF for auto-oxidation is slightly enhanced over alpha-DBBF whereas the extent of oxidative modification by hydrogen peroxide is very similar. Polymerization appears to selectively modify ligand interactions and redox kinetics of the tetrameric cross-linked form which reflects a possibly more open heme pocket. The data suggests that changes in oxygenation properties of hemoglobin brought about by a given modification are not necessarily predictive of other functional changes.

  19. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Tanre, Didier D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning spectrometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micron. They review the various methods being developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles from spectral reflection and thermal emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be used for determining the total precipitable water vapor and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products are described, together with an example of their application to aircraft and/or satellite measurements.

  20. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory-direct simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300-900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  1. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory–direct simulation Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-15

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300–900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  2. Highly distributed multi-point, temperature and pressure compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensors (FOxSense) for aircraft fuel tank environment and safety monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress towards the development and qualification of a highly distributed, multi-point, all optical pressure and temperature compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSense™) system for closed-loop monitoring and safety of the oxygen ullage environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The alloptical FOxSense™ system uses a passive, multi-parameter (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensor probe with no electrical connections leading to the sensors install within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. The all optical sensor consists of an integrated multi-parameter fiber optic sensor probe that integrates a fuel insensitive fluorescence based optical oxygen optrode with built-in temperature and pressure optical optrodes for compensation of temperature and pressure variants induced in the fluorescence response of the oxygen optrode. The distributed (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensors installed in the fuel tanks of the aircraft are connected to the FOxSense optoelectronic system via a fiber optic cable conduit reaching to each fuel tank in the aircraft. A multichannel frequency-domain fiber optic sensor read-out (FOxSense™) system is used to interrogate the optical signal of all three sensors in real-time and to display the fuel tank oxygen environment suitable for aircraft status and alarm applications. Preliminary testing of the all optical fiber optic oxygen sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank in the range of 0% O2 to 40% O2 concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from 0-ft to 40,000-ft.

  3. Pd size effect on the gas sensing properties of Pd-loaded SnO2 in humid atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Suematsu, Koichi; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Shimanoe, Kengo

    2015-07-22

    Pd particles of different nanosizes were loaded on the SnO2 surface by using different Pd precursors for the purpose of investigating the Pd size effect on gas sensing properties in humid atmosphere. One kind of Pd-loaded SnO2 nanoparticle was characterized by smaller Pd particles (2.6 nm) with high dispersion, while another kind was characterized by larger Pd particles (5-10 nm) with low dispersion. It was found that both kinds of Pd on the SnO2 surface let the mainly adsorbed oxygen species change from O(-) to O(2-) in humid atmosphere at 350 °C. In addition, the water vapor poisoning effect on electric resistance and sensor response was greatly reduced by loading Pd. Interestingly, for the CO response at 350 °C, Pd-SnO2 with small Pd size showed almost constant sensor response with varying humidity (0.5-4 vol % H2O). While the CO response of Pd-SnO2 with large Pd size even increased with increasing amount of water vapor. Moreover, the former CO response was increased from 300 to 350 °C, but the later response decreased with increase in operating temperature. These behaviors were analyzed by temperature programed reduction (TPR) in H2 and CO atmospheres, and they were supported by the different catalytic activities of different nanosized Pd particles.

  4. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  5. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  6. Integrating remote sensing hyperspectral data and point measurements to map soil properties across a landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, M.; Gallery, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Our ability to accurately predict ecosystem responses to climate change is enhanced by integrating microbial processes. Inclusion of these processes, however, is not yet widespread in our earth system models in part due to uncertainties surrounding how to appropriately scale them. Small-scale heterogeneity of soil microorganism distribution and activity present challenges to understanding the magnitude, variation, and seasonality of microbial processes. Continual advancements in remote sensing technologies and increased public access to open-source data offer exciting possibilities of better integration between landscape scale responses and microbial-controlled processes. This research uses a cross-disciplinary approach to combine these resources to better inform ecological models of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Hyperspectral remote sensing data products, extending 380 to 2510 nanometers (nm) with spectral sampling of five nm and one nm spatial resolution, and point measurements including coarse and fine root biomass, total carbon and nitrogen, and nitrogen transformations in soil were used to map properties over space and time. Multivariate analysis was performed to extract biogeochemical patterns. We hypothesize correlations to exist between foliar chemistry, obtained from hyperspectral data, and soil chemistry variables. Variation in soil properties were associated with topographic variables, plant diversity, and foliar chemistry. This research highlights how a better understanding of factors that influence soil biogeochemical properties and their distribution can help us refine model inputs to better predict climate change effects on ecosystems.

  7. Regional Characterization of Soil Properties via a Combination of Methods from Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Geopedology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe; Fries, Elke; Frei, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Soil is one of the most precious resources on Earth. Preserving, using and enriching soils are most complex processes that fundamentally need a sound regional data base. Many countries lack this sort of extensive data or the existing data must be urgently updated when land use recently changed in major patterns. The project "RECHARBO" (Regional Characterization of Soil Properties) aims at the combination of methods from remote sensing, geophysics and geopedology in order to develop a new system to map soils on a regional scale in a quick and efficient manner. First tests will be performed on existing soil monitoring districts, using newly available sensing systems as well as established techniques. Especially hyperspectral and infrared data measured from satellites or airborne platforms shall be combined. Moreover, a systematic correlation between hyperspectral imagery and gamma-ray spectroscopy shall be established. These recordings will be compared and correlated to measurements upon ground and on soil samples to get hold of properties such as soil moisture, soil density, specific resistance plus analytic properties like clay content, anorganic background, organic matter etc. The goal is to generate a system that enables users to map soil patterns on a regional scale using airborne or satellite data and to fix their characteristics with only a limited number of soil samples.

  8. Microwave Properties of Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-X)/INSULATOR Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findikoglu, Alp Tugrul

    The purpose of the work presented in this dissertation is not only to provide detailed information about the electrodynamic properties of high-T_{c} superconductors but also to assess their potential for technological applications at microwave frequencies. This work adopts a device approach to investigate the microwave properties of high-T_{c} thin films and high-T_{c}/insulator heterostructures, concentrating equally on issues relating to materials, physics, and device technology. Microwave measurements on YBa_2 Cu_3O_{ 7-x} (YBCO) films patterned into meander lines show that the electrodynamic properties of these films are significantly different from those of conventional superconductors such as Nb, but they nevertheless exhibit much lower microwave loss than normal metals such as Cu at low temperatures (<80 K). Dielectric resonator measurements on the YBCO/insulator heterostructures indicate that sample preparation conditions and the geometry of the sample structure have a significant effect on the microwave response. Samples with well-oxygenated layers and clean interfaces behave as predicted by simple models. A detailed study of the dc electric field effect on the microwave response of these heterostructures shows that field modulated changes in both the complex conductivity of the YBCO layers (superconducting hole filling and depletion) and the dielectric properties of the insulating layers (electric field dependence of the dielectric constant) contribute to the overall microwave response.

  9. Enhanced sensitivity with fast three-dimensional blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional MRI: comparison of SENSE-PRESTO and 2D-EPI at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Hermans, Erno J; Ramsey, Nick F

    2008-08-01

    A major impetus in functional MRI development is to enhance sensitivity to changes in neural activity. One way to improve sensitivity is to enhance contrast to noise ratio, for instance by increasing field strength or the number of receiving coils. If these parameters are fixed, there is still the possibility to optimize scans by altering speed or signal strength [signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)]. We here demonstrate a very fast whole-brain scan, by combining a three-dimensional (3D)-PRESTO (principle of echo shifting with a train of observations) pulse sequence with a commercial eight-channel head coil and sensitivity encoding (SENSE). 3D-PRESTO uses time optimally by means of echo shifting. Moreover, 3D scans can accommodate SENSE in two directions, reducing scan time proportionally. The present PRESTO-SENSE sequence achieves full brain coverage within 500 ms. We compared this with a two-dimensional (2D) echo planar imaging (EPI) scan with identical brain coverage on 10 volunteers. Resting-state temporal SNR in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) frequency range and T-statistics for thumb movement and visual checkerboard activations were compared. Results show improved temporal SNR across the brain for PRESTO-SENSE compared with EPI. The percentage signal change and relative standard deviation of the noise were smaller for PRESTO-SENSE. Sensitivity for brain activation, as reflected by T-values, was consistently higher for PRESTO, and this seemed to be mainly due to the increased number of observations within a fixed time period. We conclude that PRESTO accelerated with SENSE in two directions can be more sensitive to BOLD signal changes than the widely used 2D-EPI, when a fixed amount of time is available for functional MRI scanning. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Controlling the Sensing Properties of Silicon Nanowires via the Bonds Nearest to the Silicon Nanowire Surface.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey Mark; Wang, Bin; Haick, Hossam

    2015-06-03

    Controlling the sensing properties of a silicon nanowire field effect transistor is dependent on the surface chemistry of the silicon nanowire. A standard silicon nanowire has a passive oxide layer (native oxide), which has trap states that cause sensing inaccuracies and desensitize the surface to nonpolar molecules. In this paper, we successfully modified the silicon nanowire surface with different nonoxide C3 alkyl groups, specifically, propyl (Si-CH2-CH2-CH3), propenyl (Si-CH═CH-CH3), and propynyl (Si-C≡C-CH3) modifications. The effect of the near surface bond on the sensor sensitivity and stability was explored by comparing three C3 surface modifications. A reduction of trap-states led to greater sensor stability and accuracy. The propenyl-modified sensor was consistently the most stable and sensitive sensor, among the applied sensors. The propenyl- and propynyl-modified sensors consistently performed with the best accuracy in identifying specific analytes with similar polarity or similar molecular weights. A combination of features from different sensing surfaces led to the best rubric for specific analytes identification. These results indicate that nonoxide sensor surfaces are useful in identifying specific analytes and that a combination of sensors with different surfaces in a cross-reactive array can lead to specific analytes detection.

  11. Chemical bonding and humidity sensing properties of amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) by acetylene gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Siti Aisyah Abd; Purhanudin, Noorain; Awang, Rozidawati

    2017-05-01

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited by radio frequency plasma enhance chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using a fixed mixture of acetylene (C2H2) at 20 sccm and nitrogen (N2) gases at 50 sccm. The films were deposited at different RF power of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. The deposition pressure, deposition time and substrate temperature were kept constant at 0.8 mbar, 30 minutes and 100°C, respectively. The chemical bonding of the a-CNx thin films was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its sensing properties was determined using a home built humidity sensor system. The increase of RF powers leads to an increment of formation of double (C=N) and triple (C≡N) bonds as compared to a-CNx deposited using methane (CH4) or ethane (C2H6) gas. This is due to a higher ratio of C to H atoms in C2H2. The humidity sensing performance show the sensitivity of the films is the highest at low deposition power in changes of relative humidity (%RH). The a-CNx thin film show good repeatability and high sensitivity as a humidity sensing materials which prepared at low RF power.

  12. Diurnal Variation in Maize and Soybean Canopies and Implications for Remotely Sensed Biophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter-Shea, E. A.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Suyker, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plant canopies are dynamic; they respond to their changing environments. For example, on a diurnal basis, net carbon assimilation varies with light; canopy structure can change with afternoon stress. These changes are often accompanied by altered leaf and canopy optical properties which have implications for remote sensing studies. Data were analyzed from 14 years of ongoing measurements from irrigated and rainfed maize and soybean cropping systems in eastern Nebraska, USA (AmeriFlux sites US-Ne1, US-Ne2 and US-Ne3). Diurnal variations in APAR, GPP, and LUE were related to underlying changes in ambient environmental conditions. For example, morning to afternoon changes in the GPP vs APAR relationship were often observed under periods of water stress when soil water content was low or VPD was high. These results indicate diurnal changes in canopy LUE. Are these diurnal changes introducing noise in remotely sensed estimates of GPP, APAR and LUE? To address this question, morning and afternoon leaf and canopy reflectance were measured at similar solar zenith angles and used to quantify variation in derived vegetation indices. In particular, the red edge chlorophyll index implied dramatic diurnal changes in canopy chlorophyll content when actual canopy chlorophyll content is known to vary over longer time scales. Therefore, an awareness of the diurnal responses of vegetation canopies to their changing environments, and the influence of these changes on remotely sensed signals, is essential to fully capture information available in observed data.

  13. Aspartate 141 Is the Fourth Ligand of the Oxygen-sensing [4Fe-4S]2+ Cluster of Bacillus subtilis Transcriptional Regulator Fnr*

    PubMed Central

    Gruner, Ines; Frädrich, Claudia; Böttger, Lars H.; Trautwein, Alfred X.; Jahn, Dieter; Härtig, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis redox regulator Fnr controls genes of the anaerobic metabolism in response to low oxygen tension. An unusual structure for the oxygen-sensing [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster was detected by a combination of genetic experiments with UV-visible and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Asp-141 was identified as the fourth iron-sulfur cluster ligand besides three Cys residues. Exchange of Asp-141 with Ala abolished functional in vivo complementation of an fnr knock-out strain by the mutagenized fnr gene and in vitro DNA binding of the recombinant regulator FnrD141A. In contrast, substitution of Asp-141 with Cys preserved [4Fe-4S]2+ structure and regulator function. PMID:21068385

  14. Molecular origin of the selectivity differences between palladium and gold-palladium in benzyl alcohol oxidation: Different oxygen adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect

    Savara, Aditya Ashi; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Sutton, Jonathan E.; Wang, Di; Prati, Laura; Villa, Alberto

    2016-12-22

    The same mechanism and microkinetic model used for benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd/C was shown to apply to benzyl alcohol oxidation over AuPd/C. Almost all of the selectivity differences could be explained by a decrease in oxygen adsorption on AuPd. After isolating oxygen adsorption as being the origin of the selectivity differences, density functional theory was used to investigate the oxygen adsorption properties of a pure Pd surface, a pure Au surface, and an alloyed AuPd surface. Finally, the calculations showed that Au–Pd alloying decreased the oxygen adsorption properties relative to pure Pd, which explained the selectivity differences, consistent with the microkinetic modeling.

  15. Molecular origin of the selectivity differences between palladium and gold-palladium in benzyl alcohol oxidation: Different oxygen adsorption properties

    DOE PAGES

    Savara, Aditya Ashi; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Sutton, Jonathan E.; ...

    2016-12-22

    The same mechanism and microkinetic model used for benzyl alcohol oxidation over Pd/C was shown to apply to benzyl alcohol oxidation over AuPd/C. Almost all of the selectivity differences could be explained by a decrease in oxygen adsorption on AuPd. After isolating oxygen adsorption as being the origin of the selectivity differences, density functional theory was used to investigate the oxygen adsorption properties of a pure Pd surface, a pure Au surface, and an alloyed AuPd surface. Finally, the calculations showed that Au–Pd alloying decreased the oxygen adsorption properties relative to pure Pd, which explained the selectivity differences, consistent withmore » the microkinetic modeling.« less

  16. Role of oxygen on the optical properties of borate glass doped with ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2011-10-15

    Lithium tungsten borate glass (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.1 mol%) is prepared by the melt quenching technique for photonic applications. Small relative values of ZnO are used to improve the glass optical dispersion and to probe as well the role of oxygen electronic polarizability on its optical characteristics. The spectroscopic properties of the glass are determined in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm) using a Fresnel-based spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Lorentz-Lorenz theory, as ZnO content increases on the expense of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} the glass molar polarizability increased due to an enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of the chemical bonds of glass. The role of oxide ion polarizability is explained in accordance with advanced measures and theories such as optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, the outer most cation binding energy in Yamashita-Kurosawa's interionic interaction parameter and Sun's average single bond strength. FT-IR measurements confirm an increase in bridging oxygen bonds, as a result of replacement of ZnO by B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which increase the UV glass transmission window and transmittance. - Graphical abstract: O1s, Yamashita-Kurosawa's parameter and average single bond strength of charge overlapping between electronic shells are used to explain enhanced oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases refractive index of glasses. Highlights: > New borate glass for photonic application is prepared. > The dispersion property of the glass is effectively controlled using small amounts of ZnO. > ZnO is used to probe the glass structure and investigate the role of oxygen on the obtained optical properties of the glasses. > Modern theories are used to explain enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of chemical bonds of the glass.

  17. The FixL protein of Rhizobium meliloti can be separated into a heme-binding oxygen-sensing domain and a functional C-terminal kinase domain.

    PubMed Central

    Monson, E K; Weinstein, M; Ditta, G S; Helinski, D R

    1992-01-01

    Transcription of nitrogen fixation (nif and fix) genes in Rhizobium meliloti is induced by a decrease in oxygen concentration. The products of two genes, fixL and fixJ, are responsible for sensing and transmitting the low-oxygen signal. The proteins encoded by fixL and fixJ (FixL and FixJ, respectively) are homologous to a family of bacterial proteins that transduce environmental signals through a common phosphotransfer mechanism [David, M., Daveran, M., Batut, J., Dedieu, A., Domergue, O., Ghai, J., Hertig, C., Boistard, P. & Khan, D. (1988) Cell 54, 671-683]. FixL, the oxygen sensor, is a membrane protein. It has previously been shown that a soluble derivative of FixL, FixL*, is an oxygen-binding hemoprotein and a kinase that autophosphorylates and also phosphorylates FixJ [Gilles-Gonzalez, M. A., Ditta, G. S. & Helinski, D. R. (1991) Nature (London) 350, 170-172]. In this work, deletion derivatives of fixL* were constructed and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the truncated proteins were purified. We show that a fragment of FixL from amino acid residue 127 to residue 260 binds heme, retains the ability to bind oxygen, and has no detectable kinase activity. A C-terminal fragment of FixL, beginning at residue 260, fails to bind heme but is active as a kinase. We also demonstrate that anaerobiosis results in an enhancement of FixL* autophosphorylation and FixJ phosphorylation activities in vitro. Finally, we show that the heme-binding region of FixL is required in vitro for oxygen regulation of its kinase activities. Images PMID:1584762

  18. Influence of clay minerals on curcumin properties: Stability and singlet oxygen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Joyce L. S.; Valandro, Silvano R.; Poli, Alessandra L.; Schmitt, Carla C.

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has showed promising photophysical properties regarding to biological and chemical sciences. However, the main barrier for those applications are their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution. The effects of two different clay minerals, the montmorillonite (SWy-2) and the Laponite RD (Lap) nanoclay, on the stabilization of Curcumin were investigated. Their effects were compared with two well-established environments (acidic and neutral aqueous media). CUR/clay hybrids were prepared using a simple and fast method, where CUR solution was added into clay suspensions, to obtain well dispersed hybrids in water. The degradation process of CUR and CUR/clays hybrids was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopic. For both studied hybrids, the CUR degradation process was suppressed by the presence of the clay particles. Furthermore, the Lap showed a great stabilization effect than SWy-2. This behavior was due to the smaller particle size and higher exfoliation ability of Lap, providing a large surface for CUR adsorption compared to SWy-2. The degradation process of CUR solutions and CUR/clay hybrids was also studied in the presence of light. CUR photodegradation process was faster not only in the aqueous solution but also in the clay suspension compared to those studied in the dark. The presence of clay particles accelerated the photodegradation of CUR due to the products formation in the reactions between CUR and oxygen radicals. Our results showed that the singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ) of CUR were about 59% higher in the clay suspensions than CUR in aqueous solution. Therefore, the formation of CUR/clay hybrids, in particularly with Lap, suppressed the degradation in absence light of CUR and increased the singlet oxygen generation, which makes this hybrids of CUR/clay a promising material to enlarge the application of CUR in the biological sciences.

  19. Transparent Pullulan/Mica Nanocomposite Coatings with Outstanding Oxygen Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Boyacı, Derya; Trabattoni, Silvia; Tavazzi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a new bionanocomposite coating on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) made of pullulan and synthetic mica. Mica nanolayers have a very high aspect ratio (α), at levels much greater than that of conventional exfoliated clay layers (e.g., montmorillonite). A very small amount of mica (0.02 wt %, which is ϕ ≈ 0.00008) in pullulan coatings dramatically improved the oxygen barrier performance of the nanocomposite films under dry conditions, however, this performance was partly lost as the environmental relative humidity (RH) increased. This outcome was explained in terms of the perturbation of the spatial ordering of mica sheets within the main pullulan phase, because of RH fluctuations. This was confirmed by modelling of the experimental oxygen transmission rate (OTR) data according to Cussler’s model. The presence of the synthetic nanobuilding block (NBB) led to a decrease in both static and kinetic coefficients of friction, compared with neat PET (≈12% and 23%, respectively) and PET coated with unloaded pullulan (≈26% reduction in both coefficients). In spite of the presence of the filler, all of the coating formulations did not significantly impair the overall optical properties of the final material, which exhibited haze values below 3% and transmittance above 85%. The only exception to this was represented by the formulation with the highest loading of mica (1.5 wt %, which is ϕ ≈ 0.01). These findings revealed, for the first time, the potential of the NBB mica to produce nanocomposite coatings in combination with biopolymers for the generation of new functional features, such as transparent high oxygen barrier materials. PMID:28925951

  20. Application of symmetry properties to polarimetric remote sensing with JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on symmetry properties, polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical media is studied. From the viewpoint of symmetry groups, media with reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetries are considered. The symmetries impose relations among polarimetric scattering coefficients, which are valid to all scattering mechanisms in the symmetrical configurations. Various orientation distributions of non-spherical scatterers can be identified from the scattering coefficients by a comparison with the symmetry calculations. Experimental observations are then analyzed for many geophysical scenes acquired with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne polarimetric SAR at microwave frequencies over sea ice and vegetation. Polarimetric characteristics of different ice types are compared with symmetry behaviors. The polarimetric response of a tropical rain forest reveals characteristics close to the centrical symmetry properties, which can be used as a distributed target to relatively calibrate polarimetric radars without any deployment of manmade calibration targets.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and gas-sensing properties of monodispersed SnO{sub 2} nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Runa, A; Bala, Hari E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jingkuo; Zhang, Bowen; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2014-08-04

    Monodispersed single-crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanocubes with exposed a large percentage of high-energy surfaces have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal process at low temperature without any templates and catalysts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Many outstanding characters of the final products have been shown, such as uniform particle size, high purity, and monodispersity. In property, superior gas-sensing properties such as high response, rapid response-recovery time, and good selectivity have also been shown to ethanol at an optimal working temperature of as low as 280 °C. It indicates that the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanocubes are promising for gas sensors.

  2. Inversion Techniques for Retrieving Detailed Aerosol Properties from Remote Sensing Observations: Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovik, O.

    2010-12-01

    The ability of aerosol particles to interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation makes aerosol one of most climatically important atmospheric component. Remote sensing using the same ability for characterizing properties of atmospheric aerosol is probably the most adequate observational approach for accessing aerosol effect in climatic studies. Indeed, the satellite remote sensing is unique technique allowing monitoring of time variability of the aerosol at regional and global scales. Compare to in situ and laboratory measurements, remote methods do not use aerosol sampling and allow accessing the properties of unperturbed ambient aerosol in the atmospheres. However, interpretation of the remote sensing observations involves data inversion that, in practice, often appears to be a sophisticated procedure leading to rather ambiguous results. Numerous publications offer a wide diversity of approaches suggesting somewhat different inversion methods. Such uncertainty in methodological guidance leads to excessive dependence of retrieval algorithms on the personalized input and preferences of the developer. This presentation highlights a continues effort on developing a concept clarifying the differences between various methods and outlining unified principles addressing such important aspects of inversion optimization as accounting for errors in the data used, inverting the data with different levels of accuracy, accounting for a priori and ancillary information, estimating retrieval errors, etc. The developed concept uses the principles of statistical estimation and suggests a generalized multi-term Least Square type formulation that complementarily unites advantages of a variety of practical inversion approaches, such as Phillips-Tikhonov-Twomey constrained inversion, Kalman filter, Newton-Gauss and Levenberg-Marquardt iterations, optimal estimation, etc. The concept will be demonstrated by successful implementations in several challenging aerosol remote sensing

  3. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of Spin-coated Na-doped ZnO Nanostructured Films

    PubMed Central

    Basyooni, Mohamed A.; Shaban, Mohamed; El Sayed, Adel M.

    2017-01-01

    In this report, the structures, morphologies, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO and ZnO: Na spin-coated films are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the films are of a single phase wurtzite ZnO with a preferential orientation along (002) direction parallel to c-axis. Na doping reduces the crystalline quality of the films. The plane surface of ZnO film turned to be wrinkle net-work structure after doping. The reflectance and the optical band gap of the ZnO film decreased after Na doping. The wrinkle net-work nanostructured Na-doped film shows an unusually sensitivity, 81.9% @ 50 sccm, for CO2 gas at room temperature compared to 1.0% for the pure ZnO film. The signals to noise ratio (SNR) and detection limit of Na-doped ZnO sensor are 0.24 and 0.42 sccm, respectively. These enhanced sensing properties are ascribed to high surface-to-volume ratio, hoping effect, and the increase of O- vacancies density according to Kroger VinK effect. The response time increased from 179 to 240 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. This response time increased as the CO2 concentration increased. The recovery time is increased from 122 to 472 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. PMID:28145506

  4. Chemical gases sensing properties of diamond nanocone arrays formed by plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Qu, S. L.; Fu, S. Y.; Liu, W. J.; Li, J. J.; Gu, C. Z.

    2007-11-15

    A uniform diamond nanocone array was formed by plasma etching of diamond film in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system. A surface amorphous carbon coating layer, which is formed during CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma-etching process, was removed by Ar plasma in a reactive ion etching system. The hydrogenation of diamond nanocones was performed in H{sub 2} ambience by using the same HFCVD system. The air-diluted NH{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} gases sensing properties of the diamond cone arrays had been studied by using electric current versus measurement time characteristics at room temperature. The repeatable chemical sensing properties of the hydrogenated diamond cone array sensor are enhanced, in comparison with as-formed diamond film. Surface two-dimensional hole gas structure and greatly increased surface-to-volume ratio both play a key role for the excellent detection performance. As-formed diamond nanocone arrays show a promising prospect for applications as chemical sensor for both reducing (NH{sub 3}) and oxidizing (NO{sub 2}) gases.

  5. Synthesis of nanograined ZnO nanowires and their enhanced gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; An, Soyeon; Ko, Hyunsung; Jin, Changhyun; Lee, Chongmu

    2012-07-25

    Polycrystalline ZnO nanowires with grain sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were synthesized using a newly designed two-step process: (first step) synthesis of ZnSe nanowires by vapor transportation of a mixture of ZnSe powders; and (second step) thermal oxidation of the ZnSe nanowires at 650 °C. Compared to the single-crystal ZnO nanowire gas sensors and other nanomaterial gas sensors reported previously, the multiple networked nanowire gas sensors fabricated from the nanograined ZnO nanowires showed substantially enhanced electrical responses to NO2 gas at 300 °C. The NO2 gas sensing properties of the nanograined ZnO nanowires increased dramatically with increasing NO2 concentration. The multiple-networked nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor showed a response value of 237,263% at 10 ppm NO2 and 300 °C, whereas the single-crystal ZnO nanowire sensors showed a response of only 6.5% under the same conditions. The recovery time of the nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor was much shorter than that of the normal ZnO nanowire sensor over the NO2 concentration range of 1-10 ppm, even though the response time of the former was somewhat longer than that of the latter. The origin of the enhanced NO2 gas sensing properties of the nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor is discussed.

  6. Optical temperature sensing properties of Yb3+/Er3+ codoped LaF3 upconversion phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuerui; Ma, Xiaochun; Zhang, Huanjun; Ren, Yufen; Zhu, Kunkun

    2017-09-01

    The structural and optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped LaF3 phosphors are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and upconversion luminescence spectra. The result shows that the hexagonal phase of LaF3 keep stability at temperature lower than 800 °C in air condition and will be oxidized to be LaOF at higher temperature. Its upconversion emission intensity varies with the doping concentrations of Yb3+ ions and reaches a maximum at around 7 mol% Yb3+. The power-dependent luminescence reveals the possible emission mechanisms and the corresponding upconversion processes. Furthermore, the optical temperature sensing properties of LaF3: Er3+/Yb3+ are studied based on the fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technique for two thermally coupled levels (2H11/2 and 4S3/2) of Er3+. The maximum sensitivity is found to be about 0.00157 K-1 at 386 K, revealing this phosphor to be a promising prototype for applications in optical temperature sensing.

  7. Hydrogen gas sensing properties of PdO thin films with nano-sized cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack Lee, Young; Lee, Jun Min; Kim, Yeon Ju; Hyoun Joe, Jin; Lee, Wooyoung

    2010-04-01

    We report on a novel method for the fabrication of highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensors based on palladium oxide thin films and have investigated their hydrogen sensing properties and nanostructures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films as hydrogen sensors. The palladium oxide thin films were deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates using a reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Considerable changes in the resistance of the palladium oxide thin films were observed when they were initially exposed to hydrogen gas, as a result of the reduction process. After the initial exposure to hydrogen gas of PdO30%, its sensitivity increased up to ~ 4.5 × 103%. The morphology of the PdO surface was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to investigate the interactions between palladium oxide and hydrogen. The SEM images showed a large number of nano-sized cracks on the surface of the palladium oxide during the reduction process, which acted to increase the effective surface-to-volume ratio. The response behaviors of the reduced Pd films to hydrogen gas were reversible and had an enhanced sensing property when compared with those of the pure Pd films. In addition, their sensitivities and response times were improved due to the nano-sized cracks on the surfaces. The results demonstrate that palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films can be applied for use in highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.

  8. Hydrogen gas sensing properties of PdO thin films with nano-sized cracks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Tack; Lee, Jun Min; Kim, Yeon Ju; Joe, Jin Hyoun; Lee, Wooyoung

    2010-04-23

    We report on a novel method for the fabrication of highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensors based on palladium oxide thin films and have investigated their hydrogen sensing properties and nanostructures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films as hydrogen sensors. The palladium oxide thin films were deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates using a reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Considerable changes in the resistance of the palladium oxide thin films were observed when they were initially exposed to hydrogen gas, as a result of the reduction process. After the initial exposure to hydrogen gas of PdO(30%), its sensitivity increased up to approximately 4.5 x 10(3)%. The morphology of the PdO surface was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to investigate the interactions between palladium oxide and hydrogen. The SEM images showed a large number of nano-sized cracks on the surface of the palladium oxide during the reduction process, which acted to increase the effective surface-to-volume ratio. The response behaviors of the reduced Pd films to hydrogen gas were reversible and had an enhanced sensing property when compared with those of the pure Pd films. In addition, their sensitivities and response times were improved due to the nano-sized cracks on the surfaces. The results demonstrate that palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films can be applied for use in highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.

  9. Chemical gases sensing properties of diamond nanocone arrays formed by plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Qu, S. L.; Fu, S. Y.; Liu, W. J.; Li, J. J.; Gu, C. Z.

    2007-11-01

    A uniform diamond nanocone array was formed by plasma etching of diamond film in a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system. A surface amorphous carbon coating layer, which is formed during CH4/H2 plasma-etching process, was removed by Ar plasma in a reactive ion etching system. The hydrogenation of diamond nanocones was performed in H2 ambience by using the same HFCVD system. The air-diluted NH3 and NO2 gases sensing properties of the diamond cone arrays had been studied by using electric current versus measurement time characteristics at room temperature. The repeatable chemical sensing properties of the hydrogenated diamond cone array sensor are enhanced, in comparison with as-formed diamond film. Surface two-dimensional hole gas structure and greatly increased surface-to-volume ratio both play a key role for the excellent detection performance. As-formed diamond nanocone arrays show a promising prospect for applications as chemical sensor for both reducing (NH3) and oxidizing (NO2) gases.

  10. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of Spin-coated Na-doped ZnO Nanostructured Films.

    PubMed

    Basyooni, Mohamed A; Shaban, Mohamed; El Sayed, Adel M

    2017-02-01

    In this report, the structures, morphologies, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO and ZnO: Na spin-coated films are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the films are of a single phase wurtzite ZnO with a preferential orientation along (002) direction parallel to c-axis. Na doping reduces the crystalline quality of the films. The plane surface of ZnO film turned to be wrinkle net-work structure after doping. The reflectance and the optical band gap of the ZnO film decreased after Na doping. The wrinkle net-work nanostructured Na-doped film shows an unusually sensitivity, 81.9% @ 50 sccm, for CO2 gas at room temperature compared to 1.0% for the pure ZnO film. The signals to noise ratio (SNR) and detection limit of Na-doped ZnO sensor are 0.24 and 0.42 sccm, respectively. These enhanced sensing properties are ascribed to high surface-to-volume ratio, hoping effect, and the increase of O- vacancies density according to Kroger VinK effect. The response time increased from 179 to 240 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. This response time increased as the CO2 concentration increased. The recovery time is increased from 122 to 472 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm.

  11. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases.

    PubMed

    Dilonardo, Elena; Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa; Cioffi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE) was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol-gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C) on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO) was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties.

  12. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of Spin-coated Na-doped ZnO Nanostructured Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyooni, Mohamed A.; Shaban, Mohamed; El Sayed, Adel M.

    2017-02-01

    In this report, the structures, morphologies, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of ZnO and ZnO: Na spin-coated films are studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that the films are of a single phase wurtzite ZnO with a preferential orientation along (002) direction parallel to c-axis. Na doping reduces the crystalline quality of the films. The plane surface of ZnO film turned to be wrinkle net-work structure after doping. The reflectance and the optical band gap of the ZnO film decreased after Na doping. The wrinkle net-work nanostructured Na-doped film shows an unusually sensitivity, 81.9% @ 50 sccm, for CO2 gas at room temperature compared to 1.0% for the pure ZnO film. The signals to noise ratio (SNR) and detection limit of Na-doped ZnO sensor are 0.24 and 0.42 sccm, respectively. These enhanced sensing properties are ascribed to high surface-to-volume ratio, hoping effect, and the increase of O- vacancies density according to Kroger VinK effect. The response time increased from 179 to 240 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm. This response time increased as the CO2 concentration increased. The recovery time is increased from 122 to 472 s by the incorporation of Na atoms @50 sccm.

  13. Application of Multitemporal Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture for the Estimation of Soil Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, N. M.; Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Ahuja, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of multitemporal soil moisture derived from microwave remote sensing to estimate soil physical properties. The passive microwave ESTAR instrument was employed during June 10-18, 1992, to obtain brightness temperature (TB) and surface soil moisture data in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. Analyses of spatial and temporal variations of TB and soil moisture during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in T and soil moisture and soil physical (viz. texture) and hydraulic (viz. saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(sat)) properties. Statistically significant regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and K(sat), in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results using field measured values and soil texture map indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications of microwave remote sensing to obtain quick estimates of the spatial distributions of K(sat), over large areas for input parameterization of hydrologic models.

  14. Oxygen vacancies enhance pseudocapacitive charge storage properties of MoO3-x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Seok; Cook, John B.; Lin, Hao; Ko, Jesse S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Dunn, Bruce

    2017-04-01

    The short charging times and high power capabilities associated with capacitive energy storage make this approach an attractive alternative to batteries. One limitation of electrochemical capacitors is their low energy density and for this reason, there is widespread interest in pseudocapacitive materials that use Faradaic reactions to store charge. One candidate pseudocapacitive material is orthorhombic MoO3 (α-MoO3), a layered compound with a high theoretical capacity for lithium (279 mA h g-1 or 1,005 C g-1). Here, we report on the properties of reduced α-MoO3-x(R-MoO3-x) and compare it with fully oxidized α-MoO3 (F-MoO3). The introduction of oxygen vacancies leads to a larger interlayer spacing that promotes faster charge storage kinetics and enables the α-MoO3 structure to be retained during the insertion and removal of Li ions. The higher specific capacity of the R-MoO3-x is attributed to the reversible formation of a significant amount of Mo4+ following lithiation. This study underscores the potential importance of incorporating oxygen vacancies into transition metal oxides as a strategy for increasing the charge storage kinetics of redox-active materials.

  15. Enhancing the photoelectrochemical properties of titanium dioxide by thermal treatment in oxygen deficient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aadesh P.; Kodan, Nisha; Mehta, Bodh R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 thin films under oxygen deficient environment (5% H2 in Ar) at partial pressure of 2 × 10-2 Torr have been studied for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting application. Thermal treatment in anatase TiO2 thin films exhibits a shift in optical absorption from UV to visible region and activates TiO2 for water splitting application under visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the thermal treated thin films contain oxygen vacancies, which suggests improved charge transport. Optical absorption, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) studies show reduction in band gap by 0.36 eV, shift in valence band maximum by 0.49 eV towards the Fermi level and work function values by 0.3 eV towards the vacuum level. The pristine TiO2 thin films exhibit very less photoactivity in terms of photocurrent density, whereas thermally treated thin films displayed a markedly enhanced photocurrent density of ∼2.41 mA/cm2 at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher values of photocurrent density in thermal treated TiO2 films have been explained in terms of change in the optical and electrical properties along with energy band diagram.

  16. Role of oxygen on the optical properties of borate glass doped with ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2011-10-01

    Lithium tungsten borate glass (0.56- x)B 2O 3-0.4Li 2O- xZnO-0.04WO 3 (0≤ x≤0.1 mol%) is prepared by the melt quenching technique for photonic applications. Small relative values of ZnO are used to improve the glass optical dispersion and to probe as well the role of oxygen electronic polarizability on its optical characteristics. The spectroscopic properties of the glass are determined in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm) using a Fresnel-based spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Lorentz-Lorenz theory, as ZnO content increases on the expense of B 2O 3 the glass molar polarizability increased due to an enhanced unshared oxide ion 2 p electron density, which increases ionicity of the chemical bonds of glass. The role of oxide ion polarizability is explained in accordance with advanced measures and theories such as optical basicity, O 1 s binding energy, the outer most cation binding energy in Yamashita-Kurosawa's interionic interaction parameter and Sun's average single bond strength. FT-IR measurements confirm an increase in bridging oxygen bonds, as a result of replacement of ZnO by B 2O 3, which increase the UV glass transmission window and transmittance.

  17. Effect of the oxygen balance on ignition and detonation properties of liquid explosive mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genetier, M.; Osmont, A.; Baudin, G.

    2014-05-01

    The objective is to compare the ignition and detonation properties of various liquid high explosives having negative up to positive oxygen balance (OB): nitromethane (OB < 0), saccharose and hydrogen peroxide based mixture (quasi nil OB), hydrogen peroxide with more than 90% purity (OB > 0). The decomposition kinetic rates and the equations of state (EOS) for the liquid mixtures and detonation products (DP) are the input data for a detonation model. EOS are theoretically determined using the Woolfolk et al. universal liquid polar shock law and thermochemical computations for DP. The decomposition kinetic rate laws are determined to reproduce the shock to detonation transition for the mixtures submitted to planar plate impacts. Such a model is not sufficient to compute open field explosions. The aerial overpressure is well reproduced in the first few microseconds, however, after it becomes worse at large expansion of the fireball and the impulse is underestimated. The problem of the DP EOS alone is that it takes only the detonation into account, the secondary combustion DP - air is not considered. To solve this problem a secondary combustion model has been developed to take the OB effect into account. The detonation model has been validated on planar plate impact experiments. The secondary combustion parameters were deduced from thermochemical computations. The whole model has been used to predict the effects of the oxygen balance on open air blast effects of spherical charges.

  18. Effect of the oxygen balance on ignition and detonation properties of liquid explosive mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genetier, Marc; Osmont, Antoine; Baudin, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    The objective is to compare ignition and detonation properties of various liquid high explosives having negative up to positive oxygen balance (OB): nitromethane (OB < 0), saccharose and hydrogen peroxide based mixture (quasi nil OB), hydrogen peroxide with more than 90% purity (OB > 0). The decomposition kinetic rates and the equations of state (EOS) for the liquid mixtures and detonation products (DP) are the input data for a detonation model. EOS are theoretically determined using the Woolfolk et al universal liquid polar shock law and thermochemical computations for DP. The decomposition kinetic rate laws are determined to reproduce the shock to detonation transition for the mixtures submitted to planar plate impacts. Such a model is not sufficient to compute open field explosions. The aerial overpressure is well reproduced in the first microseconds, however, after it becomes worse at large expansion of the fireball and the impulse is underestimated. The problem of the DP EOS alone is that it takes into account only the detonation, the secondary combustion DP - air being not considered. To solve this problem a secondary combustion model has been developed to take into account the OB effect. The detonation model has been validated on planar plate impact experiments. The secondary combustion parameters were deduced from thermochemical computations. The whole model has been used to predict the effects of the oxygen balance on open air blast effects of spherical charges.

  19. Spectroscopic insights on imidazole substituted phthalocyanine photosensitizers: Fluorescence properties, triplet state and singlet oxygen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Lin, Yong; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jingzhong

    2014-12-01

    Imidazole substituted metal phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes were synthesized. UV-vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, as well as laser flash photolysis were used to measure the photophysical and photosensitizing properties. All the imidazole-phthalocyanine conjugates show high ΦT (quantum yield of excited triplet formation), high ΦΔ (singlet oxygen formation yield, >0.50) and good fluorescence properties (quantum yield Φf > 0.20 and lifetime τf > 3.0 ns). Compared to the unsubstituted Pc, both α- and β-imidazole substitutions result in the remarkable decrease in Φf and τf, but the α-substitution is stronger. The imidazole substitution, on the other hand, causes the increase of ΦT, τT, and ΦΔ values. Magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) is more susceptible to the substitution than zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The mechanism responsible for the result is suggested based on the involvement of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. The high ΦΔ and appropriate fluorescence properties make the Pcs good candidate for PDT photosensitizers.

  20. Graphene functionalization with nitrogen and oxygen: controlled modification of the electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Peter; Marsden, Alexander; Wilson, Neil; Bell, Gavin; Quigley, David

    2014-03-01

    For many applications it is essential to modify the electronic properties of graphene in a controlled fashion. This can be achieved via oxygen and nitrogen functionalization in ultra-high vacuum, leading to a system in which electronic and structural properties can be systematically studied. Here we present insights from DFT calculations on functionalized graphene systems, such as the low-energy configurations and simulated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, binding energies and effective band structures (EBS) of the N and O decorated graphene sheets. We directly compare our results with experiments on CVD grown graphene. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES - performed at the Antares beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL, France) resolves the band structure changes on functionalization, whilst the simulated TEM images provide feedback for the interpretation of low-voltage aberration-corrected TEM measurements. Combined, the computational and experimental results have important implications for the manipulation of electronic properties in graphene by controlled functionalization. We acknowledge funding by the EPSRC through grant number EP/H00341X/1.

  1. Spectral properties of water ice and contaminants. [of importance to remote sensing of ice in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Clark, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    For remote sensing studies of ices in the solar system, it is important to understand the optical properties of water ice, and mixtures of ice and particulate materials. The present paper has the objective to review the current understanding of the spectral properties of ice, and mixtures of ice and particulates. The review is to provide a basis for the understanding of the remote sensing of ice. It is found that reflectance spectra of ice-soil intimate mixtures are complex, nonlinear functions of the optical and physical properties of the components which comprise the surface.

  2. Tunable electrical properties of multilayer HfSe2 field effect transistors by oxygen plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moonshik; Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Li, Lijun; Khan, Muhammad Atif; Lim, Dongsuk; Lee, Yoontae; Park, Jinwoo; Yun, Sun Jin; Youn, Doo-Hyeb; Jun, Chungsam; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2017-01-26

    HfSe2 field effect transistors are systematically studied in order to selectively tune their electrical properties by optimizing layer thickness and oxygen plasma treatment. The optimized plasma-treated HfSe2 field effect transistors showed a high on/off ratio improvement of four orders of magnitude, from 27 to 10(5), a field effect mobility increase from 2.16 to 3.04 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing improvement from 30.6 to 4.8 V dec(-1), and a positive threshold voltage shift between depletion mode and enhancement mode, from -7.02 to 11.5 V. The plasma-treated HfSe2 photodetector also demonstrates a reasonable photoresponsivity from the visible to the near-infrared region of light.

  3. Elastic–plastic properties of graphene engineered by oxygen functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yuan; Zhu, YinBo; Liu, XiaoYi; Dai, ZhaoHe; Liu, LuQi; Wu, HengAn; Zhang, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the elastic–plastic mechanical performances of monolayer graphene oxide (GO) under uniaxial tension. The brittle–ductile–brittle transition and nonlinear–linear–nonlinear elastic transition is found in the uniaxial tension of GO, which displays strong correlations to the content, distribution and proportion of oxygen functional groups. In principle, the tensile behavior of graphene with epoxy groups exhibits ductile fracture features due to the unique epoxy-to-ether transformation in structural evolution. Our simulation results also reveal that wrinkling could cause a competing mechanism of strain-hardening or -softening, and in turn, the nonlinear–linear elasticity transition. Moreover, we propose a continuum mechanical model with a modified stress–strain relation to understand the unique deformation performances, which is consistent with the MD results. These findings might provide valuable insight and design guidelines for optimizing the specific mechanical properties and deformation behaviors of graphene and its derivatives.

  4. MOF-templated synthesis of porous Co(3)O(4) concave nanocubes with high specific surface area and their gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yinyun; Zhan, Wenwen; He, Yue; Wang, Yiting; Kong, Xiangjian; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2014-03-26

    Porous metal oxides nanomaterials with controlled morphology have received great attention because of their promising applications in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, gas sensing, etc. In this paper, porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes with extremely high specific surface area (120.9 m(2)·g(-1)) were synthesized simply by calcining Co-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF, ZIF-67) templates at the optimized temperature (300 °C), and the formation mechanism of such highly porous structures as well as the influence of the calcination temperature are well explained by taking into account thermal behavior and intrinsic structural features of the Co-MOF precursors. The gas-sensing properties of the as-synthesized porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes were systematically tested towards volatile organic compounds including ethanol, acetone, toluene, and benzene. Experimental results reveal that the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes present the highest sensitivity to ethanol with fast response/recovery time (< 10 s) and a low detection limit (at least 10 ppm). Such outstanding gas sensing performance of the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes benefits from their high porosity, large specific surface area, and remarkable capabilities of surface-adsorbed oxygen.

  5. Dispersion of SiC nanoparticles in cellulose for study of tensile, thermal and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Kisku, Sudhir K; Dash, Satyabrata; Swain, Sarat K

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose/silicon carbide (cellulose/SiC) nanobiocomposites were prepared by solution technique. The interaction of SiC nanoparticles with cellulose were confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The structure of cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile properties of the nanobiocomposites were improved as compared with virgin cellulose. Thermal stabilities of cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The cellulose/SiC nanobiocomposites were thermally more stable than the raw cellulose. It may be due to the delamination of SiC with cellulose matrix. The oxygen barrier properties of cellulose composites were measured using gas permeameter. A substantial reduction in oxygen permeability was obtained with increase in silicon carbide concentrations. The thermally resistant and oxygen barrier properties of the prepared nanobiocomposites may enable the materials for the packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polarimetric remote sensing in oxygen A and B bands: sensitivity study and information content analysis for vertical profile of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shouguo; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical analysis is conducted to reveal the information content of aerosol vertical profile in space-borne measurements of the backscattered radiance and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) in oxygen (O2) A and B bands. Assuming a quasi-Gaussian shape for aerosol vertical profile characterized by peak height H and half width γ (at half maximum), the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM) is used to simulate the Stokes four-vector elements of upwelling radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and their Jacobians with respect to H and γ. Calculations for different aerosol types and different combinations of H and γ values show that the wide range of gas absorption optical depth in O2 A and B band enables the sensitivity of backscattered DOLP and radiance at TOA to the aerosol layer at different altitudes. Quantitatively, DOLP in O2 A and B bands is found to be more sensitive to H and γ than radiance, especially over the bright surfaces (with large visible reflectance). In many O2 absorption wavelengths, the degree of freedom of signal (DFS) for retrieving H (or γ) generally increases with H (and γ) and can be close to unity in many cases, assuming that the composite uncertainty from surface and aerosol scattering properties as well as measurements is less than 5 %. Further analysis demonstrates that DFS needed for simultaneous retrieval of H and γ can be obtained from a combined use of DOLP measurements at ˜ 10-100 O2 A and B absorption wavelengths (or channels), depending on the specific values of H. The higher the aerosol layer, the fewer number of channels for DOLP measurements in O2 A and B bands are needed for characterizing H and γ. Future hyperspectral measurements of DOLP in O2 A and B bands are needed to continue studying their potential and their combination with radiance and DOLP in atmospheric window channels for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosols, especially highly scattering aerosols, over land.

  7. Electrical resistivity-based study of self-sensing properties for shape memory alloy-actuated artificial muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yin, Yue-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Ying

    2013-09-26

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO).

  8. Electrical Resistivity-Based Study of Self-Sensing Properties for Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Artificial Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yin, Yue-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). PMID:24077316

  9. Electrical properties and sensing ability of novel piezoelectric ceramic fibers with Pt core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianzhou; Qiu, Jinhao; Zhu, Kongjun; Ji, Hongli; Zhao, Huayun

    2012-04-01

    The traditional sintering method was used to sinter the pure and Fe2O3 doped 0.55Pb(Ni0.33Nb0.67)O3-0.45Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (abbreviate as PNN-PZT and PFNN-PZT, respectively) ceramics. The addition of Fe2O3 significantly improved the microstructure and electrical properties. Compared with pure PNN-PZT ceramics, higher dielectric and piezoelectric properties of d31~-390 pC/N, ɛ r ~6298 were obtained for the PFNN-PZT sample sintered at 1175°C for 2 h. Hence, the PFNN-PZT ceramics sample was selected to fabricate piezoelectric ceramic fibers with Pt core (PFC). Both the green fibers and bulk ceramics were sintered at 1150-1225°C for 2 h in a closed crucible, respectively. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and electrical properties of the PFNN-PZT fibers was investigated. The optimal piezoelectric properties are obtained for the sample sintered at 1175°C for 2 h. The relative dielectric constant and piezoelectric constant show peak values of ɛ r~3683, d31~-197.4 pC/N, respectively. The PFC is a new type piezoelectric device, which can be used for sensors or actuators. The results of sensing experiment show that the piezoelectric ceramic fiber with Pt core has high sensitivity for the Lamb waves.

  10. Assimilation of remotely-sensed optical properties to improve marine biogeochemistry modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Torres, Ricardo; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Smyth, Timothy; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Polimene, Luca; Allen, J. Icarus

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we evaluate whether the assimilation of remotely-sensed optical data into a marine ecosystem model improves the simulation of biogeochemistry in a shelf sea. A localized Ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate weekly diffuse light attenuation coefficient data, Kd(443) from SeaWiFs, into an ecosystem model of the western English Channel. The spatial distributions of (unassimilated) surface chlorophyll from satellite, and a multivariate time series of eighteen biogeochemical and optical variables measured in situ at one long-term monitoring site were used to evaluate the system performance for the year 2006. Assimilation reduced the root mean square error and improved the correlation with the assimilated Kd(443) observations, for both the analysis and, to a lesser extent, the forecast estimates, when compared to the reference model simulation. Improvements in the simulation of (unassimilated) ocean colour chlorophyll were less evident, and in some parts of the Channel the simulation of this data deteriorated. The estimation errors for the (unassimilated) in situ data were reduced for most variables with some exceptions, e.g. dissolved nitrogen. Importantly, the assimilation adjusted the balance of ecosystem processes by shifting the simulated food web towards the microbial loop, thus improving the estimation of some properties, e.g. total particulate carbon. Assimilation of Kd(443) outperformed a comparative chlorophyll assimilation experiment, in both the estimation of ocean colour data and in the simulation of independent in situ data. These results are related to relatively low error in Kd(443) data, and because it is a bulk optical property of marine ecosystems. Assimilation of remotely-sensed optical properties is a promising approach to improve the simulation of biogeochemical and optical variables that are relevant for ecosystem functioning and climate change studies.

  11. Microwave Moisture Sensing of Seedcotton: Part 1: Seedcotton Microwave Material Properties.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Mathew G; Wanjura, John D; Holt, Greg A

    2016-11-02

    Moisture content at harvest is a key parameter that impacts quality and how well the cotton crop can be stored without degrading before processing. It is also a key parameter of interest for harvest time field trials as it can directly influence the quality of the harvested crop as well as skew the results of in-field yield and quality assessments. Microwave sensing of moisture has several unique advantages over lower frequency sensing approaches. The first is that microwaves are insensitive to variations in conductivity, due to presence of salts or minerals. The second advantage is that microwaves can peer deep inside large bulk packaging to assess the internal moisture content without performing a destructive tear down of the package. To help facilitate the development of a microwave moisture sensor for seedcotton; research was performed to determine the basic microwave properties of seedcotton. The research was performed on 110 kg micro-modules, which are of direct interest to research teams for use in ongoing field-based research projects. It should also prove useful for the enhancement of existing and future yield monitor designs. Experimental data was gathered on the basic relations between microwave material properties and seedcotton over the range from 1.0 GHz to 2.5 GHz and is reported on herein. This research is part one of a two-part series that reports on the fundamental microwave properties of seedcotton as moisture and density vary naturally during the course of typical harvesting operations; part two will utilize this data to formulate a prediction algorithm to form the basis for a prototype microwave moisture sensor.

  12. Microwave Moisture Sensing of Seedcotton: Part 1: Seedcotton Microwave Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Mathew G.; Wanjura, John D.; Holt, Greg A.

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content at harvest is a key parameter that impacts quality and how well the cotton crop can be stored without degrading before processing. It is also a key parameter of interest for harvest time field trials as it can directly influence the quality of the harvested crop as well as skew the results of in-field yield and quality assessments. Microwave sensing of moisture has several unique advantages over lower frequency sensing approaches. The first is that microwaves are insensitive to variations in conductivity, due to presence of salts or minerals. The second advantage is that microwaves can peer deep inside large bulk packaging to assess the internal moisture content without performing a destructive tear down of the package. To help facilitate the development of a microwave moisture sensor for seedcotton; research was performed to determine the basic microwave properties of seedcotton. The research was performed on 110 kg micro-modules, which are of direct interest to research teams for use in ongoing field-based research projects. It should also prove useful for the enhancement of existing and future yield monitor designs. Experimental data was gathered on the basic relations between microwave material properties and seedcotton over the range from 1.0 GHz to 2.5 GHz and is reported on herein. This research is part one of a two-part series that reports on the fundamental microwave properties of seedcotton as moisture and density vary naturally during the course of typical harvesting operations; part two will utilize this data to formulate a prediction algorithm to form the basis for a prototype microwave moisture sensor. PMID:27827857

  13. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  14. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  15. Effect of oxygen ion irradiation on dielectric, structural, chemical and thermoluminescence properties of natural muscovite mica.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sukhnandan; Singh, Surinder; Singh, Lakhwant

    2017-03-01

    Thin cleaved samples (~18µm) of natural muscovite mica were irradiated with 80MeV oxygen ion beam at fluence ranging from 1×10(12) to 5×10(13)ion/cm(2). The alterations in dielectric, structural, chemical and thermoluminescence properties of irradiated as well as pristine samples have been investigated. Dielectric constant decreases while other dielectric parameters such as dielectric loss, tanδ, ac conductivity, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus increase with increase of ion fluence. Williamson Hall investigation has been utilized to ascertain crystallite size and micro strain of pristine and irradiated samples. The XRD analysis revealed a significant increase in micro strain and dislocation density with an increase of ion fluence. The variations in dielectric properties upon irradiation are collaborated with structural modifications in the muscovite. No appreciable changes in characteristic bands (FTIR) have been observed after irradiation, indicating that natural muscovite mica is chemically stable. Natural muscovite mica has eminent applications in heavy ions dosimetry due to observation of well defined single peak at 303°C with activation energy of 1.24eV in TL spectrum.

  16. Photoelectrochemical properties of the brownmillerite Sr2Fe2O5: Application to electrochemical oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saib, F.; Mekiri, M.; Bellal, B.; Chibane, M.; Trari, M.

    2017-08-01

    The brownmillerite Sr2Fe2O5 is prepared by nitrate route and the physical and photo-electrochemical properties are investigated for the first time. Thermal analysis indicates the formation of the phase at 950°C. A direct optical transition at 0.94 eV, due to Fe3+ splitting in octahedral site, is determined from the diffuse reflectance spectra. The prepared material displays semiconducting properties, and its electrical conductivity follows an exponential type law σ = σoexp (-0.045/ kT) with small polaron hopping. The Mott-Schottky plot at pH 7 is characteristic of n type semiconductor with a flat band potential of 0.40 V SCE and an electron density of 3.6 × 1018 cm-3. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the predominance of the bulk contribution. The above data are correlated, and the energetic diagram of the junction Sr2Fe2O5/KOH solution is built. The valence band of Sr2Fe2O5 (1.29 V SCE ) is more anodic than the potential of the O2/H2O couple and oxygen is successfully evolved under visible illumination. The best performance (0.17 cm3 O2 (g catalyst)-1 mn-1) occurs at pH 7 with a light-to-chemical energy yield of 0.045% under a light flux of 29 mW cm-2. No deactivation was observed during the second cycle.

  17. Flotation properties of some oxygen-containing compounds of the acyclic series

    SciTech Connect

    Shreider, E.M.; Para, S.F.; Galanov, M.E.; Trachik, T.L.; Lagutina, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the monatomic alcohols series, maximum flotation activity is reached at 6 to 8 carbon atoms in the radical. It was decided to investigate the reagent properties of some other substances containing hydroxyl radicals which have not previously been considered. Oxygen-containing compounds in the acyclic series were examined, including alcohols: I - ethanol, ethylene-glycol, glycerol, pentaerythrytol, D-mannitol; II - dulcitol, D-sorbitol, D-mannitol, xylitol; glycols - monoethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, triethyleneglycol, polyethyleneglycol; and ethanolamines - ethanolamine, triethanolamine. The flotation properties of the reagents were determined in a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine with a chamber volume of 1.5 liter and an impeller speed of 1800 rpm. The materials tested were the <1 mm size fractions from run-of-plant charge and slurry from the radial thickeners. The samples were first dried and averaged. The pulp density was 200 g/l. The reagent conditions were kept constant throughout (50% of the total added at the start of a test, 25% after 2 min and 25% after 4 min from the start). The reagent additions were 1.0 to 1.4 kg/ton. All of these compounds had a very weak flotation activity.

  18. Evaluation of the physical properties of dental resin composites using optical fiber sensing technology.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Ginu; Shouha, Paul; Ellakwa, Ayman; Bhowmik, Kishore; Xi, Jiangtao; Prusty, Gangadhara

    2016-09-01

    The characterization of the physical properties of dental resin composites is fraught with difficulties relating to significant intra and inter test parameter variabilities and is relatively time consuming and expensive. The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system may become a viable tool to study dental material characteristics. Of particular focus was the potential for the system to demonstrate a multi parameter all-in-one feature. A miniature FBG was embedded in six different dental resin composites and employed as a sensor to evaluate linear polymerization shrinkage, thermal expansion and water sorption. Six commercially available dental composites with different filler types and volume are evaluated. The tests are repeated with three sets of samples. The curing characteristics and residual strain gradient exhibited by the cured dental composites were also observed and commented. Among the studied samples, SDR shows lowest polymerization shrinkage, while Beautifil FO3 shows the highest. The results also show clear distinction between particle filler type and fiber reinforcement based composites in their polymerization shrinkage properties. The agreement of the results with existing literatures show that FBG based system provides accurate results. Polymerization shrinkage rate of the samples are also obtained. Thermal expansion of the composites are measured using the FBG sensing method for the first time and is correlated with resin type, volume, filler type and glass transition temperature. The water sorption characteristics of the dental composite are also successfully measured using the FBG sensing method. The high level of repeatability and the low standard deviations shown in the results indicate good reliability with the use of FBG sensors. This study demonstrates how optical fiber technology can provide simple and reliable methods of measuring the critical physical properties of dental composites

  19. The effect of oxygen vacancies on the hyperfine properties of metal-doped SnO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón, F. H.; Villegas-Lelovsky, L.; Martins, J. B. L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Cohen, R.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-03-01

    We have performed a Mössbauer investigation of oxygen-vacancy formation on a doped substitutional solution of Sn1‑y M y O2 (M  =  Al, Fe, Ce and Er) nanoparticles. Experimental results were assessed from Mössbauer spectroscopy data, which suggest the rise of the oxygen-vacancy population while increasing the content of dopant ions (M). Likewise, we have analyzed the dependence of the structural, electronic and hyperfine properties on the oxygen-vacancy concentration through first-principles calculations of the SnO2‑x (where x varies from 0 to 0.25) system. The results obtained from the isomer shift and quadrupole splitting indicate a significant dependence of the hyperfine properties on the number of oxygen vacancies. Moreover, after structural optimization of the Sn16O32-Vo supercell (where Vo is the number of oxygen vacancies) we found an increase of the unit-cell volume with the increase of Vo, while the bulk modulus showed a linear decrease with Vo. Indeed, our results corroborate the experimental findings for pure and transition-metal-doped SnO2 systems for which the presence of the oxygen vacancy plays a key role.

  20. Influence of alloying elements Nb, Zr, Sn, and oxygen on structural stability and elastic properties of the Ti2448 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. H.; Song, Y.; Li, W.; Yang, R.; Vitos, L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of how alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability and elastic properties of binary Ti-X (X = Nb, Zr, or Sn) and Ti2448 (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) alloys are studied via first principles calculations. In addition to the fully disordered solid solution phase, we consider 44 quasirandom configurations to search for the possible distributions of the alloying elements in Ti2448. Our results show that all alloying elements considered here are good β-stabilizers for Ti, and the formation energies are greatly affected by their distributions. The site preference of oxygen and its concentration dependence in binary Ti alloys and in Ti2448 are also investigated. Oxygen prefers to occupy the octahedral site regardless of the concentrations of the alloys and strongly interacts with Ti and Nb in Ti-Nb. The elastic properties of Ti2448 alloy and the influence of oxygen on the elastic parameters are evaluated. The calculated polycrystalline Young's modulus of the Ti2448 alloy is very close to that of the human bone (10-40 GPa). We find that oxygen has a weak effect on the elastic moduli of Ti2448. The electronic structures are analyzed to reveal how the alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability of binary Ti-X and Ti2448 alloys.

  1. Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2-Core/ZnO-Shell Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Tharsika, T.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Hoong, Wong Yew

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ∼5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures. PMID:25116903

  2. Plasmonic Properties of Bimetallic Nanostructures and Their Applications in Hydrogen Sensing and Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruibin

    Noble metal nanocrystals have attracted great interest from a wide range of research fields because of their intriguing properties endowed by their localized surface plasmon resonances, which are the collective oscillations of free electrons. Under resonant excitation, metal nanostructures exhibit very large scattering and absorption cross sections and large near-field enhancement. These extraordinary properties can be used in different applications, such as plasmonic sensing and imaging, plasmon-controlled optics, photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and so on. Gold and Silver nanocrystals have plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions. However, gold and silver are not suitable for some applications. For example, they are generally inactive for catalyzing chemical reactions. The integration of plasmonic metals with other metals can offer superior or new physical/chemical properties. In this thesis, I prepared Au/Ag and Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures and studied their plasmonic properties and applications in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Seeds have a crucial importance in the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures. I therefore first studied the roles of the crystalline structure and shape of seeds on the overgrowth of bimetallic nanostructures. The overgrowth of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods, multicrystalline Au nanorods, and nanobipyramids were studied under the same conditions for each metal. The growths of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods gave cuboidal nanostructures, while rod-shaped nanostructures were obtained from the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanorods and nanobipyramids. Moreover, the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanobipyramids started at the stepped side facets, while the growths started at the twin boundaries on multicrystalline Au nanorods. These results unambiguously indicate that the crystalline structure of

  3. Magnetization Studies of the Effects of Oxygen Deficiency Delta on the Superconductive Properties of Aligned Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-DELTA) Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossandon, Jorge G.

    Magnetically aligned samples of sintered YBa _2Cu_3O_ {7-delta} were used to test the effects of oxygen-deficiency delta (with 0<=qdelta<=q 0.2) on the superconductive magnetization M, critical current density J_{c}, irreversibility field B_{irr }, upper critical field H_{ rm c2}, coherence length xi , condensation energy F_{c}, London penetration depth lambda and related properties as functions of temperature T and applied magnetic field H | c. In selected cases, studies were also made with H | ab. The open porosity and granularity of the material allowed rapid and homogeneous oxygenation. The oxygen content was monitored in situ by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis. We found no significant enhancement of intragrain J_{c} with chain -site O-defects. With few exceptions, maximum J _{c} occurred at full oxygenation. This implies that chain-site O-defects are not strong or effective pinning centers over most of the field-temperature regime investigated. Except for T _{c}, which was practically independent of delta within the interval 0<=qdelta<=q 0.11 (so called "T_{c} -plateau"), most properties such as J_{ c}, F_{c}, H_{c2} , B_{irr}(T), lambda and xi were strongly and continuously influenced by the oxygen deficiency. The observed abnormal magnetization ("fishtail" or "bowtie" effect) with H | c was weak at low T but became more pronounced as T and delta increased. No abnormal magnetization was detected with H | ab. As oxygen was removed, B_{irr }(T) and H_{c2}(T) separated and both lines shifted to lower T and lower H. Moreover, B_{irr} was strongly correlated with J _{c} at low temperature. Determination of the thermodynamic critical field H_{ c} yielded condensation energies F _{c}(delta) that suffered a strong reduction with increasing delta. As predicted by a simple, single-site pinning model, a good correlation was found between J _{c}(delta) and the product F_{c}xi _{ab} (where xi_{ab} is the coherence length in the a-b plane). This correlation was corroborated by

  4. The transport properties of oxygen vacancy-related polaron-like bound state in HfOx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongrui; Yu, HongYu; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    The oxygen vacancy-related polaron-like bound state migration in HfOx accounting for the observed transport properties in the high resistance state of resistive switching is investigated by the density functional theory with hybrid functional. The barrier of hopping among the threefold oxygen vacancies is strongly dependent on the direction of motion. Especially, the lowest barrier along the <001> direction is 90 meV, in agreement with the experimental value measured from 135 K to room temperature. This hopping mainly invokes the z-directional motion of hafnium and threefold oxygen atoms in the vicinity of the oxygen vacancy resulted from the synergized combination of coupled phonon modes. In the presence of surface, the lowest barrier of hopping between the surface oxygen vacancies is 360 meV along the <101> direction, where the significant surface perpendicular motion of hafnium and twofold oxygen atoms surrounding the oxygen vacancy is identified to facilitate this type of polaron-like bound state migration. Thus, the migration on the surfaces could be more important at the high temperature. PMID:24317593

  5. Ratiometric Molecular Probes Based on Dual Emission of a Blue Fluorescent Coumarin and a Red Phosphorescent Cationic Iridium(III) Complex for Intracellular Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Toshitada; Murayama, Saori; Tobita, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Ratiometric molecular probes RP1 and RP2 consisting of a blue fluorescent coumarin and a red phosphorescent cationic iridium complex connected by a tetra- or octaproline linker, respectively, were designed and synthesized for sensing oxygen levels in living cells. These probes exhibited dual emission with good spectral separation in acetonitrile. The photorelaxation processes, including intramolecular energy transfer, were revealed by emission quantum yield and lifetime measurements. The ratios (RI=(Ip/If)) between the phosphorescence (Ip) and fluorescence (If) intensities showed excellent oxygen responses; the ratio of RI under degassed and aerated conditions (RI0/RI) was 20.3 and 19.6 for RP1 and RP2. The introduction of the cationic Ir (III) complex improved the cellular uptake efficiency compared to that of a neutral analogue with a tetraproline linker. The emission spectra of the ratiometric probes internalized into living HeLa or MCF-7 cells could be obtained using a conventional microplate reader. The complex RP2 with an octaproline linker provided ratios comparable to the ratiometric measurements obtained using a microplate reader: the ratio of the RI value of RP2 under hypoxia (2.5% O2) to that under normoxia (21% O2) was 1.5 and 1.7 for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Thus, the intracellular oxygen levels of MCF-7 cells could be imaged by ratiometric emission measurements using the complex RP2. PMID:26066988

  6. Ratiometric Molecular Probes Based on Dual Emission of a Blue Fluorescent Coumarin and a Red Phosphorescent Cationic Iridium(III) Complex for Intracellular Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Toshitada; Murayama, Saori; Tobita, Seiji

    2015-06-09

    Ratiometric molecular probes RP1 and RP2 consisting of a blue fluorescent coumarin and a red phosphorescent cationic iridium complex connected by a tetra- or octaproline linker, respectively, were designed and synthesized for sensing oxygen levels in living cells. These probes exhibited dual emission with good spectral separation in acetonitrile. The photorelaxation processes, including intramolecular energy transfer, were revealed by emission quantum yield and lifetime measurements. The ratios (R(I) = (I(p)/I(f))) between the phosphorescence (I(p)) and fluorescence (I(f)) intensities showed excellent oxygen responses; the ratio of R(I) under degassed and aerated conditions ( R(I)(0) was 20.3 and 19.6 for RP1 and RP2. The introduction of the cationic Ir (III) complex improved the cellular uptake efficiency compared to that of a neutral analogue with a tetraproline linker. The emission spectra of the ratiometric probes internalized into living HeLa or MCF-7 cells could be obtained using a conventional microplate reader. The complex RP2 with an octaproline linker provided ratios comparable to the ratiometric measurements obtained using a microplate reader: the ratio of the R(I)) value of RP2 under hypoxia (2.5% O2) to that under normoxia (21% O2) was 1.5 and 1.7 for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Thus, the intracellular oxygen levels of MCF-7 cells could be imaged by ratiometric emission measurements using the complex RP2.

  7. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy.

  8. Synthesis and sensing properties of D5h pentagonal silver star nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Nicole; Coombs, Neil; Gourevich, Ilya; Kitaev, Vladimir

    2016-11-03

    In this work, we use silver decahedral nanoparticle (AgDeNP) seeds to synthesize pentagonal silver stars (AgStDeNPs) and study the sensing properties of these nanoparticles. The regrowth process of AgStDeNPs is kinetically-controlled, so the purity of the seed NPs is critical to avoid secondary deposition in the highly non-equilibrium reduction. To control the regrowth process, surface blocking with sodium polyacrylate (PANa) was implemented. PANa moderates rough silver nanostructures typically obtained by reduction with ascorbic acid. To modulate polymer binding to the surface and thus to tune surface blocking, pH served as a key synthetic parameter. Under optimal regrowth conditions, new sliver was deposited on the highest energy sites of the decahedra - the vertices of the rims - to yield pentagonal stars. The universality of this regrowth process was established with several different seed particles. The sharpness and size of the stellated tips are tunable by the amount of added silver. Gold deposition onto AgStDeNPs enables the preparation of diverse structures with enhanced stability. Ease of transformation, e.g. rounding, of star branches opens a promising venue for enhanced SPR sensing. Also, AgStDeNPs enable femtomolar detection of 5,5-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) in SERS.

  9. Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties of Single La-Doped SnO₂ Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuemei; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yingkai; Chen, Weiwu; Ma, Jiang; Li, Shuanghui; Qin, Zhaojun

    2015-06-16

    Single crystal SnO2 nanobelts (SnO2 NBs) and La-SnO2 nanobelts (La-SnO2 NBs) were synthesized by thermal evaporation. Both a single SnO2 NB sensor and a single La-SnO2 NB sensor were developed and their sensing properties were investigated. It is found that the single La-SnO2 NB sensor had a high sensitivity of 8.76 to ethanediol at a concentration of 100 ppm at 230 °C, which is the highest sensitivity of a single SnO2 NB to ethanediol among three kinds of volatile organic (VOC) liquids studied, including ethanediol, ethanol, and acetone. The La-SnO2 NBs sensor also exhibits a high sensitivity, good selectivity and long-term stability with prompt response time to ethanediol. The mechanism behind the enhanced sensing performance of La-doped SnO2 nanobelts is discussed.

  10. Distributed Compressive Sensing of Hyperspectral Images Using Low Rank and Structure Similarity Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingchao; Xu, Ke; Wan, Jianwei; Liu, Xu

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method and system for distributed compressive sensing of hyperspectral images is presented, which exploit the low rank and structure similarity property of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, by integrating the respective characteristics of DSC and CS, a distributed compressive sensing framework is proposed to simultaneously capture and compress hyperspectral images. At the encoder, every band image is measured independently, where almost all computation burdens can be shifted to the decoder, resulting in a very low-complexity encoder. It is simple to operate and easy to hardware implementation. At the decoder, each band image is reconstructed by the method of total variation norm minimize. During each band reconstruction, the low rand structure of band images and spectrum structure similarity are used to give birth to the new regularizers. With combining the new regularizers and other regularizer, we can sufficiently exploit the spatial correlation, spectral correlation and spectral structural redundancy in hyperspectral imagery. A numerical optimization algorithm is also proposed to solve the reconstruction model by augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Experimental results show that this method can effectively improve the reconstruction quality of hyperspectral images.

  11. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Ammonia Sensing Properties of WO3/Fe2O3 Nanorod Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dien, Nguyen Dac; Phuoc, Luong Huu; Hien, Vu Xuan; Vuong, Dang Duc; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2017-06-01

    WO3 nanorods (NRs) and α-Fe2O3 NRs were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment. Composites of these materials were created by mixing with ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 in weight. Morphology, structure and composition characteristics of the WO3/Fe2O3 NRs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results of sensing measurements indicated that the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 2:1 exhibited fairly good sensitivity toward NH3 at 300°C and the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 1:1 can be used as a NH3 sensor with an operating temperature of 350°C. Selectivity and response-recovery times are suitable for practical applications. Finally, the mechanism for the improvement in the gas-sensing property was discussed.

  12. Structural, optical and sensing properties of pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Johari, Anima; Johari, Anoopshi; Bhatnagar, M C; Sharma, Manish

    2014-07-01

    In present work, pure and copper (Cu) doped SnO2 nanowires have been synthesized by thermal evaporation process at ambient pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the growth of wire-like pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanostructures with their length of about 50 microm and 80 microm whereas transverse dimension of about 50-80 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively. The HRTEM and SAED pattern reveals the growth of single crystalline Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire. The EDX confirms that Cu has been doped in the SnO2 nanowires and atomic fraction of Cu in nanowires is about 2.5 at% when concentration of CuO in starting source powder is 50 wt%. X-ray diffraction showed that Cu gets incorporated into the SnO2 lattice and also confirms their tetragonal rutile structure. For comparative study of gas sensing properties of pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire, isolated single nanowire based sensors have been fabricated for detection of ethanol gas. The doping of Cu was found to enhance the ethanol sensitivity of SnO2 nanowire based sensors and the sensor response improves with increase in ethanol concentration. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas.

  13. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Ammonia Sensing Properties of WO3/Fe2O3 Nanorod Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dien, Nguyen Dac; Phuoc, Luong Huu; Hien, Vu Xuan; Vuong, Dang Duc; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2017-01-01

    WO3 nanorods (NRs) and α-Fe2O3 NRs were fabricated by hydrothermal treatment. Composites of these materials were created by mixing with ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 in weight. Morphology, structure and composition characteristics of the WO3/Fe2O3 NRs composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analyses. The results of sensing measurements indicated that the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 2:1 exhibited fairly good sensitivity toward NH3 at 300°C and the sensor based on WO3:Fe2O3 with the ratio of 1:1 can be used as a NH3 sensor with an operating temperature of 350°C. Selectivity and response-recovery times are suitable for practical applications. Finally, the mechanism for the improvement in the gas-sensing property was discussed.

  14. A compact and portable optofluidic device for detection of l